The hypothesis defended here is that the process of mood-normalizing transitions fails in a significant proportion of patients suffering from major depressive disorder. Such a failure is largely unrelated to the psychological content. Evidence for the hypothesis is provided by the highly variable and unpredictable time-courses of the depressive episodes. The main supporting observations are: (1) mood transitions within minutes or days have been reported during deep brain stimulation, naps after sleep deprivation and bipolar mood disorders; (2) sleep deprivation, electroconvulsive treatment and experimental drugs (e.g., ketamine) may facilitate mood transitions in major depressive disorder within hours or a few days; (3) epidemiological and clinical studies show that the time-to-recovery from major depressive disorder can be described with decay models implying very short depressive episodes; (4) lack of relationship between the length of depression and recovery episodes in recurrent depression; (5) mood fluctuations predict later therapeutic success in major depressive disorder. We discuss some recent models aimed to describe random mood transitions. The observations together suggest that the mood transitions have a wide variety of apparently unrelated causes. We suggest that the mechanism of mood transition is compromised in major depressive disorder, which has to be recognized in diagnostic systems. PMID:24613736
Costello, Darcé M.; SWENDSEN, JOEL; Rose, Jennifer S; Dierker, Lisa C.
This study used semi-parametric group-based modeling to explore unconditional and conditional trajectories of self-reported depressed mood from age 12 to 25. Drawing on data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N=11,559), four distinct trajectories were identified: no depressed mood, stable low depressed mood, early high declining depressed mood, and late escalating depressed mood. Baseline risk factors associated with greater likelihood of membership in depressed mood t...
Grenier, Victoria; And Others
Research has found that depressed moods increase eating among persons who are dieting and among those characterized by high levels of weight fluctuation. To determine whether eating improves depressed moods among persons who score high on the weight fluctuation factor on the Restraint Scale (Herman, et al, 1978), 72 college women consumed either a
Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Johnson, Jeffrey C.; Boster, James S.
The influence of isolation and confinement on social support and depressed mood was examined in a study of 235 men and women who spent a year at McMurdo Station in Antarctica, and a study of 77 men and women who spent a year at the Amundson-Scott South Pole Station. Although availability of support remained unchanged, there was a significant decrease in reported satisfaction with support obtained, as well as a significant increase in depressed mood. Satisfaction with support was inversely associated with depressed mood at the beginning and end of isolation and confinement. At the end of winter, this association varied by source of support. High levels of tension-anxiety, depression and anger preceded an increase in advice seeking, but high levels of advice seeking also preceded an increase in tension-anxiety and depression. Results suggest a significant erosion of social support under conditions of prolonged isolation and confinement, leading to an increase in depressed mood.
Costello, Darce M.; Swendsen, Joel; Rose, Jennifer S.; Dierker, Lisa C.
This study used semi-parametric group-based modeling to explore unconditional and conditional trajectories of self-reported depressed mood from ages 12 to 25 years. Drawing on data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 11,559), 4 distinct trajectories were identified: no depressed mood, stable low depressed mood, early
Gartstein, Maria A; Bridgett, David J; Dishion, Thomas J; Kaufman, Noah K
Caregiver depression has been described as leading to overreport of child behavior problems. This study examines this "depression-distortion" hypothesis in terms of high-risk families of young adolescents. Questionnaire and diagnostic interview data were collected from mothers, teachers, and fathers, and self-report information was obtained from youth between ages 10 and 14 years. First, convergent and discriminant validity were demonstrated for internalizing and externalizing multiagent constructs. Second, the depression-distortion hypothesis was examined, revealing a modest effect of maternal depression, leading to the inflation of reported son externalizing and daughter internalizing problems. The data suggest the need to consider multiple influences on parental perceptions of child behavior and psychopathology in research and clinical settings. PMID:20161323
Aydin, Betul; Oztutuncu, Filiz
Study focused on the relationship among adolescents' negative thoughts, depressive mood and family environment. Family cohesion was found to be related to the degree of negative thoughts and depressive mood, while perceived control within the family was not. (BF)
Sarigiani, Pamela A.; Heath, Phyllis A.; Camarena, Phame M.
Examined the links between young adolescents' everyday experiences and parental depressed mood. Found that adolescents with depressed parents, especially girls, reported less positive mood when with their families. Identified characteristics that distinguished between adolescents with depressed parents who themselves were experiencing elevated
Geisner, Irene M.; Kirk, Jennifer L.; Mittmann, Angela J.; Kilmer, Jason R; Larimer, Mary E.
College is a time of high risk for depressed mood. Theories about depression (i.e. Cognitive Theory and Depressive Realism theory) are well researched, but suggest different venues of understanding the cognitive underpinnings of mood. In addition, much research is available about normative perceptions around substance use and how those perceptions relate to behaviors. However, there are no studies examining normative perceptions around depressed mood nor how these perceptions may relate to st...
Lane, Andrew M; Whyte, Gregory P; Peter C. Terry; Alan M Nevill
The purpose of the present study was to investigate relationships between mood, performance goals, and examination performance. We tested the notion that feelings of depressed mood are central to the overall mood response and influence the functional impact of anger and tension on performance (see Lane & Terry, 2000). Fifty undergraduate students completed a measure of anger, confusion, depression, fatigue, tension and vigour approximately 10 min before a practical physiology examination. Par...
Moritz, Steffen; Gläscher, Jan; Brassen, Stefanie
The present study investigated the extent of mood-congruent false and true memory recognition in depression. A group of 25 patients with depression and 28 healthy controls completed a variant of the Deese-Roediger McDermott task. Four lists were read to participants in sequence, followed by a recognition task. The words in each list were associated with a central but unmentioned theme word that was either depression-relevant (i.e., loneliness), delusion-relevant (betrayal), positive (holidays), or neutral (window). Whereas it was expected to replicate the conventional mood-congruent effect in depression (better recognition of depression-relevant items), the available literature did not allow strong predictions to be made on the extent of mood-congruent false recognition in depression. Results showed that depressed patients learned emotionally charged material equally well as healthy participants but forgot significantly more neutral material. A conventional mood-congruent memory bias was not found, but relative to healthy controls, patients with depression committed more false recognition errors for emotionally charged words, particularly for depression-relevant items. The results confirm that depressed patients are biased toward emotional material. Reasons for the absence of the expected mood-congruent memory bias are discussed. It is suggested that researchers as well as clinicians should pay more attention to mood-congruent false recollection, because it may undermine the validity of autobiographic reports in depressive patients and may represent a maintenance factor for the disorder. PMID:15786485
Ciesla, Jeffrey A; Roberts, John E
Response styles theory posits that rumination represents a trait vulnerability to depression. Recent evidence has suggested that rumination predicts changes in depression more strongly among individuals with high levels of negative cognition. Three studies evaluated this model of interactive vulnerabilities. Study 1 provided empirical support for the distinction between rumination and negative cognitive content. The next 2 studies investigated the interactive model in the laboratory. Study 2 randomly assigned participants to either ruminate or distract following a sad mood induction. This study found that rumination was more strongly associated with dysphoria among individuals who report high levels of negative cognition. Similarly, Study 3 found that rumination and negative cognition interact to predict changes in dysphoria across a no-task delay period following a sad mood induction. These studies provide support for an interactive model in which rumination amplifies the deleterious effects of negative cognition. PMID:17683212
Bates, G W; Thompson, J C; Flanagan, C
This study is an investigation of the effectiveness of an individually administered mood induction procedure compared with an equivalent procedure administered to a group. Seventy-nine nondepressed individuals (25 men, 54 women) were randomly assigned to either a depressive or a neutral mood induction in an individual or a group setting. In each procedure, the mood induction involved the Velten self-statement procedure (E. Velten, 1968) enhanced by related mood music. Overall, both the individual and group induction procedures were effective in producing a depressed mood state, and their effectiveness was unrelated to social desirability or the sex of the participant. However, the group procedure was more vulnerable to individual differences in response, and its use in research on depression requires stringent criteria for mood change. PMID:10319446
Kim, Jinhyuk; Nakamura, Toru; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu
Many biomarkers from genetic, neuroimaging, and biological/biochemical measures have been recently developed in order to make a shift toward the objective evaluation of psychiatric disorders. However, they have so far been less successful in capturing dynamical changes or transitions in pathological states, such as those occurring during the course of clinical treatments or pathogenic processes of disorders. A momentary biomarker is now required for objective monitoring of such dynamical changes. The development of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) allows the assessment of dynamical aspects of diurnal/daily clinical conditions and subjective symptoms. Furthermore, a variety of validation studies on momentary symptoms assessed by EMA using behavioral/physiological/biochemical measures have demonstrated the possibility of evaluating momentary symptoms from such external objective measures. In this review, we introduce physical activity as a candidate biobehavioral biomarker for psychiatric disorders. We also mention its potential as a momentary biomarker for depressive mood. Finally, we address the continuous monitoring of the pathogenic processes and pathological states of depressive disorders based on physical activity, as well as its application in pharmacological animal studies. PMID:26979449
Gartstein, Maria A.; Bridgett, David J.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Kaufman, Noah K.
