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Symptoms of depression as reported by Norwegian adolescents on the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study investigated sex-differences in reports of depressive symptoms on a Norwegian translation of the short version of the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ). The sample comprised 9702 Norwegian adolescents (born 1993–1995, 54.9% girls), mainly attending highschool. A set of statistical analyses were run to investigate the dimensionality of the SMFQ. Girls scored significantly higher than boys on the SMFQ and used the most severe response-category far more frequently. Overall, the statistical analyses supported the essential unidimensionality of SMFQ. However, the items with the highest loadings according to the bifactor analysis, reflecting problems related to tiredness, restlessness and concentration difficulties, indicated that some of the symptoms may both be independent of and part of the symptomatology of depression. Measurement invariance analysis showed that girls scored slightly higher on some items when taking the latent variable into account; girls had a lower threshold for reporting mood problems and problems related to tiredness than boys, who showed a marginally lower threshold for reporting that no-one loved them. However, the effect on the total SMFQ score was marginal, supporting the use of the Norwegian translation of SMFQ as a continuous variable in further studies of adolescents.

Lundervold, Astri J.; Breivik, Kyrre; Posserud, Maj-Britt; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Hysing, Mari

2013-01-01

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State depression: Mood or syndrome?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A State Depression Scale was developed in order to register variations of depressive mood. The Scale has satisfactory reliability, as shown by its internal homogeneity and temporal stability. Concurrent validity of the Scale indicated that the Scale correlates with a POMS-D scale (r = 0.41; p < 0.00), and with the Depressive Personality Scale (r = 0.36; p < 0.00). Divergent validity of the Scale was tested by Scale's correlation with the two measures of state anxiety (STAI-S and POMS-A) and was shown to be unsatisfactory since it was as high as the Scale's correlation with scales of depressive affect. Principal Component Analysis extracted four factors: two broader factors, which included depressive-affective contents combined with anxious and depressive-cognitive symptoms, respectively; and another two factors which related to motivational and behavioral characteristics. Sensitivity of the Scale was tested in an experimental setting involving induction of depressive and euphoric mood. The Scale showed high ability to register changes following induction of depressive mood. .

Novovi? Zdenka; Biro Mikloš; Nedimovi? Tanja

2007-01-01

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SELF-ATTRIBUTED SEASONALITY OF MOOD AND BEHAVIOR: A REPORT FROM THE NETHERLANDS STUDY OF DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Seasonal changes in mood and behavior are considered to be common in the general population and in patients with psychiatric disorders. However, in several studies this seasonality could not be demonstrated. The present study examined self-attributed seasonality of depressive symptoms among patients with a lifetime diagnosis of a depressive disorder (D), an anxiety disorder (A), a comorbid depressive and anxiety disorder (DA), and healthy controls (HC). METHODS: The CIDI was used to establish diagnoses according to DSM-IV criteria in 2,168 participants of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). The Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ) was administered to assess variation in mood and behavior. RESULTS: Of the 2,168 participants 53.5% reported seasonality of mood. Highest percentages of low mood were seen in the winter months. Although all groups showed this pattern of lowered mood during the winter months, D, A, and DA were significantly (P < .001) more likely to experience seasonality is this respect. This was also shown for seasonal changes in energy, social activities, sleeping, eating, weight and for the Global Seasonality Score. A limitation of this study was the cross-sectional design. CONCLUSIONS: Seasonal variation in mood and behavior was demonstrated for both participants with a lifetime diagnosis of depression and/or anxiety disorder and for healthy controls, but patients with anxiety and/or depression were more likely to experience this seasonal variation. Clinicians should take into account that the time of the year could influence the feelings of well- and ill-being of their patients.

Winthorst WH; Roest AM; Bos EH; Meesters Y; Penninx BW; Nolen WA; de Jonge P

2013-05-01

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Depressed mood in the suicidal population.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether, and to what extent, those who reported suicidal ideation and (or) attempts in the previous year, without meeting the criteria for major depressive episode (MDE), might still have experienced subthreshold depression. METHOD: Data from the Canadian Community Health Survey: Mental Health and Well-Being (CCHS 1.2) were examined to estimate and compare the prevalence of depressed mood, a core symptom of MDE and subthreshold depression, within the previous month for the following 4 population groups: MDE within the previous month [D(1 month)], MDE within the previous year but not the previous month [D(1 year)], suicidality without MDE within the previous year (D-S+), and no MDE or suicidality within the previous year (D-S-). RESULTS: As expected, the D(1 month) group showed the highest prevalence of depressed mood in the previous month. However, the D-S+ group had a significantly higher prevalence of depressed mood than the D-S- group and only a slightly lower level than that of the D(1 year) group. CONCLUSIONS: A fraction of those who reported suicidality in the previous year met the criteria for MDE during that time; however, subthreshold depression might be common in the suicidal population. Future epidemiologic research in the areas of suicidality and depression will benefit from a comprehensive assessment of subthreshold depression.

Bethell J; Rhodes AE

2007-11-01

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Depressed mood and smoking experimentation among preteens.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The authors examined children's depressed mood, parental depressed mood, and parental smoking in relation to children's smoking susceptibility and experimentation over 20 months in a cohort of 418 preteens (ages 10-12 at baseline) and their parents. Depressed mood in preteens was strongly related to experimentation but not to susceptibility. In cross-sectional analyses parental depressed mood was related to children's experimentation, but in longitudinal analyses parental depressed mood at baseline did not differentiate children who experimented from those who did not. Although parental smoking was strongly related to experimentation, it was not related to susceptibility either cross-sectionally or longitudinally. Depressed mood among preteens and parents appeared to be more strongly related to children's smoking behaviors than to their intentions to smoke.

Polen MR; Curry SJ; Grothaus LC; Bush TM; Hollis JF; Ludman EJ; McAfee TA

2004-06-01

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Self-reported depressed mood in Russian and U.K. schoolchildren. A research note.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Self-reported depressive symptoms were compared between two samples of schoolchildren-one in Russia and one in the U.K. Self-reported symptoms were significantly higher in the Russian sample on both the Child Depression Inventory (CDI) and the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS). Age and gender effects were found for the Russian sample on the DSRS but not the CDI, with younger children and girls scoring more highly. The possible explanations for the elevated self-report of depressive symptoms in the Russian sample are considered.

Charman T; Pervova I

1996-10-01

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Executive functioning and depressed mood before and after unilateral frontal lobe resection for intractable epilepsy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Executive dysfunction occurs in a variety of patients who have sustained damage to the frontal lobes. In individuals with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) or after unilateral frontal lobe resection (FLR), a unique neuropsychological profile linking executive functions (EF) with the frontal lobe has been elusive, with conflicting findings in the literature. Some studies show greater risk of executive impairment with left-sided FLE or FLR, while others report greater risk for right-sided patients. Some studies report no relationship between FLE and EF impairment, while others show EF impairment regardless of side of seizure foci or surgery. In patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, executive dysfunction is associated with depressed mood possibly reflecting disruption of cortical-limbic pathways and/or frontal-striatal circuitry. Although not previously examined, depression level may affect executive functioning in those with FLE or FLR. We hypothesized that FLE patients with poor mood state would show greater executive dysfunction than FLE patients without poor mood state. The relationship among EF, side of surgery and depressed mood before and 8 months after unilateral FLR was evaluated in 64 patients using validated measures of EF and mood state (Beck Depression Inventory-II). Results indicated that individuals with depressed mood before surgery had greater difficulty on a task of mental flexibility compared to patients without preoperative depressed mood. Further, individuals with depressed mood before surgery had significant increases in perseverative responding and completed fewer categories on a card-sorting task after surgery compared to patients without preoperative depressed mood. Regression analyses showed that among side of surgery, seizure freedom status after surgery and depression status, only pre-surgical depression status explained a significant amount of variance in executive functioning performance after surgery. Results suggest that clinically elevated depressive symptoms before surgery are a risk factor for moderate declines in EF after surgery. Results may be attributable to reduced cognitive reserve in patients with depressive symptoms, or may reflect a common cause attributable to damage to unilateral dorsal and ventral lateral frontal lobe.

Dulay MF; Busch RM; Chapin JS; Jehi L; Najm I

2013-06-01

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Social context in school: its relation to adolescents' depressive mood.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study examined the impact of various school-related factors on adolescents' depressive mood, including prosocial behavior, verbal aggression, and relationships with teachers. The data used in this study were collected in the context of a larger survey on victimization in secondary schools from the French Community of Belgium. Participants were 2896 secondary school students (1520 males; 1376 females) aged 12-18 years. Results showed that for both genders, the three strongest predictors of depressive mood were age, feeling of exclusion, and verbal aggression. This study focusing on school-related predictors of depressive mood confirmed the importance of the social context in school as a predictor of depression in both girls and boys.

Boulard A; Quertemont E; Gauthier JM; Born M

2012-02-01

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Modifiable risk factors for depressed mood among farmers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Risk for depression among farmers is not fully understood. DSM-IV considers sadness or depressed mood a critical symptom of depression. The aim of this study was to examine risk factors for depressed mood among farmers using a longitudinal study design. METHODS: Participants were principal farm operators in the Iowa Certified Safe Farm study. We identified risk factors for depressed mood by calculating relative risks (RR) using the generalized estimating equations method. RESULTS: In the multivariate model, pesticide exposure (RR = 1.26; 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.53), having an additional job off the farm (RR = 1.32; 95% CI: 1.08 to 1.62), stress (RR = 3.09; 95% CI: 2.55 to 3.75), and previous injury (RR = 1.41; 95% CI: 1.05 to 1.89) prospectively increased the risk of depressed mood. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent with earlier non-longitudinal studies, the results of this study suggest that reducing pesticide exposure, stress, and injury may reduce the risk of depression in the farm setting.

Onwuameze OE; Paradiso S; Peek-Asa C; Donham KJ; Rautiainen RH

2013-05-01

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Four-Week Self-Administered Acupressure Improves Depressive Mood  

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Full Text Available Acupressure is a Chinese medical technique that involves application of pressure to acupuncture points on the body. This study aimed to examine whether a four-week self-administered acupressure course could reduce depressive mood. Sixteen male and nine female college students (33.2 ± 10.0 years) who majored in acupuncture and moxibustion medicine were randomly assigned to either a self-administered acupressure group or a control group. The participants in the self-administered acupressure group were instructed to conduct five acupressure sessions three times a day (morning, midday, and night). Each session included applying pressure on three points on the left and right side of the neck for five seconds. The controls were asked to continue their daily routine. Depressive mood levels were measured at baseline, two weeks later, and following intervention. Depressive mood levels were similar between both groups at baseline. It decreased two weeks later and remained constant until the end of the intervention. Depressive mood levels were significantly lower in the self-administered acupressure group than in the control group at two weeks from baseline and after intervention. These results provide initial evidence that self-admin- istered acupressure may improve depressive mood.

Yasuhiro Honda; Akira Tsuda; Satoshi Horiuchi

2012-01-01

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Does Negative Mood Influence Self-Report Assessment of Individual and Relational Measures? An Experimental Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was designed to test the influence of negative mood on the self-report of individual and relational correlates of depression and marital distress. The authors applied a combined experimental mood induction procedure, based on music, autobiographical recall, and environmental manipulation. Results showed that the mood manipulation…

Heene, Els; De Raedt, Rudi; Buysse, Ann; Van Oost, Paulette

2007-01-01

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Temporal patterns of anxious and depressed mood in generalized anxiety disorder: a daily diary study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research suggests that anxiety disorders tend to temporally precede depressive disorders, a finding potentially relevant to understanding comorbidity. The current study used diary methods to determine whether daily anxious mood also temporally precedes daily depressed mood. 55 participants with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and history of depressive symptoms completed a 21-day daily diary tracking anxious and depressed mood. Daily anxious and depressed moods were concurrently associated. Daily anxious mood predicted later depressed mood at a variety of time lags, with significance peaking at a two-day lag. Depressed mood generally did not predict later anxious mood. Results suggest that the temporal antecedence of anxiety over depression extends to daily symptoms in GAD. Implications for the refinement of comorbidity models, including causal theories, are discussed. PMID:22196213

Starr, Lisa R; Davila, Joanne

2011-12-07

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Temporal patterns of anxious and depressed mood in generalized anxiety disorder: a daily diary study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Research suggests that anxiety disorders tend to temporally precede depressive disorders, a finding potentially relevant to understanding comorbidity. The current study used diary methods to determine whether daily anxious mood also temporally precedes daily depressed mood. 55 participants with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and history of depressive symptoms completed a 21-day daily diary tracking anxious and depressed mood. Daily anxious and depressed moods were concurrently associated. Daily anxious mood predicted later depressed mood at a variety of time lags, with significance peaking at a two-day lag. Depressed mood generally did not predict later anxious mood. Results suggest that the temporal antecedence of anxiety over depression extends to daily symptoms in GAD. Implications for the refinement of comorbidity models, including causal theories, are discussed.

Starr LR; Davila J

2012-02-01

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Cyberbullying Victimisation in Adolescence: Relationships with Loneliness and Depressive Mood  

Science.gov (United States)

Cyberbullying is deliberate, aggressive activity carried out through digital means. Cybervictimisation in adolescence may be related to negative psychosocial variables such as loneliness and depressive mood. The purpose of the present study, the first of its kind in Israel, was to examine the association between adolescent cybervictimisation and…

Olenik-Shemesh, Dorit; Heiman, Tali; Eden, Sigal

2012-01-01

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Four-Week Self-Administered Acupressure Improves Depressive Mood  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Acupressure is a Chinese medical technique that involves application of pressure to acupuncture points on the body. This study aimed to examine whether a four-week self-administered acupressure course could reduce depressive mood. Sixteen male and nine female college students (33.2 ± 10.0 years) who...

Yasuhiro Honda; Akira Tsuda; Satoshi Horiuchi

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Impact of a preventive intervention for perinatal depression on mood regulation, social support, and coping.  

Science.gov (United States)

Perinatal depression prevention trials have rarely examined proximal outcomes that may be relevant for understanding long-term risk for depression. The Mothers and Babies (MB) Course is a cognitive-behavioral depression prevention intervention, which has been shown to prevent depressive symptoms among at-risk perinatal women of color. This study examined intervention impact on three proximal outcomes that are theoretically linked with the intervention's model of change and have been empirically linked with risk for depression: mood regulation expectancies, perceived social support, and coping. The study used data from a randomized intervention trial of the MB Course with 78 low-income, predominantly African-American perinatal women enrolled at one of four home visitation programs in Baltimore City. Mood regulation expectancies, perceived social support, and coping were assessed with self-report instruments at baseline, post-intervention, and 3- and 6-month follow-ups. The intervention group experienced 16 % greater growth in mood regulation from baseline to 6-month follow-up compared to the usual care group, suggesting a prevention effect. The pattern of findings was similar, although not statistically significant, for social support. Contrary to prediction, the control group experienced less growth in avoidant coping than the intervention group. Findings indicate the MB Course enhances mood regulation, which may facilitate prevention of depression over time. Assessment of intervention effects on proximal outcomes is beneficial for understanding how interventions may enhance protective factors relevant to successful long-term outcomes. PMID:23456540

Mendelson, Tamar; Leis, Julie A; Perry, Deborah F; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Tandon, S Darius

2013-03-02

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Attentional biases and the persistence of sad mood in major depressive disorder.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study examined whether attentional biases for emotional information are associated with impaired mood recovery following a sad mood induction among individuals with and without major depressive disorder (MDD). Attentional biases were assessed with an exogenous cuing task using emotional facial expressions as cues among adults with (n = 48) and without (n = 224) current MDD. Mood reactivity and recovery were measured following a sad mood induction. Mood reactivity strongly predicted mood recovery; however, this relationship was moderated by attentional biases for negative emotional stimuli. Biases for sad and fear stimuli were associated with diminished mood recovery following mood induction across the sample. However, biases for sad stimuli were associated with significantly greater impairments in mood recovery among individuals with MDD than healthy controls. Furthermore, within the MDD group, impaired mood recovery was positively associated with depression severity. These results suggest that attentional biases maintain depression, in part, by facilitating the persistence of sad mood.

Clasen PC; Wells TT; Ellis AJ; Beevers CG

2013-02-01

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Depressed mood in pregnancy: Prevalence and correlates in two Cape Town peri-urban settlements  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The disability associated with depression and its impact on maternal and child health has important implications for public health policy. While the prevalence of postnatal depression is high, there are no prevalence data on antenatal depression in South Africa. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of depressed mood in pregnancy in Cape Town peri-urban settlements. Methods This study reports on baseline data collected from the Philani Mentor Mothers Project (PMMP), a community-based, cluster-randomized controlled trial on the outskirts of Cape Town, South Africa. The PMMP aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a home-based intervention for preventing and managing illnesses related to HIV, TB, alcohol use and malnutrition in pregnant mothers and their infants. Participants were 1062 pregnant women from Khayelitsha and Mfuleni, Cape Town. Measures included the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), the Derived AUDIT-C, indices for social support with regards to partner and parents, and questions concerning socio-demographics, intimate partner violence, and the current pregnancy. Data were analysed using bivariate analyses followed by logistic regression. Results Depressed mood in pregnancy was reported by 39% of mothers. The strongest predictors of depressed mood were lack of partner support, intimate partner violence, having a household income below R2000 per month, and younger age. Conclusions The high prevalence of depressed mood in pregnancy necessitates early screening and intervention in primary health care and antenatal settings for depression. The effectiveness and scalability of community-based interventions for maternal depression must be developed for pregnant women in peri-urban settlements. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00972699.

Hartley Mary; Tomlinson Mark; Greco Erin; Comulada W Scott; Stewart Jacqueline; le Roux Ingrid; Mbewu Nokwanele; Rotheram-Borus Mary Jane

2011-01-01

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Loss of interest, depressed mood and impact on the quality of life: cross-sectional survey.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Depressive symptoms and chronic disease have adverse effects on patients' health-related quality of life (H-RQOL). However, little is known about this effect on H-RQOL when only the two core depressive symptoms - loss of interest and depressed mood - are considered. The objective of this study is to investigate H-RQOL in the presence of loss of interest and depressed mood at a general medical outpatient unit. METHODS: We evaluated 553 patients at their first attendance at a general medical outpatient unit of a teaching hospital. H-RQOL was assessed with the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). Depressed mood and loss of interest were assessed by the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD)-Patient Questionnaire. A physician performed the diagnosis of chronic diseases by clinical judgment and classified them in 13 possible pre-defined categories. We used multiple linear regression to investigate associations between each domain of H-RQOL and our two core depression symptoms. The presence of chronic diseases and demographic variables were included in the models as covariates. RESULTS: Among the 553 patients, 70.5% were women with a mean age of 41.0 years (range 18-85, SD ± 15.4). Loss of interest was reported by 54.6%, and depressed mood by 59.7% of the patients. At least one chronic disease was diagnosed in 59.5% of patients; cardiovascular disease was the most prevalent, affecting 20.6% of our patients. Loss of interest and depressed mood was significantly associated with decreased scores in all domains of H-RQOL after adjustment for possible confounders. The presence of any chronic disease was associated with a decrease in the domain of vitality. The analysis of each individual chronic disease category revealed that no category was associated with a decrease in more than one domain of H-RQOL. CONCLUSION: Loss of interest and depressed mood were associated with significant decreases in H-RQOL. We recommend these simple tests for screening in general practice.

Guajardo VD; Souza BP; Henriques SG; Lucia MC; Menezes PR; Martins MA; Tardivo LS; Gattaz WF; Fráguas R

2011-01-01

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Loss of interest, depressed mood and impact on the quality of life: Cross-sectional survey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Depressive symptoms and chronic disease have adverse effects on patients' health-related quality of life (H-RQOL). However, little is known about this effect on H-RQOL when only the two core depressive symptoms - loss of interest and depressed mood - are considered. The objective of this study is to investigate H-RQOL in the presence of loss of interest and depressed mood at a general medical outpatient unit. Methods We evaluated 553 patients at their first attendance at a general medical outpatient unit of a teaching hospital. H-RQOL was assessed with the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). Depressed mood and loss of interest were assessed by the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD)-Patient Questionnaire. A physician performed the diagnosis of chronic diseases by clinical judgment and classified them in 13 possible pre-defined categories. We used multiple linear regression to investigate associations between each domain of H-RQOL and our two core depression symptoms. The presence of chronic diseases and demographic variables were included in the models as covariates. Results Among the 553 patients, 70.5% were women with a mean age of 41.0 years (range 18-85, SD ± 15.4). Loss of interest was reported by 54.6%, and depressed mood by 59.7% of the patients. At least one chronic disease was diagnosed in 59.5% of patients; cardiovascular disease was the most prevalent, affecting 20.6% of our patients. Loss of interest and depressed mood was significantly associated with decreased scores in all domains of H-RQOL after adjustment for possible confounders. The presence of any chronic disease was associated with a decrease in the domain of vitality. The analysis of each individual chronic disease category revealed that no category was associated with a decrease in more than one domain of H-RQOL. Conclusion Loss of interest and depressed mood were associated with significant decreases in H-RQOL. We recommend these simple tests for screening in general practice.

Guajardo Valeri D; Souza Bruno PF; Henriques Sérgio G; Lucia Mara CS; Menezes Paulo R; Martins Milton A; Tardivo Leila SLPC; Gattaz Wagner F; Fráguas Renério

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Heart rate variability and depressed mood in physical education students: a longitudinal study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity, and more specifically its parasympathetic component, has been reported to be associated with depression. The objective of this longitudinal study was to assess whether changes in heart rate variability (HRV) and in depressive moods were interrelated in healthy young subjects. Thirty students in physical education with a high physical load, were followed over the university year at 3 periods: October (P1), February (P2) and May (P3). Depressive mood was assessed by the score on the Depression subscale of the profile of mood state (POMS) questionnaire. HRV was assessed in supine and during an active orthostatic test with total power (TPms(2)) as the sum of the very low (VLF), low (LF) and high frequency (HF) bands, LF/HF ratio representing sympathetic and HFms(2) parasympathetic modulations. Results showed that changes in Depression scores between P1 and P2 were negatively and positively associated with changes in TPms(2), LFms(2), and HFms(2) in supine position and during orthostatism respectively. Although Anger/Aggressivity, Fatigue, and Vigor scores of the POMS were also correlated with changes in some HRV indices, Depression was the only significant predictive factor of changes in TPms(2) and HFms(2) between P1 and P2 in supine position and during orthostatism. These results were not observed between P2 and P3. In conclusion, in a healthy young sample of population, changes in depressive moods are associated with changes in total rhythmical power of HRV and more specifically its parasympathetic component.

Pichon A; Nuissier F; Chapelot D

2010-08-01

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Heart rate variability and depressed mood in physical education students: a longitudinal study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity, and more specifically its parasympathetic component, has been reported to be associated with depression. The objective of this longitudinal study was to assess whether changes in heart rate variability (HRV) and in depressive moods were interrelated in healthy young subjects. Thirty students in physical education with a high physical load, were followed over the university year at 3 periods: October (P1), February (P2) and May (P3). Depressive mood was assessed by the score on the Depression subscale of the profile of mood state (POMS) questionnaire. HRV was assessed in supine and during an active orthostatic test with total power (TPms(2)) as the sum of the very low (VLF), low (LF) and high frequency (HF) bands, LF/HF ratio representing sympathetic and HFms(2) parasympathetic modulations. Results showed that changes in Depression scores between P1 and P2 were negatively and positively associated with changes in TPms(2), LFms(2), and HFms(2) in supine position and during orthostatism respectively. Although Anger/Aggressivity, Fatigue, and Vigor scores of the POMS were also correlated with changes in some HRV indices, Depression was the only significant predictive factor of changes in TPms(2) and HFms(2) between P1 and P2 in supine position and during orthostatism. These results were not observed between P2 and P3. In conclusion, in a healthy young sample of population, changes in depressive moods are associated with changes in total rhythmical power of HRV and more specifically its parasympathetic component. PMID:20447874

Pichon, Aurélien; Nuissier, Frédéric; Chapelot, Didier

2010-05-05

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The effects of cognitive-behavioural therapy on mood-related ruminative response style in depressed adolescents  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background A mood-related ruminative response style increases the risk of onset and persistence of depression. This preliminary study investigated whether, in depressed adolescents, cognitive-behaviour therapy reduces mood-related ruminative response style. Whether specific factors within the rumination scale were differentially affected by CBT is also reported. Methods 26 depressed adolescents were randomised to receiving serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitor antidepressants (SSRI) plus psychosocial treatment as usual or SSRI and psychosocial treatment as usual plus CBT. Ruminative response style and depressive symptoms were measured at baseline and after 30 weeks of treatment, with the Responses to Depression Questionnaire and Mood and Feelings Questionnaire. Results There were significantly greater reductions in ruminations in the CBT group compared to the non-CBT group (p = .002). There was no significant difference in the reduction in self-reported depressive symptoms between the groups. Rumination was reduced to levels of never-depressed controls in adolescents who had recovered from depression and received CBT. There were greater falls in the CBT group in the more pathological 'brooding' factor of rumination. Conclusion These findings suggest that adding CBT to SSRI medication in the presence of active clinical care causes a greater reduction in mood-related ruminative response style in depressed adolescents. This may reduce the risk of future relapse. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCNT83809224.

Wilkinson Paul O; Goodyer Ian M

2008-01-01

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[Effects of exercise on anxiety, depression and mood].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article reviews the studies on the effects of physical activity on the emotional states--anxiety, depression and mood. The meta-analyses of correlational and experimental studies reveal positive effects of exercise, in healthy people and in clinical populations (also in patients with emotional disorders) regardless of gender and age. The benefits are significant especially in subjects with an elevated level of anxiety and depression because of more room for possible change. The most improvements are caused by rhythmic, aerobic exercises, using of large muscle groups (jogging, swimming, cycling, walking), of moderate and low intensity. They should be conducted for 15 to 30 minutes and performed a minimum of three times a week in programs of 10-weeks or longer. The results confirm the acute effect of exercise i.e. the reductions in anxiety and depression after single sessions of exercise. The changes in anxiety, depression and mood states after exercise are explained most frequently by the endorphin and monoamine hypotheses. Exercise may also increase body temperature, blood circulation in the brain and impact on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and physiological reactivity to stress. The possible psychological mechanisms include improvement of self-efficacy, distraction and cognitive dissonance.

Guszkowska M

2004-07-01

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An fMRI study of cytokine-induced depressed mood and social pain: the role of sex differences.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although research has demonstrated a relationship between proinflammatory cytokine activity and depressive symptoms, the neurocognitive processes underlying this relationship have remained largely unexplored. Here, we examined the effect of proinflammatory cytokine activation on the neural correlates of socially painful experience and associated depressed mood. Participants received either low-dose endotoxin or placebo through intravenous injection. Levels of the proinflammatory cytokine, IL-6, were repeatedly assessed through hourly blood draws; self-reported depressed mood was assessed hourly as well. Two hours post-injection, participants completed a neuroimaging session in which they were socially excluded during an online ball-tossing game. Replicating previous research, individuals exposed to endotoxin, compared to placebo, showed increases in IL-6 levels and depressed mood. Although there were no meaningful differences between the endotoxin and control groups in neural responses to social exclusion, there were sex differences in the relationships between IL-6 increases and neural responses to exclusion among subjects exposed to endotoxin. Among females, but not males, exposed to endotoxin, increases in IL-6 were associated with increases in social pain-related neural activity (dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula) that mediated the relationship between IL-6 increases and depressed mood increases. Implications of these sex differences in the neural correlates of cytokine-associated depressed mood and social pain are discussed.

Eisenberger NI; Inagaki TK; Rameson LT; Mashal NM; Irwin MR

2009-09-01

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Temperament and character predictors of depressed mood over a 4-year interval.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The relationship between personality and depressed mood is not well understood. The present research sought to clarify the contributions of personality to an understanding of the development, course, and maintenance of depressed mood over time. METHODS: A large community sample [n=5591, 57% women, M age=551.01] was administered the Revised Temperament and Character Inventory [TCI-R; Cloninger, 1999]: The Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised. St. Louis, MO: Center for Psychobiology of Personality, Washington University] and a modified version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale [CES-D; Radloff, 1977]: Appl Psychol Measure 1:385-401] at Time 1 [T1] and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale again 4 years later at Time 2 [T2]. RESULTS: Whereas three of the seven personality dimensions were significantly and uniquely associated with depressed mood at T1, only harm avoidance emerged as a significant unique positive predictor of depressed mood at T2. When participants were grouped according to the level of stability versus change in depressed mood during the 4-year period, reward dependence, self-directedness , and cooperativeness were found to be significantly lower among those low in depressed mood at T1 who subsequently evidenced moderate to high levels of depressed mood at T2 when compared to those with low depressed mood on both assessment occasions. Additional analyses indicated that those who evidenced moderate to high levels of depression at T1 and T2 were distinctly higher on harm avoidance and lower on self-directedness when compared to those who had consistently low or variable levels of depressed mood across the two assessment occasions. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from this research are discussed in terms of personality-related vulnerability and risk factors for future episodes of depressed mood.

Farmer RF; Seeley JR

2009-01-01

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The influence of depressed mood on action tendencies toward alcohol: The moderational role of drinking motives.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Research suggests that depressed mood is associated with alcohol-related problems, though its relation with drinking behavior has been inconsistent across studies. Efforts to better understand the link between depressed mood and alcohol use have examined drinking motives as a potentially important moderating variable. The current study sought to examine whether drinking motives moderate the influence of depressed mood on alcohol-related action tendencies. Based on Baker, Morse, and Sherman's (1986) positive and negative reinforcement schema model, two competing moderational hypotheses regarding the influence of depressed mood on appetitive responses for alcohol were tested. METHODS: One hundred and sixty-nine college student drinkers completed assessments of drinking motives and alcohol use. Subjects were exposed to a neutral or depressed mood induction followed by a computerized measure of action tendencies toward alcohol stimuli. RESULTS: Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to examine whether the influence of depressed mood on action tendencies toward alcohol was moderated by drinking motives. Results showed that there was a significant interaction between mood induction condition and enhancement motives, such that depressed mood appeared to suppress appetitive responding toward alcohol among those with higher enhancement motives. In contrast, there was no evidence that coping motives moderated the association between mood and appetitive response to alcohol. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that inhibiting affect states associated with one's motivational disposition for drinking may result in the devaluation of alcohol. Limitations and implications are discussed.

Ralston TE; Palfai TP; Rinck M

2013-07-01

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Does outdoor work during the winter season protect against depression and mood difficulties?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

At temperate latitudes, 1-5% of the population suffer from winter depression; during winter, mood difficulties tend to increase but may be alleviated by bright light therapy. Unlike indoor workers, outdoor workers are exposed to therapeutic levels of sunlight during winter. We hypothesized that outdoor work may protect against mood difficulties and depression.

Hahn, Ina H; Grynderup, Matias

2011-01-01

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Association between depression and anxiety in high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorders and maternal mood symptoms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Research suggests that children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and their relatives have high rates of depression and anxiety. However, relatively few studies have looked at both factors concurrently. This study examined the potential relationship between maternal mood symptoms and depression and anxiety in their children with ASD. Participants were 31 10- to 17-year-old children with an ASD diagnosis that was supported by gold-standard measures and their biological mothers. Mothers completed the Autism Comorbidity Interview to determine whether the child with ASD met criteria for any depressive or anxiety diagnoses and a questionnaire of their own current mood symptoms. As expected, many children with ASD met criteria for lifetime diagnoses of depressive (32%) and anxiety disorders (39%). Mothers' report of their own current mood symptoms revealed averages within the normal range, though there was significant variability. Approximately 75% of children with ASD could be correctly classified as having a depressive or anxiety disorder history or not based on maternal symptoms of interpersonal sensitivity, hostility, phobic anxiety, depression, and anxiety. The results provide preliminary evidence that maternal mood symptoms may be related to depression and anxiety in their children with ASD. Although the design did not allow for testing of heritability per se, the familial transmission patterns were generally consistent with research in typical populations. While larger follow-up studies are needed, this research has implications for prevention and intervention efforts.

Mazefsky CA; Conner CM; Oswald DP

2010-06-01

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Symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) moderate suicidal behaviors in college students with depressed mood.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: College students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder-related hyperactive/impulsive (HI) and/or inattentive (IA) symptoms may be at greater risk for suicidal behavior due to core and secondary symptoms that increase their potential to engage in behaviors that put them at risk for suicidal behavior. Consequently, the current study examined the moderating effect of combined HI/IA symptoms, in addition to independent HI and IA symptoms on the relationship between depressed mood and suicidal thoughts and behavior. METHOD: A sample of 1,056 undergraduate students (61.5% female, 96.4% aged 18-24 years) provided self-report ratings of mood, suicidal behavior (thoughts, self-harm, attempts, and need for medical attention), and current HI/IA symptoms. RESULTS: Significant moderation effects were detected, such that greater HI/IA symptoms were associated with a stronger relationship between depressed mood and suicidal ideation and attempts, but not self-harm. Current HI and IA symptoms significantly moderated the relationship between depressed mood and suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts, but did not moderate the relationship between depressed mood and self-harm and need for medical attention. CONCLUSIONS: The current findings suggest that the presence of combined HI/IA symptoms conveys increased suicide risk for depressed college students. Additionally, results suggest a complex relationship between independent HI and IA symptoms and severe suicidal outcomes.

Patros CH; Hudec KL; Alderson RM; Kasper LJ; Davidson C; Wingate LR

2013-09-01

31

Clinical Comparison Between Adjustment Disorder with Depressive Mood and Major Depressive Disorder  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to compare patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) following a life event to those suffering from adjustment disorder (AD) with depressed mood in terms of clinical features, nature of precipitating stress factors, and functioning. Met­hods: In this study, we included 32 individuals diagnosed as AD with depressed mood, 22 individuals diagnosed as MDD following a life event, and a control group of 30 individuals without any psychological or physical illness. The participants completed the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAS), Hamilton Depression Scale (HDS), Rahe-Holmes Social Readjustment Rating Scale, Life Experiences Survey (LES), Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) Scale and the Social Functioning Scale (SFS). Both patient groups have been evaluated prospectively for six months. The data were analyzed using Spearman’s rank correlation, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance, chi-square and Mann-Whitney U tests.Re­sults: The symptom profile of patients diagnosed as having AD with depressed mood was found to be similar to that of subjects with MDD. However, the patients suffering from AD with depressed mood had higher scores on HAS and HDS as compared to the individuals with MDD and, the functioning levels were lower in the MDD group than in the AD group. The severity of life event was related to the severity of psychopathology in the AD group, but this was not the case for the MD group. Conc­lu­si­on: Clinically, AD is quite similar to MDD. AD, a disorder related to life event, is less severe disorder than MDD in terms of symptom profile. At the same time, AD patients demonstrate higher level of functioning than MDD patients. The relationship between MDD and AD should be investigated with larger sample size and long prospective studies. (Arc­hi­ves of Neu­ropsy­chi­atry 2012; 49: 20-8)

Semiha Tufan Temiz; Gülcan Güleç; Cem Kaptano?lu

2012-01-01

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Developing a measure of interpretation bias for depressed mood: An ambiguous scenarios test.  

Science.gov (United States)

The tendency to interpret ambiguous everyday situations in a relatively negative manner (negative interpretation bias) is central to cognitive models of depression. Limited tools are available to measure this bias, either experimentally or in the clinic. This study aimed to develop a pragmatic interpretation bias measure using an ambiguous scenarios test relevant to depressed mood (the AST-D). In Study 1, after a pilot phase (N = 53), the AST-D was presented via a web-based survey (N = 208). Participants imagined and rated each AST-D ambiguous scenario. As predicted, higher dysphoric mood was associated with lower pleasantness ratings (more negative bias), independent of mental imagery measures. In Study 2, self-report ratings were compared with objective ratings of participants' imagined outcomes of the ambiguous scenarios (N = 41). Data were collected in the experimental context of a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging scanner. Consistent with subjective bias scores, independent judges rated more sentences as negatively valenced for the high versus low dysphoric group. Overall, results suggest the potential utility of the AST-D in assessing interpretation bias associated with depressed mood. PMID:21822348

Berna, Chantal; Lang, Tamara J; Goodwin, Guy M; Holmes, Emily A

2011-08-01

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Impact of Nicotine Replacement Therapy on Post-Cessation Mood Profile by Pre-Cessation Depressive Symptoms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract We evaluated the effects of Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT) on the Profile of Mood States (POMS), testing whether pre-cessation depressive symptoms modify NRT's effects on POMS. Out of 608 smokers attempting to quit with NRT, this secondary analysis included 242 participants abstinent for at least two weeks. We measured pre-cessation depressive symptoms with the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. At 1, 7, and 14 post-cessation days we examined 6 self-reported POMS, i.e. feeling 'anxious', 'sad', 'confused', 'angry', 'energetic' and 'fatigue'. The results of the ANCOVA models suggested no NRT effects on feeling anxious, energetic or fatigue. We found that pre-cessation depression modified NRT effects in some specific mood states, such as depression by NRT- interaction effects on feeling confused and feeling angry. On average, the depressed participants in the placebo groups had the highest symptom scores. However, those depressed in NRT conditions did not have significantly higher symptom scores compared to the non-depressed groups. In treating those negative moods NRT may be particularly important for persons with depressive symptoms before cessation.

Korhonen Tellervo; Kinnunen Taru H; Garvey Arthur J

2006-01-01

34

Inhibitory control mediates the relationship between depressed mood and overgeneral memory recall in children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

It has been well established that depressed mood is related to overgeneral memory recall (OGM), which refers to a relative difficulty in retrieving specific information from one's autobiographical memory (AM). The present study examined whether OGM is also related to depressed mood in children and whether lack of inhibitory control mediates this relationship. One hundred thirty-five children (ages 9-13) completed measures assessing depressive symptoms, AM specificity, and inhibitory control. The results showed that depressed mood is positively associated with OGM and that inhibitory control mediated this relationship.

Raes F; Verstraeten K; Bijttebier P; Vasey MW; Dalgleish T

2010-01-01

35

Combinations of resting RSA and RSA reactivity impact maladaptive mood repair and depression symptoms.  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined whether the combined indices of respiratory sinus arrhythmia at rest (resting RSA) and in response to a sad film (RSA reactivity) predict effective and ineffective responses to reduce sadness (adaptive vs. maladaptive mood repair) in women with histories of juvenile-onset depression (n=74) and no history of major mental disorders (n=75). Structural equation models were used to estimate latent resting RSA, depression, and adaptive and maladaptive mood repair and to test the study hypotheses. Results indicated that combinations of resting RSA+RSA reactivity (RSA patterns) predicted maladaptive mood repair, which in turn, mediated the effects of RSA pattern on depression. Further, RSA patterns moderated the depressogenic effects of maladaptive mood repair. RSA patterns were unrelated to adaptive mood repair. Our findings suggest that mood repair is one mechanism through which physiological vulnerabilities adversely affect mental health. PMID:23827087

Yaroslavsky, Ilya; Bylsma, Lauren M; Rottenberg, Jonathan; Kovacs, Maria

2013-07-01

36

Combinations of resting RSA and RSA reactivity impact maladaptive mood repair and depression symptoms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We examined whether the combined indices of respiratory sinus arrhythmia at rest (resting RSA) and in response to a sad film (RSA reactivity) predict effective and ineffective responses to reduce sadness (adaptive vs. maladaptive mood repair) in women with histories of juvenile-onset depression (n=74) and no history of major mental disorders (n=75). Structural equation models were used to estimate latent resting RSA, depression, and adaptive and maladaptive mood repair and to test the study hypotheses. Results indicated that combinations of resting RSA+RSA reactivity (RSA patterns) predicted maladaptive mood repair, which in turn, mediated the effects of RSA pattern on depression. Further, RSA patterns moderated the depressogenic effects of maladaptive mood repair. RSA patterns were unrelated to adaptive mood repair. Our findings suggest that mood repair is one mechanism through which physiological vulnerabilities adversely affect mental health.

Yaroslavsky I; Bylsma LM; Rottenberg J; Kovacs M

2013-07-01

37

When the ends outweigh the means: mood and level of identification in depression.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Research in healthy controls has found that mood influences cognitive processing via level of action identification: happy moods are associated with global and abstract processing; sad moods are associated with local and concrete processing. However, this pattern seems inconsistent with the high level of abstract processing observed in depressed patients, leading Watkins (2008, 2010) to hypothesise that the association between mood and level of goal/action identification is impaired in depression. We tested this hypothesis by measuring level of identification on the Behavioural Identification Form after happy and sad mood inductions in never-depressed controls and currently depressed patients. Participants used increasingly concrete action identifications as they became sadder and less happy, but this effect was moderated by depression status. Consistent with Watkins' (2008) hypothesis, increases in sad mood and decreases in happiness were associated with shifts towards the use of more concrete action identifications in never-depressed individuals, but not in depressed patients. These findings suggest that the putatively adaptive association between mood and level of identification is impaired in major depression.

Watkins ER; Moberly NJ; Moulds ML

2011-11-01

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Mood-congruent amygdala responses to subliminally presented facial expressions in major depression: associations with anhedonia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Anhedonia has long been recognized as a key feature of major depressive disorders, but little is known about the association between hedonic symptoms and neurobiological processes in depressed patients. We investigated whether amygdala mood-congruent responses to emotional stimuli in depressed patients are correlated with anhedonic symptoms at automatic levels of processing. METHODS: We measured amygdala responsiveness to subliminally presented sad and happy facial expressions in depressed patients and matched healthy controls using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Amygdala responsiveness was compared between patients and healthy controls within a 2 (group) x 2 (emotion) design. In addition, we correlated patients' amygdala responsiveness to sad and happy facial stimuli with self-report questionnaire measures of anhedonia. RESULTS: We included 35 patients and 35 controls in our study. As in previous studies, we observed a strong emotion x group interaction in the bilateral amygdala: depressed patients showed greater amygdala responses to sad than happy faces, whereas healthy controls responded more strongly to happy than sad faces. The lack of automatic right amygdala responsiveness to happy faces in depressed patients was associated with higher physical anhedonia scores. LIMITATIONS: Almost all depressed patients were taking antidepressant medications. CONCLUSION: We replicated our previous finding of depressed patients showing automatic amygdala mood-congruent biases in terms of enhanced reactivity to negative emotional stimuli and reduced activity to positive emotional stimuli. The altered amygdala processing of positive stimuli in patients was associated with anhedonia scores. The results indicate that reduced amygdala responsiveness to positive stimuli may contribute to anhedonic symptoms due to reduced/inappropriate salience attribution to positive information at very early processing levels.

Stuhrmann A; Dohm K; Kugel H; Zwanzger P; Redlich R; Grotegerd D; Rauch AV; Arolt V; Heindel W; Suslow T; Zwitserlood P; Dannlowski U

2013-07-01

39

Autobiographical memory in adults with autism spectrum disorder: the role of depressed mood, rumination, working memory and theory of mind.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Autobiographical memory difficulties have been widely reported in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The aim of the current study was to explore the potential correlates of autobiographical memory performance (including depressed mood, rumination, working memory and theory of mind) in adults with ASD, relative to a group of typical adults matched for age, gender and IQ. Results demonstrated that the adults with ASD reported higher levels of depressed mood and rumination than the typical adults, and also received lower scores on measures of theory of mind and working memory. Correlational analysis suggested that theory of mind and working memory were associated with autobiographical memory performance in the adults with ASD, but no significant relationships were observed between autobiographical memory, depressed mood and rumination in this group. To explore these patterns further, two cases of adults with a dual diagnosis of ASD and depression are discussed. These participants present a profile in line with the idea that depressed mood and rumination do not have the same influence on autobiographical memory in adults with ASD as they do in typical adults.

Crane L; Goddard L; Pring L

2013-03-01

40

Co-variation of depressive mood and locomotor dynamics evaluated by ecological momentary assessment in healthy humans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Computerized ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is widely accepted as a "gold standard" method for capturing momentary symptoms repeatedly experienced in daily life. Although many studies have addressed the within-individual temporal variations in momentary symptoms compared with simultaneously measured external criteria, their concurrent associations, specifically with continuous physiological measures, have not been rigorously examined. Therefore, in the present study, we first examined the variations in momentary symptoms by validating the associations among self-reported symptoms measured simultaneously (depressive mood, anxious mood, and fatigue) and then investigated covariant properties between the symptoms (especially, depressive mood) and local statistics of locomotor activity as the external objective criteria obtained continuously. Healthy subjects (N = 85) from three different populations (adolescents, undergraduates, and office workers) wore a watch-type computer device equipped with EMA software for recording the momentary symptoms experienced by the subjects. Locomotor activity data were also continuously obtained by using an actigraph built into the device. Multilevel modeling analysis confirmed convergent associations by showing positive correlations among momentary symptoms. The increased intermittency of locomotor activity, characterized by a combination of reduced activity with occasional bursts, appeared concurrently with the worsening of depressive mood. Further, this association remained statistically unchanged across groups regardless of group differences in age, lifestyle, and occupation. These results indicate that the temporal variations in the momentary symptoms are not random but reflect the underlying changes in psychophysiological variables in daily life. In addition, our findings on the concurrent changes in depressive mood and locomotor activity may contribute to the continuous estimation of changes in depressive mood and early detection of depressive disorders. PMID:24058642

Kim, Jinhyuk; Nakamura, Toru; Kikuchi, Hiroe; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu

2013-09-13

 
 
 
 
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Cognitive reactivity to sad mood: The importance of the first depressive episode  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cognitive reactivity to sad mood refers to the degree to which a mild dysphoric state reactivates negative thinking patterns. In this research, the contribution of the history of depression, the length of the current depressive episode and the intensity of the depressive symptoms were assessed in ex...

Mari? Zorica; Vukosavljevi?-Gvozden Tatjana

42

Links between antisocial behavior and depressed mood: the role of life events and attributional style.  

Science.gov (United States)

Comorbidity between antisocial behavior and depression in adolescence is widely recognized. This paper examines whether links with depressed mood differ among three subtypes of antisocial behavior: oppositionality, physical aggression and delinquency. In addition we examine two possible contributors to these links: negative life events that are dependent upon the individual's actions and depressogenic attributional style. Data are drawn from the G1219 large-scale community twin and sibling sample, and include 2409 questionnaire responses from youths aged between 13 and 19 living in the United Kingdom. Depressed mood was independently associated with both oppositionality and delinquency, but not with physical aggression. Dependent negative life events were strongly implicated in the association between delinquency and depressed mood, whereas depressogenic attributional style was implicated in the associations of both oppositionality and delinquency with depressed mood. Oppositionality remained a significant predictor of depressed mood after accounting for attributional style and life events whereas delinquency did not. The pattern of associations was largely similar in boys and girls. We discuss these results in terms of developmental models of the links between antisocial behavior and depressed mood. PMID:16718539

Rowe, Richard; Maughan, Barbara; Eley, Thalia C

2006-05-23

43

Comparing the effectiveness of mood stabilizers and antidepressants for bipolar depression treatment: a retrospective chart review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of antidepressants on recovery in bipolar depression. Method: The most recent depressive episode of patients with DSM-IV Bipolar Disorder, recruited from a specialized mood disorder outpatient unit in Turkey, were evaluated retrospectively. Thirty-four patients, only received mood stabilizer titration or did not change their current treatment regimens and thirty patients, treated with an antidepressant agent were compared on rates of recurrence and time to remission. Results: One third of patients in each group were taking at least one mood stabilizer during their depressive episodes. Mood stabilizer levels were similar in each group and were within therapeutic limits. There were no significant differences between groups on rates of recurrence or time to remission. Conclusions: In this preliminary retrospective study, patients with bipolar depression who were treated with antidepressants did not have a better outcome than patients who received no antidepressants.

Kür?at Alt?nba?; Timuçin E. Oral; Danny Smith; Nickholas Craddock

2010-01-01

44

Irritable mood as a symptom of depression in youth: prevalence, developmental, and clinical correlates in the great smoky mountains study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: DSM-IV grants episodic irritability an equal status to low mood as a cardinal criterion for the diagnosis of depression in youth, yet not in adults; however, evidence for irritability as a major criterion of depression in youth is lacking. This article examines the prevalence, developmental characteristics, associations with psychopathology, and longitudinal stability of irritable mood in childhood and adolescent depression. METHOD: Data from the prospective population-based Great Smoky Mountains Study (N = 1,420) were used. We divided observations on 9- to 16-year-olds who met criteria for a diagnosis of depression into 3 groups: those with depressed mood and no irritability, those with irritability and no depressed mood, and those with both depressed and irritable mood. We compared these groups using robust regression models on adolescent characteristics and early adult (ages 19-21 years) depression outcomes. RESULTS: Depressed mood was the most common cardinal mood in youth meeting criteria for depression (58.7%), followed by the co-occurrence of depressed and irritable mood (35.6%); irritable mood alone was rare (5.7%). Youth with depressed and irritable mood were similar in age and developmental stage to those with depression, but had significantly higher rates of disruptive disorders. The co-occurrence of depressed and irritable mood was associated with higher risk for comorbid conduct disorder in girls (gender-by-group interaction, F1,132 = 4.66, p = .03). CONCLUSIONS: Our study findings do not support the use of irritability as a cardinal mood criterion for depression. However, the occurrence of irritability in youth depression is associated with increased risk of disruptive behaviors, especially in girls.

Stringaris A; Maughan B; Copeland WS; Costello EJ; Angold A

2013-08-01

45

Irritable Mood as a Symptom of Depression in Youth: Prevalence, Developmental, and Clinical Correlates in the Great Smoky Mountains Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective DSM-IV grants episodic irritability an equal status to low mood as a cardinal criterion for the diagnosis of depression in youth, yet not in adults; however, evidence for irritability as a major criterion of depression in youth is lacking. This article examines the prevalence, developmental characteristics, associations with psychopathology, and longitudinal stability of irritable mood in childhood and adolescent depression. Method Data from the prospective population-based Great Smoky Mountains Study (N = 1,420) were used. We divided observations on 9- to 16-year-olds who met criteria for a diagnosis of depression into 3 groups: those with depressed mood and no irritability, those with irritability and no depressed mood, and those with both depressed and irritable mood. We compared these groups using robust regression models on adolescent characteristics and early adult (ages 19–21 years) depression outcomes. Results Depressed mood was the most common cardinal mood in youth meeting criteria for depression (58.7%), followed by the co-occurrence of depressed and irritable mood (35.6%); irritable mood alone was rare (5.7%). Youth with depressed and irritable mood were similar in age and developmental stage to those with depression, but had significantly higher rates of disruptive disorders. The co-occurrence of depressed and irritable mood was associated with higher risk for comorbid conduct disorder in girls (gender-by-group interaction, F1,132 = 4.66, p = .03). Conclusions Our study findings do not support the use of irritability as a cardinal mood criterion for depression. However, the occurrence of irritability in youth depression is associated with increased risk of disruptive behaviors, especially in girls.

