The present study investigated sex-differences in reports of depressive symptoms on a Norwegian translation of the short version of the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ). The sample comprised 9702 Norwegian adolescents (born 1993–1995, 54.9% girls), mainly attending highschool. A set of statistical analyses were run to investigate the dimensionality of the SMFQ. Girls scored significantly higher than boys on the SMFQ and used the most severe response-category far more frequently. Overall, the statistical analyses supported the essential unidimensionality of SMFQ. However, the items with the highest loadings according to the bifactor analysis, reflecting problems related to tiredness, restlessness and concentration difficulties, indicated that some of the symptoms may both be independent of and part of the symptomatology of depression. Measurement invariance analysis showed that girls scored slightly higher on some items when taking the latent variable into account; girls had a lower threshold for reporting mood problems and problems related to tiredness than boys, who showed a marginally lower threshold for reporting that no-one loved them. However, the effect on the total SMFQ score was marginal, supporting the use of the Norwegian translation of SMFQ as a continuous variable in further studies of adolescents. PMID:24062708
Lundervold, Astri J.; Breivik, Kyrre; Posserud, Maj-Britt; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Hysing, Mari
The psychological mechanisms by which depressed mood can lead to impaired sleep and poorer overall health remain unclear. The goal of this study was to investigate the extent to which a tendency to ruminate accounts for the associations between depressed mood and both sleep quality and self-reported health in 165 healthy young adults. Self-reported assessments of anxiety, depressed mood, rumination, sleep quality, and general health were collected at two different time points approximately 2 months apart. Structural equation modeling revealed that rumination measured at the earlier time point mediated the relationships between depressed mood and both sleep quality and health, all measured at the later time point, in a model that was a good fit to the data overall, ?(2) (50, N = 165) = 103.08, p CFI = 0.94. Results were similar whether or not anxiety was controlled. Results indicate that rumination may be a psychological mechanism by which negative mood leads to impaired sleep and poorer perceived health. PMID:25195078
Slavish, Danica C; Graham-Engeland, Jennifer E
Anhedonia, reduced positive affect and enhanced negative affect are integral characteristics of major depressive disorder (MDD). Emotion dysregulation, e.g. in terms of different emotion processing deficits, has consistently been reported. The aim of the present study was to investigate mood changes in depressive patients using a multidimensional approach for the measurement of emotional reactivity to mood induction procedures. Experimentally, mood states can be altered using various mood ind...
Falkenberg, Irina; Kohn, Nils; Schoepker, Regina; Habel, Ute
The authors examined children's depressed mood, parental depressed mood, and parental smoking in relation to children's smoking susceptibility and experimentation over 20 months in a cohort of 418 preteens (ages 10-12 at baseline) and their parents. Depressed mood in preteens was strongly related to experimentation but not to susceptibility. In cross-sectional analyses parental depressed mood was related to children's experimentation, but in longitudinal analyses parental depressed mood at baseline did not differentiate children who experimented from those who did not. Although parental smoking was strongly related to experimentation, it was not related to susceptibility either cross-sectionally or longitudinally. Depressed mood among preteens and parents appeared to be more strongly related to children's smoking behaviors than to their intentions to smoke. PMID:15238063
Polen, Michael R; Curry, Susan J; Grothaus, Louis C; Bush, Terry M; Hollis, Jack F; Ludman, Evette J; McAfee, Timothy A
Caregiver depression has been described as leading to overreport of child behavior problems. This study examines this "depression-distortion" hypothesis in terms of high-risk families of young adolescents. Questionnaire data were collected from mothers, teachers, and fathers, and self-report information was obtained from youth between ages 10 and…
Gartstein, Maria A.; Bridgett, David J.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Kaufman, Noah K.
Understanding the emotional risk factors for cigarette smoking in adolescence can greatly inform prevention efforts. The current study examined prospective relationships between three affective dimensions – negative mood variability, overall negative mood, and depression, affect-related smoking motives, and future smoking patterns among adolescents. The current study expands on prior research by using real-time methods to assess mood and by focusing on a key developmental transition in smoking behavior: the progression from experimentation or low level, infrequent use to higher use. Ninth and 10th grade students (N = 461; 55% girls) provided data on cigarette use at a baseline and follow-up 15-month wave, and also provided ecological momentary assessments of negative moods via palmtop computers for one week at each wave. Negative mood was examined via the means of negative mood reports at each wave, and mood variability was examined via the intraindividual standard deviations of negative mood reports at each wave. Depressive symptoms and smoking motives were also assessed. Findings supported a complex self-medication model of smoking escalation in adolescence whereby mood-smoking relationships differed by affect dimension and gender. For girls, greater negative mood variability at baseline significantly predicted rapid escalation in smoking over time, whereas depressive symptoms and overall negative mood were unrelated to girls’ smoking patterns. In contrast, overall negative mood significantly predicted boys’ smoking escalation among those with affect-related motives for smoking. Results thus suggest that inconsistent mood-smoking relations in past work may be driven by the complex interrelationships among affect vulnerabilities, gender, and smoking patterns. PMID:23438244
Weinstein, Sally M.; Mermelstein, Robin J.
Caregiver depression has been described as leading to overreport of child behavior problems. This study examines this “depression–distortion” hypothesis in terms of high-risk families of young adolescents. Questionnaire and diagnostic interview data were collected from mothers, teachers, and fathers, and self-report information was obtained from youth between ages 10 and 14 years. First, convergent and discriminant validity were demonstrated for internalizing and externalizing multiagen...
Gartstein, Maria A.; Bridgett, David J.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Kaufman, Noah K.
This prospective study examined the unique predictors of grief and depressed mood in a sample of gay men (34 HIV positive, 69 HIV negative) who lost a close friend to AIDS. Individuals low in self-esteem reported greater depressed mood but no differences in grief following the death. Individuals with personality factors that predispose toward…
Wayment, Heidi A.; Kemeny, Margaret E.
Aims. Depression requires the presence of either depressed mood or anhedonia, yet little research attention has been focused on distinguishing these two symptoms. This study aimed to obtain the prevalence rates of these two core depression symptoms and to explore the risk factors for each symptom by race/ethnicity. Methods. 2423 White, African American, Hispanic and Asian/Pacific Islander (API) women from the Massachusetts area completed the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) from 2007 to 2008. Results. Socioeconomic variables (SES) accounted for increased rates in depressed mood and anhedonia among African Americans and Hispanics compared with Whites. API women were still 2.1 times more likely to report anhedonia after controlling for SES. Stressors were associated with depressed mood across groups and associated with anhedonia for Whites and Hispanics. Having a female infant was associated with depressed mood for APIs. Being non-US born was associated with anhedonia for Whites, APIs and African Americans, but not Hispanics. Conclusions. Prevalence rates for depressed mood and anhedonia differ across race/ethnic groups and risks associated with depressed mood and anhedonia depend on the race/ethnic group, suggesting the importance of distinguishing depressed mood from anhedonia in depression assessment and careful inquiry regarding symptom experiences with a diverse patient population. PMID:23931673
Liu, C H; Tronick, E
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Chinese five-element music therapy on nursing students with depressed mood. We randomly assigned 71 nursing students from Taiwan with depressed mood to the music and control groups. The music group (n?=?31) received Chinese five-element music therapy, whereas the participants in the control group (n?=?40) maintained their routine lifestyles with no music therapy. All of the participants were assessed using the Depression Mood Self-Report Inventory for Adolescence, and their salivary cortisol levels were measured. The study found that there was a significant reduction in depression between the pre- and posttherapy test scores and in salivary cortisol levels over time in the music group. After receiving the music therapy, the nursing students' depression levels were significantly reduced (P?=?0.038) compared with the control group (P?music therapy has the potential to reduce the level of depression in nursing students with depressed mood. PMID:24593291
Chen, Chen-Jung; Sung, Huei-Chuan; Lee, Ming-Shinn; Chang, Ching-Yuan
The present study investigated the extent of mood-congruent false and true memory recognition in depression. A group of 25 patients with depression and 28 healthy controls completed a variant of the Deese-Roediger McDermott task. Four lists were read to participants in sequence, followed by a recognition task. The words in each list were associated with a central but unmentioned theme word that was either depression-relevant (i.e., loneliness), delusion-relevant (betrayal), positive (holidays), or neutral (window). Whereas it was expected to replicate the conventional mood-congruent effect in depression (better recognition of depression-relevant items), the available literature did not allow strong predictions to be made on the extent of mood-congruent false recognition in depression. Results showed that depressed patients learned emotionally charged material equally well as healthy participants but forgot significantly more neutral material. A conventional mood-congruent memory bias was not found, but relative to healthy controls, patients with depression committed more false recognition errors for emotionally charged words, particularly for depression-relevant items. The results confirm that depressed patients are biased toward emotional material. Reasons for the absence of the expected mood-congruent memory bias are discussed. It is suggested that researchers as well as clinicians should pay more attention to mood-congruent false recollection, because it may undermine the validity of autobiographic reports in depressive patients and may represent a maintenance factor for the disorder. PMID:15786485
Moritz, Steffen; Gläscher, Jan; Brassen, Stefanie
Understanding the emotional risk factors for cigarette smoking in adolescence can greatly inform prevention efforts. The current study examined prospective relationships between three affective dimensions – negative mood variability, overall negative mood, and depression, affect-related smoking motives, and future smoking patterns among adolescents. The current study expands on prior research by using real-time methods to assess mood and by focusing on a key developmental transition in smok...
Weinstein, Sally M.; Mermelstein, Robin J.
Abstract Background A mood-related ruminative response style increases the risk of onset and persistence of depression. This preliminary study investigated whether, in depressed adolescents, cognitive-behaviour therapy reduces mood-related ruminative response style. Whether specific factors within the rumination scale were differentially affected by CBT is also reported. Methods 26 depressed adolescents were randomised to receiving serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitor antidepressants (SSRI) ...
Goodyer Ian M; Wilkinson Paul O
OBJECTIVE: At temperate latitudes, 1-5% of the population suffer from winter depression; during winter, mood difficulties tend to increase but may be alleviated by bright light therapy. Unlike indoor workers, outdoor workers are exposed to therapeutic levels of sunlight during winter. We hypothesized that outdoor work may protect against mood difficulties and depression. METHOD: We studied this hypothesis among 2910 civil servants from Århus, Denmark, who participated in a survey in January-February 2009. Mental symptoms (N=422) defined a common case category that we broke down into two parts: depression (N=66) and mood difficulties but no depression (N=356). A total of 222 controls were also sampled from the study population. All 644 participants reported the extent of outdoor work. RESULTS: The confounder-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of mood difficulties showed a decreasing trend by increasing hours of outdoor work of borderline statistical significance. The OR was 0.63 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.34-1.18)] for those working outdoors for >2 hours a day. No such effect was suggested for depression. CONCLUSION: Our study is limited by its cross-sectional design and low statistical power but nevertheless suggests that outdoor work during winter may protect against mood difficulties. If this finding holds true it may have significant impact on workers' health as well as public health in general. Therefore, further studies are recommended.
Hahn, Ina H; Grynderup, Matias B
This study examined whether attentional biases for emotional information are associated with impaired mood recovery following a sad mood induction among individuals with and without major depressive disorder (MDD). Attentional biases were assessed with an exogenous cuing task using emotional facial expressions as cues among adults with (n = 48) and without (n = 224) current MDD. Mood reactivity and recovery were measured following a sad mood induction. Mood reactivity strongly predicted mood ...
Clasen, Peter C.; Wells, Tony T.; Ellis, Alissa J.; Beevers, Christopher G.
Maternal depression has been implicated in the development of adolescent substance use. Conceptualizing depression as a continuum, the aims of this study are to (a) understand the relationship between maternal depressed mood and risk factors associated with adolescent substance use; (b) understand the relationship between maternal depressed mood…
Cortes, Rebecca C.; Fleming, Charles B.; Mason, W. Alex; Catalano, Richard F.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Depressive symptoms and chronic disease have adverse effects on patients' health-related quality of life (H-RQOL. However, little is known about this effect on H-RQOL when only the two core depressive symptoms - loss of interest and depressed mood - are considered. The objective of this study is to investigate H-RQOL in the presence of loss of interest and depressed mood at a general medical outpatient unit. Methods We evaluated 553 patients at their first attendance at a general medical outpatient unit of a teaching hospital. H-RQOL was assessed with the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36. Depressed mood and loss of interest were assessed by the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD-Patient Questionnaire. A physician performed the diagnosis of chronic diseases by clinical judgment and classified them in 13 possible pre-defined categories. We used multiple linear regression to investigate associations between each domain of H-RQOL and our two core depression symptoms. The presence of chronic diseases and demographic variables were included in the models as covariates. Results Among the 553 patients, 70.5% were women with a mean age of 41.0 years (range 18-85, SD ± 15.4. Loss of interest was reported by 54.6%, and depressed mood by 59.7% of the patients. At least one chronic disease was diagnosed in 59.5% of patients; cardiovascular disease was the most prevalent, affecting 20.6% of our patients. Loss of interest and depressed mood was significantly associated with decreased scores in all domains of H-RQOL after adjustment for possible confounders. The presence of any chronic disease was associated with a decrease in the domain of vitality. The analysis of each individual chronic disease category revealed that no category was associated with a decrease in more than one domain of H-RQOL. Conclusion Loss of interest and depressed mood were associated with significant decreases in H-RQOL. We recommend these simple tests for screening in general practice.
Gattaz Wagner F
Full Text Available Abstract Background A mood-related ruminative response style increases the risk of onset and persistence of depression. This preliminary study investigated whether, in depressed adolescents, cognitive-behaviour therapy reduces mood-related ruminative response style. Whether specific factors within the rumination scale were differentially affected by CBT is also reported. Methods 26 depressed adolescents were randomised to receiving serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitor antidepressants (SSRI plus psychosocial treatment as usual or SSRI and psychosocial treatment as usual plus CBT. Ruminative response style and depressive symptoms were measured at baseline and after 30 weeks of treatment, with the Responses to Depression Questionnaire and Mood and Feelings Questionnaire. Results There were significantly greater reductions in ruminations in the CBT group compared to the non-CBT group (p = .002. There was no significant difference in the reduction in self-reported depressive symptoms between the groups. Rumination was reduced to levels of never-depressed controls in adolescents who had recovered from depression and received CBT. There were greater falls in the CBT group in the more pathological 'brooding' factor of rumination. Conclusion These findings suggest that adding CBT to SSRI medication in the presence of active clinical care causes a greater reduction in mood-related ruminative response style in depressed adolescents. This may reduce the risk of future relapse. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCNT83809224.
Goodyer Ian M
This paper presents ‘Pick-A-Mood’ (PAM), a cartoon-based pictorial instrument for reporting and expressing moods. The use of cartoon characters enables people to unambiguously and visually express or report their mood in a rich and easy-to-use way. PAM consists of three characters that each express eight different mood states, representing four main mood categories: energized-pleasant (excited and cheerful), energized-unpleasant (irritated and tense), calm-pleasant (relaxed and calm), and...
Desmet, P. M. A.; Vastenburg, M. H.; Bel, D.; Romero Herrera, N. A.
Maternal depression has been implicated in the development of adolescent substance use. Conceptualizing depression as a continuum, the aims of this study were to (a) understand the relationship between maternal depressed mood and risk factors associated with adolescent substance use; (b) understand the relationship between maternal depressed mood and level and growth in adolescent alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use assessed at multiple time points during adolescence; and (c) examine the un...
Cortes, Rebecca C.; Fleming, Charles B.; Mason, W. Alex; Catalano, Richard F.
Though depression is known to frequently afflict those with chronic HIV, mood during the early course of HIV is not well characterized. In a prospective study we assessed mood during primary HIV infection [primary HIV infection (PHI), neopterin. Improvement was not observed in BDI and POMS over 330 total follow-up visits, even after initiation of ART. Depression was prevalent during PHI in our subjects, associated with abnormal somatic-performance and vigor scores. Neither neuropsychological performance nor disease biomarkers correlated with depressed mood. Mood indices did not improve over time in the presence of ART. PMID:24385231
Gold, Jessica A; Grill, Marie; Peterson, Julia; Pilcher, Christopher; Lee, Evelyn; Hecht, Frederick M; Fuchs, Dietmar; Yiannoutsos, Constantin T; Price, Richard W; Robertson, Kevin; Spudich, Serena
It has been well established that depressed mood is related to overgeneral memory recall (OGM), which refers to a relative difficulty in retrieving specific information from one's autobiographical memory (AM). The present study examined whether OGM is also related to depressed mood in children and whether lack of inhibitory control mediates this…
Raes, Filip; Verstraeten, Katrien; Bijttebier, Patricia; Vasey, Michael W.; Dalgleish, Tim
Mood management studies typically have found that adults will select media that enhance positive moods and reduce negative moods. In this study, adolescents diagnosed with major depressive disorder and control adolescents without psychiatric disorders were called on customized cell phones up to 4 times a day and asked about their current mood state and media use for five extended weekends across an 8-week period. Mood effects on subsequent media use, mood during media consumption, and media effects on subsequent mood were examined. Results indicated that adolescents who consumed fun media tended to do so in a way that sustained, rather than enhanced their prior positive mood levels during and after consumption-if they turned to media. Adolescents in more negative moods did not often use media to improve their moods. When they did, boys were more likely than girls to use media that ultimately reduced negative mood levels. Findings are discussed in light of the literature on mood management, adolescence, and depression. PMID:19768135
Carpentier, Francesca R. Dillman; Brown, Jane D.; Bertocci, Michele; Silk, Jennifer S.; Forbes, Erika E.; Dahl, Ronald E.
The objective of this paper is to explore the characteristics of the memory bias in Coronary heart disease with Depressive Mood, in which the inpatients with coronary heart disease (CHD) have been surveyed by Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) and 60 inpatients were chosen for further experiment: half with depressive mood (16 mild, 9 moderate and 5 severe) and the rest being normal. Then they were measured with the Autobiographical Memory test. The results revealed that ? The generalized sc...
Yuping Song; Huihui Li; Jingtian Li; Yuri Wang; Xiaoli Chen
Autobiographical memory difficulties have been widely reported in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The aim of the current study was to explore the potential correlates of autobiographical memory performance (including depressed mood, rumination, working memory and theory of mind) in adults with ASD, relative to a group of typical adults…
Crane, Laura; Goddard, Lorna; Pring, Linda
Although perfectionism has long been established as an important risk factor for depressive mood and eating disorders, the mechanisms through which this temperamental predisposition mediates the relationship between depressive mood and eating disorder symptoms are still relatively unclear. In this study we hypothesized that both perfectionism dimensions, self-oriented perfectionism and socially prescribed perfectionism, would mediate the relationship between current symptoms of depression and eating disorders in a non-clinical sample of Spanish undergraduate females. Two hundred sixteen female undergraduate students of the University Complutense of Madrid (Spain) completed the Spanish versions of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-40), the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS), OBQ-44, and BDI-II and BAI. Results demonstrated the importance of socially prescribed perfectionism in mediation of the relationship between depressive mood and symptoms of eating disorders. Socially prescribed perfectionism mediates the relationship between depressive mood and eating disorder symptoms for female college students. PMID:22188060
García-Villamisar, Domingo; Dattilo, John; Del Pozo, Araceli
Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess associations of obesity with health-related quality of life (HRQL in postmenopausal women, and whether depressed mood and diabetes moderate these associations. Methods Survey of 983 postmenopausal women aged 35-74, general population, Augsburg region/Germany, 2004/2005. Body weight/height and waist/hip circumference were assessed anthropometrically and classified via BMI ? 30 as obese, and WHR ? 0.85 as abdominally obese (vs. not. Depressed mood was assessed by the Depression and Exhaustion-(DEEX-scale, diabetes and postmenopausal status by self-report/medication, and HRQL by the SF-12. Results General linear models revealed negative associations of obesity and abdominal obesity with physical but not mental HRQL. Both forms of excess weight were associated with diabetes but not depressed mood. Moderation depended on the HRQL-domain in question. In non-diabetic women, depressed mood was found to amplify obesity-associated impairment in physical HRQL (mean "obese"-"non-obese" difference given depressed mood: -6.4, p Conclusions In postmenopausal women, depressed mood may amplify the negative impact of obesity on physical HRQL, while diabetes may be a precondition for some degree of obesity-related impairments in mental HRQL.
Heidelberg Daniela A
Previous studies showed that interindividual variations in mood state are associated with prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity. In this study, we focused on the depressed-mood state under natural circumstances and examined the relationship between within-individual changes over time in this mood state and PFC activity. We used optical topography (OT), a functional imaging technique based on near-infrared spectroscopy, to measure PFC activity for each participant in three experimental sessions repeated at 2-week intervals. In each session, the participants completed a self-report questionnaire of mood state and underwent OT measurement while performing verbal and spatial working memory (WM) tasks. The results showed that changes in the depressed-mood score between successive sessions were negatively correlated with those in the left PFC activation for the verbal WM task (? = -0.56, p < 0.05). In contrast, the PFC activation for the spatial WM task did not co-vary with participants' mood changes. We thus demonstrated that PFC activity during a verbal WM task varies depending on the participant's depressed mood state, independent of trait factors. This suggests that using optical topography to measure PFC activity during a verbal WM task can be used as a potential state marker for an individual's depressed mood state.
Sato, Hiroki; Aoki, Ryuta; Katura, Takusige; Matsuda, Ryoichi; Koizumi, Hideaki
Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of antidepressants on recovery in bipolar depression. Method: The most recent depressive episode of patients with DSM-IV Bipolar Disorder, recruited from a specialized mood disorder outpatient unit in Turkey, were evaluated retrospectively. Thirty-four patients, only received mood stabilizer titration or did not change their current treatment regimens and thirty patients, treated with an antidepressant agent were compared on rates of recurrence and time to remission. Results: One third of patients in each group were taking at least one mood stabilizer during their depressive episodes. Mood stabilizer levels were similar in each group and were within therapeutic limits. There were no significant differences between groups on rates of recurrence or time to remission. Conclusions: In this preliminary retrospective study, patients with bipolar depression who were treated with antidepressants did not have a better outcome than patients who received no antidepressants.
Phenomenological research suggests that pure manic and depressive states are less common than mixtures of the two and that the two poles of mood are characterized by opposite ways of experiencing time. In mania, the subjective experience of time is sped up and in depression it is slowed down, perhaps reflecting differences in circadian pathophysiology. The two classic mood states are also quite different in their effect on subjective awareness: manic patients lack insight into their excitatio...
Ghaemi, S. Nassir
Full Text Available Depression involves a dysfunction in an affective fronto-limbic circuitry including the prefrontal cortices, several limbic structures including the cingulate cortex, the amygdala and the hippocampus as well as the basal ganglia. A major emphasis of research on the etiology and treatment of mood disorders has been to assess the impact of centrally generated (top-down processes impacting the affective fronto-limbic circuitry. The present review shows that peripheral (bottom-up unipolar stimulation via the visual and the auditory modalities as well as by physical exercise modulates mood and depressive symptoms in humans and animals and activates the same central affective neurocircuitry involved in depression. It is proposed that the amygdala serves as a gateway by articulating the mood regulatory sensorimotor stimulation with the central affective circuitry by emotionally labeling and mediating the storage of such emotional events in long-term memory. Since both amelioration and aggravation of mood is shown to be possible by unipolar stimulation, the review suggests that a psychophysical assessment of mood modulation by multi-modal stimulation may uncover mood ameliorative synergisms and serve as adjunctive treatment for depression. Thus, the integrative review not only emphasizes the relevance of investigating the optimal levels of mood regulatory sensorimotor stimulation, but also provides a conceptual springboard for related future research.
The present study examined the utility of the anhedonic depression scale from the Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire (MASQ-AD scale) as a way to screen for depressive disorders. Using receiver-operating characteristic analysis, we examined the sensitivity and specificity of the full 22-item MASQ-AD scale, as well as the 8- and 14-item…
Bredemeier, Keith; Spielberg, Jeffery M.; Silton, Rebecca Levin; Berenbaum, Howard; Heller, Wendy; Miller, Gregory A.
BACKGROUND: We have developed a new paradigm that targets the recognition of facial expression of emotions. Here we report the protocol of a randomised controlled trial of the effects of emotion recognition training on mood in a sample of individuals with depressive symptoms over a 6-week follow-up period. METHODS/DESIGN: We will recruit 190 adults from the general population who report high levels of depressive symptoms (defined as a score ? 14 on the Beck Depression Inventory-II). Partici...
Adams, S.; Penton-voak, Is; Harmer, Cj; Holmes, Ea; Munafò, MR
The present study examined whether suspecting one's mother versus father of alcohol abuse was associated with parent-offspring relationships, and the degree to which parent-child relationships were associated with depressive symptoms. As compared to non-ACOAs (n=288), ACOAs (n=100) reported more negative parent-child relationships (i.e., greater alienation, poorer communication, less trust, greater emotional longing, and more negative attitudes toward the parent) and increased depressive symptoms on the POMS (McNair, Lorr, & Droppleman, 1992). A closer look revealed that suspected maternal alcohol abuse was associated with more negative mother-child relationships, whereas suspected paternal alcohol abuse was associated with more negative father-child relationships. Both maternal alcohol abuse and paternal alcohol abuse predicted depressive symptoms. PMID:21392890
Kelley, Michelle L; Pearson, Matthew R; Trinh, Scott; Klostermann, Keith; Krakowski, Kristina
The present study examined to what extent different types of friendship experiences (i.e., friendlessness, having depressed friends, and having nondepressed friends) are associated with early adolescents' longitudinal trajectories of depressed mood. On the basis of a sample of 201 youths (108 girls, 93 boys), we identified 3 distinct longitudinal…
Brendgen, Mara; Lamarche, Veronique; Wanner, Brigitte; Vitaro, Frank
The objectives of the current study were to (a) determine how lifetime community violence (CV) victimization, coping behavior, social support (SS), and depressed mood are related in young adults, and (b) assess whether the relationship between CV victimization and depressive reactions is moderated by perceived SS and coping style. Five hundred…
Haden, Sara C.; Scarpa, Angela
Background: Depressed adults may show impairment in switching attention from one task to another. Rumination on negative thoughts is associated with the onset and persistence of depressive episodes. It is unclear if such mood-related ruminations are specifically associated with slowed ability in switching attention from one task to another.…
Wilkinson, Paul O.; Goodyer, Ian M.
Negative affective style and depressive disorders share a common pattern of brain activation asymmetry in adults, characterized by reduced left relative to right prefrontal activation. It is not clear whether a similar pattern of asymmetry is related to depressive mood state during the period of adolescence, an important stage of emotional and brain development. We correlated Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scores from 16 adolescents with prefrontal, anterior cingulate, and amygdala activity ...
Killgore, William D. S.; Gruber, Staci A.; Yurgelun-todd, Deborah A.
Language acquisition reflects a complex interplay between biology and early experience. Psychotropic medication exposure has been shown to alter neural plasticity and shift sensitive periods in perceptual development. Notably, serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) are antidepressant agents increasingly prescribed to manage antenatal mood disorders, and depressed maternal mood per se during pregnancy impacts infant behavior, also raising concerns about long-term consequences following such deve...
Weikum, Whitney M.; Oberlander, Tim F.; Hensch, Takao K.; Werker, Janet F.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Comorbid depression is common among adults with painful osteoarthritis (OA. We evaluated the relationship between depressed mood and receipt of mental health (MH care services. Methods In a cohort with OA, annual interviews assessed comorbidity, arthritis severity, and MH (SF-36 mental health score. Surveys were linked to administrative health databases to identify mental health-related visits to physicians in the two years following the baseline interview (1996-98. Prescriptions for anti-depressants were ascertained for participants aged 65+ years (eligible for drug benefits. The relationship between MH scores and MH-related physician visits was assessed using zero-inflated negative binomial regression, adjusting for confounders. For those aged 65+ years, logistic regression examined the probability of receiving any MH-related care (physician visit or anti-depressant prescription. Results Analyses were based on 2,005 (90.1% individuals (mean age 70.8 years. Of 576 (28.7% with probable depression (MH score any MH care. The likelihood of receiving any MH care exhibited a significant interaction between MH score and self-reported health status (p = 0.0009; with good general health, worsening MH was associated with increased likelihood of MH care; as general health declined, this effect was attenuated. Conclusions Among older adults with painful OA, more than one-quarter had depressed mood, but almost half received no mental health care, suggesting a care gap.
Phenomenological research suggests that pure manic and depressive states are less common than mixtures of the two and that the two poles of mood are characterized by opposite ways of experiencing time. In mania, the subjective experience of time is sped up and in depression it is slowed down, perhaps reflecting differences in circadian pathophysiology. The two classic mood states are also quite different in their effect on subjective awareness: manic patients lack insight into their excitation, while depressed patients are quite insightful into their unhappiness. Consequently, insight plays a major role in overdiagnosis of unipolar depression and misdiagnosis of bipolar disorder. The phenomenology of depression also is relevant to types of psychotherapies used to treat it. The depressive realism (DR) model, in contrast to the cognitive distortion model, appears to better apply to many persons with mild to moderate depressive syndromes. I suggest that existential psychotherapy is the necessary corollary of the DR model in those cases. Further, some depressive morbidities may in fact prove, after phenomenological study, to involve other mental states instead of depression. The chronic sub-syndromal depression that is often the long-term consequence of treated bipolar disorder may in fact represent existential despair, rather than depression proper, again suggesting intervention with existential psychotherapeutic methods. PMID:17122410
Ghaemi, S Nassir
The effects of pubertal timing and adolescent dating on trajectories of depressed mood from early adolescence to young adulthood were examined among youths who participated in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Results showed that for both boys and girls, the trajectories of depressed mood between the ages of 12 and 23 took an…
Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Biehl, Michael C.; Ge, Xiaojia
The purpose of this study was to extend the research on co-rumination and depressed mood by examining the impact of co-rumination on depressed mood on a daily basis while controlling for the effects of daily stress events in a sample of late adolescents. Two-hundred and seventy-nine predominantly Caucasian college students (95 male, 184 female)…
White, Megan E.; Shih, Josephine H.
In low- and middle-income countries, migration to urban settings has reshaped the sprawl and socio demographic profiles of major cities. Depressive episodes make up a large portion of the burden of disease worldwide and are related to socio-demographic disruptions. As a result of terrorism, political upheaval, followed by economic development, Peru has undergone major demographic transitions over the previous three decades including large migrations within the country. We aimed to determine the prevalence of current depressive mood and its relationship with parameters of internal migration, i.e. region of origin, age at migration, and years since migration. A community-wide census was carried out between January and June 2010 within a shantytown immigrant receiving community in Lima, Peru. One male or female adult per household completed a survey. Depressive mood was assessed with a 2-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CESD) scale. Migration-related variables included place of birth, duration of residence in Lima, and age at migration. Prevalence ratios (PR) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) were calculated. A total of 8,551 out of 9,561 participants, response rate 89 %, participated in the census. Of these, 8,091 records were analyzed: 71.8 % were women [average age 39.4 (SD 13.9 years)] and 59.3 % were immigrants. The overall prevalence of individuals with current depressive mood was 17.1 % (95 % CI 16.2-17.9 %) and varied significantly by all socio-demographic and migration variables assessed. On unadjusted analyses, immigrants to Lima had higher prevalence of depressive mood if they originated in other costal or Andean areas, had lived in Lima for more than 20 years, or were <30 years of age when they out-migrated. When controlling for age, gender and socio-demographic variables the association was no longer significant, the only exception being a 20 % lower prevalence of current depressive mood among those who out-migrated aged ?30 years old (PR = 0.79; 95 % CI 0.63-0.98). In conclusion, these results suggest that current depressive mood is very prevalent in this immigrant receiving community. Among all proxies for internal migration explored, in fully adjusted models, there was evidence of an association between age at migration (?30 years old) and a lower probability of current depressive mood compared to non-migrants. PMID:25367530
Ruiz-Grosso, Paulo; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Gilman, Robert H; Checkley, William; Bennett, Ian M; Miranda, J Jaime
This study examined peer predictors of variation and growth in depressed mood among high-risk adolescents, using child and parent reports of monthly symptoms. One hundred seventy-six parents and their 10- to 14-year-old children separately took part in a series of up to nine monthly interviews. Multilevel growth models examined both time-varying peer predictors of parent and child reports of the child's depressive symptoms, controlling for age, gender, and treatment status. Deviant peer affil...
Connell, Arin M.; Dishion, Thomas J.
The present study developed and tested a theoretical model examining the inter-relationships among sleep duration, sleep quality, and circadian chronotype and their effect on alertness, depression, and academic performance. Participants were 385 adolescents aged 13-18 years (M = 15.6, SD = 1.0; 60% male) were recruited from eight socioeconomically diverse high schools in South Australia. Participants completed a battery of questionnaires during class time and recorded their sleep patterns in a sleep diary for 8 days. A good fit was found between the model and the data (?(2)/df = 1.78, CFI = .99, RMSEA = .04). Circadian chronotype showed the largest association with on adolescent functioning, with more evening-typed students reporting worse sleep quality (? = .50, p Sleep quality was significantly associated with poor outcomes: adolescents with poorer sleep quality reported less sleep on school nights (? = -.28, p sleep quality and/or more evening chronotype were also more likely to report worse grades, through the association with depression. Sleep duration showed no direct effect on adolescent functioning. These results identified the importance of two lesser-studied aspects of sleep: circadian chronotype and sleep quality. Easy-to-implement strategies to optimize sleep quality and maintain an adaptive circadian body clock may help to increase daytime alertness, elevate mood, and improve academic performance. PMID:24215949
Short, Michelle A; Gradisar, Michael; Lack, Leon C; Wright, Helen R
Background Cognitive theories of depression suggest that beliefs of low self-worth and the tendency to attribute negative events to causes that are global (widespread rather than specific) and stable (will persist rather than change in the future) are associated with the development of depressed mood. Such theories are supported by evidence from prospective studies and have guided the development of successful treatment and prevention strategies such as CBT. However, the relative importance of different psychological constructs within cognitive theories is unknown. This is important to refine cognitive theories and develop more efficient prevention strategies. Method We used prospective data from over 3500 young adults from the Avon Longitudinal Study for Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort in the UK to investigate the association between cognitive style, measured by short forms of the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale (DAS) and Cognitive Styles Questionnaire-Short Form (CSQ-SF) at age 18, and future depressed mood at age 19. Structural equation modelling techniques were used to separate cognitive style constructs. Results Cognitive styles were associated with future depressed mood, independently of baseline mood, both as measured by the DAS-SF and the CSQ-SF. Of the different CSQ-SF constructs, only global attributions were associated with both baseline and future mood independently of other constructs. Limitations The study was subject to attrition and the follow-up was relatively short (10 months). Conclusion The findings suggest that the tendency to attribute negative events specifically to global causes could be particularly important for depression. Reducing global attributions is potentially important in the prevention and treatment of depression. PMID:25285900
Pearson, R.M.; Heron, J.; Button, K.; Bentall, R.P.; Fernyhough, C.; Mahedy, L.; Bowes, L.; Lewis, G.
BACKGROUND: The psychosocial vulnerability model of hostility posits that hostile individuals, given their oppositional attitudes and behaviours, are more likely to have increased interpersonal conflicts, lower social support, more stressful life events (SL-E) and higher likelihood of depression. However, little research has tested this hypothesis using large-scale prospective samples. The present study aims to assess the predictive value of hostility for depressive mood.MethodData are from 3...
Nabi, Hermann; Singh-manoux, Archana; Ferrie, Jane; Marmot, Michael; Melchior, Maria; Kivima?ki, Mika
OBJECTIVE: The diabetes literature contains conflicting evidence on the relationship between depression and glycemic control. This may be due, in part, to the fact that past studies failed to distinguish between patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Because these are actually completely different diseases that are often treated differently and consequently make different demands on patients, the relationship between glycemic control and depressed mood in type 1 and type 2 diabetes was exa...
Tilburg, Ma; Mccaskill, Cc; Lane, JD; Edwards, Cl; Bethel, A.; Feinglos, Mn; Surwit, Rs
As research continues to document differences in the prevalence of mental health problems such as depression across racial/ethnic groups, the issue of measurement equivalence becomes increasingly important to address. The Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (MFQ) is a widely used screening tool for child and adolescent depression. This study applied a differential item functioning (DIF) framework to data from a sample of 6th and 8th grade students in the Seattle Public School District (N=3,593) t...
Banh, My K.; Crane, Paul K.; Rhew, Isaac; Gudmundsen, Gretchen; Stoep, Ann Vander; Lyon, Aaron; Mccauley, Elizabeth
According to the stress-diathesis hypothesis, depression and suicidal behavior may be precipitated by psychosocial stressors in vulnerable individuals. However, risk factors for mental health are often gender-specific. In the present study, we evaluated common risk factors for female depression in association with depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation in a community sample of women. The sample was composed by 415 women evaluated for mood disorders (MDs), depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation by structured interviews and the Beck depression inventory II (BDI II). All women also filled in the Eysenck personality questionnaire to evaluate neuroticism and were interviewed for social contact frequency and stressful life events (SLEs). In the whole sample, 19% of the women satisfied criteria for MD and suicidal ideation was reported by 12% of the women. Though stressful life events, especially personal and interpersonal problems, and poor social network were associated with all the outcome variables (mood disorder, depressive symptomatology and suicidal ideation), neuroticism survived to all multivariate analyses. Social network, together with neuroticism, also showed strong association with depressive severity, independently from current depressive state. Though we were unable to compare women and men, data obtained from the present study suggest that in women neurotic traits are strongly related to depression and suicidal ideation, and potentially mediate reporting of stressful life events and impaired social network. Independently from a current diagnosis of depression, impaired social network increases depressive symptoms in the women. PMID:25677396
Mandelli, Laura; Nearchou, Finiki A; Vaiopoulos, Chrysostomos; Stefanis, Costas N; Vitoratou, Silia; Serretti, Alessandro; Stefanis, Nicholas C
Does adolescent depressed mood portend increased or decreased drinking? Is frequent drinking positively or negatively associated with emotional well-being? Do the dynamic relations between depression and drinking differ by gender? Using block-recursive structural equation models, we explore the reciprocal short-term effects (within time, t) and the cross-lagged medium-term effects (t +1 year) and long-term effects (t +2 years) of depressed mood and monthly drinking occasions. Data come from t...
Owens, Timothy J.; Shippee, Nathan D.
Previous studies have identified an association between depressive mood and marijuana use. We examined adolescent self-control as a predictor of membership in joint developmental trajectories of depressive mood and marijuana use from adolescence to young adulthood. Urban African Americans and Puerto Ricans (N = 838) were sampled when participants were on average 14, 19, 24, and 29 years old. Using growth mixture modeling, four joint trajectory groups of depressive mood and marijuana use were established: low marijuana use/low depressive mood, low marijuana use/intermediate depressive mood, high marijuana use/low depressive mood, and high marijuana use/high depressive mood. Weighted logistic regression analysis showed that self-control at age 14 distinguished the high marijuana use/high depressive mood group and the low marijuana use/low depressive mood group from each of the other groups. Findings show that the co-occurrence of high levels of marijuana use and depressive mood from adolescence into young adulthood is predicted by low levels of self-control in adolescence. On the other hand, high selfcontrol is associated with low marijuana use and low levels of depression over time. Thus, while deficits in self-control in adolescence constitute a significant risk for maladjustment over time, high self-control exerts a protective factor with regard to marijuana use and depressive mood into young adulthood. PMID:23670644
Pahl, Kerstin; Brook, Judith S; Lee, Jung Yeon
Objective: To examine whether depressed mood and anger mediate the effects of sexual abuse and family conflict/violence on self-injurious behavior and substance use. Methods: A cross-sectional national survey was conducted including 9,085 16-19 year old students attending all high schools in Iceland in 2004. Participants reported frequency of…
Asgeirsdottir, Bryndis Bjork; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Gudjonsson, Gisli H.; Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik
The authors divided 34 participants who had a history of depression into 2 groups, those having previous suicidal ideation or behavior (n=19) and those having no such symptoms (n=15), then compared the 2 groups with a group of participants who had no history of depression (n=22). Assessment of interpersonal problem-solving performance using the Means-Ends Problem-Solving (MEPS) task before and after a mood-induction procedure showed that only those formerly depressed people with a history of ...
Williams, Jm; Barnhofer, T.; Crane, C.; Beck, At
The investigation of veridical mood-congruent memory (MCM) in major depressive disorder (MDD) has been subject of many studies, whereas mood-congruent false memory has received comparatively little attention. The present study examined the influence of valence, personal relevance and the valence of the context of the learning material on true and false MCM in 20 inpatients with MDD and 20 healthy controls. Sixty positive, negative, neutral or personally relevant nouns were either combined with a positive, negative or neutral adjective. Word pairs were presented to participants in a learning trial. In a recognition task, participants had to identify the previously studied word pairs. A MCM effect could not be found for hits. However, in exploratory analyses, word pairs containing personally relevant nouns were more rated towards old by the patient relative to the control group. Furthermore, depressed patients tended to rate items more towards old than controls when the words were presented in a negative new context. Results are in line with previous findings in depression research emphasizing the role of mood-congruent false memories for mood disorders. PMID:24445164
Wittekind, Charlotte E; Terfehr, Kirsten; Otte, Christian; Jelinek, Lena; Hinkelmann, Kim; Moritz, Steffen
Using data for the third wave from the European Social Survey (ESS) and the Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (K-NHANES), this research examines the relationship between having children at home and depression among men and women aged 18-75 years. Multilevel and probit regression models are applied. Our results show that there is a gender differential in depression. Having children at home improves psychological well-being for men only in 23 European countries and ...
Rodri?guez Andre?s, Antonio; Hopcroft, Rosemary L.; Noh, Yong-hwan
This paper is an investigation of stress levels and depressed mood at work in sport managers and coaches. Three different questionnaires were applied to professional sport managers (n=60) and coaches (n=52) in Turkey to regard to potential sources of stress before, during and after competitions. This sample represented approximately 21% of the total professional football, basketball and volleyball clubs in Turkey. The questionnaires used are “Perceived Stress Questionnaire”, “Anxiety-St...
Bilge Donuk; Süleyman ?ahin; Faruk Yamaner
A review of the literature demonstrates that the incidence of new mental disorders and their prevalence during pregnancy is similar to the 12-month incidence of mental disorders in women during other periods of their lives. The prevalence of severe mood, behavior, and cognitive symptoms during pregnancy is rather high. Severe mental symptoms during pregnancy have been reported to be associated with an increased rate of complications during pregnancy and delivery, preterm deliveries, low birth weight, a higher rate of postpartum depression, and a longer-term impact on the offspring's development. Several pre-pregnancy risk factors to develop dysphoric symptoms have been reported, but their utility for primiparous women with no previous history of mental disorders is unclear. The association of mental symptoms with general symptoms and biological changes during pregnancy is also unclear. Given the short- and long-term impact of dysphoric symptoms and stress during pregnancy on mother and child, efficacious, efficient, and safe prevention and treatment modalities are essential and achievable. Clarification of the nature and phenotyping of mental and general symptoms during pregnancy is an important step for the development of effective interventions. PMID:14999158
Although much research has demonstrated a relationship between negative life events and depressive symptoms, relatively little research has examined the mechanisms that may mediate this relationship. The theories of Blatt (1974), Bowlby (1980), and Gilbert (1992) each propose proximal predictors of depression. In accordance with these theories, this study examined the relationships among perceived losses in self-worth and interpersonal relationships, anaclitic (dependent) and introjective (self-critical) mood states, and depressive symptoms following a significant negative life event. A sample of 172 undergraduate students completed measures of depressive symptoms and depressive vulnerability factors and retrospectively described the worst period of their lives. They also rated the extent to which the events surrounding this worst period affected their self-worth and their relationships with close others. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that the effect of a perceived loss of self-worth on depressive symptoms was fully mediated by both introjective and anaclitic mood states, whereas the effect of a perceived loss of interpersonal relationships on depressive symptoms was fully mediated by an anaclitic mood state. Additionally, perceived losses of self-worth showed a stronger effect on introjective mood in highly self-critical individuals. Findings highlight the importance of perceived losses in both self-worth and interpersonal domains in response to adverse life events and suggest pathways through which perceived losses may affect depressive symptoms. PMID:20936547
Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C; Zuroff, David C
Objective: To assess the value of maternal and self-ratings of adolescent depression by investigating the extent to which these reports predicted a range of mental health and functional outcomes 4 years later. The potential influence of mother's own depressed mood on her ratings of adolescent depression and suicidal ideation on adolescent outcome…
Rice, Frances; Lifford, Kate J.; Thomas, Hollie V.; Thapar, Anita
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Traditionally, depression among adolescents has been considered uncommon, with around 5% estimated to suffer from depressive disorder. The purpose is to investigate occurrence and psychological correlates for depressive symptoms in male and female high school adolescents in urban and rural settings. Methods: Participants were 1,069 high school students (response rate 92.0% with a mean age of 17.6 years. The instruments used were the Zung Depression Self-Rating Scale (SDS, Life Regard Index (LRI, the Neuroticism scale by Eysenck (EPQ-N, the Tension and Effort Stress Inventory (TESI, the Subjective Health Complaints scale (SHC, and the Sense of Humour Questionnaire (SHQ-6. Results: Analyzes of Variance showed sex and urban/rural main effects, and/or interactions (boys and rural students showing highest positive ratings. Stepwise regression analyzes on depression showed all but the TESI variables to significantly explain 41% of the variance in depression. The Sense of Humour and Life Regard Index were strong contributors to depression (55% of variation when effects of bodily complaints and scores on stressors and efforts were eliminated. Conclusions: The present study showed an unexpectedly high prevalence of severe (12.7% as well as moderate depressive symptoms (total of 49.2%. Therefore, the results indicate an increase of adolescent depression in recent years. Negative and positive mood, as well as sense of humour, goals in life, and fulfilment of goals seemed to be protecting. Prevalence of depressive symptoms in adolescents was shown to be higher than expected. Positive resource variables appeared to be protecting.