Caregiver depression has been described as leading to overreport of child behavior problems. This study examines this âdepressionâdistortionâ hypothesis in terms of high-risk families of young adolescents. Questionnaire and diagnostic interview data were collected from mothers, teachers, and fathers, and self-report information was obtained from youth between ages 10 and 14 years. First, convergent and discriminant validity were demonstrated for internalizing and externalizing multiagent constructs. Second, the depressionâdistortion hypothesis was examined, revealing a modest effect of maternal depression, leading to the inflation of reported son externalizing and daughter internalizing problems. The data suggest the need to consider multiple influences on parental perceptions of child behavior and psychopathology in research and clinical settings. PMID:20161323
Pettersson, Fatimah Dabo; Hellgren, Charlotte; Nyberg, Fred; Åkerud, Helena; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger
Relatively little is known about mental health and labor pain. The aim of this study was to assess if self-rated antenatal depressed mood and anxiety are associated with pain-related behaviors and self-reported labor pain. We also wanted to replicate our previous finding of altered labor pain behavior in carriers of a specific guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase 1 gene (GCH1) haplotype. Ninety-nine women in gestational weeks 37 to 40 filled out questionnaires on depression and anxiety symptoms and later rated their labor pain by use of visual analog scales. Each subject was also genotyped for GCH1. Following adjustment for relevant confounders, women who arrived early to the delivery unit (cervical dilation 5 cm). Women with increased Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-T) scores reported higher self-rated pain prior to labor analgesia, p?pain-protective haplotype and cervical dilation was found, but a previously demonstrated association with increased use of second-line analgesia was confirmed. Depressed mood during pregnancy is associated with early arrival to the delivery department, whereas antenatal anxiety is associated with increased self-rated pain prior to labor analgesia. PMID:26392364
Joan E. Broderick; Vikingstad, Gregory
Use of real-time data collection is rapidly expanding in the medical sciences and questions have been raised as to whether frequent ratings of disease symptoms could evoke depressed mood. This study investigated the effect of an intensive momentary assessment protocol on depressed mood. Community rheumatology patients (N=105) were recruited to participate in a 30-day momentary assessment protocol of pain and fatigue. Patients were randomly signaled and completed approximately 6 ratings per da...
le Roux Ingrid; Stewart Jacqueline; Comulada W Scott; Greco Erin; Tomlinson Mark; Hartley Mary; Mbewu Nokwanele; Rotheram-Borus Mary Jane
Abstract Background The disability associated with depression and its impact on maternal and child health has important implications for public health policy. While the prevalence of postnatal depression is high, there are no prevalence data on antenatal depression in South Africa. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of depressed mood in pregnancy in Cape Town peri-urban settlements. Methods This study reports on baseline data collected from the Philani Me...
Chan, Siu Mui
The present study used a cross-sectional survey design to examine how adolescent depressive mood was related to attributional styles and coping strategies with a sample of 326 youths (aged 8-14 years). With the cutting point adopted in the West, 20.9% of the current sample reported depressive symptoms. Regression analysis results show that, with
Houltberg, Benjamin J.; Henry, Carolyn S.; Merten, Michael J.; Robinson, Linda C.
Using a sample of 248 ninth and tenth grade students at public high schools, we examined adolescents' perceptions of family connectedness, intrinsic religiosity, and adolescents' gender in relation to depressed mood and whether intrinsic religiosity and gender moderated the association of aspects of family connectedness to adolescent depressed
Starr, Lisa R.; Davila, Joanne
Research suggests that anxiety disorders tend to temporally precede depressive disorders, a finding potentially relevant to understanding comorbidity. The current study used diary methods to determine whether daily anxious mood also temporally precedes daily depressed mood. 55 participants with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and history of depressive symptoms completed a 21-day daily diary tracking anxious and depressed mood. Daily anxious and depressed moods were concurrently associated....
OBJECTIVE: To report a case in which the aromatase inhibitor letrozole produced irritable mood elevation followed by depression in a woman with a history of postpartum depression. METHODS: A 60-year-old Caucasian woman who had a severe depressive episode after the birth of her only child, 32 years earlier, was treated successively with anastrozole and letrozole following a mastectomy, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. RESULTS: Mrs X was prescribed anastrozole for about 6 weeks. During this time ...
Bylsma, Lauren M; Yaroslavsky, Ilya; Rottenberg, Jonathan; Kiss, EnikÅ; Kapornai, Krisztina; Halas, Kitti; Dochnal, Roberta; Lefkovics, Eszter; Baji, IldikÏ; VetrÏ, Ãgnes; Kovacs, Maria
Affect regulation skills develop in the context of the family environment, wherein youths are influenced by their parents', and possibly their siblings', regulatory responses and styles. Regulatory responses to sadness (mood repair) that exacerbate or prolong dysphoria (maladaptive mood repair) may represent one way in which depression is transmitted within families. We examined self-reported adaptive and maladaptive mood repair responses across cognitive, social and behavioural domains in Hungarian 11- to 19-year-old youth and their parents. Offspring included 214 probands with a history of childhood-onset depressive disorder, 200 never depressed siblings and 161 control peers. Probands reported the most problematic mood repair responses, with siblings reporting more modest differences from controls. Mood repair responses of parents and their offspring, as well as within sib-pairs, were related, although results differed as a function of the regulatory response domain. Results demonstrate familiality of maladaptive and adaptive mood repair responses in multiple samples. These familial associations suggest that relationships with parents and siblings within families may impact the development of affect regulation in youth. PMID:25849259
Heene, Els; De Raedt, Rudi; Buysse, Ann; Van Oost, Paulette
The present study was designed to test the influence of negative mood on the self-report of individual and relational correlates of depression and marital distress. The authors applied a combined experimental mood induction procedure, based on music, autobiographical recall, and environmental manipulation. Results showed that the mood manipulationâ¦
Heene, Els; De Raedt, Rudi; Buysse, Ann; Van Oost, Paulette
The present study was designed to test the influence of negative mood on the self-report of individual and relational correlates of depression and marital distress. The authors applied a combined experimental mood induction procedure, based on music, autobiographical recall, and environmental manipulation. Results showed that the mood manipulation
Damodaran, Saji S.; Nizamie, S. Haque
Koro was initially reported as a culture-bound psychiatric syndrome confined to South-east Asian cultures. Later on, isolated cases of Koro have been reported from non-Chinese cultures also. Incomplete Koro syndrome or a Koro-like state is usually grafted on to a primary psychiatric disorder. The association of Koro with depression is rare and this paper reports two cases of mood disorder presenting with Koro symptoms. Recurrence of Koro symptoms in the depressive phase and its disappearanc...
Lange, Gregor; CARR, ALAN
Fifteen individuals with clinically significant levels of both depressed mood and anxiety were compared with 20 demographically similar controls on implicit and explicit memory tests for recall of negative, physically threatening, socially threatening, positive and neutral word stimuli. Compared with the control group, the depressed and anxious group remembered more negative and socially threatening words and fewer positive words in both the implicit and explicit memory conditions...