Stringaris, Argyris; Maughan, Barbara; Copeland, William S.; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian

2013-01-01

46

The Development of Adolescent Generalized Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms in the Context of Adolescent Mood Variability and Parent-Adolescent Negative Interactions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study explored the influence of adolescent mood variability on the symptom development of generalized anxiety and depression in the context of parent-adolescent negative interactions. Participants were 456 adolescents (55.7 % male) from a community sample, who were followed from age 13 to 16 years. During 4 annual assessments, adolescents reported on their generalized anxiety and depressive symptoms, and both parents and adolescents on levels of negative interactions with each other. Within each study year, adolescents rated their daily mood states during 5 consecutive days for 3 times per year (total of 9 weeks). The absolute differences between mood states on consecutive days were summed to construct a mood variability score. Results showed that high levels of adolescent mood variability predicted increases in generalized anxiety and depressive symptoms across the studied period. No influence of negative interactions on anxiety and depression development was found, but positive predictive links from mood variability to negative interactions at age 14 and 15 appeared. The study underscores the role of adolescent mood variability in the development of symptoms of generalized anxiety and depression during adolescence, but found little evidence for an influence of parent-adolescent negative interactions on internalizing problem development.

Maciejewski DF; van Lier PA; Neumann A; Van der Giessen D; Branje SJ; Meeus WH; Koot HM

2013-08-01

47

Infant developmental outcomes following prenatal exposure to antidepressants, and maternal depressed mood and positive affect.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) antidepressants has been associated with delays in early developmental milestones, but there remains uncertainty. Even among a subset of studies examining the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID), some have reported normal mental and psychomotor development while others have suggested a delay in motor development. Given an increasing number of infants exposed to SRIs, furthering our understanding of the possible developmental implications of SRI exposure in utero is critical. AIMS: To examine the effects of prenatal serotonin reuptake inhibitor exposure and maternal mood on infant developmental outcomes at 10months of age. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study of mothers and their 10-month-old infants. SUBJECTS: We examined 31 mother-child pairs exposed prenatally to SRIs and 52 mother-child pairs who were nonexposed. OUTCOME MEASURE: The Bayley Scales of Infant Development (third edition) scores. RESULTS: Infants exposed prenatally to SRIs scored significantly lower than nonexposed infants on gross motor (P=0.03), social-emotional (P=0.04) and adaptive behavior (P=0.05) subscales of the BSID-III, controlling for pre- and postnatal maternal depressed mood, smoking and alcohol use during pregnancy. No significant differences in any of the BSID-III subscales were observed between infants exposed and infants nonexposed to pre and postnatal maternal depressed mood (P>0.05). Increased levels of maternal positive affect at 10 months predicted increased social-emotional scores (P=0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Infants prenatally exposed to SRIs score significantly lower on the gross motor, social-emotional and adaptive behavior subscales of the BSID-III, and this was not explained by underlying maternal depression.

Hanley GE; Brain U; Oberlander TF

2013-08-01

48

Comparing the effectiveness of mood stabilizers and antidepressants for bipolar depression treatment: a retrospective chart review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of antidepressants on recovery in bipolar depression. Method: The most recent depressive episode of patients with DSM-IV Bipolar Disorder, recruited from a specialized mood disorder outpatient unit in Turkey, were evaluated retrospectiv...

Kür?at Alt?nba?; Timuçin E. Oral; Danny Smith; Nickholas Craddock

49

Mood-congruent and mood-incongruent psychotic symptoms in major depression: the role of severity and personality.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Whether psychotic symptoms in major depression (MD) are better explained by a "severity model" or by a "vulnerability model", with personality as a predisposing factor, is still debated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate in MD the relationship between the content of psychotic features (mood congruent (MC) or mood incongruent (MI)) and severity of depression or personality traits. METHODS: 62 inpatients affected by MD with psychotic features were divided into three groups on the basis of the content of psychotic symptoms: MC, MI, mixed MC-MI. All subjects completed the SCID-IV, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. Personality was assessed after MD remission. RESULTS: MI psychotic symptoms were positively associated with schizotypal traits, whereas MC symptoms were positively related to obsessive-compulsive traits and severity of depression. Patients with both MC and MI psychotic symptoms were characterized by a personality profile and depression severity standing in a middle position between the MC and MI groups. LIMITATIONS: The main limitations of the study are represented by the small sample size, the time of assessment of personality and the inclusion of only unipolar depression. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that both depression severity and personality profile, independently from each other, model the content of psychotic symptoms, confirming the validity of subgrouping psychotic depression into two distinct MC and MI types and supporting the inclusion of a third mixed MC-MI type because of its intermediate position in personality profile and severity between the MC or MI group.

Tonna M; De Panfilis C; Marchesi C

2012-12-01

50

Efficacy of Fasting and Calorie Restriction (FCR) on Mood and Depression among Ageing Men.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Objective: An intervention study on the FCR (Fasting and Calorie Restriction) dietary regime was carried out to determine its efficacy in improving mood states and depression status among ageing men. Subjects: A total of 32 healthy males (Mean±SD), aged 59.7±6.3 years, with a BMI of 26.7±2.2 kg/m2 were recruited to the study. Method: Participants were randomized to either the FCR group (and were instructed to follow a calorie restricted dietary regime with intermittent fasting) or to the control group (in which individuals were asked to maintain their current lifestyle), for a 3 month period. Mood was assessed using the Profile of Mood States and depression was assessed using Beck Depression Inventory-II and Geriatric Depression Scale-15 at baseline, week 6 and week 12 of the intervention. Results: A total of 31 subjects completed the study (n=16, FCR and n=15, control). Significant decreases in tension, anger, confusion and total mood disturbance and improvements in vigor were observed in participants in the FCR group compared to the control group (p<0.05). No significant changes in mean depression scores were observed. Weight, BMI and percent body fat were reduced by 3.8%, 3.7% and 5.7% respectively in the FCR group. Conclusions: Our findings show that a FCR dietary regime is effective in improving mood states and nutritional status among ageing men.

Hussin NM; Shahar S; Teng NI; Ngah WZ; Das SK

2013-01-01

51

Alcohol problems as a risk factor for postdisaster depressed mood among U.S. veterans.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Alcohol problems may impede adaptive, proactive responses to disaster-related injury and loss, thus prolonging the adverse impact of disasters on mental health. Previous work suggests that veterans of the U.S. armed forces have a relatively high prevalence of alcohol misuse and other psychiatric disorders. This is the first study to estimate the impact of predisaster alcohol problems on postdisaster depressed mood among veterans, using data that were collected before and after the 1994 Northridge, CA, earthquake. The authors assessed the impact of alcohol problems on postdisaster depressed mood in an existing clinical cohort of veterans who experienced the 6.7-magnitude earthquake that struck Northridge in January 1994. One to 3 months after the disaster, interviewers contacted participants by telephone to administer a follow-up questionnaire based on a survey that had been done preearthquake. Postearthquake data were obtained on 1,144 male veterans for whom there were preearthquake data. We tested a predictive path model of the relationships between latent variables for predisaster alcohol problems, functional limitations, and depressed mood on latent variables representing postdisaster "quake impact" and depressive mood. Results showed that veterans who had more alcohol problems before the earthquake experienced more earthquake-related harms and severely depressed mood after the earthquake, compared with those who had fewer alcohol problems. Programs serving veterans with a high prevalence of alcohol problems should consider designing disaster response protocols to locate and assist these patients in the aftermath of disasters.

Heslin KC; Stein JA; Dobalian A; Simon B; Lanto AB; Yano EM; Rubenstein LV

2013-03-01

52

Lagged relationships among sleep disturbance, fatigue, and depressed mood during chemotherapy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Recent research suggests that sleep disturbance, fatigue, and depressed mood form a symptom cluster in patients treated with chemotherapy. To date, however, no studies have examined lagged relationships among these symptoms during chemotherapy, a time when symptom variability is high. The aim of the current study was to examine lagged changes among daily symptoms during platinum-based chemotherapy. METHOD: Participants were 78 women with gynecologic cancer (mean age 63 years, SD = 11; 91% Caucasian, 97% non-Hispanic). Sleep disturbance was assessed via wrist actigraphy, whereas fatigue and depressed mood were assessed via daily diary in the week after participants' first chemotherapy infusion. Latent change score models (LCS) were used to examine lagged relationships between symptom pairs. RESULTS: High levels of sleep disturbance (i.e., minutes awake at night) were associated with earlier subsequent peaks in fatigue, and high levels of fatigue were associated with higher subsequent levels of depressed mood. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that sleep disturbance, fatigue, and depressed mood occur in a cascade pattern during chemotherapy, in which increases in sleep disturbance contribute to fatigue, which, in turn, contributes to depressed mood. Interventions targeting symptoms early in the cascade, such as sleep disturbance, may provide benefits across multiple downstream symptoms.

Jim HS; Jacobsen PB; Phillips KM; Wenham RM; Roberts W; Small BJ

2013-07-01

53

A prospective study of mental health care for comorbid depressed mood in older adults with painful osteoarthritis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Comorbid depression is common among adults with painful osteoarthritis (OA). We evaluated the relationship between depressed mood and receipt of mental health (MH) care services. Methods In a cohort with OA, annual interviews assessed comorbidity, arthritis severity, and MH (SF-36 mental health score). Surveys were linked to administrative health databases to identify mental health-related visits to physicians in the two years following the baseline interview (1996-98). Prescriptions for anti-depressants were ascertained for participants aged 65+ years (eligible for drug benefits). The relationship between MH scores and MH-related physician visits was assessed using zero-inflated negative binomial regression, adjusting for confounders. For those aged 65+ years, logistic regression examined the probability of receiving any MH-related care (physician visit or anti-depressant prescription). Results Analyses were based on 2,005 (90.1%) individuals (mean age 70.8 years). Of 576 (28.7%) with probable depression (MH score any MH care. The likelihood of receiving any MH care exhibited a significant interaction between MH score and self-reported health status (p = 0.0009); with good general health, worsening MH was associated with increased likelihood of MH care; as general health declined, this effect was attenuated. Conclusions Among older adults with painful OA, more than one-quarter had depressed mood, but almost half received no mental health care, suggesting a care gap.

Gleicher Yehoshua; Croxford Ruth; Hochman Jacqueline; Hawker Gillian

2011-01-01

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Depressed mood and speech in Chilean mothers of 5½-year-old children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Previous research on maternal speech and depression has focused almost exclusively on how depressed mothers talk to their infants and toddlers in the U.S. and U.K., two English-speaking countries. This study considered how depressed Spanish-speaking mothers from a Latin American country talk about their preschool-age children. Five-minute speech samples were provided by 178 Chilean mothers who were asked to talk about their 5½-year-old children to a project psychologist. Maternal depressive symptomatology was measured by the Spanish-language version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). In multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), higher maternal depressed mood showed statistically significant associations with the following maternal speech characteristics: more criticisms, less laughter, fewer medium pauses, less positive satisfaction with the child's behavior or characteristics, a rating of a negative overall relationship with the child, and more crying (suggestive trend). A structural equation model confirmed these findings and found an indirect effect between laughter and criticisms: mothers with higher depressed mood who laughed less criticized their children less. The findings illustrate that depressed mood adversely affects how a group of Chilean mothers speak about their children.

Clark KM; Su J; Kaciroti N; Castillo M; Millan R; Rule H; Lozoff B

2010-01-01

55

Predicting future depression in adolescents using the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire: a two-nation study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Adolescence is a key life period for the development of depression. Predicting the development of depression in adolescence through detecting specific early symptoms may aid in the development of timely screening and intervention programmes. METHODS: We administered the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ) to 5769 American and Australian students aged 10 to 15 years, at two time points, separated by 12 months. We attempted to predict high levels of depression symptoms at 12 months from symptoms at baseline, using statistical approaches based upon the quality, as well as the quantity, of depression symptoms present. These approaches included classification and regression trees (CART) and logistic regression. RESULTS: A classification tree employing four SMFQ items, such as feelings of self-hatred and of being unloved, performed almost as well as all 13 SMFQ items at predicting subsequent depression symptomatology. LIMITATIONS: Depression was measured using a self-report instrument, rather than a criterion standard diagnostic interview. CONCLUSION: Further validation on other populations of adolescents is required: however the results suggest that several symptoms of depression, especially feelings of self-hatred, and being unloved, are associated with increased levels of self-reported depression at 12 months post baseline. Although screening for depression can be problematic, symptoms such as the ones above should be considered for inclusion in screening tests for adolescents.

McKenzie DP; Toumbourou JW; Forbes AB; Mackinnon AJ; McMorris BJ; Catalano RF; Patton GC

2011-11-01

56

A Daily Diary Study of Co-Rumination, Stressful Life Events, and Depressed Mood in Late Adolescents  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to extend the research on co-rumination and depressed mood by examining the impact of co-rumination on depressed mood on a daily basis while controlling for the effects of daily stress events in a sample of late adolescents. Two-hundred and seventy-nine predominantly Caucasian college students (95 male, 184 female)…

White, Megan E.; Shih, Josephine H.

2012-01-01

57

Anxiety and depressed mood in obese pregnant women: a prospective controlled cohort study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The psychological health in obese women during pregnancy has been poorly studied. OBJECTIVE: To compare levels of anxiety and depressed mood during pregnancy in obese versus normal-weight women. METHODS: 63 obese pregnant women and 156 normal-weight controls were included prospectively before 15 weeks of gestation. Levels of state and trait anxiety and depressed mood were measured during the first, second and third trimester of pregnancy. A linear mixed-effect model with repeated measures was used to evaluate group differences. RESULTS: The levels of state anxiety significantly increased from trimester 1 to trimester 3 in obese pregnant women (beta = 3.70; p = 0.007), while this parameter remained constant throughout pregnancy in normal-weight women. Levels of trait anxiety and depressed mood significantly decreased from trimester 1 to trimester 2 in controls, but not in obese pregnant women. Variables such as maternal education, ethnicity, marital state, psychological history and miscarriages, parity and smoking behaviour had significant effects on anxiety and/or depressed moods during pregnancy. Obese pregnant women show higher levels of anxiety and depressive symptomatology compared to normal-weight pregnant women. CONCLUSION: Interventional programmes aiming at preventing the deleterious influence of maternal obesity on perinatal outcomes should include a psycho-educational program specifically tailored to this high-risk group.

Bogaerts AF; Devlieger R; Nuyts E; Witters I; Gyselaers W; Guelinckx I; Van den Bergh BR

2013-01-01

58

Relation between depressed mood, somatic comorbidities and health service utilisation in older adults: results from the KORA-Age study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: prior literature suggests that comorbidity with depression significantly worsens the health state of people with chronic diseases. OBJECTIVE: the present study examines whether depressed mood increased medical care use for patients with a comorbid physical disease. Design, setting and subjects: the study was a population-based study (KORA-Age), with 3,938 participants aged 64-94. METHODS: we investigated differences in health services use in participants with and without depressed mood (Geriatric Depression Scale). A further adjustment for disease was done and differences were examined with the Mann-Whitney U test. The incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for doctors' appointments or the number of days in hospital were explored with (zero-inflated) negative binomial regression models. RESULTS: there are increased self-neglecting behaviours and medical comorbidities in participants with depressed mood. Depressed mood increased participants' use of medical services (P < 0.0001). Among participants who visited the doctor during the last 3 months, those with depressed mood had more visits than those without depressed mood, irrespective of somatic comorbidities (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.05 for ill and healthy, respectively). Additionally, patients with coexisting depressed mood and physical disease visited the doctor's practice significantly more often. Having depressed mood significantly increases the likelihood for more doctor visits (IRR = 1.5, CI = 1.3-1.7) and longer hospital stays (IRR = 1.9, CI = 1.6-2.3). In participants with somatic comorbidities the risk is even greater (IRR = 1.6, CI = 1.3-2, for the number of doctors visits and IRR = 2, CI = 1.4-2.9, for the number of days in the hospital). CONCLUSIONS: results suggest that patients with depressed mood had increased use of health-care services overall, particularly those with somatic comorbidities.

Lacruz ME; Emeny RT; Haefner S; Zimmermann AK; Linkohr B; Holle R; Ladwig KH

2012-03-01

59

Mood changes, depression and suicide risk during isotretinoin treatment: a prospective study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Depression and mood changes appear as potentional side effects of isotretinoin in the Summary of Product Characteristics. There have been many studies treating this topic but in most cases not identifying any significant depression or suicide risk. To further investigate this issue, we conducted a prospective, uncontrolled study to evaluate mood changes and suicidal ideations in patients receiving isotretinoin therapy. METHODS: One-hundred patients were included in our single center, no-blind, and no controlled prospective study. All patients completed the Beck's Depression Inventory, Version II (BDI-II) before the treatment, following the first month of the treatment and then every third month until finishing the isotretinoin therapy. All questionnaires were checked by a psychiatrist. Suicidal ideations were monitored. Statistical analysis of BDI-II scores was performed. RESULTS: All patients completed the study. Before the treatment, six percent of the patients had suffered from depressive symptoms. During the isotretinoin treatment, we did not find any deterioration of depression problems in any of these patients. On the contrary, in most patients the depressive symptoms disappeared. Symptoms of depression occurred in two patients, in which case coexisting situational factors were found to be the cause. No occurrence of suicidal ideations was found. CONCLUSIONS: We did not find any depressive symptoms or suicide risk caused by isotretinoin. On the contrary, a statistically significant improvement of BDI-II scores was found. In our opinion, patients have to be informed about the risk of depression but emphasizing the fact that it is very rare.

Nevoralová Z; Dvo?áková D

2013-02-01

60

Effectiveness and mood conversion rate of short-term fluoxetine monotherapy in patients with rapid cycling bipolar II depression versus patients with nonrapid cycling bipolar II depression.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: We examined the effectiveness and mood conversion rate of fluoxetine monotherapy in patients with rapid cycling bipolar II depression versus patients with nonrapid cycling bipolar II depression. We hypothesized that there would be reduced antidepressant effectiveness and a greater mood conversion rate over time in patients with rapid cycling. METHODS: Open-label fluoxetine monotherapy 10 to 80 mg daily was administered for up to 14 weeks in 42 outpatients with rapid cycling versus 124 outpatients with nonrapid cycling. Outcome measures included the change over time in depression ratings, the proportion of treatment responders and remitters, change over time in mania ratings, and frequency of syndromal and subsyndromal hypomanic episodes. RESULTS: There was a greater reduction in depression rating scores in the patients with rapid cycling versus those with nonrapid cycling (P = 0.04), with similar rates of response (P = 0.18) and remission (P = 0.69). Change in mean mania rating scores was similar in the patients with rapid cycling versus those with nonrapid cycling (P = 0.28). Hypomanic symptoms occurred in a similar proportion of the patients with rapid cycling versus those with nonrapid cycling (P = 0.99). Hypomanic episodes occurred in 5.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.7-18.2) of the patients with rapid cycling versus 3.6% (95% CI, 1.0-8.9) of those with nonrapid cycling (P = 0.65). Subsyndromal hypomania occurred in 13.5% (95% CI, 4.5-28.8) of the patients with rapid cycling versus 9.0% (95% CI, 4.4-15.9) of those with nonrapid cycling (P = 0.43). CONCLUSION: In contrast to reports of reduced effectiveness and increased mood conversion rates in patients with rapid cycling bipolar disorder taking antidepressants, we found greater effectiveness and similar hypomania rates during fluoxetine monotherapy in the patients with rapid cycling bipolar II depression versus those with nonrapid cycling bipolar II depression.

Amsterdam JD; Luo L; Shults J

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
61

Depression and metabolism: linking changes in leptin and ghrelin to mood.  

Science.gov (United States)

Major depressive disorder is associated with an elevated risk of numerous metabolic disturbances, including obesity, metabolic syndrome, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus type II, and death after myocardial infarction. Several recent papers also indicate that disturbances of mood may alter peripheral signaling pathways that regulate metabolic processes, including those involving leptin and ghrelin. PMID:20948621

Lutter, Michael; Elmquist, Joel

2009-08-26

62

Depression and metabolism: linking changes in leptin and ghrelin to mood.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Major depressive disorder is associated with an elevated risk of numerous metabolic disturbances, including obesity, metabolic syndrome, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus type II, and death after myocardial infarction. Several recent papers also indicate that disturbances of mood may alter peripheral signaling pathways that regulate metabolic processes, including those involving leptin and ghrelin.

Lutter M; Elmquist J

2009-01-01

63

Depression and metabolism: linking changes in leptin and ghrelin to mood  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Major depressive disorder is associated with an elevated risk of numerous metabolic disturbances, including obesity, metabolic syndrome, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus type II, and death after myocardial infarction. Several recent papers also indicate that disturbances of mood may alter periphe...

Lutter, Michael; Elmquist, Joel

64

A daily diary study of co-rumination, stressful life events, and depressed mood in late adolescents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this study was to extend the research on co-rumination and depressed mood by examining the impact of co-rumination on depressed mood on a daily basis while controlling for the effects of daily stress events in a sample of late adolescents. Two-hundred and seventy-nine predominantly Caucasian college students (95 male, 184 female) completed a baseline assessment as well as morning and evening online surveys for 7 days as part of a daily diary study. Baseline assessment measured co-rumination and depressive symptoms, whereas morning surveys measured depressed mood and evening surveys included questions about depressed mood, within-day co-rumination, and daily stressful life events. Data were analyzed using Multilevel Modeling due to the daily nature of the data. Women co-ruminated more than men on a daily basis. Daily co-rumination predicted within-day increases in depressed mood while controlling for stress. Baseline co-rumination moderated the relationship between daily stressful life events and depressed mood, but daily co-rumination did not moderate this relationship. Co-rumination with closest confidant is associated with within-day worsening of depressed mood. Future research should consider the impact of co-rumination with closest confidants in addition to same-sex best friend. Implications for treatment include active consideration and discussion of patient's coping and support-seeking behaviors and paying greater attention to the types of dialogue that occur within one's social support network.

White ME; Shih JH

2012-01-01

65

Lipid peroxidation and depressed mood in community-dwelling older men and women.  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been hypothesized that cellular damage caused by oxidative stress is associated with late-life depression but epidemiological evidence is limited. In the present study we evaluated the association between urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin F2? (8-iso-PGF2?), a biomarker of lipid peroxidation, and depressed mood in a large sample of community-dwelling older adults. Participants were selected from the Health, Aging and Body Composition study, a community-based longitudinal study of older persons (aged 70-79 years). The present analyses was based on a subsample of 1027 men and 948 women free of mobility disability. Urinary concentration of 8-iso-PGF2? was measured by radioimmunoassay methods and adjusted for urinary creatinine. Depressed mood was defined as a score greater than 5 on the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale and/or use of antidepressant medications. Depressed mood was present in 3.0% of men and 5.5% of women. Depressed men presented higher urinary concentrations of 8-iso-PGF2? than non-depressed men even after adjustment for multiple sociodemographic, lifestyle and health factors (p?=?0.03, Cohen's d?=?0.30). This association was not present in women (depressed status-by-sex interaction p?=?0.04). Our study showed that oxidative damage may be linked to depression in older men from a large sample of the general population. Further studies are needed to explore whether the modulation of oxidative stress may break down the link between late-life depression and its deleterious health consequences. PMID:23776478

Milaneschi, Yuri; Cesari, Matteo; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Kanaya, Alka M; Yaffe, Kristine; Patrignani, Paola; Metti, Andrea; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Pahor, Marco; Ferrucci, Luigi; Penninx, Brenda W J H

2013-06-11

66

Adolescent self-control predicts joint trajectories of marijuana use and depressive mood into young adulthood among urban African Americans and Puerto Ricans.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Previous studies have identified an association between depressive mood and marijuana use. We examined adolescent self-control as a predictor of membership in joint developmental trajectories of depressive mood and marijuana use from adolescence to young adulthood. Urban African Americans and Puerto Ricans (N = 838) were sampled when participants were on average 14, 19, 24, and 29 years old. Using growth mixture modeling, four joint trajectory groups of depressive mood and marijuana use were established: low marijuana use/low depressive mood, low marijuana use/intermediate depressive mood, high marijuana use/low depressive mood, and high marijuana use/high depressive mood. Weighted logistic regression analysis showed that self-control at age 14 distinguished the high marijuana use/high depressive mood group and the low marijuana use/low depressive mood group from each of the other groups. Findings show that the co-occurrence of high levels of marijuana use and depressive mood from adolescence into young adulthood is predicted by low levels of self-control in adolescence. On the other hand, high selfcontrol is associated with low marijuana use and low levels of depression over time. Thus, while deficits in self-control in adolescence constitute a significant risk for maladjustment over time, high self-control exerts a protective factor with regard to marijuana use and depressive mood into young adulthood.

Pahl K; Brook JS; Lee JY

2013-05-01

67

Changes in Allergy Symptoms and Depression Scores Are Positively Correlated In Patients With Recurrent Mood Disorders Exposed to Seasonal Peaks in Aeroallergens  

Science.gov (United States)

Although growing evidence supports an association between allergy, allergens and depression, it remains unknown if this relationship is between “states” (possible triggers) or “traits” (possible vulnerabilities). We hypothesized that patients with recurrent mood disorders who are sensitized to tree pollen (as determined by allergen specific IgE antibodies), in comparison to those who are not sensitized, would report larger negative changes in mood during exposure to tree pollen in spring. We also hypothesized that differences between high and low tree pollen periods in self reported allergy symptoms would correlate positively with differences in self reported depression scores. We present 1-year preliminary data on the first 51 patients with unipolar or bipolar disorder (age: 19-63 years, 65% female, twelve patients were tree-pollen IgE positive). Ratings of mood and allergic disease status were performed once during the peak airborne pollen counts and once during the period of low airborne pollen counts, as reported by two local pollen counting stations. Linear regression models were developed to examine associations of changes in depression scores (dependent variable) with tree pollen sensitization, changes in the allergy symptom severity score, adjusted for gender and order of testing. We did not confirm the hypothesized relationship between a specific tree pollen sensitization and changes in mood during tree pollen exposure. We did confirm the hypothesized positive relationship between the changes in allergy symptoms and changes in subjects' depression scores (adjusted p<0.05). This result is consistent with previous epidemiological evidence connecting allergy with depression, as well as our recent reports of increased expression of cytokines in the prefrontal cortex in victims of suicide and in experimental animals sensitized and exposed to tree pollen. A relationship between changes in allergy symptom scores and changes in depression scores supports a state-level rather than only trait-level relationship, and thus lends optimism to future causality-testing interventional studies, which might then lead to novel preventative environmental interventions in mood disorders.

Postolache, Teodor T.; Lapidus, Manana; Sander, Evan R.; Langenberg, Patricia; Hamilton, Robert G.; Soriano, Joseph J.; McDonald, Jessica S.; Furst, Nancy; Bai, Jie; Scrandis, Debra A.; Cabassa, Johanna A.; Stiller, John W.; Balis, Theodora; Guzman, Alvaro; Togias, Alkis; Tonelli, Leonardo H.

2007-01-01

68

Temper outbursts in paediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder and their association with depressed mood and treatment outcome.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Temper outbursts in youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are a common source of concern, but remain poorly understood. This study examined a set of hypotheses related to: (a) the prevalence of temper outbursts in paediatric OCD, (b) the associations of temper outbursts with OCD severity and depressive symptoms; and (c) the influence of temper outbursts on treatment response. METHODS: The prevalence of temper outbursts was estimated in a specialist OCD clinical sample (n = 387) using parent- and child-report. This was replicated in a community sample (n = 18,415). Associations of temper outbursts with obsessive-compulsive symptoms and with depressed mood were examined using logistic regression models. The influence of temper outbursts on treatment response was examined in a subsample of 109 patients treated with cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) with or without medication. RESULTS: Over a third of young people with OCD displayed temper outbursts, and rates were similar across the clinical and community samples. Temper outbursts were two to three times more common in youth with OCD than in healthy controls. However, OCD symptom severity was not a strong predictor of child- or parent-reported temper outbursts. Instead, both child- and parent- reported temper outbursts were significantly associated to depressive symptoms. CBT strongly reduced OCD and depressive symptoms, as well as the severity of temper outbursts. There was no significant difference in post-treatment OCD or depression scores between those with temper outbursts compared to those without. CONCLUSIONS: Temper outbursts are common in youth with OCD and are particularly related to depressed mood. They improve with CBT for OCD and do not seem to impede OCD treatment response.

Krebs G; Bolhuis K; Heyman I; Mataix-Cols D; Turner C; Stringaris A

2013-03-01

69

A prospective study of mental health care for comorbid depressed mood in older adults with painful osteoarthritis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Comorbid depression is common among adults with painful osteoarthritis (OA). We evaluated the relationship between depressed mood and receipt of mental health (MH) care services. METHODS: In a cohort with OA, annual interviews assessed comorbidity, arthritis severity, and MH (SF-36 mental health score). Surveys were linked to administrative health databases to identify mental health-related visits to physicians in the two years following the baseline interview (1996-98). Prescriptions for anti-depressants were ascertained for participants aged 65+ years (eligible for drug benefits). The relationship between MH scores and MH-related physician visits was assessed using zero-inflated negative binomial regression, adjusting for confounders. For those aged 65+ years, logistic regression examined the probability of receiving any MH-related care (physician visit or anti-depressant prescription). RESULTS: Analyses were based on 2,005 (90.1%) individuals (mean age 70.8 years). Of 576 (28.7%) with probable depression (MH score < 60/100), 42.5% experienced one or more MH-related physician visits during follow-up. The likelihood of a physician visit was associated with sex (adjusted OR women vs. men = 5.87, p = 0.005) and MH score (adjusted OR per 10-point decrease in MH score = 1.63, p = 0.003). Among those aged 65+, 56.7% with probable depression received any MH care. The likelihood of receiving any MH care exhibited a significant interaction between MH score and self-reported health status (p = 0.0009); with good general health, worsening MH was associated with increased likelihood of MH care; as general health declined, this effect was attenuated. CONCLUSIONS: Among older adults with painful OA, more than one-quarter had depressed mood, but almost half received no mental health care, suggesting a care gap.

Gleicher Y; Croxford R; Hochman J; Hawker G

2011-01-01

70

Depressed Mood and Body Weight: Exploring Race Differences in Adolescence  

Science.gov (United States)

Using data from the 1994-1998 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth merged Mother and Young Adult file, this article examines the relationship between depressive symptoms and body mass index (BMI) in adolescence. The authors also examine whether this relationship varies by race and gender. Their findings indicate that over a 4-year…

Kowaleski-Jones, Lori; Christie-Mizell, C. Andre

2010-01-01

71

The relationship between perceptions of politics and depressed mood at work: unique moderators across three levels.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The authors examined the unique moderating potential of need for achievement, perceived organizational support, and faith in management on the relationship between perceptions of politics across 3 hierarchical levels (one's peer level, 1 level up, and at the highest level in the organization) and depressed mood at work. Results from 173 full-time employees, representing a wide range of occupations, supported the hypotheses. Specifically, the authors found that need for achievement interacted with perceived politics at one's peer level, perceived organizational support interacted with perceived politics at 1 level up, and faith in management interacted with politics perceived at the highest levels in the organization to relate to depressed mood at work. Contributions of this study, strengths and limitations, and future research directions are provided.

Byrne ZS; Kacmar C; Stoner J; Hochwarter WA

2005-10-01

72

Symptom clusters of pain, depressed mood, and fatigue in lung cancer: assessing the role of cytokine genes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Symptom clusters, the multiple, co-occurring symptoms experienced by cancer patients, are debilitating and affects quality of life. We assessed if a panel of immune-response genes may underlie the co-occurrence of severe pain, depressed mood, and fatigue and help identify patients with severe versus non-severe symptom clusters. METHODS: Symptoms were assessed at presentation, prior to cancer treatment in 599 newly diagnosed lung cancer patients. We applied cluster analyses to determine the patients with severe versus non-severe symptom clusters of pain, depressed mood, and fatigue. RESULTS: Two homogenous clusters were identified. One hundred sixteen patients (19 %) comprised the severe symptom cluster, reporting high intensity of pain, depressed mood, and fatigue and 183 (30 %) patients reported low intensity of these symptoms. Using Bayesian model averaging methodology, we found that of the 55 single nucleotide polymorphisms assessed, an additive effect of mutant alleles in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (-1474 T/A) (posterior probability of inclusion (PPI)?=?0.78, odds ratio (OR)?=?0.54, 95 % credible interval (CI)?=?(0.31, 0.93)); IL1B T-31C (PPI?=?0.72, OR?=?0.55, 95 % CI?=?(0.31, 0.97)); TNFR2 Met(196)Arg (PPI?=?0.70, OR?=?1.85, 95 % CI?=?(1.03, 3.36)); PTGS2 exon 10+837T?>?C (PPI?=?0.69, OR?=?0.54, 95 % CI?=?(0.28, 0.99)); and IL10RB Lys(47)Glu (PPI?=?0.68; OR?=?1.74; 95 % CI?=?(1.04, 2.92)) were predictive for symptom clusters. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic polymorphisms may facilitate identification of high-risk patients and development of individualized symptom therapies.

Reyes-Gibby CC; Swartz MD; Yu X; Wu X; Yennurajalingam S; Anderson KO; Spitz MR; Shete S

2013-07-01

73

The examination of sport managers and coaches’ stress levels and depressed mood at work in Turkey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper is an investigation of stress levels and depressed mood at work in sport managers and coaches. Three different questionnaires were applied to professional sport managers (n=60) and coaches (n=52) in Turkey to regard to potential sources of stress before, during and after competitions. This sample represented approximately 21% of the total professional football, basketball and volleyball clubs in Turkey. The questionnaires used are “Perceived Stress Questionnaire”, “Anxiety-Stress Questionnaire” and “Depressed Mood at Work Questionnaire”. Our findings indicated that: The aim of first questionnaire was to assess perceived stressful situations and results show that general stress levels of managers and coaches are under the average. When we examine the second questionnaire consisting of health, physical condition, tension caused by stress; it is seen that negative effects of these factors increase. At last; according to the depressed mood at work questionnaire which evaluates the physiological conditions related to stress; it’s found out that both managers and coaches aren’t satisfied with their working atmosphere and managers’ unhappiness levels are higher than coaches are.

Bilge Donuk; Süleyman ?ahin; Faruk Yamaner

2013-01-01

74

Adolescent depressive symptoms as predictors of adult depression: moodiness or mood disorder?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The authors' goal was to examine the relationship between subclinical depressive symptoms in adolescence and major depressive episodes in adulthood. METHOD: An epidemiologic sample of 776 young people received psychiatric assessments in 1983, 1985, and 1992. Among adolescents not meeting criteria for major depression, the authors estimated the magnitude of the association between subclinical adolescent depressive symptoms and adult major depression. RESULTS: Symptoms of major depression in adolescence strongly predicted an adult episode of major depression: having depressive symptoms more than two-standard-deviations above the mean in number predicted a two-fold to three-fold greater risk for an adult major depressive episode. CONCLUSIONS: Symptoms of depression in adolescence strongly predict an episode of major depression in adulthood, even among adolescents without major depression.

Pine DS; Cohen E; Cohen P; Brook J

1999-01-01

75

Individual, family, social, and cultural predictors of depressed mood in former Soviet immigrant couples.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Gender differences in predictors of depression for married couples from the former Soviet Union were examined in a cross-sectional, descriptive analysis. Data were collected during a longitudinal study of post-migration health and adaptation. The sample included 308 men and women (154 couples), ages 40-79, who had lived in the US for an average of 6 years. Generativity, marital satisfaction and communication, social support, immigration challenges, and alienation were independent predictors of depressed mood. A gender interaction was found for generativity, indicating that diminished opportunities to guide the next generation and be productive members of society may have been more depressing for women. Interventions should attend to gender differences in developmental needs, reduce immigration-related challenges, and strengthen family and social support.

Miller AM; Sorokin O; Fogg L

2013-06-01

76

Individual, family, social, and cultural predictors of depressed mood in former Soviet immigrant couples.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gender differences in predictors of depression for married couples from the former Soviet Union were examined in a cross-sectional, descriptive analysis. Data were collected during a longitudinal study of post-migration health and adaptation. The sample included 308 men and women (154 couples), ages 40-79, who had lived in the US for an average of 6 years. Generativity, marital satisfaction and communication, social support, immigration challenges, and alienation were independent predictors of depressed mood. A gender interaction was found for generativity, indicating that diminished opportunities to guide the next generation and be productive members of society may have been more depressing for women. Interventions should attend to gender differences in developmental needs, reduce immigration-related challenges, and strengthen family and social support. PMID:23408500

Miller, Arlene M; Sorokin, Olga; Fogg, Louis

2013-02-13

77

Effects of sodium butyrate in animal models of mania and depression: implications as a new mood stabilizer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bipolar disorder is a severe mood disorder with high morbidity and mortality. Despite adequate treatment, patients continue to have recurrent mood episodes, residual symptoms, and functional impairment. Some preclinical studies have shown that histone deacetylase inhibitors may act on depressive-like and manic-like behaviors. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of sodium butyrate (SB) on behavioral changes in animal models of depression and mania. The animals were submitted to protocols of chronic mild stress or maternal deprivation for induction of depressive-like behaviors and subjected to amphetamine, or ouabain administration for induction of manic-like behaviors. SB reversed the depressive-like and manic-like behaviors evaluated in the animal models. From these results we can suggest that SB may be a potential mood stabilizer.

Resende WR; Valvassori SS; Réus GZ; Varela RB; Arent CO; Ribeiro KF; Bavaresco DV; Andersen ML; Zugno AI; Quevedo J

2013-08-01

78

Memory mood congruency phenomenon in bipolar I disorder and major depression disorder patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate memory performance in tasks with and without affective content (to confirm the mood congruency phenomenon) in acutely admitted patients with bipolar I disorder (BD) and major depression disorder (MDD) and in healthy participants. Seventy-eight participants (24 BD, 29 MDD, and 25 healthy controls) were evaluated. Three word lists were used as the memory task with affective content (positive, negative and indifferent). Psychiatric symptoms were also evaluated with rating scales (Young Mania Rating Scale for mania and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale for depression). Patients were selected during the first week of hospitalization. BD patients showed higher scores in the word span with positive tone than MDD patients and healthy controls (P = 0.002). No other difference was observed for tests with affective tone. MDD patients presented significantly lower scores in the Mini-Mental State Exam, logical memory test, visual recognition span, and digit span, while BD patients presented lower scores in the visual recognition test and digit span. Mood congruency effect was found for word span with positive tone among BD patients but no similar effect was observed among MDD patients for negative items. MDD patients presented more memory impairment than BD patients, but BD patients also showed memory impairment

V.B. Delgado; F. Kapczinski; M.L.F. Chaves

2012-01-01

79

Memory mood congruency phenomenon in bipolar I disorder and major depression disorder patients  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The objective of the present study was to evaluate memory performance in tasks with and without affective content (to confirm the mood congruency phenomenon) in acutely admitted patients with bipolar I disorder (BD) and major depression disorder (MDD) and in healthy participants. Seventy-eight participants (24 BD, 29 MDD, and 25 healthy controls) were evaluated. Three word lists were used as the memory task with affective content (positive, negative and indifferent). Psyc (more) hiatric symptoms were also evaluated with rating scales (Young Mania Rating Scale for mania and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale for depression). Patients were selected during the first week of hospitalization. BD patients showed higher scores in the word span with positive tone than MDD patients and healthy controls (P = 0.002). No other difference was observed for tests with affective tone. MDD patients presented significantly lower scores in the Mini-Mental State Exam, logical memory test, visual recognition span, and digit span, while BD patients presented lower scores in the visual recognition test and digit span. Mood congruency effect was found for word span with positive tone among BD patients but no similar effect was observed among MDD patients for negative items. MDD patients presented more memory impairment than BD patients, but BD patients also showed memory impairment

Delgado, V.B.; Kapczinski, F.; Chaves, M.L.F.

2012-09-01

80

Memory mood congruency phenomenon in bipolar I disorder and major depression disorder patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of the present study was to evaluate memory performance in tasks with and without affective content (to confirm the mood congruency phenomenon) in acutely admitted patients with bipolar I disorder (BD) and major depression disorder (MDD) and in healthy participants. Seventy-eight participants (24 BD, 29 MDD, and 25 healthy controls) were evaluated. Three word lists were used as the memory task with affective content (positive, negative and indifferent). Psychiatric symptoms were also evaluated with rating scales (Young Mania Rating Scale for mania and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale for depression). Patients were selected during the first week of hospitalization. BD patients showed higher scores in the word span with positive tone than MDD patients and healthy controls (P = 0.002). No other difference was observed for tests with affective tone. MDD patients presented significantly lower scores in the Mini-Mental State Exam, logical memory test, visual recognition span, and digit span, while BD patients presented lower scores in the visual recognition test and digit span. Mood congruency effect was found for word span with positive tone among BD patients but no similar effect was observed among MDD patients for negative items. MDD patients presented more memory impairment than BD patients, but BD patients also showed memory impairment.

Delgado VB; Kapczinski F; Chaves ML

2012-09-01

 
 
 
 
81

The role of Personality, Mood, Subjective Health, and Stress in Depressive Symptoms among High School Students  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Background and Objectives: Traditionally, depression among adolescents has been considered uncommon, with around 5% estimated to suffer from depressive disorder. The purpose is to investigate occurrence and psychological correlates for depressive symptoms in male and female high school adolescents in urban and rural settings. Methods: Participants were 1,069 high school students (response rate 92.0%) with a mean age of 17.6 years. The instruments used were the Zung Depres (more) sion Self-Rating Scale (SDS), Life Regard Index (LRI), the Neuroticism scale by Eysenck (EPQ-N), the Tension and Effort Stress Inventory (TESI), the Subjective Health Complaints scale (SHC), and the Sense of Humour Questionnaire (SHQ-6). Results: Analyzes of Variance showed sex and urban/rural main effects, and/or interactions (boys and rural students showing highest positive ratings). Stepwise regression analyzes on depression showed all but the TESI variables to significantly explain 41% of the variance in depression. The Sense of Humour and Life Regard Index were strong contributors to depression (55% of variation) when effects of bodily complaints and scores on stressors and efforts were eliminated. Conclusions: The present study showed an unexpectedly high prevalence of severe (12.7%) as well as moderate depressive symptoms (total of 49.2%). Therefore, the results indicate an increase of adolescent depression in recent years. Negative and positive mood, as well as sense of humour, goals in life, and fulfilment of goals seemed to be protecting. Prevalence of depressive symptoms in adolescents was shown to be higher than expected. Positive resource variables appeared to be protecting.

Gunnar Götestam, K.; Svebak, Sven; Naper Jensen, Eva

2008-09-01

82

Workaholism as a Risk Factor for Depressive Mood, Disabling Back Pain, and Sickness Absence  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives Although it is understood that work-related factors, including job demands, job control, and workplace support, are associated with workers' health and well-being, the role played by personal characteristics, especially workaholism, has not been fully investigated. This study examined workaholism's associations with psychological ill health, low back pain with disability, and sickness absence among Japanese workers. Methods A cross-sectional Internet survey was conducted using self-administered questionnaires. Data from 3,899 Japanese workers were analyzed. Workaholism was measured using the Dutch Workaholism Scale (DUWAS). Scores were divided into tertiles, where respondents were classified into three groups (high, middle, and low). Depressive mood as a measure of psychological ill health was assessed using the SF-36 mental health subscale, and low back pain using a standardized question. Sickness absence, except that due to physical injuries, was categorized either as absence due to mental health problems or to physical/somatic problems including the common cold. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the association between workaholism and depressive mood, low back pain with disability, and sickness absence, adjusting for demographic characteristics, job demand, job control, and workplace support. Results Compared to the low workaholism group, the middle and high workaholism groups had significantly higher odds for depressive mood (Odds ratio (OR)?=?1.93 and 3.62 for the middle and high groups, respectively), disabling back pain (ORs?=?1.36 and 1.77 for the middle and high groups, respectively). Workaholism was more strongly associated with sickness absence due to mental health problems than that for other reasons (ORs?=?1.76 vs. 1.21 for the middle group and 3.52 vs. 1.37 for the high groups). Conclusions Workaholism is significantly associated with poor psychological health, disabling back pain, and sickness absence, particularly from mental health problems. Therefore, workaholism must be considered when addressing well-being of workers.

Matsudaira, Ko; Shimazu, Akihito; Fujii, Tomoko; Kubota, Kazumi; Sawada, Takayuki; Kikuchi, Norimasa; Takahashi, Masaya

2013-01-01

83

Fahr’s disease with bipolar mood disorder presentation (Case report)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fahr’s disease is a progressive and idiopathic basal ganglia calcification with normal metabolism of calcium and phosphore with motor and psychiatric sings and symptoms. Dementi, chorea attetosise, psychosis and depression due to Fahr’s disease are frequently reported, but Fahr’s disease with bipolar mood disorder manifestation is very rare and we found only 3 cases in review of literature from 1995 to 2005. In this case report, a 21-years old girl is presented who was admitted to Sari-Zare psychiatric hospital for aggression, retlessness and insomnia. After mental status examination and paraclinical investigation, bipolar mood disorder due to Fahr’s disease was detected. To date no specific treatment was found for this disease. This point is importante that the patients with Fahr’s disease are sensitive to neuroleptic malignant syndrome.

P. Azari

2006-01-01

84

Association between lifestyle activity and depressed mood among home-dwelling older people: a community-based study in Japan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the community-based cross-sectional study, we investigated patterns of lifestyle activities among older people and examined the association between specific types of lifestyle activity and depressed mood status. The participants were 656 men and women aged 65 or older in 2004 who lived in a rural town in Japan, neither institutionalized nor hospitalized and who did not have symptoms of dementia. We found that less interaction with neighbors, society and friends was highly associated with depressed mood for men. Additionally, although they were physically active in gardening/farming, it did not necessarily mean that they were mentally healthy if they did not have close ties with friends, family and children/grandchildren. For women, it seemed important to engage in several types of activities relating to society, leisure and children/grandchildren to be in less depressed mood. Even if they were socially inactive, if they had frequent contact with family and children/grandchildren or going out for pleasure they were less likely to be depressed. Distinguishing gender differences in lifestyle activity patterns and the association of activities with depressed mood will help to guide the development of depression intervention programs.

Arai A; Ishida K; Tomimori M; Katsumata Y; Grove JS; Tamashiro H

2007-09-01

85

Does heterogeneity of depression diagnosis harm those with severe mood disorders?  

Science.gov (United States)

The range of symptoms and clinical syndromes subsumed under the rubric "depression" is remarkably large. It covers the lay use of the word to describe transient sad feelings on the one hand and a devastating biological illness on the other. In consequence, society has failed to grasp that severe mood disorders do, in fact, represent life-threatening medical illness. In the present article, we outline the major historical and contemporary contributors to the present misapprehension of this severe illness and discuss the serious consequences for diagnosis, treatment, and clinical research. We suggest potential categorical and terminological revisions to current formulations of the disease and emphasize that being severely ill involves much more than is subsumed by the term "depression". PMID:23679999

Snyder, Rebekah; Liebman, Lauren S; Simon, Asher B; Kellner, Charles H

2013-05-13

86

Does heterogeneity of depression diagnosis harm those with severe mood disorders?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The range of symptoms and clinical syndromes subsumed under the rubric "depression" is remarkably large. It covers the lay use of the word to describe transient sad feelings on the one hand and a devastating biological illness on the other. In consequence, society has failed to grasp that severe mood disorders do, in fact, represent life-threatening medical illness. In the present article, we outline the major historical and contemporary contributors to the present misapprehension of this severe illness and discuss the serious consequences for diagnosis, treatment, and clinical research. We suggest potential categorical and terminological revisions to current formulations of the disease and emphasize that being severely ill involves much more than is subsumed by the term "depression".

Snyder R; Liebman LS; Simon AB; Kellner CH

2013-08-01

87

A preliminary open trial of nefazodone added to mood stabilizers for bipolar depression.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Little information exists on the use of nefazodone to treat bipolar depression. We hypothesized that nefazodone added to a standard mood stabilizer would show significant antidepressant efficacy with minimal agitation or induction of mania, by virtue of its selective 5-HT(2A) blockade. METHODS: Thirteen DSM-IV pure depressed-phase nonpsychotic bipolar outpatients received an open-label 8-week pilot trial of flexibly dosed nefazodone (mean±SD peak dose=462.5±164.0mg/day) with a concurrent mood stabilizer or atypical antipsychotic. Primary outcomes included the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) and Clinical Global Impressions Severity Scale (CGI-S). RESULTS: All subjects completed at least 4 weeks of treatment, while 9 (69%) completed the 8-week protocol. Based on last observation point, 8 (62%) had at least a 50% reduction from baseline HAM-D scores. Significant improvement from baseline was observed in both HAM-D (z=2.05, p=.04) and CGI severity ratings (z=2.21, p=.03). Induction of mania occurred in 1 subject (7%). No subjects manifested clinical signs of hepatic failure, and none prematurely terminated the study due to other adverse events (most common side effects included fatigue, insomnia, nausea, or headache). LIMITATIONS: This was a small open-label pilot study with use of varied concomitant pharmacotherapies and no placebo comparator. CONCLUSIONS: While nefazodone is seldom used in clinical practice due to concerns about rare but severe hepatotoxicity, it may represent a model for postsynaptic 5HT(2A) antagonism that mechanistically could help to inform the development of future treatments for bipolar depression.

Goldberg JF

2013-01-01

88

Morning light therapy for juvenile depression and severe mood dysregulation: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of depression in young people is increasing. The predominant co-morbidities of juvenile depression include sleep disturbances and persistent problems with the sleep-wake rhythm, which have shown to influence treatment outcomes negatively. Severe mood dysregulation is another condition that includes depressive symptoms and problems with the sleep-wake rhythm. Patients with severe mood dysregulation show symptoms of depression, reduced need for sleep, and disturbances in circadian functioning which negatively affect both disorder-specific symptoms and daytime functioning. One approach to treating both depression and problems with the sleep-wake rhythm is the use of light therapy. Light therapy is now a standard therapy for ameliorating symptoms of seasonal affective disorder and depression in adults, but has not yet been investigated in children and adolescents. In this trial, the effects of 2 weeks of morning bright-light therapy on juvenile depression and severe mood dysregulation will be evaluated.Methods/design: A total of 60 patients with depression, aged between 12 and 18 years, in some cases presenting additional symptoms of affective dysregulation, will be included in this trial. Morning bright-light therapy will be implemented for 2 weeks (10 sessions of 45 minutes each), either with 'active' light (10,000 lux) or 'inactive' light (100 lux). A comprehensive test battery will be conducted before and after treatment and at follow-up 3 weeks later, to assess depression severity, sleep, and attention parameters. Melatonin levels will be measured by assessing the Dim Light Melatonin Onset. DISCUSSION: In this pilot study, the use of morning bright-light therapy for juvenile depression and severe mood dysregulation shall be evaluated and discussed.Trials registration: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN89305231.