K. Gunnar Götestam
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Traditionally, depression among adolescents has been considered uncommon, with around 5% estimated to suffer from depressive disorder. The purpose is to investigate occurrence and psychological correlates for depressive symptoms in male and female high school adolescents i [...] n urban and rural settings. Methods: Participants were 1,069 high school students (response rate 92.0%) with a mean age of 17.6 years. The instruments used were the Zung Depression Self-Rating Scale (SDS), Life Regard Index (LRI), the Neuroticism scale by Eysenck (EPQ-N), the Tension and Effort Stress Inventory (TESI), the Subjective Health Complaints scale (SHC), and the Sense of Humour Questionnaire (SHQ-6). Results: Analyzes of Variance showed sex and urban/rural main effects, and/or interactions (boys and rural students showing highest positive ratings). Stepwise regression analyzes on depression showed all but the TESI variables to significantly explain 41% of the variance in depression. The Sense of Humour and Life Regard Index were strong contributors to depression (55% of variation) when effects of bodily complaints and scores on stressors and efforts were eliminated. Conclusions: The present study showed an unexpectedly high prevalence of severe (12.7%) as well as moderate depressive symptoms (total of 49.2%). Therefore, the results indicate an increase of adolescent depression in recent years. Negative and positive mood, as well as sense of humour, goals in life, and fulfilment of goals seemed to be protecting. Prevalence of depressive symptoms in adolescents was shown to be higher than expected. Positive resource variables appeared to be protecting.
K., Gunnar Götestam; Sven, Svebak; Eva, Naper Jensen.
Objectives Although it is understood that work-related factors, including job demands, job control, and workplace support, are associated with workers' health and well-being, the role played by personal characteristics, especially workaholism, has not been fully investigated. This study examined workaholism's associations with psychological ill health, low back pain with disability, and sickness absence among Japanese workers. Methods A cross-sectional Internet survey was conducted using self-administered questionnaires. Data from 3,899 Japanese workers were analyzed. Workaholism was measured using the Dutch Workaholism Scale (DUWAS). Scores were divided into tertiles, where respondents were classified into three groups (high, middle, and low). Depressive mood as a measure of psychological ill health was assessed using the SF-36 mental health subscale, and low back pain using a standardized question. Sickness absence, except that due to physical injuries, was categorized either as absence due to mental health problems or to physical/somatic problems including the common cold. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the association between workaholism and depressive mood, low back pain with disability, and sickness absence, adjusting for demographic characteristics, job demand, job control, and workplace support. Results Compared to the low workaholism group, the middle and high workaholism groups had significantly higher odds for depressive mood (Odds ratio (OR)?=?1.93 and 3.62 for the middle and high groups, respectively), disabling back pain (ORs?=?1.36 and 1.77 for the middle and high groups, respectively). Workaholism was more strongly associated with sickness absence due to mental health problems than that for other reasons (ORs?=?1.76 vs. 1.21 for the middle group and 3.52 vs. 1.37 for the high groups). Conclusions Workaholism is significantly associated with poor psychological health, disabling back pain, and sickness absence, particularly from mental health problems. Therefore, workaholism must be considered when addressing well-being of workers. PMID:24086457
Matsudaira, Ko; Shimazu, Akihito; Fujii, Tomoko; Kubota, Kazumi; Sawada, Takayuki; Kikuchi, Norimasa; Takahashi, Masaya
Full Text Available Elliott A Beaton1, Louis A Schmidt2, Andrea R Ashbaugh2,5, Diane L Santesso2, Martin M Antony1,3,4, Randi E McCabe1,31Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; 2Department of Psychology, Neuroscience and Behaviour, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; 3Anxiety Treatment and Research Centre, St. Joseph’s Healthcare, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; 4Department of Psychology, Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; 5Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec, CanadaAbstract: A number of studies have noted that the pattern of resting frontal brain electrical activity (EEG is related to individual differences in affective style in healthy infants, children, and adults and some clinical populations when symptoms are reduced or in remission. We measured self-reported trait shyness and sociability, concurrent depressive mood, and frontal brain electrical activity (EEG at rest and in anticipation of a speech task in a non-clinical sample of healthy young adults selected for high and low social anxiety. Although the patterns of resting and reactive frontal EEG asymmetry did not distinguish among individual differences in social anxiety, the pattern of resting frontal EEG asymmetry was related to trait shyness after controlling for concurrent depressive mood. Individuals who reported a higher degree of shyness were likely to exhibit greater relative right frontal EEG activity at rest. However, trait shyness was not related to frontal EEG asymmetry measured during the speech-preparation task, even after controlling for concurrent depressive mood. These findings replicate and extend prior work on resting frontal EEG asymmetry and individual differences in affective style in adults. Findings also highlight the importance of considering concurrent emotional states of participants when examining psychophysiological correlates of personality.Keywords: social anxiety, shyness, sociability, depression, mood, frontal EEG alpha asymmetry
Elliott A Beaton
Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the relationships between depressive mood, bonding failure, and abusive parenting. Method: We distributed questionnaires to 1198 mothers attending a three-month postnatal health check-up in rural areas in Japan. The questionnaires assessed these three variables along with demographics. We evaluated the causal relationships by comparing different structural equation models to the data. Results: Although all the models fit the data well, the best Akaike Information Criterion was obtained from a model where both depressive mood and bonding failure predict abusive parenting, but depressive mood and bonding failure do not predict each other directly. The determinant coefficient of child abuse in the final model was 0.13. Discussion: We found depressive mood and bonding failure during postpartum period impacted negatively on mother’s parenting behaviour. Because only 13% of the variance of abusive parenting was explainable by this model, further study should be needed to identify other risk factors of child abuse. Similarly, midwives and public health nurse in community should pay attention to not only depression but also bonding failure to prevent child abuse.
Nitric oxide (NO) has beneficial effects on cardiovascular and immune health. Stress and depression have been linked to a reduction in serum NO. In this study, we examined the effect of academic exam stress on the fraction of NO in exhaled air (FeNO) and spirometric lung function in 41 healthy college students. Participants completed assessments at mid-semester as well as in the early and late phase of an academic exam period. Negative affect, depressive mood, and salivary cortisol were elevated during exams, whereas FeNO and lung function decreased. Higher depressive mood was associated with lower FeNO, whereas higher negative affect was associated higher FeNO across time. These findings provide initial evidence that depression and prolonged stress can alter FeNO and lung function in healthy individuals, which could have adverse consequences for cardiovascular, airway, and immune health. PMID:23410759
Trueba, Ana F; Smith, Noelle B; Auchus, Richard J; Ritz, Thomas
Abstract Background The use of short screening questionnaires may be a promising option for identifying children at risk for depression in a community setting. The objective of this study was to assess the validity of the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ) and one- and two-item screening instruments for depressive disorders in a school-based sample of young adolescents. Methods Participants were 521 sixth-grade students attending public middle schools. Child and parent versions of t...
McCauley Elizabeth; Lymp James; Tracy Melissa; Simpson Kate; Rhew Isaac C; Tsuang Debby; Stoep Ann
This study focuses on comparing reports of nicotine withdrawal, craving, and depressive symptoms obtained using an Interactive Voice Response (IVR) system and several questionnaires. As part of a smoking cessation trial, daily reports of withdrawal, craving, and negative mood were collected using an IVR system for 7 days after participants attempted to quit smoking, and several pencil and paper questionnaires (i.e., the Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale, the Questionnaire on Smoking Urges, ...
Toll, Benjamin A.; Cooney, Judith L.; Mckee, Sherry A.; O’malley, Stephanie S.; Cooney, Ned L.
Research suggests that depressive individuals exhibit disturbances in the evaluation of emotional facial expressions. Owing to the specific character of postnatal depressive mood, the purpose of the present study was to examine whether postpartum depressive mood intensity in the mothers would involve the same disturbances as depression or a specific distortion in the emotional evaluation of baby faces as compared to adult faces. Three days after birth, the participants (N=79) completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Toronto Alexithymia Scale. They also evaluated the facial expressions of adults and babies displaying anger, happiness, sadness and neutrality in terms of the intensity of five emotions: Anger, disgust, sadness, happiness and neutrality. Our findings suggest that judgements of emotional facial expressions depend to a great extent on anxiety, which specifically increased negative perception of babies' emotions. Moreover, the only difference between mothers with and without postpartum depressive mood lays in their assessment of the babies' faces, neutral baby faces being judged to be less neutral, thus demonstrating the specificity of postpartum affective disorders. PMID:20667418
Gil, Sandrine; Teissèdre, Frédérique; Chambres, Patrick; Droit-Volet, Sylvie
Background: In adults there is evidence that the affective-cognitive processes of rumination and overgeneral autobiographical memory retrieval may play a part in maintaining depression. This study investigated the effects of induced rumination as compared to distraction on mood and categoric overgeneral memory in adolescents with first episode…
Park, R. J.; Goodyer, I. M.; Teasdale, J. D.
While the importance of distinguishing between bonding and bridging social capital is now understood, evidence remains sparse on their contextual effects on health. We examined the associations of neighborhood bonding and bridging social capital with depressive mood among older Japanese. A questionnaire survey of all community residents aged 65 and older in the city of Yabu, Hyogo Prefecture, Japan was conducted in July and August 2012. Bonding and bridging social capital were assessed by evaluating individual homogeneous and heterogeneous social networks in relation to age, gender, and socioeconomic status. Individual responses in each neighborhood were aggregated to create an index of neighborhood-level bonding/bridging social capital. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to evaluate the associations of such social capital with depressive mood using multilevel binomial logistic regression analysis. Of the 7271 questionnaires distributed, 6416 were analyzed (covering 152 administrative neighborhoods). Approximately 56.8% of respondents were women, and the mean age was 76.2 ± 7.1 years. Neighborhood-level bonding social capital was inversely associated with depressive mood (OR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.75-0.94), but neighborhood-level bridging social capital was not. Gender-stratified analysis revealed that neighborhood-level bonding social capital was inversely associated with depressive mood in both genders (OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.72-0.96 for men; OR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.72-0.99 for women), while neighborhood-level bridging social capital was positively associated with depressive mood in women (OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.00-1.34). There was also a significant interaction between individual- and neighborhood-level bonding social capital, indicating that people with a weaker homogeneous network and living in a neighborhood with weaker bonding social capital were more likely to have depressive mood. Our results suggest that neighborhood social capital does not necessarily benefit mental health in old age. These findings might stimulate further discussion on the relationship of bonding and bridging social capital with mental health. PMID:25461874
Murayama, Hiroshi; Nofuji, Yu; Matsuo, Eri; Nishi, Mariko; Taniguchi, Yu; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Shinkai, Shoji
Full Text Available Abstract Background According to some studies, almost 40% of depressive patients – half of them previously undetected – are diagnosed of bipolar II disorder when systematically assessed for hypomania. Thus, instruments for bipolar disorder screening are needed. The Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ is a self-reported questionnaire validated in Spanish in stable patients with a previously known diagnosis. The purpose of this study is to evaluate in the daily clinical practice the usefulness of the Spanish version of the MDQ in depressive patients. Methods Patients (n = 87 meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for a major depressive episode, not previously known as bipolar were included. The affective module of the Structured Clinical Interview (SCID was used as gold standard. Results MDQ screened 24.1% of depressive patients as bipolar, vs. 12.6% according to SCID. For a cut-off point score of 7 positive answers, sensitivity was 72.7% (95% CI = 63.3 – 82.1 and specificity 82.9% (95% CI = 74.9–90.9. Likelihood ratio of positive and negative tests were 4,252 y 0,329 respectively. Limitations The small sample size reduced the power of the study to 62%. Conclusion Sensitivity and specificity of the MDQ were high for screening bipolar disorder in patients with major depression, and similar to the figures obtained in stable patients. This study confirms that MDQ is a useful instrument in the daily clinical assessment of depressive patients.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of short screening questionnaires may be a promising option for identifying children at risk for depression in a community setting. The objective of this study was to assess the validity of the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ and one- and two-item screening instruments for depressive disorders in a school-based sample of young adolescents. Methods Participants were 521 sixth-grade students attending public middle schools. Child and parent versions of the SMFQ were administered to evaluate the child's depressive symptoms. The presence of any depressive disorder during the previous month was assessed using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC as the criterion standard. First, we assessed the diagnostic accuracy of child, parent, and combined scores of the full 13-item SMFQ by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC, sensitivity and specificity. The same approach was then used to evaluate the accuracy of a two-item scale consisting of only depressed mood and anhedonia items, and a single depressed mood item. Results The combined child + parent SMFQ score showed the highest accuracy (AUC = 0.86. Diagnostic accuracy was lower for child (AUC = 0.73 and parent (AUC = 0.74 SMFQ versions. Corresponding versions of one- and two-item screens had lower AUC estimates, but the combined versions of the brief screens each still showed moderate accuracy. Furthermore, child and combined versions of the two-item screen demonstrated higher sensitivity (although lower specificity than either the one-item screen or the full SMFQ. Conclusions Under conditions where parents accompany children to screening settings (e.g. primary care, use of a child + parent version of the SMFQ is recommended. However, when parents are not available, and the cost of a false positive result is minimal, then a one- or two-item screen may be useful for initial identification of at-risk youth.
Objective: To investigate the relative importance of ADHD symptoms, mood instability, and antisocial personality disorder traits in predicting self-reported offending. Method: A total of 295 Icelandic students completed two scales of offending behavior and measures of ADHD symptoms, mood instability, and antisocial personality traits. Results:…
Gudjonsson, Gisli H.; Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik; Adalsteinsson, Tomas F.; Young, Susan
The relationship between diurnal variation of mood and the clinical response to total sleep deprivation (TSD) was investigated in 43 depressed patients. The question asked was whether the propensity to produce diurnal variations of mood or the actual mood course on the day before TSD determines the clinical response to TSD. Patients rated their mood three times daily during an experimental period of 56 days. The frequency as well as the amplitude of daily mood changes were assessed during this period. For each patient six TSDs were scheduled: two after days with a positive mood course, two after a negative mood course, and two after days without a diurnal change of mood. This strategy allowed comparisons of TSD responses within patients. Moreover, longitudinally and retrospectively assessed diurnal variation were compared with each other. It was found that patients vary largely in the occurrence of diurnal variations of mood. The propensity to produce diurnal variations either in terms of frequency or amplitude was positively correlated with the response to TSD. Within patients no differences were found in responses to TSDs applied after days with diurnal variations (positive or negative) or without diurnal variations. A second aim was to get more insight into the mechanism relating diurnal variations of mood and the TSD response. Therefore, the interrelatedness of various measures of diurnal variations, such as amplitudes and frequencies of positive or negative diurnal mood changes, was studied, as well as the relationships of these variables with TSD responses. On the basis of the strong interrelatedness it is suggested that they all reflect the same underlying mechanism, to be symbolized by an oscillator, producing positive daily fluctuations of mood. PMID:8268332
Reinink, E; Bouhuys, A L; Gordijn, M C; Van Den Hoofdakker, R H
Abnormal serotonin type 1A (5-HT1A) receptor function and binding have been implicated in the pathophysiology of mood disorders. Preclinical studies have consistently shown that stress decreases the gene expression of 5-HT1A receptors in experimental animals, and that the associated increase in hormone secretion plays a crucial role in mediating this effect. Chronic administration of the mood stabilizers lithium and divalproex (valproate semisodium) reduces glucocorticoid signaling and function in the hippocampus. Lithium has further been shown to enhance 5-HT1A receptor function. To assess whether these effects translate to human subject with bipolar disorder (BD), positron emission tomography (PET) and [18F]trans-4-fluoro-N-(2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl) piperazino]-ethyl)-N-(2-pyridyl) cyclohexanecarboxamide ([(18)F]FCWAY) were used to acquire PET images of 5-HT1A receptor binding in 10 subjects with BD, before and after treatment with lithium or divalproex. Mean 5-HT1A binding potential (BPP) significantly increased following mood stabilizer treatment, most prominently in the mesiotemporal cortex (hippocampus plus amygdala). When mood state was also controlled for, treatment was associated with increases in BPP in widespread cortical areas. These preliminary findings are consistent with the hypothesis that these mood stabilizers enhance 5-HT1A receptor expression in BD, which may underscore an important component of these agents' mechanism of action. PMID:23926239
Nugent, Allison C; Carlson, Paul J; Bain, Earle E; Eckelman, William; Herscovitch, Peter; Manji, Husseini; Zarate, Carlos A; Drevets, Wayne C
Background and Objectives: Traditionally, depression among adolescents has been considered uncommon, with around 5% estimated to suffer from depressive disorder. The purpose is to investigate occurrence and psychological correlates for depressive symptoms in male and female high school adolescents in urban and rural settings. Methods: Participants were 1,069 high school students (response rate 92.0%) with a mean age of 17.6 years. The instruments used were the Zung Depression Self-Rating Scal...
Gunnar Go?testam, K.; Sven Svebak; Eva Naper Jensen
Rumination is an established cognitive vulnerability for depression. Despite substantial work on the environmental origins of rumination, the heritability of rumination has not been examined and it is not known whether rumination accounts for some of the genetic vulnerability associated with depression. 756 adolescent twins ages 12-14 years completed the Response Styles Questionnaire and multiple measures of depressive symptoms. Brooding correlated positively and distraction correlated negatively with concurrent depressive symptoms. Estimated heritabilites were 54% for depression, 21% for brooding, 37% for reflection, and 30% for distraction. Bivariate genetic analyses suggested that (1) individual differences in distraction share both genetic and environmental sources of variation with depression; and (2) although the heritable influences on brooding are small, these heritable influences account for the majority of the relationship between brooding and depression (h(2) = .62). PMID:23956956
Moore, Mollie N; Salk, Rachel H; Van Hulle, Carol A; Abramson, Lyn Y; Hyde, Janet S; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Goldsmith, H Hill
Using prospective, longitudinal data from 467 youth over a 13-year period (late adolescence and young adulthood), the present study investigates three research questions: (1) to what extent do elevations in depressed mood continue (homotypic continuity) from adolescence to young adulthood, (2) to what extent do young adults' socioeconomic…
Wickrama, K. A. S.; Conger, Rand D.; Lorenz, Federick O.; Martin, Monica
Background: The informant-based Anxiety, Depression And Mood Scale was translated into Dutch and its feasibility, reliability and validity in older adults (aged greater than or equal to 50 years) with intellectual disabilities (ID) was studied. Method: Test-retest (n = 93) and interrater reliability (n = 83), and convergent (n = 202 and n = 787),…
Hermans, Heidi; Jelluma, Naftha; van der Pas, Femke H.; Evenhuis, Heleen M.
Rumination is an established cognitive vulnerability for depression. Despite substantial work on the environmental origins of rumination, the heritability of rumination has not been examined and it is not known whether rumination accounts for some of the genetic vulnerability associated with depression. 756 adolescent twins ages 12–14 years completed the Response Styles Questionnaire and multiple measures of depressive symptoms. Brooding correlated positively and distraction correlated nega...
Moore, Mollie N.; Salk, Rachel H.; Hulle, Carol A.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Hyde, Janet S.; Lemery-chalfant, Kathryn; Goldsmith, H. Hill
The neural networks that putatively modulate aspects of normal emotional behavior have been implicated in the pathophysiology of mood disorders by converging evidence from neuroimaging, neuropathological and lesion analysis studies. These networks involve the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and closely related areas in the medial and caudolateral orbital cortex (medial prefrontal network), amygdala, hippocampus, and ventromedial parts of the basal ganglia, where alterations in grey matter vol...
Drevets, Wayne C.; Price, Joseph L.; Furey, Maura L.
The clinical observations of diurnal variation of mood and early morning awakening in depression have been incorporated into established diagnostic systems, as has the seasonal modifier defining winter depression (seasonal affective disorder, SAD). Many circadian rhythms measured in depressive patients are abnormal: earlier in timing, diminished in amplitude, or of greater variability. Whether these disturbances are of etiological significance for the role of circadian rhythms in mood disorde...
Yavuz Selvi; Lutfullah Besiroglu; Adem Aydin
Full Text Available Living organizms show cyclic rhythmicity in a variety of physiological, hormonal, behavioral, and psychological processes. Sleep-wake cycles, body temperature, hormone levels, mood and cognition display a circadian rhythm in humans. Delays, advances or desynchronizations of circadian rhythm are known to be strongly associated with mental illness especially mood disorders such as bipolar disorder, major depression and seasonal affective disorder. Furthermore, some of the mood stabilizers, sleep deprivation and light treatment are employed to treat mood disorders by shifting circadian rhythm. This paper reviews the relationship between mood disorders and circadian rhythm, and describes treatment options by altering circadian rhythm.
Negative mood, such as depression and anxiety, is usually associated with a decrease in sexual interest and responsiveness. In a minority of individuals, the reverse applies, often with an associated tendency to use sex as a mood regulator. In homosexual men, the prevalence of depression and anxiety states is increased, and the relationship between negative mood and sexuality is, therefore, of particular interest. A new brief instrument, The Mood and Sexuality Questionnaire, was administered to a sample of 662 gay men, with other trait measures of depression and anxiety, propensity for sexual inhibition and sexual excitation, sensation seeking, and questions about sexual activity and response. Sixteen percent reported that, when depressed, they typically experienced increased sexual interest with 7% reporting increased capacity for erectile response; 47% and 37% reported a decrease, respectively; the remainder reported no change. When experiencing anxiety, 24% reported that they typically experienced increased sexual interest, with 14% reporting increased responsiveness, and 39% and 31% reporting a decrease. Forty-three men were interviewed in depth. The resulting qualitative data showed depression to have a more complex relationship to sexual interest than anxiety; other mediating mechanisms, such as need for intimacy and self-validation, were sometimes involved. Fourteen percent of those interviewed reported reduced concern about sexual risk when depressed. Paradoxical increases in sexual interest or activity during negative mood states are relevant to high risk sexual behavior among gay men, and deserve closer study. PMID:12807295
Bancroft, John; Janssen, Erick; Strong, David; Vukadinovic, Zoran
Nineteen patients, each hospitalized with a major depressive episode, were deprived of sleep for one night. Ten patients responded with clear improvement in depressive symptoms; the substantial clinical change was transient, usually lasting one day. Those who responded had significantly higher initial depression ratings (P less than .01) and tended to be older than nonresponders who experienced mild increases in irritability, fatigue, and discomfort following sleep deprivation. Amine metabolites, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA), and homovanillic acid (HVA) were not substantially affected by sleep deprivation, although there was a significant interaction of clinical response and direction of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) change. Sleep deprivation thus produces acute, but only transient improvement in a selected group of severely depressed patients; it appears to be an important tool in the study of the affective disorders. PMID:1267578
Post, R M; Kotin, J; Goodwin, F K
Smokers have a higher prevalence of major depressive episodes and depressive symptoms than the general population, but whether this association is causal, or is due to confounding or reverse causation is uncertain because of the problems inherent in some epidemiological studies. Mendelian randomization, in which a genetic variant is used as a surrogate for measuring exposure, is an approach which may be used to better understand this association. We investigated the rs1051730 single nucleotid...
Lewis, Sarah J.; Araya, Ricardo; Davey Smith, George; Freathy, Rachel; Gunnell, David; Palmer, Tom; Munafo?, Marcus
Preliminary findings support the potential of yoga as a complementary treatment of depressed patients who are taking anti-depressant medications but who are only in partial remission. The purpose of this article is to present further data on the intervention, focusing on individual differences in psychological, emotional and biological processes affecting treatment outcome. Twenty-seven women and 10 men were enrolled in the study, of whom 17 completed the intervention and pre- and post-interv...
Michelle Abrams; Cristina Ottaviani; Leuchter, Andrew F.; Davydov, Dmitry M.; Cook, Ian A.; David Shapiro
Current pharmacological treatments for depression have a significant treatment-onset-response delay, an insufficient efficacy for many patients and fail to reverse cognitive dysfunction. Erythropoietin (EPO) has neuroprotective and neurotrophic actions and improves cognitive function in animal models of acute and chronic neurodegenerative conditions and in patients with cognitive decline.
Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Vinberg, Maj
We investigated the moderating influence of apathy, depression and transient mood changes on executive functions under best medical treatment and under postoperative stimulation-on and -off conditions in a sample of 33 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) after deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN), 33 PD patients with pharmacological treatment only and 34 healthy controls. In comparison to clinical and healthy control groups, DBS patients showed worse executive task performance and also more severe symptoms of depression and apathy. Apathy accounted for differences in stroop interference between groups. The effects of DBS on stroop interference were explained by increased state anxiety in the -off, so that DBS STN had no significant influence on test performance. Consideration of neuropsychiatric symptoms and acute mood changes is an important aspect when evaluating neuropsychological deficits in DBS patients. PMID:25014201
Lueken, U; Stankevich, Y; Goschke, T; Schläpfer, T E; Koy, J; Reichmann, H; Storch, A; Wolz, M
INTRODUCTION: Following the suicide of a 4th-year medical student, questions were raised as to whether medical students are more vulnerable to depression and suicide than their counterparts studying other courses at the University of Pretoria. A literature search revealed that medical students and doctors run a higher risk for suicide than other students and professions. METHOD: A questionnaire was devised and distributed to medical students and a control group of other students, asking about...
Niekerk, L.; Viljoen, A. J.; Rischbieter, P.; Scribante, L.
The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and symptom clusters of depressive mood in pre-dialytic chronic kidney disease (CKD). Twenty-seven patients with stage 4-5 CKD were subjected to statistical parametric mapping analysis of brain single-photon emission computed tomography. Correlation analyses between separate symptom clusters of depressive mood and rCBF were done. The first factor (depressive mood) was negatively correlated with rCBF in the right insula, posterior cingulate gyrus, and left superior temporal gyrus, and positively correlated with rCBF in the left fusiform gyrus. The second factor (insomnia) was negatively correlated with rCBF in the right middle frontal gyrus, bilateral cingulate gyri, right insula, right putamen, and right inferior parietal lobule, and positively correlated with rCBF in left fusiform gyrus and bilateral cerebellar tonsils. The third factor (anxiety and psychomotor aspects) was negatively correlated with rCBF in the left inferior frontal gyms, right superior frontal gyms, right middle temporal gyrus, right superior temporal gyrus, and left superior frontal gyrus, and positively correlated with rCBF in the right ligual gyrus and right parahippocampal gyrus. In this study, the separate symptom clusters were correlated with specific rCBF patterns similar to those in major depressive disorder patients without CKD. However, some areas with discordant rCBF patterns were also nowith discordant rCBF patterns were also noted when compared with major depressive disorder patients. Further larger scale investigations are needed. (author)
Mood self-assessment in bipolar disorder: a comparison between patients in mania, depression, and euthymia / Autoavaliação do estado de humor no transtorno bipolar: uma comparação entre pacientes em mania, depressão, e eutimia
Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Alguns estudos indicam que a capacidade de autoavaliação do estado de humor está mais comprometida em pacientes com transtorno bipolar na mania do que na depressão. OBJETIVO: Estudar variações na autoavaliação do humor em relação ao estado afetivo atual em indivíduos com transtorno bipolar [...] . MÉTODO: Um total de 165 pacientes com diagnóstico de transtorno bipolar tipo I ou tipo II tiveram seu estado afetivo avaliado utilizando os instrumentos Clinical Global Impressions Scale for use in bipolar illness (CGI-BP), Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) e Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). Além disso, foi aplicada um instrumento de autoavaliação, a escala visual analógica do humor (EVAH). Os pacientes foram divididos em três grupos (eutimia, mania e depressão) e comparados quanto aos resultados da EVAH. RESULTADOS: Dos 16 itens da EVAH, 14 foram avaliados pelos pacientes em mania de forma semelhante aos pacientes em eutimia. Em contraste, em apenas dois itens, os deprimidos mostraram escores semelhantes aos eutímicos. CONCLUSÃO: Pacientes bipolares em mania, mas não os deprimidos, avaliam de forma não fidedigna seu estado afetivo, o que reforça o comprometimento do insight na síndrome maníaca. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Some studies indicate that mood self-assessment is more severely impaired in patients with bipolar disorder in a manic episode than in depression. OBJECTIVES: To investigate variations in mood self-assessment in relation to current affective state in a group of individuals with bipolar d [...] isorder. METHODS: A total of 165 patients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder type I or type II had their affective state assessed using the Clinical Global Impressions Scale for use in bipolar illness (CGI-BP), the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). In addition, participants completed a self-report visual analog mood scale (VAMS). Patients were divided into three groups (euthymia, mania, and depression) and compared with regard to VAMS results. RESULTS: Manic patients rated their mood similarly to patients in euthymia in 14 out of 16 items in the VAMS. By contrast, depressed patients rated only two items similarly to euthymic patients. CONCLUSION: Patients with bipolar disorder in mania, but not those in depression, poorly evaluate their affective state, reinforcing the occurrence of insight impairment in the manic syndrome.
Rafael de Assis da, Silva; Daniel C., Mograbi; Luciana Angélica Silva, Silveira; Ana Letícia Santos, Nunes; Fernanda Demôro, Novis; Paola Anaquim, Cavaco; J., Landeira-Fernandez; Elie, Cheniaux.
Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho analisa a associação entre ambiente físico e social e a psicopatologia, nomeadamente depressão, numa amostra de 254 adolescentes, 82 do sexo masculino e 172 do sexo feminino, todos estudantes do ensino secundário de três escolas de uma zona perto de Lisboa, com uma média de idade [...] de 16,9 (DP = 1,48). A recolha de dados foi efetuada com recurso a um Questionário Demográfico, ao Inventário de Depressão Infantil - CDI (Kovacs, 1981) e ao Inventário de Sintomas Breve - BSI (Derogatis, 1982). Os resultados confirmaram a hipótese de uma associação entre sexo, grau de escolaridade, a ESE parental e as condições ambientais da habitação e do bairro. As implicações dos resultados são discutidas sobre os esforços para aumentar a prevenção de bem-estar e saúde mental durante a adolescência. Abstract in english The present work analyse the association of the social and physical environment and the psychopathology, namely depression, in a sample of 254 teenagers, 82 males and 172 females, all them high school students from three schools nearby area of Lisbon, with a average age of 16.9 (SD = 1.48). The data [...] collection included a Demographic Questionnaire, the Children´s Depression Inventory - CDI (Kovacs, 1981) and the Brief Symptom Inventory - BSI (Derogatis, 1982). Results confirmed the hypothesis of an association among gender, school grade, parental SES and the environmental conditions of the housing and neighbourhood. Implications of the results are discussed namely concerning preventing efforts to increase wellbeing and mental health during adolescence.
Anabela, Rosando; Margarida Gaspar de, Matos.
Abstract Background The association between toxoplasmosis and psychiatric disorders has been reported in a few anecdotal reports. Case Presentation A case of depression with toxoplasma seropositivity is presented. The patient with depression showed poor response to antidepressants, for which he was investigated and was found positive on the serological test for the toxoplasma. The response to antidepressant treatment improved only after adequate treatment for toxoplasma. Conclusions The case ...
Misra Baikunthanath; Kar Nilamadhab
Feasibility of an interval, inspiration-triggered nocturnal odorant application by a novel device: a patient-blinded, randomised crossover, pilot trial on mood and sleep quality of depressed female inpatients.
It has been suggested that certain odorants positively affect mood, but this has not yet been scientifically tested in humans. The aim of the current study was to demonstrate the feasibility of a new odorant applicator and to assess the effects of nocturnal intermittent rose odorant application on mood, and quality of sleep and dreams in depressed female inpatients. We hypothesised that mood as primary outcome will improve. Twenty-seven normosmic, 18- to 49-year-old female, depressed inpatients were investigated in a randomised, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Exclusion criteria were rhinitis, hyp- or anosmia. During sleep, an interval-controlled, inspiration-triggered applicator added rose concentrate to the inspirated air. There were three consecutive nights of each odorant and placebo application and a wash-out phase. Patients completed standardised questionnaires on mood, dreams, and sleep quality. Four patients dropped out (n = 1: non-compliance in filling in the questionnaires, n = 3: intolerance of nasal tube). Otherwise, this novel odorant applicator was well tolerated. Application of the odorant showed no significant mood differences between rose and placebo, however, some subdomains of sleep quality and mood showed a positive trend towards improvement by rose application. The feasibility of this new device and of nasal tubes could be shown. Odorant application is well tolerated. It may have a positive influence on quality of mood and sleep in depressed patients. A longer application phase is planned to obtain convincing evidence for our hypothesis. PMID:24390040
Vitinius, Frank; Hellmich, Martin; Matthies, Annalena; Bornkessel, Fabian; Burghart, Heiner; Albus, Christian; Huettenbrink, Karl-Bernd; Vent, Julia
Rates of depression double in the transition to adolescence. Symptoms of depression in adolescence also predict adult mood disorders. From a preventative perspective, research into the risk factors for adolescent depression is critical. Simultaneously, there is also growing interest in understanding why adolescence reflects a particularly critical period for the onset of early mood symptoms. Here, we review (a) the role of social, genetic, neural and cognitive factors in explaining individual...
This study examined the relationship between cocaine withdrawal and lifetime history of depression (major depression, dysthymia). Participants with a history of regular cocaine use (n = 146) were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV (SCID) and were asked to recall whether they experienced any of the six DSM-IV cocaine withdrawal symptoms. Results of bivariate analyses demonstrated that those meeting criteria for the cocaine withdrawal syndrome (dysphoria plus two or more other symptoms), in comparison to those who did not, were significantly (Pdreams" (Pincreased appetite" were not associated with mood history. Results suggest that lifetime history of depression is strongly related to whether or not a cocaine abuser self-reports withdrawal symptoms. Several competing hypotheses regarding the nature of this relationship are discussed. PMID:11436938
Helmus, T C; Downey, K K; Wang, L M; Rhodes, G L; Schuster, C R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronary heart disease (CHD and depression are leading causes of disease burden globally and the two often co-exist. Depression is common after Myocardial Infarction (MI and it has been estimated that 15-35% of patients experience depressive symptoms. Co-morbid depression can impair health related quality of life (HRQOL, decrease medication adherence and appropriate utilisation of health services, lead to increased morbidity and suicide risk, and is associated with poorer CHD risk factor profiles and reduced survival. We aim to determine the feasibility of conducting a randomised, multi-centre trial designed to compare a tele-health program (MoodCare for depression and CHD secondary prevention, with Usual Care (UC. Methods Over 1600 patients admitted after index admission for Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS are being screened for depression at six metropolitan hospitals in the Australian states of Victoria and Queensland. Consenting participants are then contacted at two weeks post-discharge for baseline assessment. One hundred eligible participants are to be randomised to an intervention or a usual medical care control group (50 per group. The intervention consists of up to 10 × 30-40 minute structured telephone sessions, delivered by registered psychologists, commencing within two weeks of baseline screening. The intervention focuses on depression management, lifestyle factors (physical activity, healthy eating, smoking cessation, alcohol intake, medication adherence and managing co-morbidities. Data collection occurs at baseline (Time 1, 6 months (post-intervention (Time 2, 12 months (Time 3 and 24 months follow-up for longer term effects (Time 4. We are comparing depression (Cardiac Depression Scale [CDS] and HRQOL (Short Form-12 [SF-12] scores between treatment and UC groups, assessing the feasibility of the program through patient acceptability and exploring long term maintenance effects. A cost-effectiveness analysis of the costs and outcomes for patients in the intervention and control groups is being conducted from the perspective of health care costs to the government. Discussion This manuscript presents the protocol for a randomised, multi-centre trial to evaluate the feasibility of a tele-based depression management and CHD secondary prevention program for ACS patients. The results of this trial will provide valuable new information about potential psychological and wellbeing benefits, cost-effectiveness and acceptability of an innovative tele-based depression management and secondary prevention program for CHD patients experiencing depression. Trial Registration Number Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR: ACTRN12609000386235
Hare David L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Anxiety and mood disorders are highly prevalent and pose a huge burden on patients. Their offspring is at increased risk of developing these disorders as well, indicating a clear need for prevention of psychopathology in this group. Given high comorbidity and non-specificity of intergenerational transmission of disorders, prevention programs should target both anxiety and depression. Further, while the indication for preventive interventions is often elevated symptoms, offspring with other high risk profiles may also benefit from resilience-based prevention programs. Method/design The current STERK-study (Screening and Training: Enhancing Resilience in Kids is a randomized controlled clinical trial combining selected and indicated prevention: it is targeted at both high risk individuals without symptoms and at those with subsyndromal symptoms. Individuals without symptoms meet two of three criteria of the High Risk Index (HRI; female gender, both parents affected, history of a parental suicide (attempt. This index was developed in an earlier study and corresponds with elevated risk in offspring of depressed patients. Children aged 8–17 years (n?=?204 with subthreshold symptoms or meeting the criteria on the HRI are randomised to one of two treatment conditions, namely (a 10 weekly individual child CBT sessions and 2 parent sessions or (b minimal information. Assessments are held at pre-test, post-test and at 12 and 24 months follow-up. Primary outcome is the time to onset of a mood or anxiety disorder in the offspring. Secondary outcome measures include number of days with depression or anxiety, child and parent symptom levels, quality of life, and cost-effectiveness. Based on models of aetiology of mood and anxiety disorders as well as mechanisms of change during interventions, we selected potential mediators and moderators of treatment outcome, namely coping, parent–child interaction, self-associations, optimism/pessimism, temperament, and emotion processing. Discussion The current intervention trial aims to significantly reduce the risk of intergenerational transmission of mood and anxiety disorders with a short and well targeted intervention that is directed at strengthening the resilience in potentially vulnerable children. We plan to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of such an intervention and to identify mechanisms of change. Trial registration NTR2888
Nauta Maaike H
Evidence indicates acute sleep deprivation affects negative mood states. The present study experimentally tested the effects of acute sleep deprivation on self-reported symptoms of state anxiety and depression as well as general distress among 88 physically and psychologically healthy adults. As hypothesized, the effects of acute sleep deprivation increased state anxiety and depression, as well as general distress, relative to a normal night of sleep control condition. Based on the tripartite...
Babson, Kimberly A.; Trainor, Casey D.; Feldner, Matthew T.; Blumenthal, Heidemarie
Full Text Available This case study investigated relationships between personality, mood states changes, coping strategies, self-set goals, and self-efficacy in an elite judo player. A transactional perspective of psychological responses over time was used to guide data analysis. The ambient mood is proposed to contribute to the interpretation of, and reaction to, events during competition, which lead to subsequent emotional responses. A male international Judo player completed a number of self-report measures before and during a 4-contest tournament. Measures included the EPQ, MCOPE, Brunel Mood Scale, self-set goals, and self-efficacy for goal attainment. State measures were completed after every contest. Results indicated high scores of self-efficacy to achieve performance goals and outcome goals. Pre-competition mood results indicated high scores on the Vigor and Anger subscales with moderate scores for Tension, and zero scores for Depressed mood, a mood profile that remained relatively stable after winning his first two contests. After losing his third contest, he reported symptoms of Depressed mood and indicated using self-blame as coping strategy during the contest. Before the fourth contest, he coped by using planning and increasing effort. These coping strategies were associated with reductions in Depressed mood and increases in Vigor. After finding out his next contest was against a former World Championship bronze medalist, self-set goals became performance and process with no outcome goal. On losing this contest, scores on the Anger and Depression subscales increased sharply, Fatigue scores increased slightly and Tension and Vigor reduced. Self-blame was used as a coping strategy when experiencing unpleasant emotions. Findings suggest that self-blame was associated with negative psychological states comprising depressed mood. Increasing effort and planning were associated with positive psychological states. Collectively, findings emphasize the value of using a transactional design to explore mood changes over time, and future research should investigate the effectiveness of applied interventions
Matthew J. Stevens
Previous investigators have suggested that numerous symptoms used to diagnose depression, such as sleep or appetite disturbance, are non-specific in medically ill patients, and alternative diagnostic criteria should be developed. In the study this hypothesis was tested in Parkinson's disease (PD) by comparing patients with PD who reported a depressive mood with patients having PD but without a depressive mood. Depressed patients showed a significantly higher frequency of both autonomic and af...
Starkstein, S. E.; Preziosi, T. J.; Forrester, A. W.; Robinson, R. G.
This case study investigated relationships between personality, mood states changes, coping strategies, self-set goals, and self-efficacy in an elite judo player. A transactional perspective of psychological responses over time was used to guide data analysis. The ambient mood is proposed to contribute to the interpretation of, and reaction to, events during competition, which lead to subsequent emotional responses. A male international Judo player completed a number of self-report measures before and during a 4-contest tournament. Measures included the EPQ, MCOPE, Brunel Mood Scale, self-set goals, and self-efficacy for goal attainment. State measures were completed after every contest. Results indicated high scores of self-efficacy to achieve performance goals and outcome goals. Pre-competition mood results indicated high scores on the Vigor and Anger subscales with moderate scores for Tension, and zero scores for Depressed mood, a mood profile that remained relatively stable after winning his first two contests. After losing his third contest, he reported symptoms of Depressed mood and indicated using self-blame as coping strategy during the contest. Before the fourth contest, he coped by using planning and increasing effort. These coping strategies were associated with reductions in Depressed mood and increases in Vigor. After finding out his next contest was against a former World Championship bronze medalist, self-set goals became performance and process with no outcome goal. On losing this contest, scores on the Anger and Depression subscales increased sharply, Fatigue scores increased slightly and Tension and Vigor reduced. Self-blame was used as a coping strategy when experiencing unpleasant emotions. Findings suggest that self-blame was associated with negative psychological states comprising depressed mood. Increasing effort and planning were associated with positive psychological states. Collectively, findings emphasize the value of using a transactional design to explore mood changes over time, and future research should investigate the effectiveness of applied interventions. Key PointsFindings demonstrate the transient nature of mood states during competition.The paper proposes a transactional model of mood, which facilitates the exploration of mood changes over time.Mood states at one point in time will influence the interpretation of situational factors, which combine with emotional responses to form subsequent mood states.Findings support the notion that a difference between the perceived progress toward a goal and the internally expected rate of progress will elicit an emotional response. PMID:24357987
Stevens, Matthew J; Lane, Andrew M; Terry, Peter C
Full Text Available Androgens have various effects on human body and mood. Testosterone, a hormone mainly secreted from testes and adrenals, is one of the most potent androgens. Multiple studies have found that testosterone plays a role in regulating sexual activity, libido, social behaviors, aggression, cognitive functions, sleep control and well-being in men and women. Testosterone deficiency in hypogonadic or elderly men leads to neuropsychiatric problems, such as fatigue, loss of libido, irritability, insomnia and depressive mood. Testosterone replacement therapy consistently reverses these sequel in men. On the other hand, hyperandrogenic states in women are related to aggression and antisocial behavior, which might lead to depressive mood. Low testosterone levels may also result in depression among oophorectomized women. Because of such effects, a relationship between testosterone and depression has long been an issue of speculation, but yet very few studies have addressed this relation. Along with clinical studies, experimental and epidemiological studies show that testosterone is related to depression in men and women. But studies of testosterone concentrations in depression have yielded inconsistent results reporting low as well as high testosterone levels associated with depression. In this article, the physiological and psychological effects of testosterone and evidence regarding its relationship to depressive disorders and possible gender differences have been reviewed.