Hahn, Ina H; Grynderup, Matias B
OBJECTIVE: At temperate latitudes, 1-5% of the population suffer from winter depression; during winter, mood difficulties tend to increase but may be alleviated by bright light therapy. Unlike indoor workers, outdoor workers are exposed to therapeutic levels of sunlight during winter. We hypothesized that outdoor work may protect against mood difficulties and depression. METHOD: We studied this hypothesis among 2910 civil servants from Århus, Denmark, who participated in a survey in January-February 2009. Mental symptoms (N=422) defined a common case category that we broke down into two parts: depression (N=66) and mood difficulties but no depression (N=356). A total of 222 controls were also sampled from the study population. All 644 participants reported the extent of outdoor work. RESULTS: The confounder-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of mood difficulties showed a decreasing trend by increasing hours of outdoor work of borderline statistical significance. The OR was 0.63 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.34-1.18)] for those working outdoors for >2 hours a day. No such effect was suggested for depression. CONCLUSION: Our study is limited by its cross-sectional design and low statistical power but nevertheless suggests that outdoor work during winter may protect against mood difficulties. If this finding holds true it may have significant impact on workers' health as well as public health in general. Therefore, further studies are recommended.
Covey, Lirio S.; Tam, Debbie
Examines the relationship between depressive mood and cigarette smoking among a sample of 123 adolescent males and 82 adolescent females. Finds an independent relation of depressive mood, friends' smoking behavior, and living in a single-parent home. Concludes that depressive mood and stress may contribute to the onset of smoking. (FMW)
Boulard, Aurore; Quertemont, Etienne; Gauthier, Jean-Marie; Born, Michel
This study examined the impact of various school-related factors on adolescents' depressive mood, including prosocial behavior, verbal aggression, and relationships with teachers. The data used in this study were collected in the context of a larger survey on victimization in secondary schools from the French Community of Belgium. Participants
Olenik-Shemesh, Dorit; Heiman, Tali; Eden, Sigal
Cyberbullying is deliberate, aggressive activity carried out through digital means. Cybervictimisation in adolescence may be related to negative psychosocial variables such as loneliness and depressive mood. The purpose of the present study, the first of its kind in Israel, was to examine the association between adolescent cybervictimisation and
le Roux Ingrid
Full Text Available Abstract Background The disability associated with depression and its impact on maternal and child health has important implications for public health policy. While the prevalence of postnatal depression is high, there are no prevalence data on antenatal depression in South Africa. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of depressed mood in pregnancy in Cape Town peri-urban settlements. Methods This study reports on baseline data collected from the Philani Mentor Mothers Project (PMMP, a community-based, cluster-randomized controlled trial on the outskirts of Cape Town, South Africa. The PMMP aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a home-based intervention for preventing and managing illnesses related to HIV, TB, alcohol use and malnutrition in pregnant mothers and their infants. Participants were 1062 pregnant women from Khayelitsha and Mfuleni, Cape Town. Measures included the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS, the Derived AUDIT-C, indices for social support with regards to partner and parents, and questions concerning socio-demographics, intimate partner violence, and the current pregnancy. Data were analysed using bivariate analyses followed by logistic regression. Results Depressed mood in pregnancy was reported by 39% of mothers. The strongest predictors of depressed mood were lack of partner support, intimate partner violence, having a household income below R2000 per month, and younger age. Conclusions The high prevalence of depressed mood in pregnancy necessitates early screening and intervention in primary health care and antenatal settings for depression. The effectiveness and scalability of community-based interventions for maternal depression must be developed for pregnant women in peri-urban settlements. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00972699.
Plunkett, Scott W.; Henry, Carolyn S.; Robinson, Linda C.; Behnke, Andrew; Falcon, Pedro C., III
Using symbolic interaction, we developed a research model that proposed adolescent perceptions of parental support and psychological control would be related to adolescent depressed mood directly and indirectly through self-esteem. We tested the model using self-report questionnaire data from 161 adolescents living with both of their biological
Chentsova-Dutton, Yulia E; Choi, Eunsoo; Ryder, Andrew G; Reyes, Jenny
The meanings of "anhedonia" and "depressed mood," the cardinal emotional symptoms of major depression, may be shaped by cultural norms regarding pleasure and sadness. Thirty-two European Americans, 26 Hispanic Americans, 33 Asian Americans, and 20 Russian Americans provided reports of (a) depressive symptoms, (b) momentary emotions and pleasure, and (c) global subjective well-being. Momentary reports were collected over 10 days using handheld personal digital assistants. Reports of anhedonia were associated with heightened levels of momentary low arousal negative emotions (e.g., sadness), whereas reports of depressed mood were associated with dampened levels of momentary positive emotions (e.g., happiness). Symptoms of anhedonia and depressed mood interacted in their associations with momentary pleasure. In addition, the associations of anhedonia and depressed mood with positive emotions and life satisfaction differed across cultural groups. Specifically, these symptoms were associated with dampened positive emotions in the Asian American group only. Additionally, anhedonia was associated with dampened global life satisfaction in the European American group only. These results suggest that reports of anhedonia and depressed mood cannot be interpreted at face value as specific and culture-free indicators of emotional deficits. Instead, they appear to signal changes in the balance of positive and negative emotions, with the exact nature of these signals shaped at least in part by cultural context. This conclusion has important consequences for the clinical interpretation of depressive symptoms in multicultural societies. PMID:25603917
Cortes, Rebecca C.; Fleming, Charles B.; Mason, W. Alex; Catalano, Richard F.
Maternal depression has been implicated in the development of adolescent substance use. Conceptualizing depression as a continuum, the aims of this study are to (a) understand the relationship between maternal depressed mood and risk factors associated with adolescent substance use; (b) understand the relationship between maternal depressed mood
Desmet, P.M.A.; Vastenburg, M.H.; Bel, D. van; Romero Herrera, N.A.
This paper presents Pick-A-Mood (PAM), a cartoon-based pictorial instrument for reporting and expressing moods. The use of cartoon characters enables people to unambiguously and visually express or report their mood in a rich and easy-to-use way. PAM consists of three characters that each express eight different mood states, representing four main mood categories: energized-pleasant (excited and cheerful), energized-unpleasant (irritated and tense), calm-pleasant (relaxed and calm), and cal...
Gomez, Judelysse; Becker, Sara; O'Brien, Kimberly; Spirito, Anthony
Adolescents referred to community behavioral health centers (CBHC) for substance use (SU) problems report high rates of child maltreatment. Although SU and maltreatment are independent risk factors for adolescent depression, few studies have examined their interactive effects. This study examined the interactive effects of SU (alcohol and marijuana) and exposure to different types of trauma on depressed mood among 74 adolescents referred to a CBHC for SU. Hierarchical regressions controlling for sex and common adolescent comorbidities showed that sexual abuse had a stronger relationship with depressed mood than other types of maltreatment. Although SU was not independently related to depressed mood, consistent with the self-medication hypothesis, increased SU was associated with lower levels of depressed mood among adolescents with greater exposure to sexual abuse. Results suggest that teens presenting to CBHCs for SU should be assessed for multiple forms of maltreatment and for depressed mood. PMID:26017474
Goodyer Ian M
Full Text Available Abstract Background A mood-related ruminative response style increases the risk of onset and persistence of depression. This preliminary study investigated whether, in depressed adolescents, cognitive-behaviour therapy reduces mood-related ruminative response style. Whether specific factors within the rumination scale were differentially affected by CBT is also reported. Methods 26 depressed adolescents were randomised to receiving serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitor antidepressants (SSRI plus psychosocial treatment as usual or SSRI and psychosocial treatment as usual plus CBT. Ruminative response style and depressive symptoms were measured at baseline and after 30 weeks of treatment, with the Responses to Depression Questionnaire and Mood and Feelings Questionnaire. Results There were significantly greater reductions in ruminations in the CBT group compared to the non-CBT group (p = .002. There was no significant difference in the reduction in self-reported depressive symptoms between the groups. Rumination was reduced to levels of never-depressed controls in adolescents who had recovered from depression and received CBT. There were greater falls in the CBT group in the more pathological 'brooding' factor of rumination. Conclusion These findings suggest that adding CBT to SSRI medication in the presence of active clinical care causes a greater reduction in mood-related ruminative response style in depressed adolescents. This may reduce the risk of future relapse. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCNT83809224.