Bogen S; Legenbauer T; Bogen T; Gest S; Jensch T; Schneider S; Holtmann M

2013-06-01

89

Resting and reactive frontal brain electrical activity (EEG) among a non-clinical sample of socially anxious adults: Does concurrent depressive mood matter?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Elliott A Beaton1, Louis A Schmidt2, Andrea R Ashbaugh2,5, Diane L Santesso2, Martin M Antony1,3,4, Randi E McCabe1,31Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; 2Department of Psychology, Neuroscience and Behaviour, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; 3Anxiety Treatment and Research Centre, St. Joseph’s Healthcare, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; 4Department of Psychology, Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; 5Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec, CanadaAbstract: A number of studies have noted that the pattern of resting frontal brain electrical activity (EEG) is related to individual differences in affective style in healthy infants, children, and adults and some clinical populations when symptoms are reduced or in remission. We measured self-reported trait shyness and sociability, concurrent depressive mood, and frontal brain electrical activity (EEG) at rest and in anticipation of a speech task in a non-clinical sample of healthy young adults selected for high and low social anxiety. Although the patterns of resting and reactive frontal EEG asymmetry did not distinguish among individual differences in social anxiety, the pattern of resting frontal EEG asymmetry was related to trait shyness after controlling for concurrent depressive mood. Individuals who reported a higher degree of shyness were likely to exhibit greater relative right frontal EEG activity at rest. However, trait shyness was not related to frontal EEG asymmetry measured during the speech-preparation task, even after controlling for concurrent depressive mood. These findings replicate and extend prior work on resting frontal EEG asymmetry and individual differences in affective style in adults. Findings also highlight the importance of considering concurrent emotional states of participants when examining psychophysiological correlates of personality.Keywords: social anxiety, shyness, sociability, depression, mood, frontal EEG alpha asymmetry

Elliott A Beaton; Louis A Schmidt; Andrea R Ashbaugh; Diane L Santesso; Martin M Antony; Randi E McCabe

2008-01-01

90

Depression, mood, stress, and Th1/Th2 immune balance in primary breast cancer patients undergoing classical massage therapy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Cancer patients frequently suffer from psychological comorbidities such as depression and elevated stress. Previous studies could demonstrate that cancer patients benefit from massage therapy on the physical and psychological level. This pilot study investigates the effects of massage on depression, mood, perceived stress, and the Th1/Th2 ratio in breast cancer patients. METHODS: Thirty-four breast cancer patients were randomly assigned to a massage group (n=17) and a control group (n=17). Patients of the massage group received two 30-min classical massages per week for 5 weeks. At baseline, at the end of the intervention period, and 6 weeks after the end of intervention, patients of both groups completed the Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ), the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ), and the Berlin Mood Questionnaire (BFS) and blood was withdrawn for determining cytokine concentrations and the Th1/Th2 ratio. RESULTS: Twenty-nine patients were included in the statistical analysis. Depression (PHQ) and anxious depression (BSF) were significantly reduced immediately after massage compared to the control group. Stress (PSQ) and elevated mood (BSF) did not show significant alterations after massage therapy. Changes of cytokine concentrations and Th1/Th2 ratio were insignificant as well, although there was a slight shift towards Th1 in the massage group over time. CONCLUSIONS: Massage therapy is an efficient treatment for reducing depression in breast cancer patients. Insignificant results concerning immunological parameters, stress, and mood indicate that further research is needed to determine psychological and immunological changes under massage therapy.

Krohn M; Listing M; Tjahjono G; Reisshauer A; Peters E; Klapp BF; Rauchfuss M

2011-09-01

91

Longitudinal Relationships Between Alzheimer Disease Progression and Psychosis, Depressed Mood, and Agitation/Aggression.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are prevalent in Alzheimer disease (AD) and are related to poor outcomes such as nursing home placement. No study has examined the impact of individual BPSD on dependence, a clinically important feature that reflects changing patient needs and their effect on caregivers. The current study characterized independent cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between three BPSD (psychosis, depressed mood, and agitation/aggression), cognition, and dependence to better understand the interplay between these symptoms over time. DESIGN: The Predictors Study measured changes in BPSD, cognition, and dependence every 6 months in patients with AD. Cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between individual BPSD, cognition, and dependence over 6 years were characterized by using multivariate latent growth curve modeling. This approach characterizes independent changes in multiple outcome measures over time. SETTING: Four memory clinics in the United States and Europe. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 517 patients with probable AD. MEASUREMENTS: Columbia University Scale for Psychopathology, modified Mini-Mental State Examination, and Dependence Scale. RESULTS: Both psychosis and depressed mood at study entry were associated with worse subsequent cognitive decline. Independent of cognitive decline, initial psychosis was associated with worse subsequent increases in dependence. Rates of increase in agitation/aggression separately correlated with rates of declines in both cognition and independence. CONCLUSIONS: Although purely observational, our findings support the poor prognosis associated with psychosis and depression in AD. Results also show that agitation/aggression tracks declines in cognition and independence independently over time. Targeted intervention for individual BPSD, particularly psychosis, could have broad effects not only on patient well-being but also on care costs and family burden.

Zahodne LB; Ornstein K; Cosentino S; Devanand DP; Stern Y

2013-07-01

92

Abnormal brain glucose metabolism and depressive mood in patients with pre-dialytic chronic kidney disease: SPM analysis of F-18 FDG positron emission tomography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between depressive mood and pre-dialytic CKD, to localize and quantify depressive mood -related lesions in pre-dialytic CKD patients through statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis of brain positron emission tomography (PET), and to examine the usefulness of brain PET for early detection and proper treatment of depressive mood. Twenty one patients with stage 5 CKD and 22 healthy volunteers were analyzed by depressive mood assessment and statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis of 18F-FDG PET. Depressive mood assessment was done by Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). The largest clusters were areas including precentral gyrus, prefrontal cortex, and anterior cingulated cortex of left hemisphere. Other clusters were left transverse temporal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus, right prefrontal cortex, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 46, 44), right inferior frontal gyrus, right inferior parietal lobule, left angular gyrus. In addition, correlation was found between hypometabolized areas and HDRS scores of CKD patients in right prefrontal cortex (BA 11) and right anterior cingulated gyrus (BA 24). In conclusion, this study demonstrated specific depressive mood-related abnormal metabolic lesion. Interestingly, in CKD patients with severe depressive mood, cerebral metabolism was similar to that of MDD.

2007-01-01

93

Academic exam stress and depressive mood are associated with reductions in exhaled nitric oxide in healthy individuals.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nitric oxide (NO) has beneficial effects on cardiovascular and immune health. Stress and depression have been linked to a reduction in serum NO. In this study, we examined the effect of academic exam stress on the fraction of NO in exhaled air (FeNO) and spirometric lung function in 41 healthy college students. Participants completed assessments at mid-semester as well as in the early and late phase of an academic exam period. Negative affect, depressive mood, and salivary cortisol were elevated during exams, whereas FeNO and lung function decreased. Higher depressive mood was associated with lower FeNO, whereas higher negative affect was associated higher FeNO across time. These findings provide initial evidence that depression and prolonged stress can alter FeNO and lung function in healthy individuals, which could have adverse consequences for cardiovascular, airway, and immune health.

Trueba AF; Smith NB; Auchus RJ; Ritz T

2013-04-01

94

Socioeconomic factors from midlife predict mobility limitation and depressed mood three decades later; findings from the AGES-Reykjavik Study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Taking into account our rapidly ageing population, older people are of particular interest in studying health inequalities. Most studies of older persons only include measures of current socioeconomic status (SES) and do not take into account data from earlier stages of life. In addition, only classic SES measures are used, while alternative measures, such as car ownership and house ownership, might equally well predict health. The present study aims to examine the effect of midlife socioeconomic factors on mobility limitation and depressed mood three decades later. METHODS: Data were from 4,809 men and women aged 33-65 years who participated in the Reykjavik Study (1967-1992) and who were re-examined in old age in the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility (AGES) -Reykjavik Study (2002-2006). RESULTS: Education and occupation predicted mobility limitation and depressed mood. Independently, home and car ownership and the availability of housing features predicted mobility limitation. Shortages of food in childhood and lack of a car in midlife predicted depressed mood. CONCLUSION: Socioeconomic factors from midlife and from childhood affect mobility limitation and depressed mood in old age. Prevention of health problems in old age should begin as early as midlife.

Groffen DA; Koster A; Bosma H; van den Akker M; Aspelund T; Siggeirsdóttir K; Kempen GI; van Eijk JT; Eiriksdottir G; Jónsson PV; Launer LJ; Gudnason V; Harris TB

2013-01-01

95

Pituitary gigantism presenting with depressive mood disorder and diabetic ketoacidosis in an Asian adolescent.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract Hyperglycemia is seldom described in young patients with pituitary gigantism. Here, we describe the case of a 17-year-old Taiwanese boy who developed depressive mood disorder and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) at the presentation of pituitary gigantism. The boy complained of lethargy and dysphoric mood in June 2008. He presented at the emergency department with epigastralgia and dyspnea in January 2009. Results of laboratory tests suggested type 1 diabetes mellitus with DKA. However, serum C-peptide level was normal on follow-up. Although he had no obvious features of acral enlargement, a high level of insulin-like growth factor 1 was detected, and a 75 g oral glucose suppression test showed no suppression of serum growth hormone levels. A pituitary macroadenoma was found on subsequent magnetic resonance imaging. The pituitary adenoma was surgically removed, followed by gamma-knife radiosurgery, and Sandostatin long-acting release treatment. He was then administered metformin, 500 mg twice daily, and to date, his serum glycohemoglobin has been <7%.

Kuo SF; Chuang WY; Ng S; Chen CH; Chang CN; Chou CH; Weng WC; Yeh CH; Lin JD

2013-05-01

96

Effects of a cognitive-behavioral self-help program on depressed mood for people with peripheral arterial disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of the present study was to examine whether a new low-cost psychological self-help intervention program with minimal coaching could be effective in improving depressed mood in people with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Thirteen persons with PAD and depressive symptoms participated in the self-help program, grounded in cognitive-behavioral therapy. They completed pre-test, post-test and follow-up questionnaires, including the PHQ-9, to measure symptoms of depression. To evaluate changes in depression scores from pre- to post-test to follow-up measurement, non-parametric repeated measures Wilcoxon signed rank tests were performed. The results showed that participants' depression scores significantly improved from pre-test to post-test and that there was no relapse from post-test to follow-up. The cognitive-behavioral self-help intervention could be an effective tool in people with PAD, to reduce symptoms of depression.

Garnefski N; Kraaij V; Wijers E; Hamming J

2013-06-01

97

Irritable mood in adult major depressive disorder: results from the world mental health surveys.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Although irritability is a core symptom of DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD) for youth but not adults, clinical studies find comparable rates of irritability between nonbipolar depressed adults and youth. Including irritability as a core symptom of adult MDD would allow detection of depression-equivalent syndromes with primary irritability hypothesized to be more common among males than females. We carried out a preliminary examination of this issue using cross-national community-based survey data from 21 countries in the World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys (n = 110,729). METHODS: The assessment of MDD in the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview includes one question about persistent irritability. We examined two expansions of the definition of MDD involving this question: (1) cases with dysphoria and/or anhedonia and exactly four of nine Criterion A symptoms plus irritability; and (2) cases with two or more weeks of irritability plus four or more other Criterion A MDD symptoms in the absence of dysphoria or anhedonia. RESULTS: Adding irritability as a tenth Criterion A symptom increased lifetime prevalence by 0.4% (from 11.2 to 11.6%). Adding episodes of persistent irritability increased prevalence by an additional 0.2%. Proportional prevalence increases were significantly higher, but nonetheless small, among males compared to females. Rates of severe role impairment were significantly lower among respondents with this irritable depression who did not meet conventional DSM-IV criteria than those with DSM-IV MDD. CONCLUSION: Although limited by the superficial assessment in this single question on irritability, results do not support expanding adult MDD criteria to include irritable mood.

Kovess-Masfety V; Alonso J; Angermeyer M; Bromet E; de Girolamo G; de Jonge P; Demyttenaere K; Florescu SE; Gruber MJ; Gureje O; Hu C; Huang Y; Karam EG; Jin R; Lépine JP; Levinson D; McLaughlin KA; Medina-Mora ME; O'Neill S; Ono Y; Posada-Villa JA; Sampson NA; Scott KM; Shahly V; Stein DJ; Viana MC; Zarkov Z; Kessler RC

2013-04-01

98

Mood reactivity rather than cognitive reactivity is predictive of depressive relapse: a randomized study with 5.5-year follow-up.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The current study examined whether cognitive reactivity, cognitive extremity reactivity, and mood reactivity following mood provocation predicted relapse in depression over 5.5 years. Additionally, this study was the 1st to examine whether changes in cognitive reactivity and mood reactivity following preventive cognitive therapy (PCT) mediated the preventive effect of PCT on relapse. METHOD: One hundred eighty-seven remitted recurrently depressed outpatients were randomized over treatment as usual (TAU) versus TAU + PCT with 5.5-year follow-up. Relapse in depression was assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (Spitzer, Williams, Gibbon, & First, 1990). RESULTS: Mood reactivity predicted time to relapse over 5.5 years. We found no evidence that cognitive reactivity was a risk factor for relapse in depression. Moreover, unprimed dysfunctional beliefs predicted relapse directly. There was no indication of mediation by changes in cognitive reactivity (including extremity of the beliefs and unprimed beliefs) or mood reactivity on the preventive effect of PCT. Further, explorative analyses revealed that increases in cognitive and mood reactivity over time also predicted time to relapse. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight a need to focus on mood reactivity instead of beliefs as a risk factor for relapse in depression. Similar to a previous study, we found no indications that cognitive therapy after remission reduced dysfunctional beliefs, cognitive reactivity, or extremity. Future studies should examine cognitive reactivity and mood reactivity in daily life as predictors of relapse.

van Rijsbergen GD; Bockting CL; Burger H; Spinhoven P; Koeter MW; Ruhé HG; Hollon SD; Schene AH

2013-06-01

99

[Multiple sclerosis and major depression resistant to treatment. Case of a patient with antidepressive therapy-induced mood disorder, associated with manic features  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Patients with multiple sclerosis show higher prevalence of psychiatric disorders compared to general population, that are hardly managed by pharmacotherapy. In the present report a female patient, 44 years old, with diagnosis (according to DSM-IV) of 340 multiple sclerosis, 296.32 major depressive disorder, recurrent, moderate, 292.84 antidepressant-induced mood disorder, with manic features, is described. In this patient depressive symptoms did not respond to a number of drugs, including tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonine re-uptake inhibitors hand lithium. Moreover, she had hypomanic and manic episodes induced by two different antidepressant, hydroxy-tryptophan and clorimipramine. Until today, only amisulpride (50 mg/die for four months, then 50 mg every two days for two months) has shown a significant effect on depressive symptomatology, moreover, this drug has not induced the occurrence of manic symptoms.

Pariante CM; Orrù MG; Carpiniello B; Rudas N

1995-06-01

100

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adults with bipolar disorder or major depressive disorder: results from the international mood disorders collaborative project.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Relatively few studies have evaluated the clinical implications of lifetime attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults with bipolar disorder or major depressive disorder (MDD). Herein, we sought to determine the prevalence as well as the demographic and clinical correlates of lifetime ADHD in persons with a mood disorder. METHOD: The first 399 patients enrolled in the International Mood Disorders Collaborative Project (IMDCP) were evaluated for lifetime ADHD using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview-Plus (MINI-Plus) as the primary instrument to derive current and lifetime DSM-IV diagnoses. All analyses of variables of interest were conducted utilizing the MINI-Plus, the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale-v1.1, and the Wender Utah Rating Scale-Short Form. The effect of ADHD on clinical presentation, course of illness variables, comorbidity, anamnesis, treatment, and outcome are reported. The IMDCP is a joint initiative of the Mood Disorders Psychopharmacology Unit at the University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, and the Cleveland Clinic Center for Mood Disorders Treatment and Research at Lutheran Hospital, Cleveland, Ohio. All data for this study were procured between January 2008 and January 2009. RESULTS: The percentages of subjects with MDD or bipolar disorder meeting the DSM-IV criteria for lifetime adult ADHD were 5.4% and 17.6% (P < .001), respectively. Lifetime comorbid ADHD in both mood disorder populations was associated with earlier age at illness onset (MDD, P = .049; bipolar disorder, P = .005), a higher number of psychiatric comorbidities (eg, MDD and current panic disorder with agoraphobia [P = .002]; bipolar disorder and social phobia [P = .012]), and decreased quality of life (MDD, P = .018). CONCLUSIONS: The overarching findings herein are that the adult ADHD phenotype is commonly reported by individuals with MDD or bipolar disorder and is associated with a greater illness burden and complexity.

McIntyre RS; Kennedy SH; Soczynska JK; Nguyen HT; Bilkey TS; Woldeyohannes HO; Nathanson JA; Joshi S; Cheng JS; Benson KM; Muzina DJ

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Effects of emotion recognition training on mood among individuals with high levels of depressive symptoms: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: We have developed a new paradigm that targets the recognition of facial expression of emotions. Here we report the protocol of a randomised controlled trial of the effects of emotion recognition training on mood in a sample of individuals with depressive symptoms over a 6-week follow-up period. METHODS/DESIGN: We will recruit 190 adults from the general population who report high levels of depressive symptoms (defined as a score ? 14 on the Beck Depression Inventory-II). Participants will attend a screening session and will be randomised to intervention or control procedures, repeated five times over consecutive days (Monday to Friday). A follow-up session will take place at end-of -treatment, 2-weeks and 6-weeks after training. Our primary study outcome will be depressive symptoms, Beck Depression Inventory- II (rated over the past two weeks). Our secondary outcomes are: depressive symptoms, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression; anxiety symptoms, Beck Anxiety Inventory (rated over the past month); positive affect, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (rated as 'how you feel right now'); negative affect, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (rated as 'how you feel right now'); emotion sensitivity, Emotion Recognition Task (test phase); approach motivation and persistence, the Fishing Game; and depressive interpretation bias, Scrambled Sentences Test. DISCUSSION: This study is of a novel cognitive bias modification technique that targets biases in emotional processing characteristic of depression, and can be delivered automatically via computer, Internet or Smartphone. It therefore has potential to be a valuable cost-effective adjunctive treatment for depression which may be used together with more traditional psychotherapy, cognitive-behavioural therapy and pharmacotherapy. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials: ISRCTN17767674.

Adams S; Penton-Voak IS; Harmer CJ; Holmes EA; Munafò MR

2013-01-01

102

Mood response to methylphenidate and the Dexamethasone Suppression Test as predictors of treatment response to zimelidine and lithium in major depression.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sixteen patients with a major depressive disorder underwent a Dexamethasone Suppression Test, and 15 of these patients were given intravenous methylphenidate and their mood response recorded. There was no association between the Dexamethasone Suppression Test and mood response to methylphenidate. Neither of these markers predicted clinical antidepressant response with zimelidine, although among zimelidine nonresponders, a clinical improvement upon the addition of lithium was predicted by a positive mood response to methylphenidate.

Joyce PR

1985-06-01

103

Mood response to methylphenidate and the Dexamethasone Suppression Test as predictors of treatment response to zimelidine and lithium in major depression.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sixteen patients with a major depressive disorder underwent a Dexamethasone Suppression Test, and 15 of these patients were given intravenous methylphenidate and their mood response recorded. There was no association between the Dexamethasone Suppression Test and mood response to methylphenidate. Neither of these markers predicted clinical antidepressant response with zimelidine, although among zimelidine nonresponders, a clinical improvement upon the addition of lithium was predicted by a positive mood response to methylphenidate. PMID:3158354

Joyce, P R

1985-06-01

104

Usefulness of the Spanish version of the mood disorder questionnaire for screening bipolar disorder in routine clinical practice in outpatients with major depression  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background According to some studies, almost 40% of depressive patients – half of them previously undetected – are diagnosed of bipolar II disorder when systematically assessed for hypomania. Thus, instruments for bipolar disorder screening are needed. The Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) is a self-reported questionnaire validated in Spanish in stable patients with a previously known diagnosis. The purpose of this study is to evaluate in the daily clinical practice the usefulness of the Spanish version of the MDQ in depressive patients. Methods Patients (n = 87) meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for a major depressive episode, not previously known as bipolar were included. The affective module of the Structured Clinical Interview (SCID) was used as gold standard. Results MDQ screened 24.1% of depressive patients as bipolar, vs. 12.6% according to SCID. For a cut-off point score of 7 positive answers, sensitivity was 72.7% (95% CI = 63.3 – 82.1) and specificity 82.9% (95% CI = 74.9–90.9). Likelihood ratio of positive and negative tests were 4,252 y 0,329 respectively. Limitations The small sample size reduced the power of the study to 62%. Conclusion Sensitivity and specificity of the MDQ were high for screening bipolar disorder in patients with major depression, and similar to the figures obtained in stable patients. This study confirms that MDQ is a useful instrument in the daily clinical assessment of depressive patients.

de Dios Consuelo; Ezquiaga Elena; García Aurelio; Montes José; Avedillo Caridad; Soler Begoña

2008-01-01

105

Criterion validity of the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire and one- and two-item depression screens in young adolescents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of short screening questionnaires may be a promising option for identifying children at risk for depression in a community setting. The objective of this study was to assess the validity of the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ) and one- and two-item screening instruments for depressive disorders in a school-based sample of young adolescents. Methods Participants were 521 sixth-grade students attending public middle schools. Child and parent versions of the SMFQ were administered to evaluate the child's depressive symptoms. The presence of any depressive disorder during the previous month was assessed using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC) as the criterion standard. First, we assessed the diagnostic accuracy of child, parent, and combined scores of the full 13-item SMFQ by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), sensitivity and specificity. The same approach was then used to evaluate the accuracy of a two-item scale consisting of only depressed mood and anhedonia items, and a single depressed mood item. Results The combined child + parent SMFQ score showed the highest accuracy (AUC = 0.86). Diagnostic accuracy was lower for child (AUC = 0.73) and parent (AUC = 0.74) SMFQ versions. Corresponding versions of one- and two-item screens had lower AUC estimates, but the combined versions of the brief screens each still showed moderate accuracy. Furthermore, child and combined versions of the two-item screen demonstrated higher sensitivity (although lower specificity) than either the one-item screen or the full SMFQ. Conclusions Under conditions where parents accompany children to screening settings (e.g. primary care), use of a child + parent version of the SMFQ is recommended. However, when parents are not available, and the cost of a false positive result is minimal, then a one- or two-item screen may be useful for initial identification of at-risk youth.

Rhew Isaac C; Simpson Kate; Tracy Melissa; Lymp James; McCauley Elizabeth; Tsuang Debby; Stoep Ann

2010-01-01

106

Web-Based Intervention for Postpartum Depression: Formative Research and Design of the MomMoodBooster Program.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Postpartum depression is a significant public health problem affecting approximately 13% of women. There is strong evidence supporting Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for successful psychosocial treatment. This treatment model combines cognitive and behavioral strategies to address pessimism, attributions for failure, low self-esteem, low engagement in pleasant activities, social withdrawal, anxiety, and low social support. Encouraging results have been reported for using Web-based CBT interventions for mental health domains, including the treatment of panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and complicated grief and depression. To date, however, Web-based interventions have not been used and evaluated specifically for the treatment of postpartum depression. OBJECTIVE: We describe the formative work that contributed to the development of our Web-based intervention for helping to ameliorate symptoms of postpartum depression, and the design and key components of the program. METHODS: A total of 17 focus group participants and 22 usability testers, who shared key characteristics with the participants of our planned feasibility study, took part. The proposed structure and ingredients of the program and mock-ups of selected webpages were presented to focus group participants. At various points, participants were asked a series of thought questions designed to elicit opinions and set the occasion for group discussion. At the end of the session, participants were asked to describe their overall reaction to the proposed features of the program emphasizing candid opinions about what they did not like and features they thought were missing and should be added. Usability testers were asked to interact with a series of seven different Web-based interactions planned for the program while receiving minimal direction. Each tester was asked to describe her thoughts using a think-aloud technique. They were then asked to consider all that they had learned about the program and complete the System Usability Scale that we adapted slightly to be appropriate for evaluating the proposed website. Transcripts from the focus groups and usability tests were reviewed by research team members for overarching themes with particular emphasis on suggested changes. A list emerged, and iterative and incremental adjustments were made as a result. RESULTS: The qualitative and quantitative data gathered in the focus groups and usability sessions reported here suggest that the new mothers involved had largely positive reactions to the major features of the program and that those program features performed well in terms of usability. CONCLUSIONS: An overview of the eventual design, architecture, and key program ingredients of the MomMoodBooster program is provided including innovative features supplementing 6 core CBT sessions, which include a partner's website, a library, and individual feedback by a personal coach.

Danaher BG; Milgrom J; Seeley JR; Stuart S; Schembri C; Tyler MS; Ericksen J; Lester W; Gemmill AW; Lewinsohn P

2012-01-01

107

The utility of Mood Disorder Questionnaire for the detection of bipolar diathesis in treatment-resistant depression.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Treatment-resistant depression is a heterogeneous entity. There are many variables associated with poor response to antidepressants, one of which is missed bipolarity. Therefore, the present study investigated the bipolar diathesis between patients with treatment-resistant (TR) depression and non-treatment-resistant (NTR) depression as assessed with the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ). METHOD: The population studied included 1051 patients diagnosed with single or recurrent major depressive disorder. They were classified into a non-treatment-resistant group (481 patients) and a treatment-resistant group (570 patients). The psychiatrist, using information from the patient's medical history, psychiatric examination and available documentation, assessed each eligible patient. The symptoms of bipolarity were additionally assessed by the Mood Disorder Questionnaire. RESULTS: A positive screen on the MDQ defined as endorsement of at least 6 of the 13 yes or no questions was an independent risk factor for treatment resistance.The total MDQ score was significantly higher in TR vs NTR (4.33 vs 2.66 points p<0.001) and the percentage of patients screened positive was significantly higher in TR than in NTR (13.7% vs 5.6% p<0.001). Factor analysis resulted in 2 factors with eigenvalues >1 explaining 91.5% of total variance. CONCLUSIONS: Using the MDQ scale we confirmed the association between bipolarity and worse response to antidepressant drugs in patients with major depressive disorder.

Kiejna A; Paw?owski T; Dudek D; Lojko D; Siwek M; Rocze? R; Rybakowski JK

2010-08-01

108

Correlations between regional cerebral blood flow and depression scale in the mood disorder. A study using 123I-IMP SPECT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was assessed on 26 mood disorder patients using 123I-iodoamphetamine and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and their correlations to depression scores of Hamilton's Rating Scale for Depression were studied. Region of interest (ROI) was established on coronary images and used as an indicator. As a result, left hemisphere was suspected of a primary lesion in mood disorder, however, the relationship between clinical symptoms and various lesion areas were not clarified. Further studies with neuropsychological loading or pharmaceutical loading such as antidepressant are thus expected to clarify the etiology of mood disorders. (S.Y.)

1995-01-01

109

Intelligence, temperament, and personality are related to over- or under-reporting of affective symptoms by patients with euthymic mood disorder.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Many patients with mood disorders report subjective indicators of depression that are inconsistent with clinicians' objective ratings. This study used the self-report Beck Depressive Inventory (BDI) and the observer-rated Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) to evaluate the extent to which temperament, personality traits, and clinical characteristics accounted for discrepancies between self-reports and clinician ratings of depressive symptoms in patients experiencing the euthymic period of a mood disorder. METHOD: The sample consisted of 100 individuals with bipolar disorder (n=72) or major depressive disorder (n=28). The HAMD and Young Mania Rating Scale were administered, and participants completed the BDI and Barratt Impulsivity Scale. Intelligence was assessed with the Korean Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. Patients completed the Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego Autoquestionnaire and the NEO-Five-Factor Inventory. RESULTS: The BDI and HAMD were significantly but modestly correlated with each other (r=0.319, p<0.001). Lower intelligence and a less conscientious personality were independent contributors to differences between Z-scores for the BDI and the HAMD. Higher impulsivity and a more anxious temperament were also observed in the group that self-reported more symptoms than were noted by clinicians. LIMITATIONS: Generalizability of results can be limited in ethnic difference. CONCLUSIONS: Subjective and objective assessments of the depressive symptoms of patients with mood disorders in a euthymic mood state are frequently discordant. Clinicians should consider the subjective aspects of depressive symptoms along with objective information about the influence of intelligence and personality on patients' self-reports.

Kim EY; Hwang SS; Lee NY; Kim SH; Lee HJ; Kim YS; Ahn YM

2013-06-01

110

Antidepressant, mood stabilizing and procognitive effects of very low dose sublingual ketamine in refractory unipolar and bipolar depression.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Intravenous ketamine (0.5 mg/kg) produces robust, rapid and long-lasting antidepressant effects, but is unpractical. Sublingual administration of ketamine renders better bioavailability (~30%) and less conversion to norketamine than oral administration. We evaluated the therapeutic effects and tolerability of very low dose sublingual (VLDS) racemic ketamine (10 mg from a 100 mg/ml solution for 5 min and swallowed), repeatedly administered every 2-3 d or weekly, in 26 out-patients with refractory unipolar or bipolar depression. According to patients' reports, VLDS ketamine produced rapid, clear and sustained effects, improving mood level and stability, cognition and sleep in 20 patients (77%), with only mild and transient light-headedness as a common side-effect (no euphoria, psychotic or dissociative symptoms). Remission remained in some patients after stopping ketamine. Thus, VLDS ketamine may have broad spectrum effects beyond its antidepressant properties, with rapid onset of action, high efficacy, good tolerability and low cost, allowing extended treatment as needed.

Lara DR; Bisol LW; Munari LR

2013-10-01

111

Oxytocin in postnatally depressed mothers: its influence on mood and expressed emotion.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Postnatal depression is common and negatively affects the mother-baby relationship; oxytocin has been found to have positive effects on parenting behavior. We hypothesize that intranasal administration of oxytocin to mothers with depression will influence their parenting related expressed emotion, creating a better basis for sensitive parenting. METHODS: Twenty-five postnatally depressed mothers with infants less than one year participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled within-subject clinical study in 2011. Mothers attended an out-patient perinatal psychiatry setting in NSW, Australia. They received 24 IU of oxytocin alternating with placebo approximately one week apart in random order, prior to completing outcome measures. The outcome measures were the Five Minute Speech Sample, the Self-Assessment Manikin and the Controlled Oral Word Association Test. RESULTS: In the oxytocin condition mothers were sadder (p=.01), and they more often initially described their babies as difficult (p=.038), but they reported that the quality of their relationship with their infant was more positive (p=.036). LIMITATIONS: Despite an adequate sample size to answer our central hypothesis, a larger sample may have elucidated a moderating effect of childhood trauma. CONCLUSION: Oxytocin did not make depressed mothers happier but their perception of the relationship with their baby improved. Treatment with intranasal oxytocin might show some unwanted side-effects in depressed individuals.

Mah BL; Van Ijzendoorn MH; Smith R; Bakermans-Kranenburg MJ

2013-01-01

112

Understanding Depression (For Parents)  

Science.gov (United States)

... or a child you know, seems depressed. About Depression Depression isn't just bad moods and occasional ... mood from depression to mania. Continue Causes of Depression Depression usually isn't caused by one event ...

113

Can Reporting Heterogeneity Explain Differences in Depressive Symptoms Across Europe?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Depression is one of the leading causes of disability in the developed world. Previous studies have shown varying depression prevalence rates between European countries, and also within countries, between socioeconomic groups. However, it is unclear whether these differences reflect true variations in prevalence or whether they are attributable to systematic differences in reporting styles (reporting heterogeneity) between countries and socioeconomic groups. In this study, we examine the prevalence of three depressive symptoms (mood, sleeping and concentration problems) and their association with educational level in 10 European countries, and examine whether these differences can be explained by differences in reporting styles. We use data from the first and second waves of the COMPARE study, comprising a sub-sample of 9,409 adults aged 50 and over in 10 European countries covered by the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe. We first use ordered probit models to estimate differences in the prevalence of self-reported depressive symptoms by country and education. We then use hierarchical ordered probit models to assess differences controlling for reporting heterogeneity. We find that depressive symptoms are most prevalent in Mediterranean and Eastern European countries, whereas Sweden and Denmark have the lowest prevalence. Lower educational level is associated with higher prevalence of depressive symptoms in all European regions, but this association is weaker in Northern European countries, and strong in Eastern European countries. Reporting heterogeneity does not explain these cross-national differences. Likewise, differences in depressive symptoms by educational level remain and in some regions increase after controlling for reporting heterogeneity. Our findings suggest that variations in depressive symptoms in Europe are not attributable to differences in reporting styles, but are instead likely to result from variations in the causes of depressive symptoms between countries and educational groups.

Kok R; Avendano M; Bago d'Uva T; Mackenbach J

2012-01-01

114

Lycanthropy in Depression: Case Report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  AbstractLycanthropy is a delusional belief by the patient considering himself or others transformed into wolf or other animals. The phenomenon of lycanthropy has been recognized since two thousand years ago and referred by various sources.The subject of this report was a young single male afflicted with stuttering from the age of 12. He has had some symptoms of depression since adolescence and recently developed lycanthropy syndrome. The subject diagnosed with depression along with lycanthropy syndrome (psychotic depression) received treatment with antipsychotic and antidep-ressant medications as well as individual psychotherapy. In a two-year evaluation, the pheno-menon of lycanthropy appeared remarkably less evident and the symptoms of depression were partially improved.

A. Moghaddas; M. Naseri

2004-01-01

115

Change in psychological control in visually impaired older adults over 2 years: role of functional ability and depressed mood.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: Objectives. The life-span theory of control is applied to study change in vision-specific control strategies in visually impaired older individuals, depending on performance in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and depressed mood. Method. Longitudinal data from visually impaired individuals (at baseline: N = 364; mean age = 82.8 years; visual acuity less than 20/60) measured at three occasions with 1-year intervals in-between were analyzed. A newly established vision-specific control scale to assess selective primary control (SPC), selective secondary control (SSC), compensatory primary control (CPC), and compensatory secondary control (CSC) was used. Linear and nonlinear (quadratic and piecewise) generalized mixed models with gamma response distribution to fit the skewed data were applied. RESULTS: CPC progressively increased as IADL capacity decreased up to a turning point, at which CPC plateaued, whereas all other strategies declined linearly with IADL decrease. Controlling for depressed mood did not change these relationships for CPC, SPC, and SSC but absorbed IADL-related decline of CSC. Higher depression was associated with less SPC, SSC, and CSC, but only slightly with less CPC. Discussion. IADL plays an important role triggering a shift in adaptational strategies from selective control to CPC in visually impaired older adults and possibly other disabled populations.

Schilling OK; Wahl HW; Boerner K; Reinhardt JP; Brennan-Ing M; Horowitz A

2013-09-01

116

Coping patterns and their relation to daily activity, worries, depressed mood, and pain intensity in acute whiplash-associated disorders.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: There is a lack of knowledge regarding how individuals with acute whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) appraise and cope with situation-specific stressors. PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to describe the daily process of coping reported in a daily coping assessment by individuals with acute WAD within 1 month after the accident. More specifically, profiles of coping strategies were identified and patterns between stressors, primary and secondary appraisals, and coping strategy profiles were described in relation to reported level of activity, worries, depressed mood and pain intensity during the day. METHOD: A descriptive and exploratory design was applied. Two hundred and twenty-nine whiplash-associated disorders-daily coping assessment (WAD-DCA) collected during seven consecutive days from 51 participants with acute WAD in Sweden, were included. Cluster analysis was used to obtain coping strategy profiles and data were graphically visualised as patterns through the coping process. RESULTS: When measuring coping as a daily process relating to the specific stressful situation, different coping process patterns appeared. During days with a high degree of physical and mental well-being, high self-efficacy beliefs seemed to be working as an important secondary appraisal, whereas during days with a low degree of physical and mental well-being primary appraisals of the stressor as a threat and catastrophic thoughts were present in the coping process. CONCLUSIONS: Early identification of situational- and individual-specific stressors, appraisals and coping efforts as measured by the WAD-DCA may contribute to the understanding of the coping process in the acute stage of WAD and its possible impact on recovery and adjustment.

Bring A; Bring J; Söderlund A; Wasteson E; Asenlöf P

2013-06-01

117

Part 2. The promise of symptom-targeted intervention to manage depression in dialysis patients: improving mood and quality of life outcomes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Practice Outcome Evaluation of using Symptom Targeted Intervention (STI) to manage depressed mood in dialysis patients reviewed social worker experiences and observations using STI. The evaluation was guided by the following questions: 1. What is the feasibility of STI in nephrology social work? 2. What is nephrology social worker comfort level with clinical assessment, intervention, and tracking? 3. What is the potential efficacy of STI on reducing depression? Initial results suggest that STI enhances existing nephrology social work skills in identifying, treating, and tracking outcomes of patient issues requiring clinical intervention. Most social workers spent 1.5 hours over a six-week period using STI techniques to address symptoms of depression with a patient. This rather short period of intervention led to a reported improvement in PCS and MCS scores of 51.6% and 61.3% of patients, respectively, and improvement in CES-D scores in 72.1% of patients. While this practice outcome evaluation is limited by how social workers were selected and the small number of patients, it demonstrates options for further study of the efficacy of STI in reducing depression. The brief time invested in training holds promise for impacting nephrology social work and improving patient and dialysis clinics' outcomes.

Sledge R; Aebel-Groesch K; McCool M; Johnstone S; Witten B; Contillo M; Hafner J

2011-06-01

118

Changes in mood, craving, and sleep during short-term abstinence reported by male cocaine addicts. A controlled, residential study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We examined changes over 28 days in mood states, craving for cocaine, and sleep during short-term abstinence reported by 12 male, predominantly intravenous-using, cocaine-addicted subjects residing in a research facility. For comparison, we examined 10 nonaddicted control subjects. There were no significant differences between cocaine addicts and controls regarding demographics and selected DSM-III-R diagnoses other than psychoactive substance use disorder and antisocial personality disorder. There were significantly higher scores of psychiatric symptoms reported by cocaine addicts 1 week before admission. Mood-distress and depression scores recorded at admission and during short-term abstinence were significantly greater than those reported by controls. Addicts' mood-distress scores and craving for cocaine were greatest at admission and decreased gradually and steadily during the 28-day study. There were no significant differences between groups regarding reports of sleep other than difficulty falling asleep and clearheadedness on arising. Although there were significant differences in resting heart rate at admission and over time, there were no significant differences in weight gain or blood pressure. Given the absence of a classic "withdrawal" pattern, "short-term abstinence" may be a more appropriate classification of psychological and physical phenomena experienced by cocaine addicts who initiate abstinence in a controlled environment.

Weddington WW; Brown BS; Haertzen CA; Cone EJ; Dax EM; Herning RI; Michaelson BS

1990-09-01

119

Depression in Alzheimer patients: discrepancies between patient and caregiver reports.  

Science.gov (United States)

Estimates of the prevalence of depression in dementia patients vary widely. One problem in accurate identification of such depression is determining whether to rely on demented patients' reports or second-party caregivers' reports of symptoms. To further explore this problem, 31 outpatients with probable Alzheimer disease and their 31 caregivers were interviewed separately with depressive symptom questionnaires. Caregivers reported more depressive symptoms in dementia patients than patients reported for themselves. Correlations between caregivers' and patients' reports of individual symptoms ranged between -0.23 to 0.76, with lowest correlations found for intrapsychic distress, cognitive impairment, and hallucinations. Patients' responses were not necessarily affected by stereotypic responding or severity of impairment, but patients appeared to under-report symptomatology. Caregivers' responses were associated with the extent of contact with the patients, familial relationship, and sources of information used to determine patients' mood but were not correlated with caregivers' depression or ratings of how they would feel if they were "in the patient's shoes." PMID:8305187

Moye, J; Robiner, W N; Mackenzie, T B

1993-01-01

120

Depression in Alzheimer patients: discrepancies between patient and caregiver reports.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Estimates of the prevalence of depression in dementia patients vary widely. One problem in accurate identification of such depression is determining whether to rely on demented patients' reports or second-party caregivers' reports of symptoms. To further explore this problem, 31 outpatients with probable Alzheimer disease and their 31 caregivers were interviewed separately with depressive symptom questionnaires. Caregivers reported more depressive symptoms in dementia patients than patients reported for themselves. Correlations between caregivers' and patients' reports of individual symptoms ranged between -0.23 to 0.76, with lowest correlations found for intrapsychic distress, cognitive impairment, and hallucinations. Patients' responses were not necessarily affected by stereotypic responding or severity of impairment, but patients appeared to under-report symptomatology. Caregivers' responses were associated with the extent of contact with the patients, familial relationship, and sources of information used to determine patients' mood but were not correlated with caregivers' depression or ratings of how they would feel if they were "in the patient's shoes."

Moye J; Robiner WN; Mackenzie TB

1993-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Mood stabilizer treatment increases serotonin type 1A receptor binding in bipolar depression.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abnormal serotonin type 1A (5-HT1A) receptor function and binding have been implicated in the pathophysiology of mood disorders. Preclinical studies have consistently shown that stress decreases the gene expression of 5-HT1A receptors in experimental animals, and that the associated increase in hormone secretion plays a crucial role in mediating this effect. Chronic administration of the mood stabilizers lithium and divalproex (valproate semisodium) reduces glucocorticoid signaling and function in the hippocampus. Lithium has further been shown to enhance 5-HT1A receptor function. To assess whether these effects translate to human subject with bipolar disorder (BD), positron emission tomography (PET) and [18F]trans-4-fluoro-N-(2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl) piperazino]-ethyl)-N-(2-pyridyl) cyclohexanecarboxamide ([(18)F]FCWAY) were used to acquire PET images of 5-HT1A receptor binding in 10 subjects with BD, before and after treatment with lithium or divalproex. Mean 5-HT1A binding potential (BPP) significantly increased following mood stabilizer treatment, most prominently in the mesiotemporal cortex (hippocampus plus amygdala). When mood state was also controlled for, treatment was associated with increases in BPP in widespread cortical areas. These preliminary findings are consistent with the hypothesis that these mood stabilizers enhance 5-HT1A receptor expression in BD, which may underscore an important component of these agents' mechanism of action.

Nugent AC; Carlson PJ; Bain EE; Eckelman W; Herscovitch P; Manji H; Zarate CA Jr; Drevets WC

2013-10-01

122

Assessment of mood: guides for clinicians.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: This article is one of the series of review articles aiming to present a convenient guideline for practicing clinicians in their selection of scales for clinical and research purposes. This article focuses on assessment scales for mood (depression, mania). METHODS: After reviewing the basic principles of clinical psychometrics, we present a selective review of representative scales measuring depressed or manic mood. RESULTS: We reviewed and reported on reliability, validity, interpretability, and feasibility of the following rating scales: Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), K6, Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II), and Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Self-Report (QIDS-SR) as self-report scales for depressed mood; Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) as clinician-administered measure for depression; and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) as a clinician-administered instrument for mania. CONCLUSION: Although the rating scales for mood represent a well-trodden terrain, this brief review of the most frequently used scales in the literature revealed there is still some room for improvement and for further research, especially with regard to their clinical interpretability.

Furukawa TA

2010-06-01

123

[Review of the new treatment guideline for major depressive disorder by the Japanese Society of Mood Disorders].  

Science.gov (United States)

The Japanese Society of Mood Disorders (JSMD) published the "Treatment Guideline II: Major Depressive Disorder, 2012 Ver. 1" on July 26, 2012. This guideline (GL) is the first one published by an academic society in Japan. Presently in Japan, many people have depressive symptoms, and the socioeconomic loss (suicide, absence from work, etc.) induced by this condition cannot be overlooked. Although the Japanese society, including mass media and psychiatrists, has attempted to solve this public problem, a solution has not been found. JSMD regarded diagnosis and psychiatric management of depression, among other factors, as the key to solving this problem. For example, patients who meet the DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD) criteria still have numerous subtypes, and they often have other psychiatric comorbidities that a diagnosis of MDD alone cannot detect. Although the process for differential diagnosis and treatment planning is indispensable, its methodology has not been necessarily shared even among psychiatrists until today. In this GL, considering the research evidence and its limitations, JSMD suggests necessary steps for appropriate information intake, diagnosis, therapeutic alliance formation, psychoeducation, and treatment modality choice in every phase (acute and continuation/maintenance). This GL also considers pharmaco-, psycho-, and electroconvulsive therapy for major depressive subtypes (mild, moderate/severe, and psychotic). Simultaneously, psychiatrists are required to be alert to the risk from diffuse and multiple prescription of benzodiazepine receptor agonists (dependence, deterioration of sleep apnea, cognitive decline, paradoxical reaction, etc.), especially barbiturates. This GL will be revised on the basis of public comments, including criticism. In the future, treatment GLs for comorbid patients, return-to-work cases, primary care physicians, psychiatric residents, and patients with depressions other than MDD (subthreshold depression, dysthymic disorder, and adaptation disorder) may be needed. PMID:23037606

Ogasawara, Kazuyoshi; Ozaki, Norio

2012-10-01

124

Comparison of four self-report measures and a generic mood question to screen for anxiety during pregnancy in English-speaking women.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Increasingly researchers and clinicians have called for perinatal mental health depression screening to be broadened to also screen for significant levels of anxiety. This study therefore aimed to compare the screening performance during pregnancy of four self-report anxiety measures, as well as a generic mood question. METHOD: The measures tested were two measures of general anxiety (the anxiety subscales of the Edinburgh Depression Scale and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), and two measures of pregnancy specific anxiety by Huizink and colleagues, and Rini and colleagues (both originally called the Pregnancy-Related Anxiety Questionnaire). A generic mood question (Matthey Generic Mood Question) asking about stress, anxiety, unhappiness or difficulty coping was also tested. Between 132 and 389 women completed these measures at their first antenatal clinic appointment and up to 249 women completed a diagnostic interview and various measures two weeks later. RESULTS: The generic mood question performed best, detecting between 58% and 87% of high scorers on the other measures, including 80% of the women with an anxiety disorder. The next best measure was the EDS anxiety subscale, detecting between 26% and 73% of high scorers on the other measures, though this only detected 54% of the women with an anxiety disorder. LIMITATIONS: Findings are only applicable to English-speaking women. In addition whether the findings can be applied to women later in their pregnancy, or postpartum, is not known. CONCLUSION: Services wishing to screen for not only possible depression but also possible anxiety should use the generic mood question. For those services which currently use the EDS we recommend they also score the three-item anxiety subscale.

Matthey S; Valenti B; Souter K; Ross-Hamid C

2013-06-01

125

Social isolation associated with depression: a case report of hikikomori.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Social isolation is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. A severe form of social isolation or social withdrawal, called hikikomori in Japan, has been described, but controversy over the etiology and universality of the phenomenon remains. METHOD: Case report. RESULTS: Diagnostic assessment by structured clinical interview and psychometric tools revealed hikikomori and underlying bipolar disorder, in which the patient's social withdrawal occurred exclusively during major depressive episodes. The patient declined pharmacotherapy, but his hikikomori and depression went into remission after 25 sessions of cognitive behavioural therapy targeting his social isolation. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first reported case of hikikomori in the Americas. It illustrates the association between hikikomori and a mood disorder, and suggests the importance of international study of the prevalence and potential treatment strategies for severe social isolation.

Teo AR

2013-06-01

126

Do mood disorders alter crying? A pilot investigation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Clinical commentators widely interpret crying as a sign of depressed mood. However, there is virtually no empirical data on this topic, and the evidence that mood disorders alter crying is surprisingly weak. This study compared mood disordered patients to a nonpsychiatric reference group on the frequency, antecedents, and consequences of crying behavior using a well-validated questionnaire measure of crying. Forty-four outpatients diagnosed with three forms of mood pathology were age and gender matched to a reference group of 132 participants sampled to be representative of the Dutch population. Both groups completed the Adult Crying Inventory, which provides estimates of the self-reported frequency, antecedents, and consequences of crying behavior. Depression severity and psychiatric symptom severity data were also collected from patients. Compared with the reference group, patients with mood pathology reported increased cry proneness to negative antecedents. By contrast, patients and controls did not differ in reported cry proneness to positive antecedents. Patients reported less mood improvement after crying than did controls. Among male patients, but not female patients, depression severity was associated with increased crying proneness and increased crying frequency. This pilot investigation suggests that mood disorders increase the frequency of negative emotional crying, and may also alter the functions of this behavior. Mood disorders may influence male crying to a greater extent than female crying. Future directions designed to clarify the causal pathways between mood disorders and alterations in crying behavior are discussed.

Rottenberg J; Cevaal A; Vingerhoets AJ

2008-01-01

127

Sexual orientation and self-reported mood disorder diagnosis among Canadian adults.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The prevalence and correlates of mood disorders among people who self-identify as lesbian, gay or bisexual (LGB) are not well understood. Therefore, the current analysis was undertaken to estimate the prevalence and correlates of self-reported mood disorders among a nationally representative sample of Canadian adults (ages 18 to 59 years). Stratified analyses by age and sex were also performed. METHODS: Using data from the 2007-2008 Canadian Community Health Survey, logistic regression techniques were used to determine whether sexual orientation was associated with self-reported mood disorders. RESULTS: Among respondents who identified as LGB, 17.1% self-reported having a current mood disorder while 6.9% of heterosexuals reported having a current mood disorder. After adjusting for potential confounders, LGB-respondents remained more likely to report mood disorder as compared to heterosexual respondents (AOR: 2.93; 95% CI: 2.55-3.37). Gay and bisexual males were at elevated odds of reporting mood disorders (3.48; 95% CI: 2.81-4.31), compared to heterosexual males. Young LGB respondents (ages 18-29) had higher odds (3.75; 95% CI: 2.96-4.74), compared to same-age heterosexuals. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate elevated prevalence of mood disorders among LGB survey respondents compared to heterosexual respondents. Interventions and programming are needed to promote the mental health and well being of people who identify as LGB, especially those who belong to particular subgroups (e.g., men who are gay or bisexual; young people who are LGB).

Pakula B; Shoveller JA

2013-01-01

128

Depressive symptoms among MSM who engage in bareback sex: does mood matter?  

Science.gov (United States)

Much research has examined the relationship between depressive symptoms and unprotected sex among men who have sex with men (MSM), but little is known about how depression is related to the sexual behavior of men who intentionally engage in unprotected anal intercourse, or bareback sex. In this study, we explored the extent to which depressive symptoms were associated with rates of unprotected sex among barebackers, and whether this relationship was dependent upon HIV serostatus. Using a sample of 120 MSM who engage in intentional condomless sex, we found that for HIV-negative participants, depressive symptoms were associated with the overall frequency of unprotected anal intercourse as well as unprotected anal intercourse with a serodiscordant partner. For HIV-positive participants, depressive symptoms were not associated unprotected intercourse. Additional research is needed to better understand depression among men who bareback and how interventions could be designed to address depression and reduce sexual risk behaviors. PMID:22323005

Houston, E; Sandfort, T; Dolezal, C; Carballo-Diéguez, A

2012-11-01

129

Depressive symptoms among MSM who engage in bareback sex: does mood matter?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Much research has examined the relationship between depressive symptoms and unprotected sex among men who have sex with men (MSM), but little is known about how depression is related to the sexual behavior of men who intentionally engage in unprotected anal intercourse, or bareback sex. In this study, we explored the extent to which depressive symptoms were associated with rates of unprotected sex among barebackers, and whether this relationship was dependent upon HIV serostatus. Using a sample of 120 MSM who engage in intentional condomless sex, we found that for HIV-negative participants, depressive symptoms were associated with the overall frequency of unprotected anal intercourse as well as unprotected anal intercourse with a serodiscordant partner. For HIV-positive participants, depressive symptoms were not associated unprotected intercourse. Additional research is needed to better understand depression among men who bareback and how interventions could be designed to address depression and reduce sexual risk behaviors.