Objective. To assess the effect of meditation on work stress, anxiety and mood in full-time workers. Methods. 178 adult workers participated in an 8-week, 3-arm randomized controlled trial comparing a “mental silence” approach to meditation (n = 59) to a “relaxation” active control (n = 56) and a wait-list control (n = 63). Participants were assessed before and after using Psychological Strain Questionnaire (PSQ), a subscale of the larger Occupational Stress Inventory (OSI), the State...
Manocha, R.; Black, D.; Sarris, J.; Stough, C.
Ten mood variables were related to eight weather variables in a multidimensional study. Data were collected from 24 male subjects over 11 consecutive days. The mood variables were as follows: concentration, cooperation, anxiety, potency, aggression, depression, sleepiness, scepticism, control, and optimism. The weather variables included: hours of sunshine, precipitation, temperature, wind direction, wind velocity, humidity, change in barometric pressure and absolute barometric pressure. Humidity, temperature and hours of sunshine had the greatest effect on mood. High levels of humidity lowered scores on concentration while increasing reports of sleepiness. Rising temperatures lowered anxiety and scepticism mood scores. Humidity was the most significant predictor in regression and canonical correlation analysis. Implications for school and office performance are discussed which highlight the importance of humidity as a weather variable. PMID:6704634
Howarth, E; Hoffman, M S
The "ideal" mood stabilizer has been defined as an agent displaying demonstrated efficacy for the acute treatment and long-term prevention of both mania and depression. On the basis of a selective and an extensive review of the existing literature primarily focused on prospective and controlled studies, we discuss the potential mood-stabilizing effects of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and its efficacy for the acute treatment of bipolar depressive and mixed-manic states and the prevention of all types of recurrences of bipolar disorder (BD). We conclude that ECT should be considered an effective acute treatment for the depressive and manic-mixed states of BD, as ECT displays response and remission rates superior to those of other treatment approaches, even in severe and treatment-resistant cases. From this point of view, its clinical mood-stabilizing effects are clearly superior compared with other pharmacological approaches because most treatments that alleviate bipolar depression can cause mania, hypomania, mood instability, or rapid cycling and treatments that can control mania can induce or precipitate depressive symptoms or episodes. The ECT-induced mania is rare, and there are no data suggesting possible long-term mood destabilization, including cycle induction or acceleration. Conversely, several case reports and open trials reported a significant reduction in morbidity among patients experiencing rapid-cycling BD. Regarding relapse prevention, c-ECT and m-ECT are considered as appropriate therapies for treatment-resistant patients exhibiting high rates of depressive or mixed relapse. Further investigation is necessary to identify the frequency and duration of continued treatment after a successful index course of ECT. PMID:25010031
Medda, Pierpaolo; Toni, Cristina; Perugi, Giulio
The relationship of maternal hostile and depressive moods to children's downregulation of unprovoked anger and sadness/fear was assessed in a community sample of 267 5-year-old boys and girls. The speed of children's downregulation of unprovoked anger and sadness/fear was based on real-time observations during mother-child interaction. The association of downregulation with maternal mood was estimated using Bayesian event history analysis. As mothers reported higher depressive mood, both boys and girls were faster to downregulate anger displays as those displays accumulated during mother child interaction. The speed of boys' downregulation of anger and of sadness/fear was not associated with maternal hostile mood. As mothers reported more hostile mood, girls were faster to downregulate displays of sadness/fear, but the speed of this downregulation slowed as those displays accumulated during ongoing mother-child interaction. These associations of child downregulation and maternal mood were observed after controlling for child adjustment. The data suggest frequent exposure to different negative maternal moods affect children's expression and regulation of emotions in relatively specific ways, conditional on the type of maternal mood, the type of child emotion, and child gender. PMID:21262049
Dagne, Getachew A; Snyder, James
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Routine Outcome Monitoring (ROM there is a high demand for short assessments. Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT is a promising method for efficient assessment. In this article, the efficiency of a CAT version of the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire, - Anhedonic Depression scale (MASQ-AD for use in ROM was scrutinized in a simulation study. Methods The responses of a large sample of patients (N = 3,597 obtained through ROM were used. The psychometric evaluation showed that the items met the requirements for CAT. In the simulations, CATs with several measurement precision requirements were run on the item responses as if they had been collected adaptively. Results CATs employing only a small number of items gave results which, both in terms of depression measurement and criterion validity, were only marginally different from the results of a full MASQ-AD assessment. Conclusions It was concluded that CAT improved the efficiency of the MASQ-AD questionnaire very much. The strengths and limitations of the application of CAT in ROM are discussed.
Abstract Here, we publish a report of a previously practicing nurse practitioner who presented to a community hospital with severely depressed mood and neurovegetative symptoms in the context of recent relapse to alcohol and cocaine abuse. This patient had a long history of depression and polysubstance abuse. Additionally, the patient had a history of multiple previous suicide attempts with a high possibility for lethality. All of his attempts occurred in the setting of depression, escalating substance use, and interpersonal difficulties. Due to his chronic struggles with mental health and substance abuse issues, the patient lost his marriage, many close friends, and, eventually, his license to practice medicine. In this report, we highlight the increased risk of suicidal behavior or completed suicide in patients with co-occurring depressive and substance abuse disorders. We also look to highlight the often unmet need of mental health and substance abuse treatment for healthcare professionals. Studies suggest that healthcare providers experience increasing rates of burnout, mood and anxiety disorders, and substance use disorders, but available treatment resources remain scarce. This is a serious public health issue that will require increased vigilance by the community at large to ensure the safety and wellbeing of both patients and their providers. PMID:25411994
Kiraly, Drew D; Sher, Leo
Facial arthromyalgia (temporomandibular joint pain dysfunction syndrome, TMD) is a chronic pain condition of unknown origin. This paper examines the extent to which the condition is associated with symptoms of anxiety and depression. It also identifies factors which may be predictive of raised levels of these two moods and of the presence of clinical anxiety and clinical depression. Self-report measures of pain beliefs, coping strategies, pain intensity, disability and mood were administered to a sample of 80 facial arthromyalgia patients of differing chronicity. The results showed anxious mood to be associated with several factors including beliefs that pain is itself worsened by negative mood, passive coping in terms of catastrophising about pain, and speech problems. Depressed mood was associated with catastrophising and disability in the form of disturbance in taste and digestion. These factors may be considered as potential targets for therapy, rather than the orthodox objective of pain relief. PMID:10666527
Madland, G; Feinmann, C; Newman, S
Kleptomania has been found in association with major depression in a fairly large number of reports in recent years. We describe a patient with concurrent DSM-III-R Bipolar Mood Disorder and Kleptomania, whose symptoms remitted completely, apparently in response to lithium therapy, which raised the possibility that pharmacological treatment may benefit kleptomania. Further studies are needed to establish the possible relationship between kleptomania, mood disorders and lithium therapy.Os auto...
Fábio Lopes Rocha; Maria Elizabete Guimarães Rocha
Background: Temper outbursts in youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are a common source of concern, but remain poorly understood. This study examined a set of hypotheses related to: (a) the prevalence of temper outbursts in paediatric OCD, (b) the associations of temper outbursts with OCD severity and depressive symptoms; and (c) the…
Krebs, Georgina; Bolhuis, Koen; Heyman, Isobel; Mataix-Cols, David; Turner, Cynthia; Stringaris, Argyris
In 1981, seven patients with nonseasonal depression were treated with bright white light in 1982, bright artificial light was used to treat a manic-depressive patient with a seasonal mood cycle. In the last 20 years, a plethora of studies have further defined the depressive populations, who are responsive to light treatment; the optimal timing, intensity, spectral frequency, and duration of treatment; its comparison with other pharmacological interventions; predictors of response; side-effect...
Parry, Barbara L.; Maurer, Eva L.
The objective of this study was to determine associations between displayed depression symptoms on Facebook and self-reported depression symptoms using a clinical screen. Public Facebook profiles of undergraduates from two universities were examined for displayed depression references. Profiles were categorized as depression symptom displayers or non-displayers. Participants completed an online PHQ-9 depression scale. Analyses examined associations between PHQ-9 score and depression symptom d...
Moreno, Megan Andreas; Christakis, Dimitri A.; Egan, Katie G.; Jelenchick, Lauren A.; Cox, Elizabeth; Young, Henry; Villiard, Hope; Becker, Tara
Full Text Available Antonina Luca,1 Maria Luca,2 Carmela Calandra2 1Department GF Ingrassia, Section of Neuroscience, 2Department of Medical and Surgery Specialties, Psychiatry Unit, University Hospital Policlinico-Vittorio Emanuele, Catania, Sicily, Italy Abstract: Sleep disorders are so frequently associated with depression that, in the absence of sleep complaints, a diagnosis of depression should be made with caution. Insomnia, in particular, may occur in 60%–80% of depressed patients. Depressive symptoms are important risk factors for insomnia, and depression is considered an important comorbid condition in patients with chronic insomnia of any etiology. In addition, some drugs commonly prescribed for the treatment of depression may worsen insomnia and impair full recovery from the illness. The aim of this paper is to review briefly and discuss the following topics: common sleep disturbances during depression (in particular pavor nocturnus, nightmares, hypersomnia, and insomnia; circadian sleep disturbances; and treatment of depression by manipulation of the sleep-wake rhythm (chronotherapy, light therapy, cycles of sleep, and manipulation of the sleep-wake rhythm itself. Finally, we present a case report of a 65-year-old Caucasian woman suffering from insomnia associated with depression who was successfully treated with sleep deprivation. Keywords: sleep disorders, depression, insomnia, sleep-wake rhythm
BACKGROUND: Animal experimental studies suggest that the amino acid valine may decrease brain serotonin (5-HT) function by inhibiting the transport of the 5-HT precursor, L-tryptophan, across the blood barrier. The aim of the present study was to assess whether valine could decrease brain 5-HT function in healthy subjects and provoke symptomatic relapse in recently remitted depressed patients taking antidepressant drug treatment. METHOD: We studied the effect of valine (30 g) on the prolactin...
Williamson, Dj; Mctavish, Sf; Park, Sb; Cowen, Pj
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ is a well-recognized screening tool for bipolar disorder, but its Chinese version needs further validation. This study aims to measure the accuracy of the Chinese version of the MDQ as a screening instrument for bipolar disorder (BPD in a group of patients with a current major depressive episode. Methods 142 consecutive patients with an initial DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of a major depressive episode were screened for BPD using the Chinese translation of the MDQ and followed up for one year. The final diagnosis, determined by a special committee consisting of three trained senior psychiatrists, was used as a 'gold standard' and ROC was plotted to evaluate the performance of the MDQ. The optimal cut-off was chosen by maximizing the Younden's index. Results Of the 142 patients, 122 (85.9% finished the one year follow-up. On the basis of a semi-structured clinical interview 48.4% (59/122 received a diagnosis of unipolar depression (UPD, 36.9% (45/122 BPDII and 14.8% (18/122 BPDI. At the end of the one year follow-up,9 moved from UPD to BPD, 2 from BPDII to UPD, 1 from BPDII to BPDI, the overall rate of initial misdiagnosis was 16.4%. MDQ showed a good accuracy for BPD: the optimal cut-off was 4, with a sensitivity of 0.72 and a specificity of 0.73. When BPDII and BPDI were calculated independently, the optimal cut-off for BPDII was 4, with a sensitivity of 0.70 and a specificity of 0.73; while the optimal cut-off for BPDI was 5, with a sensitivity of 0.67 and a specificity of 0.86. Conclusions Our results show that the Chinese version of MDQ is a valid tool for screening BPD in a group of patients with current depressive episode on the Chinese mainland.
Objective?To test the depression-distortion hypothesis in pediatric type 1 diabetes.?Methods?In a sample of 187 youth with type 1 diabetes, caregivers completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale and the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI): parent proxy report. Youth completed the CDI. To test whether caregiver depressive symptoms (CES-D) moderated the proxy report of youth depressive symptoms (CDI:P), the CDI, CES-D, and their interactions were entered as p...
Hood, Korey K.
Background—Several reports indicate that physical activity can reduce the severity of symptoms in depressed patients. Some data suggest that even a single exercise bout may result in a substantial mood improvement.
Dimeo, F.; Bauer, M.; Varahram, I.; Proest, G.; Halter, U.
Abstract Background The Major Depression Inventory (MDI) is a new, brief, self-report measure for depression based on the DSM-system, which allows clinicians to assess the presence of a depressive disorder according to the DSM-IV, but also to assess the severity of the depressive symptoms. Methods We examined the sensitivity, specificity, and psychometric qualities of the MDI in a consecutive sample of 258 psychiatric outpatients. Of these patients, 120 had a mood disorder (70 major depressio...
Noteboom Annemieke; Dekker Jack; Cuijpers Pim; Smits Niels; Peen Jaap
Depressive disorders are common in children and adolescents, with estimates for depressive episodes as high as 18.2% for girls and 7.7% for boys by age 17 years, and are a major cause of morbidity and even mortality. The primary care pediatrician should be able to (1) diagnose depressive disorders and use standardized instruments; (2) ask about suicide, self-harm, homicide, substance use, mania, and psychosis; (3) triage the severity of illness; (4) be aware of the differential diagnosis, including normal development, other depressive disorders, bipolar disorders, and comorbid disorders, such as anxiety and substance use; (5) refer to evidenced-based psychotherapies; (6) prescribe first-line medications; and (7) provide ongoing coordination in a medical home. Pediatric bipolar disorders and the new disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) diagnoses are controversial but not uncommon, with prevalence estimates ranging from 0.8% to 4.3% in children at various ages. Although the pediatrician is not likely to be prescribing medications for children with bipolar disorder and DMDD diagnoses, all clinicians should be familiar with common neuroleptics and other mood stabilizers, including important potential adverse effects. Basic management of depressive and bipolar disorders is an important skill for primary care pediatricians. PMID:25646309
Tang, Michael H; Pinsky, Elizabeth G
It is unknown whether the relation between job strain and depression reflects causal characteristics of the working environment or reporting bias. The authors investigated reporting bias by analyzing individual versus work-unit measures of job strain and the risk of depressive symptoms (n = 287) and a diagnosis of depression (n = 97) among 4,291 employees within 378 work units in Aarhus, Denmark, 2007. All participants reported psychological demands and decision latitude, and the authors estimated mean values for each work unit. The odds ratios predicting depressive symptoms or a diagnosis of depression for the highest versus the lowest levels of individual, self-reported high psychological demands and low decision latitude were significantly increased above 2.5. When participants were classified by the work-unit mean levels, these associations were substantially smaller. For depressive symptoms, the odds ratios were 1.49 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.88, 2.53) and 1.08 (95% CI: 0.84, 1.39), respectively, for psychological demands and decision latitude. For a diagnosis of depression, the odds ratios were 1.33 (95% CI: 0.57, 3.09) and 1.02 (95% CI: 0.68, 1.56), respectively, for psychological demands and decision latitude. These findings indicate that reporting bias inflates associations between job strain and the occurrence of depression, if studies rely on individual self-reports.
Kolstad, Henrik; Hansen, Åse Marie
It is unknown whether the relation between job strain and depression reflects causal characteristics of the working environment or reporting bias. The authors investigated reporting bias by analyzing individual versus work-unit measures of job strain and the risk of depressive symptoms (n = 287) and a diagnosis of depression (n = 97) among 4,291 employees within 378 work units in Aarhus, Denmark, 2007. All participants reported psychological demands and decision latitude, and the authors estimated mean values for each work unit. The odds ratios predicting depressive symptoms or a diagnosis of depression for the highest versus the lowest levels of individual, self-reported high psychological demands and low decision latitude were significantly increased above 2.5. When participants were classified by the work-unit mean levels, these associations were substantially smaller. For depressive symptoms, the odds ratios were 1.49 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.88, 2.53) and 1.08 (95% CI: 0.84, 1.39), respectively, for psychological demands and decision latitude. For a diagnosis of depression, the odds ratios were 1.33 (95% CI: 0.57, 3.09) and 1.02 (95% CI: 0.68, 1.56), respectively, for psychological demands and decision latitude. These findings indicate that reporting bias inflates associations between job strain and the occurrence of depression, if studies rely on individual self-reports.
Kolstad, Henrik; Hansen, Åse Marie
The publication of the DSM-5 is nearing, yet a debate continues about the boundaries of bipolar disorder (BP) in children and adolescents. This article focuses on two key components of this debate that are often treated under the collective term mood dysregulation: the first is chronic irritability (and the proposed DSM-5 category of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder) and the other concerns short episodes of mania-like symptoms. We update our previous review [Stringaris in Eur Child Adol...
Mikita, Nina; Stringaris, Argyris
To investigate significance and measurement of depressive symptoms in young adolescents, 624 students were asked to complete the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) during home interviews. The presence of persistent symptoms varied by both race and sex. Results support the feasibility of using a self-report symptom scale to…
Schoenbach, Victor J.; And Others
Investigated relationship between self-reported depression and clinical diagnosis of depression among 425 medical patients who completed Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Most distressed subjects were not depressed. Major depressive disorder, other depression diagnoses, and anxiety and substance abuse disorders were all…
Fechner-Bates, Suzanne; And Others
Full Text Available The present research aimed to test the role of mood in the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT; Bechara et al., 1994. In the IGT, participants can win or lose money by picking cards from four different decks. They have to learn by experience that two decks are overall advantageous and two decks are overall disadvantageous. Previous studies have shown that at an early stage in this card-game, players begin to display a tendency towards the advantageous decks. Subsequent research suggested that at this stage, people base their decisions on conscious gut feelings (Wagar and Dixon, 2006. Based on empirical evidence for the relation between mood and cognitive processing-styles, we expected and consistently found that, compared to a negative mood state, reported and induced positive mood states increased this early tendency towards advantageous decks. Our results provide support for the idea that a positive mood causes stronger reliance on affective signals in decision-making than a negative mood.
Marieke de Vries
Theoretical models postulate an important role of attributional style (AS) in the formation and maintenance of persecutory delusions and other positive symptoms of schizophrenia. However, current research has gathered conflicting findings. In a cross-sectional design, patients with persistent positive symptoms of schizophrenia (n = 258) and healthy controls (n = 51) completed a revised version of the Internal, Personal and Situational Attributions Questionnaire (IPSAQ-R) and assessments of psychopathology. In comparison to controls, neither patients with schizophrenia in general nor patients with persecutory delusions (n = 142) in particular presented an externalizing and personalizing AS. Rather, both groups showed a "self-blaming" AS and attributed negative events more toward themselves. Persecutory delusions were independently predicted by a personalizing bias for negative events (beta = 0.197, P = .001) and by depression (beta = 0.152, P = .013), but only 5% of the variance in persecutory delusions could be explained. Cluster analysis of IPSAQ-R scores identified a "personalizing" (n = 70) and a "self-blaming" subgroup (n = 188), with the former showing slightly more pronounced persecutory delusions (P = .021). Results indicate that patients with schizophrenia and patients with persecutory delusions both mostly blamed themselves for negative events. Nevertheless, still a subgroup of patients could be identified who presented a more pronounced personalizing bias and more severe persecutory delusions. Thus, AS in patients with schizophrenia might be less stable but more determined by individual and situational characteristics that need further elucidation. PMID:24743864
Mehl, Stephanie; Landsberg, Martin W; Schmidt, Anna-Christine; Cabanis, Maurice; Bechdolf, Andreas; Herrlich, Jutta; Loos-Jankowiak, Stephanie; Kircher, Tilo; Kiszkenow, Stephanie; Klingberg, Stefan; Kommescher, Mareike; Moritz, Steffen; Müller, Bernhard W; Sartory, Gudrun; Wiedemann, Georg; Wittorf, Andreas; Wölwer, Wolfgang; Wagner, Michael
The objective of the current investigation was to examine the prevalence of pathological gambling (PG) in a psychiatric sample with a history of mood disorder, and the concurrent and longitudinal association of PG and mood disorder symptoms according to retrospective report. A total of 275 (100 male, 175 female) psychiatric outpatients in Ontario, Canada, with a lifetime diagnosis of a depressive (n = 138) or bipolar disorder (n = 137), completed the Canadian Problem Gambling Index, South Oaks Gambling Screen and Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation. Correlational and cross-lagged panel analyses evaluated the relation between PG and mood disorder symptom course. The prevalence of PG was elevated within patients with a mood disorder; there was no difference across diagnosis. Concurrent PG and mood disorder symptoms were positively correlated; however, longitudinal analyses revealed no evidence for an association between PG and mood disorder symptoms when symptom stability was taken into account. Despite the elevated prevalence of PG within mood disorders, and the concurrent association between PG and mood disorder symptoms, no direct association was found between these types of pathology. Prospective designs and intervening variables are required to advance understanding of the etiological associations between these disorders. PMID:20502951
Quilty, Lena C; Watson, Chris; Robinson, Jennifer J; Toneatto, Tony; Bagby, R Michael
Full Text Available In an attempt to test the conceptual model by Lane and Terry, the purposes of this study were 1 to assess mood states in non-depressed and depressed young karate athletes; 2 to assess mood states in relation to performance in young karate athletes. The participants were recruited from the 2004 Malaysian Games (72 males, 19.20 ± 1.16 years; 37 females, 18.78 ± 0.88 years. The athletes were divided into winners (medalists and losers. The Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS was administered prior to the start of competition. MANOVA was employed to treat the data, while Pearson correlations were calculated for mood states in each depressed mood group and by gender. In terms of non-depressed and depressed mood, tension in the females was higher in the depressed group (5.61 ± 3.02 vs. 3.11 ± 1.90, p = 0.026, eta2 = 0.133, as was fatigue (3.64 ± 2.61 vs. 0.89 ± 1.69, p = 0.006, eta2 = 0.199. Tension in the males was higher in the depressed group (4.41 ± 2.52 vs. 1.50 ± 1.55, p < 0.001, eta2 = 0.215, as was anger (1.43 ± 1.88 vs. 0.25 ± 1.00, p = 0.019, eta2 = 0.076. The highest associations among mood subscales were between anger and depression (r = 0.57, and between depression and fatigue ( r = 0.55 in depressed males. The female winning karateka scored higher on anger (3.08 ± 2.96 vs. 1.29 ± 2.24, p = 0.046, eta2 = 0.109. The highest correlations between mood dimensions in depressed females were between depression and anger (r = 0.85 and between depression and confusion (r = 0.85. Contrary to previous research on the influence of depression on anger, only the female winners scored higher on anger. Several negative mood dimensions were higher in both male and female depressed groups, lending some support to the conceptual model advanced by Lane and Terry
Rebecca S. K. Wong
AIM: to investigate studies conducted with the Mood Spectrum Structured Interviews and Self-Report versions (SCI-MOODS and MOODS-SR). METHODS: We conducted a review of studies published between 1997 and August 2014. The search was performed using Pubmed and PsycINFO databases. Analysis of the papers followed the inclusion and exclusion criteria recommended by the PRISMA Guidelines, namely: (1) articles that presented a combination of at least two terms, “SCI-MOODS” [all fields] or “MOODS-SR” [all fields] or “mood spectrum” [all fields]; (2) manuscript in English; (3) original articles; and (4) prospective or retrospective original studies (analytical or descriptive), experimental or quasi-experimental studies. Exclusion criteria were: (1) other study designs (case reports, case series, and reviews); (2) non-original studies including editorials, book reviews and letters to the editor; and (3) studies not specifically designed and focused on SCI-MOODS or MOODS-SR. RESULTS: The search retrieved 43 papers, including 5 reviews of literature or methodological papers, and 1 case report. After analyzing their titles and abstracts, according to the eligibility criteria, 6 were excluded and 37 were chosen and included. The SCI-MOODS and the MOODS-SR have been tested in published studies involving 52 different samples across 4 countries (Italy, United States, Spain and Japan). The proposed mood spectrum approach has demonstrated its usefulness mainly in 3 different areas: (1) Patients with the so-called “pure” unipolar depression that might manifest hypomanic atypical and/or sub-threshold aspects systematically detectable with the mood questionnaire; (2) Spectrum features not detected by other instruments are clinically relevant, because they might manifest in waves during the lifespan, sometimes together, sometimes alone, sometimes reaching the severity for a full-blown disorder, sometimes interfering with other mental disorders or complicating the course of somatic diseases; and (3) Higher scores on the MOODS-SR factors assessing “psychomotor disturbances”, “mixed instability” and “suicidality” delineate subtypes of patients characterized by the more severe forms of mood disorders, the higher risk for psychotic symptoms, and the lower quality of life after the remission of the full-blown-episode. CONCLUSION: The mood spectrum model help researchers and clinicians in the systematic assessment of those areas of psychopathology that are still neglected by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5 classification. PMID:25815262
Benvenuti, Antonella; Miniati, Mario; Callari, Antonio; Giorgi Mariani, Michela; Mauri, Mauro; Dell’Osso, Liliana
According to attachment theorists, affect regulation and quality of attachment are closely linked. As a personality trait associated with deficits in the cognitive processing and regulation of affects, alexithymia has been hypothesized to correlate with insecure attachment. To test this hypothesis, we studied the relationships between alexithymia, adult attachment style, and retrospective memories of separation anxiety symptoms during childhood in 100 young men with clinically significant mood symptoms. The most common DSM-IV diagnosis (N = 72) was adjustment disorder with depressed mood, with anxiety, or with mixed anxiety and depressed mood. Each participant completed the Twenty-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the state form of the State-Trait Anxiety Index (STAI), the Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ), the Relationship Questionnaire (RQ), and the Separation Anxiety Symptom Inventory (SASI). Alexithymic traits were more pronounced in those participants who had patterns of insecure attachment and who reported more severe symptoms of separation anxiety during childhood, independently of the severity of their current anxiety and depressive symptoms. Among the subgroup of participants with insecure attachment styles, those with preoccupied or fearful patterns had a higher prevalence of alexithymia (65% and 73%, respectively) than those with a dismissing pattern (36%). These data suggest a role for early developmental factors in the etiology of alexithymia PMID:11379975
Troisi, A; D'Argenio, A; Peracchio, F; Petti, P
Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivos: describir un caso de una persona que en relación con el uso de Sibutramina presenta trastorno del estado de ánimo. Métodos: reporte de caso. Resultados: paciente de 28 años, quien presenta primer episodio maniaco con síntomas psicóticos y posterior asociación de sintomatología depresiva i [...] nducida probablemente por el uso de Sibutramina. Conclusiones: la Sibutramina puede estar relacionada con la presentación de cuadros afectivos y psicóticos en personas vulnerables, por lo que se recomienda la evaluación del estado mental y los antecedentes de la persona a quien se va a prescribir. Abstract in english Objectives: Describe a case of Mood Disorder in relation to the use of Sibutramine. Methods: Case Report. Results: A 28 year-old patient who shows the first episode of mania with psychotic features, with later association of depressive symptoms possibly induced by the administration of Sibutramine. [...] Conclusions: Sibutramine can be related with the development of affective and psychotic symptoms in a vulnerable patient. The evaluation of the mental state and history is recommended before its prescription.
Juan, Carlos Alba; Miguel, Uribe; Eduardo, Gutiérrez; Néstor, Torres.
Full Text Available Objetivos: describir un caso de una persona que en relación con el uso de Sibutramina presenta trastorno del estado de ánimo. Métodos: reporte de caso. Resultados: paciente de 28 años, quien presenta primer episodio maniaco con síntomas psicóticos y posterior asociación de sintomatología depresiva inducida probablemente por el uso de Sibutramina. Conclusiones: la Sibutramina puede estar relacionada con la presentación de cuadros afectivos y psicóticos en personas vulnerables, por lo que se recomienda la evaluación del estado mental y los antecedentes de la persona a quien se va a prescribir.Objectives: Describe a case of Mood Disorder in relation to the use of Sibutramine. Methods: Case Report. Results: A 28 year-old patient who shows the first episode of mania with psychotic features, with later association of depressive symptoms possibly induced by the administration of Sibutramine. Conclusions: Sibutramine can be related with the development of affective and psychotic symptoms in a vulnerable patient. The evaluation of the mental state and history is recommended before its prescription.
Juan Carlos Alba
The present study explored the validity of the unipolar-bipolar distinction in the characterological mood disorders. Thirteen cyclothymic and 32 primary early-onset dysthymic outpatients, diagnosed according to DSM-III-R, were compared on demographic, clinical, personality, and family history variables. The cyclothymics exhibited significantly higher levels of depressive symptomatology and extraversion and had a higher rate of bipolar I disorder in their first-degree relatives than the dysthymics. In addition, a significantly greater proportion of cyclothymics than dysthymics had a family history of drug abuse. The groups did not differ significantly on gender, overall rates of affective disorders in relatives, or a number of symptoms which have been reported to distinguish unipolar and bipolar depressives. Although these data require replication due to the small sample and large number of analyses conducted, they provide at least partial support for extending the unipolar-bipolar distinction to the characterological mood disorders. PMID:2338540
Klein, D N; Taylor, E B; Harding, K; Dickstein, S
Full Text Available Abstract Distinction between true negative and depressive symptoms in schizophrenia is difficult. In the present study we seek to establish the psychological profile of depression-prone schizophrenic patients. We addressed the issue by comparing the expression of psychological indices, such as the feelings of being in control of events, anxiety, mood, and the style of coping with stress in depressive and non-depressive schizophrenics. We also analyzed the strength of the association of these indices with the presence of depressive symptoms. A total of 49 patients (18 women and 31 men, aged 23-59 were enrolled into the study, consisting of a self-reported psychometric survey. We found that the prevalence of clinically significant depression in schizophrenic patients was 61%. The factors which contributed to the intensification of depressive symptoms were the external locus of control, anxiety, gloomy mood, and the emotion-oriented coping with stress. We conclude that psychological testing may discern those schizophrenic patients who would be at risk of depression development and may help separate the blurred boundaries between depressive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia.
Full Text Available During the menstrual cycle, pregnancy and breast-feeding periods, as well as in menopausal and post-menopausal periods, the physiological and psychological processes that change according to the hormonal fluctuations influence every women similarly and each one differently. These physiological processes are controlled by neuroendocrine sequences, of which the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis are the most important ones. The hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis affects mood, anxiety, cognition and pain. The interaction of these hormones with mood and behavior is bidirectional. The differences in phenomenology and epidemiology of mood disorders with regards to gender can be explained with the effects of hormones. All of the periods mentioned above are related with mood disorders at terms of risk factors, disease symptoms, progress of disease and response to treatment. Epidemiologic data supports the relationship between the mood disorders and reproductive processes. The prevalence of major depression increases in women with the menarche and ceases in post- menopausal period. Similarly, the initial symptoms of bipolar disorder begins around the menarche period in 50% of the cases. Despite proper treatment, some female patients with major depression experience recurrence during the premenstrual period of their menstrual cycles. The conformity and change in a woman’s brain during pregnancy is controlled dominantly by the neuroendocrine systems, while it is controlled by the external stimuli actively related to the baby during nursing period. The changes that occur are closely related to postpartum mood disorders. Again, all the changes and suspension of medication during this procedure are risk factors for early depressive and dysphoric situations. Variables of a wide range, from follicle stimulating hormone, melatonin, and sleep to body mass index interact with mood disorders in menopausal and post-menopausal periods. Interest on the effects of gonadal steroids on the central nervous system has grown parallel with our increasing knowledge. In the last decade, the place of hormonal treatments in the treatment of mood disorders have been discussed continously. During this period, along with the anti-depressant efficacy of estrogen, anti-manic efficacy of tamoxifen was also demonstrated in several studies. In this paper, the complex relationship between the physiological changes and the mood disorders during a menstrual cycle, pregnancy, nursing, menopausal and post-menopausal periods are briefly reviewed and discussed over the reproductive hormones in the context of etiology, phenomenology and treatment.
Bipolar disorder is a psychiatric condition characterized by episodes of elevated mood interspersed with episodes of depression. While treatment developments and understanding the disruptive nature of this illness have focused on these episodes, it is also evident that some patients may have chronic week-to-week mood instability. This is also a major morbidity. The longitudinal pattern of this mood instability is poorly understood as it has, until recently, been difficult to quantify. We prop...
Bonsall, Mb; Wallace-hadrill, Sm; Geddes, Jr; Goodwin, Gm; Holmes, Ea
Vitamin B12 is one of the essential vitamins affecting various systems of the body. Reports of psychiatric disorders due to its deficiency mostly focus on middle aged and elderly patients. Here we report a case of vitamin B 12 deficiency in a 16-year old, male adolescent who presented with mixed mood disorder symptoms with psychotic features. Chief complaints were "irritability, regressive behavior, apathy, crying and truancy" which lasted for a year. Premorbid personality was unremarkable with no substance use/exposure or infections. No stressors were present. The patient was not vegetarian. Past medical history and family history was normal. Neurological examination revealed glossitis, ataxia, rigidity in both shoulders, cog-wheel rigidity in the left elbow, bilateral problems of coordination in cerebellar examination, reduced swinging of the arms and masked face. Romberg's sign was present. Laboratory evaluations were normal. Endoscopy and biopsy revealed atrophy of the gastric mucosa with Helicobacter Pylori colonization. Schilling test was suggestive of malabsorbtion. He was diagnosed with Mood disorder with Mixed, Psychotic Features due to Vitamin B12 Deficiency and risperidone 0.5?mg/day and intramuscular vitamin B12 500 mcg/day were started along with referral for treatment of Helicobacter pylori. A visit on the second week revealed no psychotic features. Romberg's sign was negative and cerebellar tests were normal. Extrapyramidal symptoms were reduced while Vitamin B12 levels were elevated. Risperidone was stopped and parenteral Vitamin B12 treatment was continued with monthly injections for 3?months. Follow-up endoscopy and biopsy at the first month demonstrated eradication of H. pylori. He was followed monthly for another 6?months and psychiatric symptoms did not recur at the time of last evaluation. Despite limitations, this case may underline the observation that mood disorders with psychotic features especially with accompanying extrapyramidal symptoms lacking a clear etiology may be rare manifestation of vitamin B12 and/or folate deficiency in children and adolescents and be potentially amenable to treatment. PMID:22726236
Tufan, Ali Evren; Bilici, Rabia; Usta, Genco; Erdo?an, Ayten
Methods for treatment of depression-related mood disorders in mammals, particularly humans are disclosed. The methods of the invention include administration of compounds capable of enhancing glutamate transporter activity in the brain of mammals suffering from depression. ATP-sensitive K.sup.+ channel openers and .beta.-lactam antibiotics are used to enhance glutamate transport and to treat depression-related mood disorders and depressive symptoms.
Background A ruminative style of responding to low mood is associated with subsequent high depressive symptoms and depressive disorder in children, adolescents and adults. Scores on self-report rumination scales correlate strongly with scores on anxiety and depression symptom scales. This may confound any associations between rumination and subsequent depression. Methods Our sample comprised 658 healthy adolescents at elevated risk for psychopathology. This study applied ordinal item (non-linear) factor analysis to pooled items from three self-report questionnaires to explore whether there were separate, but correlated, constructs of rumination, depression and anxiety. It then tested whether rumination independently predicted depressive disorder and depressive symptoms over the subsequent 12 months, after adjusting for confounding variables. Results We identified a single rumination factor, which was correlated with factors representing cognitive symptoms of depression, somatic symptoms of depression and anxiety symptoms; and one factor representing adaptive responses to low mood. Elevated rumination scores predicted onset of depressive disorders over the subsequent year (p?=?0.035), and levels of depressive symptoms 12 months later (p?0.0005), after adjustment for prior levels of depressive and anxiety symptoms. Conclusion High rumination predicts onset of depressive disorder in healthy adolescents. Therapy that reduces rumination and increases distraction/problem-solving may reduce onset and relapse rates of depression. PMID:24103296
Improving mood with psychoanalytic and cognitive therapies (IMPACT: a pragmatic effectiveness superiority trial to investigate whether specialised psychological treatment reduces the risk for relapse in adolescents with moderate to severe unipolar depression: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial
Full Text Available Abstract Background Up to 70% of adolescents with moderate to severe unipolar major depression respond to psychological treatment plus Fluoxetine (20-50 mg with symptom reduction and improved social function reported by 24 weeks after beginning treatment. Around 20% of non responders appear treatment resistant and 30% of responders relapse within 2 years. The specific efficacy of different psychological therapies and the moderators and mediators that influence risk for relapse are unclear. The cost-effectiveness and safety of psychological treatments remain poorly evaluated. Methods/Design Improving Mood with Psychoanalytic and Cognitive Therapies, the IMPACT Study, will determine whether Cognitive Behavioural Therapy or Short Term Psychoanalytic Therapy is superior in reducing relapse compared with Specialist Clinical Care. The study is a multicentre pragmatic effectiveness superiority randomised clinical trial: Cognitive Behavioural Therapy consists of 20 sessions over 30 weeks, Short Term Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy 30 sessions over 30 weeks and Specialist Clinical Care 12 sessions over 20 weeks. We will recruit 540 patients with 180 randomised to each arm. Patients will be reassessed at 6, 12, 36, 52 and 86 weeks. Methodological aspects of the study are systematic recruitment, explicit inclusion criteria, reliability checks of assessments with control for rater shift, research assessors independent of treatment team and blind to randomization, analysis by intention to treat, data management using remote data entry, measures of quality assurance, advanced statistical analysis, manualised treatment protocols, checks of adherence and competence of therapists and assessment of cost-effectiveness. We will also determine whether time to recovery and/or relapse are moderated by variations in brain structure and function and selected genetic and hormone biomarkers taken at entry. Discussion The objective of this clinical trial is to determine whether there are specific effects of specialist psychotherapy that reduce relapse in unipolar major depression in adolescents and thereby costs of treatment to society. We also anticipate being able to utilise psychotherapy experience, neuroimaging, genetic and hormone measures to reveal what techniques and their protocols may work best for which patients. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN83033550
Stepped care for depression and anxiety: from primary care to specialized mental health care: a randomised controlled trial testing the effectiveness of a stepped care program among primary care patients with mood or anxiety disorders
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mood and anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and have a large impact on the lives of the affected individuals. Therefore, optimal treatment of these disorders is highly important. In this study we will examine the effectiveness of a stepped care program for primary care patients with mood and anxiety disorders. A stepped care program is characterized by different treatment steps that are arranged in order of increasing intensity. Methods This study is a randomised controlled trial with two conditions: stepped care and care as usual, whereby the latter forms the control group. The stepped care program consists of four evidence based interventions: (1 Watchful waiting, (2 Guided self-help, (3 Problem Solving Treatment and (4 Medication and/or specialized mental health care. The study population consists of primary care attendees aged 18–65 years. Screeners are sent to all patients of the participating general practitioners. Individuals with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of mental disorders (DSM diagnosis of major depression, dysthymia, panic disorder (with or without agoraphobia, generalized anxiety disorder, or social phobia are included as well as individuals with minor depression and anxiety disorders. Primary focus is the reduction of depressive and anxiety symptoms. Both conditions are monitored at 8, 16 and 24 weeks. Discussion This study evaluates the effectiveness of a stepped care program for patients with depressive and anxiety disorder. If effective, a stepped care program can form a worthwhile alternative for care as usual. Strengths and limitations of this study are discussed. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trails: ISRCTN17831610.
The mental control of mood and mood-related thought was investigated. In Experiment 1, Ss reminiscing about a happy or sad event were asked to make their mood positive, were given no instructions, or were asked to make their mood negative. Ss attempting mood control without an imposed cognitive load were successful, whereas those who attempted control while rehearsing a 9-digit number not only failed to control their moods but also showed self-reported mood change opposite the mood they intended to create. In Experiment 2, Ss attempting to control mood-related thoughts under cognitive load showed increased accessibility of those thoughts contrary to the direction of intended control in a Stroop-type color-naming task. PMID:8295117
Wegner, D M; Erber, R; Zanakos, S
Asperger Syndrome (AS) and High Functioning Autism (HFA) are psychiatric conditions belonging to the Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASDs), characterized by social dysfunction and focused interest, in the absence of mental retardation. Previous reports suggest that AS/HFA may be associated with important psychiatric comorbidities. Among the psychiatric internalizing disorders, depression and anxiety are probably the most common disorders. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of mood disorders and identifying peculiar clinical features in subjects suffering from AS and HFA. 30 male patients with AS/HFA, 30 male patients affected by Major Depression (MD) and 35 male Typically Developing (TD) comparison were assessed with the CDI and the CDRS-R. Participants' parents were invited to complete the CBCL and the P-YMRS. Moreover, the CGAS was rated by the clinicians. The evaluation of depressive symptoms showed that AS/HFA group reported higher depressive symptoms, as showed by CDI total, CBCL internalizing and CDRS-R total, compared to the TD group. No significant difference of depressive symptoms was found between the AS/HFA and the MD group, with the exception of CDRS-R total score. Moreover, linear regression analysis in the AS/HFA group between CGAS and depressive symptoms revealed that a higher level of depressive symptoms increased the risk of poorer global functioning. These results suggest that the depressive symptoms in AS/HFA patients may be associated with poorer global functioning, with a consequent impairment in their psychological profile and social adjustment, and should alert clinicians to the importance of assessing mood disorders in order to choose the appropriate treatment. PMID:24029798
Mazzone, Luigi; Postorino, Valentina; De Peppo, Lavinia; Fatta, Laura; Lucarelli, Valeria; Reale, Laura; Giovagnoli, Giulia; Vicari, Stefano
Full Text Available It is relevant to unravel the factors that may mediate the cognitive decline observed during aging. Previous reports indicate that education has a positive influence on cognitive performance, while age, female gender and, especially, depressed mood were associated with poorer performances across multiple cognitive dimensions (memory and general executive function. Herein, the present study aimed to characterize the cognitive performance of community-dwelling individuals within distinct educational groups categorized by the number of completed formal school years: “less than 4”, “4, completed primary education”, and “more than 4”. Participants (n = 1051 were randomly selected from local health registries and representative of the Portuguese population for age and gender. Neurocognitive and clinical assessments were conducted in local health care centers. Structural equation modeling was used to derive a cognitive score, and hierarchical linear regressions were conducted for each educational group. Education, age and depressed mood were significant variables in directly explaining the obtained cognitive score, while gender was found to be an indirect variable. In all educational groups, mood was the most significant factor with effect on cognitive performance. Specifically, a depressed mood led to lower cognitive performance. The clinical disease indices cardiac and stroke associated with a more negative mood, while moderate increases in BMI, alcohol consumption and physical activity associated positively with improved mood and thus benefitted cognitive performance. Results warrant further research on the cause-effect (longitudinal relationship between clinical indices of disease and risk factors and mood and cognition throughout aging.
Nadine Correia Santos
Full Text Available Maria Luca,1 Giuseppa Prossimo,1 Vincenzo Messina,1 Antonina Luca,2 Salvatore Romeo,1 Carmela Calandra11Department of Medical and Surgery Specialties, Psychiatry Unit, 2Department of Neuroscience, University Hospital Policlinico-Vittorio Emanuele, Catania, Sicily, ItalyBackground: The present study aimed: to assess prescribing patterns in the treatment of major depression, bipolar disorder type I, cyclothymia, and dysthymia from 1996 to 2007 in a day hospital setting; to evaluate the prevalence of the above-mentioned mood disorders and gender distribution; and to relate familiality, comorbidity, and marital status to each diagnosis.Methods: Medical records for 777 day hospital patients with a diagnosis of major depression, bipolar disorder type I, cyclothymia, or dysthymia were grouped into two 6-year periods so as to compare the prescribing patterns of tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, noradrenergic reuptake inhibitors, serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressants, first-generation antipsychotics, second-generation antipsychotics, and mood stabilizers. Gender, prevalence, familiality, comorbidity, and marital status were related to each diagnosis.Results: The most common mood disorder, with a female preponderance, was major depression, regardless of marital status. High percentages of familiality and comorbidity were found for major depression, while a reduction was found in the utilization of tricyclic antidepressants. There was no statistically significant difference in rates of prescription of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and noradrenergic reuptake inhibitors, but some irregularities were found upon evaluating each diagnosis (eg, increased utilization of these agents in dysthymia and major depression, respectively. There was an increase in prescriptions for serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, but no marked differences in utilization of noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressants, which remained basically low. There was no significant difference in prescribing of first-generation antipsychotic agents, although a reduction was found. There was a significant increase in utilization of second-generation antipsychotics and mood stabilizers.Conclusion: Our epidemiological findings are consistent with data reported in the literature regarding the high prevalence of major depression among the mood disorders, as well as the impact of familiality and comorbidity. Analysis of prescribing patterns for antidepressants, antipsychotics, and mood stabilizers in the treatment of mood disorders shows a shift from older to newer drugs, and wider use of mood stabilizers.Keywords: antidepressants, antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, prescribing patterns, mood disorders, treatment
Abstract Background Coronary heart disease (CHD) and depression are leading causes of disease burden globally and the two often co-exist. Depression is common after Myocardial Infarction (MI) and it has been estimated that 15-35% of patients experience depressive symptoms. Co-morbid depression can impair health related quality of life (HRQOL), decrease medication adherence and appropriate utilisation of health services, lead to increased morbidity and suicide risk, and is associated with poor...