Background To assess associations of obesity with health-related quality of life (HRQL) in postmenopausal women, and whether depressed mood and diabetes moderate these associations. Methods Survey of 983 postmenopausal women aged 35-74, general population, Augsburg region/Germany, 2004/2005. Body weight/height and waist/hip circumference were assessed anthropometrically and classified via BMI ? 30 as obese, and WHR ? 0.85 as abdominally obese (vs. not). Depressed mood was assessed by the Depression and Exhaustion-(DEEX-)scale, diabetes and postmenopausal status by self-report/medication, and HRQL by the SF-12. Results General linear models revealed negative associations of obesity and abdominal obesity with physical but not mental HRQL. Both forms of excess weight were associated with diabetes but not depressed mood. Moderation depended on the HRQL-domain in question. In non-diabetic women, depressed mood was found to amplify obesity-associated impairment in physical HRQL (mean "obese"-"non-obese" difference given depressed mood: -6.4, p < .001; among those without depressed mood: -2.5, p = .003). Reduced mental HRQL tended to be associated with obesity in diabetic women (mean "obese"-"non-obese" difference: -4.5, p = .073), independent of depressed mood. No interactions pertained to abdominal obesity. Conclusions In postmenopausal women, depressed mood may amplify the negative impact of obesity on physical HRQL, while diabetes may be a precondition for some degree of obesity-related impairments in mental HRQL. PMID:22054285
Hahn, Ina H; Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard; Dalsgaard, Sofie B; Thomsen, Jane F; Hansen, Åse Marie; Kærgaard, Anette; Kærlev, Linda; Mors, Ole; Rugulies, Reiner; Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Bonde, Jens Peter; Kolstad, Henrik
At temperate latitudes, 1-5% of the population suffer from winter depression; during winter, mood difficulties tend to increase but may be alleviated by bright light therapy. Unlike indoor workers, outdoor workers are exposed to therapeutic levels of sunlight during winter. We hypothesized that outdoor work may protect against mood difficulties and depression.
Rowe, Richard; Rijsdijk, Fruhling V.; Maughan, Barbara; Eley, Thalia C.; Hosang, Georgina M.
Background: Antisocial behaviour is often comorbid with depressed mood but is itself a collection of heterogeneous behaviours. Using a genetically informative design, we examine heterogeneity in antisocial behaviour and overlaps between different forms of antisocial behaviour with depressed mood. Methods: Data were drawn from the G1219 large-scale
Hahn, Ina H; Grynderup, Matias; Dalsgaard, Sofie B; Thomsen, Jane Frølund; Hansen, Ase Marie; Kærgaard, Anette; Kærlev, Linda; Mors, Ole; Rugulies, Reiner Ernst; Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Bonde, Jens Peter; Kolstad, Henrik
At temperate latitudes, 1-5% of the population suffer from winter depression; during winter, mood difficulties tend to increase but may be alleviated by bright light therapy. Unlike indoor workers, outdoor workers are exposed to therapeutic levels of sunlight during winter. We hypothesized that...... outdoor work may protect against mood difficulties and depression....
Raes, Filip; Verstraeten, Katrien; Bijttebier, Patricia; Vasey, Michael W.; Dalgleish, Tim
It has been well established that depressed mood is related to overgeneral memory recall (OGM), which refers to a relative difficulty in retrieving specific information from one's autobiographical memory (AM). The present study examined whether OGM is also related to depressed mood in children and whether lack of inhibitory control mediates this
Fucito, Lisa M; Juliano, Laura M.
Previous laboratory research suggests that stress and anxiety increase smoking motivation and are attenuated by smoking. There is little experimental data, however, on the relationship between depressed or sad mood and smoking. This study investigated if induced sadness would have a differential effect on smoking behavior compared to a neutral mood state. Baseline depression scores were examined as a potential moderator of this relationship. Mood changes were also tested as a potential mediat...
Foland-Ross, Lara C; Cooney, Rebecca E; Joormann, Jutta; Henry, Melissa L; Gotlib, Ian H
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a recurrent mood disorder. The high rate of recurrence of MDD suggests the presence of stable vulnerability factors that place individuals with a history of major depression at an increased risk for the onset of another episode. Previous research has linked the remitted state, and therefore increased vulnerability for depressive relapse, with difficulties in the use of pleasant autobiographical memories to repair sad mood. In the present study, we examined the neural correlates of these difficulties. Groups of 16 currently euthymic, remitted depressed individuals and 16 healthy (control) women underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during sad mood induction and during recovery from a sad mood state through recall of mood-incongruent positive autobiographical memories. Sad mood was induced in participants by using film clips; participants then recalled positive autobiographical memories, a procedure previously shown to repair negative affect. During both the sad mood induction and automatic mood regulation, control participants exhibited activation in the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC) and cuneus; in contrast, remitted participants exhibited a decrease in activation in these regions. Furthermore, exploratory analyses revealed that reduced activation levels during mood regulation predicted a worsening of depressive symptoms at a 20-month follow-up assessment. These findings highlight a dynamic role of the vlPFC and cuneus in the experience and modulation of emotional states and suggest that functional anomalies of these brain regions are associated with a history of, and vulnerability to, depression. PMID:24146315
Clasen, Peter C; Fisher, Aaron J; Beevers, Christopher G
Cognitive theories of depression suggest that mood-reactive self-esteem, a pattern of cognitive reactivity where low self-esteem is temporally dependent on levels of sadness, represents vulnerability for depression. Few studies have directly tested this hypothesis, particularly using intensive data collection methods (i.e., experience sampling) required to capture the temporal dynamics of sadness and self-esteem as they unfold naturally, over time. In this study we used participants' smartphones to collect multiple daily ratings of sadness and self-esteem over three weeks, in the real world. We then applied dynamic factor modeling to explore theoretically driven hypotheses about the temporal dependency of self-esteem on sadness (i.e., mood-reactive self-esteem) and its relationship to indices of depression vulnerability both contemporaneously (e.g., rumination, sad mood persistence) and prospectively (e.g., future symptomatology). In sum, individuals who demonstrated mood-reactive self-esteem reported higher levels of rumination at baseline, more persistent sad mood over three weeks, and increased depression symptoms at the end of three weeks above and beyond a trait-like index of self-esteem. The integration of smartphone assessment and person-specific analytics employed in this study offers an exiting new avenue to advance the study and treatment of depression. PMID:26131724
Kenney, Shannon; Abar, Caitlin C; O'Brien, Kimberly; Clark, Gabrielle; LaBrie, Joseph W
College students with depressed mood face heightened risk for experiencing drinking-related negative consequences. However, few studies have examined prospective patterns of alcohol consequences among depressed students. In the present investigation, we assessed how first-year college women's trajectories of heavy episodic drinking (HED) and alcohol consequences differed as a function of depressed mood at college entry. Participants were 233 heavy drinking incoming first-year college females (61% White) at a mid-sized West Coast University. Participants completed an online baseline survey, attended a single brief group intervention session, and completed 1- and 6-month post-intervention follow-up surveys. Depressed mood, alcohol consumption, and alcohol consequences were assessed at each time point. We employed latent growth curve analyses. Females with depressed mood, versus without depressed mood, experienced greater levels of alcohol consequences overall, particularly during transitions to college. However, contrary to hypotheses, participants with depressed mood (vs. without) exhibited significantly steeper declining trends in consequences, controlling for treatment condition, age, race, and ethnicity, and despite stable drinking levels, depressed mood, and use of protective behaviors over time. Potential explanations and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:26426743
Although mood has a direct impact on mental and physical health, our understanding of the mechanisms underlying mood regulation is limited. I propose here that there is a direct, reciprocal relation between the cortical activation of associations and mood regulation, whereby positive mood promotes associative processing, and associative processing promotes positive mood. This relation might stem from an evolutionary pressure for learning and predicting. Along these lines, one can think of moo...
Berna, C; Lang, TJ; Goodwin, GM; Holmes, EA
The tendency to interpret ambiguous everyday situations in a relatively negative manner (negative interpretation bias) is central to cognitive models of depression. Limited tools are available to measure this bias, either experimentally or in the clinic. This study aimed to develop a pragmatic interpretation bias measure using an ambiguous scenarios test relevant to depressed mood (the AST-D).1AST-D: ambiguous scenarios test relevant to depressed mood1 In Study 1, after a pilot phase (N = 53)...