Houston E; Sandfort T; Dolezal C; Carballo-Diéguez A

2012-11-01

130

A new US-UK diagnostic project: mood elevation and depression in first-year undergraduates at Oxford and Stanford universities.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate differences in prevalence of mood elevation, distress and depression among first-year undergraduates at Oxford and Stanford universities. METHOD: An online survey was sent to Oxford and Stanford first-year undergraduate students for two consecutive years in the winter of 2005 and 2006. Students completed a survey that assessed mood symptoms and medication use. RESULTS: Both universities had similar rates of distress by General Health Questionnaire (Oxford - 42.4%; Stanford - 38.3%), depression by Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (Oxford - 6.2%; Stanford - 6.6%), and psychotropic and non-psychotropic medication usage (psychotropic: Oxford - 1.5%; Stanford 3.5%; nonpsychotropic: Oxford - 13.3%; Stanford - 18%). Oxford had higher rates of mood elevation by Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) (Oxford - 4%; Stanford - 1.7%). CONCLUSION: Oxford and Stanford students have similar rates of mood distress, depression and general medication usage. Students at Oxford have a higher prevalence of MDQ scores that possibly indicate a bipolar disorder, while Stanford students are prescribed more psychotropics.

Chandler RA; Wang PW; Ketter TA; Goodwin GM

2008-07-01

131

Email-based promotion of self-help for subthreshold depression: Mood Memos randomised controlled trial.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Subthreshold depression is common, impairs functioning and increases the risk of major depression. Improving self-help coping strategies could help subthreshold depression and prevent major depression. AIMS: To test the effectiveness of an automated email-based campaign promoting self-help behaviours. METHOD: A randomised controlled trial was conducted through the website: www.moodmemos.com. Participants received automated emails twice weekly for 6 weeks containing advice about self-help strategies. Emails containing general information about depression served as a control. The principal outcome was depression symptom level on the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) (trial registration: ACTRN12609000925246). RESULTS: The study recruited 1326 adults with subthreshold depression. There was a small significant difference in depression symptoms at post-intervention, favouring the active group (d = 0.17, 95% CI 0.01-0.34). There was a lower, although non-significant, risk of major depression in the active group (number needed to treat (NNT) 25, 95% CI 11 to ? to NNT(harm) 57). CONCLUSIONS: Emails promoting self-help strategies were beneficial. Internet delivery of self-help messages affords a low-cost, easily disseminated and highly automated approach for indicated prevention of depression.

Morgan AJ; Jorm AF; Mackinnon AJ

2012-05-01

132

An attachment model of depression: integrating findings from the mood disorder laboratory.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper is written from a psychodynamic clinician's perspective, juxtaposing a psychoanalytic-attachment model of depression with recent developments in neuroscience. Three main components of the attachment approach are described: the role of loss, of childhood trauma predisposing to depression in later life, and failure of co-regulation of role of primitive emotions, such as fear, despair, and helplessness. Blatt's distinction between anaclitic and introjective depression is delineated and related to hyper- and de-activation of the attachment dynamic. Recent advances in evolutionary, sociological, epigenetic, biochemical, and neuro-imaging studies of depression are reviewed. A dynamic model of depression is proposed, linking interpersonal and intra-psychic perspectives with neuro-anatomical models. The final section of the paper considers the specific role of psychodynamic approaches to the treatment of refractory depression. These include length of treatment, capacity to rework implicit memories, and focus on transference and counter-transference.

Holmes J

2013-01-01

133

Mechanisms underlying REBT in mood disordered patients: predicting depression from the hybrid model of learning.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Jackson's (2005, 2008a) hybrid model of learning identifies a number of learning mechanisms that lead to the emergence and maintenance of the balance between rationality and irrationality. We test a general hypothesis that Jackson's model will predict depressive symptoms, such that poor learning is related to depression. We draw comparisons between Jackson's model and Ellis' (2004) Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy and Theory (REBT) and thereby provide a set of testable learning mechanisms potentially underlying REBT. METHODS AND RESULTS: Results from 80 patients diagnosed with depression completed the learning styles profiler (LSP; Jackson, 2005) and two measures of depression. Results provide support for the proposed model of learning and further evidence that low rationality is a key predictor of depression. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the hybrid model of learning has the potential to explain some of the learning and cognitive processes related to the development and maintenance of irrational beliefs and depression.

Jackson CJ; Izadikah Z; Oei TP

2012-06-01

134

[Depressives have the better view - the influence of mood on the recognition of emotional expression.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Objectives: There are different approaches to whether depressed people perceive their environment differently than nondepressed.We analyzed whether depressed patients show greater deficits in decoding emotional expressions than nondepressives. Methods: A sample of 52 depressed patients and a sample of 72 nondepressed persons were investigated as to their ability to identify emotionally laden facial expressions (computer-assisted presentation of photos). Results: Our results demonstrate significant differences between depressive patients and nondepressive persons in the ability to decode the emotional states of others. In four out of six tests the depressive persons achieved significantly better results. Conclusions: We suggest that these results can be interpreted as further evidence for the concept of depressive emotional realism.

Beck T; Mitmansgruber H; Kumnig M; Schüßler G

2013-01-01

135

Impact of group music therapy on the depression mood of college students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The goal of this study was to examine the effects of group music therapy on depression and mental health among college students. 80 students participated in this study, with 40 assigned to control group and other 40 assigned to experimental group. The results showed that after the group music therapy, for the experimental group, the depression scores have reduced significantly and the mental health scores have improved, while for the control group, no significant difference was obtained on the de-pression and mental health scores. This indicates that group music therapy can effectively reduce depression and improve mental health.

Jinliang Wang; Haizhen Wang; Dajun Zhang

2011-01-01

136

Do mood symptoms subdivide the schizophrenia phenotype? Association of the GMP6A gene with a depression subgroup.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetic studies of clinically defined subgroups of schizophrenia patients may reduce the phenotypic heterogeneity of schizophrenia and thus facilitate the identification of genes that confer risk to this disorder. Several latent class analyses have provided subgroups of psychotic disorders that show considerable consistency over these studies. The presence or absence of mood symptoms was found to contribute most to the delineations of these subgroups. In this study we used six previously published subtypes of psychosis derived from latent class analysis of a large sample of psychosis patients. In 280 schizophrenia patients and 525 healthy controls we investigated the associations of these subgroups with myelin related genes. After bonferroni correction we found an association of the glycoprotein M6A gene (GPM6A) with the subgroup of schizophrenia patients with high levels of depression (P-corrected = 0.006). Borderline association of the microtubulin associated protein tau (MAPT) with a primarily non-affective group of schizophrenia patients (P-corrected = 0.052) was also observed. GPM6A modulates the influence of stress on the hippocampus in animals. Thus our findings could suggest that GMP6A plays a role in the stress-induced hippocampal alterations that are found in psychiatric disorders in general and schizophrenia in particular. Overall, these finding suggests that investigating subgroups of schizophrenia based symptoms profile and particularly mood symptoms can facilitate genetic studies of schizophrenia. PMID:18163405

Boks, Marco P M; Hoogendoorn, Mechteld; Jungerius, Bart J; Bakker, Steven C; Sommer, Iris E; Sinke, Richard J; Ophoff, Roel A; Kahn, René S

2008-09-01

137

Severe Depressive Mood Changes Following Slow-release Intramuscular Fluphenazine Injection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sixteen patients in whom schizophrenia was initially diagnosed and who were treated with fluphenazine enanthate or decanoate developed severe depression for a short period after the injection. In five cases this depression is thought to have been responsible for suicide. In 8 out of 10 cases the dep...

de Alarcon, R.; Carney, M. W. P.

138

Chronobiology and Mood Disorders  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Living organizms show cyclic rhythmicity in a variety of physiological, hormonal, behavioral, and psychological processes. Sleep-wake cycles, body temperature, hormone levels, mood and cognition display a circadian rhythm in humans. Delays, advances or desynchronizations of circadian rhythm are known to be strongly associated with mental illness especially mood disorders such as bipolar disorder, major depression and seasonal affective disorder. Furthermore, some of the mood stabilizers, sleep deprivation and light treatment are employed to treat mood disorders by shifting circadian rhythm. This paper reviews the relationship between mood disorders and circadian rhythm, and describes treatment options by altering circadian rhythm.

Yavuz Selvi; Lutfullah Besiroglu; Adem Aydin

2011-01-01

139

The 5HTT and MAO-A polymorphisms associate with depressive mood and climacteric symptoms in postmenopausal women.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the influence of the 44-bp polymorphism in the 5HTTLPR (SLC 6A4) (serotonin-transporter-linked polymorphic region, solute carrier family 6 member 4) promoter region and the 30-bpVNTR (variable number of tandem repeats) polymorphism in the MAO-A (monoamine oxidase A) promoter region on the prevalence of depressive mood and the severity of climacteric symptoms in postmenopausal women. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study involved 630 women from northern Poland who had their last menstrual period at least one year before the study. The women did not abuse alcohol or cigarettes, had not been diagnosed as having endocrinological, cancerous or mental diseases, and had not received psychiatric treatment by the time. This survey-based study was performed using the following research instruments: the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), to evaluate depressive symptoms, and the Blatt-Kupperman Menopausal Index, to measure the severity of climacteric symptoms. RESULTS: The average age of the women was 57.5 ± 6.4 years. Depressive symptoms of different severity according to the BDI were diagnosed in 29.2% of the women (minor-18.6%, moderate-7.1%, severe-3.5%) and according to the Blatt-Kupperman Menopausal Index were diagnosed in 42% of the women (minor-24.1%, moderate-9.2%, severe-8.7%). Allele 'l' was significantly more common in the women without climacteric symptoms than those with minor, moderate or severe climacteric complaints (p ? 0.05). There was a significant correlation between the severity of climacteric and depressive symptoms (p ? 0.05). The women who had severe climacteric symptoms also had more severe depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: 1. The 5HTTLPR gene polymorphism contributes to climacteric symptoms in postmenopausal women. 2. The Blatt-Kupperman Menopausal Index is an instrument which can not only be used for the measurement of the severity of climacteric symptoms but also the early detection of perimenopausal women at the risk of developing depressive symptoms.

Grochans E; Grzywacz A; Jurczak A; Samochowiec A; Karakiewicz B; Brodowska A; Starczewski A; Samochowiec J

2013-08-01

140

Protocol for a randomised controlled trial investigating self-help email messages for sub-threshold depression: the Mood Memos study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Sub-threshold depression is common, impairs functioning, and increases the risk of developing major depression. Although psychological treatments have been investigated for sub-threshold depression, they are costly. A less costly alternative could be an educational health promotion campaign about effective self-help for depression symptoms. The aim of the study is to test the efficacy of a low-cost email-based mental health promotion campaign in changing self-help behaviour and preventing more severe depression in adults with sub-threshold depression. METHODS/DESIGN: The project is a randomised controlled trial of an automated preventive email-intervention aimed at people with sub-threshold depression. Adults aged 18+ with sub-threshold depression (as measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9), who are not already receiving professional treatment for depression, are eligible for admission to the study. Internet users will sign up via the study website http://www.moodmemos.com and be randomly allocated to receive emails twice weekly for six weeks containing either self-help coping advice or general information about depression as a control. Outcomes will be assessed at the start, midpoint, and end of the intervention, as well as six months later. Outcomes assessed include symptoms, incidence of major depression, psychological distress, social and occupational functioning, coping strategies, and coping self-efficacy. The primary hypothesis is that the Mood Memo emails containing coping strategies will reduce depression symptoms and be better at preventing major depression than the control emails that contain general information about depression. DISCUSSION: Promotion of actions an individual can take to prevent physical disease is a technique often used in public health. This study applies this approach to mental health, and explores whether a low-cost, easily disseminated email-based campaign can improve self-help coping behaviour and prevent depression in adults with sub-threshold depression. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR): ACTRN12609000925246.

Morgan AJ; Jorm AF; Mackinnon AJ

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

The Effect of Eight Weeks of Aerobic Training on Reducing Mood Disorders, Depression And Mania in High School Students High School Boys  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to consider the effect of eight weeks of aerobic training on the reduction of mood disorders, depression and mania in boys' high school in Ilam-Iran. This was a quasi-experimental and field research taking the experimental and control groups into consideration. In this study, 60 students were randomly selected as the sample. In order to measure students' Depression and mania, multifaceted Minnesota questionnaire (MMPI-2) and depression and mania sub-scales were used. We applied both descriptive and inferential statistics using SPSS software for statistical analysis of data. The results showed that eight weeks of aerobic exercise had a significant effect on students` depressive disorders and mania. Eight weeks of aerobic exercise reduced depression and mania in experimental group of students.

Mohsen Piri; Shirin Zardoshtian; Shahrzad Khazaee; Roghieh Piri

2012-01-01

142

Subjective experience of depressed mood among medical students at the University of Pretoria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

INTRODUCTION: Following the suicide of a 4th-year medical student, questions were raised as to whether medical students are more vulnerable to depression and suicide than their counterparts studying other courses at the University of Pretoria. A literature search revealed that medical students and d...

Van Niekerk, L.; Viljoen, A.J.; Rischbieter, P.; Scribante, L.

143

Toxoplasma seropositivity and depression: a case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between toxoplasmosis and psychiatric disorders has been reported in a few anecdotal reports. Case Presentation A case of depression with toxoplasma seropositivity is presented. The patient with depression showed poor response to antidepressants, for which he was investigated and was found positive on the serological test for the toxoplasma. The response to antidepressant treatment improved only after adequate treatment for toxoplasma. Conclusions The case suggests a probable association between toxoplasmosis and depression.

Kar Nilamadhab; Misra Baikunthanath

2004-01-01

144

Estimated 1 in 10 U.S. Adults Report Depression  

Science.gov (United States)

... An Estimated 1 in 10 U.S. Adults Report Depression Depression affects many Americans at different levels. Learn how ... work with health providers to treat and monitor depression. Depression is a mental illness that can be ...

145

Effects of mood and rumination on cortisol levels in daily life: An ambulatory assessment study in remitted depressed patients and healthy controls.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of naturally occurring emotional and cognitive experiences on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) activity is still underinvestigated, particularly in clinical populations. The present study examined effects of mood and rumination on cortisol levels in daily life in remitted depressed patients with recurrent episodes or a chronic precourse (n=31) and healthy controls (n=32). Ambulatory assessment of subjective variables (valence, calmness, energetic-arousal, ruminative self-focus), daily stressors, and saliva cortisol samples was performed five times a day on two consecutive workdays, whereby cortisol was collected 20min after the subjective assessments. In addition, depressive symptoms and trait rumination (brooding, reflection) were measured retrospectively. Multilevel models revealed that remitted depressed patients showed lower cortisol activity compared to healthy controls. Depressive symptoms and trait rumination did not predict HPAA activity, whereas, by controlling for daily stressors, higher daily means of ruminative self-focus and lower daily means of valence, energetic arousal and calmness were associated with higher daily cortisol levels. Separate analyses per group revealed that mean daily ruminative self-focus predicted higher cortisol in both samples. In contrast, lower daily means of calmness, but also of valence and energetic arousal, were significantly linked to higher cortisol output only in healthy controls, but not in the patient sample. These findings indicate that naturally occurring rumination and low mood are associated with increased activation of the HPAA in daily life. Moreover, our data revealed a potentially reduced mood-cortisol coupling in remitted recurrent depression, possibly indicating that during the course of recurrent depression HPAA activation might become less responsive toward subtle emotional experiences in natural contexts. PMID:23684479

Huffziger, Silke; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich; Zamoscik, Vera; Reinhard, Iris; Kirsch, Peter; Kuehner, Christine

2013-05-17

146

Coenzyme Q10 effects on creatine kinase activity and mood in geriatric bipolar depression.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Despite the prevalence, associated comorbidities, and functional consequences of bipolar depression (BPD), underlying disease mechanisms remain unclear. Published studies of individuals with bipolar disorder implicate abnormalities in cellular energy metabolism. This study tests the hypotheses that the forward rate constant (k(for)) of creatine kinase (CK) is altered in older adults with BPD and that CoEnzyme Q10 (CoQ10), known to have properties that enhance mitochondrial function, increases k(for) in elderly individuals with BPD treated with CoQ10 compared with untreated age- and sex-matched controls. METHODS: Ten older adults (ages 55 and above) with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition [DSM IV]) bipolar disorder, current episode depressed and 8 older controls underwent two 4 Tesla (31)Phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31)PMRS) scans 8 weeks apart using a magnetization transfer (MT) acquisition scheme to calculate k(for). The BPD group was treated with open-label CoEnzyme Q10 400 mg/d titrated up by 400 mg/d every 2 weeks to a maximum of 1200 mg/d. The Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) was used to measure depression symptom severity. Baseline k(for) and changes in k(for) were compared between individuals with BPD and controls, not receiving CoQ. Clinical ratings were compared across time and associated with k(for) changes using repeated measures linear regression. RESULTS: The k(for) of CK was nonsignificantly lower for BPD than healthy controls at baseline (BPD mean (standard deviation [SD]) = 0.19 (0.02), control mean (SD) = 0.20 (0.02), Wilcoxon rank sum exact P = .40). The k(for) for both CoQ10-treated BPD and controls increased after 8 weeks (mean increase (SD) = 0.03 (0.04), Wilcoxon signed rank exact P = .01), with no significant difference in 8-week changes between groups (BPD mean change (SD) = 0.03 (0.03), control mean change (SD) = 0.03 (0.05), Wilcoxon rank sum exact P = .91). In an exploratory analysis, depression severity decreased with CoQ10 treatment in the group with BPD (F (3,7) = 4.87, P = .04) with significant reductions in the MADRS at weeks 2 (t (9) = -2.40, P = .04) and 4 (t (9) = -3.80, P = .004). CONCLUSIONS: This study employing the novel MRS technique of MT did not demonstrate significance between group differences in the k(for) of CK but did observe a trend that would require confirmation in a larger study. An exploratory analysis suggested a reduction in depression symptom severity during treatment with high-dose CoEnzyme Q10 for older adults with BPD. Further studies exploring alterations of high-energy phosphate metabolites in geriatric BPD and efficacy studies of CoQ10 in a randomized controlled trial are both warranted.

Forester BP; Zuo CS; Ravichandran C; Harper DG; Du F; Kim S; Cohen BM; Renshaw PF

2012-03-01

147

Short-term social isolation induces depressive-like behaviour and reinstates the retrieval of an aversive task: mood-congruent memory in male mice?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Although mood-congruent memory (MCM), or the tendency to recall information consistent with one's mood, is a robust phenomenon in human depression, to our knowledge, it has never been demonstrated in animals. METHODS: Mice were subjected to social isolation (SI) or crowding for 12 hours and had their depressive-like behaviour (evaluated by the forced swim, tail suspension, sucrose preference and splash tests) or their serum corticosterone concentrations evaluated. In addition, we determined the temporal forgetting curve of the plus-maze discriminative avoidance task (PM-DAT) and examined the effects of SI or crowding on memory retrieval in the PM-DAT. Finally, we verified the effects of metyrapone pretreatment on reinstatement of memory retrieval or on the increase of corticosterone levels induced by SI. RESULTS: Twelve hours of SI produced depressive-like behaviour, enhanced corticosterone concentration and reinstated retrieval of a forgotten discriminative aversive (i.e., negatively valenced) task. Depressive-like behaviour was critical for this facilitative effect of SI because 12 hours of crowding neither induced depressive-like behaviour nor enhanced retrieval, although it increased corticosterone levels at the same magnitude as SI. However, corticosterone increase was a necessary condition for MCM in mice, in that the corticosterone synthesis inhibitor metyrapone abolished SI-induced retrieval reinstatement. LIMITATIONS: Our study did not investigate the effects of the social manipulations proposed here in a positively valenced task. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, the present paper provides the first evidence of MCM in animal models.

Takatsu-Coleman AL; Patti CL; Zanin KA; Zager A; Carvalho RC; Borçoi AR; Ceccon LM; Berro LF; Tufik S; Andersen ML; Frussa-Filho R

2013-07-01

148

Screening for bipolar disorder with the Mood Disorders Questionnaire in patients diagnosed as major depressive disorder - the experience in China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BD) is often misdiagnosed as a major depressive disorder (MDD). This study aimed to test the usefulness of the screening tool, the Mood Disorders Questionnaire (MDQ), to identify BD patients misdiagnosed as MDD in Chinese clinical settings. METHODS: A total of 1487 patients treated for MDD were consecutively examined in 13 mental health centers in China. The patients' socio-demographic and clinical characteristics were recorded using a standardized protocol and data collection procedure. The MDQ was completed by patients to identify symptoms characteristic of BD. DSM-IV diagnoses were established using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). RESULTS: Three hundred-nine of the 1487 patients (20.8%) satisfied DSM-IV criteria for BD; 118 (7.9%) for BD-I and 191 (12.8%) for BD-II on the MINI. The optimal cut-off point on the MDQ to differentiate BD from MDD was 3, while cut-off points of 5 and 3 differentiated BD-I and BD-II from MDD, respectively. The maximum sensitivity was 0.31, 0.45 and 0.22 for differentiating BD, BD-I and BD-II from MDD, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The optimal cutoff points of the MDQ for screening BD in Chinese patients originally diagnosed as MDD were considerably lower than those in earlier studies. The routine clinical use of the MDQ as a screening scale for BD in Chinese patients treated for MDD does not seem to be justified.

Hu C; Xiang YT; Wang G; Ungvari GS; Dickerson FB; Kilbourne AM; Lai KY; Si TM; Fang YR; Lu Z; Yang HC; Hu J; Chen ZY; Huang Y; Sun J; Wang XP; Li HC; Zhang JB; Chiu HF

2012-12-01

149

Energy under-reporting in adults with mood disorders: prevalence and associated factors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Little is known about relationships of energy under-reporting in mental health populations. Using data from a sample of individuals with mood disorders (n = 97), demographic, food intake and body-related, psychological, lifestyle, and condition-specific factors were examined in relationship to energy under-reporting. More than two-thirds (70 %) were considered under-reporters based on Goldberg's classifications. Differences were found between energy under-reporters and accurate reporters for diet quality, sex, body mass index (BMI), weight change after taking psychiatric medications, and for those taking mood stabilizers (all p's < 0.05). Regression analyses indicated there was lower prevalence of under-reporting as diet quality improved, if individuals experienced weight change after taking psychiatric medication, or were females (p < 0.05). The prevalence of under-reporting was more than 1.3 times in those taking mood stabilizers versus those not taking this psychiatric medication [Prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.30, 95 % CI 1.01-1.66, p < 0.05]. Further research of under-reporting in mental health populations will enable targeted approaches to improve accuracy of diet reporting and inferences made about nutrition and mental health.

Davison KM

2013-09-01

150

Statistical parametric mapping analysis of the relationship between regional cerebral blood flow and symptom clusters of the depressive mood in patients with pre-dialytic chronic kidney disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and symptom clusters of depressive mood in pre-dialytic chronic kidney disease (CKD). Twenty-seven patients with stage 4-5 CKD were subjected to statistical parametric mapping analysis of brain single-photon emission computed tomography. Correlation analyses between separate symptom clusters of depressive mood and rCBF were done. The first factor (depressive mood) was negatively correlated with rCBF in the right insula, posterior cingulate gyrus, and left superior temporal gyrus, and positively correlated with rCBF in the left fusiform gyrus. The second factor (insomnia) was negatively correlated with rCBF in the right middle frontal gyrus, bilateral cingulate gyri, right insula, right putamen, and right inferior parietal lobule, and positively correlated with rCBF in left fusiform gyrus and bilateral cerebellar tonsils. The third factor (anxiety and psychomotor aspects) was negatively correlated with rCBF in the left inferior frontal gyms, right superior frontal gyms, right middle temporal gyrus, right superior temporal gyrus, and left superior frontal gyrus, and positively correlated with rCBF in the right ligual gyrus and right parahippocampal gyrus. In this study, the separate symptom clusters were correlated with specific rCBF patterns similar to those in major depressive disorder patients without CKD. However, some areas with discordant rCBF patterns were also noted when compared with major depressive disorder patients. Further larger scale investigations are needed. (author)

2008-01-01

151

Condições ambientais associadas ao humor depressivo na adolescência/ Environmental conditions associated with depressed mood in adolescence  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho analisa a associação entre ambiente físico e social e a psicopatologia, nomeadamente depressão, numa amostra de 254 adolescentes, 82 do sexo masculino e 172 do sexo feminino, todos estudantes do ensino secundário de três escolas de uma zona perto de Lisboa, com uma média de idade de 16,9 (DP = 1,48). A recolha de dados foi efetuada com recurso a um Questionário Demográfico, ao Inventário de Depressão Infantil - CDI (Kovacs, 1981) e ao Invent (more) ário de Sintomas Breve - BSI (Derogatis, 1982). Os resultados confirmaram a hipótese de uma associação entre sexo, grau de escolaridade, a ESE parental e as condições ambientais da habitação e do bairro. As implicações dos resultados são discutidas sobre os esforços para aumentar a prevenção de bem-estar e saúde mental durante a adolescência. Abstract in english The present work analyse the association of the social and physical environment and the psychopathology, namely depression, in a sample of 254 teenagers, 82 males and 172 females, all them high school students from three schools nearby area of Lisbon, with a average age of 16.9 (SD = 1.48). The data collection included a Demographic Questionnaire, the Children´s Depression Inventory - CDI (Kovacs, 1981) and the Brief Symptom Inventory - BSI (Derogatis, 1982). Results con (more) firmed the hypothesis of an association among gender, school grade, parental SES and the environmental conditions of the housing and neighbourhood. Implications of the results are discussed namely concerning preventing efforts to increase wellbeing and mental health during adolescence.

Rosando, Anabela; Matos, Margarida Gaspar de

2013-03-01

152

Mood self-assessment in bipolar disorder: a comparison between patients in mania, depression, and euthymia/ Autoavaliação do estado de humor no transtorno bipolar: uma comparação entre pacientes em mania, depressão, e eutimia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese CONTEXTO: Alguns estudos indicam que a capacidade de autoavaliação do estado de humor está mais comprometida em pacientes com transtorno bipolar na mania do que na depressão. OBJETIVO: Estudar variações na autoavaliação do humor em relação ao estado afetivo atual em indivíduos com transtorno bipolar. MÉTODO: Um total de 165 pacientes com diagnóstico de transtorno bipolar tipo I ou tipo II tiveram seu estado afetivo avaliado utilizando os instrumentos Clinical (more) Global Impressions Scale for use in bipolar illness (CGI-BP), Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) e Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). Além disso, foi aplicada um instrumento de autoavaliação, a escala visual analógica do humor (EVAH). Os pacientes foram divididos em três grupos (eutimia, mania e depressão) e comparados quanto aos resultados da EVAH. RESULTADOS: Dos 16 itens da EVAH, 14 foram avaliados pelos pacientes em mania de forma semelhante aos pacientes em eutimia. Em contraste, em apenas dois itens, os deprimidos mostraram escores semelhantes aos eutímicos. CONCLUSÃO: Pacientes bipolares em mania, mas não os deprimidos, avaliam de forma não fidedigna seu estado afetivo, o que reforça o comprometimento do insight na síndrome maníaca. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Some studies indicate that mood self-assessment is more severely impaired in patients with bipolar disorder in a manic episode than in depression. OBJECTIVES: To investigate variations in mood self-assessment in relation to current affective state in a group of individuals with bipolar disorder. METHODS: A total of 165 patients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder type I or type II had their affective state assessed using the Clinical Global Impressions Scale (more) for use in bipolar illness (CGI-BP), the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). In addition, participants completed a self-report visual analog mood scale (VAMS). Patients were divided into three groups (euthymia, mania, and depression) and compared with regard to VAMS results. RESULTS: Manic patients rated their mood similarly to patients in euthymia in 14 out of 16 items in the VAMS. By contrast, depressed patients rated only two items similarly to euthymic patients. CONCLUSION: Patients with bipolar disorder in mania, but not those in depression, poorly evaluate their affective state, reinforcing the occurrence of insight impairment in the manic syndrome.

Silva, Rafael de Assis da; Mograbi, Daniel C.; Silveira, Luciana Angélica Silva; Nunes, Ana Letícia Santos; Novis, Fernanda Demôro; Cavaco, Paola Anaquim; Landeira-Fernandez, J.; Cheniaux, Elie

2013-01-01

153

Protocol for a randomised controlled trial investigating self-help email messages for sub-threshold depression: the Mood Memos study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-threshold depression is common, impairs functioning, and increases the risk of developing major depression. Although psychological treatments have been investigated for sub-threshold depression, they are costly. A less costly alternative could be an educational health promotion campaign about effective self-help for depression symptoms. The aim of the study is to test the efficacy of a low-cost email-based mental health promotion campaign in changing self-help behaviour and preventing more severe depression in adults with sub-threshold depression. Methods/Design The project is a randomised controlled trial of an automated preventive email-intervention aimed at people with sub-threshold depression. Adults aged 18+ with sub-threshold depression (as measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9), who are not already receiving professional treatment for depression, are eligible for admission to the study. Internet users will sign up via the study website http://www.moodmemos.com and be randomly allocated to receive emails twice weekly for six weeks containing either self-help coping advice or general information about depression as a control. Outcomes will be assessed at the start, midpoint, and end of the intervention, as well as six months later. Outcomes assessed include symptoms, incidence of major depression, psychological distress, social and occupational functioning, coping strategies, and coping self-efficacy. The primary hypothesis is that the Mood Memo emails containing coping strategies will reduce depression symptoms and be better at preventing major depression than the control emails that contain general information about depression. Discussion Promotion of actions an individual can take to prevent physical disease is a technique often used in public health. This study applies this approach to mental health, and explores whether a low-cost, easily disseminated email-based campaign can improve self-help coping behaviour and prevent depression in adults with sub-threshold depression. Trial Registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR): ACTRN12609000925246

Morgan Amy J; Jorm Anthony F; Mackinnon Andrew J

2011-01-01

154

[The distinctive quality of depressed mood. III: Factorial structure of the pathologic sadness index  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The authors report results of a factor analysis on a Pathological Sadness Index. The rate of total variance accounted (construct validity) is a 55% and two factors are found: distinct quality and rise-bodied.

Cordero Villafáfila A; Ramos Brieva JA

1990-01-01

155

Efecto de diversas actividades físicas en el estado anímico depresivo en estudiantes universitarios costarricenses/ Effect of physical activities on depressive mood in Costa Rican university students  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Determinar el efecto de actividades físicas en el estado anímico depresivo de estudiantes universitarios costarricenses. Método: Participaron 522 estudiantes (259 mujeres y 263 hombres) matriculados en la Universidad de Costa Rica. Se construyeron dos categorías según la finalidad del curso matriculado: a) acondicionamiento físico (n = 208) y b) actividad deportiva (n = 314). Los instrumentos: Perfil de Estados Anímicos (POMS) y el Inventario de Depresió (more) n de Beck (BDI-II), se aplicaron al inicio, a la segunda semana y al final del curso. El programa fue de 12 semanas. Resultados: el 16.25% del estudiantado presentó síntomas depresivos entre leve y severo. Se encontró una correlación significativa entre el Índice de masa Corporal y los síntomas de depresión para quienes obtuvieron puntajes de depresión entre leve, moderada y severa (r = 0.224; p = 0.041). Se encontraron porcentajes de cambio diferentes para el constructo depresión cuando los participantes realizaron actividades deportivas o de acondicionamiento físico; sin embargo, éstos variaron según el instrumento utilizado. Con el BDI-II ambos grupos experimentaron reducción significativa en depresión (p Abstract in english Objective: The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of physical activities on the depressive mood of Costa Rican university students. Methods: Participants were 522 students (259 females and 263 males) attending the University of Costa Rica. Two categories were constructed based on the registered course goal: a) fitness class (n = 208) and b) sports class (n= 314). The data collection instruments Profile of Mood States (POMS) and Beck’s Depression Invent (more) ory II (BDI-II) were filled out at the beginning of the semester, two-weeks after, and at the end of the course. The course duration was 12 weeks long. Results: 16.25% of the students showed light and severe depressive symptoms. A significant correlation between body mass index and depression symptoms was found among participants scoring light, moderate and severe depression mood (r =0.224; p = 0.041). Percentage change scores were found for the depression construct when participants performed sports or fitness activities; however, scores varied according to the measurement instrument used. When the BDI-II scale was used both groups showed a significant reduction in depression (p

Campos Salazar, Cinthya; Moncada Jiménez, José

2012-06-01

156

Use of the Hypomania Checklist-32 and the Mood Disorder Questionnaire for detecting bipolarity in 1051 patients with major depressive disorder.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To use the hypomania checklist (HCL-32) and the mood disorder questionnaire (MDQ), for detecting bipolarity in depressed patients. PATIENTS: One thousand and fifty-one patients fulfilling ICD-10 criteria for unipolar major depressive episode, single or recurrent, were studied. Patients were assessed using a structured demographic and clinical data interview, and by the Polish versions of the HCL-32 and MDQ questionnaires. RESULTS: Hypomanic symptoms exceeding cut-off criteria for bipolarity by HCL-32 were found in 37.5% of patients and, by MDQ, in 20% of patients. Patients with HCL-32 (+) or MDQ (+) differed significantly from patients with HCl-32 (-) and MDQ (-) respectively, by being less frequently married, having more family history of depression, bipolar disorder, alcoholism and suicide, earlier onset of illness, and more depressive episodes and psychiatric hospitalizations. The percentage of patients resistant to treatment with antidepressant drugs was significantly higher in HCL-32 (+) vs. HCL-32 (-) and in MDQ (+) vs. MDQ (-): 43.9% vs. 30.0%, and 26.4% vs. 12.4%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The results confirm a substantial percentage of bipolarity in major depressive disorder. Such patients have a number of clinical characteristics pointing on a more severe form of the illness and their depression is more resistant to treatment with antidepressants.

Rybakowski JK; Dudek D; Pawlowski T; Lojko D; Siwek M; Kiejna A

2012-11-01

157

Self-reported depressive syndromes in mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer's disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: There is suggestion that self-reported depressive syndromes can independently manifest in the general population as cognitive/affective or somatic/vegetative. The Beck Depression Inventory, 2nd edition (BDI-II), a self-report measure of depressive symptoms, has been shown to support this two-factor structure. However, this finding has not been examined in an older adult sample with cognitive impairment. In order to determine whether older adults with cognitive impairments exhibit similarly independent cognitive/affective and somatic/vegetative depressive syndromes, we explored the factor structure of the BDI-II in this population. METHODS: Participants were 228 older adults (mean age = 74, SD = 7.9) diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI; n = 137) or early Alzheimer's disease (n = 85), who completed the BDI-II as part of an outpatient neuropsychological evaluation. Exploratory principal component factor analysis with direct Oblimin rotation was conducted, and a two-factor solution was specified based on our theoretical conceptualization of the cognitive/affective and somatic/vegetative items from the scale. RESULTS: The first factor represented cognitive/affective symptoms of depression (e.g. self-dislike, pessimism, worthlessness), and accounted for 36% of the variance. Adding the second factor, reflecting somatic/vegetative items (e.g. sleep and appetite changes, loss of energy), accounted for an additional 6.8% of the variance. CONCLUSION: Results supported the presence of two distinct depressive syndromes, cognitive/affective and somatic/vegetative symptoms. Thus, cognitively impaired older adults report mood symptoms relatively similarly to younger and midlife adults. This supports the validity of self-reported mood in this group, and the results may have implications for psychiatric treatment in this population.

Carvalho JO; Tan JE; Springate BA; Davis JD

2013-03-01

158

Prevalence of Mood Disorders in Iran  

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Full Text Available Objective:To study the prevalence and demographic characteristics of mood disorders among Iranian adults. Method: In this cross-sectional population-based epidemiological study (age > 18) in Iran, 25180 individuals were selected through a randomized cluster sampling method for a diagnosis using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS). They were then interviewed at home by 250 trained clinical psychologists. Results: The estimated lifetime prevalence of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and Minor Depressive Disorder (mDD) were 3.1% and 0.3% respectively. Also, the estimated lifetime prevalence of Bipolar Mood disorder (BMD) type I and type II were 0.1% and 0.7% respectively. The current prevalence of MDD, mDD, BMD-I, and BMD-II were 1.8%, 0.2%, 0.04%, and 0.3% respectively. Mood disorders were associated with female gender, lower education, being married, being middle-aged, living in cities, and not being a homemaker. Conclusion: The prevalence of mood disorders was lower among Iranian adults than reported in Western studies, and a number of demographic associations differed from those reported in Western studies. Important cultural differences in the nature or manifestation of depression are implied by these results.

Mohammad-Reza Mohammadi; Ahmad Ghanizadeh3; Harutiun Davidian1; Ahmad Ali Noorbala1; Hossein Malekafzali; Hamid Reza Naghavi; Hamid Reza Pouretemad; S. Abbas Bagheri Yazdi; Mehdi Rahgozar

2006-01-01

159

Individual Differences in the Effects of Mood on Sexuality: The Revised Mood and Sexuality Questionnaire (MSQ-R).  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous research using the Mood and Sexuality Questionnaire (MSQ) has revealed substantial variability in how negative mood impacts sexual response and behavior. However, the MSQ does not address differences between desire for solo or partnered sexual activity, examine the effects of sexual activity on mood, or assess the effects of positive mood. This article presents the development and factor structure of the Revised Mood and Sexuality Questionnaire (MSQ-R). An exploratory factor analysis in a sample of heterosexual men, homosexual men, and heterosexual women (N = 1,983) produced eight factors. Considerable variability was found in how moods influence sexual desire and arousal, in the effects of mood on sexual behavior, and in the reciprocal effects of sexual activity on mood. Among other findings, heterosexual women were less likely than heterosexual men and homosexual men to experience increased sexual desire and arousal when anxious or stressed, whereas homosexual men and heterosexual women were less likely than heterosexual men to experience increased desire when sad or depressed. Heterosexual men and heterosexual women were more likely than homosexual men to report increased desire when in a positive mood. Intercorrelations and correlations with various sexual behaviors varied by group. Limitations and implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:22963331

Janssen, Erick; Macapagal, Kathryn R; Mustanski, Brian

2012-09-10

160

Individual Differences in the Effects of Mood on Sexuality: The Revised Mood and Sexuality Questionnaire (MSQ-R).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Previous research using the Mood and Sexuality Questionnaire (MSQ) has revealed substantial variability in how negative mood impacts sexual response and behavior. However, the MSQ does not address differences between desire for solo or partnered sexual activity, examine the effects of sexual activity on mood, or assess the effects of positive mood. This article presents the development and factor structure of the Revised Mood and Sexuality Questionnaire (MSQ-R). An exploratory factor analysis in a sample of heterosexual men, homosexual men, and heterosexual women (N = 1,983) produced eight factors. Considerable variability was found in how moods influence sexual desire and arousal, in the effects of mood on sexual behavior, and in the reciprocal effects of sexual activity on mood. Among other findings, heterosexual women were less likely than heterosexual men and homosexual men to experience increased sexual desire and arousal when anxious or stressed, whereas homosexual men and heterosexual women were less likely than heterosexual men to experience increased desire when sad or depressed. Heterosexual men and heterosexual women were more likely than homosexual men to report increased desire when in a positive mood. Intercorrelations and correlations with various sexual behaviors varied by group. Limitations and implications of the findings are discussed.

Janssen E; Macapagal KR; Mustanski B

2013-10-01

 
 
 
 
161

Individual differences in the effects of mood on sexuality: the revised Mood and Sexuality Questionnaire (MSQ-R).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Previous research using the Mood and Sexuality Questionnaire (MSQ) has revealed substantial variability in how negative mood impacts sexual response and behavior. However, the MSQ does not address differences between desire for solo or partnered sexual activity, examine the effects of sexual activity on mood, or assess the effects of positive mood. This article presents the development and factor structure of the Revised Mood and Sexuality Questionnaire (MSQ-R). An exploratory factor analysis in a sample of heterosexual men, homosexual men, and heterosexual women (N = 1,983) produced eight factors. Considerable variability was found in how moods influence sexual desire and arousal, in the effects of mood on sexual behavior, and in the reciprocal effects of sexual activity on mood. Among other findings, heterosexual women were less likely than heterosexual men and homosexual men to experience increased sexual desire and arousal when anxious or stressed, whereas homosexual men and heterosexual women were less likely than heterosexual men to experience increased desire when sad or depressed. Heterosexual men and heterosexual women were more likely than homosexual men to report increased desire when in a positive mood. Intercorrelations and correlations with various sexual behaviors varied by group. Limitations and implications of the findings are discussed.

Janssen E; Macapagal KR; Mustanski B

2013-10-01

162

A randomised, feasibility trial of a tele-health intervention for Acute Coronary Syndrome patients with depression ('MoodCare'): Study protocol  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronary heart disease (CHD) and depression are leading causes of disease burden globally and the two often co-exist. Depression is common after Myocardial Infarction (MI) and it has been estimated that 15-35% of patients experience depressive symptoms. Co-morbid depression can impair health related quality of life (HRQOL), decrease medication adherence and appropriate utilisation of health services, lead to increased morbidity and suicide risk, and is associated with poorer CHD risk factor profiles and reduced survival. We aim to determine the feasibility of conducting a randomised, multi-centre trial designed to compare a tele-health program (MoodCare) for depression and CHD secondary prevention, with Usual Care (UC). Methods Over 1600 patients admitted after index admission for Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) are being screened for depression at six metropolitan hospitals in the Australian states of Victoria and Queensland. Consenting participants are then contacted at two weeks post-discharge for baseline assessment. One hundred eligible participants are to be randomised to an intervention or a usual medical care control group (50 per group). The intervention consists of up to 10 × 30-40 minute structured telephone sessions, delivered by registered psychologists, commencing within two weeks of baseline screening. The intervention focuses on depression management, lifestyle factors (physical activity, healthy eating, smoking cessation, alcohol intake), medication adherence and managing co-morbidities. Data collection occurs at baseline (Time 1), 6 months (post-intervention) (Time 2), 12 months (Time 3) and 24 months follow-up for longer term effects (Time 4). We are comparing depression (Cardiac Depression Scale [CDS]) and HRQOL (Short Form-12 [SF-12]) scores between treatment and UC groups, assessing the feasibility of the program through patient acceptability and exploring long term maintenance effects. A cost-effectiveness analysis of the costs and outcomes for patients in the intervention and control groups is being conducted from the perspective of health care costs to the government. Discussion This manuscript presents the protocol for a randomised, multi-centre trial to evaluate the feasibility of a tele-based depression management and CHD secondary prevention program for ACS patients. The results of this trial will provide valuable new information about potential psychological and wellbeing benefits, cost-effectiveness and acceptability of an innovative tele-based depression management and secondary prevention program for CHD patients experiencing depression. Trial Registration Number Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR): ACTRN12609000386235

O'Neil Adrienne; Hawkes Anna L; Chan Bianca; Sanderson Kristy; Forbes Andrew; Hollingsworth Bruce; Atherton John; Hare David L; Jelinek Michael; Eadie Kathy; Taylor C Barr; Oldenburg Brian

2011-01-01

163

Acute efficacy of divalproex sodium versus placebo in mood stabilizer-naive bipolar I or II depression: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To conduct an exploratory evaluation of the acute efficacy of extended-release divalproex sodium compared to placebo in patients with bipolar I or II depression. METHOD: Outpatients aged 18-70 years with mood stabilizer-naive bipolar I or II disorder experiencing a major depressive episode (DSM-IV) were randomly assigned to 6 weeks of divalproex sodium monotherapy or placebo. The primary outcome measure was mean change from baseline to week 6 on the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total score. Secondary outcomes included rates of response and remission, changes in the Clinical Global Impressions-Bipolar (CGI-BP) Severity of Illness scores, and changes in anxiety symptoms as measured by the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale. The study was conducted between 2003 and 2007. RESULTS: Fifty-four subjects with bipolar I (n = 20) or bipolar II (n = 34) disorder were randomly assigned to divalproex or placebo; 67% (36 of 54) met DSM-IV criteria for rapid cycling. Divalproex treatment produced statistically significant improvement in MADRS scores compared with placebo from week 3 onward. The proportions of patients meeting response criteria were 38.5% (10 of 26) in the divalproex group versus 10.7% (3 of 28) for the placebo group (P = .017). The proportions of patients meeting remission criteria were 23.1% (6 of 26) for divalproex versus 10.7% (3 of 28) for placebo (P = .208). Subgroup analysis revealed no separation between divalproex and placebo for those with bipolar II diagnoses. Nausea, increased appetite, diarrhea, dry mouth, and cramps were the most common side effects. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that divalproex sodium is efficacious and reasonably well tolerated in the acute treatment of mood stabilizer-naive patients with bipolar depression, particularly for those with rapid-cycling type I presentations, and that confirmatory large-scale studies are indicated. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00194116.

Muzina DJ; Gao K; Kemp DE; Khalife S; Ganocy SJ; Chan PK; Serrano MB; Conroy CM; Calabrese JR

2011-06-01

164

A report on mood and cognitive outcomes with right unilateral ultrabrief pulsewidth (0.3 ms) ECT and retrospective comparison with standard pulsewidth right unilateral ECT.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a highly effective treatment for depression but its use is limited by the risk of cognitive side effects. This study explored the potential of a novel approach, ultrabrief pulsewidth (0.3 ms) right unilateral (RUL-UB) ECT, to minimise cognitive effects while preserving efficacy. METHODS: Mood and neuropsychological functioning were objectively rated in 30 patients over a course of RUL-UB ECT at 6 times seizure threshold. Results (mood outcomes, ECT treatment parameters) were compared with a retrospectively assessed group of 30 age and gender matched patients who received RUL ECT (1.0 ms pulsewidth, 3.5 times seizure threshold) at the same hospital. RESULTS: Six treatments of RUL-UB ECT resulted in relatively few cognitive side effects, compared to reports of previous studies. The number of responders did not differ between groups but significantly more treatments were required in the RUL-UB group, suggesting a slower speed of response. LIMITATIONS: Patients were not randomised to the two forms of ECT and data was obtained retrospectively in the RUL ECT comparison group. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that RUL-UB ECT can be effective in treating depression while incurring lesser cognitive side effects than a commonly used form of RUL ECT, but a greater number of treatments may be required for response.

Loo C; Sheehan P; Pigot M; Lyndon W

2007-11-01

165

Depression  

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Full Text Available Abstract Health Issue Depression causes significant distress or impairment in physical, social, occupational and other key areas of functioning. Women are approximately twice as likely as men to experience depression. Psychosocial factors likely mediate the risks for depression incurred by biological influences. Key Findings Data from the 1999 National Population Health Survey show that depression is more common among Canadian women, with an annual self-reported incidence of 5.7% compared with 2.9% in men. The highest rates of depression are seen among women of reproductive age. Predictive factors for depression include previous depression, feeling out of control or overwhelmed, chronic health problems, traumatic events in childhood or young adulthood, lack of emotional support, lone parenthood, and low sense of mastery. Although depression is treatable, only 43% of depressed women had consulted a health professional in 1998/99 and only 32.4% were taking antidepressant medication. People with lower education, inadequate income, and fewer contacts with a health professional were less likely to receive depression treatment. Data Gaps and Recommendations A better understanding of factors that increase vulnerability and resilience to depression is needed. There is also a need for the collection and analysis of data pertaining to: prevalence of clinical anxiety; the prevalence of depression band 12 months after childbirth factors contributing to suicide contemplation and attempts among adolescent girls, current treatments for depression and their efficacy in depressed women at different life stages; interprovincial variation in depression rates and hospitalizations and the impact and costs of depression on work, family, individuals, and society.

Stewart Donna E; Gucciardi Enza; Grace Sherry L

2004-01-01

166

Providers' attitudes towards treating depression and self-reported depression treatment practices in HIV outpatient care.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Depression is highly prevalent among HIV-infected patients, yet little is known about the quality of HIV providers' depression treatment practices. We assessed depression treatment practices of 72 HIV providers at three academic medical centers in 2010-2011 with semi-structured interviews. Responses were compared to national depression treatment guidelines. Most providers were confident that their role included treating depression. Providers were more confident prescribing a first antidepressant than switching treatments. Only 31% reported routinely assessing all patients for depression, 13% reported following up with patients within 2 weeks of starting an antidepressant, and 36% reported systematically assessing treatment response and tolerability in adjusting treatment. Over half of providers reported not being comfortable using the full FDA-approved dosing range for antidepressants. Systematic screening for depression and best-practices depression management were uncommon. Opportunities to increase HIV clinicians' comfort and confidence in treating depression, including receiving treatment support from clinic staff, are discussed.

Bess KD; Adams J; Watt MH; O'Donnell JK; Gaynes BN; Thielman NM; Heine A; Zinski A; Raper JL; Pence BW

2013-03-01

167

MOOD PROFILING DURING OLYMPIC QUALIFYING JUDO COMPETITION: A CASE STUDY TESTING TRANSACTIONAL RELATIONSHIPS  

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Full Text Available This case study investigated relationships between personality, mood states changes, coping strategies, self-set goals, and self-efficacy in an elite judo player. A transactional perspective of psychological responses over time was used to guide data analysis. The ambient mood is proposed to contribute to the interpretation of, and reaction to, events during competition, which lead to subsequent emotional responses. A male international Judo player completed a number of self-report measures before and during a 4-contest tournament. Measures included the EPQ, MCOPE, Brunel Mood Scale, self-set goals, and self-efficacy for goal attainment. State measures were completed after every contest. Results indicated high scores of self-efficacy to achieve performance goals and outcome goals. Pre-competition mood results indicated high scores on the Vigor and Anger subscales with moderate scores for Tension, and zero scores for Depressed mood, a mood profile that remained relatively stable after winning his first two contests. After losing his third contest, he reported symptoms of Depressed mood and indicated using self-blame as coping strategy during the contest. Before the fourth contest, he coped by using planning and increasing effort. These coping strategies were associated with reductions in Depressed mood and increases in Vigor. After finding out his next contest was against a former World Championship bronze medalist, self-set goals became performance and process with no outcome goal. On losing this contest, scores on the Anger and Depression subscales increased sharply, Fatigue scores increased slightly and Tension and Vigor reduced. Self-blame was used as a coping strategy when experiencing unpleasant emotions. Findings suggest that self-blame was associated with negative psychological states comprising depressed mood. Increasing effort and planning were associated with positive psychological states. Collectively, findings emphasize the value of using a transactional design to explore mood changes over time, and future research should investigate the effectiveness of applied interventions

Matthew J. Stevens; Andrew M. Lane; Peter C. Terry

2006-01-01

168

Developmental Aspects of Mood Disorders.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rates of depression double in the transition to adolescence. Symptoms of depression in adolescence also predict adult mood disorders. From a preventative perspective, research into the risk factors for adolescent depression is critical. Simultaneously, there is also growing interest in understanding...