Hare David L; Atherton John; Hollingsworth Bruce; Forbes Andrew; Sanderson Kristy; Chan Bianca; Hawkes Anna L; Neil Adrienne, O.; Jelinek Michael; Eadie Kathy; Barr, Taylor C.; Oldenburg Brian
Full Text Available Objectives: Ayahuasca (AYA), a natural psychedelic brew prepared from Amazonian plants and rich in dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and harmine, causes effects of subjective well-being and may therefore have antidepressant actions. This study sought to evaluate the effects of a single dose of AYA in six vo [...] lunteers with a current depressive episode. Methods: Open-label trial conducted in an inpatient psychiatric unit. Results: Statistically significant reductions of up to 82% in depressive scores were observed between baseline and 1, 7, and 21 days after AYA administration, as measured on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D), the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), and the Anxious-Depression subscale of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). AYA administration resulted in nonsignificant changes in Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) scores and in the thinking disorder subscale of the BPRS, suggesting that AYA does not induce episodes of mania and/or hypomania in patients with mood disorders and that modifications in thought content, which could indicate psychedelic effects, are not essential for mood improvement. Conclusions: These results suggest that AYA has fast-acting anxiolytic and antidepressant effects in patients with a depressive disorder.
Flávia de L., Osório; Rafael F., Sanches; Ligia R., Macedo; Rafael G., dos Santos; João P., Maia-de-Oliveira; Lauro, Wichert-Ana; Draulio B., de Araujo; Jordi, Riba; José A., Crippa; Jaime E., Hallak.
Rumination-repetitively thinking about one's emotional state, its causes and consequences-exacerbates negative mood and plays an important role in the aetiology and maintenance of depression. Yet, it is unclear whether increased vulnerability to depression is associated with simply how much a person ruminates, or the short-term impact rumination has on a person's negative mood. In the current study, we distinguish between the level versus the impact of rumination, and we examine how each uniquely predicts changes in depressive symptoms over time in an undergraduate sample. Using experience sampling, we assessed students' (N = 101) subjective experiences of positive and negative affect and their use of rumination and distraction in daily life for seven days. Participants also reported their depressive symptoms before and after the experience sampling. Increases in depressive symptoms over the week were predicted by how much people ruminated, but not by its impact on negative mood. PMID:24979309
Pasyugina, Irina; Koval, Peter; De Leersnyder, Jozefien; Mesquita, Batja; Kuppens, Peter
Mood fluctuations have been reported in up to two-thirds of patients with Parkinson's disease who experience motor fluctuations. Most researchers indicate that mood fluctuations tend to be associated with motor fluctuations in that patients experience decreased mood when "off" (immobile) and elevated mood when "on" (mobile). Sixteen patients with Parkinson's disease and motor fluctuations completed hourly diaries for 7 consecutive days documenting their mood, anxiety, and motor states using visual analogue scales. Mood and anxiety fluctuations were frequently documented. Motor and emotional states were not, however, consistently correlated. When they were correlated, the most frequent pattern was the common occurrence of decreased mood, increased anxiety, and reduced motor function. PMID:11207327
Richard, I H; Justus, A W; Kurlan, R
Up to 70% of depressed adults have an antidepressant response to sleep deprivation. To study the effects of sleep deprivation on depression severity and level of arousal in psychiatrically disturbed adolescents, we deprived 17 patients of sleep for 36 hours. Severity of depression and subjective arousal were assessed at baseline, during sleep deprivation, and after 1 night's recovery sleep. We found that severely depressed adolescents showed a significant decrease in depression severity, whereas depressed patients in remission and psychiatric controls worsened after sleep deprivation. Patients with depression in remission showed a significant decrease in subjective arousal after sleep deprivation. In contrast to findings in depressed adults, the effects of sleep deprivation persisted after 1 night of recovery sleep, and diurnal variation of mood did not predict response to sleep deprivation. These findings are consistent with those reported in the adult literature, and suggest a common psychophysiology between adult and adolescent depression. PMID:8340295
Naylor, M W; King, C A; Lindsay, K A; Evans, T; Armelagos, J; Shain, B N; Greden, J F
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder is prevalent in the adolescent psychiatric clinical setting and often comorbid with other primary psychiatric diagnoses such as ADHD or social anxiety disorder. Systematic manual-based diagnostic procedures are recommended to identify such comorbidity but they are time-consuming and often not fully implemented in clinical practice. Screening for depressive symptoms in the child psychiatric context using brief, user-friendly and easily managed self-assessment scales may be of clinical value and utility. The aim of the study is to test the psychometric validity of two such scales, which may be used in a two-step screening procedure, the WHO-Five Well-being Index (WHO-5) and the six-item version of Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI-6). METHOD: 66 adolescent psychiatric patients with a clinical diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD), 60 girls and 6 boys, aged 14--18 years, mean age 16.8 years, completed the WHO-5 scale as well as the BDI-6. Statistical validitywas tested by Mokken and Rasch analyses. RESULTS: The correlation between WHO-5 and BDI-6 was -0.49 (p=0.0001). Mokken analyses showed a coefficient of homogeneity for the WHO-5 of 0.52 and for the BDI-6 of 0.46. Rasch analysis also accepted unidimensionality when testing males versus females (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The WHO-5 is psychometrically valid in an adolescent psychiatric context including both genders to assess the wellness dimension and applicable as a first step in screening for MDD. The BDI-6 may be recommended as a second step in the screening procedure, since it is statistically valid and has the ability to unidimensionally capture the severity of depressed mood.
Blom, Eva Henje; Bech, Per
Sleep disturbance is common in major depressive disorder (MDD), and is often characterized by early-morning waking. Melatonin is a hypnotic and synchronizes circadian rhythms. It may also be an antidepressant. The melatonin agonists, ramelteon and agomelatine, have hypnotic and antidepressant properties, but there is a dearth of trials investigating the use of melatonin in MDD. This randomized, controlled trial aimed to determine whether exogenous melatonin is a sleep promoter and antidepressant. Thirty-three participants with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (fourth edition) diagnosis of MDD and early-morning waking were selected for a 4-week, randomized, double-blind trial of slow-release melatonin (6 mg; vs. placebo) given at bedtime over 4 weeks. Sleep was measured subjectively using sleep diaries and the Leeds Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire and objectively using wrist actigraphy. Of the 33 participants, 31 completed the trial. General Linear Modelling showed significant improvements in depression and sleep over time, but this was not specific to melatonin. However, there was a trend towards an improvement in mood with melatonin, and no adverse side effects were observed. In conclusion, melatonin may be beneficial for treating MDD, it seems to be safe and well tolerated, but its potential for treating depression in people who do not wish to take antidepressants requires further evaluation. PMID:20195158
Serfaty, Marc Antony; Osborne, Debbie; Buszewicz, Marta J; Blizard, Robert; Raven, Peter W
Maternal depression is associated with adverse child development, but little is known about the effects of paternal depression. This pilot study estimated the prevalence of paternal depression and mood state, and assessed the relationship between paternal mood and infant temperament. The participants in the study were 98 fathers of newborn babies.…
Dave, Shreya; Nazareth, Irwin; Sherr, Lorraine; Senior, Rob
Major depressive disorder and bipolar spectrum disorders are debilitating conditions associated with severe impairment. The presence of co-occurring social phobia can make the clinical course of these disorders even more challenging. To better understand the nature of social anxiety in the context of ongoing mood disorders, we report the results of exploratory factor analyses of the Social Phobia Spectrum Self-Report Instrument (SHY), a 162-item measure designed to capture the full spectrum o...
Fournier, Jay C.; Cyranowski, Jill M.; Rucci, Paola; Cassano, Giovanni B.; Frank, Ellen
... ADHD or becoming depressed in response to parental divorce or any other stressful situation. (In fact, research has shown that the intactness of a child’s family and its socioeconomic status have little or no effect on whether a child develops MDD.) While children ...
Bipolar disorder is a psychiatric condition characterized by episodes of elevated mood interspersed with episodes of depression. While treatment developments and understanding the disruptive nature of this illness have focused on these episodes, it is also evident that some patients may have chronic week-to-week mood instability. This is also a major morbidity. The longitudinal pattern of this mood instability is poorly understood as it has, until recently, been difficult to quantify. We propose that understanding this mood variability is critical for the development of cognitive neuroscience-based treatments. In this study, we develop a time-series approach to capture mood variability in two groups of patients with bipolar disorder who appear on the basis of clinical judgement to show relatively stable or unstable illness courses. Using weekly mood scores based on a self-rated scale (quick inventory of depressive symptomatology-self-rated; QIDS-SR) from 23 patients over a 220-week period, we show that the observed mood variability is nonlinear and that the stable and unstable patient groups are described by different nonlinear time-series processes. We emphasize the necessity in combining both appropriate measures of the underlying deterministic processes (the QIDS-SR score) and noise (uncharacterized temporal variation) in understanding dynamical patterns of mood variability associated with bipolar disorder. PMID:21849316
Bonsall, M B; Wallace-Hadrill, S M A; Geddes, J R; Goodwin, G M; Holmes, E A
Depressed mood and poor quality of life in male patients with chronic renal failure undergoing hemodialysis / Comportamento depressivo e má qualidade de vida em homens com insuficiência renal crônica submetidos à hemodiálise
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Avaliar o estado de humor e a qualidade de vida de homens em tratamento hemodialítico, correlacionar as alterações observadas no humor com os diferentes domínios do questionário de qualidade de vida. MÉTODO: Foram incluídos 47 homens em tratamento hemodialítico estável há mais de seis mese [...] s. Foram aplicadas a Escala de Hamilton de depressão e o Kidney Disease Quality of Life Questionnaire, questionário de qualidade de vida relacionado à saúde, em sua forma traduzida e adaptada para a língua portuguesa. RESULTADOS: A média da idade dos pacientes era 39,4 ± 8,9 anos. Na avaliação pela Escala de Hamilton, observou-se em 32 (68,1%) pacientes a presença de depressão. Encontramos correlação negativa significativa entre os resultados obtidos na escala de Hamilton e os seguintes parâmetros das dimensões específicas do Kidney Disease Quality of Life Questionnaire: lista de sintomas e problemas (rs = -0,399; p = 0,005), qualidade da interação social (rs = -0,433; p = 0,002) e sono (rs = -0,585; p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To assess mood and quality of life in male hemodialysis patients, and to correlate mood swings with the different domains of the quality of life questionnaire. METHOD: Forty-seven male patients undergoing regular hemodialysis for more than six months were included in the study. The Hamilt [...] on Rating Scale for Depression and the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Questionnaire, in a version translated into and adapted to Portuguese, were used. RESULTS: The patients' age was 39.4 ± 8.9 years (median ± SD). Depression was observed in 32 (68.1%) patients according to the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. A significant negative correlation was found between the results from the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression and the following parameters of the specific dimensions of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Questionnaire: list of symptoms and problems (rs = -0.399; p = 0.005), quality of social interaction (rs = -0.433; p = 0.002), and quality of sleep (rs = -0.585; p
Thales Weber, Garcia; Joel Paulo Russomano, Veiga; Lucilia Domingues Casulari da, Motta; Flávio José Dutra de, Moura; Luiz Augusto, Casulari.
Little is known about the role of exercise in improving cancer patients' mood while undergoing chemotherapy. In this phase II study changes in self-reported anxiety and depression and fitness (VO2max) are reported in relation to a 6-week, 9 h weekly, multidimensional exercise program. A total of 91 patients receiving chemotherapy, between 18 and 65 years old, completed a Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale Questionnaire (HADS; response rate 91%, adherence rate 78%). Anxiety (p < 0.001) and depression (p = 0.042) was significantly reduced. The mean ± SD of the change was [minus sign]1.14 ± 2.91 for anxiety and [minus sign]0.44 ± 2.77 for depression. Improvements in fitness were correlated with improvements in depression, [chi]2(1) = 3.966, p = 0.046, but not with improvements in anxiety, [chi]2(1) = 0.540, p = 0.462. The research suggests that exercise intervention may have a beneficial impact on psychological distress for cancer patients receiving chemotherapy with low to moderate levels of baseline psychomorbidity. The study furthermore indicates that changes in distress may be associated with disease status and levels of physical activity undertaken during disease. The study is followed up by an ongoing randomized clinical controlled trial to evaluate potential causal effects of exercise intervention on psychological distress and fitness in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy.
Klausen, Julie Midtgaard; RØrth, Mikael Rahbek
Full Text Available Abstract Background To ascertain the impact of postpartum onset (PPO on the subsequent time course of mood disorders. Methods This retrospective study compared per year rates of excited (manic or mixed and depressive episodes between fifty-five women with bipolar (N = 22 or major depressive (N = 33 disorders with first episode occurring postpartum (within four weeks after childbirth according to DSM-IV definition and 218 non-postpartum onset (NPPO controls. Such patients had a traceable illness course consisting of one or more episodes alternating with complete symptom remission and no additional diagnoses of axis I disorders, mental retardation or brain organic diseases. A number of variables reported to influence the course of mood disorders were controlled for as possible confounding factors Results Bipolar women with postpartum onset disorder had fewer excited episodes (p = 0.005 and fewer episodes of both polarities (p = 0.005 compared to non-postpartum onset subjects. No differences emerged in the rates of depressive episodes. All patients who met criteria for rapid cycling bipolar disorder (7 out of 123 were in the NPPO group. Among major depressives, PPO patients experienced fewer episodes (p = 0.016. With respect to clinical and treatment features, PPO-MDD subjects had less personality disorder comorbidity (p = 0.023 and were less likely to be on maintenance treatment compared to NPPO comparison subjects (p = 0.002 Conclusion Such preliminary findings suggest that PPO mood disorders may be characterized by a less recurrent time course. Future research in this field should elucidate the role of comorbid personality disorders and treatment. Moreover it should clarify whether PPO disorders are also associated with a more positive outcome in terms of social functioning and quality of life.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS is a disease which defined as medically unexplained, disabling fatigue of 6 months or more duration and often accompanied by several of a long list of physical complaints. We aimed to investigate abnormalities of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis hormones and cortisol concentrations in premenopausal women with CFS and find out effects of depression rate on these hormones. Methods We examined follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, estradiol, progesterone and cortisol concentrations in 43 premenopausal women (mean age: 32.86 ± 7.11 with CFS and compared matched 35 healthy controls (mean age: 31.14 ± 6.19. Patients were divided according to menstrual cycle phases (follicular and luteal and compared with matched phase controls. Depression rate was assessed by Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, and patients with high BDI scores were compared to patients with low BDI scores. Results There were no significant differences in FSH, LH, estradiol and progesterone levels in both of menstrual phases of patients versus controls. Cortisol levels were significantly lower in patients compared to controls. There were no significant differences in all hormone levels in patients with high depression scores versus patients with low depression scores. Conclusion In spite of high depression rate, low cortisol concentration and normal HPG axis hormones of both menstrual phases are detected in premenopausal women with CFS. There is no differentiation between patients with high and low depression rate in all hormone levels. Depression condition of CFS may be different from classical depression and evaluation of HPG and HPA axis should be performed for understanding of pathophysiology of CFS and planning of treatment.
For many years, researchers have suggested that abnormalities in circadian rhythms may underlie the development of mood disorders such as bipolar disorder, major depression and seasonal affective disorder. Furthermore, some of the treatments that are currently employed to treat mood disorders are thought to act by shifting or “resetting” the circadian clock, including total sleep deprivation and bright light therapy. There is also reason to suspect that many of the mood stabilizers and an...
Mcclung, Colleen A.
Study analyzed associations between pubertal timing, sexual activity, and self-reported depression in sample of girls and boys aged 14-16. Among girls, self-reported depression was associated with early puberty and intimate sexual relationship. Among boys, depression was associated with every early and late puberty and experience of intercourse.…
Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Kosunen, Elisa; Rimpela, Matti
When papers published in highly-prestigious journals in 2010 and 2011 were categorized, the number of papers on genestic studies was found to be the largest, followed by papers on brain imaging, postmortem brain studies, and animal model studies. Follow-up studies of the findings of initial genome-wide association analyses constitute a major part of genetic studies. Recent brain imaging studies were found to integrate previous findings that indicated altered responces of prefrontal cortex to cognitive stimuli and enhanced responces of amygdala to emotional faces. Reduced size of the hippocampus is reportedly not a result of stress but perhaps a vulnerability factor. Among animal model studies, molecular mechanisms underlying rapid anti-depressive effects of ketamine are drawing attention. The role of neurogenesis in fear memory and depression is complex, and a link between psychopathology and neuroscience may be needed to understand the roles of neurogenesis. Postmortem brain analyses are currently used to investigate several pathophysiological hypotheses related to the roles of monoamine, neuroplasticity, and neuroinflammation in depression, as well as the roles of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons and mitochondria in bipolar disorder. Several studies are integrating postmortem brain analysis and animal model studies. Genetic and neuroimaging studies of mood disorders have advanced, and neurobiological basis of the findings of these studies should be furthefindings of these studies should be further elucidated in animal models and postmortem brains. (author)
The aim of this study was to investigate the concurrent use of the Patient Concerns Inventory (PCI) and the University of Washington Quality of life instruments (UW-QOL), as a means of identifying mood and anxiety concerns in patients following head and neck cancer treatment. From August 2007 to July 2009, 204 patients (454 clinic appointments) attending one consultant's oncology review clinic completed the UW-QOLv4 and PCI prior to their consultation. Before entering consultations, 17% (79/454) of patients reported problems with mood and 20% (89/454) reported problems with anxiety on the UW-QOL. Regarding the items raised by patients using the PCI prior to consultation, 'mood' was raised in 10% (46/454), 'anxiety' in 13% (58/454) and 'depression' in 10% (44/454) of cases. In 32% (145/454) of consultations, 44% (89/204) patients had reported significant anxiety or mood problems on the UW-QOL, or highlighted issues of anxiety, mood and/or depression on the PCI for discussion. Patients completing the PCI were more often referred to the clinical psychologist and to the emotional support worker. The results showed that the combination of the UW-QOL questionnaire and the PCI provide a practical means of screening for psychological distress in clinics. PMID:22264641
Kanatas, A; Ghazali, N; Lowe, D; Rogers, S N
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Major Depression Inventory (MDI is a new, brief, self-report measure for depression based on the DSM-system, which allows clinicians to assess the presence of a depressive disorder according to the DSM-IV, but also to assess the severity of the depressive symptoms. Methods We examined the sensitivity, specificity, and psychometric qualities of the MDI in a consecutive sample of 258 psychiatric outpatients. Of these patients, 120 had a mood disorder (70 major depression, 49 dysthymia. A total of 139 subjects had a comorbid axis-I diagnosis, and 91 subjects had a comorbid personality disorder. Results Crohnbach's alpha of the MDI was a satisfactory 0.89, and the correlation between the MDI and the depression subscale of the SCL-90 was 0.79 (p Conclusion The MDI is an attractive, brief depression inventory, which seems to be a reliable tool for assessing depression in psychiatric outpatients.
Full Text Available Anxiety is characterized by attentional biases to threat, but findings are inconsistent for depression. To address this inconsistency, the present study systematically assessed the role of co-occurring anxiety in attentional bias in depression. In addition, the role of emotional valence, arousal, and gender was explored. Ninety-two nonpatients completed the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ; Meyer et al., 1990; Molina & Borkovec, 1994 and portions of the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (MASQ; Watson, Clark, et al., 1995; Watson, Weber, et al., 1995. Individuals reporting high levels of depression and low levels of anxiety (depression only, high levels of depression and anxiety (combined, or low levels of both (control completed an emotion-word Stroop task during event-related brain potential (ERP recording. Pleasant and unpleasant words were matched on emotional arousal level. An attentional bias was not evident in the depression-only group. Women in the combined group had larger N200 amplitude for pleasant than unpleasant stimuli, and the combined group as a whole had larger right-lateralized P300 amplitude for pleasant than unpleasant stimuli, consistent with an early and later attentional bias that is specific to unpleasant valence in the combined group. Men in the control group had larger N200 amplitude for pleasant than unpleasant stimuli, consistent with an early attentional bias that is specific to pleasant valence. The present study indicates that the nature and time course of attention prompted by emotional valence and not arousal differentiates depression with and without anxiety, with some evidence of gender moderating early effects. Overall, results suggest that co-occurring anxiety is more important than previously acknowledged in demonstrating evidence of attentional biases in depression.
We report the occurrence of a drug-resistant tardive dyskinesia coexistent with Parkinsonism-like symptoms in a manic-depressive patient. The tardive dyskinesia completely disappeared during the manic phases and recurred after remission over the course of different mood-cycles.
Potter, R. W.; Linkowski, P.; Mendlewicz, J.
Magnetic resonance imaging of a randomized controlled trial investigating predictors of recovery following psychological treatment in adolescents with moderate to severe unipolar depression: study protocol for Magnetic Resonance-Improving Mood with Psychoanalytic and Cognitive Therapies (MR-IMPACT)
Background Major depressive disorders (MDD) are a debilitating and pervasive group of mental illnesses afflicting many millions of people resulting in the loss of 110 million working days and more than 2,500 suicides per annum. Adolescent MDD patients attending NHS clinics show high rates of recurrence into adult life. A meta-analysis of recent research shows that psychological treatments are not as efficacious as previously thought. Modest treatment outcomes of approximately 65% of cases responding suggest that aetiological and clinical heterogeneity may hamper the better use of existing therapies and discovery of more effective treatments. Information with respect to optimal treatment choice for individuals is lacking, with no validated biomarkers to aid therapeutic decision-making. Methods/Design Magnetic resonance-Improving Mood with Psychoanalytic and Cognitive Therapies, the MR-IMPACT study, plans to identify brain regions implicated in the pathophysiology of depressions and examine whether there are specific behavioural or neural markers predicting remission and/or subsequent relapse in a subsample of depressed adolescents recruited to the IMPACT randomised controlled trial (Registration # ISRCTN83033550). Discussion MR-IMPACT is an investigative biomarker component of the IMPACT pragmatic effectiveness trial. The aim of this investigation is to identify neural markers and regional indicators of the pathophysiology of and treatment response for MDD in adolescents. We anticipate that these data may enable more targeted treatment delivery by identifying those patients who may be optimal candidates for therapeutic response. Trial registration Adjunctive study to IMPACT trial (Current Controlled Trials: ISRCTN83033550). PMID:24094274
Antonina Luca,1 Maria Luca,2 Carmela Calandra2 1Department GF Ingrassia, Section of Neuroscience, 2Department of Medical and Surgery Specialties, Psychiatry Unit, University Hospital Policlinico-Vittorio Emanuele, Catania, Sicily, Italy Abstract: Sleep disorders are so frequently associated with depression that, in the absence of sleep complaints, a diagnosis of depression should be made with caution. Insomnia, in particular, may occur in 60%–80% of depressed patients. Depressive sympto...
Luca A; Luca M; Calandra C
This study was to examine profiles of eating problems (EPs), mood and anxiety disorders and their comorbidities; explore risk patterns for these disorders; and document differences in health service utilization in a national population. Data were from the Canadian Community Health Survey of Mental Health and Well-being. The lifetime prevalence of EPs was 1.70% among Canadians, compared with 13.25% for mood disorder, 11.27% for anxiety disorder and 20.16% for any mood or anxiety disorder. Almost half of those with EPs also suffered with mood or anxiety disorders. A similar pattern in depressive symptoms was found among individuals with major depression and EPs, but individuals with EPs reported fewer symptoms. Factors associated with the comorbidity of EPs and mood and anxiety disorders were identified. Individuals with EPs reported more unmet needs. Patients with EPs should be concomitantly investigated for mood and anxiety disorders, as similar interventions may be effective for both. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. PMID:25604862
Meng, Xiangfei; D'Arcy, Carl
Although a wealth of research has examined the effects of parental mood disorders on offspring maladjustment, studies have not identified whether elevated interparental violence (IPV) may be an exacerbating influence in this pathway. This study examined levels of physical IPV perpetration and victimization in mothers with unipolar depression or Bipolar Disorder (BD) and the processes by which maternal physical IPV moderated adolescents' physical aggression in families with maternal mood disorders. Mothers with lifetime mood disorders were predicted to have elevated IPV compared to well mothers, and maternal IPV was expected to moderate the association between lifetime mood disorders and adolescent aggression. Participants included 61 intact families with maternal depression (n?=?24), BD (n?=?13), or well mothers (n?=?24) and two siblings (ages 10 to 18 years). Using the Conflict Tactics Scale, mothers reported on IPV perpetration and victimization, and adolescents reported on physical aggression. Mothers with BD reported significantly higher IPV perpetration, but not victimization, than depressed or well mothers. An interaction between maternal BD and IPV perpetration was a significant predictor of adolescent aggression. Main effects of maternal IPV victimization and interaction effects of maternal depression and either type of IPV on adolescent aggression were not significant. Adolescents of mothers who have BD and perpetrate IPV may be particularly vulnerable to being aggressive. Prevention and policy efforts to deter transmission of aggression in high-risk families should target families with maternal BD and intervene at the level of conflict resolution within the family. Aggr. Behav. 9999:XX-XX, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25418790
Narayan, Angela J; Chen, Muzi; Martinez, Pedro P; Gold, Philip W; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie
... All of these things can cause feelings of sadness or grief. But when feelings of sadness last for a significant length of time and ... more years. When moods swing from depression or sadness to a highly excited, irritated or energized state ( ...
Abstract Background The use of Patient-reported Outcomes (PROs) as secondary endpoints in the development of new antidepressants has grown in recent years. The objective of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the 9-item, patient-administered version of the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS-S). Methods Data from a multicentre, double-blind, 8-week, randomised controlled trial of 278 outpatients diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder were used to evaluate t...
Fantino Bruno; Moore Nicholas
Adjunctive triple chronotherapy (combined total sleep deprivation, sleep phase advance, and bright light therapy) rapidly improves mood and suicidality in suicidal depressed inpatients: an open label pilot study.
Previous studies have demonstrated that combined total sleep deprivation (Wake therapy), sleep phase advance, and bright light therapy (Triple Chronotherapy) produce a rapid and sustained antidepressant effect in acutely depressed individuals. To date no studies have explored the impact of the intervention on unipolar depressed individuals with acute concurrent suicidality. Participants were suicidal inpatients (N = 10, Mean age = 44 ± 16.4 SD, 6F) with unipolar depression. In addition to standard of care, they received open label Triple Chronotherapy. Participants underwent one night of total sleep deprivation (33-36 h), followed by a three-night sleep phase advance along with four 30-min sessions of bright light therapy (10,000 lux) each morning. Primary outcome measures included the 17 item Hamilton depression scale (HAM17), and the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale (CSSRS), which were recorded at baseline prior to total sleep deprivation, and at protocol completion on day five. Both HAM17, and CSSRS scores were greatly reduced at the conclusion of the protocol. HAM17 scores dropped from a mean of 24.7 ± 4.2 SD at baseline to a mean of 9.4 ± 7.3 SD on day five (p = .002) with six of the ten individuals meeting criteria for remission. CSSRS scores dropped from a mean of 19.5 ± 8.5 SD at baseline to a mean of 7.2 ± 5.5 SD on day five (p = .01). The results of this small pilot trial demonstrate that adjunctive Triple Chronotherapy is feasible and tolerable in acutely suicidal and depressed inpatients. Limitations include a small number of participants, an open label design, and the lack of a comparison group. Randomized controlled studies are needed. PMID:25231629
Sahlem, Gregory L; Kalivas, Benjamin; Fox, James B; Lamb, Kayla; Roper, Amanda; Williams, Emily N; Williams, Nolan R; Korte, Jeffrey E; Zuschlag, Zachary D; El Sabbagh, Salim; Guille, Constance; Barth, Kelly S; Uhde, Thomas W; George, Mark S; Short, E Baron
Many patients with chronic illnesses suffer from clinical depression (with percentages reported by clinical studies ranging from 15 to 60); even depression is more common in people with chronic medical illnesses, (e.g. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus) than in the general population. However, not every patient with a chronic illness suffers from depression. It is well known that some people think the persons who suffer from a chronic illness have a reason to be depressed, so, there is no need to ...
Marian, G.; Nica, Ea; Ionescu, Be; Carlogea, Dg
Alteration of the sleep-wake cycle and of the sleep structure are core symptoms of a major depressive episode, and occur both in course of bipolar disorder and of major depressive disorder. Many other circadian rhythms, such as the daily profiles of body temperature, cortisol, thyrotropin, prolactin, growth hormone, melatonin and excretion of various metabolites in the urine, are disrupted in depressed patients, both unipolar and bipolar individuals. These disrupted rhythms seem to return to normality with patient recovery. Research on circadian rhythms and sleep have led to the definition of nonpharmacological therapies of mood disorder that can be used in everyday practice. These strategies, named chronotherapeutics, are based on controlled exposures to environmental stimuli that act on biological rhythms, and demonstrate good efficacy in the treatment of illness episodes. They include manipulations of the sleep-wake rhythm (such as partial and total sleep deprivation, and sleep phase advance) and of the exposure to the light-dark cycle (light therapy and dark therapy). In recent years, an increasing literature about the safety and efficacy of chronobiological treatments in everyday psychiatric settings has supported the inclusion of these techniques among the first-line antidepressant strategies for patients affected by mood disorders. PMID:21721914
Dallaspezia, Sara; Benedetti, Francesco
The mood disorders major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder are prevalent, are inadequately treated, and little is known about their etiologies. A better understanding of the causes of mood disorders would benefit from improved animal models of mood disorders, which now rely on behavioral measurements. This review considers the limitations in relating measures of rodent behaviors to mood disorders, and the evidence from behavioral assessments indicating that glycogen synthase kinase-3 (...
Increased age has been found to be associated with differences in affect and personality which have been interpreted in terms of better emotional regulation and increased maturity. However, these findings have largely been based on self-report data, and the primary goal of the current research was to investigate the hypothesis that age-related differences in affect and in certain desirable personality traits might, at least partially, reflect age differences in social desirability. As expecte...
Soubelet, Andrea; Salthouse, Timothy A.
A phase advance of some circadian rhythms (e.g., body temperature and rapid eye movement [REM] sleep propensity) relative to the sleep-wake cycle is thought to be implicated in the pathophysiology and pathogenesis of some affective disorders. Since this phase disturbance can be induced in normal subjects by acutely delaying their sleep onset, it follows that the outcome of this experimental procedure should resemble the symptoms of depressive illness. This hypothesis was tested by imposing a 6-hour phase delay of sleep in 10 young male subjects. There were reliable changes in observers' ratings of mood and in some self-report measures. For the most part, the effect was modest, being largely confined to variations within normal limits. Two of the subjects, however, were noticeably depressed when interviewed after either the first or the second night of phase shift. PMID:3685222
Surridge-David, M; MacLean, A; Coulter, M E; Knowles, J B
Full Text Available Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV, postpartum depression may include any nonpsychotic depressive disorder during the first four weeks of postpartum, according to research criteria during the first year after birth. The exact cause of postpartum depression is not yet known, and most researchers believe that postpartum depression is a bio-psycho-social problem. So far, the biological aspect of the disease is explained by changing the levels of estrogen and progesterone during pregnancy, and by decrease of hormone levels after birth. Psychological correlates are often associated with low selfesteem, pessimism as a personality trait, bad strategies of coping with stress, mood swings and emotional reactions. The social aspect of the disease is associated with the existential conditions of pregnant woman, support of partners and education level. This paper will include issues like hereditary causes and possible psychological factors of postpartum depression prevention. Nowadays, it is estimated that on average 15% of women, regardless of the pregnancy outcome, are suffering from postpartum depression. However, this information includes only those women who were diagnosed with postpartum depression and who themselves reported about it. Almost every woman receives basic care during pregnancy to prevent complications in the physiological level. This paper has shown possible psychological factors of postpartum depression prevention, the impact of optimism, self-esteem and coping skills.
Full Text Available Barbara L ParryDepartment of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, USAAbstract: Only recently has the perimenopause become recognized as a time when women are at risk for new onset and recurrence of major depression. Untreated depression at this time not only exacerbates the course of a depressive illness, but also puts women at increased risk for sleep disorders, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and osteoporosis. Although antidepressant medication is the mainstay of treatment, adjunctive therapy, especially with estrogen replacement, may be indicated in refractory cases, and may speed the onset of antidepressant action. Many, but not all, studies, report that progesterone antagonizes the beneficial effects of estrogen. Although some antidepressants improve vasomotor symptoms, in general they are not as effective as estrogen alone for relieving these symptoms. Estrogen alone, however, does not generally result in remission of major depression in most (but not all studies, but may provide benefit to some women with less severe symptoms if administered in therapeutic ranges. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs in addition to estrogen are usually more beneficial in improving mood than SSRIs or estrogen treatment alone for major depression, whereas the selective norepinephrine and serotonin reuptake inhibitors do not require the addition of estrogen to exert their antidepressant effects in menopausal depression. In addition to attention to general health, hormonal status, and antidepressant treatment, the optimal management of perimenopausal depression also requires attention to the individual woman’s psychosocial and spiritual well being.Keywords: menopause, depression, management
Barbara L Parry
It is clear that patients with anorexia nervosa and bulimia have disturbances of mood, and it is likely that the mood disturbances bear an important relationship to the disturbances of eating behavior. We have as many questions, however, about the relationship between mood and eating behavior in these syndromes as we have answers. Although patients with anorexia nervosa and bulimia are frequently depressed, they fail to exhibit many of the biological characteristics of typical depressive illness, suggesting that these eating disorders are probably not simply variants of depression. Patients with bulimia appear to binge in response to dysphoric emotional states and to derive some transient relief from their bingeing. But it is unclear what facet or facets of the binge produce the alteration in emotional state, and thereby may serve to reinforce the behavior. A more detailed examination of this issue may significantly advance our understanding of the relationship between mood and food in eating disorders. PMID:3475004
Walsh, B T; Gladis, M; Roose, S P
This article provides an update on depression and apathy in Parkinson's disease (PD), both of which are common but often misunderstood. The diagnosis of depression in PD can be challenging and we still do not have solid evidence on which to base our treatment decisions. Apathy is most commonly seen in the setting of dementia or depression but emerging evidence suggests that it may be a core feature of PD. There are conflicting reports about the effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) on mood and apathy, but studies suggest that at least some patients may develop depression and apathy after the procedure. Although we are making strides toward a better understanding of depression and apathy in PD, it is clear that more research is needed about these non-motor features. PMID:17618535
Richard, Irene Hegeman
Seasonal variations in sleep characteristics and their association with changes in mood were examined in 91 American men and women also who spent the 1991 austral winter at three different research stations in Antarctica. Measures of total hours of sleep over a 24-hr period, duration of longest (i.e.,"nighttime") sleep event, number of sleep events, time of sleep onset, and quality of sleep remained unchanged over the course of the austral winter (March through October). However, exposure to total darkness based on station latitude was significantly associated with total hours of sleep, duration of are longest sleep event, time of sleep onset, and quality of sleep. Reported vigor the previous month was a significant independent predictor of changes in all five sleep measures; previous month's measures of all six POMS subscales were significant independent predictors of sleep quality. Sleep characteristics were significant independent predictors of vigor and confusion the following month; total sleep, longest sleep event, sleep onset and sleep quality were significant independent predictors of tension-anxiety and depression. Changes in mood during the austral winter are preceded by changes in sleep characteristics, but prolonged exposure to the photoperiodicity characteristic of the high latitudes appears to be associated with improved sleep. In turn, mood changes appear to affect certain sleep characteristics, especially sleep quality.
Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Houseal, Matt; Miller, Christopher
PET studies (LCMRGlc units of ? moles/min/100g and errors in std. dev.) were performed in patients with unipolar depression (n=11), bipolar depression (n=8), hypomania (n=8) and bipolar mixed states (n=3) in drug free states as well as during spontaneous or drug induced changes in mood, and age/sex matched normals (n=9). The major findings were: bipolar depressed patients had lower (P<0.001) supratentorial CMRGlc (16.7 +- 3.7) than normals (23.6 +- 1.9), hypomanic bipolars (24.7 + 44.6) or unipolars (24.5 +- 3.0). Bipolar mixed (16.4 +- 4.8) were not different from bipolar depressed but were different from all other states (P<0.02). Bipolar depressed and mixed showed increased (30%) supratentorial CMRGlc (P<0.05) with elevated mood (euthymic or hypomanic). Three rapid cycling bipolar patients (2 studies depressed and 1 hypomanic) also showed consistent increases (35%) in supratentorial CMRGlc from depressed to elevated mood state. Unipolar depressed patients had a low LCMRGlc ratio of caudate to hemispheric (c/Hem) (1.18 +- 0.09) compared to bipolar depression (1.30 +- 0.13) or normals (1.32 +- 0.07). Four unipolar patients studied after drug induced recovery showed corresponding return of Cd/Hem ratio to normal. Results of these studies show; delineation of bipolar depressed from unpolar depressed and normals. Separation of mixed biopolar from unipolar and correspondence of the former with bipolar rather than unipolar depression (controversial characterization by otion (controversial characterization by other diagnostic criteria), separation of unipolar from normal and bipolar by reduced LCMRGlc of caudate, and direct correspondence of changes in mood state with changes in LCMRGlc independent of whether changes in mood were drug induced or spontaneous
The effects of comorbid depression and anxiety were compared to the effects of depression alone and anxiety alone on pregnancy mood states and biochemistry and on neonatal outcomes in a large multi-ethnic sample. At the prenatal period the comorbid and depressed groups had higher scores than the other groups on the depression measure. But, the comorbid group had higher anxiety, anger and daily hassles scores than the other groups, and they had lower dopamine levels. As compared to the non-depressed group, they also reported more sleep disturbances and relationship problems. The comorbid group also experienced a greater incidence of prematurity than the depressed, the high anxiety and the non-depressed groups. Although the comorbid and anxiety groups were lower birthweight than the non-depressed and depressed groups, the comorbid group did not differ from the depressed and anxiety groups on birth length. The neonates of the comorbid and depressed groups had higher cortisol and norepinephrine and lower dopamine and serotonin levels than the neonates of the anxiety and non-depressed groups as well as greater relative right frontal EEG. These data suggest that for some measures comorbidity of depression and anxiety is the worst condition (e.g., incidence of prematurity), while for others, comorbidity is no more impactful than depression alone. PMID:19945170
Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Figueiredo, Barbara; Deeds, Osvelia; Ascencio, Angela; Schanberg, Saul; Kuhn, Cynthia
Full Text Available Background: Improving the healthcare for patients with depression is a priority health policy across the world. Roughly, two major problems can be identified in daily practice: (1 the content of care is often not completely consistent with recommendations in guidelines and (2 the organization of care is not always integrated and delivered by multidisciplinary teams. Aim: To describe the content and preliminary results of a quality improvement project in primary care, aiming at improving the uptake of clinical depression guidelines in daily practice as well as the collaboration between different mental health professionals. Method: A Depression Breakthrough Collaborative was initiated from December 2006 until March 2008. The activities included the development and implementation of a stepped care depression model, a care pathway with two levels of treatment intensity: a first step treatment level for patients with non-severe depression (brief or mild depressive symptoms and a second step level for patients with severe depression. Twelve months data were measured by the teams in terms of one outcome and several process indicators. Qualitative data were gathered by the national project team with a semi-structured questionnaire amongst the local team coordinators. Results: Thirteen multidisciplinary teams participated in the project. In total 101 health professionals were involved, and 536 patients were diagnosed. Overall 356 patients (66% were considered non-severely depressed and 180 (34% patients showed severe symptoms. The mean percentage of non-severe patients treated according to the stepped care model was 78%, and 57% for the severely depressed patient group. The proportion of non-severely depressed patients receiving a first step treatment according to the stepped care model, improved during the project, this was not the case for the severely depressed patients. The teams were able to monitor depression symptoms to a reasonable extent during a period of 6 months. Within 3 months, 28% of monitored patients had recovered, meaning a Beck Depression Inventory (BDI score of 10 and lower, and another 27% recovered between 3 and 6 months. Conclusions and discussion: A stepped care approach seems acceptable and feasible in primary care, introducing different levels of care for different patient groups. Future implementation projects should pay special attention to the quality of care for severely depressed patients. Although the Depression Breakthrough Collaborative introduced new treatment concepts in primary and specialty care, the change capacity of the method remains unclear. Thorough data gathering is needed to judge the real value of these intensive improvement projects.
The authors describe three cases of neonatal depressed skull fracture that were elevated by means of an obstetrical vacuum extractor. In one case, a transparent breast pump shield replaced the metal vacuum extractor cup, permitting direct observation as the depression was elevated. Neonatal depressed skull fractures not associated with neurological signs may be safely elevated without surgery using the obstetrical vacuum extractor. PMID:423007
Saunders, B S; Lazoritz, S; McArtor, R D; Marshall, P; Bason, W M
Recent research has changed the perception of glia from being no more than silent supportive cells of neurons to being dynamic partners participating in brain metabolism and communication between neurons. This discovery of new glial functions coincides with growing evidence of the involvement of glia in the neuropathology of mood disorders. Unanticipated reductions in the density and number of glial cells are reported in fronto-limbic brain regions in major depression and bipolar illness. Mor...
Rajkowska, G.; Miguel-hidalgo, J. J.
PURPOSE Recent studies examining depression disease management report improvements in short-term outcomes, but less is known about whether improvements are sustainable over time. This study evaluated the sustained clinical effectiveness of low-intensity depression disease management in chronically depressed patients.
Klinkman, Michael S.; Bauroth, Sabrina; Fedewa, Stacey; Kerber, Kevin; Kuebler, Julie; Adman, Tanya; Sen, Ananda
Full Text Available The identification and treatment of mood disorders in children and adolescents has grown over the last decades. Major depression is one of the most common and debilitating disorders worldwide, imposing a massive burden to the youth population. Bipolar disorder is being increasingly recognized as hav [...] ing its roots early in life, and its presentation during childhood and adolescence has been submitted to extensive research. This review aims to highlight clinical aspects of the current knowledge on mood disorders in the pediatric population, presenting updated information on epidemiology, diagnostic procedures, and management strategies. Limitations of available evidence and future directions of research in the field are also discussed.
Thiago Botter Maio, Rocha; Cristian Patrick, Zeni; Sheila Cavalcante, Caetano; Christian, Kieling.
Full Text Available Edward H Tobe Department of Psychiatry, Cooper Medical School of Rowan University, Camden, NJ, USA Abstract: This paper discusses diverse studies to consider the hypothesis that cerebellar pathology supports the heterogeneous metabolic pathologies of mood disorders. The evidence presented includes studies selected from the following areas of scientific research: magnetic resonance imaging, histology, clinical syndromes, comparative anatomy, neuronal connections, and mitochondrial dysfunction. The gamut of different scientific study methods confirms the validity of the involvement of the cerebellum in mood disorders. Keywords: psychiatry, neurology, depression, cerebellum, neuropathology, heterogeneity
Three studies examined negative mood regulation expectancies (NMRE) and affective traits as independent predictors of self-reported symptoms of emotional distress. NMRE represent individuals' beliefs that they can alleviate unpleasant emotional states. Stronger NMRE are associated with more adaptive coping, more positive cognition during negative moods, more effective responses under stress and less emotional distress. Affective traits represent long-term tendencies toward particular affective experiences; they confer risk for specific symptoms of emotional distress. In Study 1, NMRE, trait negative affect (TNA) and trait positive affect (TPA) were all independently associated with depression among students and staff of a German university. In Study 2, in prospective analyses among U.S. college students traits exhibited hypothesised relationships with anxiety and depressive symptoms, and NMRE uniquely predicted anhedonic depression. Study 3 revealed independent prediction of change in symptoms over time by NMRE among U.S. college students, whereas traits were not associated with change in distress, anxiety and depression symptoms. Results suggest independent roles for NMRE and traits in the development of depression and anxiety symptoms and highlight the importance of NMRE as a potential target of therapeutic intervention in the process of symptom change. PMID:25355670
Catanzaro, Salvatore J; Backenstrass, Matthias; Miller, Steven A; Mearns, Jack; Pfeiffer, Nils; Brendalen, Sherry
Full Text Available Abstract Background The physical health status of vegetarians has been extensively reported, but there is limited research regarding the mental health status of vegetarians, particularly with regard to mood. Vegetarian diets exclude fish, the major dietary source of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, critical regulators of brain cell structure and function. Omnivorous diets low in EPA and DHA are linked to impaired mood states in observational and experimental studies. Methods We examined associations between mood state and polyunsaturated fatty acid intake as a result of adherence to a vegetarian or omnivorous diet in a cross-sectional study of 138 healthy Seventh Day Adventist men and women residing in the Southwest. Participants completed a quantitative food frequency questionnaire, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS, and Profile of Mood States (POMS questionnaires. Results Vegetarians (VEG:n = 60 reported significantly less negative emotion than omnivores (OMN:n = 78 as measured by both mean total DASS and POMS scores (8.32 ± 0.88 vs 17.51 ± 1.88, p = .000 and 0.10 ± 1.99 vs 15.33 ± 3.10, p = .007, respectively. VEG reported significantly lower mean intakes of EPA (p p p p p p p p p p Conclusions The vegetarian diet profile does not appear to adversely affect mood despite low intake of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids.