Kessing, Lars Veddel; Bukh, Jens Drachmann
The prevalence of depression is not clearly established, but estimated to 3-4% in a Danish questionnaire study. Lifetime's prevalences of 12-17% are reported in other community samples. In the current diagnostic system depression is defined categorically and operationally. It has been argued, that these diagnostic criteria represent an oversimplification, which has blurred the concept of depression. We suggest a greater emphasis on the depressed mood as the core symptom of depression, which may ...
Crane, Laura; Goddard, Lorna; Pring, Linda
Autobiographical memory difficulties have been widely reported in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The aim of the current study was to explore the potential correlates of autobiographical memory performance (including depressed mood, rumination, working memory and theory of mind) in adults with ASD, relative to a group of typical adultsâ¦
Crane, Laura; Goddard, Lorna; Pring, Linda
Autobiographical memory difficulties have been widely reported in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The aim of the current study was to explore the potential correlates of autobiographical memory performance (including depressed mood, rumination, working memory and theory of mind) in adults with ASD, relative to a group of typical adults
... checking with your childâs doctor first. â¢ Learn about mood disorders and the treatments for depression, bipolar disorder, and other illnesses your â¢ Use gentle music, relaxation tapes, dim lights, warm baths and massage ...
Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of antidepressants on recovery in bipolar depression. Method: The most recent depressive episode of patients with DSM-IV Bipolar Disorder, recruited from a specialized mood disorder outpatient unit in Turkey, were evaluated retrospectively. Thirty-four patients, only received mood stabilizer titration or did not change their current treatment regimens and thirty patients, treated with an antidepressant agent were compared on rates of recurrence and time to remission. Results: One third of patients in each group were taking at least one mood stabilizer during their depressive episodes. Mood stabilizer levels were similar in each group and were within therapeutic limits. There were no significant differences between groups on rates of recurrence or time to remission. Conclusions: In this preliminary retrospective study, patients with bipolar depression who were treated with antidepressants did not have a better outcome than patients who received no antidepressants.
Heidelberg Daniela A
Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess associations of obesity with health-related quality of life (HRQL in postmenopausal women, and whether depressed mood and diabetes moderate these associations. Methods Survey of 983 postmenopausal women aged 35-74, general population, Augsburg region/Germany, 2004/2005. Body weight/height and waist/hip circumference were assessed anthropometrically and classified via BMI ? 30 as obese, and WHR ? 0.85 as abdominally obese (vs. not. Depressed mood was assessed by the Depression and Exhaustion-(DEEX-scale, diabetes and postmenopausal status by self-report/medication, and HRQL by the SF-12. Results General linear models revealed negative associations of obesity and abdominal obesity with physical but not mental HRQL. Both forms of excess weight were associated with diabetes but not depressed mood. Moderation depended on the HRQL-domain in question. In non-diabetic women, depressed mood was found to amplify obesity-associated impairment in physical HRQL (mean "obese"-"non-obese" difference given depressed mood: -6.4, p Conclusions In postmenopausal women, depressed mood may amplify the negative impact of obesity on physical HRQL, while diabetes may be a precondition for some degree of obesity-related impairments in mental HRQL.
Sato, Hiroki; Aoki, Ryuta; Katura, Takusige; Matsuda, Ryoichi; Koizumi, Hideaki
Previous studies showed that interindividual variations in mood state are associated with prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity. In this study, we focused on the depressed-mood state under natural circumstances and examined the relationship between within-individual changes over time in this mood state and PFC activity. We used optical topography (OT), a functional imaging technique based on near-infrared spectroscopy, to measure PFC activity for each participant in three experimental sessions repeated at 2-week intervals. In each session, the participants completed a self-report questionnaire of mood state and underwent OT measurement while performing verbal and spatial working memory (WM) tasks. The results showed that changes in the depressed-mood score between successive sessions were negatively correlated with those in the left PFC activation for the verbal WM task (? = -0.56, p < 0.05). In contrast, the PFC activation for the spatial WM task did not co-vary with participants' mood changes. We thus demonstrated that PFC activity during a verbal WM task varies depending on the participant's depressed mood state, independent of trait factors. This suggests that using optical topography to measure PFC activity during a verbal WM task can be used as a potential state marker for an individual's depressed mood state.
Narsavage, Georgia L.; Chen, Kathy (Yea-Jyh)
This study examined factors that predict depressed mood at discharge and 3-months post-discharge for 124 elders with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). After controlling for physiological status (FEV1% predicted), the factors of anxiety, perceived health competence (PHC), daily functioning, and family emotional coping (FEC) predicted depressed mood. Discharge referrals for homecare services could be used to assess the four factors with the potential for the health care team to inte...
Harvey, Philip D.
People with depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia manifest considerable cognitive deficits and impairments in everyday functional outcomes. The severity of current mood symptoms is associated with the severity of cognitive deficits in people with unipolar and bipolar disorder, but impairments are clearly still present in cases with minimal current mood symptoms. In people with schizophrenia, depression is less strongly associated with cognitive deficits on a cross-sectional basis, a...
Braam, Arjan W.; Marianne Klinkenberg; Henrike Galenkamp; Deeg, Dorly J. H.
Aim of the current study is to examine whether previous depressive symptoms modify possible effects of religiousness on mood in the last week of life. After-death interviews with proxy respondents of deceased sample members of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam provided information on depressed mood in the last week of life, as well as on the presence of a sense of peace with the approaching end of life. Other characteristics were derived from interviews with the sample members when still...
Kosel, Markus; Frick, Caroline; Lisanby, Sarah H; Fisch, Hans-Ulrich; Schlaepfer, Thomas E
This report describes the successful treatment of a patient suffering from an episode of drug-resistant major depression using magnetic seizure therapy (MST). The patient suffered from recurrent major depression since adolescence. MST is a novel brain stimulation method using transcranial magnetic stimulation at convulsive parameters in order to induce therapeutic seizures under general anesthesia in the same setting used for electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). The first use of therapeutic magnetic seizure induction in a psychiatric patient took place at the University Hospital in Bern, Switzerland, in May 2000. Results of a recent randomized, within-subject, double-masked trial comparing ECT and MST in 10 patients indicate that MST appears to have less subjective and objective side effects, is associated with faster recovery of orientation, and is superior to ECT on measures of attention, retrograde amnesia, and category fluency. ECT has an unparalleled and well-documented efficacy in severe depression but is associated with cognitive side effects. MST is currently under study in several centers with respect to its antidepressant efficacy. We report here on the treatment of a patient with refractory major depression (DSM IV-R), who underwent a series of 12 sessions of MST in an inpatient setting. Baseline Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HRSD-21) of 33 and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) of 40 decreased to 6 and 11 respectively, 1 week after completion of the MST trial. Measures of cognitive functions support the hypothesis that MST is associated with a less severe profile of cognitive side effects. [(99m)Tc]-HMPAO SPECT studies (baseline and 4 days after the completion of the MST trial) point to a raise of blood flow at baseline in the left fronto-parietal region and the brainstem. Our preliminary data support the prospect of antidepressant efficacy of MST and point to a benign cognitive side-effect profile in a patient suffering from severe treatment-resistant major depression. PMID:12942146
Gold, Jessica A; Grill, Marie; Peterson, Julia; Pilcher, Christopher; Lee, Evelyn; Hecht, Frederick M; Fuchs, Dietmar; Yiannoutsos, Constantin T; Price, Richard W; Robertson, Kevin; Spudich, Serena
Though depression is known to frequently afflict those with chronic HIV, mood during the early course of HIV is not well characterized. In a prospective study we assessed mood during primary HIV infection [primary HIV infection (PHI), effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART). The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Profile of Mood States (POMS) subscales were longitudinally administered prior to and after ART in PHI subjects. This evaluation of mood was done concurrently with blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and neuropsychological [total z and global deficit score (GDS)] evaluation at each visit. Analysis employed Spearman's rho, logistic regression, and linear mixed models. 47.7 % of the 65 men recruited at a median 3.5 months HIV duration met BDI criteria for clinical depression at baseline, classified as 'mild' (n = 11), 'moderate' (n = 11), or 'severe' (n = 9). Drug, alcohol, and depression history did not associate with BDI score. Proportional somatic-performance scores were worse than cognitive-affective scores (p = .0045). Vigor subscore of POMS was reduced compared to norms and correlated with total z (r = 0.33, p = 0.013) and GDS (r = -0.32, p = 0.016). BDI and POMS correlated with one another (r = 0.85, p Depression was prevalent during PHI in our subjects, associated with abnormal somatic-performance and vigor scores. Neither neuropsychological performance nor disease biomarkers correlated with depressed mood. Mood indices did not improve over time in the presence of ART. PMID:24385231
Full Text Available Depression involves a dysfunction in an affective fronto-limbic circuitry including the prefrontal cortices, several limbic structures including the cingulate cortex, the amygdala and the hippocampus as well as the basal ganglia. A major emphasis of research on the etiology and treatment of mood disorders has been to assess the impact of centrally generated (top-down processes impacting the affective fronto-limbic circuitry. The present review shows that peripheral (bottom-up unipolar stimulation via the visual and the auditory modalities as well as by physical exercise modulates mood and depressive symptoms in humans and animals and activates the same central affective neurocircuitry involved in depression. It is proposed that the amygdala serves as a gateway by articulating the mood regulatory sensorimotor stimulation with the central affective circuitry by emotionally labeling and mediating the storage of such emotional events in long-term memory. Since both amelioration and aggravation of mood is shown to be possible by unipolar stimulation, the review suggests that a psychophysical assessment of mood modulation by multi-modal stimulation may uncover mood ameliorative synergisms and serve as adjunctive treatment for depression. Thus, the integrative review not only emphasizes the relevance of investigating the optimal levels of mood regulatory sensorimotor stimulation, but also provides a conceptual springboard for related future research.