Lau, JY

169

MOOD CHANGES FOLLOWING GOLF AMONG SENIOR RECREATIONAL PLAYERS  

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Full Text Available Golf has been recommended as a relatively risk-free form of exercise for an ageing population. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of playing a round of golf on mood states in recreational players. Ageing male golfers (N = 34; Age: M = 68.7, SD = 5.4 years) completed a mood measure immediately before and after an 18-hole round of golf. Distance walked per game was measured using a pedometer. Results indicate reported scores on Anger, Depression, and Fatigue increased and Vigor reduced following the game. However, it should be noted that although there was an increase in unpleasant mood states, this should be seen in the context of the overall mood profile, which was positive. Pedometer results indicated golfers walked a mean distance of 10.21 km (± 1.11). Results show participants of this age-group engaged in a meaningful exercise session and that mood scores deteriorated following play. Findings from the present study show that elderly golfers experienced mood profiles following golf similar to younger athletes following competition. For golf to be recommended as an activity for promoting physical activity among an aging population, the player's ability to regulate unpleasant mood states should be considered. Future research should investigate the effects of experiencing negative mood states following golf on motivation to participate.

Andrew M. Lane; Haydn Jarrett

2005-01-01

170

Diurnal pattern of serum BDNF before partial sleep deprivation in stress-related mood disorders – an association with therapy response in major depression  

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Full Text Available Background : Depression is one of the most prevalent forms of mood disorders. Compelling evidence suggests that mood disorders are characterized by reduced neuronal plasticity, which can be brought about by exposure to stress. Furthermore, there is good agreement in considering key proteins such as the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), as a central player for the effects of stress on brain function and plasticity and psychopathological implications. Still, there is a high non-responder rate in antidepressant therapy, which explains the need to find reliable predictors for adequate treatment. Previous studies revealed that plasma and serum BDNF levels in depressed patients were significantly lower than in healthy controls. Since the protein can cross the blood brain-barrier serum content correspondingly correlates with cortical BDNF concentrations suggesting BDNF levels as a promising candidate biomarker for depression and antidepressant treatment response. Methods : To investigate the association between?serum?BDNF levels and treatment outcome, blood was drawn from 28 patients with a major depressive episode (DMS-IV, ICD-10) that participated in a double-blind placebo controlled treatment study. All patients were treated with a stable mirtazapine monotherapy. Partial sleep deprivation (PSD) was performed after one week. Placebo controlled additional morning treatment with the stimulant modafinil to reduce microsleep throughout the day was started during PSD and maintained over two weeks.?Serum concentrations?of?BDNF and cortisol were assessed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) from day 1 (“before PSD”) at 8 am, 2 pm, 8 pm and day 2 (“after PSD”) at 8 am, 2 pm and 8 pm. Samples were appropriately diluted and detection?of?soluble BDNF or cortisol was carried out in an antibody sandwich format in duplicates and means were calculated for the corresponding group. Moreover, sleep EEG and microsleep episodes were recorded with a portable EEG. Depression severity using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and mood, tiredness and relaxation were assessed with visual analog scales (VASs) for psychological functioning at days 1, 2 and 3 (“after recovery night”) as well as after one and two weeks?of?ongoing treatment. Results : Notably, depressive patients who showed an acute HDRS-6 improvement after PSD exhibited a prominent diurnal pattern of serum?BDNF levels during the day before PSD whereas acute non-responders did not show such a pattern and BDNF levels were rather constantly expressed. Serum BDNF levels were significantly elevated in acute responders compared to non-responders in the morning at 8.00 am before PSD corrected for Bonferroni (p>0.01). Also responders after two weeks (FU2) exhibited a prominent diurnal serum BDNF pattern before and after PSD on day one and two, while it was more pronounced after PSD. There was no diurnal pattern for non-responders after two weeks before; however, after PSD on day two an even modest diurnal change was visible in this group but less pronounced compared to FU2-responders. We found no association between treatment condition placebo vs. modafinil and response for acute neither response after two weeks. When we linked daily peak BDNF levels from day two at 2 pm with overall HDRS-6 improvement, responders were associated with elevated BDNF levels compared to non-responders on day three after recovery night already. Even after one (FU1) and two (FU2) weeks increased BDNF levels of day two at 2 pm were more prominent in the responder group. This difference between responders and non-responders of peak serum BDNF levels from 2 pm after PSD was statistically significant after two weeks. In addition, HDRS-6 improvement after two weeks of on-going treatment was significantly correlated with elevated serum BDNF levels in all patients. Moreover, peak levels of serum BDNF after PSD on day 2 at 2 pm were correlated with increased relaxation

Maria Giese; J. Beck; Serge Brand; F. Muheim; Martin Hatzinger; Edith Holsboer-Trachsler; Anne Eckert

2012-01-01

171

Mood congruence effect in autobiographical recall: Is mood a mediator?  

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Full Text Available In the present study we test the hypothesis that the effect of mood congruence in autobiographical recall is underlain by mood. Thirty-eight female participants were subjected to positive, negative and neutral mood inductions, and then asked to recall three personal memories. Participants’ mood was assessed using self-report questionnaires and by electromyograph (EMG) measurements of corrugator supercilii and zygomaticus major muscle activity. We replicated the congruence effect between the mood inductions and the valence of the participants’ recalled memories. Furthermore, this effect was mediated by mood, as measured by EMG and self-report questionnaires. The results suggest that mood influences the mood congruence effect in a way that cannot be explained by semantic priming alone.

Dra?e Saša; Desrichard Olivier

2013-01-01

172

Depression and Smoking  

Science.gov (United States)

Home » Tools » Depression Basics » Depression and Smoking Depression and Smoking How is depression different from withdrawal from smoking? Mood changes are common after quitting smoking. You might be irritable, restless, or ...

173

Risk factors for nonsuicidal self-injury in Japanese college students: The moderating role of mood regulation expectancies.  

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Self-injurious behavior is increasing among college students, and is common in both psychiatric and nonclinical populations. People's engaging in self-injury is associated with childhood maltreatment, poor negative mood regulation expectancies, and depression. During times of distress, maltreated children without healthy coping strategies tend to have impairment in mood regulation, which contributes to engaging in self-injury. This study investigated differences between nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and non-self-injury groups in history of childhood maltreatment, negative mood regulation expectancies, and depression in a sample of Japanese college students. We also assessed risk factors for self-injurious behavior, including mood regulation expectancies as a moderator of the relationship between childhood maltreatment and NSSI. Participants were 313 undergraduate students, who completed anonymous self-report questionnaires-Deliberate Self-Harm Inventory, Child Abuse and Trauma Scale, Negative Mood Regulation Scale, and short version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale. Ten percent (n?=?31) of all participants had injured themselves. Consistent with past literature, participants with self-injury history reported more severe childhood maltreatment, poorer mood regulation expectancies, and more depression, compared to non-self-injurers. Frequency of NSSI positively correlated with childhood maltreatment and depression, and negatively correlated with negative mood regulation expectancies. Regression analysis revealed that stronger expectancies for negative mood regulation interacted with maltreatment to predict self-injury: More maltreatment was associated with more self-injury, particularly among those with weaker expectancies. Results suggested childhood maltreatment, low expectancies for negative mood regulation, and depression predicted self-injury. Consistent with our moderation hypothesis, strong expectancies for negative mood regulation buffered the effects of childhood maltreatment, reducing the risk for self-injury. PMID:23082995

Tresno, Fiona; Ito, Yoshimi; Mearns, Jack

2012-10-22

174

Trait mindfulness, repression, suppression, and self-reported mood and stress symptoms among women with breast cancer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: This study sought to identify relationships between trait mindfulness, repressive, and suppressive emotional styles, and the relative importance of these traits in their association with self-reported psychological health among women with breast cancer. METHOD: Of the 277 women with breast cancer accrued in the study, 227 (81.9%) completed a set of questionnaires assessing personality traits, stress symptoms, and mood. RESULTS: High levels of mindfulness were associated with fewer stress-related symptoms and less mood disturbance, while high levels of suppression were associated with poorer self-reported health. CONCLUSION: Individuals' dispositional ways to manage negative emotions were associated with the experience of symptoms and aversive moods. Helping patients cultivate mindful insights and reduce deliberate emotional inhibition may be a useful focus for psycho-oncological interventions.

Tamagawa R; Giese-Davis J; Speca M; Doll R; Stephen J; Carlson LE

2013-03-01

175

Fasting Blood Glucose and Depressive Mood among Patients with Mental Illness in a Medicaid Managed Care Program  

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Objective. This study explores the relationship between depressive symptoms, as measured by the PHQ-9 depression screen and blood glucose levels among patients with diabetes enrolled in Gold Choice, a Medicaid managed care program for individuals with mental illness and/or substance abuse. Met...

Kahn, Linda S.; McIntyre, Roger S.; Rafalson, Lisa; Berdine, Diane E.; Fox, Chester H.

176

Regional cerebral blood flow in mood disorders. I. Comparison of major depressives and normal controls at rest  

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We measured regional cerebral blood flow with the xenon 133 inhalation technique in 41 patients with major depressive disorder and 40 matched, normal controls during an eyes-closed, resting condition. The depressed group had a marked reduction in global cortical blood flow. To examine topographic abnormalities, traditional multivariate analyses were applied, as well as a new scaled subprofile model developed to identify abnormal functional neural networks in clinical samples. Both approaches indicated that the depressed sample had an abnormality in topographic distribution of blood flow, in addition to the global deficit. The scaled subprofile model identified the topographic abnormality as being due to flow reduction in the depressed patients in selective frontal, central, superior temporal, and anterior parietal regions. This pattern may reflect dysfunction in the parallel distributed cortical network involving frontal and temporoparietal polymodal association areas. The extent of this topographic abnormality, as revealed by the scaled subprofile model, was associated with both patient age and severity of depressive symptoms.

Sackeim, H.A.; Prohovnik, I.; Moeller, J.R.; Brown, R.P.; Apter, S.; Prudic, J.; Devanand, D.P.; Mukherjee, S. (New York State Psychiatric Institute, NY (USA))

1990-01-01

177

Testosterone and Depression  

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Full Text Available Androgens have various effects on human body and mood. Testosterone, a hormone mainly secreted from testes and adrenals, is one of the most potent androgens. Multiple studies have found that testosterone plays a role in regulating sexual activity, libido, social behaviors, aggression, cognitive functions, sleep control and well-being in men and women. Testosterone deficiency in hypogonadic or elderly men leads to neuropsychiatric problems, such as fatigue, loss of libido, irritability, insomnia and depressive mood. Testosterone replacement therapy consistently reverses these sequel in men. On the other hand, hyperandrogenic states in women are related to aggression and antisocial behavior, which might lead to depressive mood. Low testosterone levels may also result in depression among oophorectomized women. Because of such effects, a relationship between testosterone and depression has long been an issue of speculation, but yet very few studies have addressed this relation. Along with clinical studies, experimental and epidemiological studies show that testosterone is related to depression in men and women. But studies of testosterone concentrations in depression have yielded inconsistent results reporting low as well as high testosterone levels associated with depression. In this article, the physiological and psychological effects of testosterone and evidence regarding its relationship to depressive disorders and possible gender differences have been reviewed.

?ükrü Kartalc?

2010-01-01

178

Major Depression in a Brazilian Amazon Woman with Down Syndrome: A Case Report  

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Full Text Available We report on a 28 years-old woman with Down syndrome and moderate intellectual disability that was referred to us with a 1-month history of progressive change from being cheerful and cooperative to becoming socially withdrawn, tearful, apathetic and disinterested in activities. She had also shown behavioral deterioration with loss of adaptive skills. Her appetite decreased, leading to a 10 kg weight loss, and she developed initial insomnia. The patient was treated with fluoxetine at 20 mg each day. She made a complete recovery over one month, and 15 months after the beginning of pharmacologic therapy, continued to be free of depressive symptoms. Although major depression is not commonly associated with Down’s syndrome, the diagnosis of this mood disorder must be considered when alterations of vegetative functions and activity are observed.

Dárcio Marcel Castelo de Souza; Lucas Crociati Meguins; Emília Maíra Crociati Meguins

2008-01-01

179

[Mood States in outpatients with lesional epilepsy at the neurosurgical clinic and improvement in mood States after lamotrigine addiction].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

People with epilepsy have a high incidence of mood disorders that may affect their quality of life. Lamotrigine(LTG)is one of the antiepileptic drugs that are commercially available in Japan these days and its mood-stabilizing qualities were well known. First, 66 outpatients with epilepsy were evaluated for changes in mood states by the Profile of Mood States(POMS)and the Japanese-edition Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition(BDI-II)on self report. The POMS questionnaire includes 30 items that address six components of mood. At baseline, one third of the outpatients with epilepsy had mood problems compared by POMS health reference. The mean BDI-II baseline score was 14.9±10.1, and one third of these epilepsy patients exhibited moderate or severe depression. Second, in the twelve patients with epilepsy, LTG was added to other antiepileptic drugs, and the POMS and BDI-II were administered at baseline and after addiction to LTG. 4 out of 8(50%)patients with simple partial seizure and 5 out of 8(62.5%)patients after the adjunctive therapy experienced at least a 50% reduction in the number of seizures compared with the self-reported baseline before the adjunctive therapy. The component scores of Depression-Dejection, Anger-Hostility and Confusion-Bewilderment in POMS were statistically improved in these patients completing adjunctive LTG(pared t-test, p<0.05). In these patients, the mean BDI-II baseline score was 25.8±13.1. Following administration of LTG, there was a significant decrease in the mean BDI-II scores(15.0±6.6)between baseline and the end of adjunctive LTG. This study suggests that, in addition to seizure control, LTG may have a mood-stabilizing effect and improve the quality of life in patients with epilepsy.

Kajita Y; Yoshida K; Nagai T; Wakabayashi T

2013-03-01

180

Major depression in Parkinson's disease and the mood response to intravenous methylphenidate: possible role of the "hedonic" dopamine synapse.  

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The euphoric response to equivalent doses of intravenous methylphenidate (MTP) was assessed in a group of 13 Parkinsonian patients affected by major depression, in a group of 11 nondepressed Parkinsonians, in a group of 14 nonparkinsonian subjects suffering from major depression, and finally in a group of 12 controls with no CNS or psychiatric disease. Subjects of all four groups were matched for age, sex and other main characteristics. Depressed and nondepressed Parkinsonians were also matched for duration and severity of illness, and for the type of antiparkinsonian treatment. The response to MTP was evaluated in the context of a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Parkinsonian patients with major depression exhibited a significant lack of sensitivity to the euphoriant effects of MTP, in comparison with the other three groups. Euphoria produced by central stimulants has been shown to depend on the activity of a dopamine synapse in humans, which is thought to be situated at the limbic terminals of dopamine neurons located in the ventral tegmental area. Degeneration of this system may have predisposed our Parkinsonian patients to major depression. PMID:2664088

Cantello, R; Aguggia, M; Gilli, M; Delsedime, M; Chiardò Cutin, I; Riccio, A; Mutani, R

1989-06-01

 
 
 
 
181

Major depression in Parkinson's disease and the mood response to intravenous methylphenidate: possible role of the "hedonic" dopamine synapse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The euphoric response to equivalent doses of intravenous methylphenidate (MTP) was assessed in a group of 13 Parkinsonian patients affected by major depression, in a group of 11 nondepressed Parkinsonians, in a group of 14 nonparkinsonian subjects suffering from major depression, and finally in a group of 12 controls with no CNS or psychiatric disease. Subjects of all four groups were matched for age, sex and other main characteristics. Depressed and nondepressed Parkinsonians were also matched for duration and severity of illness, and for the type of antiparkinsonian treatment. The response to MTP was evaluated in the context of a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Parkinsonian patients with major depression exhibited a significant lack of sensitivity to the euphoriant effects of MTP, in comparison with the other three groups. Euphoria produced by central stimulants has been shown to depend on the activity of a dopamine synapse in humans, which is thought to be situated at the limbic terminals of dopamine neurons located in the ventral tegmental area. Degeneration of this system may have predisposed our Parkinsonian patients to major depression.

Cantello R; Aguggia M; Gilli M; Delsedime M; Chiardò Cutin I; Riccio A; Mutani R

1989-06-01

182

Regional cerebral blood flow in mood disorders. I. Comparison of major depressives and normal controls at rest  

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[en] We measured regional cerebral blood flow with the xenon 133 inhalation technique in 41 patients with major depressive disorder and 40 matched, normal controls during an eyes-closed, resting condition. The depressed group had a marked reduction in global cortical blood flow. To examine topographic abnormalities, traditional multivariate analyses were applied, as well as a new scaled subprofile model developed to identify abnormal functional neural networks in clinical samples. Both approaches indicated that the depressed sample had an abnormality in topographic distribution of blood flow, in addition to the global deficit. The scaled subprofile model identified the topographic abnormality as being due to flow reduction in the depressed patients in selective frontal, central, superior temporal, and anterior parietal regions. This pattern may reflect dysfunction in the parallel distributed cortical network involving frontal and temporoparietal polymodal association areas. The extent of this topographic abnormality, as revealed by the scaled subprofile model, was associated with both patient age and severity of depressive symptoms

1990-01-01

183

Alterations in plasma prolyl endopeptidase activity in depression, mania, and schizophrenia: effects of antidepressants, mood stabilizers, and antipsychotic drugs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The activity of prolyl endopeptidase (PEP), a serine proteinase, has been found to be significantly lower in the blood of patients with major depression than in normal volunteers. The present study investigates plasma PEP activity in 25 major depressed, 10 manic, and 14 schizophrenic subjects versus 30 normal volunteers. It also examines the effects of antidepressants, valproate, and neuroleptic drugs on plasma PEP activity. PEP activity was significantly lower in major depressed subjects than in normal volunteers and in patients with mania and schizophrenia. In depressed subjects, plasma PEP activity was significantly increased during treatment with antidepressant drugs, such as fluoxetine. Plasma PEP activity was significantly increased in manic and schizophrenic subjects compared with normal volunteers. In manic subjects, short-term treatment with valproate had a significant suppressive effect on PEP activity. No significant effects of neuroleptics on PEP activity could be found in the schizophrenic patients. The results support the hypothesis that lower PEP activity could play a role in the pathophysiology of major depression, while increased PEP activity may be related to psychotic conditions, such as mania and schizophrenia.

Maes M; Goossens F; Scharpé S; Calabrese J; Desnyder R; Meltzer HY

1995-10-01

184

The impact of mood induction on the accessibility of positive and negative future events in a group of dysphoric adolescent in-patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at experimentally affecting the fluency with which positive and negative future events are generated by depressive adolescents. METHOD: Adolescent in-patients with elevated depression were randomized into a positive or negative mood induction condition (N=24 in each group) and then presented with the Future Thinking Task asking participants to generate as many future events of a specified valence as possible. RESULTS: The inductions resulted in significant mood differences between groups. The assumed interaction between mood condition and reported positive and negative future events was confirmed. Particularly, the generation of negative future event representations differed between the mood induction groups. CONCLUSIONS: Dysphoric adolescents given a negative mood induction differ from those given a positive mood induction in their ability to think of future positive and negative events that they might experience.

de Jong-Meyer R; Kuczmera A; Tripp J

2007-09-01

185

Fasting Blood Glucose and Depressive Mood among Patients with Mental Illness in a Medicaid Managed Care Program.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Objective. This study explores the relationship between depressive symptoms, as measured by the PHQ-9 depression screen and blood glucose levels among patients with diabetes enrolled in Gold Choice, a Medicaid managed care program for individuals with mental illness and/or substance abuse. Methods. The PHQ-9 was mailed to 454 Gold Choice members and a questionnaire was mailed to their physicians requesting current HbA1c% and fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels. The pearson product-moment correlation was used to describe the association between PHQ-9 scores and FBG levels. Results. The PHQ-9 response rate was 55% (N = 249). Laboratory results were received for 141 patients. The correlation between FBG and PHQ-9 scores was modest but statistically significant: r = 0.21 , P = 0.015. Conclusion. A statistically significant association was found between FBG and PHQ-9 depression scores. This finding supports current recommendations that physicians be alert to depressive symptoms among patients with diabetes or impaired glucose metabolism.

Kahn LS; McIntyre RS; Rafalson L; Berdine DE; Fox CH

2011-01-01

186

Fasting Blood Glucose and Depressive Mood among Patients with Mental Illness in a Medicaid Managed Care Program.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective. This study explores the relationship between depressive symptoms, as measured by the PHQ-9 depression screen and blood glucose levels among patients with diabetes enrolled in Gold Choice, a Medicaid managed care program for individuals with mental illness and/or substance abuse. Methods. The PHQ-9 was mailed to 454 Gold Choice members and a questionnaire was mailed to their physicians requesting current HbA1c% and fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels. The pearson product-moment correlation was used to describe the association between PHQ-9 scores and FBG levels. Results. The PHQ-9 response rate was 55% (N = 249). Laboratory results were received for 141 patients. The correlation between FBG and PHQ-9 scores was modest but statistically significant: r = 0.21 , P = 0.015. Conclusion. A statistically significant association was found between FBG and PHQ-9 depression scores. This finding supports current recommendations that physicians be alert to depressive symptoms among patients with diabetes or impaired glucose metabolism. PMID:21738870

Kahn, Linda S; McIntyre, Roger S; Rafalson, Lisa; Berdine, Diane E; Fox, Chester H

2011-05-26

187

My Time, My Space (an arts-based group for women with postnatal depression): a project report.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper will describe an innovative method of treatment for women with postnatal depression that has been used in the south west of England since 2004 and has now been successfully piloted in other areas of the UK. My Time My Space is an arts-based group for women with postnatal depression that aims to improve mood by reducing social isolation and using creativity to improve self-esteem. Results of the programme will be shared, in addition to the ways in which the project has been implemented using collaborative working with children's centres and building community capacity by engaging local charities. The qualitative results have been collected from participants (n = 30) over the last two years using post-course evaluation forms with open questions to elicit participants' views. The quantitative results of a small pilot study (n = 8) based on pre- and post-group Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale scores (EPDS) are also reported. The findings suggest My Time My Space has a positive effect on women's mood and perceived social support, and provides an effective alternative or additional method of treatment for postnatal depression.

Morton A; Forsey P

2013-05-01

188

Relationship between the clinical global impression of severity for schizoaffective disorder scale and established mood scales for mania and depression.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: This analysis explored the relationship between ratings on HAM-D-17 or YMRS and those on the depressive or manic subscale of CGI-S for schizoaffective disorder (CGI-S-SCA). METHODS: This post hoc analysis used the database (N=614) from two 6-week, randomized, placebo-controlled studies of paliperidone ER versus placebo in symptomatic subjects with schizoaffective disorder assessed using HAM-D-17, YMRS, and CGI-S-SCA scales. Parametric and nonparametric regression models explored the relationships between ratings on YMRS and HAM-D-17 and on depressive and manic domains of the CGI-S-SCA from baseline to the 6-week end point. A clinically meaningful improvement was defined as a change of 1 point in the CGI-S-SCA score. No adjustment was made for multiplicity. RESULTS: Multiple linear regression models suggested that a 1-point change in the depressive domain of CGI-S-SCA corresponded to an average 3.6-point (SE=0.2) change in HAM-D-17 score. Similarly, a 1-point change in the manic domain of CGI-S-SCA corresponded to an average 5.8-point (SE=0.2) change in YMRS score. Results were confirmed using local and cumulative logistic regression models in addition to equipercentile linking. LIMITATIONS: Lack of subjects scoring over the complete range of possible scores may limit broad application of the analyses. CONCLUSION: Clinically meaningful score changes in depressive and manic domains of CGI-S-SCA corresponded to approximately 4- and 6-point score changes on HAM-D-17 and YMRS, respectively, in symptomatic subjects with schizoaffective disorder.

Turkoz I; Fu DJ; Bossie CA; Sheehan JJ; Alphs L

2013-08-01

189

Negative mood, implicit alcohol-related memory, and alcohol use in young adults: the moderating effect of alcohol expectancy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Alcohol-related implicit (preconscious) cognitive processes are established and unique predictors of alcohol use, but most research in this area has focused on alcohol-related implicit cognition and anxiety. This study extends this work into the area of depressed mood by testing a cognitive model that combines traditional explicit (conscious and considered) beliefs, implicit alcohol-related memory associations (AMAs), and self-reported drinking behavior. METHOD: Using a sample of 106 university students, depressed mood was manipulated using a musical mood induction procedure immediately prior to completion of implicit then explicit alcohol-related cognition measures. A bootstrapped two-group (weak/strong expectancies of negative affect and tension reduction) structural equation model was used to examine how mood changes and alcohol-related memory associations varied across groups. RESULTS: Expectancies of negative affect moderated the association of depressed mood and AMAs, but there was no such association for tension reduction expectancy. CONCLUSION: Subtle mood changes may unconsciously trigger alcohol-related memories in vulnerable individuals. Results have implications for addressing subtle fluctuations in depressed mood among young adults at risk of alcohol problems.

Kelly AB; Masterman PW; Young RM

2011-01-01

190

Validation of the Chinese version of the "Mood Disorder Questionnaire" for screening bipolar disorder among patients with a current depressive episode.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) is a well-recognized screening tool for bipolar disorder, but its Chinese version needs further validation. This study aims to measure the accuracy of the Chinese version of the MDQ as a screening instrument for bipolar disorder (BPD) in a group of patients with a current major depressive episode. METHODS: 142 consecutive patients with an initial DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of a major depressive episode were screened for BPD using the Chinese translation of the MDQ and followed up for one year. The final diagnosis, determined by a special committee consisting of three trained senior psychiatrists, was used as a 'gold standard' and ROC was plotted to evaluate the performance of the MDQ. The optimal cut-off was chosen by maximizing the Younden's index. RESULTS: Of the 142 patients, 122 (85.9%) finished the one year follow-up. On the basis of a semi-structured clinical interview 48.4% (59/122) received a diagnosis of unipolar depression (UPD), 36.9% (45/122) BPDII and 14.8% (18/122) BPDI. At the end of the one year follow-up,9 moved from UPD to BPD, 2 from BPDII to UPD, 1 from BPDII to BPDI, the overall rate of initial misdiagnosis was 16.4%. MDQ showed a good accuracy for BPD: the optimal cut-off was 4, with a sensitivity of 0.72 and a specificity of 0.73. When BPDII and BPDI were calculated independently, the optimal cut-off for BPDII was 4, with a sensitivity of 0.70 and a specificity of 0.73; while the optimal cut-off for BPDI was 5, with a sensitivity of 0.67 and a specificity of 0.86. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that the Chinese version of MDQ is a valid tool for screening BPD in a group of patients with current depressive episode on the Chinese mainland.

Gan Z; Han Z; Li K; Diao F; Wu X; Guan N; Zhang J

2012-01-01

191

Depression and Epilepsy  

Science.gov (United States)

Depression You are here: Home About Epilepsy Related Conditions Depression Email Print Twitter Facebook MySpace Delicous Stumble ... susceptible to mood disorders. People with Epilepsy and Depression The results of studies to find out how ...

192

[Validation of the Spanish version of the Mood Disorder Questionnaire to detect bipolar disorder type II in patients with major depression disorder].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) is an inventory used to detect bipolar disorder type II (BD II) and it has been validated in several countries, other than Venezuela. For this reason, the authors tried to determine the criterion validity of the Venezuelan version of the MDQ in Venezuelan patients. The study was carried out in two stages at the Psychiatric Department of the Hospital Vargas of Caracas, Venezuela, which is a general teaching hospital. A group of 199 adult outpatients, who had been previously diagnosed as suffering from major depression disorder--single episode or recurrent--were evaluated. Initially, they were diagnosed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV for Axis I Disorders (SCID-I). Afterwards, they were asked to answer the MDQ using a cut-off point > or = 7/13. The protocol was approved by the institutional review board of the Hospital Vargas of Caracas. A total of 78.4% of the subjects were female. The mean age was 43.60 years for males (SD = 14.19) and 43.94 years for females (SD = 12.06). The frequency of false unipolar patients was 28.1% (23.6% bipolar disorder type I and 4.5% BD II). While comparing the results of the SCID-I and the MDQ, a sensibility of 100.0% (95% CI: 0.66-1.00) and a specificity of 61.1% (95% CI: 0.53-0.68) were found for the diagnosis of BD II. According to our results, the MDQ with a cut-off point > or = 7/13 is a valid instrument to detect the bipolar disorder type II in Venezuelan depressed outpatients.

González A; Arias A; Mata S; Lima L

2009-06-01

193

Sleep disorders and depression: brief review of the literature, case report, and nonpharmacologic interventions for depression  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Antonina Luca,1 Maria Luca,2 Carmela Calandra2 1Department GF Ingrassia, Section of Neuroscience, 2Department of Medical and Surgery Specialties, Psychiatry Unit, University Hospital Policlinico-Vittorio Emanuele, Catania, Sicily, Italy Abstract: Sleep disorders are so frequently associated with depression that, in the absence of sleep complaints, a diagnosis of depression should be made with caution. Insomnia, in particular, may occur in 60%–80% of depressed patients. Depressive symptoms are important risk factors for insomnia, and depression is considered an important comorbid condition in patients with chronic insomnia of any etiology. In addition, some drugs commonly prescribed for the treatment of depression may worsen insomnia and impair full recovery from the illness. The aim of this paper is to review briefly and discuss the following topics: common sleep disturbances during depression (in particular pavor nocturnus, nightmares, hypersomnia, and insomnia); circadian sleep disturbances; and treatment of depression by manipulation of the sleep-wake rhythm (chronotherapy, light therapy, cycles of sleep, and manipulation of the sleep-wake rhythm itself). Finally, we present a case report of a 65-year-old Caucasian woman suffering from insomnia associated with depression who was successfully treated with sleep deprivation. Keywords: sleep disorders, depression, insomnia, sleep-wake rhythm

Luca A; Luca M; Calandra C

2013-01-01

194

Associations of depression with the transition to menopause.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to identify the risk of depression in the transition to menopause in women with and without a history of depression and to consider that the changing hormonal milieu is one of multiple risk factors for perimenopausal depression. METHOD: A review of epidemiologic studies of depressed mood in the menopausal transition since the State-of-Science Report of the National Institutes of Health in 2005 was conducted. RESULTS: Recent longitudinal cohort studies indicate that the likelihood of depressed mood in the menopausal transition is approximately 30% to three times greater compared with that during premenopause. Women with a history of depression are nearly five times more likely to have a diagnosis of major depression in the menopausal transition, whereas women with no history of depression are two to four times more likely to report depressed mood compared with premenopausal women. In some studies, the changing hormonal milieu is significantly associated with depressive symptoms in the menopausal transition. Other risk factors for depressed mood in perimenopausal women include poor sleep, hot flashes, stressful or negative life events, employment status, age, and race. CONCLUSIONS: The findings support the concept that the menopausal transition is a "window of vulnerability" for some women and is framed by the changing hormonal milieu of ovarian aging.

Freeman EW

2010-07-01

195

Fasting in mood disorders: neurobiology and effectiveness. A review of the literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Clinicians have found that fasting was frequently accompanied by an increased level of vigilance and a mood improvement, a subjective feeling of well-being, and sometimes of euphoria. Therapeutic fasting, following an established protocol, is safe and well tolerated. We aim in this article to explore the biological mechanisms activated during fasting that could have an effect on brain function with particular focus on mood (we do not discuss here the mechanisms regulating eating behavior) and to provide a comprehensive review on the potential positive impact of therapeutic fasting on mood. We explored Medline, Web of Science and PsycInfo according to the PRISMA criteria (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis). The initial research paradigm was: [(fasting OR caloric restriction) AND (mental health OR depressive disorders OR mood OR anxiety)]. Many neurobiological mechanisms have been proposed to explain fasting effects on mood, such as changes in neurotransmitters, quality of sleep, and synthesis of neurotrophic factors. Many clinical observations relate an early (between day 2 and day 7) effect of fasting on depressive symptoms with an improvement in mood, alertness and a sense of tranquility reported by patients. The persistence of mood improvement over time remains to be determined. PMID:23332541

Fond, Guillaume; Macgregor, Alexandra; Leboyer, Marion; Michalsen, Andreas

2013-01-15

196

A meta-analysis of depression severity and cognitive function.  

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Studies examining the way in which cognitive impairment is associated with depression have produced inconsistent findings. Different severity of depressed mood across studies may account for such conflicting reports. However, inconsistent results have also been reported in relation to the specific a...

McDermott, LM; Ebmeier, KP

197

A pilot evaluation of associations between displayed depression references on Facebook and self-reported depression using a clinical scale.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this study was to determine associations between displayed depression symptoms on Facebook and self-reported depression symptoms using a clinical screen. Public Facebook profiles of undergraduates from two universities were examined for displayed depression references. Profiles were categorized as depression symptom displayers or non-displayers. Participants completed an online PHQ-9 depression scale. Analyses examined associations between PHQ-9 score and depression symptom displayers versus non-displayers. The mean PHQ-9 score for non-displayers was 4.7 (SD?=?4.0), the mean PHQ-9 score for depression symptom displayers was 6.4 (SD?=?5.1; p?=?0.018). A trend approaching significance was noted that participants who scored into a depression category by their PHQ-9 score were more likely to display depression symptom references. Displayed references to depression symptoms were associated with self-reported depression symptoms.

Moreno MA; Christakis DA; Egan KG; Jelenchick LA; Cox E; Young H; Villiard H; Becker T

2012-07-01

198

Social Anxiety Disorder and Mood Disorders Comorbidity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Social Anxiety Disorder is a common disorder leading functional impairment. The comorbidity between mood disorders with social anxiety disorder is relatively common. This comorbidity impacts the clinical severity, resistance and functionality of patients. The systematic evaluation of the comorbidity in both patient groups should not be ignored and be carefully conducted. In general, social anxiety disorder starts at an earlier age than mood disorders and is reported to be predictor for subsequent major depression. The absence of comorbidity in patients with social anxiety disorder is a predictor of good response to treatment. In bipolar disorder patients with comorbid social anxiety disorder, there is an increased level of general psychopathology. Besides, they have poor outcome and increased risk of suicide. In this article, comorbidity between these two disorders has been evaluated in detail.

Zerrin Binbay; Ahmet Koyuncu

2012-01-01

199

Sleep disorders and depression: brief review of the literature, case report, and nonpharmacologic interventions for depression  

Science.gov (United States)

Sleep disorders are so frequently associated with depression that, in the absence of sleep complaints, a diagnosis of depression should be made with caution. Insomnia, in particular, may occur in 60%–80% of depressed patients. Depressive symptoms are important risk factors for insomnia, and depression is considered an important comorbid condition in patients with chronic insomnia of any etiology. In addition, some drugs commonly prescribed for the treatment of depression may worsen insomnia and impair full recovery from the illness. The aim of this paper is to review briefly and discuss the following topics: common sleep disturbances during depression (in particular pavor nocturnus, nightmares, hypersomnia, and insomnia); circadian sleep disturbances; and treatment of depression by manipulation of the sleep-wake rhythm (chronotherapy, light therapy, cycles of sleep, and manipulation of the sleep-wake rhythm itself). Finally, we present a case report of a 65-year-old Caucasian woman suffering from insomnia associated with depression who was successfully treated with sleep deprivation.

Luca, Antonina; Luca, Maria; Calandra, Carmela

2013-01-01

200

Sleep disorders and depression: brief review of the literature, case report, and nonpharmacologic interventions for depression.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sleep disorders are so frequently associated with depression that, in the absence of sleep complaints, a diagnosis of depression should be made with caution. Insomnia, in particular, may occur in 60%-80% of depressed patients. Depressive symptoms are important risk factors for insomnia, and depression is considered an important comorbid condition in patients with chronic insomnia of any etiology. In addition, some drugs commonly prescribed for the treatment of depression may worsen insomnia and impair full recovery from the illness. The aim of this paper is to review briefly and discuss the following topics: common sleep disturbances during depression (in particular pavor nocturnus, nightmares, hypersomnia, and insomnia); circadian sleep disturbances; and treatment of depression by manipulation of the sleep-wake rhythm (chronotherapy, light therapy, cycles of sleep, and manipulation of the sleep-wake rhythm itself). Finally, we present a case report of a 65-year-old Caucasian woman suffering from insomnia associated with depression who was successfully treated with sleep deprivation.

Luca A; Luca M; Calandra C

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Job strain and the risk of depression: is reporting biased?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

It is unknown whether the relation between job strain and depression reflects causal characteristics of the working environment or reporting bias. The authors investigated reporting bias by analyzing individual versus work-unit measures of job strain and the risk of depressive symptoms (n = 287) and a diagnosis of depression (n = 97) among 4,291 employees within 378 work units in Aarhus, Denmark, 2007. All participants reported psychological demands and decision latitude, and the authors estimated mean values for each work unit. The odds ratios predicting depressive symptoms or a diagnosis of depression for the highest versus the lowest levels of individual, self-reported high psychological demands and low decision latitude were significantly increased above 2.5. When participants were classified by the work-unit mean levels, these associations were substantially smaller. For depressive symptoms, the odds ratios were 1.49 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.88, 2.53) and 1.08 (95% CI: 0.84, 1.39), respectively, for psychological demands and decision latitude. For a diagnosis of depression, the odds ratios were 1.33 (95% CI: 0.57, 3.09) and 1.02 (95% CI: 0.68, 1.56), respectively, for psychological demands and decision latitude. These findings indicate that reporting bias inflates associations between job strain and the occurrence of depression, if studies rely on individual self-reports.

Kolstad, Henrik; Hansen, Åse Marie

2011-01-01

202

In the winning mood  

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Full Text Available The present research aimed to test the role of mood in the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT; Bechara et al., 1994). In the IGT, participants can win or lose money by picking cards from four different decks. They have to learn by experience that two decks are overall advantageous and two decks are overall disadvantageous. Previous studies have shown that at an early stage in this card-game, players begin to display a tendency towards the advantageous decks. Subsequent research suggested that at this stage, people base their decisions on conscious gut feelings (Wagar and Dixon, 2006). Based on empirical evidence for the relation between mood and cognitive processing-styles, we expected and consistently found that, compared to a negative mood state, reported and induced positive mood states increased this early tendency towards advantageous decks. Our results provide support for the idea that a positive mood causes stronger reliance on affective signals in decision-making than a negative mood.

Marieke de Vries; Rob W. Holland; Cilia L. M. Witteman

2008-01-01

203

Modified electroconvulsive therapy for recurrent major depressive disorder in a meningioma patient: a case report of clinical experience.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is primarily indicated for mood disorders and schizophrenia. Clinicians may encounter cases in which ECT is administered to patients with various kinds of complications. However, to our knowledge, no detailed medical guideline is available about the indications for ECT in psychiatric illness complicated with a concomitant brain tumor, which is one of the most likely physical complications that can directly affect ECT. We report a case in which 3 courses of modified ECT (m-ECT) were successfully administered without any neurological deterioration to a patient, who was frequently hospitalized for recurrent depressive disorder with stupor. We did not undertake any additional measures for reducing adverse events derived from the meningioma during m-ECT. In this report, we discuss the relation between brain tumor and depression.

Nakatake M; Teraishi T; Ide M; Wakizono T; Ogawa T; Kuwahara T; Yoshino A; Nomura S

2010-09-01

204

MOOD AND PERFORMANCE IN YOUNG MALAYSIAN KARATEKA  

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Full Text Available In an attempt to test the conceptual model by Lane and Terry, the purposes of this study were 1) to assess mood states in non-depressed and depressed young karate athletes; 2) to assess mood states in relation to performance in young karate athletes. The participants were recruited from the 2004 Malaysian Games (72 males, 19.20 ± 1.16 years; 37 females, 18.78 ± 0.88 years). The athletes were divided into winners (medalists) and losers. The Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS) was administered prior to the start of competition. MANOVA was employed to treat the data, while Pearson correlations were calculated for mood states in each depressed mood group and by gender. In terms of non-depressed and depressed mood, tension in the females was higher in the depressed group (5.61 ± 3.02 vs. 3.11 ± 1.90, p = 0.026, eta2 = 0.133), as was fatigue (3.64 ± 2.61 vs. 0.89 ± 1.69, p = 0.006, eta2 = 0.199). Tension in the males was higher in the depressed group (4.41 ± 2.52 vs. 1.50 ± 1.55, p < 0.001, eta2 = 0.215), as was anger (1.43 ± 1.88 vs. 0.25 ± 1.00, p = 0.019, eta2 = 0.076). The highest associations among mood subscales were between anger and depression (r = 0.57), and between depression and fatigue ( r = 0.55) in depressed males. The female winning karateka scored higher on anger (3.08 ± 2.96 vs. 1.29 ± 2.24, p = 0.046, eta2 = 0.109). The highest correlations between mood dimensions in depressed females were between depression and anger (r = 0.85) and between depression and confusion (r = 0.85). Contrary to previous research on the influence of depression on anger, only the female winners scored higher on anger. Several negative mood dimensions were higher in both male and female depressed groups, lending some support to the conceptual model advanced by Lane and Terry

Rebecca S. K. Wong; Jin Seng Thung; Willy Pieter

2006-01-01

205

Developmental aspects of mood disorders.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rates of depression double in the transition to adolescence. Symptoms of depression in adolescence also predict adult mood disorders. From a preventative perspective, research into the risk factors for adolescent depression is critical. Simultaneously, there is also growing interest in understanding why adolescence reflects a particularly critical period for the onset of early mood symptoms. Here, we review (a) the role of social, genetic, neural and cognitive factors in explaining individual differences in the propensity to develop symptoms in adolescence, and (b) whether changes in these factors may explain why adolescence is a particularly sensitive period for the onset of depressive symptoms. Finally, we speculate on whether novel social stressors interact with 'genetic innovation' to produce changes in brain circuitry structure and function and associated changes in emotion regulation abilities and social understanding-to increase emergence of symptoms in adolescence.

Lau JY

2013-01-01

206

Developmental aspects of mood disorders.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rates of depression double in the transition to adolescence. Symptoms of depression in adolescence also predict adult mood disorders. From a preventative perspective, research into the risk factors for adolescent depression is critical. Simultaneously, there is also growing interest in understanding why adolescence reflects a particularly critical period for the onset of early mood symptoms. Here, we review (a) the role of social, genetic, neural and cognitive factors in explaining individual differences in the propensity to develop symptoms in adolescence, and (b) whether changes in these factors may explain why adolescence is a particularly sensitive period for the onset of depressive symptoms. Finally, we speculate on whether novel social stressors interact with 'genetic innovation' to produce changes in brain circuitry structure and function and associated changes in emotion regulation abilities and social understanding-to increase emergence of symptoms in adolescence. PMID:22923073

Lau, Jennifer Y F

2013-01-01

207

Restriction of meat, fish, and poultry in omnivores improves mood: A pilot randomized controlled trial  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Omnivorous diets are high in arachidonic acid (AA) compared to vegetarian diets. Research shows that high intakes of AA promote changes in brain that can disturb mood. Omnivores who eat fish regularly increase their intakes of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), fats that oppose the negative effects of AA in vivo. In a recent cross-sectional study, omnivores reported significantly worse mood than vegetarians despite higher intakes of EPA and DHA. This study investigated the impact of restricting meat, fish, and poultry on mood. Findings Thirty-nine omnivores were randomly assigned to a control group consuming meat, fish, and poultry daily (OMN); a group consuming fish 3-4 times weekly but avoiding meat and poultry (FISH), or a vegetarian group avoiding meat, fish, and poultry (VEG). At baseline and after two weeks, participants completed a food frequency questionnaire, the Profile of Mood States questionnaire and the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales. After the diet intervention, VEG participants reduced their EPA, DHA, and AA intakes, while FISH participants increased their EPA and DHA intakes. Mood scores were unchanged for OMN or FISH participants, but several mood scores for VEG participants improved significantly after two weeks. Conclusions Restricting meat, fish, and poultry improved some domains of short-term mood state in modern omnivores. To our knowledge, this is the first trial to examine the impact of restricting meat, fish, and poultry on mood state in omnivores.

Beezhold Bonnie L; Johnston Carol S

2012-01-01

208

Day-to-day cause-effect relations between cellular immune activity, fatigue and mood in a patient with prior breast cancer and current cancer-related fatigue and depression.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study of a breast cancer patient with cancer-related fatigue (CaRF) and depression investigated the bidirectional cause-effect relations between cellular immune activity, fatigue and mood during 'life as it is lived'. The 49-year-old patient (breast cancer diagnosis 5 years earlier, severe CaRF and increase in depressiveness since then) collected her entire urine for 28 days in 12-h intervals (from 8 p.m. to 8 a.m. and from 8 a.m. to 8 p.m.; total: 55 measurements) for the determination of urinary neopterin (immune activation marker) and creatinine levels using HPLC. Furthermore, she completed questionnaires twice each day (at approx. 8 a.m. and 8 p.m.), which yielded information on mood (3-Skalen-Eigenschaftswörterliste [EWL]) and fatigue levels (visual analog scale [VAS]). Cross-correlational analyses showed complex connections between urinary neopterin concentrations and mood and fatigue in terms of direction of effect, temporal delay and response pattern. Increases in urinary neopterin levels significantly preceded increases in fatigue intensity with a temporal delay of 60-72h (lag 5: r=0.298; p=0.027), whereas increases in positive mood co-occurred with neopterin level increases (lag 0: r=+0.302; p=0.025) and preceded decreases in neopterin concentrations with a temporal delay of 132-144h (lag 11: r=-0.323; p=0.017). These results confirm and extend our previous findings and show that in order to obtain an adequate understanding of the dynamic relations among cancer-related variables, the characteristics of everyday-life conditions need to be considered. PMID:23541233

Haberkorn, Julia; Burbaum, Christina; Fritzsche, Kurt; Geser, Willi; Fuchs, Dietmar; Ocaña-Peinado, Francisco M; Schubert, Christian

2013-03-26

209

White matter hyperintensities and self-reported depression in a sample of patients with chronic headache  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

White matter hyperintensities (WMH) have been associated with mood disorders in psychiatric patients. In the present study, we aimed to assess whether WMHs are associated with depressive symptoms and different sensitivity of the behavioral inhibition (BIS), and activation (BAS) systems in patients w...

Serafini, Gianluca; Pompili, Maurizio; Innamorati, Marco; Negro, Andrea; Fiorillo, Martina; Lamis, Dorian A.; Erbuto, Denise

210

Mood and the menstrual cycle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Premenstrual mood symptoms are considered common in women, but such prevailing attitudes are shaped by social expectations about gender, emotionality and hormonal influences. There are few prospective, community studies of women reporting mood data from all phases of the menstrual cycle (MC). We aimed (i) to analyze daily mood data over 6 months for MC phase cyclicity and (ii) to compare MC phase influences on a woman's daily mood with that attributable to key alternate explanatory variables (physical health, perceived stress and social support). METHOD: A random sample of Canadian women aged 18-40 years collected mood and health data daily over 6 months, using telemetry, producing 395 complete MCs for analysis. RESULTS: Only half the individual mood items showed any MC phase association; these links were either with the menses phase alone or the menses plus the premenstrual phase. With one exception, the association was not solely premenstrual. The menses-follicular-luteal MC division gave similar results. Less than 0.5% of the women's individual periodogram records for each mood item showed MC entrainment. Physical health, perceived stress and social support were much stronger predictors of mood (p < 0.0001 in each case) than MC phase. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study do not support the widespread idea of specific premenstrual dysphoria in women. Daily physical health status, perceived stress and social support explain daily mood better than MC phase.

Romans SE; Kreindler D; Asllani E; Einstein G; Laredo S; Levitt A; Morgan K; Petrovic M; Toner B; Stewart DE

2013-01-01

211

Negative moods correlate with craving in female methamphetamine users enrolled in compulsory detoxification  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Methamphetamine (METH) use, especially in females, has become a growing public health concern in China. In this study, we aimed to characterize the factors that contributed to drug craving in female METH users under isolated compulsory detoxification. We characterized factors contributing to craving such as duration of detoxification, history of drug use and self-reported mood state. Methods Subjects (N=113) undergoing a 1- to 3-year METH detoxification program were recruited from the Zhejiang Compulsory Detoxification Center for Women. The Questionnaire of METH-use Urge (QMU) was used to evaluate the level of craving for METH. The Abbreviate Profile of Mood States (A-POMS) was applied as an assessment for the negative mood disturbances. Results The participants were at a mean age of 25.2, primarily lowly educated and unemployed, and single. Smoking was the only route of METH administration at an average dose of 0.5 g/day, and 4 times/week. The reported craving level was positively correlated with the negative mood disturbances and the weekly dose of METH, but independent of the duration of detoxification. Furthermore, all five aspects of negative mood disturbances, including fatigue, bewilderment, anxiety, depression and hostility, were shown to positively correlate to the self-reported craving level after controlling for weekly dose of METH. Conclusions The data demonstrate a robust correlation between mood distress and craving for METH. Our results call for close evaluation of mood distress in treatment of METH users in China.

Shen Wenwen; Liu Yu; Li Longhui; Zhang Yisheng; Zhou Wenhua

2012-01-01

212

Negative moods correlate with craving in female methamphetamine users enrolled in compulsory detoxification.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine (METH) use, especially in females, has become a growing public health concern in China. In this study, we aimed to characterize the factors that contributed to drug craving in female METH users under isolated compulsory detoxification. We characterized factors contributing to craving such as duration of detoxification, history of drug use and self-reported mood state. METHODS: Subjects (N=113) undergoing a 1- to 3-year METH detoxification program were recruited from the Zhejiang Compulsory Detoxification Center for Women. The Questionnaire of METH-use Urge (QMU) was used to evaluate the level of craving for METH. The Abbreviate Profile of Mood States (A-POMS) was applied as an assessment for the negative mood disturbances. RESULTS: The participants were at a mean age of 25.2, primarily lowly educated and unemployed, and single. Smoking was the only route of METH administration at an average dose of 0.5 g/day, and 4 times/week. The reported craving level was positively correlated with the negative mood disturbances and the weekly dose of METH, but independent of the duration of detoxification. Furthermore, all five aspects of negative mood disturbances, including fatigue, bewilderment, anxiety, depression and hostility, were shown to positively correlate to the self-reported craving level after controlling for weekly dose of METH. CONCLUSIONS: The data demonstrate a robust correlation between mood distress and craving for METH. Our results call for close evaluation of mood distress in treatment of METH users in China.