Johnston Carol S
To answer fundamental questions regarding the effectiveness of treatments for depression in real-world clinical practice, it is necessary to incorporate the measurement of outcome. Self-report questionnaires are a cost-effective option to systematically, reliably, and validly evaluate clinical status because they are inexpensive in terms of professional time needed for administration, and do not require special training for administration. While there are many self-administered depression scales, only a limited number cover all of the diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD) and have had cutoff scores derived corresponding to the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) definition of remission. In the present study from the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services project, we compared 2 scales in their respective ability to identify remission as defined by the HAM-D. We administered the 17-item HAM-D to 274 depressed outpatients in ongoing treatment. The patients completed the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS) and the Clinically Useful Depression Outcome Scale (CUDOS). Based on the cutoffs recommended by the developers of the scales to identify remission, the 2 scales performed similarly overall though the sensitivity was higher for the QIDS than the CUDOS (95.5% vs. 78.7%), whereas specificity was higher for the CUDOS than the QIDS (73.0% vs. 50.0%). On the CUDOS, the cutoff that maximized the sum of sensitivity and specificity was similar to cutoff initially derived for this purpose; however, for the QIDS, the optimal cutoff was higher than the cutoff originally derived for this purpose. In conclusion, the CUDOS and the QIDS were equally highly related to the HAM-D definition of remission. The CUDOS takes less time to complete than the QIDS and, therefore, may be preferable to use in routine clinical practice. PMID:22520091
Zimmerman, Mark; Martinez, Jennifer; Attiullah, Naureen; Friedman, Michael; Toba, Cristina; Boerescu, Daniela A; Rahgeb, Moataz
The high rate of comorbidity of asthma and mood disorders would imply the possibility of potential shared pathophysiologic factors. Proposed links between asthma and mood disorders include a vulnerability (trait) and state connection. Vulnerability for both asthma and mood disorders may involve genetic and early developmental factors. State-related connections may include obstructive factors, inflammatory factors, sleep impairment, psychological reactions to chronic medical illness, as well a...
Kewalramani, Anupama; Bollinger, Mary E.; Postolache, Teodor T.
Depression is a debilitating condition that adversely affects many aspects of a person's life and general health. Earlier work has supported the idea that there may be a relationship between the use of certain media and depression. In this study, we tested if self-report of depression (SRD), which is not a clinically based diagnosis, was associated with increased internet, television, and social media usage by using data collected in the Media Behavior and Influence Study (MBIS) database (N=1...
Martin Block; Stern, Daniel B.; Sang Lee; Bobby Calder; Rudick, Charles N.; Blood, Anne J.
Posttraumatic stress related to the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks and general psychological distress were examined in six cohorts of college students (N=5412) enrolled at an American public university between Spring 2000 and Fall 2002 some 2,500 miles from New York. Consistent with data from Schuster et al.'s (2001) national survey, which used a very low threshold criterion, our findings revealed that 44% of women and 32% of men experienced at least one symptom of posttraumatic stress 6-17 days after the attacks. In contrast to these results, depression levels showed only small differences, and self-esteem and trait anxiety showed no changes. Findings indicate that 9/11-related stress responses among distant witnesses were very mild, transitory and focused in scope, suggesting resilience with respect to broader psychological and psychopathological reactions. Findings are discussed with respect to the role of physical and psychological proximity on the reactions to traumatic events in the general population. PMID:18988435
Matt, Georg E; Vázquez, Carmelo
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), after Kraepelin's original description of "manic-depressive insanity," embodied a broad concept of affective disorders including mood-congruent and mood-incongruent psychotic features. Controversial results have been reported about the prognostic significance of psychotic symptoms in depressive disorders challenging this broad concept of affective disorders. One hundred seventeen inpatients first hospitalized in 1980 to 1982 who retrospectively fulfilled the DSM-IV criteria for depressive disorders with mood-congruent or mood-incongruent psychotic features (n = 20), nonpsychotic depressive disorders (n = 33), or schizophrenia (n = 64) were followed up 15 years after their first hospitalization. Global functioning was recorded with the Global Assessment Scale; the clinical picture at follow-up was assessed using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, and the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms. With respect to global functioning, clinical picture, and social impairment at follow-up, depressive disorders with psychotic features were similar to those without, but markedly different from schizophrenia. However, patients with psychotic depressive disorders experienced more rehospitalizations than those with nonpsychotic ones. The findings indicating low prognostic significance of psychotic symptoms in depressive disorders are in line with the broad concept of affective disorders in DSM-IV. PMID:16122531
Jäger, Markus; Bottlender, Ronald; Strauss, Anton; Möller, Hans-Jürgen
Bipolar depression is more common, disabling, and difficult-to-treat than the manic and hypomanic phases that define bipolar disorder. Unlike the treatment of so-called “unipolar” depressions, antidepressants generally are not indicated as monotherapies for bipolar depressions and recent studies suggest that -even when used in combination with traditional mood stabilizers –...
Thase, Michael E.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between adult mood disorders and childhood psychological trauma in a developing country. METHOD: Adults with and without mood disorders were assessed in a case-control study using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Assessment of childhood trauma included physical and sexual abuse, frequent exposure to violence, and parental loss. RESULTS: In two independent multivariate analyses, after adjusting for potential confounding factors, we found a higher odds ratio for frequent exposure to violence in the community (p = .037 and for physical abuse by parents or caregivers during childhood/adolescence (p = .012 in the group with mood disorders than in the control group. In secondary analyses splitting the mood disorder group in two subgroups (manic episode, and major depressive episodes/ dysthymia, only manic patients showed significantly higher rates of frequent exposure to violence in the community (p = 0.01 and physical abuse during childhood (p = 0.02 than did patients in the control group. In addition, maniac patients had significantly higher rates of sexual abuse than did controls (p = .03. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings document an association between violence during childhood and adult mood disorders, especially for manic patients, in a developing country.
Zavaschi Maria Lucrécia Scherer
Full Text Available This study examined whether people who self-reported depression sought mental health treatment in the year after being interviewed, and how gender affected utilization. Depression data were obtained from the Canadian Community Health Survey (2000-01, and linked to medical records in Ontario (n = 24,677. Overall, women had higher rates of mental health service utilization, but there were no gender differences in rates of specialist care. The gender difference in mental health contact was greater for those without depression, as opposed to those with depression. Among those without depression, women were significantly more likely than men to use mental health services; however, rates were similar for women and men with depression. This finding suggests that men may be more likely than women to delay seeing a doctor for minor mental health concerns, but will seek help once a problem reaches a threshold.
Katherine L. W. Smith
Using a large longitudinal representative community sample, this study identified three groups of subjects who were depressed either in pre-adolescence, late adolescence or early adulthood, and matched by age and gender to controls without depression. The 90th percentile on one or two self-reported symptom scales [i. e. the Center for…
Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Haslimeier, Claudia; Metzke, Christa Winkler
Crippling depression and chronic anxiety are the biggest causes of misery in Britain today. They are the great submerged problem, which shame keeps out of sight. But if you mention them, you soon discover how many families are affected. According to the respected Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, one in six of us would be diagnosed as having depression or chronic anxiety disorder, which means that one family in three is affected. That is the bad news. The good news is that we now have evidence-ba...
Full Text Available Mood disorders are characterised with high relapse and hospitalization rates as well as dramatic consequences in quality of life, professional and social functioning resulting from chronic course. Deterioration of social functioning remains in remission periods. A systematic review of the literature published on psychoeducation up to 2007 was carried out using the electronic data bases. Psychoeducation is defined as “educating or improving a person with psychiatric disease to serve a treatment and rehabilitation purpose”. The opinion that only drug treatment is not sufficient in treating psychiatric diseases and that psychosocial rehabilitation programs should also be widely used, becomes widespread. Educating the people with psychiatric disease and their families is an important factor. Thus,the patient and his family become parties of a therapeutic cooperation with the treatment team. It has been observed that when patients are educated about their diseases and the drugs they use, they tend to take more responsibility and adherence to drug therapy and the adherence increases with sharing ther experiences, wrongful thought and problems. This relieves the patient’s burden and contributes to the treatment results positively. Consequently, psychoeducation provides significant improvements in bipolar disorder and its treatment; attitude toward disease, symptom recovery, prevention of depressive and hypo(manic episodes, decrease in hospitalization periods and rates, improvement in social-professional functioning and quality of life, contribution of the family to the treatment and prevention of suicides. Psychoeducation is strongly recommended but it is also emphasized that it should be used in additionto other treatments and not alone. Educational attempts not only decrease the relapses and recurrences but also lead to awareness of the symptoms of an impending disease and shorter and less severe episodes.
This review has been done after careful research of articles published in indian journal of psychiatry with the search words of manic depressive psychosis and bipolar mood disorder. Many articles in the following areas are included: 1) Etiology: genetic studies: 2) Etiology – neuro psychological impairment: 3) Adult bipolar disorder 4) Epidemological 5) Clinical picture – phenomenology: 6) Course of bipolar mood disorder: 7) Juvenile onset bipolar affective disorder 8) Secondary mania: 9)...
Rao, Prasad G.
This study was conducted to examine lymphocyte subset counts and mood states in panic disorder patients. Twenty patients with panic disorder and 20 age- and gender-matched normal healthy subjects were recruited for the study. We used the Spielberger State (STAIS) & Trait (STAIT) Anxiety Inventory, Hamilton Depression Rating scale (HAMD) and Hamilton Anxiety Rating scale (HAMA) to measure mood states in all subjects. Lymphocyte subsets counts were made by flow cytometry. Panic patients showed ...
Park, Joo-eon; Kim, Sang-wook; Park, Quehn; Jeong, Do-un; Yu, Bum-hee
Full Text Available Jean-Pierre Lépine1, Mike Briley21Hôpital Lariboisière Fernand Widal, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris Unité INSERM 705 CNRS UMR 8206, Université Paris Diderot, Paris, France; 2NeuroBiz Consulting and Communication, Castres, FranceAbstract: Recent epidemiological surveys conducted in general populations have found that the lifetime prevalence of depression is in the range of 10% to 15%. Mood disorders, as defined by the World Mental Health and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, have a 12-month prevalence which varies from 3% in Japan to over 9% in the US. A recent American survey found the prevalence of current depression to be 9% and the rate of current major depression to be 3.4%. All studies of depressive disorders have stressed the importance of the mortality and morbidity associated with depression. The mortality risk for suicide in depressed patients is more than 20-fold greater than in the general population. Recent studies have also shown the importance of depression as a risk factor for cardiovascular death. The risk of cardiac mortality after an initial myocardial infarction is greater in patients with depression and related to the severity of the depressive episode. Greater severity of depressive symptoms has been found to be associated with significantly higher risk of all-cause mortality including cardiovascular death and stroke. In addition to mortality, functional impairment and disability associated with depression have been consistently reported. Depression increases the risk of decreased workplace productivity and absenteeism resulting in lowered income or unemployment. Absenteeism and presenteeism (being physically present at work but functioning suboptimally have been estimated to result in a loss of $36.6 billion per year in the US. Worldwide projections by the World Health Organization for the year 2030 identify unipolar major depression as the leading cause of disease burden. This article is a brief overview of how depression affects the quality of life of the subject and is also a huge burden for both the family of the depressed patient and for society at large.Keywords: epidemiology, DALY, mortality risk, economic burden, family burden, depression
Full Text Available Inbtroduction: Recent epidemiological, clinical, neuroimaging and neuropathological studies have reported substantial evidence on the complex interactive relationships between depression and cerebrovascular diseases, especially in older populations, and plausible explanations of the etiopathogenetic mechanisms in both directions have been proposed. Poststroke depression Although there is no general consensus regarding its prevalence, it is widely accepted that major depression after stroke is common and that it should be recognized as a key factor in rehabilitation and outcome following stroke. Vascular depression The "vascular depression" hypothesis presupposes that late-onset depression may often result from vascular damage to frontal-subcortical circuits implicated in mood regulation. This concept has stimulated many researches and the obtained results support the proposed hypothesis. Depression as a stroke risk factor Recent large studies have emphasized the role of depression per se in the development of subsequent stroke. Mechanisms proposed to explain the increased risk of cerebrovascular diseases in depressed patients There are a number of plausible mechanisms that could explain why depression may increase the risk of subsequent cerebrovascular disease, the most important being sympathoadrenal hyperactivity, platelet activation, an increase in inflammatory cytokines and an increased risk of arrhythmias. Conclusion: Thorough clinical examinations determining the conventional stroke risk factors in the population with depression, as well as management of depression as part of the overall measures for the reduction of cerebrovascular risk factors are of utmost importance.
Mood changes during the premenstrual phase have been the focus of considerable research in recent years. Although there has been significant progress in the diagnosis and etiology of major affective disorders, the relation between these disorders and menstrual changes remains controversial. There have been contradictory reports and speculations on women's susceptibility to psychiatric disorders during the premenstrual phase. We describe three patients with a history of mood swings associated ...
Ghadirian, A. M.; Kamaraju, L. S.
Anxiety is characterized by attentional biases to threat, but findings are inconsistent for depression. To address this inconsistency, the present study systematically assessed the role of co-occurring anxiety in attentional bias in depression. In addition, the role of emotional valence, arousal, and gender was explored. Ninety-two nonpatients completed the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ; Meyer et al., 1990; Molina & Borkovec, 1994) and portions of the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionn...
SarahM.Sass; WendyHeller; JoscelynE.Fisher; RebeccaLevinSilton; JenniferL.Stewart; Christopheredgar, J.; GregoryA.Miller
Full Text Available Ten patients diagnosed as suffering from depressive illness were treated with 2 consecutive nights of sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation was effective in both types of depression viz. endoge-nous and reactive. The improvement was greater and seemed to last longer in endogenous depression as compared to reactive depression at the time of evaluation, 7 days after completion of sleep deprivation. Depressed mood, suicidal tendencies and retard-ation seemed to show the greatest improvement while insight and gastro-intestinal and somatic symptoms, improved the least.
Full Text Available Kleptomania has been found in association with major depression in a fairly large number of reports in recent years. We describe a patient with concurrent DSM-III-R Bipolar Mood Disorder and Kleptomania, whose symptoms remitted completely, apparently in response to lithium therapy, which raised the possibility that pharmacological treatment may benefit kleptomania. Further studies are needed to establish the possible relationship between kleptomania, mood disorders and lithium therapy.Os autores descrevem e comentam o caso de uma paciente com Distúrbio de Humor Bipolar e Cleptomanía (DSM-III-R que apresentou remissão de seu quadro compulsivo após instituição de litioterapia. Discutem a possibilidade de tratamento medicamentoso para este distúrbio e apontam para a necessidade de estudos que estabeleçam a eventual relação entre cleptomania, distúrbios do humor e litioterapia.
Fábio Lopes Rocha
Full Text Available Os autores descrevem e comentam o caso de uma paciente com Distúrbio de Humor Bipolar e Cleptomanía (DSM-III-R) que apresentou remissão de seu quadro compulsivo após instituição de litioterapia. Discutem a possibilidade de tratamento medicamentoso para este distúrbio e apontam para a necessidade de [...] estudos que estabeleçam a eventual relação entre cleptomania, distúrbios do humor e litioterapia. Abstract in english Kleptomania has been found in association with major depression in a fairly large number of reports in recent years. We describe a patient with concurrent DSM-III-R Bipolar Mood Disorder and Kleptomania, whose symptoms remitted completely, apparently in response to lithium therapy, which raised the [...] possibility that pharmacological treatment may benefit kleptomania. Further studies are needed to establish the possible relationship between kleptomania, mood disorders and lithium therapy.
Fábio Lopes, Rocha; Maria Elizabete Guimarães, Rocha.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Finasteride is a competitive inhibitor of 5 alpha-reductase enzyme, and is used for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and androgenetic alopecia. Animal studies have shown that finasteride might induce behavioral changes. Additionally, some cases of finasteride-induced depression have been reported in humans. The purpose of this study was to examine whether depressive symptoms or anxiety might be induced by finasteride administration. Methods One hundred and twenty eight men with androgenetic alopecia, who were prescribed finasteride (1 mg/day were enrolled in this study. Information on depressed mood and anxiety was obtained by Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Participants completed BDI and HADS questionnaires before beginning the treatment and also two months after it. Results Mean age of the subjects was 25.8(± 4.4 years. At baseline, mean BDI and HADS depression scores were 12.11(± 7.50 and 4.04(± 2.51, respectively. Finasteride treatment increased both BDI (p Conclusion This preliminary study suggests that finasteride might induce depressive symptoms; therefore this medication should be prescribed cautiously for patients with high risk of depression. It seems that further studies would be necessary to determine behavioral effects of this medication in higher doses and in more susceptible patients.
The purpose of this paper is to review the evidence estimating an impact of occupational factors on mood disorders and suicide, and the efficacy of interventions. This review is based on literature searches using Medline and Psych INFO from 1966 to 2007 (keywords: work stress, job insecurity, job strain, shift work, violence, occupational health, mood disorders, depression, and suicide). To establish the relationship between occupational variables and mood disorders, we focused on clinically ...
Woo, Jong-min; Postolache, Teodor T.
Leucodystrophies are a heterogeneous group of progressive white matter diseases which may be inherited in dominant, recessive or X-linked fashion depending on the type. Adrenoleucodystrophy (ALD) and metachromatic leucodystrophy (MLD) are rather commoner forms of leucodystrophies whereas krabbes disease, alexander disease, cannavans disease etc. are of less common type. Adult-onset autosomal dominant leucodystrophy (ADLD) is a lately described rarer form of leucodystrophy with perhaps no case report from India. Various leucodystrophies may have different clinical presentations, ranging from subtle cognitive and psychiatric manifestations to gross motor disabilities, visual impairment and seizure. Psychiatric manifestations in the form of psychoses and frank schizophrenia are commonly described in MLD. Depression though uncommonly reported in MLD, cyclic mood disorders have been rarely described in any form of leucodystrophies. We are reporting an eye opener, a case of ADLD which masqueraded as a rapid cyclic mood disorder for initial four years, later to be followed by progressive neurological signs and symptoms. To the best of our knowledge, this is perhaps the first case report of ADLD presenting as rapid cyclic mood disorder in the world literature. PMID:24813031
Jain, Rajendra S; Prakash, Swayam; Raghavendra, B S; Nagpal, Kadam; Handa, Rahul
Self-report measures of depression differ in their construction and scoring rules. In the present study from the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services (MIDAS) project we tested the hypothesis that the loss of information due to scoring rules or rating formats reduces the validity of depression severity assessment. One hundred fifty-three outpatients with DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD) who presented for treatment or who were in ongoing treatment and had their medication changed due to lack of efficacy completed the Clinically Useful Depression Outcome Scale (CUDOS), Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS) and Remission from Depression Questionnaire (RDQ) at the initiation of treatment and 4 month follow-up. The patients were evaluated with the 17-item Hamilton Depression scale (HAMD). The CUDOS and RDQ were equally highly correlated with the HAMD at baseline and follow-up. There was no significant difference in the correlations between the modified and original scoring algorithms of the QIDS with the HAMD at baseline and the follow-up. On each scale, the patients showed significant levels of improvement from baseline to 4 months, and the effect sizes were similar. These findings suggest that the loss of information due to the scoring rules of the QIDS or the rating format of the RDQ did not reduce the validity of depression severity assessment. PMID:24745466
Zimmerman, Mark; D'Avanzato, Catherine; Attiullah, Naureen; Friedman, Michael; Toba, Cristina; Boerescu, Daniela A
SUMMARY Objective It is estimated that 40% of patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) are clinically depressed, however, little is known about the frequency and associated features of subthreshold depression in PD. The current study sought to determine the prevalence of subthreshold depression (sD) and to further characterize the associated features in a sample of 111 nondemented patients with moderate to severe PD. Methods Patients were classified into the following groups: diagnostic depression (DD), subthreshold depression (sD), or nondepressed (ND) by applying the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 4th edn criteria for depression and previously reported criteria for sD to items from the Beck Depression Inventory, 2nd edn. These groups were compared on clinical and demographic variables. The symptom profile of the sD group is also described. Results Fifty participants (45.0%) were classified as ND, 32 (28.8%) as sD, and 29 (26.1%) as DD. Patients with sD were younger (~5 yrs) than nondepressed patients, but did not differ in disease stage or any other demographic variables. Patients with sD tended to endorse mood symptoms that overlap with PD, including fatigue, sleep difficulties, appetite dysfunction, and concentration difficulties. These symptoms were also endorsed with high frequency by the other groups. Conclusions These findings suggest that sD is not uncommon in PD and may be more prevalent among younger patients. The finding that sD patients report mood symptoms that overlap with the PD symptomatology suggests that these two entities share common features and may be difficult to disentangle. PMID:19212967
Nation, Daniel A.; Katzen, Heather L.; Papapetropoulos, Spyridon; Scanlon, Blake K.; Levin, Bonnie E.
Full Text Available Naseem Akhtar Qureshi,1 Abdullah Mohammed Al-Bedah21General Administration for Research and Studies, Sulaimania Medical Complex, 2National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: Mood disorders are a major public health problem and are associated with considerable burden of disease, suicides, physical comorbidities, high economic costs, and poor quality of life. Approximately 30%–40% of patients with major depression have only a partial response to available pharmacological and psychotherapeutic interventions. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM has been used either alone or in combination with conventional therapies in patients with mood disorders. This review of the literature examines evidence-based data on the use of CAM in mood disorders. A search of the PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, and Quertile databases using keywords was conducted, and relevant articles published in the English language in the peer-reviewed journals over the past two decades were retrieved. Evidence-based data suggest that light therapy, St John's wort, Rhodiola rosea, omega-3 fatty acids, yoga, acupuncture, mindfulness therapies, exercise, sleep deprivation, and S-adenosylmethionine are effective in the treatment of mood disorders. Clinical trials of vitamin B complex, vitamin D, and methylfolate found that, while these were useful in physical illness, results were equivocal in patients with mood disorders. Studies support the adjunctive role of omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid in unipolar and bipolar depression, although manic symptoms are not affected and higher doses are required in patients with resistant bipolar depression and rapid cycling. Omega-3 fatty acids are useful in pregnant women with major depression, and have no adverse effects on the fetus. Choline, inositol, 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan, and N-acetylcysteine are effective adjuncts in bipolar patients. Dehydroepiandrosterone is effective both in bipolar depression and depression in the setting of comorbid physical disease, although doses should be titrated to avoid adverse effects. Ayurvedic and homeopathic therapies have the potential to improve symptoms of depression, although larger controlled trials are needed. Mind-body-spirit and integrative medicine approaches can be used effectively in mild to moderate depression and in treatment-resistant depression. Currently, although CAM therapies are not the primary treatment of mood disorders, level 1 evidence could emerge in the future showing that such treatments are effective.Keywords: complementary and alternative medicine, mood disorders, Ayurveda, homeopathy, integrative medicine
This study examined adult resilience in the context of the adversity of unemployment. Seventy-seven unemployed job seekers completed a self-report survey containing the Resilience Scale (G. M. Wagnild & H. M. Young, 1993), Centre for Epidemiologic Studies-Depressed Mood Scale (L. S. Radloff, 1977), and the Assertive Job Hunting Survey (H. A.…
Moorhouse, Anne; Caltabiano, Marie L.
The association between nicotine dependence and affective disorders, particularly major depressive disorder (MDD), is well known with high prevalence rates being reported for smokers. The reason for this association is not clear, but, it has been argued that smoking may help individuals to cope with stress or medicate depressed mood. Smoking cessation programs are useful in helping smokers to quit, but smoking is a very difficult addiction to break, especially for people suffering from depres...
Pasquale Caponnetto; Riccardo Polosa; Roberta Auditore; Cristina Russo; Davide Campagna
The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of combined aerobic and resistance exercise training among self-reported mood disturbances, perceived stress, frequency of self-reported symptoms, and symptom distress in a sample of HIV+ adults. For this purpose, 49 participants were randomly assigned into an exercise (EX) or control (CON) group. Those in the EX group completed 50?min of supervised aerobic and resistance training at a moderate intensity twice a week for 6 weeks. The CON group reported to the university and engaged in sedentary activities. Data were collected at baseline before randomization and 6 weeks post intervention. Measures included the symptom distress scale (SDS), perceived stress scale (PSS), profile of mood states (POMS) total score, and the POMS sub-scale for depression and fatigue. A 2 way ANOVA was used to compare between and within group interactions. The EX group showed a significant decrease in reported depression scores (p=0.03) and total POMS (p=0.003). The CON group reported no change in POMS or SDS, but showed a significant increase in PSS. These findings indicate that combination aerobic and resistance training completed at a moderate intensity at least twice a week provides additional psychological benefits independent of disease status and related symptoms. PMID:25322262
Jaggers, J R; Hand, G A; Dudgeon, W D; Burgess, S; Phillips, K D; Durstine, J L; Blair, S N
Magnetic seizure therapy (MST) has shown efficacy in adult patients with treatment-resistant depression with limited impairment in memory. To date, the use of MST in adolescent depression has not been reported. Here we describe the first successful use of MST in the treatment of an adolescent patient with refractory bipolar depression. This patient received MST in an ongoing open-label study for treatment-resistant major depression. Treatments employed a twin-coil MST apparatus, with the center of each coil placed over the frontal cortex (ie, each coil centered over F3 and F4). MST was applied at 100 Hz and 100% machine output at progressively increasing train durations. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the 24-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and cognitive function was assessed with a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. This adolescent patient achieved full remission of clinical symptoms after an acute course of 18 MST treatments and had no apparent cognitive decline, other than some autobiographical memory impairment that may or may not be related to the MST treatment. This case report suggests that MST may be a safe and well tolerated intervention for adolescents with treatment-resistant bipolar depression. Pilot studies to further evaluate the effectiveness and safety of MST in adolescents warrant consideration. PMID:25382978
Noda, Yoshihiro; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Downar, Jonathan; Croarkin, Paul E; Fitzgerald, Paul B; Blumberger, Daniel M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Health management is impeded when consumers do not possess adequate knowledge about their illness. At a public health level, consumer knowledge about depression is particularly important because depression is highly prevalent and causes substantial disability and burden. However, currently little is known about the information needs of people with depression. This study aimed to investigate the explicit and implicit information needs of users of an online depression support forum. Methods A sample of 2680 posts was systematically selected from three discussion forums on an online depression bulletin board (blueboard.anu.edu.au. Data were examined for evidence of requests for information (reflecting explicit needs and reports of past or current problems (implicit needs. Thematic analysis was conducted using a data-driven inductive approach with the assistance of NVivo 7, and instances of questions and people reporting particular types of problems were recorded. Results A total of 134 participants with personal experience of depression contributed to the data analysed. Six broad themes represented participant queries and reported problems: Understanding depression; disclosure and stigma; medication; treatment and services; coping with depression; and comorbid health problems. A variety of specific needs were evident within these broad thematic areas. Some people (n = 46 expressed their information needs by asking direct questions (47 queries but the majority of needs were expressed implicitly (351 problems by the 134 participants. The most evident need for information related to coping with depression and its consequences, followed by topics associated with medication, treatment and services. Conclusions People with depression have substantial unmet information needs and require strategies to deal with the difficulties they face. They require access to high quality and relevant online resources and professionals; thus, there is a need to rectify current gaps in the provision of information and limitations of dissemination. Greater knowledge about depression and its treatment is also needed at the general community level.
Banfield Michelle A
BACKGROUND: Few studies have directly assessed the impact of a specific media report in vulnerable people. This study investigates possible influences of media reporting of a celebrity suicide on subsequent suicidal behaviors and associated risk factors among depressive patients. METHODS: Depressive patients (N=461) were assessed through a structured interview soon after extensive media reporting of a celebrity suicide. RESULTS: Among 438 depressive patients exposed to the media report, 38.8%...
Cheng, At; Hawton, K.; Chen, Th; Yen, Am; Chang, Jc; Chong, My; Liu, Cy; Lee, Y.; Teng, Pr; Chen, Lc
The neural processes associated with becoming aware of sad mood are not fully understood. We examined the dynamic process of becoming aware of sad mood and recovery from sad mood. Sixteen healthy subjects underwent fMRI while participating in a sadness induction task designed to allow for variable mood induction times. Individualized regressors linearly modeled the time periods during the attainment of self-reported sad and baseline "neutral" mood states, and the validity of the linearity assumption was further tested using independent component analysis. During sadness induction the dorsomedial and ventrolateral prefrontal cortices, and anterior insula exhibited a linear increase in the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal until subjects became aware of a sad mood and then a subsequent linear decrease as subjects transitioned from sadness back to the non-sadness baseline condition. These findings extend understanding of the neural basis of conscious emotional experience. PMID:25234799
Smith, Ryan; Braden, B Blair; Chen, Kewei; Ponce, Francisco A; Lane, Richard D; Baxter, Leslie C
Full Text Available Susan Reif,1 Rae Jean Proeschold-Bell,1,2 Jia Yao,1 Sara LeGrand,1,2 Anna Uehara,2 Edgar Asiimwe,2 Evelyn Byrd Quinlivan31Duke Center for Health Policy and Inequalities Research, 2Duke Global Health Institute, Duke University, Durham, NC, 3Center for Infectious Diseases, University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USABackground: Adherence with medication regimens for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is a life-saving behavior for people with HIV infection, yet adherence is challenging for many individuals with co-occurring substance use and/or mood disorders. Medication-taking self-efficacy, which is the confidence that one can take one's medication as prescribed, is associated with better adherence with HIV medication. However, little is known about the influence that other kinds of self-efficacy have on adherence with HIV medication, especially among HIV-infected individuals with co-occurring substance use and/or mood disorders. We sought to examine the relationship between adherence with HIV medication among substance users and three specific kinds of self-efficacy, ie, one's confidence that one can communicate with medical providers, get support, and manage one's mood. We further sought to examine whether symptoms of depression and anxiety moderate these relationships.Methods: Patients were recruited from three HIV clinics in the southeastern United States as part of an integrated study of treatment for HIV and substance use.Results: We interviewed 154 patients with HIV and substance use who reported taking HIV medications. Based on symptoms of depression and anxiety using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety, 63% had probable depression and/or anxiety. Higher levels of self-efficacy in provider communication (? = 3.86, P < 0.01, getting needed support (? = 2.82, P < 0.01, and mood management (? = 2.29, P < 0.05 were related to better self-reported adherence with HIV medication among study participants with probable depression and/or anxiety. The three kinds of self-efficacy were not associated with medication adherence among participants with HIV and substance use only.Conclusion: In the search for mutable factors to improve medication adherence among individuals triply diagnosed with HIV, substance use, and mood disorders, these findings support previous research indicating the benefit of enhancing self-efficacy, and further point to three specific kinds of self-efficacy that may benefit medication adherence, ie, provider communication, getting support, and mood management.Keywords: human immunodeficiency virus, self-efficacy, substance use, depression, anxiety, interventions
We examine school performance among 83 adolescents at risk for major depression. Negative mood interfered with subjective measures of school performance, including ability to do well in school, homework completion, concentrate in class, interact with peers, and going to class. No significant relationships were found for mood and objective measures of school performance (school attendance, English, and Math grades). Students with a college-educated parent had stronger performance in objective measures (school attendance and Math grades), whereas males had lower English grades. In qualitative interviews, adolescents reported that negative thinking led to procrastination, which led to poor school performance, which led to more negative thinking. Adolescents with depressive symptoms that do not meet the threshold for referral report struggles in school. Understanding the specific challenges faced by adolescents with even low levels of depressive symptoms can help school nurses, teachers, and parents identify appropriate interventions to help adolescents succeed in school. PMID:20606058
Humensky, Jennifer; Kuwabara, Sachiko A; Fogel, Joshua; Wells, Corrie; Goodwin, Brady; Van Voorhees, Benjamin W
Sustained sleep problems such as insomnia have been shown to be detrimental to health. This study examines the less understood, finer grained effects of a single bad night's sleep on mood, cognitive, autonomic and electrophysiological functions. We assessed 338 individuals who had no symptoms of a clinical sleep disorder. Of these, 226 individuals had six or more hours sleep and 112 individuals had less than six hours sleep prior to an assessment of mood, cognition, autonomic and electrophysiological functioning. Individuals in the relatively "bad night" sleep group had higher depression, anxiety, and stress scores and reported significantly poorer overall wellbeing. They made more errors on simple cognitive tasks while more complex task components were unaffected. They also had an increase in heart rate and EEG alpha and beta power at rest. Participants in this study had no symptoms of a clinical sleep disorder, however the effects of a poor night sleep on measures of mood, cognition, autonomic and electrophysiological function were similar, but less severe than those reported in insomnia patients. The integrative profile of measures reported here point to an increase in physiological arousal and sub-optimal cognition, following a poor night's sleep. PMID:18988299
Barnett, Kylie J; Cooper, Nicholas J
It is relevant to unravel the factors that may mediate the cognitive decline observed during aging. Previous reports indicate that education has a positive influence on cognitive performance, while age, female gender and, especially, depressed mood were associated with poorer performances across multiple cognitive dimensions (memory and general executive function). Herein, the present study aimed to characterize the cognitive performance of community-dwelling individuals within distinct educa...
Santos, Nadine C.; Costa, Patri?cio S.; Cunha, Pedro; Portugal-nunes, Carlos; Amorim, Liliana; Cotter, Jorge; Cerqueira, Joa?o J.; Palha, Joana A.; Sousa, Nuno
It is relevant to unravel the factors that may mediate the cognitive decline observed during aging. Previous reports indicate that education has a positive influence on cognitive performance, while age, female gender and, especially, depressed mood were associated with poorer performances across multiple cognitive dimensions (memory and general executive function). Herein, the present study aimed to characterize the cognitive performance of community-dwelling individuals within distinct educa...
Santos, Nadine Correia; Costa, Patr Cio Soares; Cunha, Pedro Miguel Guimar Es Marques Da; Nunes, Carlos Portugal; Amorim, Liliana; Cotter, Jorge; Cerqueira, Jo O.; Palha, Joana Almeida; Sousa, Nuno
Many studies have reported concurrent relationships between depressive symptoms and various personality, cognitive, and personality-cognitive vulnerabilities, but the degree of overlap among these vulnerabilities is unclear. Moreover, whereas most investigations of these vulnerabilities have focused on depression, their possible relationships with anxiety have not been adequately examined. The present study included 550 high school juniors and examined the cross-sectional relationships among ...
Sutton, Jonathan M.; Mineka, Susan; Zinbarg, Richard E.; Craske, Michelle G.; Griffith, James W.; Rose, Raphael D.; Waters, Allison M.; Nazarian, Maria; Mor, Nilly
Background No studies of adolescents have examined the prospective, reciprocal association between insomnia and major depression. Methods A two-wave, community-based cohort of 3,134 youths aged 11–17 at baseline. Major depression was assessed using DSM-IV criteria. Three measures of insomnia were used also following DSM-IV: P1, any symptom of insomnia; P2, any symptom plus impairment; P3, P2 with no comorbid mood, anxiety or substance use disorders. Results In general, the association between insomnia and depression was stronger and more consistent for major depression than for symptoms of depression. Baseline insomnia (P1 and P2) increased subsequent risk of major depression 2–3-fold and P1 2-fold in multivariate analyses. Major depression increased risk for subsequent insomnia 2–3-fold for P1 and P2 2-fold for P2 in multivariate analyses. Results varied by measure of insomnia used. Limitations Only symptoms of insomnia were assessed, so we could not examine the effects of comorbid sleep disorders nor did we have objective or biological measures of disturbed sleep. We also did not collect data on parental reports of youth depression nor insomnia or sleep problems. Conclusion Our results provide the first prospective data on insomnia and major depression among adolescents indicating the two are reciprocally related. More studies are needed examining trajectories of insomnia and major depression in childhood and adolescence. PMID:23261135
Roberts, Robert E.; Duong, Hao T.
Full Text Available ... focusses on the psychotic forms of depression and bipolar disorder, and the hypothesis that genes predisposing to ... in genetic or clinical studies on depression or bipolar disorder, please contact 1-877-MOODS-JH Dr. ...
Both social defeat stress and environmental enrichment stimulate adrenal glucocorticoid secretion, but they have opposing effects on hippocampal neurogenesis and mood. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation and decreased neurogenesis are consequences of social defeat. These outcomes are correlated with depressive states, but a causal role in the etiology of depression remains elusive. The antidepressant actions of environmental enrichment are neurogenesis-dependent, but the c...
Lehmann, Michael L.; Brachman, Rebecca A.; Martinowich, Keri; Schloesser, Robert J.; Herkenham, Miles
Pregnancy and the postpartum period are recognized as times of vulnerability to mood disorders, including postpartum depression and psychosis. Recently, changes in sleep physiology and sleep deprivation have been proposed as having roles in perinatal psychiatric disorders. In this article we review what is known about changes in sleep physiology and behaviour during the perinatal period, with a focus on the relations between sleep and postpartum “blues,” depression and psychosis and on sl...
Ross, Lori E.; Murray, Brian J.; Steiner, Meir
Full Text Available Restless leg syndrome (RLS is a sensorimotor disorder with symptoms including uncomfortable subjective sensations in the legs and the urge to move them. This common disorder affects 10% of the population and may reduce quality of life. The pathophysiology of RLS is not well understood but dysfunction of dopaminergic pathways is the most prominent theory. Antidepressants, especially SSRIs, can aggravate the symptoms of RLS. Here we present a 42 year old woman diagnosed with major depressive disorder and comorbid RLS and who had been treated with paroxetine 20 mg/day for 2 months who benefited from switching to bupropion treatment. In this case the RLS symptoms had existed for approximately 3 years but were milder before paroxetine treatment. The patient met the diagnostic criteria for RLS. We used the International Restless Legs Scale (IRLS and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS to measure the patient’s symptom severity. The severity of her depressive symptoms was similar to baseline despite the two month paroxetine treatment. Due to symptoms of RLS and her ongoing depressive complaints, we decided to switch from paroxetine to bupropion. With 150 mg/day bupropion XL treatment, her RLS symptoms improved substantially at a one month follow-up while her depression severity was not changed significantly. Due to inadequate response for depression, bupropion XL was titrated to 300 mg/day. Her depressive symptoms improved significantly at a further one month follow-up. Comorbidity of RLS and depression was found to be as a frequent occurence reported in the literature. We concluded that bupropion, as a selective noradrenergic-dopaminergic reuptake inhibitor can be a good alternative to the SSRIs for patients, who suffer from both depression and RLS.
Mood disorders are a major public health problem and are associated with considerable burden of disease, suicides, physical comorbidities, high economic costs, and poor quality of life. Approximately 30%-40% of patients with major depression have only a partial response to available pharmacological and psychotherapeutic interventions. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has been used either alone or in combination with conventional therapies in patients with mood disorders. This review of the literature examines evidence-based data on the use of CAM in mood disorders. A search of the PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, and Quertile databases using keywords was conducted, and relevant articles published in the English language in the peer-reviewed journals over the past two decades were retrieved. Evidence-based data suggest that light therapy, St John's wort, Rhodiola rosea, omega-3 fatty acids, yoga, acupuncture, mindfulness therapies, exercise, sleep deprivation, and S-adenosylmethionine are effective in the treatment of mood disorders. Clinical trials of vitamin B complex, vitamin D, and methylfolate found that, while these were useful in physical illness, results were equivocal in patients with mood disorders. Studies support the adjunctive role of omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid in unipolar and bipolar depression, although manic symptoms are not affected and higher doses are required in patients with resistant bipolar depression and rapid cycling. Omega-3 fatty acids are useful in pregnant women with major depression, and have no adverse effects on the fetus. Choline, inositol, 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan, and N-acetylcysteine are effective adjuncts in bipolar patients. Dehydroepiandrosterone is effective both in bipolar depression and depression in the setting of comorbid physical disease, although doses should be titrated to avoid adverse effects. Ayurvedic and homeopathic therapies have the potential to improve symptoms of depression, although larger controlled trials are needed. Mind-body-spirit and integrative medicine approaches can be used effectively in mild to moderate depression and in treatment-resistant depression. Currently, although CAM therapies are not the primary treatment of mood disorders, level 1 evidence could emerge in the future showing that such treatments are effective. PMID:23700366
Qureshi, Naseem Akhtar; Al-Bedah, Abdullah Mohammed
Full Text Available The author has treated almost 400 chronically depressed outpatients during his career. He has also participated as a Field Trial Coordinator in the Unipolar Field Trials of DSM-IV and consulted with the DSM-V Mood Disorders Workgroup concerning his research for the new diagnostic nomenclature for the chronic depressions, Chronic Depression Disorder. In addition, he has served as Principal Investigator in several large clinical trials involving 2200 chronically depressed outpatients. The current paper is a Brief Report describing his negative reactions to the way 40 of his chronically depressed patients have been treated today by both Psychologists and Psychiatrists. All the patients are his patients and have been seen by him in psychotherapy over the past decade. Several reasons are proposed for the inadequate treatment and specific proposals are made for the improvement of treatment for the early-onset chronically depressed patient.
James P. McCullough
This paper reviews concepts of depression, including history and classification. The original broad concept of melancholia included all forms of quiet insanity. The term depression began to appear in the nineteenth century as did the modern concept of affective disorders, with the core disturbance now viewed as one of mood. The 1930s saw the introduction of defined criteria into official diagnostic schemes. The modern separation into unipolar and bipolar disorder was introduced following empi...
Paykel, Eugene S.