Kelley, Michelle L; Pearson, Matthew R; Trinh, Scott; Klostermann, Keith; Krakowski, Kristina
The present study examined whether suspecting one's mother versus father of alcohol abuse was associated with parent-offspring relationships, and the degree to which parent-child relationships were associated with depressive symptoms. As compared to non-ACOAs (n=288), ACOAs (n=100) reported more negative parent-child relationships (i.e., greater alienation, poorer communication, less trust, greater emotional longing, and more negative attitudes toward the parent) and increased depressive symptoms on the POMS (McNair, Lorr, & Droppleman, 1992). A closer look revealed that suspected maternal alcohol abuse was associated with more negative mother-child relationships, whereas suspected paternal alcohol abuse was associated with more negative father-child relationships. Both maternal alcohol abuse and paternal alcohol abuse predicted depressive symptoms. PMID:21392890
Joormann, Jutta; Cooney, Rebecca E; Henry, Melissa L; Gotlib, Ian H
Daughters of depressed mothers are at significantly elevated risk for developing a depressive disorder themselves. We have little understanding, however, of the specific factors that contribute to this risk. The ability to regulate negative affect effectively is critical to emotional and physical health and may play an important role in influencing risk for depression. We examined whether never-disordered daughters whose mothers have experienced recurrent episodes of depression during their daughters' lifetime differ from never-disordered daughters of never-disordered mothers in their patterns of neural activation during a negative mood induction and during automatic mood regulation. Sad mood was induced in daughters through the use of film clips; daughters then recalled positive autobiographical memories, a procedure shown previously to repair negative affect. During the mood induction, high-risk girls exhibited greater activation than did low-risk daughters in brain areas that have frequently been implicated in the experience of negative affect, including the amygdala and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. In contrast, during automatic mood regulation, low-risk daughters exhibited greater activation than did their high-risk counterparts in brain areas that have frequently been associated with top-down regulation of emotion, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex. These findings indicate that girls at high and low risk for depression differ in their patterns of neural activation both while experiencing, and while repairing negative affect, and suggest that anomalies in neural functioning precede the onset of a depressive episode. PMID:21895344
Brendgen, Mara; Wanner, Brigitte; Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Vitaro, Frank
The present study examined (a) whether groups of children can be empirically identified with distinct longitudinal profiles of depressed mood from late childhood through early adolescence, (b) to what extent these different longitudinal depression profiles are predicted by problematic relations with parents, same-sex peers, and other-sex peers,
Brendgen, Mara; Lamarche, Veronique; Wanner, Brigitte; Vitaro, Frank
The present study examined to what extent different types of friendship experiences (i.e., friendlessness, having depressed friends, and having nondepressed friends) are associated with early adolescents' longitudinal trajectories of depressed mood. On the basis of a sample of 201 youths (108 girls, 93 boys), we identified 3 distinct longitudinal
Haden, Sara C.; Scarpa, Angela
The objectives of the current study were to (a) determine how lifetime community violence (CV) victimization, coping behavior, social support (SS), and depressed mood are related in young adults, and (b) assess whether the relationship between CV victimization and depressive reactions is moderated by perceived SS and coping style. Five hundred
Adams, S.; Penton-Voak, IS; Harmer, CJ; Holmes, EA; Munafò, MR
BACKGROUND: We have developed a new paradigm that targets the recognition of facial expression of emotions. Here we report the protocol of a randomised controlled trial of the effects of emotion recognition training on mood in a sample of individuals with depressive symptoms over a 6-week follow-up period. METHODS/DESIGN: We will recruit 190 adults from the general population who report high levels of depressive symptoms (defined as a score ? 14 on the Beck Depression Inventory-II). Participa...
Braam, Arjan W.; Klinkenberg, Marianne; Galenkamp, Henrike; Deeg, Dorly J. H.
Aim of the current study is to examine whether previous depressive symptoms modify possible effects of religiousness on mood in the last week of life. After-death interviews with proxy respondents of deceased sample members of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam provided information on depressed mood in the last week of life, as well as on the presence of a sense of peace with the approaching end of life. Other characteristics were derived from interviews with the sample members when still alive. Significant interactions were identified between measures of religiousness and previous depressive symptoms (CES-D scores) in their associations with mood in the last week of life. Among those with previous depressive symptoms, church-membership, church-attendance and salience of religion were associated with a greater likelihood of depressed mood in the last week of life. Among those without previous depressive symptoms, church-attendance and salience of religion were associated with a higher likelihood of a sense of peace. For older adults in the last phase of life, supportive effects of religiousness were more or less expected. Fore those with recent depressive symptoms, however, religiousness might involve a component of existential doubt. PMID:22844587
Cascavilla Isabella; Morosini Pierluigi; Tarsitani Lorenzo; Orlandi Valerio; Speca Azzurra; Picardi Angelo; Pasquini Massimo; Biondi Massimo
Abstract Background Several patients with unipolar depression present with prominent dysphoric mood. We aimed at examining the effectiveness of the combination of an SSRI with an anticonvulsant in such patients. Methods Thirty-five newly admitted outpatients with substantial anger, irritability, aggressiveness or hostility who were diagnosed a DSM-IV unipolar depressive disorder were rated on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), the Clinical Global Improvement (CGI) scale, and a scale...
Kessing, Lars Veddel; Bukh, Jens Otto Drachmann
The prevalence of depression is not clearly established, but estimated to 3-4% in a Danish questionnaire study. Lifetime's prevalences of 12-17% are reported in other community samples. In the current diagnostic system depression is defined categorically and operationally. It has been argued, that...... these diagnostic criteria represent an oversimplification, which has blurred the concept of depression. We suggest a greater emphasis on the depressed mood as the core symptom of depression, which may increase the specificity of the diagnosis. Furthermore, basic principles for the treatment of...... depression are presented....
de Wit, Linda; Jelsma, Judith G M; van Poppel, Mireille N M; Bogaerts, Annick; Simmons, David; Desoye, Gernot; Corcoy, Rosa; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Harreiter, Jürgen; van Assche, Andre; Devlieger, Roland; Timmerman, Dirk; Hill, David; Damm, Peter; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R; Wender-Ozegowska, Ewa; Zawiejska, Agnieszka; Rebollo, Pablo; Lapolla, Annunziata; Dalfrà, Maria G; Del Prato, Stefano; Bertolotto, Alessandra; Dunne, Fidelma; Jensen, Dorte M; Andersen, Liselotte; Snoek, Frank J
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between mental health status (i.e. depressed mood and pregnancy-related worries) and objectively measured physical activity levels in obese pregnant women from seven European countries. METHODS: Baseline data from the vitamin D...... MVPA and sedentary behaviour. RESULTS: A total of 98 obese pregnant women from Austria, Belgium, Ireland, Italy, Poland, Spain and the Netherlands were included. Women had a mean age of 31.6 ± 5.8 years, a pre-pregnancy BMI of 34.1 ± 4.3 kg/m(2), and were on average 15.4 ± 2.8 weeks pregnant. WHO-5...... levels were found for women with no, some, or many pregnancy worries. Depressed mood and pregnancy-related worries were not associated with sedentary behaviour. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that in pregnant women who are obese, a depressed mood, but not pregnancy-related worries, may be associated...
Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Biehl, Michael C.; Ge, Xiaojia
The effects of pubertal timing and adolescent dating on trajectories of depressed mood from early adolescence to young adulthood were examined among youths who participated in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Results showed that for both boys and girls, the trajectories of depressed mood between the ages of 12 and 23 took an
White, Megan E.; Shih, Josephine H.
The purpose of this study was to extend the research on co-rumination and depressed mood by examining the impact of co-rumination on depressed mood on a daily basis while controlling for the effects of daily stress events in a sample of late adolescents. Two-hundred and seventy-nine predominantly Caucasian college students (95 male, 184 female)
Schueller, Stephen M.; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J.; Muñoz, Ricardo F.
Smoking and depression are related, and mood management interventions included in smoking cessation interventions can increase smoking abstinence rates. Could a mood management intervention embedded in an Internet-based smoking cessation intervention prevent major depressive episodes? Spanish- and English-speaking smokers (N = 17,430) from 191 countries were randomized to one of four online self-help intervention conditions (two with mood management). We analyzed preventive effects among thos...
Ruiz-Grosso, Paulo; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Gilman, Robert H; Checkley, William; Bennett, Ian M; Miranda, J Jaime
In low- and middle-income countries, migration to urban settings has reshaped the sprawl and socio demographic profiles of major cities. Depressive episodes make up a large portion of the burden of disease worldwide and are related to socio-demographic disruptions. As a result of terrorism, political upheaval, followed by economic development, Peru has undergone major demographic transitions over the previous three decades including large migrations within the country. We aimed to determine the prevalence of current depressive mood and its relationship with parameters of internal migration, i.e. region of origin, age at migration, and years since migration. A community-wide census was carried out between January and June 2010 within a shantytown immigrant receiving community in Lima, Peru. One male or female adult per household completed a survey. Depressive mood was assessed with a 2-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CESD) scale. Migration-related variables included place of birth, duration of residence in Lima, and age at migration. Prevalence ratios (PR) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) were calculated. A total of 8,551 out of 9,561 participants, response rate 89 %, participated in the census. Of these, 8,091 records were analyzed: 71.8 % were women [average age 39.4 (SD 13.9 years)] and 59.3 % were immigrants. The overall prevalence of individuals with current depressive mood was 17.1 % (95 % CI 16.2-17.9 %) and varied significantly by all socio-demographic and migration variables assessed. On unadjusted analyses, immigrants to Lima had higher prevalence of depressive mood if they originated in other costal or Andean areas, had lived in Lima for more than 20 years, or were <30 years of age when they out-migrated. When controlling for age, gender and socio-demographic variables the association was no longer significant, the only exception being a 20 % lower prevalence of current depressive mood among those who out-migrated aged ?30 years old (PR = 0.79; 95 % CI 0.63-0.98). In conclusion, these results suggest that current depressive mood is very prevalent in this immigrant receiving community. Among all proxies for internal migration explored, in fully adjusted models, there was evidence of an association between age at migration (?30 years old) and a lower probability of current depressive mood compared to non-migrants. PMID:25367530
Rubenstein, Liza M; Hamilton, Jessica L; Stange, Jonathan P; Flynn, Megan; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B
Deficits in emotional clarity, the understanding and awareness of one's own emotions and the ability to label them appropriately, are associated with increased depressive symptoms. Surprisingly, few studies have examined factors associated with reduction in emotional clarity for adolescents, such as depressed mood and ruminative response styles. The present study examined rumination as a potential mediator of the relationship between depressive symptoms and changes in emotional clarity, focusing on sex differences. Participants included 223 adolescents (51.60% female, Mean age = 12.39). Controlling for baseline levels of emotional clarity, initial depressive symptoms predicted decreases in emotional clarity. Further, rumination prospectively mediated the relationship between baseline depressive symptoms and follow-up emotional clarity for girls, but not boys. Findings suggest that depressive symptoms may increase girls' tendencies to engage in repetitive, negative thinking, which may reduce the ability to understand and label emotions, a potentially cyclical process that confers vulnerability to future depression. PMID:25931160
Martyn-Nemeth, Pamela; Penckofer, Sue; Gulanick, Meg; Velsor-Friedrich, Barbara; Bryant, Fred B
The prevalence of adolescent overweight is significant, almost 25% in some minorities, and often is associated with depressive symptoms. Psychological and psychosocial factors as well as poor coping skills have been correlated with unhealthy eating and obesity. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among self-esteem, stress, social support, and coping; and to test a model of their effects on eating behavior and depressive mood in a sample of 102 high school students (87% minority). Results indicate that (a) stress and low self-esteem were related to avoidant coping and depressive mood, and that (b) low self-esteem and avoidant coping were related to unhealthy eating behavior. Results suggest that teaching adolescents skills to reduce stress, build self-esteem, and use more positive approaches to coping may prevent unhealthy eating and subsequent obesity, and lower risk of depressive symptoms. PMID:18825731
Lamargue Hamel, Delphine; Deloire, Mathilde; Ruet, Aurélie; Charré-Morin, Julie; Saubusse, Aurore; Ouallet, Jean-Christophe; Brochet, Bruno
Background Depressive mood and other emotional symptoms are common in multiple sclerosis (MS). The patient-reported outcome version of the Echelle dHumeur Dépressive (EHD-PRO) aims to differentiate between two dimensions of depressive mood in people living with MS (PwMS). Objectives First, to compare EHD-PRO assessment and its two dimensions, lack of emotional control and emotional blunting, between a large sample of healthy controls (HCs) and two samples of PwMS, relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) and primary progressive MS (PPMS); and second, to analyse the relationships between EHD-PRO scores with neurological disability, cognitive function, fatigue and health-related quality of life (HR-QOL). Results Regardless of their phenotype, PwMS had significantly higher EHD-PRO scores than HCs. EHD-PRO scores did not differ between the two MS groups. EHD-PRO scores did not correlate with disability and fatigue scores, disease duration or cognitive z scores. In RRMS, the lack of emotional control was independently associated with a decrease in HR-QOL. Conclusion The EHD-PRO is able to easily detect depressive mood and to differentiate between two clinical dimensions, emotional blunting and lack of emotional control. The scale is sensitive and seems robust to confounding factors. Lack of emotional control seems to contribute significantly to altered HR-QOL in RRMS. PMID:26555230
Short, Michelle A; Gradisar, Michael; Lack, Leon C; Wright, Helen R
The present study developed and tested a theoretical model examining the inter-relationships among sleep duration, sleep quality, and circadian chronotype and their effect on alertness, depression, and academic performance. Participants were 385 adolescents aged 13-18 years (M = 15.6, SD = 1.0; 60% male) were recruited from eight socioeconomically diverse high schools in South Australia. Participants completed a battery of questionnaires during class time and recorded their sleep patterns in a sleep diary for 8 days. A good fit was found between the model and the data (?(2)/df = 1.78, CFI = .99, RMSEA = .04). Circadian chronotype showed the largest association with on adolescent functioning, with more evening-typed students reporting worse sleep quality (? = .50, p Sleep quality was significantly associated with poor outcomes: adolescents with poorer sleep quality reported less sleep on school nights (? = -.28, p sleep quality and/or more evening chronotype were also more likely to report worse grades, through the association with depression. Sleep duration showed no direct effect on adolescent functioning. These results identified the importance of two lesser-studied aspects of sleep: circadian chronotype and sleep quality. Easy-to-implement strategies to optimize sleep quality and maintain an adaptive circadian body clock may help to increase daytime alertness, elevate mood, and improve academic performance. PMID:24215949
Nabi, Hermann; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Ferrie, Jane; Marmot, Michael; Melchior, Maria; Kivimäki, Mika
BACKGROUND: The psychosocial vulnerability model of hostility posits that hostile individuals, given their oppositional attitudes and behaviours, are more likely to have increased interpersonal conflicts, lower social support, more stressful life events (SL-E) and higher likelihood of depression. However, little research has tested this hypothesis using large-scale prospective samples. The present study aims to assess the predictive value of hostility for depressive mood.MethodData are from 3...