Shen W; Liu Y; Li L; Zhang Y; Zhou W

2012-01-01

213

Reproductive Hormones and Mood Disorders  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During the menstrual cycle, pregnancy and breast-feeding periods, as well as in menopausal and post-menopausal periods, the physiological and psychological processes that change according to the hormonal fluctuations influence every women similarly and each one differently. These physiological processes are controlled by neuroendocrine sequences, of which the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis are the most important ones. The hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis affects mood, anxiety, cognition and pain. The interaction of these hormones with mood and behavior is bidirectional. The differences in phenomenology and epidemiology of mood disorders with regards to gender can be explained with the effects of hormones. All of the periods mentioned above are related with mood disorders at terms of risk factors, disease symptoms, progress of disease and response to treatment. Epidemiologic data supports the relationship between the mood disorders and reproductive processes. The prevalence of major depression increases in women with the menarche and ceases in post- menopausal period. Similarly, the initial symptoms of bipolar disorder begins around the menarche period in 50% of the cases. Despite proper treatment, some female patients with major depression experience recurrence during the premenstrual period of their menstrual cycles. The conformity and change in a woman’s brain during pregnancy is controlled dominantly by the neuroendocrine systems, while it is controlled by the external stimuli actively related to the baby during nursing period. The changes that occur are closely related to postpartum mood disorders. Again, all the changes and suspension of medication during this procedure are risk factors for early depressive and dysphoric situations. Variables of a wide range, from follicle stimulating hormone, melatonin, and sleep to body mass index interact with mood disorders in menopausal and post-menopausal periods. Interest on the effects of gonadal steroids on the central nervous system has grown parallel with our increasing knowledge. In the last decade, the place of hormonal treatments in the treatment of mood disorders have been discussed continously. During this period, along with the anti-depressant efficacy of estrogen, anti-manic efficacy of tamoxifen was also demonstrated in several studies. In this paper, the complex relationship between the physiological changes and the mood disorders during a menstrual cycle, pregnancy, nursing, menopausal and post-menopausal periods are briefly reviewed and discussed over the reproductive hormones in the context of etiology, phenomenology and treatment.

Sermin Kesebir; Arzu Etlik Aksoy

2010-01-01

214

Depression  

Science.gov (United States)

... going to change or get better. How do women experience depression? Depression is more common among women than among ... factors that women experience may be linked to women's higher depression rate. Researchers have shown that hormones directly affect ...

215

Depression  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Health Issue Depression causes significant distress or impairment in physical, social, occupational and other key areas of functioning. Women are approximately twice as likely as men to experience depression. Psychosocial factors likely mediate the risks for depression incu...

Stewart Donna E; Gucciardi Enza; Grace Sherry L

216

Depression  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... a baby. Depression can also affect children. Family members may think that by ignoring depression, it will ... go away. However, since depression clouds judgment, family members or friends usually need to make the first ...

217

Lamotrigine in binge-eating disorder associated with bipolar II depression and treatment-resistant type 2 diabetes mellitus: a case report.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Lamotrigine (LMG) is an anticonvulsant currently registered for the treatment of bipolar disorder (BP) depression. We report the case of a 61-year-old woman with comorbid binge-eating disorder (BED), BP depression, and treatment-resistant type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), in which LMG showed significant efficacy against BED and BP depression and resulted in a drastic decrease in plasma glucose levels. CASE REPORT: The patient had had untreated BP depression, BED, and T2DM for more than 30 years. We prescribed LMG at 25 mg/d for BP depression and titrated it up to 50 mg/d over 4 weeks, then maintained this dose for the next 16 weeks. At follow-up after the first 4-week period, she reported a significant decrease in compulsive eating impulses and depressive mood, and her positive reports were consistent in the following months. Hemoglobin A1c levels at National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program decreased drastically from 9.6% to 7.1% over the 20 weeks after initiating treatment. CONCLUSION: This case suggests that LMG might be beneficial for BED with concomitant BP depression, and potentially for treatment-resistant T2DM, if this refractoriness is identified to result from comorbidity of BED and BP.

Yamamoto T; Kanahara N; Hirai A; Watanabe H; Iyo M

2013-01-01

218

Diagnosis, phenomenology and treatment of poststroke depression  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Diagnosing depression in stroke patients is a challenge in neuropsychiatry since depression symptoms may overlap neurological deficit signs. The best approach is to assess the presence of depressive symptoms using semi-structured or structured psychiatric interviews, such as the Present State Exam, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV or the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry. The diagnosis of a depressive syndrome should be made according to standardized diagnostic criteria for mood disorders due to neurological disease such as in the DSM-IV or ICD-10. Depression rating scales such as the Hamilton Depression Scale and the Center for Epidemiologic Scales for Depression may be used to rate the depression severity and monitor the progression of antidepressant treatment. Most studies have reported the effectiveness of pharmacological treatment in patients with post-stroke depression, and there is preliminary evidence that the degree of impairment in activities of daily living (ADL) may improve as well.

Starkstein Sergio E; Lischinsky Alicia

2002-01-01

219

Atypical depression: a reappraisal.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The study evaluated the DSM-IV definition of the atypical features specifier for a major depressive episode in major depressive disorder. METHOD: Nonpsychotic patients with major depressive disorder were assessed to determine if the DSM-IV model and decision rules for the atypical features specifier for a major depressive episode could be supported. RESULTS: The five clinical features of the DSM-IV atypical features specifier for a major depressive episode showed weak internal consistency, and the mandatory criterion A feature of mood reactivity did not show specificity in relation to any of the four criterion B accessory symptoms. The more severe the depression, the less likely the patient was to report criterion A and hence to meet criteria for the atypical features specifier. Remodeling the five features favored the personality style descriptor of interpersonal rejection sensitivity as an alternate primary feature. A reformulated model also suggested lifetime panic disorder and social phobia as higher-order determinants of atypical features in major depressive disorder. Additional analyses of criteria suggested that interpersonal rejection sensitivity and leaden paralysis had a phenomenological base in anxiety, that mood reactivity was linked with irritability, and that neither weight gain nor hypersomnia were clearly aligned with anxiety or depression, raising questions about their status as symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The current definition and modeling of the DSM-IV atypical features specifier for a major depressive episode in major depressive disorder appears problematic. As suggested by earlier descriptions of atypical depression, certain expressions of anxiety may have primacy, and some clinical features associated with the DSM-IV model may be adaptive homeostatic responses rather than pathological symptoms.

Parker G; Roy K; Mitchell P; Wilhelm K; Malhi G; Hadzi-Pavlovic D

2002-09-01

220

Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) clinical guidelines for the management of major depressive disorder in adults. II. Psychotherapy alone or in combination with antidepressant medication.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: In 2001, the Canadian Psychiatric Association and the Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) partnered to produce evidence-based clinical guidelines for the treatment of depressive disorders. A revision of these guidelines was undertaken by CANMAT in 2008-2009 to reflect advances in the field. This article, one of five in the series, reviews new studies of psychotherapy in the acute and maintenance phase of MDD, including computer-based and telephone-delivered psychotherapy. METHODS: The CANMAT guidelines are based on a question-answer format to enhance accessibility to clinicians. Evidence-based responses are based on updated systematic reviews of the literature and recommendations are graded according to the Level of Evidence, using pre-defined criteria. Lines of Treatment are identified based on criteria that included evidence and expert clinical support. RESULTS: Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (CBT) and Interpersonal Therapy (IPT) continue to have the most evidence for efficacy, both in acute and maintenance phases of MDD, and have been studied in combination with antidepressants. CBT is well studied in conjunction with computer-delivered methods and bibliotherapy. Behavioural Activation and Cognitive-Behavioural Analysis System of Psychotherapy have significant evidence, but need replication. Newer psychotherapies including Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, Motivational Interviewing, and Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy do not yet have significant evidence as acute treatments; nor does psychodynamic therapy. LIMITATIONS: Although many forms of psychotherapy have been studied, relatively few types have been evaluated for MDD in randomized controlled trials. Evidence about the combination of different types of psychotherapy and antidepressant medication is also limited despite widespread use of these therapies concomitantly. CONCLUSIONS: CBT and IPT are the only first-line treatment recommendations for acute MDD and remain highly recommended for maintenance. Both computer-based and telephone-delivered psychotherapy--primarily studied with CBT and IPT--are useful second-line recommendations. Where feasible, combined antidepressant and CBT or IPT are recommended as first-line treatments for acute MDD.

Parikh SV; Segal ZV; Grigoriadis S; Ravindran AV; Kennedy SH; Lam RW; Patten SB

2009-10-01

 
 
 
 
221

Low-income rural women and depression: factors associated with self-reporting.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To examine factors associated with self-reporting depression for low-income rural women experiencing depressive symptoms. METHODS: Data were from 219 Rural Families Speak participants with CES-D scores >15. Chi-square and multiple logistic regression were utilized. RESULTS: Just over one half (52.5%) of respondents who were experiencing depressive symptoms self-reported depression, whereas 47.5% of respondents self-reported no depression. Women reporting depression were significantly likelier to report physical health problems, injury/illness, and more frequent physician visits. Women reporting no depression were significantly likelier to have been pregnant in the previous 3 years. CONCLUSIONS: Women reporting depression had more health care system exposure and perhaps depressive symptomotology knowledge. Public health campaigns should educate about depressive symptoms, including postpartum depression, to reduce stigma and increase treatment-seeking.

Simmons LA; Huddleston-Casas C; Berry AA

2007-11-01

222

Outpatient triple chronotherapy for bipolar depression: case report.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There is an urgent need for rapid, effective, and safe treatments for bipolar depression. Triple chronotherapy is a combination of sleep deprivation, sleep phase advance, and bright light therapy that has been shown to induce accelerated and sustained remissions in bipolar depression. This case report describes the first outpatient program designed to administer triple chronotherapy and reviews the organizational and clinical requirements for providing such care.

Gottlieb JF; Terman M

2012-09-01

223

Concordance between patient and family reports of family functioning in bipolar I disorder and major depressive disorder.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Despite the extensive literature on family functioning and mood disorders, less is known about concordance between patient- and family-reported family functioning. To address this question, adults with bipolar I disorder (BD; n = 92) or major depressive disorder (MDD; n = 121) and their family members (n = 135 and 201, respectively) were recruited from hospital sources. All patients and their family members completed the Family Assessment Device (Epstein, Baldwin, Bishop. J Marital Fam Ther. 9:171-180, 1983). Intraclass correlation coefficients revealed that, in contrast to the moderate degree of concordance in the MDD sample, degree of concordance between patient- and family-reported family functioning was significantly weaker in BD. Subsequent analysis revealed that this discordance was driven by the reports of the child and young adolescent family members of the patients with BD. Results highlight the importance of collateral reports in the assessment of family functioning, especially among families of patients with BD, in research and treatment.

Weinstock LM; Wenze SJ; Munroe MK; Miller IW

2013-05-01

224

Stepped care for depression and anxiety: from primary care to specialized mental health care: a randomised controlled trial testing the effectiveness of a stepped care program among primary care patients with mood or anxiety disorders  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Mood and anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and have a large impact on the lives of the affected individuals. Therefore, optimal treatment of these disorders is highly important. In this study we will examine the effectiveness of a stepped care program for primary care patients with mood and anxiety disorders. A stepped care program is characterized by different treatment steps that are arranged in order of increasing intensity. Methods This study is a randomised controlled trial with two conditions: stepped care and care as usual, whereby the latter forms the control group. The stepped care program consists of four evidence based interventions: (1) Watchful waiting, (2) Guided self-help, (3) Problem Solving Treatment and (4) Medication and/or specialized mental health care. The study population consists of primary care attendees aged 18–65 years. Screeners are sent to all patients of the participating general practitioners. Individuals with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of mental disorders (DSM) diagnosis of major depression, dysthymia, panic disorder (with or without agoraphobia), generalized anxiety disorder, or social phobia are included as well as individuals with minor depression and anxiety disorders. Primary focus is the reduction of depressive and anxiety symptoms. Both conditions are monitored at 8, 16 and 24 weeks. Discussion This study evaluates the effectiveness of a stepped care program for patients with depressive and anxiety disorder. If effective, a stepped care program can form a worthwhile alternative for care as usual. Strengths and limitations of this study are discussed. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trails: ISRCTN17831610.

Seekles Wike; van Straten Annemieke; Beekman Aartjan; van Marwijk Harm; Cuijpers Pim

2009-01-01

225

Improving mood with psychoanalytic and cognitive therapies (IMPACT): a pragmatic effectiveness superiority trial to investigate whether specialised psychological treatment reduces the risk for relapse in adolescents with moderate to severe unipolar depression: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Up to 70% of adolescents with moderate to severe unipolar major depression respond to psychological treatment plus Fluoxetine (20-50 mg) with symptom reduction and improved social function reported by 24 weeks after beginning treatment. Around 20% of non responders appear treatment resistant and 30% of responders relapse within 2 years. The specific efficacy of different psychological therapies and the moderators and mediators that influence risk for relapse are unclear. The cost-effectiveness and safety of psychological treatments remain poorly evaluated. Methods/Design Improving Mood with Psychoanalytic and Cognitive Therapies, the IMPACT Study, will determine whether Cognitive Behavioural Therapy or Short Term Psychoanalytic Therapy is superior in reducing relapse compared with Specialist Clinical Care. The study is a multicentre pragmatic effectiveness superiority randomised clinical trial: Cognitive Behavioural Therapy consists of 20 sessions over 30 weeks, Short Term Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy 30 sessions over 30 weeks and Specialist Clinical Care 12 sessions over 20 weeks. We will recruit 540 patients with 180 randomised to each arm. Patients will be reassessed at 6, 12, 36, 52 and 86 weeks. Methodological aspects of the study are systematic recruitment, explicit inclusion criteria, reliability checks of assessments with control for rater shift, research assessors independent of treatment team and blind to randomization, analysis by intention to treat, data management using remote data entry, measures of quality assurance, advanced statistical analysis, manualised treatment protocols, checks of adherence and competence of therapists and assessment of cost-effectiveness. We will also determine whether time to recovery and/or relapse are moderated by variations in brain structure and function and selected genetic and hormone biomarkers taken at entry. Discussion The objective of this clinical trial is to determine whether there are specific effects of specialist psychotherapy that reduce relapse in unipolar major depression in adolescents and thereby costs of treatment to society. We also anticipate being able to utilise psychotherapy experience, neuroimaging, genetic and hormone measures to reveal what techniques and their protocols may work best for which patients. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN83033550

Goodyer Ian M; Tsancheva Sonya; Byford Sarah; Dubicka Bernadka; Hill Jonathan; Kelvin Raphael; Reynolds Shirley; Roberts Christopher; Senior Robert; Suckling John; Wilkinson Paul; Target Mary; Fonagy Peter

2011-01-01

226

Method of treating depression  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Methods for treatment of depression-related mood disorders in mammals, particularly humans are disclosed. The methods of the invention include administration of compounds capable of enhancing glutamate transporter activity in the brain of mammals suffering from depression. ATP-sensitive K.sup.+ channel openers and .beta.-lactam antibiotics are used to enhance glutamate transport and to treat depression-related mood disorders and depressive symptoms.

Henn, Fritz (East Patchogue, NY)

2012-01-24

227

Method of treating depression  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Methods for treatment of depression-related mood disorders in mammals, particularly humans are disclosed. The methods of the invention include administration of compounds capable of enhancing glutamate transporter activity in the brain of mammals suffering from depression. ATP-sensitive K.sup.+ channel openers and .beta.-lactam antibiotics are used to enhance glutamate transport and to treat depression-related mood disorders and depressive symptoms.

Henn, Fritz

2013-04-09

228

Mood symptoms in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Asperger Syndrome (AS) and High Functioning Autism (HFA) are psychiatric conditions belonging to the Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASDs), characterized by social dysfunction and focused interest, in the absence of mental retardation. Previous reports suggest that AS/HFA may be associated with important psychiatric comorbidities. Among the psychiatric internalizing disorders, depression and anxiety are probably the most common disorders. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of mood disorders and identifying peculiar clinical features in subjects suffering from AS and HFA. 30 male patients with AS/HFA, 30 male patients affected by Major Depression (MD) and 35 male Typically Developing (TD) comparison were assessed with the CDI and the CDRS-R. Participants' parents were invited to complete the CBCL and the P-YMRS. Moreover, the CGAS was rated by the clinicians. The evaluation of depressive symptoms showed that AS/HFA group reported higher depressive symptoms, as showed by CDI total, CBCL internalizing and CDRS-R total, compared to the TD group. No significant difference of depressive symptoms was found between the AS/HFA and the MD group, with the exception of CDRS-R total score. Moreover, linear regression analysis in the AS/HFA group between CGAS and depressive symptoms revealed that a higher level of depressive symptoms increased the risk of poorer global functioning. These results suggest that the depressive symptoms in AS/HFA patients may be associated with poorer global functioning, with a consequent impairment in their psychological profile and social adjustment, and should alert clinicians to the importance of assessing mood disorders in order to choose the appropriate treatment.

Mazzone L; Postorino V; De Peppo L; Fatta L; Lucarelli V; Reale L; Giovagnoli G; Vicari S

2013-09-01

229

Rumination, anxiety, depressive symptoms and subsequent depression in adolescents at risk for psychopathology: a longitudinal cohort study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: A ruminative style of responding to low mood is associated with subsequent high depressive symptoms and depressive disorder in children, adolescents and adults. Scores on self-report rumination scales correlate strongly with scores on anxiety and depression symptom scales. This may confound any associations between rumination and subsequent depression. METHODS: Our sample comprised 658 healthy adolescents at elevated risk for psychopathology. This study applied ordinal item (non-linear) factor analysis to pooled items from three self-report questionnaires to explore whether there were separate, but correlated, constructs of rumination, depression and anxiety. It then tested whether rumination independently predicted depressive disorder and depressive symptoms over the subsequent 12 months, after adjusting for confounding variables. RESULTS: We identified a single rumination factor, which was correlated with factors representing cognitive symptoms of depression, somatic symptoms of depression and anxiety symptoms; and one factor representing adaptive responses to low mood. Elevated rumination scores predicted onset of depressive disorders over the subsequent year (p = 0.035), and levels of depressive symptoms 12 months later (p < 0.0005), after adjustment for prior levels of depressive and anxiety symptoms. CONCLUSION: High rumination predicts onset of depressive disorder in healthy adolescents. Therapy that reduces rumination and increases distraction/problem-solving may reduce onset and relapse rates of depression.

Wilkinson PO; Croudace TJ; Goodyer IM

2013-10-01

230

The relation between insomnia symptoms, mood, and rumination about insomnia symptoms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Research suggests that rumination may play an important role in insomnia. Whereas some have suggested that rumination mainly relates to depression, the evidence suggests that there may be insomnia-specific rumination. This paper explores insomnia symptom rumination across two distinct samples of varying levels of depressed mood and insomnia symptom severity. METHODS: The first sample consisted of nonclinical participants (N = 327) with a range of insomnia and depressed mood symptoms, and the second sample consisted of those who met both Major Depressive Disorder and Insomnia diagnoses (N = 66). Rather than relying on a measure developed for those with depression, we developed and tested an insomnia-specific measurement scale based on items from previous rumination studies and the addition of items derived from common daytime insomnia symptoms. RESULTS: Internal consistency was highly acceptable across the two samples for the new insomnia-specific rumination measure (Cronbach ? was 0.93 and 0.94). In the first study, poor sleepers reported significantly higher levels of daytime symptom rumination than did good sleepers. Across both studies, rumination about daytime insomnia symptoms and depression were significantly correlated; however, insomnia rumination scores predicted insomnia even after controlling for depression. Moreover, in Study 2, insomnia-specific rumination was related to insomnia, but general depressive rumination was not predictive of insomnia. CONCLUSIONS: The findings provide support for the use of this insomnia-specific rumination scale; moreover the findings support previous observances regarding rumination about daytime insomnia symptoms that are not exclusive to depression.

Carney CE; Harris AL; Falco A; Edinger JD

2013-01-01

231

Depression  

Science.gov (United States)

Depression is a serious medical illness that involves the brain. It's more than just a feeling of ... million people in the United States who have depression, the feelings do not go away. They persist ...

232

Depression  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... take care of itself and go away. However, since depression clouds judgment, family members or friends usually ... compounds called “neurotransmitters.” Depressed people have imbalanced neurotransmitters. Since the brain controls the whole body, people with ...

233

"Subthreshold" depression: is the distinction between depressive disorder not otherwise specified and adjustment disorder valid?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Patients with clinically significant symptoms of depression who do not meet the criteria for major depressive disorder or dysthymic disorder are considered to have subthreshold depression. According to DSM-IV, such patients should be diagnosed with depressive disorder not otherwise specified (NOS) if the development of the symptoms is not attributable to a stressful event or with adjustment disorder if the symptoms follow a stressor. Research on the treatment of subthreshold depression rarely addresses the distinction between depressive disorder NOS and adjustment disorder. In the present report from the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services (MIDAS) project, we examined the validity of this distinction. METHOD: From December 1995 to June 2011, 3,400 psychiatric patients presenting to the Rhode Island Hospital outpatient practice were evaluated with semistructured diagnostic interviews for DSM-IV Axis I and Axis II disorders and measures of psychosocial morbidity. RESULTS: Slightly less than 10% (n = 300) of the 3,400 patients were diagnosed with depressive disorder NOS or adjustment disorder with depressed mood. The patients with depressive disorder NOS were significantly more often diagnosed with social phobia (P < .05) and a personality disorder (P < .01). The patients with depressive disorder NOS reported more anhedonia, increased appetite, increased sleep, and indecisiveness, whereas the patients with adjustment disorder reported more weight loss, reduced appetite, and insomnia. There was no significant difference between the groups in overall level of severity of depression or impaired functioning. The patients with depressive disorder NOS had a nonsignificantly elevated morbid risk of depression in their first-degree relatives. DISCUSSION: Clinically significant subthreshold depression was common in psychiatric outpatients, and the present results support the validity of distinguishing between depressive disorder NOS and adjustment disorder with depressed mood. Future studies of the treatment of subthreshold depression should account for this diagnostic distinction.

Zimmerman M; Martinez JH; Dalrymple K; Chelminski I; Young D

2013-05-01

234

Epidemiology and treatment of mood disorders in a day hospital setting from 1996 to 2007: an Italian study  

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Full Text Available Maria Luca,1 Giuseppa Prossimo,1 Vincenzo Messina,1 Antonina Luca,2 Salvatore Romeo,1 Carmela Calandra11Department of Medical and Surgery Specialties, Psychiatry Unit, 2Department of Neuroscience, University Hospital Policlinico-Vittorio Emanuele, Catania, Sicily, ItalyBackground: The present study aimed: to assess prescribing patterns in the treatment of major depression, bipolar disorder type I, cyclothymia, and dysthymia from 1996 to 2007 in a day hospital setting; to evaluate the prevalence of the above-mentioned mood disorders and gender distribution; and to relate familiality, comorbidity, and marital status to each diagnosis.Methods: Medical records for 777 day hospital patients with a diagnosis of major depression, bipolar disorder type I, cyclothymia, or dysthymia were grouped into two 6-year periods so as to compare the prescribing patterns of tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, noradrenergic reuptake inhibitors, serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressants, first-generation antipsychotics, second-generation antipsychotics, and mood stabilizers. Gender, prevalence, familiality, comorbidity, and marital status were related to each diagnosis.Results: The most common mood disorder, with a female preponderance, was major depression, regardless of marital status. High percentages of familiality and comorbidity were found for major depression, while a reduction was found in the utilization of tricyclic antidepressants. There was no statistically significant difference in rates of prescription of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and noradrenergic reuptake inhibitors, but some irregularities were found upon evaluating each diagnosis (eg, increased utilization of these agents in dysthymia and major depression, respectively). There was an increase in prescriptions for serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, but no marked differences in utilization of noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressants, which remained basically low. There was no significant difference in prescribing of first-generation antipsychotic agents, although a reduction was found. There was a significant increase in utilization of second-generation antipsychotics and mood stabilizers.Conclusion: Our epidemiological findings are consistent with data reported in the literature regarding the high prevalence of major depression among the mood disorders, as well as the impact of familiality and comorbidity. Analysis of prescribing patterns for antidepressants, antipsychotics, and mood stabilizers in the treatment of mood disorders shows a shift from older to newer drugs, and wider use of mood stabilizers.Keywords: antidepressants, antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, prescribing patterns, mood disorders, treatment

Luca M; Prossimo G; Messina V; Luca A; Romeo S; Calandra C

2013-01-01

235

A Review of Postpartum Depression  

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Postpartum depression (PPD) is an irritable, severely depressed mood that occurs within 4 weeks of giving birth and possibly as late as 30 weeks postpartum. Manifestations include crying spells, insomnia, depressed mood, fatigue, anxiety, and poor concentration. Patients may experience mild, moderat...

Andrews-Fike, Christa

236

Daily vasomotor symptoms, sleep problems, and mood: using daily data to evaluate the domino hypothesis in middle-aged women.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships among daily reports of vasomotor symptoms (hot flashes and/or sweats), same-day sleep problems, and next-day mood reports in middle-aged women. METHODS: Fifty-five healthy middle-aged women were recruited to keep daily records for up to 5 years or until menopause. For each participant, the first 252 days of contiguous data with the highest weekly frequency of vasomotor symptoms was selected for the current analyses. Multilevel structural equation modeling was used to test whether changes in daily vasomotor symptom occurrence predicted changes in occurrence of same-day sleep problems and changes in next-day positive and negative mood ratings and whether sleep problems mediated any predictive effect of symptoms on next-day mood. RESULTS: Controlling for initial depression, daily vasomotor symptoms predicted same-day sleep problems (b = 0.59, P < 0.001) and next-day positive mood (b = -0.07, P < 0.01), although significant direct relationships between vasomotor symptoms and mood were found primarily in women with initial depression scores in the low to moderate range. Sleep problems predicted next-day positive (b = -0.08, P < 0.01) and negative (b = 0.10, P < 0.001) mood more robustly than vasomotor symptoms did. CONCLUSIONS: Sleep problems predicted worse mood on the following day and accounted for only a small portion of the relationship between vasomotor symptoms and mood. These findings suggest that any effect of vasomotor symptoms on mood may occur largely through a mechanism other than sleep disruption.

Burleson MH; Todd M; Trevathan WR

2010-01-01

237

Atypical depression: clinical aspects and noradrenergic function.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The authors assessed the frequency of atypical depression in depressed outpatients and compared clinical and biological features of patients with atypical and nonatypical depression. METHOD: Depressed outpatients (N = 114) were diagnosed with the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS) according to Research Diagnostic Criteria. Patients were assessed for presence or absence of atypical depression with the Atypical Depressive Disorder Scale. Atypical depression was defined as the presence of mood reactivity during the depressive episode, along with at least one of four associated features: hypersomnia, hyperphagia, leaden paralysis, and rejection sensitivity. All patients completed the SCL-90 and were rated with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, extracted from the SADS. To assess biological functioning, the authors examined cortisol response to 75 mg of desipramine, a relatively selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. RESULTS: Twenty-nine percent of patients met criteria for atypical depression. Patients with atypical depression were significantly more likely to be female. Patients with atypical and nonatypical depression did not differ on SCL-90 subscale scores. Although extracted Hamilton depression scale scores were significantly higher for patients with nonatypical depression, the difference was not clinically significant. Patients with atypical depression exhibited a significantly different cortisol response to desipramine injection than patients with nonatypical depression, which suggested that nonatypical depression may be associated with a more impaired norepinephrine system. CONCLUSIONS: In view of data in this study, as well as earlier studies, atypical depression has a unique symptom profile, may be widely prevalent, has a distinct treatment response, and may indicate a less impaired biological system than nonatypical depression. Since this is the first report to evaluate the frequency of atypical depression as well as the norepinephrine system in atypical depression, this study needs to be replicated. Nonetheless, the data support the inclusion of atypical depression as a subtype of the depressive disorders in DSM-IV.

Asnis GM; McGinn LK; Sanderson WC

1995-01-01

238

Injury occurrence and mood states during a desert ultramarathon.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To describe injuries and illnesses presented and profile mood states and sleep patterns during a desert environment ultramarathon. DESIGN: Prospective study gathering data on mood states and injury patterns. SETTING: : Gobi Desert, Mongolia. PARTICIPANTS: Eleven male competitors (mean mass, 83.7 ± 7.1 kg; body mass index, 24 ± 1.79 kg/m; age, 33 ± 11 years). INTERVENTIONS: Injuries were clinically assessed and recorded each day. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mood state was assessed using the Brunel Mood Scale. RESULTS: All subjects presented with abrasion injuries, dehydration, and heat stress. Vigor decreased over the first 6 days while fatigue increased (P < 0.05). Fatigue and vigor recovered on the final morning. The observed recovery was set against increasing levels of depression, tension, and confusion, which peaked at days 5/6 but returned to day 1 levels on the 7th day morning (P < 0.05). Mean sleep duration (6:17 ± 00:48 hours:minutes; lowest on day 6, 4:43 ± 01:54 hours:minutes) did not vary significantly across the 7 days but did correlate with mood alterations (P < 0.05). Increased anger and fatigue correlated strongly with sleep disruption (r = 0.736 and 0.768, respectively). Vigor and depression displayed a moderately strong correlation to sleep (r = 0.564 and -0.530). CONCLUSIONS: Injury patterns were similar to those reported in other adventure/ultradistance events. Consistent with previous work, data show increased fatigue and reduced vigor in response to an arduous physical challenge.

Graham SM; McKinley M; Chris CC; Westbury T; Baker JS; Kilgore L; Florida-James G

2012-11-01

239

Self-reported versus informant-reported depressive symptoms in adults with mild intellectual disability.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Virtually nothing is known about potential differences in the types of depression symptoms reported by adults with mild intellectual disability (ID) on self-reported questionnaires as compared with the types of symptoms reported by caregivers on informant questionnaires. Moreover, little is known about how the presentation of depression among adults with mild ID varies based on socio-demographic characteristics. METHODS: We compared findings from two self-reported questionnaires, the Self-Reported Depression Questionnaire (SRDQ) and the Glasgow Depression Scale for People with a Learning Disability (GDS), to that of an informant questionnaire of depressive symptoms, the Glasgow Depression Scale - Caregiver Supplement (CGDS), in 80 adults with mild ID. We also examined the association between age, sex, IQ and the presence of a co-occurring psychiatric disorder and frequency of affective, cognitive and somatic depressive symptoms in our sample of adults with mild ID. RESULTS: Adults with mild ID self-reported a higher frequency of affective and cognitive depressive symptoms than staff reported on the informant measure. Staff reported a higher frequency of somatic symptoms than adults with mild ID on one of the self-reported questionnaires (GDS) and a similar frequency on the other self-reported questionnaire (SRDQ). Important differences were found in the types of depressive symptoms based on their IQ, age and presence of a co-occurring psychiatric disorder. CONCLUSION: Informant questionnaires offer valuable information, but assessment should include self-reported questionnaires as these questionnaires add unique information about internalised experiences (affective and cognitive symptoms) of adults with mild ID that may not be apparent to caregivers. Health care providers should be made aware of the important differences in the presentation of depressive based on their IQ, age and presence of a co-occurring psychiatric disorder.

Mileviciute I; Hartley SL

2013-07-01

240

Depression profiles in skin disorders  

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Introduction: Dermatological problems often present mood disorders, depression, anxiety disorders and psychological conditions relevant to psychosomatic conditions. Seborrheic dermatitis and psoriasis, both characterized by chronic inflammation of sk...

Salvatore Settineri; Fabrizio Guarneri; Ambra Saitta; Carmela Mento; Serafinella Patrizia Cannavò

 
 
 
 
241

Screening for depressed mood in an adolescent psychiatric context by brief self-assessment scales – testing psychometric validity of WHO-5 and BDI-6 indices by latent trait analyses  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Major depressive disorder is prevalent in the adolescent psychiatric clinical setting and often comorbid with other primary psychiatric diagnoses such as ADHD or social anxiety disorder. Systematic manual-based diagnostic procedures are recommended to identify such comorbidity but they are time-consuming and often not fully implemented in clinical practice. Screening for depressive symptoms in the child psychiatric context using brief, user-friendly and easily managed self-assessment scales may be of clinical value and utility. The aim of the study is to test the psychometric validity of two such scales, which may be used in a two-step screening procedure, the WHO-Five Well-being Index (WHO-5) and the six-item version of Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI-6). Method 66 adolescent psychiatric patients with a clinical diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD), 60 girls and 6 boys, aged 14–18 years, mean age 16.8 years, completed the WHO-5 scale as well as the BDI-6. Statistical validity was tested by Mokken and Rasch analyses. Results The correlation between WHO-5 and BDI-6 was ?0.49 (p=0.0001). Mokken analyses showed a coefficient of homogeneity for the WHO-5 of 0.52 and for the BDI-6 of 0.46. Rasch analysis also accepted unidimensionality when testing males versus females (p > 0.05). Conclusions The WHO-5 is psychometrically valid in an adolescent psychiatric context including both genders to assess the wellness dimension and applicable as a first step in screening for MDD. The BDI-6 may be recommended as a second step in the screening procedure, since it is statistically valid and has the ability to unidimensionally capture the severity of depressed mood.

Blom Eva Henje; Bech Per; Högberg Göran; Larsson Jan Olov; Serlachius Eva

2012-01-01

242

Magnetic resonance imaging of a randomized controlled trial investigating predictors of recovery following psychological treatment in adolescents with moderate to severe unipolar depression: study protocol for Magnetic Resonance-Improving Mood with Psychoanalytic and Cognitive Therapies (MR-IMPACT).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorders (MDD) are a debilitating and pervasive group of mental illnesses afflicting many millions of people resulting in the loss of 110 million working days and more than 2,500 suicides per annum. Adolescent MDD patients attending NHS clinics show high rates of recurrence into adult life. A meta-analysis of recent research shows that psychological treatments are not as efficacious as previously thought. Modest treatment outcomes of approximately 65% of cases responding suggest that aetiological and clinical heterogeneity may hamper the better use of existing therapies and discovery of more effective treatments. Information with respect to optimal treatment choice for individuals is lacking, with no validated biomarkers to aid therapeutic decision-making. METHODS: Magnetic resonance-Improving Mood with Psychoanalytic and Cognitive Therapies, the MR-IMPACT study, plans to identify brain regions implicated in the pathophysiology of depressions and examine whether there are specific behavioural or neural markers predicting remission and/or subsequent relapse in a subsample of depressed adolescents recruited to the IMPACT randomised controlled trial (Registration # ISRCTN83033550). DISCUSSION: MR-IMPACT is an investigative biomarker component of the IMPACT pragmatic effectiveness trial. The aim of this investigation is to identify neural markers and regional indicators of the pathophysiology of and treatment response for MDD in adolescents. We anticipate that these data may enable more targeted treatment delivery by identifying those patients who may be optimal candidates for therapeutic response.Trial registrationAdjunctive study to IMPACT trial (Current Controlled Trials: ISRCTN83033550).

Hagan CC; Graham JM; Widmer B; Holt RJ; Ooi C; van Nieuwenhuizen AO; Fonagy P; Reynolds S; Target M; Kelvin R; Wilkinson PO; Bullmore ET; Lennox BR; Sahakian BJ; Goodyer I; Suckling J

2013-10-01

243

Mood and anxiety disorders in women with PCOS.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Women with polycystic ovary syndrome have gynecologic, reproductive and metabolic co-morbidities that span their entire lifespan. More recently a higher risk of mood and anxiety disorders has been reported in women with PCOS. Women with PCOS have higher depression scores and a higher risk of depression independent of BMI. Although clinical features of hyperandrogenism affect health related quality of life, the association between hirsutism, acne, body image and depression is currently unclear. Similarly there is limited data on the association between variables such as biochemical hyperandrogenism or infertility and depression. Women with PCOS are also at risk for symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder. There is insufficient data examining the risk of other anxiety disorders such as social phobia, obsessive compulsive disorders and panic disorder. In a number of patients some of these disorders coexist increasing the health burden. These data underscore the need to screen all women with PCOS for mood and anxiety disorders and adequately treat women who are diagnosed with these conditions.

Dokras A

2012-03-01

244

Association of exercise with quality of life and mood symptoms in a comparative effectiveness study of bipolar disorder.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Individuals with bipolar disorder lead a sedentary lifestyle associated with worse course of illness and recurrence of symptoms. Identifying potentially modifiable predictors of exercise frequency could lead to interventions with powerful consequences on the course of illness and overall health. METHODS: The present study examines baseline reports of exercise frequency of bipolar patients in a multi-site comparative effectiveness study of a second generation antipsychotic (quetiapine) versus a classic mood stabilizer (lithium). Demographics, quality of life, functioning, and mood symptoms were assessed. RESULTS: Approximately 40% of participants reported not exercising regularly (at least once per week). Less frequent weekly exercise was associated with higher BMI, more time depressed, more depressive symptoms, and lower quality of life and functioning. In contrast, more frequent exercise was associated with experiencing more mania in the past year and more current manic symptoms. LIMITATIONS: Exercise frequency was measured by self-report and details of the exercise were not collected. Analyses rely on baseline data, allowing only for association analyses. Directionality and predictive validity cannot be determined. Data were collected in the context of a clinical trial and thus, it is possible that the generalizability of the findings could be limited. CONCLUSION: There appears to be a mood-specific relationship between exercise frequency and polarity such that depression is associated with less exercise and mania with more exercise in individuals with bipolar disorder. This suggests that increasing or decreasing exercise could be a targeted intervention for patients with depressive or mood elevation symptoms, respectively.

Sylvia LG; Friedman ES; Kocsis JH; Bernstein EE; Brody BD; Kinrys G; Kemp DE; Shelton RC; McElroy SL; Bobo WV; Kamali M; McInnis MG; Tohen M; Bowden CL; Ketter TA; Deckersbach T; Calabrese JR; Thase ME; Reilly-Harrington NA; Singh V; Rabideau DJ; Nierenberg AA

2013-08-01

245

Nonlinear time-series approaches in characterizing mood stability and mood instability in bipolar disorder.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bipolar disorder is a psychiatric condition characterized by episodes of elevated mood interspersed with episodes of depression. While treatment developments and understanding the disruptive nature of this illness have focused on these episodes, it is also evident that some patients may have chronic week-to-week mood instability. This is also a major morbidity. The longitudinal pattern of this mood instability is poorly understood as it has, until recently, been difficult to quantify. We propose that understanding this mood variability is critical for the development of cognitive neuroscience-based treatments. In this study, we develop a time-series approach to capture mood variability in two groups of patients with bipolar disorder who appear on the basis of clinical judgement to show relatively stable or unstable illness courses. Using weekly mood scores based on a self-rated scale (quick inventory of depressive symptomatology-self-rated; QIDS-SR) from 23 patients over a 220-week period, we show that the observed mood variability is nonlinear and that the stable and unstable patient groups are described by different nonlinear time-series processes. We emphasize the necessity in combining both appropriate measures of the underlying deterministic processes (the QIDS-SR score) and noise (uncharacterized temporal variation) in understanding dynamical patterns of mood variability associated with bipolar disorder.

Bonsall MB; Wallace-Hadrill SM; Geddes JR; Goodwin GM; Holmes EA

2012-03-01

246

Depression  

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Full Text Available ... X-Plain.com mh010105 Last reviewed: 9/1/2010 1 The earlier depression is diagnosed and treated, ... X-Plain.com mh010105 Last reviewed: 9/1/2010 2 Causes of Depression Combination of genetic, psychological, ...

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Depression  

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Mike Shooter, president of the Royal College of Psychiatrists, who holds a regular weekly clinic in south Wales; he has suffered bouts of depression throughout his career. Helen Crane, a journalist who has been hospitalised with severe depression three times, spoke to him about how being a pat...

Crane, Helen

248

Depression  

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Full Text Available X-Plain Depression Reference Summary Introduction Depression is a common condition that affects about 19 million American adults ... 1995-2010, The Patient Education Institute, Inc. www.X-Plain.com mh010105 Last reviewed: 9/1/2010 1 ...

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Depression  

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Full Text Available ... strong that a depressed person may even consider suicide. Suicide and attempted suicide are very tragic consequences of depression. If a ... you realize that a loved one is contemplating suicide, you should contact a doctor immediately. The same ...

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Depression  

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Full Text Available ... www.X-Plain.com mh010105 Last reviewed: 9/1/2010 1 The earlier depression is diagnosed and ... www.X-Plain.com mh010105 Last reviewed: 9/1/2010 2 Causes of Depression Combination of genetic, ...

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Depression  

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Full Text Available ... to stop using alcohol or illicit drugs. Some medications, especially blood pressure medications, can lead to a chemical imbalance in the ... depression. If this is the case, stopping these medications may be enough to treat depression. However, NEVER ...

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Depressed mood and poor quality of life in male patients with chronic renal failure undergoing hemodialysis/ Comportamento depressivo e má qualidade de vida em homens com insuficiência renal crônica submetidos à hemodiálise  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Avaliar o estado de humor e a qualidade de vida de homens em tratamento hemodialítico, correlacionar as alterações observadas no humor com os diferentes domínios do questionário de qualidade de vida. MÉTODO: Foram incluídos 47 homens em tratamento hemodialítico estável há mais de seis meses. Foram aplicadas a Escala de Hamilton de depressão e o Kidney Disease Quality of Life Questionnaire, questionário de qualidade de vida relacionado à saúde, em s (more) ua forma traduzida e adaptada para a língua portuguesa. RESULTADOS: A média da idade dos pacientes era 39,4 ± 8,9 anos. Na avaliação pela Escala de Hamilton, observou-se em 32 (68,1%) pacientes a presença de depressão. Encontramos correlação negativa significativa entre os resultados obtidos na escala de Hamilton e os seguintes parâmetros das dimensões específicas do Kidney Disease Quality of Life Questionnaire: lista de sintomas e problemas (rs = -0,399; p = 0,005), qualidade da interação social (rs = -0,433; p = 0,002) e sono (rs = -0,585; p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To assess mood and quality of life in male hemodialysis patients, and to correlate mood swings with the different domains of the quality of life questionnaire. METHOD: Forty-seven male patients undergoing regular hemodialysis for more than six months were included in the study. The Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression and the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Questionnaire, in a version translated into and adapted to Portuguese, were used. RESULTS: The patients' a (more) ge was 39.4 ± 8.9 years (median ± SD). Depression was observed in 32 (68.1%) patients according to the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. A significant negative correlation was found between the results from the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression and the following parameters of the specific dimensions of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Questionnaire: list of symptoms and problems (rs = -0.399; p = 0.005), quality of social interaction (rs = -0.433; p = 0.002), and quality of sleep (rs = -0.585; p

Garcia, Thales Weber; Veiga, Joel Paulo Russomano; Motta, Lucilia Domingues Casulari da; Moura, Flávio José Dutra de; Casulari, Luiz Augusto

2010-12-01

253

Temporal relationships between depressive symptoms and white matter hyperintensities in older men and women.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Associations between vascular disease and depression in late life, including increased white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), have been reported. Whether depression is an etiology or a consequence of vascular disease is still unknown. We investigated the temporal relationship between depressive symptoms and WMHs in older men and women. METHODS: We utilized data from 90 dementia-free older adults (39 women, 51 men), 57 years of age and older at baseline, from the neuroimaging substudy of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Participants were followed for up to 8 years. Ratings of white matter disease burden were available for the first, last, and at least one interim visit, and participants completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) annually. Statistical models, performed separately in men and women, examined whether depressive symptoms predicted subsequent WMH ratings or WMHs predicted subsequent depressive symptoms. RESULTS: The total CES-D score was not associated with WMHs in men or women. In men, the CES-D depressed mood subscale predicted accelerating longitudinal increases in WMHs at older ages, but WMHs did not predict subsequent depressive symptoms. In women, there were no significant associations between the CES-D depressed mood subscale and WMHs. CONCLUSIONS: White matter disease may be a consequence of depressed mood in men but not in women. Intervention strategies for depression may slow the progression of white matter disease in older men. These results add to previous findings documenting sex differences in the correlates of depressive disorders in late life.

Dotson VM; Zonderman AB; Kraut MA; Resnick SM

2013-01-01

254

Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis hormones and cortisol in both menstrual phases of women with chronic fatigue syndrome and effect of depressive mood on these hormones  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a disease which defined as medically unexplained, disabling fatigue of 6 months or more duration and often accompanied by several of a long list of physical complaints. We aimed to investigate abnormalities of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis hormones and cortisol concentrations in premenopausal women with CFS and find out effects of depression rate on these hormones. Methods We examined follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol, progesterone and cortisol concentrations in 43 premenopausal women (mean age: 32.86 ± 7.11) with CFS and compared matched 35 healthy controls (mean age: 31.14 ± 6.19). Patients were divided according to menstrual cycle phases (follicular and luteal) and compared with matched phase controls. Depression rate was assessed by Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and patients with high BDI scores were compared to patients with low BDI scores. Results There were no significant differences in FSH, LH, estradiol and progesterone levels in both of menstrual phases of patients versus controls. Cortisol levels were significantly lower in patients compared to controls. There were no significant differences in all hormone levels in patients with high depression scores versus patients with low depression scores. Conclusion In spite of high depression rate, low cortisol concentration and normal HPG axis hormones of both menstrual phases are detected in premenopausal women with CFS. There is no differentiation between patients with high and low depression rate in all hormone levels. Depression condition of CFS may be different from classical depression and evaluation of HPG and HPA axis should be performed for understanding of pathophysiology of CFS and planning of treatment.

Cevik Remzi; Gur Ali; Acar Suat; Nas Kemal; Sarac Ay?egül

2004-01-01

255

Hypersomnia and depressive symptoms: methodological and clinical aspects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The associations between depressive symptoms and hypersomnia are complex and often bidirectional. Of the many disorders associated with excessive sleepiness in the general population, the most frequent are mental health disorders, particularly depression. However, most mood disorder studies addressing hypersomnia have assessed daytime sleepiness using a single response, neglecting critical and clinically relevant information about symptom severity, duration and nighttime sleep quality. Only a few studies have used objective tools such as polysomnography to directly measure both daytime and nighttime sleep propensity in depression with normal mean sleep latency and sleep duration. Hypersomnia in mood disorders, rather than a medical condition per se, is more a subjective sleep complaint than an objective finding. Mood symptoms have also been frequently reported in hypersomnia disorders of central origin, especially in narcolepsy. Hypocretin deficiency could be a contributing factor in this condition. Further interventional studies are needed to explore whether management of sleep complaints improves mood symptoms in hypersomnia disorders and, conversely, whether management of mood complaints improves sleep symptoms in mood disorders.

Dauvilliers Y; Lopez R; Ohayon M; Bayard S

2013-01-01

256

The impact of a multidimensional exercise program on self-reported anxiety and depression in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy: A phase II study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Little is known about the role of exercise in improving cancer patients' mood while undergoing chemotherapy. In this phase II study changes in self-reported anxiety and depression and fitness (VO2max) are reported in relation to a 6-week, 9 h weekly, multidimensional exercise program. A total of 91 patients receiving chemotherapy, between 18 and 65 years old, completed a Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale Questionnaire (HADS; response rate 91%, adherence rate 78%). Anxiety (p < 0.001) and depression (p = 0.042) was significantly reduced. The mean ± SD of the change was [minus sign]1.14 ± 2.91 for anxiety and [minus sign]0.44 ± 2.77 for depression. Improvements in fitness were correlated with improvements in depression, [chi]2(1) = 3.966, p = 0.046, but not with improvements in anxiety, [chi]2(1) = 0.540, p = 0.462. The research suggests that exercise intervention may have a beneficial impact on psychological distress for cancer patients receiving chemotherapy with low to moderate levels of baseline psychomorbidity. The study furthermore indicates that changes in distress may be associated with disease status and levels of physical activity undertaken during disease. The study is followed up by an ongoing randomized clinical controlled trial to evaluate potential causal effects of exercise intervention on psychological distress and fitness in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy.

Klausen, Julie Midtgaard; RØrth, Mikael Rahbek

2005-01-01

257

Mood after stroke: a case control study of biochemical, neuro-imaging and socio-economic risk factors for major depression in stroke survivors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Though vascular factors may be important in the aetiology of late-life depression, it is not clear whether they have a major effect on the risk of depression after a stroke. We investigated the relationship between physiological, biochemical, neuro-imaging and socio-economic factors and late-phase post-stroke depression in a cross-sectional case-control study. Methods People living at home at least 9 months after a stroke were interviewed using a structured proforma. Depression was diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria, together with a Montgomery Asberg (MADRS) score >17. Stroke survivors of similar age and functional status but without symptoms of, or recent treatment for, depression and with MADRS score Results Stroke survivors with depression were more likely than controls to have been smokers, to have had hypertension or peripheral arterial disease, and to have had more than one stroke or multiple discrete brainscan lesions. In univariate analysis they had significantly higher blood pressure, lower Mini-Mental State (MMSE) scores, higher serum homocysteine and lower folate levels, as well as more extensive white matter and basal ganglia changes on brainscan. In logistic regression, previous hypertension (OR 3.4), peripheral vascular disease (OR 4.7), number of strokes (OR 2), MMSE score (OR 0.76) and basal ganglia changes (OR 2.2), were independently associated with depression. Conclusion These results suggest that patients with hypertension, hyperhomocysteinaemia and other factors associated with cerebral small vessel disease, may be more susceptible to post-stroke depression. Future intervention trials should focus on such high risk groups.

Chatterjee Kausik; Fall Susan; Barer David

2010-01-01

258

Recent progress in mood disorder research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When papers published in highly-prestigious journals in 2010 and 2011 were categorized, the number of papers on genestic studies was found to be the largest, followed by papers on brain imaging, postmortem brain studies, and animal model studies. Follow-up studies of the findings of initial genome-wide association analyses constitute a major part of genetic studies. Recent brain imaging studies were found to integrate previous findings that indicated altered responces of prefrontal cortex to cognitive stimuli and enhanced responces of amygdala to emotional faces. Reduced size of the hippocampus is reportedly not a result of stress but perhaps a vulnerability factor. Among animal model studies, molecular mechanisms underlying rapid anti-depressive effects of ketamine are drawing attention. The role of neurogenesis in fear memory and depression is complex, and a link between psychopathology and neuroscience may be needed to understand the roles of neurogenesis. Postmortem brain analyses are currently used to investigate several pathophysiological hypotheses related to the roles of monoamine, neuroplasticity, and neuroinflammation in depression, as well as the roles of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons and mitochondria in bipolar disorder. Several studies are integrating postmortem brain analysis and animal model studies. Genetic and neuroimaging studies of mood disorders have advanced, and neurobiological basis of the findings of these studies should be further elucidated in animal models and postmortem brains. (author)

2012-01-01

259

Depression  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... feelings. The cells of the brain, known as neurons, communicate with each other using special chemical compounds called “neurotransmitters.” Depressed people have imbalanced neurotransmitters. Since the brain ...

260

Depression  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... of depression may not necessitate any medications, only psychotherapy. More advanced cases with ideas of suicide may ... a hospital and treatment with medications. Counseling and psychotherapy can be very helpful in treating mild cases ...

 
 
 
 
261

Depression  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... time. His or her sadness starts interfering with family life and work. The following are some of ... blame for everything. • Shy away from friends and family, feeling ashamed of being depressed. • Poor personal hygiene, ...

262

Depression  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... able to make healthy changes that can reduce stress and maintain a more balanced outlook on life. ... stable relationships are all very helpful in keeping stress low and reducing the chances of feeling depressed ...

263

Depression  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... in life. Some examples of situations that may lead to sadness or feeling blue include: • Losing someone ... also. Drinking alcohol and using illicit drugs can lead to depression, since drugs and alcohol affect the ...