According to recent research on language comprehension, the semantic features of a text are not the only determinants of whether incoming information is understood as consistent. Listeners' pre-existing affective states play a crucial role as well. The current fMRI experiment examines the effects of happy and sad moods during comprehension of consistent and inconsistent story endings, focusing on brain regions previously linked to two integration processes: inconsistency detection, evident in stronger responses to inconsistent endings, and fluent processing (accumulation), evident in stronger responses to consistent endings. The analysis evaluated whether differences in the BOLD response for consistent and inconsistent story endings correlated with self-reported mood scores after a mood induction procedure. Mood strongly affected regions previously associated with inconsistency detection. Happy mood increased sensitivity to inconsistency in regions specific for inconsistency detection (e.g., left IFG, left STS), whereas sad mood increased sensitivity to inconsistency in regions less specific for language processing (e.g., right med FG, right SFG). Mood affected more weakly regions involved in accumulation of information. These results show that mood can influence activity in areas mediating well-defined language processes, and highlight that integration is the result of context-dependent mechanisms. The finding that language comprehension can involve different networks depending on people's mood highlights the brain's ability to reorganize its functions. PMID:25225000
Egidi, Giovanna; Caramazza, Alfonso
This study aimed to assess, whether depression in adulthood was associated with self-reported chewing difficulties at older age, and examine whether the strength of the association differed according to the number of depression episodes in earlier adult life. We used Whitehall II study data from 277 participants who completed a questionnaire in 2011. Depression was measured with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) in 2003 and 2008. The association between CES-D depression and self-reported chewing ability was assessed using regression models adjusted for some socio-demographic factors. Participants with depression at some point in their earlier adulthood had an odds ratio (95% CI) of 2·01 (1·06, 3·82) for reporting chewing difficulties in older adulthood, compared to those without depression. The respective odds ratios were 1·42 (0·66, 3·04) for individuals with depression in only one phase, but 3·53 (1·51, 8·24) for those with depression in two phases. In conclusion, while further research is required, there was an association between depression and chewing difficulty that was independent of demographic and socio-economic characteristics. Furthermore, this increased odds for chewing difficulties was primarily among adults that experienced two episodes or a prolonged period of depression. PMID:25284358
AlJameel, A H; Watt, R G; Brunner, E J; Tsakos, G
Individuals high in negative mood regulation expectancies believe that a wide variety of actions has the potential to improve their negative mood. According to response expectancy theory, negative mood regulation expectancies affect mood in a nonvolitional and self-confirming manner. The present study evaluated this claim by assessing the ability of negative mood regulation expectancies to predict current depression after controlling for a variety of volitional coping responses, including rumination, distraction, active coping, and avoidant coping. 105 Introduction to Psychology college students at the University of Connecticut, 47 men and 58 women (M age = 20.3 yr., SD = 1.5), completed measures of each of the latter constructs for course credit. Results were consistent with response expectancy theory: negative mood regulation expectancies predicted current depression above and beyond coping behaviors. In addition, higher negative mood regulation expectancies were associated with greater use of adaptive coping responses. Results of this study further support the notion that effects of negative mood regulation expectancies on mood cannot be fully accounted for by intentional coping behaviors. PMID:18763440
Abstract Objective. The aim of this pilot study was to compare the occurrence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, major depression disorder (MDD)-related symptoms, and negative mood regulation capacities among Israeli Jewish and Arab children and their parents, all of whom had been exposed to recurrent missiles attacks during the Second Lebanon War. Methods. Participants consisted of 28 Jewish and 14 Arab children (aged 4-18 years) and their parents. They were assessed by self-report instruments and a semi-structured interview (K-SADS-PL). Results. Among children, PTSD and depressive symptoms were found to be interrelated. Parents' depression and mood regulation were found to be related to their children's PTSD and depressive responses. Both children's and parents' negative mood regulation capacities were inversely related to children's depressive and PTSD symptoms. Both Jewish and Arab children's scores on the Children Depression Inventory (CDI) and on the PTSD Scale Symptoms Interview (PSS-I) showed significant levels of emotional distress following the missile attacks. However, Arab children reported significantly higher levels of PTSD and depressive symptoms in comparison to Jewish children. Conclusion. Ethnicity seems to be an important factor in children's responses to war-related events. PMID:25356662
Sandler, Ludmila; Sommerfeld, Eliane; Shoval, Gal; Tsafrir, Shlomit; Chemny, Ada; Laor, Nathaniel; Zalsman, Gil
In this article, the authors explore the breadth and depth of published research linking dietary vitamins and minerals (micronutrients) to mood. Since the 1920s, there have been many studies on individual vitamins (especially B vitamins and Vitamins C, D, and E), minerals (calcium, chromium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and selenium), and vitamin-like…
Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Crawford, Susan G.; Field, Catherine J.; Simpson, J. Steven A.
Full Text Available Food is a potent natural reward and food intake is a complex process. Reward and gratification associated with food consumption leads to dopamine (DA production, which in turn activates reward and pleasure centers in the brain. An individual will repeatedly eat a particular food to experience this positive feeling of gratification. This type of repetitive behavior of food intake leads to the activation of brain reward pathways that eventually overrides other signals of satiety and hunger. Thus, a gratification habit through a favorable food leads to overeating and morbid obesity. Overeating and obesity stems from many biological factors engaging both central and peripheral systems in a bi-directional manner involving mood and emotions. Emotional eating and altered mood can also lead to altered food choice and intake leading to overeating and obesity. Research findings from human and animal studies support a two-way link between three concepts, mood, food, and obesity. The focus of this article is to provide an overview of complex nature of food intake where various biological factors link mood, food intake, and brain signaling that engages both peripheral and central nervous system signaling pathways in a bi-directional manner in obesity.
Full Text Available Zulma S Tovar-Spinoza, Peter D KimDepartment of Neurosurgery, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse NYAbstract: There are limited reports of neonatal depressed skull fractures in the absence of any known trauma or obvious risk factors. Here we describe a male neonate with a significant frontal nontraumatic depressed fracture, his course of treatment, and a literature review. A male neonate was attended for a significant congenital depressed skull fracture in the left frontal bone. He was born full term after an uncomplicated delivery to a multiparous mother who was a human immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV-positive immigrant from sub-Saharan Africa. The pregnancy was otherwise uncomplicated. There was no history of trauma to the mother during the pregnancy or delivery. Ultrasonography had been unremarkable. No other abnormalities were noted. The patient was brought to the operating room at the age of 13 days for elevation of his fracture due to its nonreducible nature. A small linear incision was made just posterior to the coronal suture. The dura mater was stripped and a combination of Penfield and periostial elevators was used to elevate the depressed fracture. Nontraumatic depressed skull fractures are uncommon in neonates. The cause of this entity has not been identified, and many theories about its origin have been proposed. Treatment can be either surgical or conservative.Keywords: neonatal, congenital, depressed fracture, spontaneous, nontraumatic
Clinical features and treatment outcome were compared in depressed outpatients with and without a history of emotional and physical abuse (EPA), including childhood maltreatment. Patients were initially randomized to IPT or SSRI and then augmented with the second treatment if they did not remit with monotherapy. Assessments included the SCID-I, the SCID-II for DSM-IV diagnoses, the HRSD, the QIDS and the Mood Spectrum Self-Report (MOODS-SR). Seventy-eight (25%) patients reported a history of ...
Miniati, M.; Rucci, P.; Benvenuti, A.; Frank, E.; Buttenfield, J.; Giorgi, G.; Cassano, G. B.
Full Text Available Depression is a debilitating condition that adversely affects many aspects of a person's life and general health. Earlier work has supported the idea that there may be a relationship between the use of certain media and depression. In this study, we tested if self-report of depression (SRD, which is not a clinically based diagnosis, was associated with increased internet, television, and social media usage by using data collected in the Media Behavior and Influence Study (MBIS database (N=19,776 subjects. We further assessed the relationship of demographic variables to this association. These analyses found that SRD rates were in the range of published rates of clinically diagnosed major depression. It found that those who tended to use more media also tended to be more depressed, and that segmentation of SRD subjects was weighted toward internet and television usage, which was not the case with non-SRD subjects, who were segmented along social media use. This study found that those who have suffered either economic or physical life setbacks are orders of magnitude more likely to be depressed, even without disproportionately high levels of media use. However, among those that have suffered major life setbacks, high media users – particularly television watchers – were even more likely to report experiencing depression, which suggests that these effects were not just due to individuals having more time for media consumption. These findings provide an example of how Big Data can be used for medical and mental health research, helping to elucidate issues not traditionally tested in the fields of psychiatry or experimental psychology.
Objective The diagnosis and treatment of cancer present children and adolescents with significant stress. However, research on the ways that children and adolescents cope with cancer-related stress has not yielded clear findings on the efficacy of different coping strategies, and has been limited by reliance primarily on self-reports of both coping and distress. To address this gap, the current study used a control-based model of coping to examine self- and parent reports of child/adolescent coping and symptoms of anxiety and depression in a sample of children with cancer. Method Children and adolescents (5 to 17 years old) and their parents were recruited near the time of a child’s diagnosis or relapse of cancer (M = 1.30 months postdiagnosis). Child self-reports (n = 153), mother reports (n = 297), and father reports (n = 161) of children’s coping and symptoms of anxiety/depression were obtained. Results Bivariate correlations revealed significant associations for secondary control coping (efforts to adapt to source of stress; e.g., acceptance, cognitive reappraisal) and disengagement coping (e.g., avoidance, denial) with anxiety/depression within and across informants. Linear multiple regression analyses indicated that secondary control coping accounted for unique variance in symptoms of anxiety/ depression both within and across informants. Conclusions Secondary control coping appears important for children and adolescents during early phases of treatment for cancer, and it may serve as an important target for future interventions to enhance adjustment in these children. PMID:25068455
Compas, Bruce E.; Desjardins, Leandra; Vannatta, Kathryn; Young-Saleme, Tammi; Rodriguez, Erin M.; Dunn, Madeleine; Bemis, Heather; Snyder, Sarah; Gerhardt, Cynthia A.
Approximately 60% of Armed Forces personnel regularly consume dietary supplements (DSs). We investigated the association of mood and health behaviors with multiple classes of DSs in military and Coast Guard personnel (N = 5536). Participants completed a survey of DS use and the Quick Mood Scale to assess mood domains of wakeful-drowsiness, relaxed-anxious, cheerful-depressed, friendly-aggression, clearheaded-confused, and well coordinated-clumsy. Supplements were categorized as multivitamin/minerals (MVM), individual vitamin/minerals, protein/amino acid supplements (PS), combination products (C), herbals (H), purported steroid analogs, (S) and other (O). One-way analyses of covariance assessed associations of DSs and perceived health behavior with mood controlling for age. Logistic regression determined associations between DS use and health behavior. Users of MVM and PS reported feeling significantly (P < 0.05) more awake, relaxed, cheerful, clearheaded, and coordinated. Participants using PS and S reported feeling less friendly (more aggressive, P < 0.02). Users of MVM and PS were more likely to report their general health, eating habits, and fitness level as excellent/good (P < 0.05). Participants reporting health behaviors as excellent/good were more (P < 0.01) awake, relaxed, cheerful, friendly, clearheaded, and coordinated. As no known biological mechanisms can explain such diverse effects of MVM and PS use on multiple mood states, health, eating habits, and fitness, we hypothesize these associations are not causal, and DS intake does not alter these parameters per se. Preexisting differences in mood and other health-related behaviors and outcomes between users versus nonusers of DSs could be a confounding factor in studies of DSs. PMID:25122181
Austin, Krista G; McGraw, Susan M; Lieberman, Harris R
Associations of peer victimization with adolescent depression and social phobia (SP), while controlling for comorbidity between them, have not been sufficiently explored in earlier research. A total of 3156 Finnish adolescents aged 15-16 years participated in a survey study. Self-reported peer victimization, as well as self-reported depression…
Ranta, Klaus; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Pelkonen, Mirjami; Marttunen, Mauri
Humans and other organisms have adapted to a consistent and predictable 24-h solar cycle, but over the past ~130 years the widespread adoption of electric light has transformed our environment. Instead of aligning behavioral and physiological processes to the natural solar cycle, individuals respond to artificial light cycles created by social and work schedules. Urban light pollution, night shift work, transmeridian travel, televisions and computers have dramatically altered the timing of light used to entrain biological rhythms. In humans and other mammals, light is detected by the retina and intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells project this information both to the circadian system and limbic brain regions. Therefore, it is possible that exposure to light at night, which has become pervasive, may disrupt both circadian timing and mood. Notably, the rate of major depression has increased in recent decades, in parallel with increasing exposure to light at night. Strong evidence already links circadian disruption to major depression and other mood disorders. Emerging evidence from the past few years suggests that exposure to light at night also negatively influences mood. In this review, we discuss evidence from recent human and rodent studies supporting the novel hypothesis that nighttime exposure to light disrupts circadian organization and contributes to depressed mood. PMID:23711982
Bedrosian, T A; Nelson, R J
Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between perception of emotional intelligence and beliefs in the extent to which exercising leads to mood-enhancement. Methods Volunteer participants (N=315) completed a 33-item self-report measure of trait emotional intelligence and an exercise-mood regulation scale. Results Emotional intelligence significantly correlated with beliefs that exercise could be used to regulate mood (r =0.45, P<0 .01). Conclusion Findings demonstrate that using exercise to regulate mood relates significantly to emotional intelligence and suggest that individuals who use exercise to enhance mood report higher scores of emotional intelligence. PMID:22375207
Solanki, Dharmendra; Lane, Andrew M.
Little is known about the quantity or quality of residual depressive symptoms in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) who have responded but not remitted with antidepressant treatment. This report describes the residual symptom domains and individual depressive symptoms in a large representative sample of outpatients with nonpsychotic MDD who responded without remitting after up to 12 weeks of citalopram treatment in the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) study. Response was defined as 50% or greater reduction in baseline 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology--Self-Report (QIDS-SR??) by treatment exit, and remission as a final QIDS-SR?? of less than 6. Residual symptom domains and individual symptoms were based on the QIDS-SR?? and classified as either persisting from baseline or emerging during treatment. Most responders who did not remit endorsed approximately 5 residual symptom domains and 6 to 7 residual depressive symptoms. The most common domains were insomnia (94.6%), sad mood (70.8%), and decreased concentration (69.6%). The most common individual symptoms were midnocturnal insomnia (79.0%), sad mood (70.8%), and decreased concentration/decision making (69.6%). The most common treatment-emergent symptoms were midnocturnal insomnia (51.4%) and decreased general interest (40.0%). The most common persistent symptoms were midnocturnal insomnia (81.6%), sad mood (70.8%), and decreased concentration/decision making (70.6%). Suicidal ideation was the least common treatment-emergent symptom (0.7%) and the least common persistent residual symptom (17.1%). These findings suggest that depressed outpatients who respond by 50% without remitting to citalopram treatment have a broad range of residual symptoms. Individualized treatments are warranted to specifically address each patient's residual depressive symptoms. PMID:21346613
McClintock, Shawn M; Husain, Mustafa M; Wisniewski, Stephen R; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Stewart, Jonathan W; Trivedi, Madhukar H; Cook, Ian; Morris, David; Warden, Diane; Rush, Augustus John
Major depressive disorder and bipolar spectrum disorders are debilitating conditions associated with severe impairment. The presence of co-occurring social phobia can make the clinical course of these disorders even more challenging. To better understand the nature of social anxiety in the context of ongoing mood disorders, we report the results of exploratory factor analyses of the Social Phobia Spectrum Self-Report Instrument (SHY), a 162-item measure designed to capture the full spectrum of manifestations and features associated with social anxiety experienced across the lifespan. We examined data from 359 adult outpatients diagnosed with major depressive disorder and 403 outpatients diagnosed with a bipolar spectrum disorder. The measure was divided into its two components: the SHY-General (SHY-G), reflecting general social anxiety features, and the SHY-Specific (SHY-S), reflecting anxiety in specific situations. Exploratory factor analyses were conducted for each using tetrachoric correlation matrices and an unweighted least squares estimator. Item invariance was evaluated for important patient subgroups. Five factors were identified for the SHY-G, representing general features of social anxiety: Fear of Social Disapproval, Childhood Social Anxiety, Somatic Social Anxiety, Excessive Agreeableness, and Behavioral Submission. Seven specific-situation factors were identified from the SHY-S: Writing in Public, Dating, Public Speaking, Eating in Public, Shopping Fears, Using Public Restrooms, and Unstructured Social Interactions. The identified dimensions provide clinically valuable information about the nature of the social fears experienced by individuals diagnosed with mood disorders and could help guide the development of tailored treatment strategies for individuals with co-occurring mood disorders and social anxiety. PMID:22771202
Fournier, Jay C; Cyranowski, Jill M; Rucci, Paola; Cassano, Giovanni B; Frank, Ellen
Drug metabolism is affected by many social-psychological factors including mood disorder. Organ transplantation recipients usually suffer from depression. The study aims to explore whether depression disorder alters immunosuppresant Tacrolimus (TAC) pharmacokinetic process in depression model rats. Eighteen female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomized into model group and control group. Depression model rats were built with Chronic Unpredicted Mild Stresses ...
Jingjing Duan; Yingtong Zeng; Ting Zhou; Ye Zhang; Feng Xu
OBJECTIVE: The Italian multicenter observational study depression in stroke (DESTRO) aimed to identify risk factors for post stroke depression (PSD) and quantify the likelihood of it arising in various categories of patients. METHOD: Mood evaluation was performed in 1064 consecutive stroke patients by means of Beck Depression Inventory and Visual Analog Mood Scale. Depressive symptoms were classified using the DSM-IV and revised WHO criteria for depression in the course of a neurological diso...
Full Text Available Depressive episodes are significant in bipolar illness since patients can spend up to one-third of their lives in depression. Although the treatment of bipolar depression remains an understudied area, new data from randomized, controlled trials and naturalistic studies expanded the range of treatments avaliable. The main aim in the treatment of bipolar depression is the prevention of the patient switching to mania and cycle acceleration, and antidepressant therapy may be contraindicated because of the risk for switching. Guidelines for the acute treatment of the bipolar depression emphasize treatment with a mood stabilizer, of which lithium has been the most thoroughly studied in randomized, controlled trials in acute bipolar depression. Lamotrigine had found significant ellicacy in recent studies as well and got FDA approval for its effect on preventing new episodes.
This study investigated the psychiatric consequences of 38 consecutive patients who had surgery for intractable temporal lobe epilepsy with special attention to postoperative mood disorders. A close interrelation between preoperative postictal psychosis and postoperative manic or depressive episodes was suggested. Left sided lobectomy augmented this correlation. Because the first sign of postoperative manic and depressive episodes appeared within 1 month and 2 months respective...
Kanemoto, K.; Kawasaki, J.; Mori, E.
Full Text Available Mood disorders cause many social problems, often involving family relationships. Few studies are available in the literature comparing patients with bipolar, unipolar, dysthymic, and double depressive disorders concerning these aspects. In the present study, demographic and disease data were collected using a specifically prepared questionnaire. Social adjustment was assessed using the Disability Adjustment Scale and family relationships were evaluated using the Global Assessment of Relational Functioning Scale. One hundred patients under treatment for at least 6 months were evaluated at the Psychiatric Outpatient Clinic of the Botucatu School of Medicine, UNESP. Most patients were women (82% more than 50 (49% years old with at least two years of follow-up, with little schooling (62% had less than 4 years, and of low socioeconomic level. Logistic regression analysis showed that a diagnosis of unipolar disorder (P = 0.003, OR = 0.075, CI = 0.014-0.403 and dysthymia (P = 0.001, OR = 0.040, CI = 0.006-0.275 as well as family relationships (P = 0.002, OR = 0.953, CI = 0914-0.992 played a significant role in social adjustment. Unipolar and dysthymic patients presented better social adjustment than bipolar and double depressive patients (P < 0.001, results that were not due to social class. These patients, treated at a teaching hospital, may represent the severest mood disorder cases. Evaluations were made knowing the diagnosis of the patients, which might also have influenced some of the results. Social disabilities among mood disorder patients are very frequent and intensive.
Equivocal findings have been reported in the few studies that examined the impact of ambient temperature (T a) and hypohydration on cognition and dynamic balance. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of acute exposure to a range of ambient temperatures (T(a) 10-40 °C) in euhydration (EUH) and hypohydration (HYP) states on cognition, mood and dynamic balance. Thirty-two men (age 22 ± 4 years, height 1.80 ± 0.05 m, body mass 85.4 ± 10.8 kg) were grouped into four matched cohorts (n = 8), and tested in one of the four T(a) (10, 20, 30, 40 °C) when EUH and HYP (-4 % body mass via exercise-heat exposure). Cognition was assessed using psychomotor vigilance, 4-choice reaction time, matching to sample, and grammatical reasoning. Mood was evaluated by profile of mood states and dynamic postural balance was tested using a Biodex Balance System. Thermal sensation (TS), core (T core) and skin temperature (T(sk)) were obtained throughout testing. Volunteers lost -4.1 ± 0.4 % body mass during HYP. T sk and TS increased with increasing T(a), with no effect of hydration. Cognitive performance was not altered by HYP or thermal stress. Total mood disturbance (TMD), fatigue, confusion, anger, and depression increased during HYP at all T(a). Dynamic balance was unaffected by HYP, but 10 °C exposure impaired balance compared to all other T(a). Despite an increase in TMD during HYP, cognitive function was maintained in all testing environments, demonstrating cognitive resiliency in response to body fluid deficits. Dynamic postural stability at 10 °C appeared to be hampered by low-grade shivering, but was otherwise maintained during HYP and thermal stress. PMID:23064870
Ely, Brett R; Sollanek, Kurt J; Cheuvront, Samuel N; Lieberman, Harris R; Kenefick, Robert W
Wake therapy improves mood in Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD), a depressive disorder in DSM-IV. We tested the hypothesis that the therapeutic effect of wake therapy in PMDD is mediated by altering sleep phase with melatonin secretion.
Parry, Barbara L.; Meliska, Charles J.; Marti?nez, L. Fernando; Lo?pez, Ana M.; Sorenson, Diane L.; Hauger, Richard L.; Elliott, Jeffrey A.
The purpose of the study was to determine clinical and diagnostic distinctions between the episodes of recurrent depression and bipolar depression. The subjects of the study were 79 patients meeting ICD-10 criteria for either recurrent depressive disorder or bipolar affective disorder. Patient with recurrent depression presented more prominent HDRS symptoms of depressed mood, psychomotor retardation, somatic anxiety, and gastro-intestinal somatic complains. Bipolar patients had more scores related to middle and late insomnia, agitation and suicide. In addition lower length of remission was observed in bipolar depression. The revealed differences should be taken into account in diagnostic and pharmacological treatment of various types of depression. PMID:19996503
Ismailov, F N
We test whether investor mood affects trading with data on all stock market transactions in Finland, utilizing variation in daylight and local weather. We find some evidence that environmental mood variables (local weather, length of day, daylight saving and lunar phase) affect investors’ direction of trade and volume. The effect magnitudes are roughly comparable to those of classical seasonals, such as the Monday effect. The statistical significance of the mood variables is weak in many ca...
Kaustia, Markku; Rantapuska, Elias
In a sample of 50 verbally fluent adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorders (age: 16-31 years; verbal IQ: 72-140), we examined the pattern of response and associations between scores on common measures of depressive symptoms, participant characteristics, and clinical diagnosis of depressive disorders. Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition item descriptives in this autism spectrum disorder sample were compared to previously published data from a large typically developing sample, with results suggesting that cognitive-attributional symptoms of depression may be particularly prevalent in autism spectrum disorder. Scores on a variety of self- and parent-report depression measures were not associated with chronological age or verbal IQ, and were relatively highly correlated with each other and with clinical diagnosis of a mood disorder. The Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition and the Adult Self-Report "Depressive" scale best identified both depressed and non-depressed participants in this sample, though neither was particularly strong. Validation studies of depression measures in the autism spectrum disorder population are necessary to advance research into this prevalent and impairing comorbidity. PMID:24916450
Gotham, Katherine; Unruh, Kathryn; Lord, Catherine
Sleep deprivation or "stay awake"-therapy), given in addition to drug therapy, is seen as an effective anti-depressive treatment with actually no side effects. Nevertheless, it is not regularly and systematically used. A reason for this might be doubts about its feasibility in psychiatric hospitals without specialised depression wards. Only a few reports exist on the practical aspects of sleep deprivation. The present article informs about the "stay awake"-therapy on 101 depressive patients (in the mean 25 patient-nights per month), carried out at the Psychiatric Hospital Sanatorium Kilchberg/Zurich. The patients (age between 19 and 76, mean 47 years) participated on average in 4.4 partial sleep deprivations. 72% participated at least for a set of three nights. One staff person takes care of a group of at most five patients. Indication, organisation, night programme, care and possible strains are reported. A stay awake night (three times a week) consists of breakfast, games, conversations, taking two walks, and discussions about depression and about treatment (psychoeducation), with the aim to avoid naps and to provide a pleasant social event. The experiences made with serial partial sleep deprivation are encouraging. PMID:9885837
Erazo, N; Beeler, H; Greil, W
Adult-generated hippocampal neurons are required for mood control and antidepressant efficacy, raising hopes that someday we can harness the power of new neurons to treat mood disorders such as depression. However, conflicting findings from preclinical research – involving stress, depression, and neurogenesis – highlight the complexity of considering neurogenesis as a “road to remission” from depression. To reconcile differences in the literature, we introduce the “neurogenic intera...
Eisch, Amelia J.; Petrik, David
Obesity markedly increases the odds of developing depression. Depressed mood not only impairs motivation, quality of life and overall functioning but also increases the risks of obesity complications. Abdominal obesity is a better predictor of depression and anxiety risk than overall adipose mass. A growing amount of research suggests that metabolic abnormalities stemming from central obesity that lead to metabolic disease may also be responsible for the increased incidence of depression in o...
Autobiographical amnesia assessments in depression need to account for normal changes in consistency over time, contribution of mood and type of memories measured. We report herein validation studies of the Columbia Autobiographical Memory Interview - Short Form (CAMI-SF), exclusively used in depressed patients receiving electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) but without previous published report of normative data. The CAMI-SF was administered twice with a 6-month interval to 44 healthy volunteers to obtain normative data for retrieval consistency of its Semantic, Episodic-Extended and Episodic-Specific components and assess their reliability and validity. Healthy volunteers showed significant large decreases in retrieval consistency on all components. The Semantic and Episodic-Specific components demonstrated substantial construct validity. We then assessed CAMI-SF retrieval consistencies over a 2-month interval in 30 severely depressed patients never treated with ECT compared with healthy controls (n=19). On initial assessment, depressed patients produced less episodic-specific memories than controls. Both groups showed equivalent amounts of consistency loss over a 2-month interval on all components. At reassessment, only patients with persisting depressive symptoms were distinguishable from controls on episodic-specific memories retrieved. Research quantifying retrograde amnesia following ECT for depression needs to control for normal loss in consistency over time and contribution of persisting depressive symptoms.
Most measures of depression severity are based on the number of reported symptoms, and threshold scores are often used to classify individuals as healthy or depressed. This method - and research results based on it - are valid if depression is a single condition, and all symptoms are equally good severity indicators. Here, we review a host of studies documenting that specific depressive symptoms like sad mood, insomnia, concentration problems, and suicidal ideation are distinct phenomena that differ from each other in important dimensions such as underlying biology, impact on impairment, and risk factors. Furthermore, specific life events predict increases in particular depression symptoms, and there is evidence for direct causal links among symptoms. We suggest that the pervasive use of sum-scores to estimate depression severity has obfuscated crucial insights and contributed to the lack of progress in key research areas such as identifying biomarkers and more efficacious antidepressants. The analysis of individual symptoms and their causal associations offers a way forward. We offer specific suggestions with practical implications for future research. PMID:25879936
Fried, Eiko I; Nesse, Randolph M
In this review, we discuss ecological momentary assessment (EMA) studies on mood disorders and mood dysregulation, illustrating 6 major benefits of the EMA approach to clinical assessment: (a) Real-time assessments increase accuracy and minimize retrospective bias; (b) repeated assessments can reveal dynamic processes; (c) multimodal assessments…
Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich W.; Trull, Timothy J.
The current study examined the congruence of parent and adolescent reports of positive and negative parenting with observations of parent-adolescent interactions as the criterion measure. The role of parent and adolescent depressive symptoms in moderating the associations between adolescent or parent report and observations of parenting also was examined. Participants were 180 parents (88.9% female) with a history of clinical depression and one of their 9-to-15 year old children (49.4% female). Parents and adolescents reported on parenting skills and depressive symptoms, and parenting was independently observed subsequently in the same session. Findings indicated adolescent report of positive, but not negative, parenting was more congruent with observations than parent report. For negative parenting, depressive symptoms qualified the relation between the parent or adolescent report and independent observations. For parents, higher levels of depressive symptoms were associated with more congruence with observed parenting (supporting a depressive realism hypothesis) whereas an opposite trend emerged for adolescents (providing some supporting evidence for a depression-distortion hypothesis). PMID:23851629
Parent, Justin; Forehand, Rex; Dunbar, Jennifer P.; Watson, Kelly H.; Reising, Michelle M.; Seehuus, Martin; Compas, Bruce E.
Abstract Background Mental health during pregnancy has not been investigated in Vietnam. Antenatal depression is an established risk factor for postpartum mood disturbance and two representative cohort studies have found rates of depression after childbirth in Vietnam two to three times higher than those in high income countries. Aim The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate the prevalence and determinants of depression in a cohort of pregnant Vietnamese women. This was the subsidi...
Rw, Fisher Jane; Tran Huong; Tran Tuan
The self-report of depressive symptoms of high school adolescents from two populations were compared. The study aims to find out whether or not; 1) there are significant sex differences between two communities and 2) with regard to the same-sex, there are significant differences between two communities. Nine hundred and twenty eight adolescents from London and 2012 adolescents from six cities from Iran were requested to fill in the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS). The results showed that significant differences between two sexes in each population. All girls had higher mean scores on all items on DSRS than boys. With regard to the same-sex, significant differences were found between either female or male populations in two communities. The research showed that female adolescents from Iran were significantly experienced more depressive symptoms than the Londoners. Similar results were repeated for the male groups. In conclusion, female adolescents are vulnerable to life stressors and tend to experience more negative feedback and interpretations than boys. Moreover, social roles and limitations, particularly for Iranian adolescents, may influence female adolescents to demonstrate depression symptoms.
Seyed-Hossein, Salimi; Mohamad-Reza, Tagavi; Parviz, Azad-Fallah; Reza, Karaminia; Tayebi, A.
This study examined the influence of anticipated social interaction on the regulation of moods. Study 1 induced happy and sad moods through exposure to music. All participants expected to perform a second, unrelated experimental task either by themselves of with another participant. Participants who expected to do the task alone subsequently selected positive and negative news stories equally, but those who expected to interact preferred stories containing material incongruent with their mood. Study 2 confirmed this outcome, but showed it was confined primarily to anticipation of interaction with partners who are expected to be in neutral or good moods themselves. In Study 3, participants whose mood was not manipulated reduced self-exposure to cheerful or depressing videos when they expected to interact with another. PMID:8636896
Erber, R; Wegner, D M; Therriault, N
Although a great number of studies have investigated the changes of resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) in patients with mental disorders, such as depression and schizophrenia etc, little is known how stable the changes are, and whether temporal sad or happy mood can modulate the intrinsic rsFC. In our experiments, happy and sad video clips were used to induce temporally happy and sad mood states in 20 healthy young adults. We collected functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data while participants were watching happy or sad video clips, which were administrated in two consecutive days. Seed-based functional connectivity analyses were conducted using the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and amygdala as seeds to investigate neural network related to executive function, attention, and emotion. We also investigated the association of the rsFC changes with emotional arousability level to understand individual differences. There is significantly stronger functional connectivity between the left DLPFC and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) under sad mood than that under happy mood. The increased connectivity strength was positively correlated with subjects' emotional arousability. The increased positive correlation between the left DLPFC and PCC under sad relative to happy mood might reflect an increased processing of negative emotion-relevant stimuli. The easier one was induced by strong negative emotion (higher emotional arousability), the greater the left DLPFC-PCC connectivity was indicated, the greater the instability of the intrinsic rsFC was shown. PMID:25039124
Wang, Zicong; Song, Sen; Wang, Lihong
This study aimed to investigate the psychometric properties of the Chinese translations of the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS16), including the Clinician-Rated (QIDS-C16), Self-report (QIDS-SR16), and Interactive Voice Response (QIDS-SR-IVR16) formats. Thirty depressed Chinese Americans were assessed with Chinese translations of the QIDS-SR16, QIDS-SR-IVR16, and QIDS-C16. Cronbach alpha estimates of internal scale consistency on the QIDS-SR16, QIDS-SR-IVR16, and QIDS-C16 w...
Yeung, Albert; Feldman, Gregory; Pedrelli, Paola; Hails, Kate; Fava, Maurizio; Reyes, Tracy; Mundt, James C.
Michela Balsamo,1 Giuseppe Giampaglia,2 Aristide Saggino11DiSPUTer, Department of Psychological Sciences, Humanities and Territory, “G d'Annunzio” University, Chieti-Pescara, Italy; 2Department of Economics and Statistics, “Federico-II” University, Naples, ItalyAbstract: This paper illustrates a sequential item development process to create a new self-report instrument of depression refined with Rasch analysis from a larger pool of potential diagnostic items elicit...
Balsamo M; Giampaglia G; Saggino A
Conflict adaptation can be measured by the "congruency sequence effect", denoting the reduction of congruency effects after incongruent trials (where response conflict occurs) relative to congruent trials (without response conflict). Recently, it has been reported that conflict adaptation is larger in negative mood than in positive mood (van Steenbergen et al., Psychological Science 21:1629-1634, 2010). We conducted two experiments further investigating this important finding. Two different interference paradigms were applied to measure conflict adaptation: Experiment 1 was a Flanker task, Experiment 2 was a Stroop-like task. To get as pure a measure of conflict adaptation as possible, we minimized the influence of trial-to-trial priming effects by excluding all kinds of stimulus repetitions. Mood states were induced by presenting film clips with emotional content prior to the interference task. Three mood states were manipulated between subjects: amused, anxious, and sad. Across both interference paradigms, we consistently found conflict adaptation in negative, but not in positive mood. Taken together with van Steenbergen et al. (Psychological Science 21:1629-1634, 2010) findings, the results suggest that the negative-mood-triggered increase in conflict adaptation is a general phenomenon that occurs independently of the particular mood-induction procedure and interference paradigm involved. PMID:25100233
Schuch, Stefanie; Koch, Iring
Depression among young adults is a significant mental health issue worldwide. Withdrawal from amphetamine and chronic alcohol use is associated with significant increases in depressive symptoms. Young adults with depressive symptoms are more likely to engage in sexual risk behaviors than peers who are not depressed. We investigated the association between substance abuse and sexual risk behaviors with recent depressive symptoms (using the Centers for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale [CES-D] scale) in a sample of 1189 young adults aged 18 to 25 years in Chiang Mai, Thailand, who were recruited based on recent methamphetamine use or were sex partners of a methamphetamine user. High reports of depressive symptoms, based on CES-D scores ?22, were seen in 45% of women and 31% of men (P condoms were infrequently used. These results point to the importance of identifying substance abuse among young adults in Thailand and its contribution to depressive symptoms and the importance of recognizing depression as a significant public mental health problem in this population. PMID:21768974
Celentano, David D; Aramrattana, Apinun; Sutcliffe, Catherine G; Sirirojn, Bangorn; Quan, Vu Minh; Taechareonkul, Sineenart; Sherman, Susan; Sintupat, Kamolrawee; Thomson, Nicholas; Latkin, Carl
BACKGROUND: Our aim was to examine whether comorbid mood and anxiety disorders influence patterns of treatment or the perceived unmet need for treatment among those not receiving treatment for illegal drug use disorders. METHODS: Data came from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC, 2001-2002 and 2004-2005, n = 34,653). Lifetime DSM-IV illegal drug use disorder (abuse and dependence), as well as comorbid mood (major depression, dysthymia, manic disorder, ...
Melchior, Maria; Prokofyeva, Elena; Youne?s, Nadia; Surkan, Pamela; Martins, Silvia
The prefrontal cortex is involved in mood and emotional processing. In patients suffering from depression, the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is hypoactive, while activity of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is enhanced. Counterbalancing these pathological excitability alterations by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) improves mood in these patients. In healthy subjects, however, rTMS of the same areas has no majo...
Delusional paranoia has been associated with severe mental illness for over a century. Kraepelin introduced a disorder called “paranoid depression,” but “paranoid” became linked to schizophrenia, not to mood disorders. Paranoid remains the most common subtype of schizophrenia, but some of these cases, as Kraepelin initially implied, may be unrecognized psychotic mood disorders, so the relationship of paranoid schizophrenia to psychotic bipolar disorder warrants reevaluation. To addres...
Lake, Charles Raymond
A field study investigated the ongoing use and effectiveness of self-regulation strategies for improving mood and the effects of a mood-regulation intervention. Thirty trainee teachers used pocket computers to complete ratings of their mood and their use of mood-regulation strategies every 2 hr during 2 weeks of a school placement. Cognitive distraction was the most frequently used strategy, but behavioral diversion and cognitive reappraisal were associated with the greatest improvements in reported mood. Neither avoidance nor venting was associated with mood improvements. Concurrent mood, mood awareness, and activity predicted the use of different regulation strategies. Half of the participants were instructed to use engagement strategies and the other half diversion strategies during the middle 6 days of the study. The engagement group reported significantly higher levels of cheerfulness during this intervention. PMID:10431282
Totterdell, P; Parkinson, B
Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing number of available genotypes for genetic studies in humans requires more advanced techniques of analysis. We previously reported significant univariate associations between gene polymorphisms and antidepressant response in mood disorders. However the combined analysis of multiple gene polymorphisms and clinical variables requires the use of non linear methods. Methods In the present study we tested a neural network strategy for a combined analysis of two gene polymorphisms. A Multi Layer Perceptron model showed the best performance and was therefore selected over the other networks. One hundred and twenty one depressed inpatients treated with fluvoxamine in the context of previously reported pharmacogenetic studies were included. The polymorphism in the transcriptional control region upstream of the 5HTT coding sequence (SERTPR and in the Tryptophan Hydroxylase (TPH gene were analysed simultaneously. Results A multi layer perceptron network composed by 1 hidden layer with 7 nodes was chosen. 77.5 % of responders and 51.2% of non responders were correctly classified (ROC area = 0.731 – empirical p value = 0.0082. Finally, we performed a comparison with traditional techniques. A discriminant function analysis correctly classified 34.1 % of responders and 68.1 % of non responders (F = 8.16 p = 0.0005. Conclusions Overall, our findings suggest that neural networks may be a valid technique for the analysis of gene polymorphisms in pharmacogenetic studies. The complex interactions modelled through NN may be eventually applied at the clinical level for the individualized therapy.
Full Text Available Purpose: This study was designed to compare the effects of two different relaxation techniques, namely progressive muscle relaxation (PMR and autogenic relaxation (AGR on moods of young soccer players. Methods: Sixteen adolescent athletes (mean age: 14.1 ± 1.3 received either PMR or AGR training. Using Profile of Mood States-Adolescents, their mood states were measured one week before relaxation training, before the first relaxation session, and after the twelfth relaxation session. Results: Mixed ANOVA revealed no significant interaction effects and no significant main effects in any of the subscales. However, significant main effects for testing sessions were found for confusion, depression, fatigue, and tension subscales. Post hoc tests revealed post-intervention reductions in the confusion, depression, fatigue, and tension subscale scores. Conclusions: These two relaxation techniques induce equivalent mood responses and may be used to regulate young soccer players' mood states.
Hazwani Hanafi@Ahmad Yusof
Recent research suggests that stress, anxiety, and depression during pregnancy may have an impact on how the child develops. In this article, the central literature supporting this hypothesis is reviewed. Next, studies from our laboratory showing that differences in fetal heart rate patterns are associated with women's anxiety and depressive symptomatology are reviewed. The data indicate that we can detect fetal markers associated with alterations in women's mood that also are linked to differences in the neurobiological substrate of the fetus' emerging emotion regulation system. Identifying such fetal characteristics someday may contribute to the early detection and prevention of predispositions to childhood risk for emotional problems and even psychopathology. PMID:11525082
This study examines the psychometric properties of a major depressive episode using a large sample (N = 2,907) of outpatients with mood and anxiety disorders. A two-parameter logistic model yielded item threshold and discrimination parameters. A two-group confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate gender bias. Item thresholds fell along a continuum with the core features of depressed mood and anhedonia, along with fatigue, endorsed at lower levels of depression, and change in appetite and suicidal ideation endorsed at more severe levels. Item discriminations were highest for depressed mood and anhedonia, and lowest for change in appetite and suicidal ideation. The data indicate that the symptoms of depression assess a range of severity, with varying precision in discriminating depression. No gender differences were observed. Three exploratory symptom sets were compared with the full symptom set for depression, offering quantitative evidence that can be used to modify the psychiatric classification system. PMID:25063687
Emmert-Aronson, Benjamin O; Brown, Timothy A
Accumulating evidence suggests the involvement of estrogen in depression. Estrogen can modulate neurotransmitter turnover, enhancing the levels of serotonin and noradrenaline (norepinephrine), and it is involved in the regulation of serotonin receptor number and function. Across the female reproductive life, fluctuating estrogen levels and low levels have been associated with depressed mood and there is strong support for a beneficial effect of estrogen-containing hormone treatment in depressed peri-menopausal women. Estrogen exerts its biological effects in large part through intracellular activation of its principal receptors, estrogen receptor ? (ESR1) and estrogen receptor ? (ESR2). Genetic variation in the estrogen receptors may therefore modify estrogen signalling, thus influencing a woman's susceptibility to developing depression. This review provides a synthesis of studies that have examined the association between estrogen receptor polymorphisms and depression-related mood disorders across the lifetime. Studies were identified through a search of the literature from January 1980 until March 2012 using MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge, Cochrane Library and PsycINFO databases. The studies conducted to date have produced inconsistent findings, which likely relates to the large heterogeneity in terms of the populations, study design and depression measures used. It appears unlikely that the common ESR1 variants rs2234693 and rs9340799 are associated with moderate depressive symptoms in women; however, there is some evidence that indicates a significant association with more severe depressive symptoms, major depressive disorder and anxiety. There are too few studies of ESR2 polymorphisms to draw any definite conclusions; however, preliminary evidence suggests that specific variants may modify the risk of depression associated with the use of hormone treatment in women. Few studies have investigated associations in men, and they have focused almost exclusively on ESR1, but all report non-significant findings. Much work is therefore still needed in this field. If it is confirmed that specific estrogen receptor polymorphisms are associated with the risk of depression, this could have important preventive and therapeutic implications, with the potential to develop targeted estrogen receptor agonists and antagonists. Furthermore, it is possible that such therapies may be more effective in treating particular people with depression based on their genetic profile, which is an exciting prospect given that many people do not respond to current antidepressant treatments. PMID:22901010
Ryan, Joanne; Ancelin, Marie-Laure
Music is one of the most expressive media to show and manipulate emotions, but there have been few studies on how to generate music connected to emotions. Such studies have always been shunned upon by musicians affirming that a machine cannot create expressive music, as it's the composer's and player's experiences and emotions that get poured into the piece. At the same time another problem is that music is highly complicated (and subjective) and finding out which elements transmit certain emotions is not an easy task. This demo wants to show how the manipulation of a set of features can actually change the mood the music transmits, hopefully awakening an interest in this area of research.
Research indicates that physical exercise can contribute to better sleep quality. This study investigates the six-week influence of a combined intervention on self-rated sleep quality, daytime mood, and quality of life. A nonclinical sample of 114 adults with chronic initiating and the maintaining of sleep complaints participated in the study. The intervention group of 70 adults underwent moderate physical exercise, conducted weekly, plus sleep education sessions. Improvements among participa...
Michael Schredl; Daniel Erlacher; Carmen Gebhart
Despite research demonstrating the psychological burden associated with caregiving, there is limited information regarding the real rates of clinical depression among non-professional caregivers (NCs) of dependent patients. The goals of the current study are (a) to report the prevalence of major depressive episodes (MDEs) and the frequency of depressive symptoms in NCs from Galicia (Spain) and (b) to examine the relationship between MDEs and characteristics of caregivers, care recipients, and the care situation. A sample of 504 NCs providing care to persons with all kinds of disorders that result in dependency was randomly selected, and the occurrence of MDEs was assessed by trained interviewers who applied the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders-Clinician Version (SCID-CV). Overall, 8.9% of NCs met the criteria for a current MDE. Sleep problems, diminished ability to think or concentrate, and depressed mood were the clinical depressive symptoms most frequently reported. MDEs were significantly more common among NCs older than 55 years old (odds ratio [OR]=1.96; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-3.75) and those who were unemployed (OR=3.43; 95% CI 1.02-11.48). The findings highlight the magnitude of major depression in this population. PMID:25667119
Torres, Ángela; Blanco, Vanessa; Vázquez, Fernando L; Díaz, Olga; Otero, Patricia; Hermida, Elisabet
Full Text Available Introduction: Depression is one of the Common psychological disorders. From the cognitive point of view, the unhealthy attitudes increase the severity of the depression. The aim of this study was to investigate depression and unhealthy attitudes in coronary patients hospitalized at Tabriz Shahid Madani Heart Center. Methods: One hundred twenty eight hospitalized patients having myocardial Infarctions were studied regarding unhealthy attitudes, severity of depression and demographic data. Results: The study showed a significant relation between unhealthy attitudes, BDI (Beck Depression Inventory and severe depression. Moreover, a significant relation existed between gender and depression (P=0.0001. In addition, the level of education increased the intensity of unhealthy attitudes (P=0.0001. Several researches in both outside and inside Iran support the idea. Conclusion: Based on present study and more other investigations, it can be suggested to provide the necessary elements and parameters such as antidepressant medication, psychologists, complementary treatment for coping with negative mood and its unwanted consequences.