264

Reproductive depression.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Reproductive depression is the depression in women that is related to the hormonal changes of the menstrual cycle, pregnancy and the menopause and is manifested clinically as premenstrual depression, postnatal depression and climacteric depression. These three components occur in the same vulnerable women in that a woman with depression in the menopausal transition will usually have a history of premenstrual syndrome (PMS; premenstrual dysphoric disorder [PMDD]), would have been in a good mood during pregnancy and then develop postnatal depression. When the periods return the depression becomes cyclical as PMS. These three conditions are effectively treated with transdermal estrogens which should be the first-choice therapy rather than antidepressants. Estrogens can be used together with antidepressants. The critical time to prevent long-term mood problems is the correct treatment of postnatal depression. In women with low energy and libido, often a side effect of antidepressants, the addition of transdermal testosterone is useful. These women with reproductive depression are often progesterone/progestogen intolerant and a smaller dose or duration of progestogen is a necessary compromise. Alternatively a Mirena IUS or rarely a hysterectomy is required.

Studd J; Nappi RE

2012-03-01

265

Comparison of the validity of the Chinese versions of the Hypomania Symptom Checklist-32 (HCL-32) and Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) for the detection of bipolar disorder in medicated patients with major depressive disorder.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The sensitivity and specificity of the Chinese versions of the Hypomania Symptom Checklist-32 (HCL-32) and Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) for detecting bipolar disorder in Taiwan were explored in this study. METHODS: In total, 59 participants who were initially diagnosed with unipolar depression were recruited from an outpatient clinic and were screened for bipolar disorder using the HCL-32 and MDQ; each participant also underwent a diagnostic interview based on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis disorder patients (SCID). RESULTS: The results showed that the HCL-32 yielded the best combination of sensitivity (100%) and specificity (46.2%) at a cut-off point of 7/8, and the MDQ yielded the best combination of sensitivity (71.4%) and specificity (76.9%) at a cut-off point of 6/7. CONCLUSION: The results of our study demonstrate that the HCL-32 and MDQ are of reasonable validity to distinguish between bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder. However small sample size may limit generalization of the results.

Chou CC; Lee IH; Yeh TL; Chen KC; Chen PS; Chen WT; Lu RB; Yang YK

2012-06-01

266

Illness beliefs of depressed Chinese American patients in primary care.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the illness beliefs of 40 depressed Chinese Americans in a primary care setting using the Exploratory Model Interview Catalogue (EMIC). Twenty-two depressed Chinese Americans (76%) complained of somatic symptoms; 4 (14%) reported psychological symptoms including irritability, rumination, and poor memory. No patients reported depressed mood spontaneously. Yet, 93% endorsed depressed mood when they filled out the CBDI. Twenty-one patients (72%) did not know the name of their illness or did not consider it a diagnosable medical illness, and five patients (17%) attributed their symptoms to pre-existing medical problems. Only three patients (10%) labeled their illness as psychiatric conditions. The patients generally sought help from general hospital (69%), lay help (62%), and alternative treatment (55%) but rarely from mental health professionals (3.5%) for their depressive symptoms. The results suggest that many Chinese Americans do not consider depressed mood a symptom to report to their physicians, and many are unfamiliar with depression as a treatable psychiatric disorder. PMID:15060408

Yeung, Albert; Chang, Doris; Gresham, Robert L; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Fava, Maurizio

2004-04-01

267

Illness beliefs of depressed Chinese American patients in primary care.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study investigated the illness beliefs of 40 depressed Chinese Americans in a primary care setting using the Exploratory Model Interview Catalogue (EMIC). Twenty-two depressed Chinese Americans (76%) complained of somatic symptoms; 4 (14%) reported psychological symptoms including irritability, rumination, and poor memory. No patients reported depressed mood spontaneously. Yet, 93% endorsed depressed mood when they filled out the CBDI. Twenty-one patients (72%) did not know the name of their illness or did not consider it a diagnosable medical illness, and five patients (17%) attributed their symptoms to pre-existing medical problems. Only three patients (10%) labeled their illness as psychiatric conditions. The patients generally sought help from general hospital (69%), lay help (62%), and alternative treatment (55%) but rarely from mental health professionals (3.5%) for their depressive symptoms. The results suggest that many Chinese Americans do not consider depressed mood a symptom to report to their physicians, and many are unfamiliar with depression as a treatable psychiatric disorder.

Yeung A; Chang D; Gresham RL Jr; Nierenberg AA; Fava M

2004-04-01

268

Acute Psychosis and Depression Associated with Hypercalcemia: A Case Report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Psychosis and depression are mental disorders that can exist secondary to some medical disorders and may be associated with the use of drugs. The most frequent causes of these disorders are substance abuse, infections (especially central nervous system infections), hormone or collagen tissue disorders, cancer, and side effect of drugs used to treat diseases. Hypercalcemia is referred as high level of calcium in the blood - higher than 10,2 mg/dl - and is often seen with parathyroid adenoma. Hypercalcemia may cause several symptoms. In this case report, we represent the case of a patient who presented with delusion of persecution and depressive symptoms probably secondary to hypercalcemia. (Arc­hi­ves of Neu­ropsy­chi­atry 2013;50: 75-77)

Halil ÖZCAN; Elif An?l YA?CIO?LU; Ali Emre ?EV?K; Mehmet Fatih ÜSTÜNDA?

2013-01-01

269

Sleep deprivation in mood disorders.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Growing clinical evidence in support of the efficacy and safety of sleep deprivation (SD), and its biological mechanisms of action suggest that this technique can now be included among the first-line antidepressant treatment strategies for mood disorders. SD targets the broadly defined depressive syndrome, and can be administered according to several different treatment schedules: total versus partial, single versus repeated, alone or combined with antidepressant drugs, mood stabilizers, or other chronotherapeutic techniques, such as light therapy and sleep phase advance. The present review focuses on clinical evidence about the place of SD in therapy, its indications, dosage and timing of the therapeutic wake, interactions with other treatments, precautions and contraindications, adverse reactions, mechanism of action, and comparative efficacy, with the aim of providing the clinical psychiatrist with an updated, concise guide to its application.

Benedetti F; Colombo C

2011-01-01

270

Sensitivity and specificity of the Major Depression Inventory in outpatients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The Major Depression Inventory (MDI) is a new, brief, self-report measure for depression based on the DSM-system, which allows clinicians to assess the presence of a depressive disorder according to the DSM-IV, but also to assess the severity of the depressive symptoms. Methods We examined the sensitivity, specificity, and psychometric qualities of the MDI in a consecutive sample of 258 psychiatric outpatients. Of these patients, 120 had a mood disorder (70 major depression, 49 dysthymia). A total of 139 subjects had a comorbid axis-I diagnosis, and 91 subjects had a comorbid personality disorder. Results Crohnbach's alpha of the MDI was a satisfactory 0.89, and the correlation between the MDI and the depression subscale of the SCL-90 was 0.79 (p Conclusion The MDI is an attractive, brief depression inventory, which seems to be a reliable tool for assessing depression in psychiatric outpatients.

Cuijpers Pim; Dekker Jack; Noteboom Annemieke; Smits Niels; Peen Jaap

2007-01-01

271

Chocolate: food for moods.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Chocolate is a popular food and its consumption has long been associated with enjoyment and pleasure. The effect of chocolate on mood too has long been recognised. Chocolate is thought to have interactions with neurotransmitters which contribute to mood modulation and appetite regulation. However, the evidence in chocolate and mood studies remains highly controversial. As more is known about the influence of chocolate on mood, the reasons for these effects appear increasingly complex and inter-related. METHODS: We reviewed chocolate's properties and the principal hypotheses addressing its mood altering propensities. RESULTS: The relationship between chocolate and mood are highly complex, combining psychopharmacological components, nutritional and sensory characteristics of the food. Individual and situational differences on chocolate consumption may also exert influence on mood and the mixed results in previous research indicate that the direction of the association remains unclear. CONCLUSION: The association between chocolate consumption and emotions warrants further multi-prong investigations to substantiate chocolate's mood alterating propensity.

Wong SY; Lua PL

2011-08-01

272

Functional imaging of mood and anxiety disorders.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Neuroimaging research has emerged as a valuable tool in shaping our understanding of the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. We review functional neuroimaging findings pertaining to mood disorders (major depression, bipolar disorders) as well as selected anxiety disorders (posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD] and obsessive-compulsive disorder [OCD]).

Deckersbach T; Dougherty DD; Rauch SL

2006-01-01

273

Mania: not the opposite of depression, but an extension? Neuronal plasticity and polarity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

What underlies bipolar disorder? What pathophysiologic process can produce symptoms that are apparently polar opposites? Recent studies of neuronal plasticity suggest a mechanism. Both zinc deficiency and social isolation impair neuronal plasticity; both are associated with major depression. Yet when zinc deficiency and social isolation occur together, they are associated with aggression, not with depression. On that basis, and according to additional findings in rats reported herein, it was inferred that moderate impairment of neuronal plasticity induces a depressive state, but that further impairment of neuronal plasticity induces not more depression, but a manic state. However, not only neuronal plasticity, but also some kind of load toward neuronal function can influence polarity or symptoms of mood disorder. Our hypothesis is that mania is an extension of depression from the perspective of neuronal plasticity, and that multiaxial evaluation by neuronal plasticity and neuronal load is useful to elucidate the pathophysiology of mood disorder. Using this hypothesis, many clinical aspects that have been heretofore difficult to interpret can be understood. A mood stabilizer or electric convulsive therapy is often used for the treatment of mood disorder, but it has remained unclear why such therapies are useful for both mania and depression. This hypothesis can explain how mood stabilizers or electric convulsive therapy can improve both mania and depression through the recovery of neuronal plasticity. It is difficult to explain the pathophysiology of manic switching by antidepressants solely from the perspective of the impairment of neuronal plasticity. To interpret this phenomenon, the action of antidepressants to neuronal load should be regarded as the other axis from neuronal plasticity. Based on this hypothesis, it is expected that the pathophysiology of mood disorder and clinical mechanism of mood stabilizers and antidepressants can be understood in an integrated manner.

Mizuno T; Omata N; Murata T; Mitsuya H; Maruoka N; Mita K; Kiyono Y; Okazawa H; Ikeda H; Wada Y

2013-08-01

274

The assessment of low mood in stroke patients with aphasia: reliability and validity of the 10-item Hospital version of the Stroke Aphasic Depression Questionnaire (SADQH-10).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the psychometric properties of an observational screening measure of depressive symptoms (SADQH-10; 10-item Hospital version of the Stroke Aphasic Depression Questionnaire) for use in stroke patients with aphasia and to determine the convergent and divergent validity of the SADQH-10. DESIGN: Cross-sectional cohort. SETTING: Hospital and community. PARTICIPANTS: Stroke patients with aphasia (n = 165) were recruited through hospital wards and community services as part of a randomised controlled trial. Participants were aged 29 to 94 years (68.6 ± 12.1) and 65% were men. RESULTS: The SADQH-10 demonstrated good internal consistency (? = 0.77). Factor analysis revealed the SADQH-10 to be measuring three constructs (social interaction and physical pain, tearfulness, loss of interest and motivation). Significant correlations were found between scores on the SADQH-10 and VAMS 'sad' item (r(s) = 0.297, P < 0.01) but not with the VASES 'depression' item (r(s) = 0.064, P = 0.590) or measures of physical and language abilities. CONCLUSIONS: The SADQH-10 is both a valid and reliable observational screening measure of depressive symptoms for stroke patients with aphasia.

Cobley CS; Thomas SA; Lincoln NB; Walker MF

2012-04-01

275

[The modern concept of atypical depression: four definitions].  

Science.gov (United States)

This report describes and compares four current concepts and definitions of atypical depression. Since its emergence, atypical depression has been considered a depressive state that can be relieved by MAO inhibitors. Davidson classified the symptomatic features of atypical depression into type A, which is predominated by anxiety symptoms, and type V, which is represented by atypical vegetative symptoms, such as hyperphagia, weight gain, oversleeping, and increased sexual drive. Features that are shared by both subtypes include: early onset, female predominance, outpatient predominance, mildness, few suicide attempts, nonbipolarity, nonendogeneity, and few psychomotor changes. Based on these features, bipolar depression can also be defined as atypical depression type V. Herein, we examine and classify four concepts of atypical depression according to the endogenous-nonendogenous (melancholic-nonmelancholic) and unipolar-bipolar dichotomies. The Columbia University group (see Quitkin, Stewart, McGrath, Klein et al.) and the New South Wales University group (see Parker) consider atypical depression to be chronic, mild, nonendogenous (nonmelancholic), unipolar depression. The former group postulates that mood reactivity is necessary, while the latter asserts the structural priority of anxiety symptoms over mood symptoms and the significance of interpersonal rejection sensitivity. For the Columbia group, the significance of mood reactivity reflects the theory that mood nonreactivity is the essential symptom of "endogenomorphic depression", which was proposed by Klein as typical depression. Thus, mood reactivity is not related to overreactivity or hyperactivity, which are often observed in atypical depressives. However, Parker postulates that psychomotor symptoms are the essential features of melancholia, which he recognizes as typical depression; therefore, the New South Wales group does not recognize the significance of mood reactivity. The New South Wales group accepts the relationship between anxiety symptoms and interpersonal rejection sensitivity, while the Columbia group does not recognize the importance of anxiety symptoms because they could not identify a relationship between such symptoms and the efficacy of MAO inhibitors. The concept of atypical depression proposed by the New South Wales group overlaps considerably with that of hysteroid dysphoria, which was proposed by Klein et al., and was the progenitor of Columbia group's concept of atypical depression. The Pittsburgh University group (see Himmelhoch, Kupfer, Thase et al.) and the soft bipolar spectrum group (see Akiskal, Perugi, Benazzi et al.) regard atypical depression as a depressive state that can be observed in bipolar disorder. The former groups takes into account reversed vegetative symptoms and lethargy as signs of bipolar disorder, while the latter recognizes that atypical depression shares features with bipolar II disorder or soft bipolar spectrum disorder. The soft bipolar spectrum group maintains their unique concept of bipolar disorder, which regards some unipolar depressions as bipolar disorder, while the Pittsburg group continues to share the conventional concept of a unipolar-bipolar dichotomy with other groups. The fundamental pattern of atypical depression is represented by chronic mild depressions, which are characterized by a younger age at onset, female predominance, interpersonal rejection sensitivity, and mood lability, which are difficult to distinguish from a characterological pathology. Patients who present with such patterns are frequently diagnosed with borderline, histrionic, or avoidant personality disorders; therefore, we must recognize the significance of atypical depression as a concept that can suggest the utility of medication for these patients. For such patients, however, various groups have proposed different kinds of definition and therapeutic guidelines that are difficult to synthesize and utilize in clinical settings. Moreover, some features of atypical depression outlined in the Columbia University criteria,

Ohmae, Susumu

2010-01-01

276

[The modern concept of atypical depression: four definitions].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This report describes and compares four current concepts and definitions of atypical depression. Since its emergence, atypical depression has been considered a depressive state that can be relieved by MAO inhibitors. Davidson classified the symptomatic features of atypical depression into type A, which is predominated by anxiety symptoms, and type V, which is represented by atypical vegetative symptoms, such as hyperphagia, weight gain, oversleeping, and increased sexual drive. Features that are shared by both subtypes include: early onset, female predominance, outpatient predominance, mildness, few suicide attempts, nonbipolarity, nonendogeneity, and few psychomotor changes. Based on these features, bipolar depression can also be defined as atypical depression type V. Herein, we examine and classify four concepts of atypical depression according to the endogenous-nonendogenous (melancholic-nonmelancholic) and unipolar-bipolar dichotomies. The Columbia University group (see Quitkin, Stewart, McGrath, Klein et al.) and the New South Wales University group (see Parker) consider atypical depression to be chronic, mild, nonendogenous (nonmelancholic), unipolar depression. The former group postulates that mood reactivity is necessary, while the latter asserts the structural priority of anxiety symptoms over mood symptoms and the significance of interpersonal rejection sensitivity. For the Columbia group, the significance of mood reactivity reflects the theory that mood nonreactivity is the essential symptom of "endogenomorphic depression", which was proposed by Klein as typical depression. Thus, mood reactivity is not related to overreactivity or hyperactivity, which are often observed in atypical depressives. However, Parker postulates that psychomotor symptoms are the essential features of melancholia, which he recognizes as typical depression; therefore, the New South Wales group does not recognize the significance of mood reactivity. The New South Wales group accepts the relationship between anxiety symptoms and interpersonal rejection sensitivity, while the Columbia group does not recognize the importance of anxiety symptoms because they could not identify a relationship between such symptoms and the efficacy of MAO inhibitors. The concept of atypical depression proposed by the New South Wales group overlaps considerably with that of hysteroid dysphoria, which was proposed by Klein et al., and was the progenitor of Columbia group's concept of atypical depression. The Pittsburgh University group (see Himmelhoch, Kupfer, Thase et al.) and the soft bipolar spectrum group (see Akiskal, Perugi, Benazzi et al.) regard atypical depression as a depressive state that can be observed in bipolar disorder. The former groups takes into account reversed vegetative symptoms and lethargy as signs of bipolar disorder, while the latter recognizes that atypical depression shares features with bipolar II disorder or soft bipolar spectrum disorder. The soft bipolar spectrum group maintains their unique concept of bipolar disorder, which regards some unipolar depressions as bipolar disorder, while the Pittsburg group continues to share the conventional concept of a unipolar-bipolar dichotomy with other groups. The fundamental pattern of atypical depression is represented by chronic mild depressions, which are characterized by a younger age at onset, female predominance, interpersonal rejection sensitivity, and mood lability, which are difficult to distinguish from a characterological pathology. Patients who present with such patterns are frequently diagnosed with borderline, histrionic, or avoidant personality disorders; therefore, we must recognize the significance of atypical depression as a concept that can suggest the utility of medication for these patients. For such patients, however, various groups have proposed different kinds of definition and therapeutic guidelines that are difficult to synthesize and utilize in clinical settings. Moreover, some features of atypical depression outlined in the Columbia University criteria,

Ohmae S

2010-01-01

277

Stress and Mood  

Science.gov (United States)

Home » Stress & Mood Stress & Mood Many people who go back to smoking do it when they are feeling down or stressed out. This ... Smokers Shouldn’t Use Cigarettes to Deal With Stress & Moods Having a lot of stress or negative ...

278

Stress in women with postpartum depression: a phenomenological study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

AIM: The aim of this paper is to report a study of the lived experience of postpartum stress among depressed Hong Kong Chinese mothers. BACKGROUND: Research consistently relates postpartum stress to the mood and well-being of mothers during the postpartum period. While several studies have used ques...

Leung, SSK; Arthur, DG; Martinson, IM

279

Chronobiological therapy for mood disorders.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Alteration of the sleep-wake cycle and of the sleep structure are core symptoms of a major depressive episode, and occur both in course of bipolar disorder and of major depressive disorder. Many other circadian rhythms, such as the daily profiles of body temperature, cortisol, thyrotropin, prolactin, growth hormone, melatonin and excretion of various metabolites in the urine, are disrupted in depressed patients, both unipolar and bipolar individuals. These disrupted rhythms seem to return to normality with patient recovery. Research on circadian rhythms and sleep have led to the definition of nonpharmacological therapies of mood disorder that can be used in everyday practice. These strategies, named chronotherapeutics, are based on controlled exposures to environmental stimuli that act on biological rhythms, and demonstrate good efficacy in the treatment of illness episodes. They include manipulations of the sleep-wake rhythm (such as partial and total sleep deprivation, and sleep phase advance) and of the exposure to the light-dark cycle (light therapy and dark therapy). In recent years, an increasing literature about the safety and efficacy of chronobiological treatments in everyday psychiatric settings has supported the inclusion of these techniques among the first-line antidepressant strategies for patients affected by mood disorders.

Dallaspezia S; Benedetti F

2011-07-01

280

Chronobiological therapy for mood disorders.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alteration of the sleep-wake cycle and of the sleep structure are core symptoms of a major depressive episode, and occur both in course of bipolar disorder and of major depressive disorder. Many other circadian rhythms, such as the daily profiles of body temperature, cortisol, thyrotropin, prolactin, growth hormone, melatonin and excretion of various metabolites in the urine, are disrupted in depressed patients, both unipolar and bipolar individuals. These disrupted rhythms seem to return to normality with patient recovery. Research on circadian rhythms and sleep have led to the definition of nonpharmacological therapies of mood disorder that can be used in everyday practice. These strategies, named chronotherapeutics, are based on controlled exposures to environmental stimuli that act on biological rhythms, and demonstrate good efficacy in the treatment of illness episodes. They include manipulations of the sleep-wake rhythm (such as partial and total sleep deprivation, and sleep phase advance) and of the exposure to the light-dark cycle (light therapy and dark therapy). In recent years, an increasing literature about the safety and efficacy of chronobiological treatments in everyday psychiatric settings has supported the inclusion of these techniques among the first-line antidepressant strategies for patients affected by mood disorders. PMID:21721914

Dallaspezia, Sara; Benedetti, Francesco

2011-07-01

 
 
 
 
281

Atypical depression: retrospective self-reporting of treatment effectiveness.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Earlier studies demonstrated that those with atypical depression show a differentially superior response to monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) antidepressants. This study compares ratings of effectiveness for a range of treatments, amongst depressed subjects with and without atypical features. METHOD: In an on-line survey, individuals experiencing likely clinical depression rated symptoms experienced when depressed, including 'atypical features' and the effectiveness of previous treatments. Mean treatment effectiveness ratings were compared amongst those with 'atypical depression' (n = 338) and 'non-atypical depression' (n = 377). RESULTS: There were few significant differences between the 'atypical depression' and 'non-atypical depression' groups in effectiveness ratings for drug treatments, and none for psychological treatments. The 'atypical depression' group had significantly lower mean effectiveness ratings for some selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants. Few respondents had trialed MAOIs. CONCLUSION: While MAOIs are rarely prescribed, a range of non-MAOI drug and psychological treatments are of some perceived benefit for depressed patients with atypical features.

Parker G; Crawford J

2009-09-01

282

Determining severity subtypes of depression with a self-report questionnaire.  

Science.gov (United States)

The American Psychiatric Association's recently revised guidelines for the treatment of major depressive disorder indicated that it is important to consider symptom severity in initial treatment selection. In the present report from the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services (MIDAS) project, we conducted two studies of psychiatric outpatients examining the correlates of severity classification based on a self-report depression scale. The first sample consisted of 470 depressed outpatients who completed the Clinically Useful Depression Outcome Scale (CUDOS) and measures of psychosocial morbidity at the time of presentation. The second sample consisted of 112 depressed outpatients who completed the CUDOS and were evaluated with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale at baseline and after 3 months of treatment. Compared to mildly depressed patients, moderately depressed patients reported significantly more psychosocial morbidity across all functional domains. The same differences were found between moderately and severely depressed patients. Greater severity of depression was associated with lower rates of response and remission. The results of the present studies suggest that a self-report depression questionnaire can validly subtype depressed patients according to gradations of severity. PMID:23107790

Zimmerman, Mark; Martinez, Jennifer H; Friedman, Michael; Boerescu, Daniela A; Attiullah, Naureen; Toba, Cristina

2012-10-27

283

Depression, smoking and smoking cessation: a qualitative study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: A high proportion of smokers suffer from mental health problems including depression. Despite many of them wanting to stop smoking, low mood adversely affects their ability to quit. OBJECTIVE: To explore the experiences of smokers with self-reported depression, the relationship of smoking with mental health problems and the experiences of smokers while trying to quit. The study also explored what help within the primary care setting could assist in quitting. METHODS: Participants were recruited from a large general-practice-based smoking cessation trial. Participants who had indicated they were suffering from depression on a self-reported baseline survey were invited to participate. Semi-structured interviews were conducted over the telephone and digitally recorded. The interviews were transcribed and analysed using a phenomenological qualitative approach. RESULTS: Sixteen interviews were conducted (11 females, 5 males). Mood disturbances were frequently reported as triggers for smoking and low mood was seen as a barrier to quitting. Perceived benefits of smoking when depressed were limited and for many, it was a learned response. A sense of hopelessness, lack of control over one's life and a lack of meaningful activities all emerged as important factors contributing to continued smoking. Participants felt that their quit attempts would be aided by better mood management, increased self-confidence and motivation and additional professional support. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking and depression were found to be strongly interconnected. Depressed smokers interested in quitting may benefit from increased psychological help to enhance self-confidence, motivation and mood management, as well as a supportive general practice environment.

Clancy N; Zwar N; Richmond R

2013-10-01

284

Seasonality and sleep: a clinical study on euthymic mood disorder patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background. Research on mood disorders has progressively focused on the study of seasons and on the mood in association with them during depressive or manic episodes yet few studies have focused on the seasonal fluctuation that characterizes the patient's clinical course both during an illness episode and during euthymic periods. Methods. 113 euthymic outpatients 46 affected by major recurrent depression and 67 affected by bipolar disorder were recruited. We evaluated the impact of clinical "rhythmical" factors: seasonality, sleep disturbance, and chronotype. Patients completed the SPAQ+ questionnaire, the MEQ questionnaire, and the medical outcomes study (MOS) sleep scale. We used t-test analyses to compare differences of clinical "rhythmical" and sociodemographic variables and of differences in the assessment scales among the diagnostic groups. Results. Patients reporting a family history for mood disorders have higher fluctuations throughout seasons. Sleep disturbance is more problematic in unipolars when compared to bipolars. Conclusions. Sleep, light, and seasonality seem to be three interconnected features that lie at the basis of chronobiology that, when altered, have an important effect both on the psychopathology and on the treatment of mood disorders.

Brambilla C; Gavinelli C; Delmonte D; Fulgosi MC; Barbini B; Colombo C; Smeraldi E

2012-01-01

285

Depression.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article reviews the assessment and treatment for depression in children and adolescents, emphasizing the implementation of evidence-based treatments into clinical care. Past trials of antidepressant medications are reviewed, as well as the clinical use of antidepressants and pharmacologic strategies for refractory illness or in the context of comorbid conditions. Clinicians who treat youth now have a body of empiric research to help guide treatment decisions; however, personalized treatment based on associated symptoms, comorbid conditions, contextual factors, and psychiatric history is essential. Further research is needed in the pharmacologic treatment of depressed youth, including expanding the study of non-SSRI antidepressants, augmentation and adjunctive strategies, and treatment in patients with comorbid conditions.

Choe CJ; Emslie GJ; Mayes TL

2012-10-01

286

Prevalence and characteristics of depression in mild cognitive impairment: the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Depression might be a risk factor for dementia. However, little is known about the prevalence of depressive symptoms in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and whether mood or motivation-related symptoms are predominant. METHOD: A total of 767 non-demented community-dwelling adults aged 70-90 years completed a comprehensive assessment, including neuropsychological testing, and a past psychiatric/medical history interview. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10). Exploratory factor analysis was performed on the GDS and K10 to derive 'mood' and 'motivation' subscales. RESULTS: A total of 290 participants were classified as having MCI and 468 as cognitively normal (CN). Participants with MCI reported more depressive symptoms, and more MCI participants met the cut-off for clinically significant symptoms, relative to CN participants. Those with amnestic MCI (aMCI), but not non-amnestic MCI, had more depressive symptoms and were more likely to meet the cut-off for clinically significant depressive symptoms, relative to CN participants. Participants with MCI reported more mood-related symptoms than CN participants, while there were no differences between groups on motivation-related symptoms. CONCLUSION: Individuals with MCI, especially aMCI, endorse more depressive symptoms when compared with cognitively intact individuals. These findings highlight the importance of assessing and treating depressive symptoms in MCI.

Shahnawaz Z; Reppermund S; Brodaty H; Crawford JD; Draper B; Trollor JN; Sachdev PS

2013-05-01

287

The evolutionary origins of mood and its disorders.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The term 'mood' in its scientific usage refers to relatively enduring affective states that arise when negative or positive experience in one context or time period alters the individual's threshold for responding to potentially negative or positive events in subsequent contexts or time periods. The capacity for mood appears to be phylogenetically widespread and the mechanisms underlying it are highly conserved in diverse animals, suggesting it has an important adaptive function. In this review, we discuss how moods can be classified across species, and what the selective advantages of the capacity for mood are. Core moods can be localised within a two-dimensional continuous space, where one axis represents sensitivity to punishment or threat, and the other, sensitivity to reward. Depressed mood and anxious mood represent two different quadrants of this space. The adaptive function of mood is to integrate information about the recent state of the environment and current physical condition of the organism to fine-tune its decisions about the allocation of behavioural effort. Many empirical observations from both humans and non-human animals are consistent with this model. We discuss the implications of this adaptive approach to mood systems for mood disorders in humans.

Nettle D; Bateson M

2012-09-01

288

Biological and clinical validation of atypical depression.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Depressed patients with (a) mood reactivity alone (MR group), (b) mood reactivity plus one or more associated features (atypical depression, AD group), and (c) patients with neither mood reactivity nor atypical depression (non-MR/AD group) were compared on their cortisol response to 75 mg of desipramine (DMI), a relatively selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. AD patients exhibited a significantly higher cortisol response to DMI compared with MR and non-MR/AD patients, suggesting that atypical depression may be associated with a less impaired norepinephrine system. MR and non-MR/AD patients did not differ, suggesting that mood reactivity alone is not associated with the biological profile observed in atypical depression. Results indicate that while mood reactivity may be necessary for the diagnosis of atypical depression, the additional presence of at least one associated symptom is required for a distinct biological profile. Our findings provide further biological validation of the concept of atypical depression.

McGinn LK; Asnis GM; Rubinson E

1996-03-01

289

Cognitive deficits in patients suffering from chronic fatigue syndrome, acute infective illness or depression.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) report neuro-psychological symptoms as a characteristic feature. We sought to assess cognitive performance in patients with CFS, and compare cognitive performance and subjective workload experience of these patients with that of two disease comparison groups (non-melancholic depression and acute infection) and healthy controls. METHOD: A computerized performance battery employed to assess cognitive functioning included tests of continuous attention, response speed, performance accuracy and memory. Severity of mood disturbance and subjective fatigue were assessed by questionnaire. RESULTS: All patient groups demonstrated increased errors and slower reaction times, and gave higher workload ratings than healthy controls. Patients with CFS and non-melancholic depression had more severe deficits than patients with acute infection. All patient groups reported more severe mood disturbance and fatigue than healthy controls, but patients with CFS and those with acute infection reported less severe mood disturbance than patients with depression. CONCLUSIONS: As all patients demonstrated similar deficits in attention and response speed, it is possible that common pathophysiological processes are involved. The differences in severity of mood disturbance, however, suggest that the pathophysiological processes in patients with CFS and acute infection are not simply secondary to depressed mood.

Vollmer-Conna U; Wakefield D; Lloyd A; Hickie I; Lemon J; Bird KD; Westbrook RF

1997-10-01

290

Vascular Depression  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research until today has found a positive relationship between vascular risk factors and depression. With the advance in neuroimaging methods in the last years, a more definite relation between cerebrovascular diseases and old-age depression have been described, and in the light of the studies in this field, a ‘vascular depression’ subtype has been defined. According to this hypothesis, ‘vascular depression’ implies a special depression subtype which begins first time in old age, which is accompanied less by depressive mood, characterized by impairment in cognitive abilities, especially in executive functions, dominated by psychomotor retardation and somatic symptoms, and lack of family history of depression. A group of researchers stated that defining vascular depression only with clinical findings would be insufficient, suggested brain imaging findings are required for the diagnosis, and subcortical hyperintensities are related to depression symptoms. Late-onset depression is shown to be related to frontal subcortical white-matter hyperintensities, and these findings were found to be correlated with affect dysregulation and executive dysfunction in late-life depression. Executive dysfunction as well as memory and attention problems in late-onset depression have been shown in different studies. Thus, vascular depression hypothesis is thought to be related with subcortical dementia upon these findings. There is currently no consensus on the concept of vascular depression and diagnostic criteria. But this concept which is explaining a subgroup of late-life depressions, predicting the treatment outcome, and implying a preventable disease with the control of vascular factors, makes vascular depression a very important topic. In this review, research on vascular depression hypothesis, findings and critics about the concept will be reviewed.(Arc­hi­ves of Neu­ropsy­chi­atry 2013; 50: 1-8)

Yunus Emre Sönmez; ?. Özlem Erden Ak?

2013-01-01

291

Depression (PDQ)  

Science.gov (United States)

... Trials Cancer Statistics Research & Funding News About NCI Depression (PDQ®) Patient Version Health Professional Version En español ... Progress Report: 2011/2012 Update General Information About Depression Key Points for This Section Depression is different ...

292

Recognition and diagnosis of atypical depression.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The term atypical depression dates to the first wave of reports describing differential response to monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs). In contrast to more TCA-responsive depressions, patients with so-called atypical symptoms (e.g., hypersomnia, interpersonal sensitivity, leaden paralysis, increased appetite and/or weight, and phobic anxiety) were observed to be more responsive to MAOIs. After several decades of controversy and debate, the phrase "with atypical features" was added as an episode specifier in the DSM-IV in 1994. The 1-year prevalence of the defined atypical depression subtype is approximately 1% to 4%; around 15% to 29% of patients with major depressive disorder have atypical depression. Hardly "atypical" in contemporary contexts, atypical depression also is common in dysthymic bipolar II disorders and is notable for its early age at onset, more chronic course, and high rates of comorbidity with social phobia and panic disorder with agoraphobia. The requirement of preserved mood reactivity is arguably the most controversial of the DSM-IV criteria for atypical depression. When compared with melancholia, the neurobiological profiles of patients with atypical depression are relatively normal. The utility of the atypical depression subtype for differential therapeutics diminished substantially when the TCAs were supplanted as first-line antidepressants by the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Although introduction of safer MAOIs has fostered renewed interest in atypical depression, the validity and importance of the DSM-IV definition of atypical depression for the nosology of affective illness remains an open question.

Thase ME

2007-01-01

293

Recognition and diagnosis of atypical depression.  

Science.gov (United States)

The term atypical depression dates to the first wave of reports describing differential response to monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs). In contrast to more TCA-responsive depressions, patients with so-called atypical symptoms (e.g., hypersomnia, interpersonal sensitivity, leaden paralysis, increased appetite and/or weight, and phobic anxiety) were observed to be more responsive to MAOIs. After several decades of controversy and debate, the phrase "with atypical features" was added as an episode specifier in the DSM-IV in 1994. The 1-year prevalence of the defined atypical depression subtype is approximately 1% to 4%; around 15% to 29% of patients with major depressive disorder have atypical depression. Hardly "atypical" in contemporary contexts, atypical depression also is common in dysthymic bipolar II disorders and is notable for its early age at onset, more chronic course, and high rates of comorbidity with social phobia and panic disorder with agoraphobia. The requirement of preserved mood reactivity is arguably the most controversial of the DSM-IV criteria for atypical depression. When compared with melancholia, the neurobiological profiles of patients with atypical depression are relatively normal. The utility of the atypical depression subtype for differential therapeutics diminished substantially when the TCAs were supplanted as first-line antidepressants by the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Although introduction of safer MAOIs has fostered renewed interest in atypical depression, the validity and importance of the DSM-IV definition of atypical depression for the nosology of affective illness remains an open question. PMID:17640153

Thase, Michael E

2007-01-01

294

Optimal management of perimenopausal depression  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Barbara L ParryDepartment of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, USAAbstract: Only recently has the perimenopause become recognized as a time when women are at risk for new onset and recurrence of major depression. Untreated depression at this time not only exacerbates the course of a depressive illness, but also puts women at increased risk for sleep disorders, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and osteoporosis. Although antidepressant medication is the mainstay of treatment, adjunctive therapy, especially with estrogen replacement, may be indicated in refractory cases, and may speed the onset of antidepressant action. Many, but not all, studies, report that progesterone antagonizes the beneficial effects of estrogen. Although some antidepressants improve vasomotor symptoms, in general they are not as effective as estrogen alone for relieving these symptoms. Estrogen alone, however, does not generally result in remission of major depression in most (but not all) studies, but may provide benefit to some women with less severe symptoms if administered in therapeutic ranges. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in addition to estrogen are usually more beneficial in improving mood than SSRIs or estrogen treatment alone for major depression, whereas the selective norepinephrine and serotonin reuptake inhibitors do not require the addition of estrogen to exert their antidepressant effects in menopausal depression. In addition to attention to general health, hormonal status, and antidepressant treatment, the optimal management of perimenopausal depression also requires attention to the individual woman’s psychosocial and spiritual well being.Keywords: menopause, depression, management

Barbara L Parry

2010-01-01

295

PSYCHOLOGICAL CORRELATES OF POSTPARTUM DEPRESSION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), postpartum depression may include any nonpsychotic depressive disorder during the first four weeks of postpartum, according to research criteria during the first year after birth. The exact cause of postpartum depression is not yet known, and most researchers believe that postpartum depression is a bio-psycho-social problem. So far, the biological aspect of the disease is explained by changing the levels of estrogen and progesterone during pregnancy, and by decrease of hormone levels after birth. Psychological correlates are often associated with low selfesteem, pessimism as a personality trait, bad strategies of coping with stress, mood swings and emotional reactions. The social aspect of the disease is associated with the existential conditions of pregnant woman, support of partners and education level. This paper will include issues like hereditary causes and possible psychological factors of postpartum depression prevention. Nowadays, it is estimated that on average 15% of women, regardless of the pregnancy outcome, are suffering from postpartum depression. However, this information includes only those women who were diagnosed with postpartum depression and who themselves reported about it. Almost every woman receives basic care during pregnancy to prevent complications in the physiological level. This paper has shown possible psychological factors of postpartum depression prevention, the impact of optimism, self-esteem and coping skills.

Anida Fazlagi?

2011-01-01

296

Quality improvement in depression care in the Netherlands: the Depression Breakthrough Collaborative. A quality improvement report  

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Full Text Available Background: Improving the healthcare for patients with depression is a priority health policy across the world. Roughly, two major problems can be identified in daily practice: (1) the content of care is often not completely consistent with recommendations in guidelines and (2) the organization of care is not always integrated and delivered by multidisciplinary teams. Aim: To describe the content and preliminary results of a quality improvement project in primary care, aiming at improving the uptake of clinical depression guidelines in daily practice as well as the collaboration between different mental health professionals. Method: A Depression Breakthrough Collaborative was initiated from December 2006 until March 2008. The activities included the development and implementation of a stepped care depression model, a care pathway with two levels of treatment intensity: a first step treatment level for patients with non-severe depression (brief or mild depressive symptoms) and a second step level for patients with severe depression. Twelve months data were measured by the teams in terms of one outcome and several process indicators. Qualitative data were gathered by the national project team with a semi-structured questionnaire amongst the local team coordinators. Results: Thirteen multidisciplinary teams participated in the project. In total 101 health professionals were involved, and 536 patients were diagnosed. Overall 356 patients (66%) were considered non-severely depressed and 180 (34%) patients showed severe symptoms. The mean percentage of non-severe patients treated according to the stepped care model was 78%, and 57% for the severely depressed patient group. The proportion of non-severely depressed patients receiving a first step treatment according to the stepped care model, improved during the project, this was not the case for the severely depressed patients. The teams were able to monitor depression symptoms to a reasonable extent during a period of 6 months. Within 3 months, 28% of monitored patients had recovered, meaning a Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) score of 10 and lower, and another 27% recovered between 3 and 6 months. Conclusions and discussion: A stepped care approach seems acceptable and feasible in primary care, introducing different levels of care for different patient groups. Future implementation projects should pay special attention to the quality of care for severely depressed patients. Although the Depression Breakthrough Collaborative introduced new treatment concepts in primary and specialty care, the change capacity of the method remains unclear. Thorough data gathering is needed to judge the real value of these intensive improvement projects.

Gerdien Franx; Jolanda A.C. Meeuwissen; Henny Sinnema; Jan Spijker; Jochanan Huyser; Michel Wensing; Jacomine de Lange

2009-01-01

297

Continuation and Maintenance Electroconvulsive Therapy for Mood Disorders: Review of the Literature  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a highly effective treatment for mood disorders. Continuation ECT (C-ECT) and maintenance ECT (M-ECT) are required for many patients suffering from severe and recurrent forms of mood disorders. This is a review of the literature regarding C- and M-ECT. Methods We conducted a computerized search using the words continuation ECT, maintenance ECT, depression, mania, bipolar disorder and mood disorders. We report on all articles published in the English language from 1998 to 2009. Results We identified 32 reports. There were 24 case reports and retrospective reviews on 284 patients. Two of these reports included comparison groups, and 1 had a prospective follow-up in a subset of subjects. There were 6 prospective naturalistic studies and 2 randomized controlled trials. Conclusions C-ECT and M-ECT are valuable treatment modalities to prevent relapse and recurrence of mood disorders in patients who have responded to an index course of ECT. C-ECT and M-ECT are underused and insufficiently studied despite positive clinical experience of more than 70 years. Studies which are currently under way should allow more definitive recommendations regarding the choice, frequency and duration of C-ECT and M-ECT following acute ECT.

Petrides, Georgios; Tobias, Kristen G.; Kellner, Charles H.; Rudorfer, Matthew V.

2011-01-01

298

Adult separation anxiety in patients with complicated grief versus healthy control subjects: relationships with lifetime depressive and hypomanic symptoms  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Around 9% to 20% of bereaved individuals experience symptoms of complicated grief (CG) that are associated with significant distress and impairment. A major issue is whether CG represents a distinctive nosographic entity, independent from other mental disorders, particularly major depression (MD), and the role of symptoms of adult separation anxiety. The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical features of patients with CG versus a sample of healthy control subjects, with particular focus on adult separation anxiety and lifetime mood spectrum symptoms. Methods A total of 53 patients with CG and 50 healthy control subjects were consecutively recruited and assessed by means of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I disorders (SCID-I/P), Inventory of Complicated Grief (ICG), Adult Separation Anxiety Questionnaire (ASA-27), Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS) and Mood Spectrum-Self Report (MOODS-SR) lifetime version. Results Patients with CG reported significantly higher scores on the MOODS-SR, ASA-27, and WSAS with respect to healthy control subjects. The scores on the ASA-27 were significantly associated with the MOODS-SR depressive and manic components amongst both patients and healthy control subjects, with a stronger association in the latter. Conclusions A major limitation of the present study is the small sample size that may reduce the generalizability of the results. Moreover, lifetime MOODS-SR does not provide information about the temporal sequence of the manic or depressive symptoms and the loss. The frequent comorbidity with MD and the association with both depressive and manic lifetime symptoms do not support the independence of CG from mood disorders. In our patients, CG is associated with high levels of separation anxiety in adulthood. However, the presence of lifetime mood instability, as measured by the frequent presence of depressive and hypomanic lifetime symptoms, suggests that cyclothymia might represent the common underlying feature characterizing the vulnerability to both adult separation anxiety and CG.

Dell'Osso Liliana; Carmassi Claudia; Corsi Martina; Pergentini Irene; Socci Chiara; Maremmani Angelo GI; Perugi Giulio

2011-01-01

299

Comorbid depression and anxiety effects on pregnancy and neonatal outcome.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of comorbid depression and anxiety were compared to the effects of depression alone and anxiety alone on pregnancy mood states and biochemistry and on neonatal outcomes in a large multi-ethnic sample. At the prenatal period the comorbid and depressed groups had higher scores than the other groups on the depression measure. But, the comorbid group had higher anxiety, anger and daily hassles scores than the other groups, and they had lower dopamine levels. As compared to the non-depressed group, they also reported more sleep disturbances and relationship problems. The comorbid group also experienced a greater incidence of prematurity than the depressed, the high anxiety and the non-depressed groups. Although the comorbid and anxiety groups were lower birthweight than the non-depressed and depressed groups, the comorbid group did not differ from the depressed and anxiety groups on birth length. The neonates of the comorbid and depressed groups had higher cortisol and norepinephrine and lower dopamine and serotonin levels than the neonates of the anxiety and non-depressed groups as well as greater relative right frontal EEG. These data suggest that for some measures comorbidity of depression and anxiety is the worst condition (e.g., incidence of prematurity), while for others, comorbidity is no more impactful than depression alone. PMID:19945170

Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Figueiredo, Barbara; Deeds, Osvelia; Ascencio, Angela; Schanberg, Saul; Kuhn, Cynthia

2009-11-27

300

Vegetarian diets are associated with healthy mood states: a cross-sectional study in Seventh Day Adventist adults  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The physical health status of vegetarians has been extensively reported, but there is limited research regarding the mental health status of vegetarians, particularly with regard to mood. Vegetarian diets exclude fish, the major dietary source of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), critical regulators of brain cell structure and function. Omnivorous diets low in EPA and DHA are linked to impaired mood states in observational and experimental studies. Methods We examined associations between mood state and polyunsaturated fatty acid intake as a result of adherence to a vegetarian or omnivorous diet in a cross-sectional study of 138 healthy Seventh Day Adventist men and women residing in the Southwest. Participants completed a quantitative food frequency questionnaire, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS), and Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaires. Results Vegetarians (VEG:n = 60) reported significantly less negative emotion than omnivores (OMN:n = 78) as measured by both mean total DASS and POMS scores (8.32 ± 0.88 vs 17.51 ± 1.88, p = .000 and 0.10 ± 1.99 vs 15.33 ± 3.10, p = .007, respectively). VEG reported significantly lower mean intakes of EPA (p p p p p p p p p p Conclusions The vegetarian diet profile does not appear to adversely affect mood despite low intake of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids.

Beezhold Bonnie L; Johnston Carol S; Daigle Deanna R

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Gender differences in clinical characteristics of first-admission psychotic depression.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The authors explored differences in the clinical characteristics of 17 male and 13 female patients experiencing their first admission for psychotic depression. Few differences were observed for most depressive and psychotic features, but fewer male than female patients reported fatigue, psychomotor agitation, and systematized and mood-incongruent delusions and more male patients reported feelings of worthlessness. Overall, the findings were consistent with those derived from samples of patients with chronic, nonpsychotic mental illness.

Fennig S; Bromet E; Jandorf L

1993-11-01

302

Reward dysregulation and mood symptoms in an adolescent outpatient sample.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research on bipolar spectrum disorders (BPSD) in adolescence has burgeoned in the last decade, but continued work is needed to identify endophenotypic markers associated with illness onset and course. The present study examined reward dysregulation-measured via the behavioral activation system (BAS)-as one putative marker of BPSD in adolescence. A diverse group of 425 outpatient adolescents between 11 and 17 years of age (52 % male) completed the Behavioral Inhibition and Activation Scale (BIS-BAS) scale to measure reward dysregulation. Semi-structured interviews determined diagnoses and severity of mood symptoms. Parent-reported BAS was associated with increased symptoms of mania, and parent and adolescent-reported BAS were associated with symptoms of depression. Parent-reported BIS scores were associated with increased symptoms of mania. Results held independent of diagnostic status. Furthermore, parent BIS/BAS reports were stronger predictors for manic symptoms compared to adolescent-reports. Results extend work in adults with BPSD, suggesting a transdiagnostic association between reward dysregulation and mood symptom severity in adolescence. PMID:23783771

Gruber, June; Gilbert, Kirsten E; Youngstrom, Eric; Youngstrom, Jennifer Kogos; Feeny, Norah C; Findling, Robert L

2013-10-01

303

Reward dysregulation and mood symptoms in an adolescent outpatient sample.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Research on bipolar spectrum disorders (BPSD) in adolescence has burgeoned in the last decade, but continued work is needed to identify endophenotypic markers associated with illness onset and course. The present study examined reward dysregulation-measured via the behavioral activation system (BAS)-as one putative marker of BPSD in adolescence. A diverse group of 425 outpatient adolescents between 11 and 17 years of age (52 % male) completed the Behavioral Inhibition and Activation Scale (BIS-BAS) scale to measure reward dysregulation. Semi-structured interviews determined diagnoses and severity of mood symptoms. Parent-reported BAS was associated with increased symptoms of mania, and parent and adolescent-reported BAS were associated with symptoms of depression. Parent-reported BIS scores were associated with increased symptoms of mania. Results held independent of diagnostic status. Furthermore, parent BIS/BAS reports were stronger predictors for manic symptoms compared to adolescent-reports. Results extend work in adults with BPSD, suggesting a transdiagnostic association between reward dysregulation and mood symptom severity in adolescence.

Gruber J; Gilbert KE; Youngstrom E; Youngstrom JK; Feeny NC; Findling RL

2013-10-01

304

Investigating the effects of hormonal contraceptive use on mood and sexuality  

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Full Text Available Rationale : Hormonal contraception has been the subject of numerous research studies. Despite the fact pharmaceutical companies advertise the physical side effects of the medication both positive (e.g. improved acne, reduced ovarian cancer risk) and negative (e.g. increased risk of stroke, weight gain), the knowledge of the potential psychological effects are often based on Internet searches or less than credible resources. The range of empirical support for the effects of the medications on mood has been beneficial including improved mood to negative such as mental health distress. Aside from psychological research, sexual side effects including reduced libido and reduced sexual responsiveness have also been reported. The majority of the research on hormonal contraceptives has been conducted in a clinical setting. It is unclear if the preceding findings would be found with females self-selecting to use the medication as opposed to paid study participants in a clinical setting. Methods : In order to gain a greater understanding of the relationship between hormonal contraceptive usage and affect, an Internet survey with females of childbearing age (age range: 17–48, N=379) was conducted to examining psychological distress (stress, anxiety, depression, and negative mood), improved mood (life satisfaction, happiness, and positive mood), and sexuality (sexual frequency and sexual satisfaction). Results : Contrary to previous findings, results from this correlational study suggest no effects of hormonal contraceptive use on psychological distress or mood. Females using hormonal contraception did, however, report higher scores for sexual satisfaction and increased sexual activity. Conclusions : While this investigation was not experimental and, therefore, causation cannot be determined, females using hormonal contraception may be relieved that this research suggests that these drugs do not lead to psychologically harmful side effects and sexuality may be improved with usage. More research is needed to confirm these findings.

Dixie Meyer

2012-01-01

305

Alterations in selected measures of mood with a single bout of dynamic Taekwondo exercise in college-age students.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study was designed to investigate and to compare the acute alterations in selected measures of mood profile in novice Taekwondo practitioners while evaluating whether dynamic Taekwondo practice was an appropriate exercise modality for enhancing six psychological state dimensions: Vigor, Anxiety, Depression, Anger, Fatigue, and Confusion. 20 male and female college-age students enrolled in Taekwondo activity class and an additional 20 students enrolled in the lecture-con trol class (ages 18 to 21 years) completed the Profile of Mood States (POMS) inven tory prior to and immediately following one 75-min. session of dynamic Taekwondo or lecture. To examine the exercise effect, a series of 2 x 2 analysis of covariance were performed on mean posttest scores, using pretest scores as the covariate. Analysis indicated that Taekwondo participants reported a significant improvement (p<.007) with respect to the control group in scores on Tension, Depression, Anger, Fatigue, Confusion, and Vigor. Also, Total Mood Disturbance significantly improved after the dynamic Taekwondo session. The selected affective benefits of an acute Taekwondo exercise in this study were independent of sex. Unlike the exercising subjects. the control subjects reported no such benefits and, indeed, increased their scores for negative mood states. These results suggest that a dynamic version of Taekwondo achieves the necessary activity parameters that begin to induce positive mood state changes and that extensive Taekwondo skill is not necessary to elicit some beneficial change in affect. This study also supports the findings of several earlier studies indicating that acute exercise may elicit positive changes in affective states and that prolonged exercise is not necessary to produce immediate beneficial alterations of mood.