The positive effects of physical activity on mood are well documented in cross-sectional studies. To date there have been only a few studies analyzing within-subject covariance between physical activity and mood in everyday life. This study aims to close this gap using an ambulatory assessment of mood and physical activity. Thirteen participants completed a standardized diary over a 10-week period, resulting in 1,860 measurement points. Valence, energetic arousal, and calmness are the three subscales of mood that were assessed. Participants rated their mood promptly after self-selected activities. A multilevel analysis indicates that the three dimensions of mood were positively affected by episodes of physical activity, such as walking or gardening-valence: t(12) = 5.6, p < .001; energetic arousal: t(12) = 2.4, p = .033; calmness: t(12) = 2.8, p = .015. Moreover, the association is affected by the individual baseline mood level, with the greatest effect seen when mood is depressed. PMID:20479481
Kanning, Martina; Schlicht, Wolfgang
Full Text Available The prefrontal cortex is involved in mood and emotional processing. In patients suffering from depression, the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is hypoactive, while activity of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is enhanced. Counterbalancing these pathological excitability alterations by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS improves mood in these patients. In healthy subjects, however, rTMS of the same areas has no major effect, and the effects of tDCS are mixed. We aimed to evaluate the effects of prefrontal tDCS on mood and mood-related cognitive processing in healthy humans. In a first study, we administered excitability-enhancing anodal, excitability-diminishing cathodal and placebo tDCS to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, combined with antagonistic stimulation of the right frontopolar cortex, and tested acute mood changes by an adjective checklist. Subjective mood was not influenced by tDCS. Emotional face identification, however, which was explored in a second experiment, was subtly improved by a tDCS-driven excitability modulation of the prefrontal cortex, markedly by anodal tDCS of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex for positive emotional content. We conclude that tDCS of the prefrontal cortex improves mood processing in healthy subjects, but does not influence subjective mood state.
Full Text Available Thomas M Penders,1 Salina Agarwal,2 Rachel Rohaidy11Department of Psychiatric Medicine, Brody School of Medicine, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, USA; 2Menninger Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USAAbstract: There has been increasing recognition that the second-generation antipsychotic drugs can produce extrapyramidal side effects. This case reports the development of severe akathisia in a patient being treated with ziprasidone for bipolar depression. The case illustrates that this symptom can be easily mistaken for worsening agitated depression. Akathisia may produce considerable distress and elevate suicide risk. Such symptoms may persist for weeks and be refractory to discontinuation of the offending agent or to pharmacological interventions commonly used to mitigate this reaction.Keywords: extrapyramidal, second-generation, affective, antipsychotic, suicide, mood disorder
Full Text Available Abstract Extensive studies have led to a variety of hypotheses for the molecular basis of depression and related mood disorders, but a definite pathogenic mechanism has yet to be defined. The monoamine hypothesis, in conjunction with the efficacy of antidepressants targeting monoamine systems, has long been the central topic of depression research. While it is widely embraced that the initiation of antidepressant efficacy may involve acute changes in monoamine systems, apparently, the focus of current research is moving toward molecular mechanisms that underlie long-lasting downstream changes in the brain after chronic antidepressant treatment, thereby reaching for a detailed view of the pathophysiology of depression and related mood disorders. In this minireview, we briefly summarize major themes in current approaches to understanding mood disorders focusing on molecular views of depression and antidepressant action.
Existing evidence suggests an association between mood, time-of-day and morningness-eveningness (M-E). Since few studies have been carried out among adolescents, in this study daily mood fluctuations were analyzed in the naturalistic school context during 2?d in order to test how chronotype and time-of-day are related to mood during the school schedule period and check if sleep length is involved in the above relation. A sample of 655 adolescents (12-16 years) reported mood levels (current level of pleasantness) three times during school day (8:10-8:30?h, 10:20-11:40?h, 13:50-14:10?h). They also reported M-E preference and time in bed. Neither age nor sex were related to mood. However, the results indicated that regardless of chronotype mood increased throughout the school day from the lowest morning levels. Moreover, morning types showed better mood compared to other chronotypes, while evening types exhibited the lowest mood. Evening-oriented students slept less than other chronotypes, but time in bed was not involved in the relationship between chronotype and mood. These results suggest that it is not shortened sleep duration responsible for decreased mood in evening-oriented students. PMID:25153134
Díaz-Morales, Juan Francisco; Escribano, Cristina; Jankowski, Konrad S
Used autobiographical memory task to study memory processes and depression in 27 nondepressed and 27 depressed older adults who each recalled 30 memories. Results were consistent with mood congruence hypothesis, in that participants recalled more memories affectively consistent with current mood, and self-enhancement view of reminiscing, such that…
Yang, Janet Anderson; Rehm, Lynn P.
There is limited research that has examined experimentally the effects of muscular images on adolescent boys' body image, with no research specifically examining the effects of music television. The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of viewing muscular and attractive singers in music video clips on early, mid, and late adolescent boys' body image, mood, and schema activation. Participants were 180 boys in grade 7 (mean age = 12.73 years), grade 9 (mean age = 14.40 years) or grade 11 (mean age = 16.15 years) who completed pre- and post-test measures of mood and body satisfaction after viewing music videos containing male singers of muscular or average appearance. They also completed measures of schema activation and social comparison after viewing the clips. The results showed that the boys who viewed the muscular clips reported poorer upper body satisfaction, lower appearance satisfaction, lower happiness, and more depressive feelings compared to boys who viewed the clips depicting singers of average appearance. There was no evidence of increased appearance schema activation but the boys who viewed the muscular clips did report higher levels of social comparison to the singers. The results suggest that music video clips are a powerful form of media in conveying information about the male ideal body shape and that negative effects are found in boys as young as 12 years. PMID:23443315
Mulgrew, Kate E; Volcevski-Kostas, Diana; Rendell, Peter G
Examines the effects of variables associated with the onset of a depressive episode on a group of 942 psychoactive drug-using young adults. Finds that controls were free of depressive symptoms but that methaqualone users were more prone to a depressed mood, lower self-esteem, and negative life events than nonusers. (FMW)
Buckner, John C.; And Others
Full Text Available Inhalant substance dependence is generally seen at 14-15 years of age and its prevalence decreases in adulthood. Inhalant use is common among disadvantaged groups, street children, people with history of crime, depression, suicide, antisocial attitudes, history of abuse, violence and any other drug dependence. Psychosocial factors are important in the beginning of inhalant dependence. Medical and neurological problems are frequently seen in chronic inhalant users. The duration of inhalant use is positively correlated with morbidity and mortality. In this report, medical and neuropsychiatric results of chronic inhalant dependence will be discussed. In our patient, chronic inhalant use caused central and peripheral neuropathy, cognitive impairment, depression, psychotic disorder, upper motor neuron type destruction in muscles and mild anemia. Neuropsychiatric destructive effects are prominent in chronic abuse. Mirtazapine and olanzapine treatment decreased depressive and psychotic symptoms, but cognitive impairment, neuropathy, upper motor neuron type destruction didn?t recover completely. Given serious and sometimes irreversible consequences of chronic inhalant dependence, early medical and psychosocial interventions seem very important.
Objective This study aimed to examine the relationship between internalization of weight bias, which has been linked to specific negative mental health outcomes, and overall mental and physical health among overweight patients with binge eating disorder (BED). The role of depressive symptoms as a potential mediator in this relationship was also tested. Design and Methods In a cross-sectional study, 255 individuals who were overweight and seeking treatment for BED completed the Weight Bias Internalization Scale (WBIS), Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36), and Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI). Regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the relationship between the WBIS and the SF-36, and bootstrapping mediation analyses were conducted to test whether BDI scores mediated this relationship. Results Higher weight bias internalization was associated with poorer self-reported health on all scales of the SF-36, and BDI scores mediated the relationship. Additional analyses revealed that WBIS scores also mediated the relationship between BDI scores and three SF-36 scales. Conclusions Weight bias internalization is associated with poorer overall mental and physical health, and depressive symptoms may play a role in accounting for this relationship in treatment-seeking overweight patients with BED. PMID:24039219
Pearl, Rebecca L.; White, Marney A.; Grilo, Carlos M.
Historically, teen depression has been seen as a symptom of other problems such as anxiety, irritability, mood swings, somatic complaints, substance use, and poor school performance. These symptoms were often considered as part of "adolescent turmoil"--a normal, understandable, and even expected phenomenon. For a long time, this viewpoint masked…
Kim, Kee Jeong
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Neurocardiogenic syncope (NCS is a condition where the patient has a temporary loss of consciousness or feelings of weakness and fatigue. There are triggers such as prolonged sitting or standing, pain, and heavy exercise, but often episodes are random. Treatments are limited and the use of specific serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI have had mixed results, but a limited number of studies have suggested that paroxetine may be effective in improving the symptoms of NCS. METHODS: This is a single case report of a 20-year old female who was diagnosed with NCS by a tilt test and treated conservatively with increased fluid and salt intake, and counter-pressure maneuvers. She was given one dose of sertraline, but immediately experienced disturbing visual images. She presented at the Depression Center with moderate depressive symptoms and was started on paroxetine and given cognitive/behavioral strategies to manage the NCS. RESULTS: Since the patient had a negative experience with a prior SSRI, she was started on a low dose of paroxetine and omega-3 fatty acids. She also was given a detailed explanation of NCS and a number of cognitive/behavioral strategies such as deep breathing, progressive relaxation, imagery, and sleep. CONCLUSION: After 2-weeks of the multi-faceted treatment approach, she had a significant decrease in her depressive symptoms. After 6-months, the patient had no episodes of syncope and no depressive symptoms. She was able to stand for long periods and exercise without feelings of weakness and fatigue. A multimodal approach may offer the best treatment strategy to achieve full remission in patients with NCS.
Reg Arthur Williams
Objective: To examine whether painful physical symptoms (PPS) can be considered within the spectrum of depressive symptoms. Methods: Data for this post-hoc analysis were taken from a 6-month observational study mostly conducted in East Asia, Mexico, and the Middle East of 1,549 depressed patients without sexual dysfunction at baseline. Both explanatory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA and CFA) were performed on the combined items of the 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Self-Report and the Somatic Symptom Inventory (seven pain-related items only). An additional second-order CFA was also conducted to examine an association between retained factors and the overall “depressive symptoms” factor. In addition, Spearman’s correlation was used to assess levels of correlation between retained factors and depression severity as well as quality of life. Results: Both EFA and CFA suggested and validated a four-factor solution, which included a pain factor. The other three factors identified were a mood/cognitive factor, a sleep disturbance factor, and an appetite/weight disturbance factor. All four factors were significantly associated with the overall factor of depression. They were also highly correlated to depression severity and quality of life (psleep factor. Conclusion: It may be reasonable to consider PPS within a broad spectrum of depressive symptoms. At least, they should be routinely assessed in patients with depression. Further research is warranted to validate these preliminary findings.
Hong, Jihyung; Novick, Diego; Montgomery, William; Aguado, Jaume; Dueñas, Héctor; Peng, Xiaomei; Haro, Josep Maria
To determine the frequency of anxiety and depression in patients with chronic low backache and to document other co-morbidities among these patients presenting at rheumatology clinic of a tertiary care hospital in Islamabad. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Study was conducted at Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences from July 2012 to April 2013. Methodology: A total of 170 chronic low backache patients were administered urdu translated Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale and Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scales. Scoring was done on Likert-type scale of 1-4 (based on these replies: a little of the time, some of the time, good part of the time, most of the time) with overall assessment by cumulative score ranging from 20 to 80, where 20-44 was normal range, 45-59 mildly depressed/anxious, 60-69 moderately depressed / anxious and 70 and above severely depressed / anxious. Results: Out of 170 patients, 157 patients above 18 years of age with male to female ratio 2:3 completed the study. Among study sample 72.2% had mild depression, 21.6% had mild anxiety, 32% had mixed mild anxiety and depression, 0.8% had severe depression, 1.6% had severe anxiety while 2.4% suffered from severe mixed symptoms. Overall, 125 (79.6%) patients were suffering from mild to severe form of depression and anxiety both alone or mixed. Obesity was present in 34 (21.66%) of patients with chronic backache and out of these 29 (85.3%) had psychological co-morbidity. Conclusion: Two thirds of the chronic backache patients reporting at rheumatology clinic of a tertiary care hospital were suffering from mild to severe degree of depression and anxiety. This worrying situation calls for thorough systematic evaluation of all chronic backache patient arriving at rheumatology clinic for mood disorders and psychological ailment. (author)
Mood disorders are highly heritable and have been linked to brain regions of emotion processing. Over the past few years, an enormous amount of imaging genetics studies has demonstrated the impact of risk genes on brain regions and systems of emotion processing in vivo in healthy subjects as well as in mood disorder patients. While sufficient evidence already exists for several monaminergic genes as well as for a few non-monoaminergic genes, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in healthy subjects, many others only have been investigated in single studies so far. Apart from these studies, the present review also covers imaging genetics studies applying more complex genetic disease models of mood disorders, such as epistasis and gene-environment interactions, and their impact on brain systems of emotion processing. This review attempts to provide a comprehensive overview of the rapidly growing field of imaging genetics studies in mood disorder research. PMID:20156570
Scharinger, Christian; Rabl, Ulrich; Sitte, Harald H; Pezawas, Lukas
Purpose:The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between perception of emotional intelligence and beliefs in the extent to which exercising leads to mood-enhancement. Methods: Volunteer participants (N= 315) completed a 33-item self-report measure of trait emotional intelligence and an exercise-mood regulation scale.Results: Emotional intelligence significantly correlated with beliefs that exercise could be used to regulate mood (r =0.45, P
Lane, Andrew M.; Dharmendra Solanki
PTSD has been associated with poor physical health. Depression is also associated with poor health, and may be responsible for the apparent relationship between PTSD and health outcomes. The current study examined self-reported and physician diagnosed medical morbidity in women. Women with PTSD alone were compared to three other groups of women: women with PTSD and comorbid major depressive disorder (MDD), women with MDD only, or women with neither diagnosis (comparison group). Results sugges...
Calhoun, Patrick S.; Wiley, Matthew; Dennis, Michelle F.; Beckham, Jean C.
Abstract Introduction To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a case of treatment-resistant depression in which the patient was evaluated for sleep disordered breathing as the cause and in which rapid palatal expansion to permanently treat the sleep disordered breathing produced a prolonged symptom-free period off medication. Case presentation An 18-year-old Caucasian man presented to our sleep disorders center with chronic severe depression that was no longer responsive to ...
Miller Paul; Iyer Mala; Gold Avram R
Aripiprazole is a third generation antipsychotic with partial dopaminergic activity. In addition to its proven antipsychotic effects, it has become more widely accepted at the clinical level. It is FDA-approved as an adjunctive therapy for depression with or without psychotic features. This case report concerns the development of severe Parkinsonian features in a depressed psychotic patient following the addition of aripiprazole to his sertraline treatment.
Ahmed Rady; Heba Abou El-Wafa; Osama Elkholy
Individuals who have experienced an electrical injury have been reported to demonstrate both acute and delayed cognitive and psychiatric symptoms. The present study assessed 20 electrically injured patients who underwent neuropsychological evaluations twice following their injury. Time since injury, time between assessments, and longitudinal mood changes were evaluated for their potential impact on simple and complex attention outcomes. As an overall group, there was little change over time from low average to average baseline attention/concentration performance. However, results indicated that longitudinal increases in depressive symptoms were consistently associated with poorer performance on a measure of simple and complex attention. Loss of consciousness, litigation status, baseline injury status (acute vs. post-acute), and time between evaluations were not significant predictors of changes in cognitive performance. Implications for the treatment of comorbid psychiatric issues and for future research on victims of electrical trauma are discussed. PMID:24395352
Aase, Darrin M; Fink, Joseph W; Lee, Raphael C; Kelley, Kathleen M; Pliskin, Neil H
Although there is clinical and historical evidence for a vivid relation between the vestibular and emotional systems, the neuroscientific underpinnings are poorly understood. The “spin doctors” of the nineteenth century used spinning chairs (e.g., Cox’s chair) to treat conditions of mania or elevated arousal. On the basis of a recent study on a hexapod motion-simulator, in this prototypic investigation we explore the impact of yaw stimulation on a spinning chair on mood states. Using a controlled experimental stimulation paradigm on a unique 3-D-turntable at the University of Zurich we included 11 healthy subjects and assessed parameters of mood states and autonomic nervous system activity. The Multidimensional Mood State Questionnaire and Visual Analog Scales (VAS) were used to assess changes of mood in response to a 100?s yaw stimulation. In addition heart rate was continuously monitored during the experiment. Subjects indicated feeling less “good,” “relaxed,” “comfortable,” and “calm” and reported an increased alertness after vestibular stimulation. However, there were no objective adverse effects of the stimulation. Accordingly, heart rate did not significantly differ in response to the stimulation. This is the first study in a highly controlled setting using the historical approach of stimulating the vestibular system to impact mood states. It demonstrates a specific interaction between the vestibular system and mood states and thereby supports recent experimental findings with a different stimulation technique. These results may inspire future research on the clinical potential of this method. PMID:24133463
Winter, Lotta; Wollmer, M. Axel; Laurens, Jean; Straumann, Dominik; Kruger, Tillmann H. C.
Although there is clinical and historical evidence for a vivid relation between the vestibular and emotional systems, the neuroscientific underpinnings are poorly understood. The "spin doctors" of the nineteenth century used spinning chairs (e.g., Cox's chair) to treat conditions of mania or elevated arousal. On the basis of a recent study on a hexapod motion-simulator, in this prototypic investigation we explore the impact of yaw stimulation on a spinning chair on mood states. Using a controlled experimental stimulation paradigm on a unique 3-D-turntable at the University of Zurich we included 11 healthy subjects and assessed parameters of mood states and autonomic nervous system activity. The Multidimensional Mood State Questionnaire and Visual Analog Scales (VAS) were used to assess changes of mood in response to a 100?s yaw stimulation. In addition heart rate was continuously monitored during the experiment. Subjects indicated feeling less "good," "relaxed," "comfortable," and "calm" and reported an increased alertness after vestibular stimulation. However, there were no objective adverse effects of the stimulation. Accordingly, heart rate did not significantly differ in response to the stimulation. This is the first study in a highly controlled setting using the historical approach of stimulating the vestibular system to impact mood states. It demonstrates a specific interaction between the vestibular system and mood states and thereby supports recent experimental findings with a different stimulation technique. These results may inspire future research on the clinical potential of this method. PMID:24133463
Winter, Lotta; Wollmer, M Axel; Laurens, Jean; Straumann, Dominik; Kruger, Tillmann H C
Full Text Available Objectives. To review the literature addressing the relationship between mood disorders and fibromyalgia/chronic pain and our current understanding of overlapping pathophysiological processes and pain and depression circuitry. Methods. We selectively reviewed articles on the co-occurrence of mood disorders and fibromyalgia/chronic pain published between 1990 and July 2012 in PubMed. Bibliographies and cross references were considered and included when appropriate. Results. Forty-nine out of 138 publications were retained for review. The vast majority of the studies found an association between depression and fibromyalgia. There is evidence that depression is often accompanied by symptoms of opposite polarity characterised by heights of mood, thinking and behaviour that have a considerable impact on pharmacological treatment. Recent developments support the view that the high rates of fibromyalgia and mood disorder comorbidity is generated by largely overlapping pathophysiological processes in the brain, that provide a neurobiological basis for the bidirectional, mutually exacerbating and disabling relationship between pain and depression. Conclusions. The finding of comparable pathophysiological characteristics of pain and depression provides a framework for understanding the relationship between the two conditions and sheds some light on neurobiological and therapeutic aspects.
The expression of emotion is determined by emotion and the presence and absence of others, i.e. social context. The present study examined social context differences in facial muscle activity and self-reported emotion of 11 major depressed and 11 non-depressed patients. Subjects were asked to imagine happy and sad situations with and without visualizing other people. Facial muscle activity over the brow and cheek region was reduced in depressed compared to non-depressed patients during happy and sad imagery whereas self-reported emotion showed no group differences. In both subject groups, happy imagery induced increased smiling and self-reported happiness whereas sad imagery induced increased frowning and self-reported sadness. Smiling and self-reported happiness were increased during happy-social compared to happy-solitary imagery in both groups. In contrast, frowning showed a lack of social context differences, although self-reported sadness was increased during sad-social vs. sad-solitary imagery in both groups. Reduced facial muscle activity in depression may indicate psychomotor retardation whereas the lack of social context differences in frowning may suggest social disengagement and an inhibition of sad facial expression in the presence of others. PMID:10963801
Gehricke, J; Shapiro, D
Full Text Available Irene Hegeman Richard1, Kori A LaDonna1, Rosanne Hartman2, Carol Podgorski1, Roger Kurlan1, SAD-PD Study Group31University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY, USA; 2Canisius College, Buffalo, NY, USA; 3Please see Appendix for members of the SAD-PD Study GroupAbstract: We report results of a survey assessing patients’ knowledge about and attitudes towards depression in Parkinson’s disease (PD. 345 patients from 8 tertiary care centers responded (43% response rate. Overall, patients were relatively knowledgeable about depression and its occurrence in PD. However, many patients believed that depression is a normal reaction to the illness. While many respondents would be reluctant to initiate a discussion of depression during a clinical evaluation, most would feel comfortable talking about depression with their physician if he or she asked them questions about their mood. Based on the results of this survey, we recommend the following approach for physicians: (1 inform PD patients that, although a frequent occurrence, depression need not be accepted as a “normal reaction” to PD; and (2 routinely inquire about depressive symptoms rather than waiting for the patient to spontaneously report them.Keywords: depression, Parkinson’s disease, survey
Irene Hegeman Richard
The present study examines the relationship between social Internet use and loneliness and reviews the studies about this topic from both social psychology and computer-mediated communication literature, as a response to the call for interdisciplinary research from scholars in these two areas. Two hundred thirty-four people participated in both the survey testing trait loneliness and a 5-condition (face-to-face chatting, instant message chatting, watching video, writing assignments, and "do nothing") experiment. Participants reported increase of mood loneliness after chatting online. The level of mood loneliness after online chat was higher than that in face-to-face communication. For people with high trait loneliness, the mood loneliness increase in the computer-mediated communication condition was significantly higher than in the face-to-face communication condition. The author of the current study hopes to help clarify the mixed research findings in previous social Internet use literature about this topic and reminds communication researchers of the need to explore the constructs included in "psychological well-being" in terms of their nature, mechanism, causes, consequences, and furthermore, how they are related to communication. PMID:19250012
Opioid-induced respiratory depression (OIRD) is a potentially fatal complication of treatment with opioids. Little is known about patient- and case-related factors associated with OIRD. One-hundred-and-five available case reports on OIRD in 134 patients (12 years and older) in the perioperative, obstetric or emergency care setting, published since 1980, were retrieved from the literature. The most frequently reported case-related factors were: morphine use, perioperative setting and obstetrics, neuraxial or intravenous administration. The most frequently reported patient-related factors involved were: female gender, sleep-disordered breathing, obesity, renal impairment, pulmonary disease and CYP450 enzyme polymorphisms. While the analysis has limitations, it confirms that OIRD in the acute setting involves complex and interrelated factors and is a significant cause of preventable morbidity and mortality. PMID:25300390
Overdyk, Frank; Dahan, Albert; Roozekrans, Margot; van der Schrier, Rutger; Aarts, Leon; Niesters, Marieke
Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychotic major depression is a clinical subtype of major depressive disorder. A number of clinical studies have demonstrated the efficacy of the combination of an antidepressant (for example, a tricyclic antidepressant or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI and an atypical antipsychotic or electroconvulsive therapy (ECT in treating psychotic major depression. In several studies, monotherapy of SSRIs such as fluvoxamine has been shown to be effective in the treatment of psychotic major depression. Methods We report on a 36-year-old Japanese woman in whom fluvoxamine (a SSRI with sigma-1 receptor agonist and sertraline (a SSRI with sigma-1 receptor antagonist showed the opposite effects on psychotic symptoms in the treatment of psychotic major depression. Results Symptoms of depression and psychosis in the patient who was non-respondent to antipsychotic drugs improved after fluvoxamine monotherapy. At 3 years later, a switch to sertraline from fluvoxamine dramatically worsened the psychotic symptoms in the patient. Then, a switch back to fluvoxamine from sertraline improved these symptoms 1 week after fluvoxamine treatment. Conclusion Doctors should consider the monotherapy of sigma-1 receptor agonist fluvoxamine as an alternative approach to treating psychotic major depression.
Laughter is a very common behaviour in everyday life, nevertheless scientific literature is lacking in studies which examine closely its nature. The study aims are: to summarise the present knowledge about laughter and its relation with depression and to make hypotheses on its possible therapeutic function. In the first part of the review the main data existing about encephalic structures involved in laughter genesis, which show participation of cortical and subcortical regions, are reported and the effects of laughter on the organism physiologic equilibrium, particularly on the neuroendocrine and immune systems, are described. In the second part, scientific evidence about the influence of depression on the ability to laugh are referred, which suggests that reduction of laughter frequency is a symptom of the disease and that its increase may be used as a marker of clinical improvement. Finally, the main assumptions supporting the hypothesis of the therapeutic action of laughter on depression are examined: first of all, it has been demonstrated that laughter is able to improve mood directly and to moderate negative consequences of stressful events on psychological well-being; in addition, it is possible that the stimulation of particular cerebral regions, involved in depression pathogenesis, and the normalisation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenocortical system dysfunctions, both mediated by laughter, can counteract efficiently depressive symptoms; finally, the favourable effects of laughter on social relationships and physical health may have a role in influencing the ability of depressed patients to face the disease. PMID:20380236
Fonzi, Laura; Matteucci, Gabriella; Bersani, Giuseppe
Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity. It may occur due to existence of other mental or physical diseases or from the medications for those illnesses. It is one of the leading sources of disability. Among these physical diseases, epilepsy is widely recognized as one of the main causes of depression. Patients with epilepsy are at high risk of developing depressive symptoms, and the suicide rates in patients with epilepsy have been reported to be much higher than in the general population. However, due to fears of lowering seizure threshold and adverse drug interactions between antidepressants and antiepileptic drugs, physician are reluctant to place patients with epilepsy on antidepressant medication. As a result, the question has been raised that what the best managements should be used to treat epileptic patients with depression. In this review, the currently used medications for antidepressants and antiepileptic drugs were summarized by their working targets in order to establish appropriate pharmacological management of depression and epilepsy. Despite the complex relationship between epilepsy and depression, coadministration of antidepressants and AEDs can still be done safely and effectively under the conditions of good clinical management. The ideal antidepressants for people with epilepsy should be efficacious but with few adverse effects, which will not antagonize GABAergic mechanisms or interfere with plasma anticonvulsant concentrations. PMID:25271800
Yang, Yang; Gao, Xia; Xu, Yao
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the predictive/protective role of negative affect/positive affect in late pregnancy on the outcome of postpartum depression. METHODS: A total of 491 pregnant women participated in the study. The participants were asked to fill out a series of questionnaires, which included the Profile of Mood States, the Beck Depression Inventory-II, psychosocial variables and socio-demographic characteristics and were asked to participate in a psychiatric interview. After delivery, 272 mothers participated again in the study and filled out a similar series of questionnaires. RESULTS: Negative affect was associated with more intense depressive symptomatology, more self-perceived stress, lower self-reported social support, lower quality of life and perception of having a more difficult infant. By contrast, positive affect was negatively associated with these variables. Negative affect in late pregnancy increased the likelihood of experiencing postpartum depression (DSM-IV/OR = 2.1, 95%CI = 1.3-3.4, p = .003; ICD-10/OR = 2.1, 95%CI = 1.5-3.0, p < .001, while positive affect increased the odds of not having this condition (DSM-IV/OR = 2.0, 95%CI = 1.5-2.7, p = .042. CONCLUSION: In pregnancy, negative affect was a predictor of postpartum depression, whereas positive affect showed a protective role. Future studies are required to explore whether psychotherapeutic strategies focusing on decreasing negative affect and enhancing positive affect in the last trimester of pregnancy can reduce the risk of postpartum depression.
Sandra Carvalho Bos
Background Nicotine dependence is associated with an increased risk of mood and anxiety disorders and suicide. The primary hypothesis of this study was to identify whether the polymorphisms of two glutathione-S-transferase enzymes (GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes) predict an increased risk of mood and anxiety disorders in smokers with nicotine dependence. Materials and methods Smokers were recruited at the Centre of Treatment for Smokers. The instruments were a sociodemographic questionnaire, Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, diagnoses of mood disorder and nicotine dependence according to DSM-IV (SCID-IV), and the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test. Anxiety disorder was assessed based on the treatment report. Laboratory assessment included glutathione-S-transferases M1 (GSTM1) and T1 (GSTT1), which were detected by a multiplex-PCR protocol. Results Compared with individuals who had both GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes, a higher frequency of at least one deletion of the GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes was identified in anxious smokers [odds ratio (OR)=2.21, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.05–4.65, P=0.034], but there was no association with bipolar and unipolar depression (P=0.943). Compared with nonanxious smokers, anxious smokers had a greater risk for mood disorders (OR=4.67; 95% CI=2.24–9.92, P<0.001), lung disease (OR=6.78, 95% CI=1.95–23.58, P<0.003), and suicide attempts (OR=17.01, 95% CI=2.23–129.91, P<0.006). Conclusion This study suggests that at least one deletion of the GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes represents a risk factor for anxious smokers. These two genes may modify the capacity for the detoxification potential against oxidative stress. PMID:24637631
Pizzo de Castro, Márcia Regina; Ehara Watanabe, Maria Angelica; Losi Guembarovski, Roberta; Odebrecht Vargas, Heber; Vissoci Reiche, Edna Maria; Kaminami Morimoto, Helena; Dodd, Seetal; Berk, Michael
Background: Informant discrepancies have been reported between parent and adolescent measures of depressive disorders and suicidality. We aimed to examine the concordance between adolescent and parent ratings of depressive disorder using both clinical interview and questionnaire measures and assess multi-informant and multi-method approaches to classification. Method: Within the context of assessment of eligibility for a randomized clinical trial, 50 parent–adolescent pairs (mean age of adolescents = 15.0 years) were interviewed separately with a structured diagnostic interview for depression, the KID-SCID. Adolescent self-report and parent-report versions of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire and the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire were also administered. We examined the diagnostic concordance rates of the parent vs. adolescent structured interview methods and the prediction of adolescent diagnosis via questionnaire methods. Results: Parent proxy reporting of adolescent depression and suicidal thoughts and behavior is not strongly concordant with adolescent report. Adolescent self-reported symptoms on depression scales provide a more accurate report of diagnosable adolescent depression than parent proxy reports of adolescent depressive symptoms. Adolescent self-report measures can be combined to improve the accuracy of classification. Parents tend to over report their adolescent’s depressive symptoms while under reporting their suicidal thoughts and behavior. Conclusion: Parent proxy report is clearly less reliable than the adolescent’s own report of their symptoms and subjective experiences, and could be considered inaccurate for research purposes. While parent report would still be sought clinically where an adolescent refuses to provide information, our findings suggest that parent reporting of adolescent suicidality should be interpreted with caution. PMID:25101031
Lewis, Andrew J.; Bertino, Melanie D.; Bailey, Catherine M.; Skewes, Joanna; Lubman, Dan I.; Toumbourou, John W.
Assessing Latina/o Undergraduates' Depressive Symptomatology: Comparisons of the Beck Depression Inventory-II, the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale, and the Self-Report Depression Scale
The use of depression scales as screening tools at university and college centers is increasing and thus, the question of whether scales are culturally valid for different student groups is increasingly more relevant with increased severity of depression for students and changing student demographics. As such, this study examined the reliability…
Gloria, Alberta M.; Castellanos, Jeanett; Kanagui-Munoz, Marlen; Rico, Melissa A.
Research on father involvement has shown positive effects on child development. Because fathers in high social risk samples may be hard to recruit or retain in studies, the literature often has relied on maternal report of father involvement. A major limitation of this approach is that unobserved traits of the reporting mothers may distort the real associations between father involvement and children's development. Using maternal data from a large, longitudinal sample (N = 704) of low-income, young mothers, we evaluated the degree to which a stable depressive trait affected the link between mother-reported measures of father involvement and child problems. Three waves of maternal depression data were used to fit a latent state-trait model of depression, allowing for separate estimates of occasion-specific symptoms and stable depressive trait. A latent regression analysis which did not control for this trait revealed a link between father involvement and child problems similar in magnitude to the links reported in the literature. However, this association disappeared once we accounted for the effect of maternal depressive trait. Results suggest that studies using maternal reports of both father and child behaviors should control for such confounding effects. We elaborate on these findings in the conclusion and offer suggestions for future research on the role of fathers in child development. PMID:25504511
Raskin, Maryna; Fosse, Nathan E; Easterbrooks, M Ann
This study examined predictive relations between 9 therapist behaviors and client involvement in manual-guided, cognitive-behavioral therapy for adolescent depression. Analyses included 42 adolescents who met criteria for a depressive disorder (major depressive disorder, dysthymic disorder, or adjustment disorder with depressed mood) and who were…
Jungbluth, Nathaniel J.; Shirk, Stephen R.
Purpose To investigate the effects of music therapy on depressive mood and anxiety in post-stroke patients and evaluate satisfaction levels of patients and caregivers. Materials and Methods Eighteen post-stroke patients, within six months of onset and mini mental status examination score of over 20, participated in this study. Patients were divided into music and control groups. The experimental group participated in the music therapy program for four weeks. Psychological status was evaluated with the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) before and after music therapy. Satisfaction with music therapy was evaluated by a questionnaire. Results BAI and BDI scores showed a greater decrease in the music group than the control group after music therapy, but only the decrease of BDI scores were statistically significant (p=0.048). Music therapy satisfaction in patients and caregivers was affirmative. Conclusion Music therapy has a positive effect on mood in post-stroke patients and may be beneficial for mood improvement with stroke. These results are encouraging, but further studies are needed in this field. PMID:22028163
Kim, Dong Soo; Choi, Jung Hwa; Im, Sang-Hee; Jung, Kang Jae; Cha, Young A; Jung, Chul Oh; Yoon, Yeo Hoon
Indices of mood, mood regulation expectancies and everyday executive functioning were examined in adult current smokers and never-smokers of both genders in Australia (N = 97), where anti-smoking campaigns have dramatically reduced smoking prevalence and acceptability, and in China (N = 222), where smoking prevalence and public acceptance of smoking remain high. Dependent measures included the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21), the Negative Mood Regulation (NMR) expectancies scale, the Frontal Systems Behavior Scale (FrSBe), the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Multivariate analyses of covariance (MANCOVAs) controlling for demographic and recruitment related variables revealed highly significant differences between current smokers and never-smokers in both countries such that smokers indicated worse moods and poorer functioning than never-smokers on all dependent measures. Chinese smokers scored significantly worse on all dependent measures than Australian smokers whereas Chinese and Australian never-smokers did not differ on any of the same measures. Although nicotine dependence level as measured by FTND was significantly higher in Chinese than Australian smokers and was significantly correlated with all other dependent measures, inclusion of FTND scores as another covariate in MANCOVA did not eliminate the highly significant differences between Chinese and Australian smokers. Results are interpreted in light of the relative ease of taking up and continuing smoking in China compared to Australia today. PMID:23948698
Lyvers, Michael; Carlopio, Cassandra; Bothma, Vicole; Edwards, Mark S
Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) screening for recurrence of a coiled intracranial aneurysm and formation of new aneurysms long-term after coiling may induce anxiety and depression. In coiled patients, we evaluated effects on mood and level of anxiety from long-term follow-up MRA in comparison to general population norms. Of 162 patients participating in a long-term (>4.5 years) MRA follow-up after coiling, 120 completed the EQ-5D questionnaire, a visual analog health scale and a self-developed screening related questionnaire at the time of MRA. Three months later, the same questionnaires were completed by 100 of these 120 patients. Results were compared to general population norms adjusted for gender and age. Any problem with anxiety or depression was reported in 56 of 120 patients (47%; 95%CI38<->56%) at baseline and 42 of 100 patients (42%; 95%CI32<->52%) at 3 months, equally for screen-positives and -negatives. Compared to the reference population, participants scored 38% (95%CI9<->67%) and 27% (95%CI4<->50%) more often any problem with anxiety or depression. Three months after screening, 21% (20 of 92) of screen-negatives and 13% (one of eight) of screen-positives reported to be less afraid of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) compared to before screening. One of eight screen-positives reported increased fear of SAH. Patients with coiled intracranial aneurysms participating in long-term MRA screening reported significantly more often to be anxious or depressed than a reference group. Screening did not significantly increase anxiety or depression temporarily. However, subjectively, patients did report an increase in anxiety caused by screening, which decreased after 3 months. (orig.)
Ferns, Sandra P.; Nieuwkerk, Pythia T.; Majoie, Charles B.L.M. [Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rooij, Willem Jan J. van [St. Elisabeth Ziekenhuis, Department of Radiology, Tilburg (Netherlands); Rinkel, Gabriel J.E. [University Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience, Utrecht (Netherlands)
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Mood disorders cause many social problems, often involving family relationships. Few studies are available in the literature comparing patients with bipolar, unipolar, dysthymic, and double depressive disorders concerning these aspects. In the present study, demographic and disease data were collect [...] ed using a specifically prepared questionnaire. Social adjustment was assessed using the Disability Adjustment Scale and family relationships were evaluated using the Global Assessment of Relational Functioning Scale. One hundred patients under treatment for at least 6 months were evaluated at the Psychiatric Outpatient Clinic of the Botucatu School of Medicine, UNESP. Most patients were women (82%) more than 50 (49%) years old with at least two years of follow-up, with little schooling (62% had less than 4 years), and of low socioeconomic level. Logistic regression analysis showed that a diagnosis of unipolar disorder (P = 0.003, OR = 0.075, CI = 0.014-0.403) and dysthymia (P = 0.001, OR = 0.040, CI = 0.006-0.275) as well as family relationships (P = 0.002, OR = 0.953, CI = 0914-0.992) played a significant role in social adjustment. Unipolar and dysthymic patients presented better social adjustment than bipolar and double depressive patients (P
A.M., Tucci; F., Kerr-Corrêa; R.S., Dias.
Microblogging is a form of online communication by which users broadcast brief text updates, also known as tweets, to the public or a selected circle of contacts. A variegated mosaic of microblogging uses has emerged since the launch of Twitter in 2006: daily chatter, conversation, information sharing, and news commentary, among others. Regardless of their content and intended use, tweets often convey pertinent information about their author's mood status. As such, tweets can be regarded as temporally-authentic microscopic instantiations of public mood state. In this article, we perform a sentiment analysis of all public tweets broadcasted by Twitter users between August 1 and December 20, 2008. For every day in the timeline, we extract six dimensions of mood (tension, depression, anger, vigor, fatigue, confusion) using an extended version of the Profile of Mood States (POMS), a well-established psychometric instrument. We compare our results to fluctuations recorded by stock market and crude oil price indice...
Bollen, Johan; Mao, Huina
The study aimed to ascertain the prevalence of mood and disruptive behavior disorders and symptoms in 35 children of 29 adult outpatients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of bipolar I disorder, compared with 33 children of 29 healthy adults, matched with patients on age, socioeconomic status and education. The offspring of bipolar patients had a 9.48 fold higher risk of receiving a psychiatric diagnosis. While only two children of patients with bipolar disorder were diagnosed with a mood disorder, 30.9% displayed mild depressed mood, compared with 8.8% of the controls, a statistically significant difference. The bipolar offspring also scored significantly higher on the hyperactivity and conduct problems subscales as well as the ADHD index of the Conners’ Teacher Rating Scale. The disruptive behavior and mood symptoms observed in early life in the offspring of bipolar patients may indicate the need for early psychosocial intervention. PMID:18560482
NESLIHAN INAL-EIROGLU, F.; OZERDEM, AYSEGUL; MIKLOWITZ, DAVID; BAYKARA, AYSEN; AKAY, AYNUR
Psychiatric co-morbidities in epilepsy are of great concern. The current study investigated the relative contribution of structural and functional connectivity (FC) between medial temporal (MT) and prefrontal regions in predicting levels of depressive symptoms in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Twenty-one patients with TLE [11 left TLE (LTLE); 10 right TLE (RTLE)] and 20 controls participated. Diffusion tensor imaging was performed to obtain fractional anisotropy (FA) of the uncinate fasciculus (UF), and mean diffusivity (MD) of the amygdala (AM) and hippocampus (HC). Functional MRI was performed to obtain FC strengths between the AM and HC and prefrontal regions of interest including anterior prefrontal (APF), orbitofrontal, and inferior frontal regions. Participants self-reported depression symptoms on the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Greater depressive symptoms were associated with stronger FC of ipsilateral HC-APF, lower FA of the bilateral UF, and higher MD of the ipsilateral HC in LTLE, and with lower FA of the contralateral UF in RTLE. Regression analyses indicated that FC of the ipsilateral HC-APF was the strongest contributor to depression in LTLE, explaining 68.7% of the variance in depression scores. Both functional and microstructural measures of frontolimbic dysfunction were associated with depressive symptoms. These connectivity variables may be moderating which patients present with depression symptoms. In particular, FC MRI may provide a more sensitive measure of depression-related dysfunction, at least in patients with LTLE. Employing sensitive measures of frontolimbic network dysfunction in TLE may help provide new insight into mood disorders in epilepsy that could eventually guide treatment planning. PMID:25223729
Kemmotsu, Nobuko; Kucukboyaci, N Erkut; Leyden, Kelly M; Cheng, Christopher E; Girard, Holly M; Iragui, Vicente J; Tecoma, Evelyn S; McDonald, Carrie R
In recent years, increasing numbers of children have been diagnosed with bipolar disorder. In some cases, children with unstable mood clearly meet current diagnostic criteria for bipolar disorder, and in others, the diagnosis is unclear. Severe mood dysregulation is a syndrome defined to capture the symptomatology of children whose diagnostic status with respect to bipolar disorder is uncertain, that is, those who have severe, nonepisodic irritability and the hyperarousal symptoms characteristic of mania but who lack the well-demarcated periods of elevated or irritable mood characteristic of bipolar disorder. Levels of impairment are comparable between youths with bipolar disorder and those with severe mood dysregulation. An emerging literature compares children with severe mood dysregulation and those with bipolar disorder in longitudinal course, family history, and pathophysiology. Longitudinal data in both clinical and community samples indicate that nonepisodic irritability in youths is common and is associated with an elevated risk for anxiety and unipolar depressive disorders, but not bipolar disorder, in adulthood. Data also suggest that youths with severe mood dysregulation have lower familial rates of bipolar disorder than do those with bipolar disorder. While youths in both patient groups have deficits in face emotion labeling and experience more frustration than do normally developing children, the brain mechanisms mediating these pathophysiologic abnormalities appear to differ between the two patient groups. No specific treatment for severe mood dysregulation currently exists, but verification of its identity as a syndrome distinct from bipolar disorder by further research should include treatment trials. PMID:21123313
Bipolar disorder is frequently encountered in primary care settings, often in the form of poor response to treatment for depression. Although lifetime prevalence of bipolar I disorder is 1%, the prevalence of bipolar spectrum disorders (e.g., bipolar I, bipolar II, and cyclothymia) is much higher, especially among patients with depression. The consequences of misdiagnosis can be devastating. One way to improve recognition of bipolar spectrum disorders is to screen for them. The Mood Disorder ...
Hirschfeld, Robert M. A.
This study aimed to investigate the psychometric properties of the Chinese translations of the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS(16)), including the Clinician-Rated (QIDS-C(16)), Self-report (QIDS-SR(16)), and Interactive Voice Response (QIDS-SR-IVR(16)) formats. Thirty depressed Chinese Americans were assessed with Chinese translations of the QIDS-SR(16), QIDS-SR-IVR(16), and QIDS-C(16). Cronbach alpha estimates of internal scale consistency on the QIDS-SR(16), QIDS-SR-IVR(16), and QIDS-C(16) were 0.70, 0.74, and 0.79, respectively. Intercorrelations among the measures were QIDS-SR(16) and QIDS-SR-IVR(16), r = 0.79; QIDS-SR(16) and QIDS-C(16), r = 0.61; and QIDS-SR-IVR(16) and QIDS-C(16), r = 0.69 (all p values QIDS-SR(16) and QIDS-SR-IVR(16) were 0.78 (95% confidence interval, 0.61-0.95) and 0.81 (95% confidence interval, 0.65-0.96), respectively. The respective screening sensitivities/specificities were 0.73/0.74 and 0.86/0.58. The Chinese translations of the QIDS(16) have adequate psychometric properties and may be useful tools for depression screening. PMID:22850307
Yeung, Albert; Feldman, Gregory; Pedrelli, Paola; Hails, Kate; Fava, Maurizio; Reyes, Tracy; Mundt, James C
Full Text Available Marco Carotenuto,1 Maria Esposito,1 Lucia Parisi,2 Beatrice Gallai,3 Rosa Marotta,4 Antonio Pascotto,1 Michele Roccella21Sleep Clinic for Developmental Age, Clinic of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 2Child Neuropsychiatry, Department of Psychology, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy; 3Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, University of Perugia, Perugia, 4Department of Psychiatry, "Magna Graecia" University of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, ItalyBackground: The relationship between sleep and mood regulation is well known, and some reports suggest a key role of sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBD in the development of the symptomatology of depression, even if no conclusive data are actually found in the clinical literature. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between SRBD and depressive symptoms in a population of school-aged children.Methods: The study population comprised 94 children affected by SRBD and 107 healthy children. To identify the severity of SRBD, an overnight respiratory evaluation was performed. All subjects filled out the Italian version of the Children Depression Inventory (CDI to screen for the presence of depressive symptoms.Results: The group with SRBD showed higher CDI scores than the group without SRBD, with a positive correlation found between CDI scores, apnea-hypopnea index, and oxygen desaturation index values. Logistic regression showed that an apnea-hypopnea index ? 3 and an oxygen desaturation index ? 1 could be risk factors for development of depressive symptoms. According to receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis, the cutoff point for the apnea-hypopnea index that could cause a pathological CDI score (?19 was >5.66, and the cutoff point for the oxygen desaturation index was >4.2. The limitations of this study are that our data are derived from one single psychometric test and not from a complete psychiatric evaluation, and our subjects came from a small group in southern Italy.Conclusion: Our results suggest the importance of mood assessment in children affected by SRBD.Keywords: depression, sleep-related breathing disorders, cardiorespiratory monitoring, children
Full Text Available In order to set up an effective early-detection of depressive symptoms in youngsters, the current study aims to investigate whether two measure moments of the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI improve screening and whether a multi-informant procedure is superior compared to a single-informant procedure thereby controlling for comorbid symptoms. Method.Youngsters (10-15 years filled in the CDI and an Anxiety Scale at Time 1 and the CDI and Youth Self Report one week later. Next, a structured clinical interview was administered. The Child Behaviour CheckList was filled in by the parents. Results. Two measure moments of the CDI are not more accurate in capturing disordered mood changes. Furthermore, parent reports were no significant contributor to the variance over and above the CDI. Discussion. A second moment does not increase screening accuracy. Further research on setting up an effective multistage screening procedure for depressive symptoms for youngsters is however necessary.
A large number (N 50 569) of 14-16 year old Finnish adolescents taking part in the School Health Promotion Study were surveyed for delinquent behaviour in relation to depression. The results indicate a robust association between delinquency and depression. Among girls risk for depression varied between 1.3 and 3.1 according to various antisocial…
Ritakallio, Minna; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Kivivuori, Janne; Rimpela, Matti
The Beck Depression Inventory is frequently used to detect depression and its severity because depression is a prevalent mood disorder and is commonly treated by prescription of selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors such as Prozac. The importance of serotonin (5-HT) in the treatment of major depression is evident but the nature of this involvement is unclear. In this study, the characteristics of platelets are employed as a peripheral model of the neuron to estimate central serotonergic activity, which is a consequence of numerous factors including 5-HT2 receptor sensitivity. The greater the sensitivity of the platelet serotonin receptors, the lower the concentration of serotonin required to mobilise a particular amount of calcium from internal stores through serotonin stimulation. Hence, Platelet 5-HT2 receptor sensitivity is inferred from the concentration of serotonin that is required to produce half maximal intracellular calcium mobilisation (EC50). In the present study, the correlation of -.422 between scores on the Beck Depression Inventory and EC50 in a sample of 49 university students was significant, implying that mood is significantly related to 5-HT2 receptor sensitivity, such that increases in depressed mood are accompanied by increases in 5-HT2 receptor sensitivity. PMID:11191371
Peirson, A R; Heuchert, J W
Two studies sought to elucidate the components of emotion and its dysregulation and examine their role in both the overlap and distinctness of the symptoms of 3 highly comorbid anxiety and mood disorders (i.e., generalized anxiety disorder, major depression, and social anxiety disorder). In Study 1, exploratory factor analyses demonstrated that 4…
Mennin, Douglas S.; Holaway, Robert M.; Fresco, David M.; Moore, Michael T.; Heimberg, Richard G.
Mothers' perceptions of marital quality and depressed mood and children's attachment security and friendship quality were assessed in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. One month after their birth and again when the children were 3 and 4 years old and in first and third…
Lucas-Thompson, Rachel; Clarke-Stewart, K. Alison
Rumination to negative affect has been linked to the onset and maintenance of mood disorders in adults as well as children. Responses to positive affect have received far less attention thus far. A few recent studies in adults suggest that responses to positive affect are involved in the development of both depressive and hypomanic symptoms, but…
Bijttebier, Patricia; Raes, Filip; Vasey, Michael W.; Feldman, Gregory C.
OBJECTIVE: Cortisol hypersecretion is one of the most reliable biological abnormalities in major depression, but it is uncertain if it represents an illness marker or a trait vulnerability to mood disorder. The present study sought to answer this question by measuring waking salivary cortisol levels in young people at familial risk of depression but with no personal history of mood disorder. METHOD: The authors studied 49 young people who had not been depressed themselves but who had a parent...
Mannie, Zn; Harmer, Cj; Cowen, Pj
General Information About Depression Key Points for This Section Depression is different from normal sadness. Some cancer patients may have a higher risk ... Family members also have a risk of depression. Depression is different from normal sadness. Depression is not ...
Resources - depression ... Depression is a medical condition. If you think you may be depressed, see a health care provider. ... following organizations are good resources of information on depression : American Psychological Association - www.apa.org/topics/depress/ ...
This paper presents the methods for mining the music, based on mood dimension. Mood is an emerging metadata type and access point in music digital libraries (MDL) and online music repositories.There is a growing interest in developing and evaluating Music Information Retrieval (MIR) systems that can provide automated access to the mood dimension of music. Music is nice thing to all. Mood as a music access feature that is not well understood as well as not standardized. To better understanding...
Rajesh, D.; Karpagalakshmi R. C.
A depressogenic attributional style, i.e., internal, stable and global causal interpretations of negative events, is a stable vulnerability factor for depression. Current measures of pessimistic attributional style can be time-consuming to complete, and some are designed for specific use with student populations. We developed and validated a new short questionnaire suitable for the measurement of depressogenic attributions in clinical settings, the Depressive Attributions Questionnaire (DAQ). The 16-item DAQ, and measures of depression and related cognitive concepts were completed by three samples of depressed patients and matched controls, or depressed and non-depressed participants who had been exposed to a recent uncontrollable stressful life event (total N?=?375). The DAQ had high (i) internal reliability, (ii) test-retest reliability, (iii) convergent, discriminant and construct validity. It predicted a diagnosis of major depression at 6 months after an uncontrollable stressor, over and above what could be predicted from initial depression severity. Depressed patients rated the scale as acceptable. The DAQ may be a useful short measure of depressogenic attributions, which is easy to administer, and predicts concurrent and future depression. It has possible applications as a screening measure for risk of depression, or as a treatment process measure. PMID:21909186
Kleim, Birgit; Gonzalo, Désirée; Ehlers, Anke
In this issue of the Journal, Perugi and colleagues delve into the murky and controversial diagnostic boundaries between unipolar and bipolar mood disorders. As the authors intimate, the decision by DSM-5's crafters to loosen the operational definition of mixed episodes adds to ongoing debate over the beleaguered document's various symptom tweaks and diagnostic reshufflings. DSM-5 rightly acknowledged that many depressed bipolar patients experience subthreshold mania symptoms while depressed and that simultaneous symptoms of both poles can and often do coexist in bipolar II as well as bipolar I mood states. PMID:25830464
Goldberg, Joseph F
In two subsequent experiments, the influence of mood on academic course evaluation is examined. By means of facial feedback, either a positive or a negative mood was induced while students were completing a course evaluation questionnaire during lectures. Results from both studies reveal that a positive mood leads to better ratings of different…
Zumbach, Joerg; Funke, Joachim
Objective Little is known about the mental health outcomes of young children who experience developmental delay. The objective of this study was to assess whether delay in attaining developmental milestones was related to depressive and anxious symptoms in adolescence. Method The sample included 3508 Canadian children who participated in a nationally representative prospective cohort study. The person most knowledgeable about the child reported on attainment of developmental milestones spanning several developmental domains at ages 2–3. The children were followed into adolescence and self-reported depressive and anxious symptoms were used from adolescents ages 12–13. An overall assessment of developmental milestones as well as a supplementary analysis of specific categories of developmental milestones was conducted. Results Cohort members who displayed delayed developmental milestones in early childhood were more likely to experience higher levels of depressive and anxious symptoms as adolescents. However, there was no interaction between delayed developmental milestones and stressful life events. In the supplementary analysis, two developmental domains (self-care and speech/communication) were associated with higher levels of depressive and anxious symptoms in adolescence. Conclusion Delay in attainment of early developmental milestones is significantly associated with adolescent depressive and anxious symptoms. PMID:23437245
North, C. Rebecca; Wild, T. Cam; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Colman, Ian
This study investigated the relationship between the age of self-reported sexual abuse occurrence and the development of post-traumatic stress disorder and/or depressive symptoms in adulthood. Subjects were evaluated for the presence of post-traumatic stress disorder and/or depressive symptoms as well as for a self-reported history of sexual abuse…
Schoedl, Aline Ferri; Costa, Mariana Cadrobbi Pupo; Mari, Jair J.; Mello, Marcelo Feijo; Tyrka, Audrey R.; Carpenter, Linda L.; Price, Lawrence H.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression assessment in population studies is usually based on depressive symptoms scales. However, the use of scales could lead to the choice of an arbitrary cut-off point depending on the sample characteristics and on the patient diagnosis. Thus, the use of a medical diagnosis of depression could be a more appropriate approach. Objective To validate a self-reported physician diagnosis of depression using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-I as Gold Standard and to assess the factors associated to a valid self-reported diagnosis. Methods The SUN Project is a cohort study based on university graduates followed-up through postal questionnaires. The response to the question included in the questionnaire: Have you ever been diagnosed of depression by a physician? was compared to that obtained through the SCID-I applied by a psychiatrist or a clinical psychologist. The percentages of confirmed depression and non-depression were assessed for the overall sample and according to several characteristics. Logistic regression models were fitted to ascertain the association between different factors and a correct classification regarding depression status. Results The percentage of confirmed depression was 74.2%; 95% confidence interval (95% CI = 63.3–85.1. Out of 42 participants who did not report a depression diagnosis in the questionnaire, 34 were free of the disease (%confirmed non-depression = 81.1%; 95% CI = 69.1–92.9. The probability of being a true positive was higher among ex-smokers and non-smokers and among those overweight or obese but the differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion The validity of a self-reported diagnosis of depression in the SUN cohort is adequate. Thus, this question about depression diagnosis could be used in further investigations regarding this disease in this graduate cohort study.
Full Text Available Although there is clinical and historical evidence for a vivid relation between the vestibular and emotional systems, the neuroscientific underpinnings are poorly understood. The “spin doctors” of the nineteenth century used spinning chairs (e.g. Cox’s chair to treat conditions of mania or elevated arousal. On the basis of a recent study on a hexapod motion simulator, in this prototypic investigation we explore the impact of yaw stimulation on a spinning chair on mood states. Using a controlled experimental stimulation paradigm on a unique 3-D-turntable at the University of Zurich we included 11 healthy subjects and assessed parameters of mood states and autonomic nervous system activity. The Multidimensional Mode State Questionnaire (MDMQ and Visual Analogue Rating Scales (VAS were used to assess changes of mood in response to a 100 sec yaw stimulation. In addition heart rate was continuously monitored during the experiment. Subjects indicated feeling less “good”, “relaxed,” “comfortable,” and “calm” and reported an increased alertness after vestibular stimulation. However, there were no objective adverse effects of the stimulation. Accordingly, heart rate did not significantly differ in response to the stimulation. This is the first study in a highly controlled setting using the historical approach of stimulating the vestibular system to impact mood states. It demonstrates a specific interaction between the vestibular system and mood states and thereby supports recent experimental findings with a different stimulation technique. These results may inspire future research on the clinical potential of this method.
There has been increasing attention to the subgroups of mood disorders and their boundaries with other mental disorders, particularly psychoses. The goals of the present paper were (1) to assess the familial aggregation and co-aggregation patterns of the full spectrum of mood disorders (that is, bipolar, schizoaffective (SAF), major depression) based on contemporary diagnostic criteria; and (2) to evaluate the familial specificity of the major subgroups of mood disorders, including psychotic, manic and major depressive episodes (MDEs). The sample included 293 patients with a lifetime diagnosis of SAF disorder, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder (MDD), 110 orthopedic controls, and 1734 adult first-degree relatives. The diagnostic assignment was based on all available information, including direct diagnostic interviews, family history reports and medical records. Our findings revealed specificity of the familial aggregation of psychosis (odds ratio (OR)=2.9, confidence interval (CI): 1.1-7.7), mania (OR=6.4, CI: 2.2-18.7) and MDEs (OR=2.0, CI: 1.5-2.7) but not hypomania (OR=1.3, CI: 0.5-3.6). There was no evidence for cross-transmission of mania and MDEs (OR=.7, CI:.5-1.1), psychosis and mania (OR=1.0, CI:.4-2.7) or psychosis and MDEs (OR=1.0, CI:.7-1.4). The strong familial specificity of psychotic, manic and MDEs in this largest controlled contemporary family study challenges the growing assertion that the major types of mood disorders are manifestations of a common underlying diathesis. PMID:24126925
Vandeleur, C L; Merikangas, K R; Strippoli, M-P F; Castelao, E; Preisig, M
5. nov.-st Tallinna Kunstihoones näitus "Look at me", Suurbritannia mood ja fotograafia 1960ndatest tänapäevani. Kuraatorid Val Willams, Brett Rogers. Osalejaid. 6. XI samas eesti moekunstnike britiaineline moeshow. Osalevad Anu Lensment, Eve Hanson, Marit Ahven, Jaanus Vahtra, Marju Tammik, Anu Samarüütel
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Avaliar as relações entre o uso agudo e crônico de cannabis e alterações do humor. MÉTODO: Os artigos foram selecionados por meio de busca eletrônica no indexador PubMed. Capítulos de livros e as listas de referências dos artigos selecionados também foram revisados. RESULTADOS: Observam-se [...] elevados índices de comorbidade entre abuso/dependência de cannabis e transtornos afetivos em estudos transversais e em amostras clínicas. Estudos longitudinais indicam que, em longo prazo, o uso mais intenso de cannabis está relacionado com um risco maior de desenvolvimento de doença bipolar e, talvez, depressão maior em indivíduos inicialmente sem quadros afetivos; porém, os mesmos não encontraram maior risco de uso de cannabis entre aqueles com mania ou depressão sem esta comorbidade. Outra importante observação é que o uso de substâncias psicoativas em bipolares pode estar associado a uma série de características negativas, como dificuldade na recuperação dos sintomas afetivos, maior número de internações, piora na adesão ao tratamento, risco aumentado de suicídio, agressividade e a uma pobre resposta ao lítio. Tratamentos psicossociais e farmacológicos são indicados para o manejo da comorbidade entre cannabis e transtornos afetivos. CONCLUSÃO: As relações entre o uso de cannabis e alterações do humor são observadas tanto epidemiologicamente quanto nos contextos clínicos. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the relationship between acute and chronic use of cannabis and mood changes. METHOD: Articles were selected by electronic search in PubMed. Chapters in books and reference lists of selected articles were also reviewed. As the research did not involve humans, there was no evaluati [...] on by a Research Ethics Committee. RESULTS: High rates of comorbidity between use/abuse/dependence of cannabis and affective disorders in longitudinal studies and in clinical samples were observed. Longitudinal studies indicate that, in long-term, the higher use of cannabis is associated with an increased risk of developing bipolar disorder, and probably, major depression in subjects initially without affective disorder, but was not found increased risk of cannabis use among those initially only with mania or depression. Another important observation is that substance abuse in bipolar patients may be associated with a number of negative characteristics, such as difficulty in recovering the affective symptoms, more hospitalizations, poor compliance with treatment, increased risk of suicide, aggression and a poor response to lithium. Psychosocial and pharmacological treatments are indicated for the management of comorbidity between cannabis and affective disorders. CONCLUSION: The relationship between cannabis use and mood changes are observed both in the epidemiological research and in the clinical settings.
Rafael Faria, Sanches; João Mazzoncini de Azevedo, Marques.
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as relações entre o uso agudo e crônico de cannabis e alterações do humor. MÉTODO: Os artigos foram selecionados por meio de busca eletrônica no indexador PubMed. Capítulos de livros e as listas de referências dos artigos selecionados também foram revisados. RESULTADOS: Observam-se elevados índices de comorbidade entre abuso/dependência de cannabis e transtornos afetivos em estudos transversais e em amostras clínicas. Estudos longitudinais indicam que, em longo prazo, o uso mais intenso de cannabis está relacionado com um risco maior de desenvolvimento de doença bipolar e, talvez, depressão maior em indivíduos inicialmente sem quadros afetivos; porém, os mesmos não encontraram maior risco de uso de cannabis entre aqueles com mania ou depressão sem esta comorbidade. Outra importante observação é que o uso de substâncias psicoativas em bipolares pode estar associado a uma série de características negativas, como dificuldade na recuperação dos sintomas afetivos, maior número de internações, piora na adesão ao tratamento, risco aumentado de suicídio, agressividade e a uma pobre resposta ao lítio. Tratamentos psicossociais e farmacológicos são indicados para o manejo da comorbidade entre cannabis e transtornos afetivos. CONCLUSÃO: As relações entre o uso de cannabis e alterações do humor são observadas tanto epidemiologicamente quanto nos contextos clínicos.OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the relationship between acute and chronic use of cannabis and mood changes. METHOD: Articles were selected by electronic search in PubMed. Chapters in books and reference lists of selected articles were also reviewed. As the research did not involve humans, there was no evaluation by a Research Ethics Committee. RESULTS: High rates of comorbidity between use/abuse/dependence of cannabis and affective disorders in longitudinal studies and in clinical samples were observed. Longitudinal studies indicate that, in long-term, the higher use of cannabis is associated with an increased risk of developing bipolar disorder, and probably, major depression in subjects initially without affective disorder, but was not found increased risk of cannabis use among those initially only with mania or depression. Another important observation is that substance abuse in bipolar patients may be associated with a number of negative characteristics, such as difficulty in recovering the affective symptoms, more hospitalizations, poor compliance with treatment, increased risk of suicide, aggression and a poor response to lithium. Psychosocial and pharmacological treatments are indicated for the management of comorbidity between cannabis and affective disorders. CONCLUSION: The relationship between cannabis use and mood changes are observed both in the epidemiological research and in the clinical settings.
Rafael Faria Sanches
The effects of meditation, specifically Transcendental Meditation (TM), on college students' experience of stress, anxiety, depression, and perfectionistic thoughts was investigated using 43 undergraduate students. Self-report measures of the variables were completed prior to the start of the study. Student groups were trained in TM and practiced…
Burns, Jaimie L.; Lee, Randolph M.; Brown, Lauren J.
This study examined the extent to which postsecondary students endorse symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and whether experienced level of stress, depression, or anxiety are associated with higher reporting of ADHD symptoms. Students attending a combined health and counseling service completed the Conners Adult ADHD Rating…
Harrison, Allyson G.; Alexander, Sandra J.; Armstrong, Irene T.
Intuitively, good and bad outcomes affect our emotional state, but whether the emotional state feeds back onto the perception of outcomes remains unknown. Here, we use behaviour and functional neuroimaging of human participants to investigate this bidirectional interaction, by comparing the evaluation of slot machines played before and after an emotion-impacting wheel-of-fortune draw. Results indicate that self-reported mood instability is associated with a positive-feedback effect of emotional state on the perception of outcomes. We then use theoretical simulations to demonstrate that such positive feedback would result in mood destabilization. Taken together, our results suggest that the interaction between emotional state and learning may play a significant role in the emergence of mood instability. PMID:25608088
Eldar, Eran; Niv, Yael
137 undergraduate Le Moyne College students volunteered in a study on music and its effects on mood and memory. In a 2 x 3 between-subjects design, there were 2 lyric conditions (Happy and Sad Lyrics) and 3 music conditions (No Music, Happy Music, and Sad Music). Participants were asked to listen to instrumental music or mentally to create a melody as they read lyrics to themselves. The study tested cued-recall, self-reported mood state and psychological arousal. Analysis suggested that mood of participants was influenced by the music played, not the lyrics. Results also showed those exposed to No Music had the highest score on the recall test. Personal relevance to the lyrics was not correlated with memory. PMID:9293553
Sousou, S D
Described and discussed are neuro-imaging studies on the amygdala (Am) concerning its volume, neuro-active drug effect on it and its response to repulsive and attractive stress-evoked character/temperament tests in patients mainly with major depression (MD) and anxiety disorder (AD), by functional MRI (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET). A recent trend of volumetry of Am is the voxel-based morphometry by MRI, of which results are still controversial in MD. In contrast, many studies by PET and fMRI using neuro-active drugs have revealed that Am activity in MD is stimulated, and this hyperactivity can be improved by anti-depressive drugs. In addition, difference of activities is suggested in Am left and right hemispheres. The hyperactivity in Am has been reported also in AD and phobic disorders, of which symptoms are conceivably expressed by the sensitivity changes in the cerebral limbic system involving Am. The author considers the central region responsible for the depressive mood is present around cortex of anteroinferior genu of corpus callosum where neuro-network with Am is dense. (R.T.)
Debate has emerged in the literature on mania, with some evidence suggesting that tendencies toward mania relate to negative emotional and cognitive styles, and other evidence suggesting that tendencies toward mania relate to positive emotional and cognitive styles. An initial study examined how tendencies toward mania (as measured by the Hypomanic Personality Scale) and tendencies toward depression (as measured by the Inventory to Diagnose Depression-Lifetime version) were related to diverse measures pertaining to incentive and threat motivations, negative and positive emotionality, and cognitive responses to emotion, among 238 undergraduates. Tendencies toward mania related to a self-reported pattern of reacting intensely to positive stimuli, both cognitively and emotionally, as well as lower sensitivity to threatening stimuli and less restraint over impulses. In contrast, tendencies toward depression related to a pattern of reacting more strongly to negative stimuli emotionally and cognitively, as well as deficits in the ability to savor positive affect. This pattern was re-confirmed in a second sample of 394 undergraduates, who completed many of the same measures plus a measure of current mood symptoms. This second sample confirmed that the pattern was not mood-state dependent. Implications for future research and clinical work are discussed, including an intriguing conceptual parallel in the distinct sets of correlates of depressive versus manic tendencies. PMID:20376291
Carver, Charles S; Johnson, Sheri L
Full Text Available Background: Depressive symptoms and personality features of patients with mood disorders are supposed to have a strong variability in cross cultural studies. The clinical profile, the outcome and the treatment response seem to be different across the world. Aim: To investigate the differences and similarities of major depressive disorders in Chile and Germany. Material and methods: Sixty seven Chilean and German depressive inpatients, without comorbidity on axis I or II were studied. Diagnosis of depression was based on DSM IV and ICD 10 criteria for major depression. Symptomatology was assessed using the self reporting questionnaire (SRQ-20, the Symptom checklist-90-revisited (SCL 90-R, the Beck inventory for Depression (BDI, and the Hamilton scale for depression (HAM-D. Personality was assessed with the Munich Personality Scale. Results: Only the SRQ-20 shows significantly higher tendency towards depression among Chilean patients. At the personality level, Chileans exhibited higher scores in extroversion, neuroticism, esoteric and isolating tendencies. Conclusions: These results help to understand differences and similarities between depressive syndromes across cultures. They suggest that the relation between symptomatology, some personality traits and severe major depression has little variability across cultures. (Rev Méd Chile 2000; 128: 613-8.
Andrés Heerlein L
Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Background: Depressive symptoms and personality features of patients with mood disorders are supposed to have a strong variability in cross cultural studies. The clinical profile, the outcome and the treatment response seem to be different across the world. Aim: To investigate the differences and si [...] milarities of major depressive disorders in Chile and Germany. Material and methods: Sixty seven Chilean and German depressive inpatients, without comorbidity on axis I or II were studied. Diagnosis of depression was based on DSM IV and ICD 10 criteria for major depression. Symptomatology was assessed using the self reporting questionnaire (SRQ-20), the Symptom checklist-90-revisited (SCL 90-R), the Beck inventory for Depression (BDI), and the Hamilton scale for depression (HAM-D). Personality was assessed with the Munich Personality Scale. Results: Only the SRQ-20 shows significantly higher tendency towards depression among Chilean patients. At the personality level, Chileans exhibited higher scores in extroversion, neuroticism, esoteric and isolating tendencies. Conclusions: These results help to understand differences and similarities between depressive syndromes across cultures. They suggest that the relation between symptomatology, some personality traits and severe major depression has little variability across cultures. (Rev Méd Chile 2000; 128: 613-8).
Andrés, Heerlein L; Guillermo, Gabler S; Cristián, Chaparro C; Alfred, Kraus; Paul, Richter; Claudia, Berkau.
Indices of mood, mood regulation, and executive functioning were examined in 61 current smokers who have smoked daily for at least one year, 36 ex-smokers who had not smoked a cigarette for at least one year, and 86 never-smokers. All participants completed the following measures online: Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21), the Negative Mood Regulation (NMR) scale, the Frontal Systems Behavior Scale (FrSBe), the Fagerström Test for Cigarette Dependence (FTCD), and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) followed by Tukey post-hoc tests revealed significant differences (p FrSBe, as well as heavier drinking as measured by AUDIT. These differences remained significant even after controlling for AUDIT scores. Results most plausibly reflect a return to pre-smoking baseline brain function in long-term abstinent ex-smokers. PMID:25052789
Lyvers, Michael; Carlopio, Cassandra; Vicole Bothma, Honours; Edwards, Mark S
Full Text Available
Purpose:This study was designed to compare the effects of two different relaxation techniques, namely progressive muscle relaxation (PMR and autogenic relaxation (AGR on moods of young soccer players.
Methods:Sixteen adolescent athletes (mean age: 14.1 ? 1.3 received either PMR or AGR training. Using Profile of Mood States-Adolescents, their mood states were measured one week before relaxation training, before the first relaxation session, and after the twelfth relaxation session.
Results:Mixed ANOVA revealed no significant interaction effects and no significant main effects in any of the subscales. However, significant main effects for testing sessions were found for confusion, depression, fatigue, and tension subscales. Post hoc tests revealed post-intervention reductions in the confusion, depression, fatigue, and tension subscale scores.
Conclusions:These two relaxation techniques induce equivalent mood responses and may be used to regulate young soccer players' mood states.
Hazwani Hanafi@Ahmad Yusof
Depressive rumination, as assessed by Nolen-Hoeksema's Response Styles Questionnaire (RSQ), predicts the onset, chronicity, and duration of depressed mood. However, some RSQ items contain depressive content and result in a heterogeneous factor structure. After the a priori elimination of items potentially confounded with depressed item content,…
Armey, Michael F.; Fresco, David M.; Moore, Michael T.; Mennin, Douglas S.; Turk, Cynthia L.; Heimberg, Richard G.; Kecmanovic, Jelena; Alloy, Lauren B.
Depression is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) perhaps mediated by hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis or vagal dysregulation. We investigated circadian mood variation and HPA-axis and autonomic function in older (55 years) depressed and nondepressed volunteers at risk for CVD by assessing diurnal positive and negative affect (PA, NA), cortisol, and cardiopulmonary variables in 46 moderately depressed and 19 nondepressed volunteers with elevated CVD risk. Participants sat quietly for 5-min periods (10:00, 12:00, 14:00, 17:00, 19:00, and 21:00), and then completed an electronic diary assessing PA and NA. Traditional and respiration-controlled heart rate variability (HRV) variables were computed for these periods as an index of vagal activity. Salivary cortisols were collected at waking, waking+30min, 12:00, 17:00, and 21:00h. Cortisol peaked in the early morning after waking, and gradually declined over the day, but did not differ between groups. PA was lower and NA was higher in the depressed group throughout the day. HRV did not differ between groups. Negative emotions were inversely related to respiratory sinus arrhythmia in nondepressed participants. We conclude that moderately depressed patients do not show abnormal HPA-axis function. Diurnal PA and NA distinguish depressed from nondepressed individuals at risk for CVD, while measures of vagal regulation, even when controlled for physical activity and respiratory confounds, do not. Diurnal mood variations of older individuals at risk for CVD differ from those reported for other groups and daily fluctuations in NA are not related to cardiac autonomic control in depressed individuals. PMID:17884093
Conrad, Ansgar; Wilhelm, Frank H; Roth, Walton T; Spiegel, David; Taylor, C Barr
It is well established that young adults are a population at risk for problem gambling and that young adults gamble for various reasons, including positive mood enhancement and negative mood reduction. Although these motives have been identified as important proximal predictors of gambling, the research to date has focused on between-subjects relationships. What is missing is a process-level understanding of the specific within-subjects relations between mood-regulation motives for gambling, mood states, and gambling behaviors. The current study used experience sampling to assess the specific link between gambling motives, mood states, and gambling behavior. Participants were 108 young adults (ages 19-24 years), who completed baseline measures of gambling motives and gambling problems and then reported on their mood states and gambling behavior three times a day for 30 days. Multilevel modeling analyses revealed a significant positive moderating effect for enhancement motives on the relationship between positive mood and amount of time spent gambling and number of drinks consumed while gambling. In addition, problem gambling status was associated with consuming fewer drinks while gambling at higher levels of positive mood, and spending more money than intended at higher levels of negative mood. Unexpectedly, there was only one moderating effect for coping motives on the mood-gambling relationship; low coping motivated gamblers consumed more alcohol while gambling at higher levels of positive mood, whereas high coping motivated gamblers did not change their drinking in response to positive mood. The current findings highlight enhancement motives as risky motives for young adult gambling, particularly in the context of positive mood, and suggest that gambling interventions should include strategies to address positive mood management. PMID:23772764
Goldstein, Abby L; Stewart, Sherry H; Hoaken, Peter N S; Flett, Gordon L
The connection between mood and sleep disorders is highly complex and can be studied and interpreted in many respects. Epidemiologic data show that the co-occurrence of the two disorders is quite frequent. Thus an approach regarding them as a unit promotes biological psychiatric research by revealing new pathophysiological and therapeutic conclusions. Chronobiological results related to mood disorders have recently been described in excellent reviews including Hungarian ones. In the present review, the necessity of treatment of sleep disorders is evaluated in the context of relapse/remission/recurrence. Scientific data suggest that patients with insomnia have a ten-fold risk of developing depression, and insomnia plays an important role in depression relapses, recurrence of depressive episodes and becoming depression chronic. From neurobiological point of view, mood and sleep disorders have many features in common. Research has revealed decreased levels of melatonin and advanced sleep phases (shifted earlier) in depression, and altered and imbalanced monoaminergic pathways, and REM abnormalities in sleep disorders. Some authors suggest that REM abnormalities disappear along with the mood improvement, and the sleep structure can completely restore after remission. However, persistent abnormalities of REM sleep and slow wave sleep have also been found in remission, which increased the risk of the relapse and recurrence. Recently, there is an agreement as to the early treatment of insomnia can prevent the development of mood abnormalities. Alterations of cascades related to neural plasticity can also be a link between sleep and mood disorders. Neural plasticity is closely related to learning, sleeping, and cortisol regulation (coping with stress), and this draws the attention to comorbidity with further disorders (anxiety, dementia). PMID:25347243
Falussy, Linda; Balla, Petra; Frecska, Ede
This study examined whether depressed mood, frequency of alcohol use, and their combination differentiated non-suicidal adolescents from those with suicidal ideation and adolescents with suicidal ideation from those who have made a suicide attempt. Hierarchical logistic regressions indicated that frequency of alcohol use did not differentiate non-suicidal adolescents from those with current suicidal ideation, but severity of depressed mood did so. In contrast, alcohol use was a significant differentiating factor between adolescents who had attempted suicide compared to those with suicidal ideation only, with severity of depressed mood not being significant. However, there was also a significant interaction effect such that for adolescents with suicidal ideation and low levels of depression, increased frequency of alcohol use was associated with increased odds of a suicide attempt. These findings suggest that alcohol use may hasten the transition from suicidal ideation to suicide attempt in adolescents with low levels of depressed mood. PMID:23889515
McManama O’Brien, Kimberly H.; Becker, Sara J.; Spirito, Anthony; Simon, Valerie; Prinstein, Mitchell J.
Introduction To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a case of treatment-resistant depression in which the patient was evaluated for sleep disordered breathing as the cause and in which rapid palatal expansion to permanently treat the sleep disordered breathing produced a prolonged symptom-free period off medication. Case presentation An 18-year-old Caucasian man presented to our sleep disorders center with chronic severe depression that was no longer responsive to medication but that had recently responded to electroconvulsive therapy. Ancillary, persistent symptoms included mild insomnia, moderate to severe fatigue, mild sleepiness and severe anxiety treated with medication. Our patient had no history of snoring or witnessed apnea, but polysomnography was consistent with upper airway resistance syndrome. Although our patient did not have an orthodontic indication for rapid palatal expansion, rapid palatal expansion was performed as a treatment of his upper airway resistance syndrome. Following rapid palatal expansion, our patient experienced a marked improvement of his sleep quality, anxiety, fatigue and sleepiness. His improvement has been maintained off all psychotropic medication and his depression has remained in remission for approximately two years following his electroconvulsive therapy. Conclusions This case report introduces the possibility that unrecognized sleep disordered breathing may play a role in adolescent treatment-resistant depression. The symptoms of upper airway resistance syndrome are non-specific enough that every adolescent with depression, even those responding to medication, may have underlying sleep disordered breathing. In such patients, rapid palatal expansion, by widening the upper airway and improving airflow during sleep, may produce a prolonged improvement of symptoms and a tapering of medication. Psychiatrists treating adolescents may benefit from having another treatment option for treatment-resistant depression. PMID:23210848
Mood disorders such as major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder are chronic and recurrent illnesses that cause significant disability and affect approximately 350 million people worldwide. Currently available biogenic amine treatments provide relief for many and yet fail to ameliorate symptoms for others, highlighting the need to diversify the search for new therapeutic strategies. Here we present recent evidence implicating the role of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) signaling in the pathophysiology of mood disorders. The possible role of NMDARs in mood disorders has been supported by evidence demonstrating that: (i) both BPD and MDD are characterized by altered levels of central excitatory neurotransmitters; (ii) NMDAR expression, distribution, and function are atypical in patients with mood disorders; (iii) NMDAR modulators show positive therapeutic effects in BPD and MDD patients; and (iv) conventional antidepressants/mood stabilizers can modulate NMDAR function. Taken together, this evidence suggests the NMDAR system holds considerable promise as a therapeutic target for developing next generation drugs that may provide more rapid onset relief of symptoms. Identifying the subcircuits involved in mood and elucidating the role of NMDARs subtypes in specific brain circuits would constitute an important step toward the development of more effective therapies with fewer side effects. PMID:25218759
Ghasemi, Mehdi; Phillips, Cristy; Trillo, Ludwig; De Miguel, Zurine; Das, Devsmita; Salehi, Ahmad
Limited research indicates positive affective change following acute bouts of exercise, but whether this improved affect among younger subjects may be generalized to older individuals is not known. The present study, then, examined the effects of a single bout of physical activity among older participants. 16 trained women (Mage = 64.5 +/- 7.6 yr.) completed an abbreviated Profile of Mood States prior to and immediately following a 75-min. session of aerobic line dancing. A series of one-way analyses of variance with repeated measures were used to examine differences between pre- and posttest subscores on mood states. Significant decreases following exercise in scores on Tension, Depression, Fatigue, and Anger and a significant increase in scores on Vigor relative to preexercise (control) scores were found. Global mood was significantly improved after the exercise session. No significant difference was found between pre- and postexercise measures of Confusion. Previous findings of significant improvements in affect immediately after an acute bout of exercise may be generalized to older adults. Repetition with a nonexercised control group is desirable. PMID:7991308
Pierce, E F; Pate, D W
Full Text Available The present study examined the potential of Mindfulness Art Therapy Short version on mood of healthy people. The Mindfulness Art Therapy Short version consisted of two sessions and included factors of both mindfulness and art therapy. The Art Therapy alone consisted of two sessions including factors of art therapy. Seventeen college students received the Mindfulness Art Therapy Short version and twenty-two students received Art Therapy alone. All participants completed the Profile of Mood States pre- and post-interventions in each session. In the Mindfulness Art Therapy Short version group, scores for Tension-Anxiety, Depression-Dejection, and Fatigue-Inertia reduced and those for Vigor-Activity significantly increased after the program. In the Art Therapy group, although scores for Tension-Anxiety and Fatigue-Inertia decreased, the scores of Depression-Dejection and Vigor-Activity did not significantly change. The score of Total Mood significantly decreased only in the Mindfulness Art Therapy Short version. These results suggest that the Mindfulness Art Therapy Short Version may be more affective for improving mood, particularly depression and vigor, compared to Art Therapy alone.
Mood disorder and depressive syndromes represent a common comorbid condition in neurological disorders with a prevalence rate that ranges between 20% and 50% of patients with stroke, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, and Parkinson's disease. Notwithstanding, these conditions are often under-diagnosed and under-treated in the clinical practice and negatively affect the functional recovery, the adherence to treatment, the quality of life, and even the mortality risk. In addition, a bidirectional association between depression and neurological disorders may be possible being that depressive syndromes may be considered as a risk factor for certain neurological diseases. Despite the large amount of evidence regarding the effects of music therapy (MT) and other musical interventions on different aspects of neurological disorders, no updated article reviewing outcomes such as mood, emotions, depression, activity of daily living and so on is actually available; for this reason, little is known about the effectiveness of music and MT on these important outcomes in neurological patients. The aim of this article is to provide a narrative review of the current literature on musical interventions and their effects on mood and depression in patients with neurological disorders. Searching on PubMed and PsycInfo databases, 25 studies corresponding to the inclusion criteria have been selected; 11 of them assess the effects of music or MT in Dementia, 9 explore the efficacy on patients with Stroke, and 5 regard other neurological diseases like Multiple Sclerosis, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/motor neuron disease, Chronic quadriplegia, Parkinson's Disease, and Acquired Brain dysfunctions. Selected studies are based on relational and rehabilitative music therapy approaches or concern music listening interventions. Most of the studies support the efficacy of MT and other musical interventions on mood, depressive syndromes, and quality of life on neurological patients. PMID:25815256
Raglio, Alfredo; Attardo, Lapo; Gontero, Giulia; Rollino, Silvia; Groppo, Elisabetta; Granieri, Enrico
Mood disorder and depressive syndromes represent a common comorbid condition in neurological disorders with a prevalence rate that ranges between 20% and 50% of patients with stroke, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, and Parkinson’s disease. Notwithstanding, these conditions are often under-diagnosed and under-treated in the clinical practice and negatively affect the functional recovery, the adherence to treatment, the quality of life, and even the mortality risk. In addition, a bidirectional association between depression and neurological disorders may be possible being that depressive syndromes may be considered as a risk factor for certain neurological diseases. Despite the large amount of evidence regarding the effects of music therapy (MT) and other musical interventions on different aspects of neurological disorders, no updated article reviewing outcomes such as mood, emotions, depression, activity of daily living and so on is actually available; for this reason, little is known about the effectiveness of music and MT on these important outcomes in neurological patients. The aim of this article is to provide a narrative review of the current literature on musical interventions and their effects on mood and depression in patients with neurological disorders. Searching on PubMed and PsycInfo databases, 25 studies corresponding to the inclusion criteria have been selected; 11 of them assess the effects of music or MT in Dementia, 9 explore the efficacy on patients with Stroke, and 5 regard other neurological diseases like Multiple Sclerosis, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/motor neuron disease, Chronic quadriplegia, Parkinson’s Disease, and Acquired Brain dysfunctions. Selected studies are based on relational and rehabilitative music therapy approaches or concern music listening interventions. Most of the studies support the efficacy of MT and other musical interventions on mood, depressive syndromes, and quality of life on neurological patients.
Raglio, Alfredo; Attardo, Lapo; Gontero, Giulia; Rollino, Silvia; Groppo, Elisabetta; Granieri, Enrico
Opioids remain the cornerstone of modern-day pain treatment, also in the paediatric population. Opioid treatment is potentially life-threatening, although there are no numbers available on the incidence of opioid-induced respiratory depression (OIRD) in paediatrics. To get an indication of specific patterns in the development/causes of OIRD, we searched PubMed (May 2012) for all available case reports on OIRD in paediatrics, including patients 12 yr of age or younger who developed OIRD from an opioid given to them for a medical indication or due to transfer of an opioid from their mother in the perinatal setting, requiring naloxone, tracheal intubation, and/or resuscitation. Twenty-seven cases are described in 24 reports; of which, seven cases were fatal. In eight cases, OIRD was due to an iatrogenic overdose. Three distinct patterns in the remaining data set specifically related to OIRD include: (i) morphine administration in patients with renal impairment, causing accumulation of the active metabolite of morphine; (ii) codeine use in patients with CYP2D6 gene polymorphism associated with the ultra-rapid metabolizer phenotype, causing enhanced production of the morphine; and (iii) opioid use in patients after adenotonsillectomy for recurrent tonsillitis and/or obstructive sleep apnoea, where OIRD may be related to hypoxia-induced enhancement of OIRD. Despite the restrictions of this approach, our analysis does yield an important insight in the development of OIRD, with specific risk factors clearly present in the data. PMID:23248093
Niesters, M; Overdyk, F; Smith, T; Aarts, L; Dahan, A
Hypotheses predicting how cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) would change the daily pattern of mood and sleep in a patient with cyclothymia were formulated based on circadian processes. Using a prospective single-case experimental design, the patient provided mood ratings every 4 hours and sleep reports daily for 49 weeks, including a 4-week baseline, a 20-session CBT intervention, and a follow-up period. Improvements in mood during and after therapy were accounted for by reduced daily mood variability and extended sleep. The patient's energy at different times of day was explained by adjusting the endogenous rhythm in a mathematical circadian model. Treatment of cyclothymia and related bipolar disorders may be enhanced by integrating understanding of circadian mood regulation into CBT treatment. PMID:18324665
Totterdell, Peter; Kellett, Stephen
Despite the high prevalence of depression and hypertension, the relationship between the two diseases has received little attention. This paper reviews the epidemiological, pathophysiological, and prognostic aspects of this association, as well as its implications for treatment. A Medline search was conducted using the following key words: depression, blood pressure, blood pressure variability, physical morbidity, hypertension, mood, stress, hypertension, antidepressive agents, and genetics, ...
Andréia Zavaloni Scalco; Mônica Zavaloni Scalco; João Batista Serro Azul; Francisco Lotufo Neto
Objective: The purpose of the present study was to provide preliminary data extending earlier research on shame and guilt, examining their relationships both to symptoms of depression and to psychological maltreatment. Symptoms of depression were expected to correlate positively with shame, but not with guilt. Psychological maltreatment was also…
Webb, Marcia; Heisler, Dawn; Call, Steve; Chickering, Sarah A.; Colburn, Trina A.
The study examined self-reported emotion and facial muscle and autonomic activity of depressed and nondepressed men in response to the social context of emotional situations. 20 university men, assessed on the Beck Depression Inventory, were asked to imagine happy and sad situations with and without visualizing other people. No differences were found between men classified as depressed and nondepressed on self-reported emotion and facial muscle activity. Smiling did not show differences between social contexts although self-reported happiness was increased during happy-social compared to happy-solitary imagery. Adjusting smiling for social context differences in happiness showed less smiling during happy-social than during happy-solitary imagery. In contrast, self-reported sadness and frowning were greater during sad-social compared to sad-solitary imagery. No differences between social contexts were found when frowning was adjusted for social context differences in sadness. Depressed-scoring men showed higher mean heart rate during sad-social than sad-solitary imagery whereas nondepressed-scoring men showed higher mean heart rate during happy social compared to happy-solitary imagery. The results indicate that men may frown more when sad but generally do not smile more during happy-social imagery, independent of depression. Depressed mood may affect heart rate during sad imagery but may not alter facial muscle activity and self:reported emotion in men. PMID:11883553
Gehricke, Jean-Guido; Fridlund, Alan J