Toskovic NN

2001-06-01

306

The role of the self-concept in the relationship of menstrual symptom attitudes and negative mood  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: A relationship between symptom attitudes and negative affect has consistently been found in a range of different symptom domains. Little is known, however, about the role of different aspects of the self in this rela-tionship. We explored the mediating role of in-terferences of symptom with the self-concept in the association of menstrual symptom attitudes and depressive mood. Methods: Eighty-one women completed an online survey on men-strual symptom attitudes, perceived interfer-ences of symptoms with various self-aspects and negative mood states. We tested our hy-pothesis in a mediation analysis. Results: We found a complete mediation of the relationship of symptom attitudes and depressive mood by interferences of symptoms with self-aspects. However, interferences with self-aspects did not play a role in the association of anxious mood and symptom report. Conclusion: The self- concept should receive greater attention in re-search on symptom attitudes and psychological well-being. This would be particularly important in research on medically unexplained symptom report.

Sibylle Peterse; Tilman Eckloff

2011-01-01

307

Local cerebral glucose metabolism (LCMRGlc) in mood disorders  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] PET studies (LCMRGlc units of ? moles/min/100g and errors in std. dev.) were performed in patients with unipolar depression (n=11), bipolar depression (n=8), hypomania (n=8) and bipolar mixed states (n=3) in drug free states as well as during spontaneous or drug induced changes in mood, and age/sex matched normals (n=9). The major findings were: bipolar depressed patients had lower (P

1985-01-01

308

Fatigue, quality of life, and mood states during chemotherapy in Italian cancer patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS AND BACKGROUND: In cancer patients, fatigue interferes with the individual's functioning and quality of life (QoL). We investigated the association between fatigue and the main QoL dimensions and mood states as well as the main sociodemographic and clinical variables. METHODS: A total of 105 inpatients undergoing chemotherapy were administered the Revised Piper Fatigue Scale and the EORTC QLQ-C30 and POMS questionnaires, along with a form for collecting personal and clinical data. RESULTS: Compared with patients reporting lower fatigue levels, patients with higher levels showed worse functioning (P <0.001) in every QoL domain (i.e., physical, role, emotional, social, cognitive functioning, pain, and general health) as well as in the assessed mood states (depression-dejection, tension-anxiety, confusion-bewilderment). Moreover, both QoL and mood states in the subgroup reporting intermediate fatigue levels were worse than those of the subgroup with lower fatigue levels (P <0.02), except for emotional functioning, general health and QoL, and tension-anxiety. In addition, fatigue was significantly associated with gender, age, education, performance status, but not with marital status, survival rate of cancer type, and current chemotherapy cycle. CONCLUSIONS: The associations observed between fatigue, the main QoL domains, and negative mood states call for further active interventions to prevent and reduce fatigue.

Annunziata MA; Muzzatti B; Mella S; Bidoli E

2013-01-01

309

Adult mood disorders and childhood psychological trauma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between adult mood disorders and childhood psychological trauma in a developing country. METHOD: Adults with and without mood disorders were assessed in a case-control study using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Assessment of childhood trauma included physical and sexual abuse, frequent exposure to violence, and parental loss. RESULTS: In two independent multivariate analyses, after adjusting for potential confounding factors, we found a higher odds ratio for frequent exposure to violence in the community (p = .037) and for physical abuse by parents or caregivers during childhood/adolescence (p = .012) in the group with mood disorders than in the control group. In secondary analyses splitting the mood disorder group in two subgroups (manic episode, and major depressive episodes/ dysthymia), only manic patients showed significantly higher rates of frequent exposure to violence in the community (p = 0.01) and physical abuse during childhood (p = 0.02) than did patients in the control group. In addition, maniac patients had significantly higher rates of sexual abuse than did controls (p = .03). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings document an association between violence during childhood and adult mood disorders, especially for manic patients, in a developing country.

Zavaschi Maria Lucrécia Scherer; Graeff Maria Elisa; Menegassi Marcos Tatit; Mardini Victor; Pires Denise Winkler Simões; Carvalho Rafael Homem de; Rohde Luis Augusto; Eizirik Cláudio Laks

2006-01-01

310

Can Reporting Heterogeneity Explain Differences in Depressive Symptoms across Europe?  

Science.gov (United States)

Depression is one of the leading causes of disability in the developed world. Previous studies have shown varying depression prevalence rates between European countries, and also within countries, between socioeconomic groups. However, it is unclear whether these differences reflect true variations in prevalence or whether they are attributable to…

Kok, Renske; Avendano, Mauricio; d'Uva, Teresa Bago; Mackenbach, Johan

2012-01-01

311

The clinical relevance of self-reported premenstrual worsening of depressive symptoms in the management of depressed outpatients: a STAR*D report.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence, clinical and demographic correlates, and relationship to treatment outcome of self-reported premenstrual exacerbation of depressive symptoms in premenopausal women with major depressive disorder who are receiving antidepressant medication. METHOD: This post-hoc analysis used clinical trial data from treatment-seeking, premenopausal, adult female outpatients with major depression who were not using hormonal contraceptives. For this report, citalopram was used as the first treatment step. We also used data from the second step in which one of three new medications were used (bupropion-SR [sustained release], venlafaxine-XR [extended release], or sertraline). Treatment-blinded assessors obtained baseline treatment outcomes data. We hypothesized that those with reported premenstrual depressive symptom exacerbation would have more general medical conditions, longer index depressive episodes, lower response or remission rates, and shorter times-to-relapse with citalopram, and that they would have a better outcome with sertraline than with bupropion-SR. RESULTS: At baseline, 66% (n=545/821) of women reported premenstrual exacerbation. They had more general medical conditions, more anxious features, longer index episodes, and shorter times-to-relapse (41.3 to 47.1 weeks, respectively). Response and remission rates to citalopram, however, were unrelated to reported premenstrual exacerbation. Reported premenstrual exacerbation was also unrelated to differential benefit with sertraline and bupropion-SR. CONCLUSIONS: Self-reported premenstrual exacerbation has moderate clinical utility in the management of depressed patients, although it is not predictive of overall treatment response. Factors that contribute to a more chronic or relapsing course may also play a role in premenstrual worsening of major depressive disorder (MDD).

Haley CL; Sung SC; Rush AJ; Trivedi MH; Wisniewski SR; Luther JF; Kornstein SG

2013-03-01

312

Prevalence of pain syndromes, mood conditions, and asthma in adolescents and young women with endometriosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Adult women with endometriosis are often diagnosed with comorbid pain, mood, and autoimmune conditions. This study aims to describe the occurrence of pain syndromes, mood conditions, and asthma in adolescents and young women with endometriosis evaluated at our medical center. DESIGN: Retrospective review of medical records. SETTING: Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at a tertiary referral center. PARTICIPANTS: 138 adolescents/young women who were less than age 24 years at the time of their initial visit at our medical center, and whose surgical diagnosis of endometriosis was made at our institution or by outside institutions by the age of 21. INTERVENTIONS: None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of comorbid pain syndromes (defined as interstitial cystitis, irritable bowel syndrome, chronic headaches, chronic low back pain, vulvodynia, fibromyalgia, temporomandibular joint disease, and chronic fatigue syndrome), mood conditions (defined as depression and anxiety), and asthma. RESULTS: Comorbid pain syndromes were found in 77 (56%) women, mood conditions in 66 (48%) women, and asthma in 31 (26%) women. Comparing endometriosis patients with and without comorbid pain syndromes, no differences were found in age at time of diagnosis, endometriosis symptoms, and endometriosis stage. Patients with comorbid pain syndromes were more likely to report mood conditions (62% vs 30% respectively, P < .001) and smoking (31% vs 10% respectively, P = .003), underwent more surgeries for endometriosis (median of 2 [range, 1-7] vs 1 [range, 1-5], P < .005), and were more likely to undergo appendectomy or cholecystectomy (30% vs 13%, P = .02). CONCLUSIONS: Comorbid pain syndromes, mood conditions and asthma are common in adolescents and young women with endometriosis.

Smorgick N; Marsh CA; As-Sanie S; Smith YR; Quint EH

2013-06-01

313

Effects of qigong on depression: a systemic review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Physical exercises and relaxation have been found to be beneficial for depression. However, there is little evidence on the use of Qigong, a mind-body practice integrating gentle exercise and relaxation, in the management of depression. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effects of Qigong on depression. The paper examined clinical trials measuring the effect of Qigong on depression within six large-scale medical research databases (PubMed, Medline, ProQuest, Science Direct, EMBASE, and PsycInfo) till October 2011. Key words "Qigong," "depression," and "mood" were used. Ten studies were identified as original randomized controlled trial (RCT) studies investigating the effect of Qigong on depression as primary (n = 2) or secondary outcome (n = 8). Four studies reported positive results of the Qigong treatment on depression; two reported that Qigong effect on depression was as effective as physical exercise. One study reported that Qigong was comparable to a conventional rehabilitation program, but the remaining three studies found no benefits of Qigong on depression. While the evidence suggests the potential effects of Qigong in the treatment of depression, the review of the literature shows inconclusive results. Further research using rigorous study designs is necessary to investigate the effectiveness of Qigong in depression.

Oh B; Choi SM; Inamori A; Rosenthal D; Yeung A

2013-01-01

314

Effects of qigong on depression: a systemic review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Physical exercises and relaxation have been found to be beneficial for depression. However, there is little evidence on the use of Qigong, a mind-body practice integrating gentle exercise and relaxation, in the management of depression. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effects of Qigong on depression. The paper examined clinical trials measuring the effect of Qigong on depression within six large-scale medical research databases (PubMed, Medline, ProQuest, Science Direct, EMBASE, and PsycInfo) till October 2011. Key words "Qigong," "depression," and "mood" were used. Ten studies were identified as original randomized controlled trial (RCT) studies investigating the effect of Qigong on depression as primary (n = 2) or secondary outcome (n = 8). Four studies reported positive results of the Qigong treatment on depression; two reported that Qigong effect on depression was as effective as physical exercise. One study reported that Qigong was comparable to a conventional rehabilitation program, but the remaining three studies found no benefits of Qigong on depression. While the evidence suggests the potential effects of Qigong in the treatment of depression, the review of the literature shows inconclusive results. Further research using rigorous study designs is necessary to investigate the effectiveness of Qigong in depression. PMID:23533461

Oh, Byeongsang; Choi, Sun Mi; Inamori, Aya; Rosenthal, David; Yeung, Albert

2013-03-04

315

Reciprocal influences between girls' conduct problems and depression, and parental punishment and warmth: a six year prospective analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although the reciprocal effects of parenting and child behavior have long been recognized, the emphasis of empirical study in the field of developmental psychopathology has been on parenting effects on children. For girls in particular, little is known about unique parenting effects on conduct problems in comparison to depression, or vice versa. In the current study, data from the large-scale (n = 2,451) Pittsburgh Girls Study were used to examine the reciprocal relations between parenting and child behavior over a six year period (child ages 7-12 years). Girls and their caregivers (85% of whom were biological mothers) were interviewed annually in their homes. Girls reported on symptoms of conduct disorder and depression, and caregivers reported on level of parent-child warmth and use of harsh punishment. The results of generalized estimating equation regression models demonstrated that both parenting behaviors were uniquely predictive of changes in girls' conduct problems and depressed mood. When the effects of race and poverty on these associations were controlled for, both parenting effects on girls' conduct problems remained significant, but only low parental warmth remained as a significant predictor of depressed mood. Girls' conduct problems, but not depressed mood, predicted changes in harsh punishment over time. The small effect of girls' depressed mood, on changes in parental warmth, was further weakened when socio-demographic factors were also included in the model.

Hipwell A; Keenan K; Kasza K; Loeber R; Stouthamer-Loeber M; Bean T

2008-07-01

316

Testosterone and mood in aging men.  

Science.gov (United States)

Age-associated hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis hypofunction, or partial androgen deficiency of the aging male, is thought to be responsible for various age-associated conditions such as reduced muscle and bone mass, mobility limitations, frailty, obesity, sleep apnea, cognitive impairment, sexual dysfunction, and depression. It has been difficult to establish consistent correlations between these symptoms and plasma testosterone levels in middle-aged men, but testosterone replacement does lead to improved muscle strength, bone density, and sexual function. This article focuses on the relationship between testosterone and mood in older men, and the treatment of age-related depression with exogenous testosterone. PMID:23538087

Seidman, Stuart N; Weiser, Mark

2013-03-01

317

Testosterone and mood in aging men.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Age-associated hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis hypofunction, or partial androgen deficiency of the aging male, is thought to be responsible for various age-associated conditions such as reduced muscle and bone mass, mobility limitations, frailty, obesity, sleep apnea, cognitive impairment, sexual dysfunction, and depression. It has been difficult to establish consistent correlations between these symptoms and plasma testosterone levels in middle-aged men, but testosterone replacement does lead to improved muscle strength, bone density, and sexual function. This article focuses on the relationship between testosterone and mood in older men, and the treatment of age-related depression with exogenous testosterone.

Seidman SN; Weiser M

2013-03-01

318

Mood and birth experience.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Those at the birth of a baby sometimes speak of the experience as significant and meaningful; an experience in which there is an atmosphere or mood that surrounds the occasion. This paper explores this mood, its recognition, disclosure and how we attune or not to it. The paper is philosophically underpinned by hermeneutic phenomenology. The Heideggerian notion of "attunement to mood" is used to interpret this phenomenon. This paper describes how such a mood becomes visible. METHODS: Using a hermeneutic phenomenological approach, 14 tape-recorded transcribed interviews, each about an hour long, were conducted over 8 months from mothers, birth partners, midwives and obstetricians. The stories crafted from these transcripts have been interpreted alongside my own preunderstandings and related literature. Appropriate ethical approval was gained. FINDINGS: Analysis suggests that there is a positively construed mood of joy at birth that can be concealed when disrupted. Disturbing this mood has the effect of exposing the world of birth and its inherent activities and feelings revealing possible meanings inherent in the lived birth experiences. Disturbances at birth provide distinctions and tensions in which a concealed constitutive mood at birth can be seen. This paper provides insight towards a deeper appreciation into how the sacred joy of birth may be protected. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: The way in which we attune to birth may have consequences to birth outcomes and to the experience of childbirth. The consequences of these findings for those in the world of birth are discussed.

Crowther S; Smythe L; Spence D

2013-03-01

319

Manipulating melatonin in managing mood.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Disturbances in circadian rhythms have been associated with major depression and may be an underlying mechanism for the disorder. Resynchronisation of circadian rhythms may provide a new approach to treatment, especially by manipulating melatonin secretion. Melatonin is secreted at night and is a stable marker of circadian rhythms. The timing of its secretion can be changed by exogenous melatonin, agonism of specific melatonin receptors in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, its suppression by light and by sleep deprivation. METHOD: As part of a series of papers ['Chronobiology of mood disorders' Malhi & Kuiper. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2013;128 (Suppl. 444): 2-15; and 'Getting depression clinical practice guidelines right: time for change?' Kuiper et al. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2013;128 (Suppl. 444): 24-30.] addressing chronobiology, in this article, we conducted a selective review of studies that have examined the antidepressant effects of exogenous melatonin, light therapy, sleep deprivation and melatonin receptor agonists. RESULTS: Antidepressant effects were identified for bright light therapy, especially for seasonal affective disorder; sleep deprivation, although its antidepressant effect is time limited; and for the novel antidepressant agomelatine with agonistic properties for the MT1 and MT2 receptors and antagonism of 5HT2c receptor. The role of melatonin as an antidepressant has yet to be demonstrated. CONCLUSION: Shifting the circadian secretion of melatonin using the strategies reviewed offers a new approach to treating depression.

Boyce P; Hopwood M

2013-01-01

320

Self-Reported Depressive Symptoms in Lesbian Birth Mothers and Comothers  

Science.gov (United States)

|Despite the frequency of postpartum depression, little is known about the experiences of lesbian birth mothers and their female partners, or comothers. In this modest yet important exploratory investigation, 20 lesbian mothers completed a survey of self-reported postpartum depressive symptoms (PDS) and related risk factors. Results indicate that…

Maccio, Elaine M.; Pangburn, Jaimee A.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Depression Among Long-term Survivors of Head and Neck Cancer Treated With Radiation Therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

IMPORTANCE The diagnosis and subsequent treatment of head and neck cancer can have a potentially devastating impact on psychosocial functioning. Although the long-term physical adverse effects of radiation therapy (RT) for head and neck cancer have been well described, relatively few studies have evaluated psychosocial functioning after treatment. OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of self-reported depression among survivors of head and neck cancer returning for follow-up after being treated with RT. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Cross-sectional analysis among 211 comprehensive cancer center patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, who had been previously treated with RT and were disease-free with at least 1 year of follow-up. Patients with a history of mood disorder, use of mental health services in the past, or previous or current use of antidepressants or anxiolytics, excluding sleep medications, were specifically excluded. INTERVENTIONS The University of Washington Quality of Life instrument (UW-QOL), a brief, previously validated, self-administered questionnaire, was used to analyze rates of depression. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The UW-QOL assigned scores of 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 subjective responses of mood being "extremely depressed," "somewhat depressed," "neither in a good mood or depressed," "generally good," and "excellent," respectively. RESULTS The mean mood score did not differ at 1, 3, and 5 years after treatment, with scores of 52.0, 55.7, and 62.1, respectively. The proportion of patients who reported their mood as "somewhat depressed" or "extremely depressed" was 17%, 15%, and 13% at 1, 3, and 5 years, respectively. Variables that were significantly associated with post-RT depression included the presence of tracheostomy tube or laryngeal stoma (P?=?.01), gastrostomy tube dependence (P?=?.01), and continued smoking at the time of follow-up (P?reporting their mood as either "somewhat depressed" or "extremely depressed" at 1, 3, and 5 years, the proportion using antidepressants at the time was 6%, 11%, and 0%, respectively. The corresponding proportion of patients actively undergoing or seeking psychotherapy and/or counseling was 3%, 6%, and 0%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Despite a relatively high rate of depression among patients with head and neck cancer in the post-RT setting, mental health services are severely underutilized. PMID:23949013

Chen, Allen M; Daly, Megan E; Vazquez, Esther; Courquin, Jean; Luu, Quang; Donald, Paul J; Farwell, D Gregory

2013-09-01

322

Self-reported depression and physical activity in adults with mobility impairments.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To test hypothesized associations between depression and physical activity among adults with multiple sclerosis (MS), spinal cord injury (SCI), muscular dystrophy (MD), and postpolio syndrome (PPS). DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Survey responses collected from individuals in the Washington state area (participants with SCI) and across the United States (participants with MS, MD, and PPS). PARTICIPANTS: Convenience sample of participants were surveyed (N=1676; MD, n=321; PPS, n=388; MS, n=556; SCI, n=411). INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) assessing depressive symptoms and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire (GLTEQ) assessing physical activity. RESULTS: The average age was 56 years, 64% were women, 92% were white, 86% had a high school degree or higher, and 56% walked with an assistive device or had limited self-mobility. The IPAQ and GLTEQ explained a small but statistically significant and unique amount of the variance in PHQ-9 scores in all diagnostic groups, with no significant differences in the relation by condition, age, or mobility status (IPAQ R(2)=.004; GLTEQ R(2)=.02; both P<.02). CONCLUSIONS: Both physical activity measures demonstrated a small but statistically significant association with depression in all 4 diagnostic groups. Research is needed to determine longitudinal relations and whether physical activity interventions could promote improved mood in adults with physical disabilities.

Rosenberg DE; Bombardier CH; Artherholt S; Jensen MP; Motl RW

2013-04-01

323

Effects of rubidium chloride on the course of manic-depressive illness.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Clinical studies of the effects of rubidium ions on the course of manic-depressive illness are reported. It seems that rubidium tends to increase the length of manic phases and possibly reduces the extremes of mood. Rubidium did not seem to produce any severe side effects in the dose administered, b...

Paschalis, C; Jenner, F A; Lee, C R

324

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor as a biomarker for mood disorders: an historical overview and future directions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mood disorders, such as major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BPD), are the most prevalent psychiatric conditions, and are also among the most severe and debilitating. However, the precise neurobiology underlying these disorders is currently unknown. One way to combat these disorders is to discover novel biomarkers for them. The development of such biomarkers will aid both in the diagnosis of mood disorders and in the development of effective psychiatric medications to treat them. A number of preclinical studies have suggested that the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in the pathophysiology of MDD. In 2003, we reported that serum levels of BDNF in antidepressant-naive patients with MDD were significantly lower than those of patients medicated with antidepressants and normal controls, and that serum BDNF levels were negatively correlated with the severity of depression. Additionally, we found that decreased serum levels of BDNF in antidepressant-naive patients recovered to normal levels associated with the recovery of depression after treatment with antidepressant medication. This review article will provide an historical overview of the role played by BDNF in the pathophysiology of mood disorders and in the mechanism of action of therapeutic agents. Particular focus will be given to the potential use of BDNF as a biomarker for mood disorders. BDNF is initially synthesized as a precursor protein proBDNF, and then proBDNF is proteolytically cleaved to the mature BDNF. Finally, future perspectives on the use of proBDNF as a novel biomarker for mood disorders will be discussed.

Hashimoto K

2010-08-01

325

Physical aggression, diagnostic presentation, and executive functioning in inpatient adolescents diagnosed with mood disorders.  

Science.gov (United States)

While a relationship has been identified between physical aggression and executive functioning within the adult population, this relationship has not yet been consistently examined in the adolescent population. This study examined the association between physical aggression towards others, self-reported depressive symptoms, and executive functioning within an adolescent inpatient sample diagnosed with a mood disorder. This study consisted of a retrospective chart review of 105 adolescent inpatients (ages 13-19) that received a diagnosis of a mood disorder (excluding Bipolar Disorder). Participants were grouped based on history of aggression towards others, resulting in a mood disorder with physically aggressive symptoms group (n = 49) and a mood disorder without physically aggressive symptoms group (n = 56). Ten scores on various measures of executive functioning were grouped into five executive functioning subdomains: Problem Solving/Planning, Cognitive Flexibility/Set Shifting, Response Inhibition/Interference Control, Fluency, and Working Memory/Simple Attention. Results from analyses of covariance indicated that there were no significant differences (p < .01) between aggression groups on any executive functioning subdomains. Correlation analyses (p < .01) indicated a negative correlation between disruptive behavior disorders and response inhibition/interference control, while anxiety disorders were negatively correlated with problem solving/planning. These findings provide important information regarding the presence of executive dysfunction in adolescent psychiatric conditions, and the specific executive subdomains that are implicated. PMID:23239428

Holler, Karen; Kavanaugh, Brian

2013-08-01

326

Physical aggression, diagnostic presentation, and executive functioning in inpatient adolescents diagnosed with mood disorders.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

While a relationship has been identified between physical aggression and executive functioning within the adult population, this relationship has not yet been consistently examined in the adolescent population. This study examined the association between physical aggression towards others, self-reported depressive symptoms, and executive functioning within an adolescent inpatient sample diagnosed with a mood disorder. This study consisted of a retrospective chart review of 105 adolescent inpatients (ages 13-19) that received a diagnosis of a mood disorder (excluding Bipolar Disorder). Participants were grouped based on history of aggression towards others, resulting in a mood disorder with physically aggressive symptoms group (n = 49) and a mood disorder without physically aggressive symptoms group (n = 56). Ten scores on various measures of executive functioning were grouped into five executive functioning subdomains: Problem Solving/Planning, Cognitive Flexibility/Set Shifting, Response Inhibition/Interference Control, Fluency, and Working Memory/Simple Attention. Results from analyses of covariance indicated that there were no significant differences (p < .01) between aggression groups on any executive functioning subdomains. Correlation analyses (p < .01) indicated a negative correlation between disruptive behavior disorders and response inhibition/interference control, while anxiety disorders were negatively correlated with problem solving/planning. These findings provide important information regarding the presence of executive dysfunction in adolescent psychiatric conditions, and the specific executive subdomains that are implicated.

Holler K; Kavanaugh B

2013-08-01

327

The self-rated Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology for screening prenatal depression.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the self-reported version of the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS-SR), which is used for major depression, is a reliable tool for screening and assessment of prenatal depression. METHODS: Between June 2006 and July 2008, pregnant women attending a teaching hospital in São Paulo, Brazil, completed the Portuguese version of the IDS-SR. Trained psychologists diagnosed depression via the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders questionnaire, which is based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV. RESULTS: Of 543 participants, 60 (11%) were diagnosed with depression. The Cronbach ? of the IDS-SR was 0.89, and the area under the ROC curve was 0.8. The IDS-SR cutoff score at 30 gave a sensitivity and specificity of 78% and 76%, respectively, for diagnosis of prenatal depression. Exploratory and confirmatory analyses revealed a 2-factor structure for the IDS-SR, characterized by symptoms of "mood/cognition" and "irritability/anxiety/pain". CONCLUSION: The IDS-SR gave satisfactory internal consistency and accuracy for diagnosing prenatal depression, showing that it can improve early diagnosis and treatment of this condition, thereby minimizing the burden. In addition, a 2-factor model was found to account for depressive symptomatology during pregnancy, which will be useful for developing further depression subscales specific to prenatal depression.

Brunoni AR; Benute GR; Fráguas R; Santos NO; Francisco RP; de Lucia MC; Zugaib M

2013-06-01

328

Body dysmorphic disorder in a Nigerian boy presenting as depression: a case report and literature review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) has been described widely in the Western world as relatively common yet under-recognized, but rarely in Africans and none in Nigeria to the best of our knowledge. AIM: To report a case of BDD in a Nigerian boy presenting with depression to the psychiatric unit of a teaching hospital. METHOD: A 17-year-old secondary school boy with BDD presenting with depression is reported and relevant literature is reviewed. CONCLUSION: BDD is rare and hardly reported in this environment and high index of suspicion is necessary in patient presenting with medically unexplained physical complaints and depression.

Adebayo KO; Gureje O; Nuhu TF

2012-01-01

329

Management of bipolar depression.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Patients with bipolar disorder spend more time in a depressed than manic state, even with individualized treatment. To date, bipolar depression is often misdiagnosed and ineffectively managed both for acute episodes and residual symptoms. This review attempts to summarize the current status of available treatment strategies in the treatment of bipolar depression. For acute and prophylactic treatment, a substantial body of evidence supports the antidepressive efficacy of lithium for bipolar disorders and its antisuicidal effects. Among numerous anticonvulsants with mood-stabilizing properties, valproate and lamotrigine could be first-line options for bipolar depression. Due to receptor profile, mood-stabilizing properties of second-generation antipsychotics have been explored, and up to date, quetiapine and olanzapine appear to be a reasonable option for bipolar depression. The usefulness of antidepressants in bipolar depression is still controversial. Current guidelines generally recommend the cautious antidepressant use in combination with mood stabilizers to reduce the risk of mood elevation or cycle acceleration. Results from clinical trials on psychosocial intervention are promising, especially when integrated with pharmacotherapy. Most patients with bipolar depression need individualized and combined treatment, although the published evidence on this type of treatment strategy is limited. Future studies on the utility of currently available agents and modalities including psychosocial intervention are required.

Chang JS; Ha K

2011-01-01

330

Self-report and clinician-rated measures of depression severity: can one replace the other?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that clinician-rated scales and self-report questionnaires may be interchangeable in the measurement of depression severity, but it has not been tested whether clinically significant information is lost when assessment is restricted to either clinician-rated or self-report instruments. The aim of this study is to test whether self-report provides information relevant to short-term treatment outcomes that is not captured by clinician-rating and vice versa. METHODS: In genome-based drugs for depression (GENDEP), 811 patients with major depressive disorder treated with escitalopram or nortriptyline were assessed with the clinician-rated Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD), and the self-report Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). In sequenced treatment alternatives to relieve depression (STAR*D), 4,041 patients treated with citalopram were assessed with the clinician-rated and self-report versions of the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-C and QIDS-SR) in addition to HRSD. RESULTS: In GENDEP, baseline BDI significantly predicted outcome on MADRS/HRSD after adjusting for baseline MADRS/HRSD, explaining additional 3 to 4% of variation in the clinician-rated outcomes (both P < .001). Likewise, each clinician-rated scale significantly predicted outcome on BDI after adjusting for baseline BDI and explained additional 1% of variance in the self-reported outcome (both P < .001). The results were confirmed in STAR*D, where self-report and clinician-rated versions of the same instrument each uniquely contributed to the prediction of treatment outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Complete assessment of depression should include both clinician-rated scales and self-reported measures.

Uher R; Perlis RH; Placentino A; Dernovšek MZ; Henigsberg N; Mors O; Maier W; McGuffin P; Farmer A

2012-12-01

331

The increasing burden of depression  

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Full Text Available Jean-Pierre Lépine1, Mike Briley21Hôpital Lariboisière Fernand Widal, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris Unité INSERM 705 CNRS UMR 8206, Université Paris Diderot, Paris, France; 2NeuroBiz Consulting and Communication, Castres, FranceAbstract: Recent epidemiological surveys conducted in general populations have found that the lifetime prevalence of depression is in the range of 10% to 15%. Mood disorders, as defined by the World Mental Health and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, have a 12-month prevalence which varies from 3% in Japan to over 9% in the US. A recent American survey found the prevalence of current depression to be 9% and the rate of current major depression to be 3.4%. All studies of depressive disorders have stressed the importance of the mortality and morbidity associated with depression. The mortality risk for suicide in depressed patients is more than 20-fold greater than in the general population. Recent studies have also shown the importance of depression as a risk factor for cardiovascular death. The risk of cardiac mortality after an initial myocardial infarction is greater in patients with depression and related to the severity of the depressive episode. Greater severity of depressive symptoms has been found to be associated with significantly higher risk of all-cause mortality including cardiovascular death and stroke. In addition to mortality, functional impairment and disability associated with depression have been consistently reported. Depression increases the risk of decreased workplace productivity and absenteeism resulting in lowered income or unemployment. Absenteeism and presenteeism (being physically present at work but functioning suboptimally) have been estimated to result in a loss of $36.6 billion per year in the US. Worldwide projections by the World Health Organization for the year 2030 identify unipolar major depression as the leading cause of disease burden. This article is a brief overview of how depression affects the quality of life of the subject and is also a huge burden for both the family of the depressed patient and for society at large.Keywords: epidemiology, DALY, mortality risk, economic burden, family burden, depression

Lépine J-P; Briley M

2011-01-01

332

[Coexisting of borreliosis, depression and psoriasis--case report].  

Science.gov (United States)

Lyme disease is a multisystem infectious disease with a wide variety of symptoms involving the skin as well as the nervous system. Lyme disease is caused by spirochaete Borrelia burgdorferi transmitted by Ixodes ticks in endemic regions. A case of 45 year old woman suffering from borreliosis, psoriasis and depression is presented in the paper. In the study a standardized screening list was applied to evaluate the psychiatric health state--Classification of Psychic Disorders (DSM-IV) and Hamilton Scale. Patient was diagnosed with a major depressive episode (MDE) according to DSM-IV Diagnosis Criteria. Patient obtained a score 21 on the 24-item in Hamilton Rating Scale of Depression. Primary manifestation of boreliosis in patient with psoriasis increase a risk of depression. PMID:20369726

Og?odek, Ewa; Mo?, Danuta; Araszkiewicz, Aleksander

2010-01-01

333

[Coexisting of borreliosis, depression and psoriasis--case report].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Lyme disease is a multisystem infectious disease with a wide variety of symptoms involving the skin as well as the nervous system. Lyme disease is caused by spirochaete Borrelia burgdorferi transmitted by Ixodes ticks in endemic regions. A case of 45 year old woman suffering from borreliosis, psoriasis and depression is presented in the paper. In the study a standardized screening list was applied to evaluate the psychiatric health state--Classification of Psychic Disorders (DSM-IV) and Hamilton Scale. Patient was diagnosed with a major depressive episode (MDE) according to DSM-IV Diagnosis Criteria. Patient obtained a score 21 on the 24-item in Hamilton Rating Scale of Depression. Primary manifestation of boreliosis in patient with psoriasis increase a risk of depression.

Og?odek E; Mo? D; Araszkiewicz A

2010-01-01

334

Comorbidity of migraine and mood episodes in a nationally representative population-based sample.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To examine the lifetime comorbidity of migraine with different combinations of mood episodes: (1) manic episodes alone; (2) depressive episodes alone; (3) manic and depressive episodes; (4) controls with no lifetime history of mood episodes, as well as sociodemographic and clinical correlates of migraine for each migraine-mood episode combination. BACKGROUND: Migraine has been found to be comorbid with bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder in clinical and population-based samples. However, variability in findings across studies suggests that examining mood episodes separately may be fruitful in determining which of these mood episodes are specifically associated with migraine. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional, population-based sample from the Canadian Community Health Survey 1.2 (n?=?36,984), sociodemographic and clinical correlates of migraine were examined in each combination of mood episodes as well as controls. Logistic regression analyses controlling for age, sex, and education level compared the lifetime prevalence of migraine (1) between controls and each combination of mood episodes, and then (2) among the different combinations of mood episodes. RESULTS: Migraine comorbidity in all combinations of mood episodes was associated with lower socioeconomic status, earlier onset of affective illness, more anxiety, suicidality and use of mental health resources. Compared with controls, the adjusted odds ratio of having migraine was 2.0 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4-2.8) for manic episodes alone, 1.9 (95% CI 1.6-2.1) for depressive episodes alone, and 3.0 (95% CI 2.3-3.9) for subjects with both manic and depressive episodes. Compared with those with manic episodes alone and depressive episodes alone, the odds of having migraine were significantly increased in subjects with both manic and depressive episodes (odds ratio 1.5 vs. manic episodes alone; 1.8 vs. depressive episodes alone). In addition, migraine comorbidity was associated with different correlates depending on the specific combination of mood episodes; in subjects with both manic and depressive episodes, migraine comorbidity was associated with an earlier onset of mental illness, while in subjects with either manic or depressive episodes alone, migraine comorbidity was associated with increased suicidality and anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: Migraine comorbidity appears to delineate a subset of individuals with earlier onset of affective illness and more psychiatric complications, suggesting that migraine assessment in mood disorder patients may be useful as an indicator of potential clinical severity. Differences in the prevalence of migraine as well as sociodemographic and clinical correlates associated with specific combinations of mood episodes underscore the importance of examining this comorbidity by specific type of mood episode.

Nguyen TV; Low NC

2013-03-01

335

Kleptomania, mood disorder and lithium Cleptomanía, distúrbio do humor e lítio  

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Full Text Available Kleptomania has been found in association with major depression in a fairly large number of reports in recent years. We describe a patient with concurrent DSM-III-R Bipolar Mood Disorder and Kleptomania, whose symptoms remitted completely, apparently in response to lithium therapy, which raised the possibility that pharmacological treatment may benefit kleptomania. Further studies are needed to establish the possible relationship between kleptomania, mood disorders and lithium therapy.Os autores descrevem e comentam o caso de uma paciente com Distúrbio de Humor Bipolar e Cleptomanía (DSM-III-R) que apresentou remissão de seu quadro compulsivo após instituição de litioterapia. Discutem a possibilidade de tratamento medicamentoso para este distúrbio e apontam para a necessidade de estudos que estabeleçam a eventual relação entre cleptomania, distúrbios do humor e litioterapia.

Fábio Lopes Rocha; Maria Elizabete Guimarães Rocha

1992-01-01

336

Salivary cortisol levels and mood vary by lifetime trauma exposure in a sample of healthy women.  

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The authors examined the effects of lifetime trauma exposure on salivary cortisol and mood in a sample of women (N = 37) over 25 days before and after a stressful event. The sample excluded posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression and was divided into three groups: (a) no trauma, (b) prior trauma with no peritraumatic symptoms of acute distress, and (c) prior trauma with peritraumatic symptoms. Because results indicated no significant differences between groups one and two, they were combined for analysis. Women reporting prior trauma with symptoms had lower afternoon cortisol levels across time, with sustained negative mood relative to the comparison group. These data suggest the presence of long-term psychophysiological effects of trauma exposure in healthy women. PMID:17955533

Ganzel, Barbara L; Eckenrode, John J; Kim, Pilyoung; Wethington, Elaine; Horowitz, Eric; Temple, Elise

2007-10-01

337

Cobalamin deficiency manifested with seizures, mood oscillations, psychotic features and reversible dementia in the absence of typical neurologic and hematologic signs and symptoms: a case report.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cobalamin deficiency is associated with a wide spectrum of hematologic, neurologic, gastroenterologic and psychiatric disorders or symptoms. We report a case of a 50-year-old man with complex partial seizures with secondary generalization, mood oscillations and psychotic symptoms alternating with confusion and reversible dementia secondary to cobalamin deficiency in the absence of typical neurologic and/or hematologic symptoms and signs. Exclusion of epilepsy, acute, atrophic or expansive lesion of central nervous system and usual etiology associated with reversible dementia (infectious diseases, an endocrine etiology and deficiency of vitamins other than cobalamin); finding of cobalamin deficiency only and complete neuropsychiatric recovery after substitution, confirmed etiology. Typical and atypical psychiatric manifestations due to cobalamin deficiency that precede neurologic and/or hematologic signs and symptoms can recover completely after adequate replacement therapy.

Vilibi? M; Juki? V; Vidovi? A; Breci? P

2013-03-01

338

Depression in Dutch homes for the elderly: under-diagnosis in demented residents?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Although community-based studies reported an increased incidence of depression among demented persons compared with non-demented persons, it is not clear whether this relationship also exists among institutionalised elderly persons. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of diagnosed depressive disorders and mood symptoms between demented and non-demented residents living in Dutch homes for the elderly. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis in 16 homes for the elderly of routine outcome measurements by trained nurse assistants using the Resident Assessment Instrument (RAI) between January 2007 and April 2008. Nurse assistants recorded all known medical diagnoses including dementia and depression, as well as a structured observation of the presence or absence of 11 mood symptoms over the last 3 days. RESULTS: 313 demented and 463 non-demented residents with complete data were included (99% of all residents, mean age 84 years). 24.6% of participants were diagnosed with a depressive disorder, with no statistically significant difference between demented and non-demented persons (p = 0.237). Mood symptoms were more prevalent in demented residents (p < 0.001, OR 2.14, 95%CI 1.56-2.93). Among residents with mood symptoms, demented residents were less likely to be diagnosed with a depressive disorder than non-demented residents (p = 0.039, OR 0.61, 95%CI 0.38-0.98). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of diagnosed depressive disorders was comparable between demented and non-demented residents. However, demented residents suffered more from mood symptoms and may be at risk of under-diagnosis of depression.

Baller M; Boorsma M; Frijters DH; van Marwijk HW; Nijpels G; van Hout HP

2010-07-01

339

Are somatic symptoms a legitimate part of the depression profile in prostate cancer patients?.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Although depression is often reported in prostate cancer patients, some tests of depression omit the somatic criteria that are listed for Major Depressive Episode, arguing that these may be confounded by the cancer itself. However, this omission may be challenged in terms of the particular somatic symptoms that have been associated with prostate cancer. Therefore, the present study investigated the relative contribution to total depression scores made by the somatic criteria for Major Depressive Episode that were not caused by prostate cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 491 prostate cancer patients completed the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale. Data were analysed to compare the predictive power of 5 subsets of depression on patients' total depressive scores. RESULTS: Somatic symptoms were the most powerful predictor of total depression scores, followed by anhedonia and depressed mood, with similar findings for depression clinical status. Emotional symptoms and cognitive confusion were not significant predictors of total depression scores but did predict depression clinical status. CONCLUSION: Valid and reliable assessment of depression and selection of appropriate treatment options in prostate cancer patients requires consideration of somatic items which match the DSM-IV-TR criteria for Major Depressive Episode.

Sharpley CF; Bitsika V; Christie DH

2013-01-01

340

Sleep deprivation in depression  

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Full Text Available Ten patients diagnosed as suffering from depressive illness were treated with 2 consecutive nights of sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation was effective in both types of depression viz. endoge-nous and reactive. The improvement was greater and seemed to last longer in endogenous depression as compared to reactive depression at the time of evaluation, 7 days after completion of sleep deprivation. Depressed mood, suicidal tendencies and retard-ation seemed to show the greatest improvement while insight and gastro-intestinal and somatic symptoms, improved the least.

Doongaji D; Vahia V; Lakdawala P; Parikh M; Singh A; Thatte Shubha; Lotlikar Kamal

1979-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Influence of reporting effects on the association between maternal depression and child autism spectrum disorder behaviors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Maximizing measurement accuracy is an important aim in child development assessment and research. Parents are essential informants in the diagnostic process, and past research suggests that certain parental characteristics may influence how they report information about their children. This has not been studied in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) to date. We aimed, therefore, to investigate the possible effect that maternal depression might have on a mother's reports of her child's ASD behaviors. Using structural equation modeling, we disaggregated shared from unique variation in the association between latent variable measures of maternal depression and ASD behaviors. METHODS: Data were obtained from a study of preschoolers aged 2-4 newly diagnosed with ASD (n = 214). Information from a parent questionnaire, a semi-structured parent interview, and a semi-structured observational assessment was used to develop a latent variable measure of child ASD behaviors. Mothers reported on their own depression symptoms. We first modeled the covariance between maternal depression and child ASD behavior. Then, to quantify unique variation, we added covariance terms between maternal depression and the residual variation associated with the individual measures of child ASD behaviors. RESULTS: The model demonstrated excellent fit to the underlying data. Maternal self-report of depression symptoms exhibited a significant association with the unique variance of the questionnaire report but not with the latent variable measure of child ASD behavior. A gradient pattern of association was demonstrated between maternal depression and the unique variance of the ASD measures: most strongly for the maternal questionnaire report, more weakly for the maternal semi-structured interview, and to a trivial extent for the observational interview. CONCLUSIONS: Parental depression may influence reporting of ASD behaviors in preschoolers. Shared method effects may also contribute to bias. This finding highlights the importance of obtaining multimethod reports of child ASD symptoms.

Bennett T; Boyle M; Georgiades K; Georgiades S; Thompson A; Duku E; Bryson S; Fombonne E; Vaillancourt T; Zwaigenbaum L; Smith I; Mirenda P; Roberts W; Volden J; Waddell C; Szatmari P

2012-01-01

342

Lamotrigine for attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder comorbid with mood disorders: a case series.  

Science.gov (United States)

Attention de?cit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is frequently comorbid with mood disorders in both children and adults. Comorbidity is shown to have negative consequences and it needs to be treated effectively. Lamotrigine, an anticonvulsant indicated for the maintenance treatment of bipolar depression is reported to be effective in adult ADHD comorbid with bipolar II disorder. We conducted a retrospective chart review to identify patients with adult ADHD and comorbid mood disorders on lamotrigine, along with ADHD medications, and/or antidepressants and antipsychotics. We identified 40 patients (17 women, 42.5%; age range 16 - 55 yrs), 50% with bipolar II and 50% with recurrent depression. Their treatment response was evaluated by Clinical Global Impression scales. We found that 31 patients (77.5%) improved with lamotrigine, there was no change in 7 patients (17.5%) and 2 patients got worse, with a mean lamotrigine dose of 125.6 ± 47.8 mg (25 - 250 mg). To our knowledge, this is the first study to report that lamotrigine might be a safe and effective treatment option for adult ADHD comorbid with bipolar and recurrent depression. PMID:23784736

Oncü, Bedriye; Er, Okan; Colak, Burçin; Nutt, David J

2013-06-19

343

Lamotrigine for attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder comorbid with mood disorders: a case series.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Attention de?cit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is frequently comorbid with mood disorders in both children and adults. Comorbidity is shown to have negative consequences and it needs to be treated effectively. Lamotrigine, an anticonvulsant indicated for the maintenance treatment of bipolar depression is reported to be effective in adult ADHD comorbid with bipolar II disorder. We conducted a retrospective chart review to identify patients with adult ADHD and comorbid mood disorders on lamotrigine, along with ADHD medications, and/or antidepressants and antipsychotics. We identified 40 patients (17 women, 42.5%; age range 16 - 55 yrs), 50% with bipolar II and 50% with recurrent depression. Their treatment response was evaluated by Clinical Global Impression scales. We found that 31 patients (77.5%) improved with lamotrigine, there was no change in 7 patients (17.5%) and 2 patients got worse, with a mean lamotrigine dose of 125.6 ± 47.8 mg (25 - 250 mg). To our knowledge, this is the first study to report that lamotrigine might be a safe and effective treatment option for adult ADHD comorbid with bipolar and recurrent depression.

Oncü B; Er O; Colak B; Nutt DJ

2013-06-01

344

Mood disorders and complementary and alternative medicine: a literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Naseem Akhtar Qureshi,1 Abdullah Mohammed Al-Bedah21General Administration for Research and Studies, Sulaimania Medical Complex, 2National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: Mood disorders are a major public health problem and are associated with considerable burden of disease, suicides, physical comorbidities, high economic costs, and poor quality of life. Approximately 30%–40% of patients with major depression have only a partial response to available pharmacological and psychotherapeutic interventions. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has been used either alone or in combination with conventional therapies in patients with mood disorders. This review of the literature examines evidence-based data on the use of CAM in mood disorders. A search of the PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, and Quertile databases using keywords was conducted, and relevant articles published in the English language in the peer-reviewed journals over the past two decades were retrieved. Evidence-based data suggest that light therapy, St John's wort, Rhodiola rosea, omega-3 fatty acids, yoga, acupuncture, mindfulness therapies, exercise, sleep deprivation, and S-adenosylmethionine are effective in the treatment of mood disorders. Clinical trials of vitamin B complex, vitamin D, and methylfolate found that, while these were useful in physical illness, results were equivocal in patients with mood disorders. Studies support the adjunctive role of omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid in unipolar and bipolar depression, although manic symptoms are not affected and higher doses are required in patients with resistant bipolar depression and rapid cycling. Omega-3 fatty acids are useful in pregnant women with major depression, and have no adverse effects on the fetus. Choline, inositol, 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan, and N-acetylcysteine are effective adjuncts in bipolar patients. Dehydroepiandrosterone is effective both in bipolar depression and depression in the setting of comorbid physical disease, although doses should be titrated to avoid adverse effects. Ayurvedic and homeopathic therapies have the potential to improve symptoms of depression, although larger controlled trials are needed. Mind-body-spirit and integrative medicine approaches can be used effectively in mild to moderate depression and in treatment-resistant depression. Currently, although CAM therapies are not the primary treatment of mood disorders, level 1 evidence could emerge in the future showing that such treatments are effective.Keywords: complementary and alternative medicine, mood disorders, Ayurveda, homeopathy, integrative medicine

Qureshi NA; Al-Bedah AM

2013-01-01

345

Circadian clocks and mood-related behaviors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Circadian clocks are present in nearly all tissues of an organism, including the brain. The brain is not only the site of the master coordinator of circadian rhythms located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) but also contains SCN-independent oscillators that regulate various functions such as feeding and mood-related behavior. Understanding how clocks receive and integrate environmental information and in turn control physiology under normal conditions is of importance because chronic disturbance of circadian rhythmicity can lead to serious health problems. Genetic modifications leading to disruption of normal circadian gene functions have been linked to a variety of psychiatric conditions including depression, seasonal affective disorder, eating disorders, alcohol dependence, and addiction. It appears that clock genes play an important role in limbic regions of the brain and influence the development of drug addiction. Furthermore, analyses of clock gene polymorphisms in diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) suggest a direct or indirect influence of circadian clock genes on brain function. In this chapter, I will present evidence for a circadian basis of mood disorders and then discuss the involvement of clock genes in such disorders. The relationship between metabolism and mood disorders is highlighted followed by a discussion of how mood disorders may be treated by changing the circadian cycle.

Albrecht U

2013-01-01

346

Anomalous subjective experiences in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and unipolar depression.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The purpose of the present study was to compare anomalous subjective experiences in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and unipolar depression, in order to elucidate differences in subjective experiences and examine their potential clinical correlates in schizophrenia and mood disorders. METHODS: The subjective experiences of 78 outpatients with schizophrenia (n=32), bipolar disorder (n=24) and unipolar depression (n=22), and 32 healthy controls were comprehensively assessed using the Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire (FCQ). RESULTS: The FCQ total score was significantly higher in the schizophrenia and depression groups than in the healthy control group. There were no significant differences in the FCQ total or subscale scores among the schizophrenia, unipolar depression, and bipolar disorder groups. In the schizophrenia group, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale negative factor score was a significant negative predictor of the severity of subjective experiences assessed by the FCQ total score. Disruption of subjective experiences in patients with unipolar depression was associated with greater severity of depressive symptoms and younger age. In the bipolar disorder group, women reported more disruptions in subjective experience. CONCLUSIONS: Anomalous subjective experiences measured by the FCQ are not specific to schizophrenia, and the severity of these experiences in unipolar depression is substantially high. The finding of a dissimilar pattern of predictors of subjective experiences across different diagnostic groups suggests the complexity and variety of factors contributing to anomalous subjective experiences in schizophrenia and mood disorders.

Kim JH; Lee JH; Lee J

2013-07-01

347

[Mood induction procedures: a critical review].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

For a long period in the history of psychological research, emotion and cognition have been studied independently, as if one were irrelevant to the other. The renewed interest of researchers for the study of the relations between cognition and emotion has led to the development of a range of laboratory methods for inducing temporary mood states. This paper aims to review the main mood induction procedures allowing the induction of a negative mood as well as a positive mood, developed since the pioneer study of Schachter and Singer [Psychol Rev 69 (1962) 379-399] and to account for the usefulness and problems related to the use of such techniques. The first part of this paper deals with the detailed presentation of some of the most popular mood induction procedures according to their type: simple (use of only one mood induction technique) or combined (association of two or more techniques at once). The earliest of the modern techniques is the Velten Mood Induction Procedure [Behav Res Ther 6 (1968) 473-482], which involves reading aloud sixty self-referent statements progressing from relative neutral mood to negative mood or dysphoria. Some researchers have varied the procedure slightly by changing the number of the statements [Behav Res Ther 21 (1983) 233-239, Br J Clin Psychol 21 (1982) 111-117, J Pers Soc Psychol 35 (1977) 625-636]. Various other mood induction procedures have been developed including music induction [Cogn Emotion 11 (1997) 403-432, Br J Med Psychol 55 (1982) 127-138], film clip induction [J Pers Soc Psychol 20 (1971) 37-43, Cogn Emotion 7 (1993) 171-193, Rottenberg J, Ray RR, Gross JJ. Emotion elicitation using films. In: Coan JA, Allen JJB, editors. The handbook of emotion elicitation and assessment. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007], autobiographical recall [J Clin Psychol 36 (1980) 215-226, Jallais C. Effets des humeurs positives et négatives sur les structures de connaissances de type script. Thèse de doctorat non publiée. Université de Nantes, Nantes] or combined inductions [Gilet AL. Etude des effets des humeurs positives et négatives sur l'organisation des connaissances en mémoire séman