The purpose of the study was to examine the relation between dietary patterns and depressive mood among 8th grade students in Texas. Data were from the 20042005 School Physical Activity and Nutrition study, a multistage probability-based sample of Texas 8th graders. Participants (n=8827; 14.7% Afri...
Lutter, Michael; Elmquist, Joel
Major depressive disorder is associated with an elevated risk of numerous metabolic disturbances, including obesity, metabolic syndrome, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus type II, and death after myocardial infarction. Several recent papers also indicate that disturbances of mood may alter peripheral signaling pathways that regulate metabolic processes, including those involving leptin and ghrelin.
Sigfusdottir, Inga-Dora; Farkas, George; Silver, Eric
Drawing on R. Agnew's (Foundation for a general strain theory of crime and delinquency. Criminology 30: 47-87, 1992) general strain theory, this paper examines whether depressed mood and anger mediate the effects of family conflict on delinquency. We examine data on 7,758 students, 14-16 years old, attending the compulsory 9th and 10th grades ofâ¦
Connell, Arin M.; DISHION, THOMAS J.
This study examined peer predictors of variation and growth in depressed mood among high-risk adolescents, using child and parent reports of monthly symptoms. One hundred seventy-six parents and their 10- to 14-year-old children separately took part in a series of up to nine monthly interviews. Multilevel growth models examined both time-varying peer predictors of parent and child reports of the child's depressive symptoms, controlling for age, gender, and treatment status. Deviant peer affil...
Mandelli, Laura; Nearchou, Finiki A; Vaiopoulos, Chrysostomos; Stefanis, Costas N; Vitoratou, Silia; Serretti, Alessandro; Stefanis, Nicholas C
According to the stress-diathesis hypothesis, depression and suicidal behavior may be precipitated by psychosocial stressors in vulnerable individuals. However, risk factors for mental health are often gender-specific. In the present study, we evaluated common risk factors for female depression in association with depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation in a community sample of women. The sample was composed by 415 women evaluated for mood disorders (MDs), depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation by structured interviews and the Beck depression inventory II (BDI II). All women also filled in the Eysenck personality questionnaire to evaluate neuroticism and were interviewed for social contact frequency and stressful life events (SLEs). In the whole sample, 19% of the women satisfied criteria for MD and suicidal ideation was reported by 12% of the women. Though stressful life events, especially personal and interpersonal problems, and poor social network were associated with all the outcome variables (mood disorder, depressive symptomatology and suicidal ideation), neuroticism survived to all multivariate analyses. Social network, together with neuroticism, also showed strong association with depressive severity, independently from current depressive state. Though we were unable to compare women and men, data obtained from the present study suggest that in women neurotic traits are strongly related to depression and suicidal ideation, and potentially mediate reporting of stressful life events and impaired social network. Independently from a current diagnosis of depression, impaired social network increases depressive symptoms in the women. PMID:25677396
Agnes S. Chan; Mei-chun Cheung; Tsui, Wilson J.; Sze, Sophia L; Dejian Shi
The present study evaluated the effectiveness of a short-term mind-body intervention program on improving the depressive mood of an adult community sample. Forty adult volunteers with various degrees of depressive mood were randomly assigned to the experimental group (Dejian Mind-Body Intervention, DMBI) and control group (Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, CBT). For each group, a total of four 90-min weekly sessions were conducted. Treatment-related changes were measured using the Beck Depression...
Owens, Timothy J.; Shippee, Nathan D
Does adolescent depressed mood portend increased or decreased drinking? Is frequent drinking positively or negatively associated with emotional well-being? Do the dynamic relations between depression and drinking differ by gender? Using block-recursive structural equation models, we explore the reciprocal short-term effects (within time, t) and the cross-lagged medium-term effects (t +1 year) and long-term effects (t +2 years) of depressed mood and monthly drinking occasions. Data come from t...
Rumble, Meredith E; White, Kaitlin Hanley; Benca, Ruth M
The article provides an overview of common and differentiating self-reported and objective sleep disturbances seen in mood-disordered populations. The importance of considering sleep disturbances in the context of mood disorders is emphasized, because a large body of evidence supports the notion that sleep disturbances are a risk factor for onset, exacerbation, and relapse of mood disorders. In addition, potential mechanisms for sleep disturbance in depression, other primary sleep disorders that often occur with mood disorders, effects of antidepressant and mood-stabilizing drugs on sleep, and the adjunctive effect of treating sleep in patients with mood disorders are discussed. PMID:26600106
Williams, JM; Barnhofer, T; CRANE, C; Beck, AT
The authors divided 34 participants who had a history of depression into 2 groups, those having previous suicidal ideation or behavior (n=19) and those having no such symptoms (n=15), then compared the 2 groups with a group of participants who had no history of depression (n=22). Assessment of interpersonal problem-solving performance using the Means-Ends Problem-Solving (MEPS) task before and after a mood-induction procedure showed that only those formerly depressed people with a history of ...
Wittekind, Charlotte E; Terfehr, Kirsten; Otte, Christian; Jelinek, Lena; Hinkelmann, Kim; Moritz, Steffen
The investigation of veridical mood-congruent memory (MCM) in major depressive disorder (MDD) has been subject of many studies, whereas mood-congruent false memory has received comparatively little attention. The present study examined the influence of valence, personal relevance and the valence of the context of the learning material on true and false MCM in 20 inpatients with MDD and 20 healthy controls. Sixty positive, negative, neutral or personally relevant nouns were either combined with a positive, negative or neutral adjective. Word pairs were presented to participants in a learning trial. In a recognition task, participants had to identify the previously studied word pairs. A MCM effect could not be found for hits. However, in exploratory analyses, word pairs containing personally relevant nouns were more rated towards old by the patient relative to the control group. Furthermore, depressed patients tended to rate items more towards old than controls when the words were presented in a negative new context. Results are in line with previous findings in depression research emphasizing the role of mood-congruent false memories for mood disorders. PMID:24445164
Asgeirsdottir, Bryndis Bjork; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Gudjonsson, Gisli H.; Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik
Objective: To examine whether depressed mood and anger mediate the effects of sexual abuse and family conflict/violence on self-injurious behavior and substance use. Methods: A cross-sectional national survey was conducted including 9,085 16-19 year old students attending all high schools in Iceland in 2004. Participants reported frequency of
Cheng, Tiefu; Dimitrov, Stoyan; Pruitt, Christopher; Hong, Suzi
Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is observed in various conditions, including depression and obesity, which are also often related. Glucocorticoid (GC) resistance and desensitization of peripheral GC receptors (GRs) are often the case in HPA dysregulation seen in depression, and GC plays a critical role in regulation of inflammation. Given the growing evidence that inflammation is a central feature of some depression cases and obesity, we aimed to investigate the immune-regulatory role of GC-GR in relation to depressive mood and obesity in 35 healthy men and women. Depressive mood and level of obesity were assessed, using Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-Ia) and body mass index (BMI), respectively. We measured plasma cortisol levels via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated intracellular tumor necrosis factor (TNF) production by monocytes, using flow cytometry. Cortisol sensitivity was determined by the difference in monocytic TNF production between the conditions of 1 and 0Î¼M cortisol incubation ("cortisol-mediated inflammation regulation, CoMIR"). GR vs. mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonism for CoMIR was examined by using mifepristone and spironolactone. A series of multiple regression analyses were performed to investigate independent contribution of depressive mood vs. obesity after controlling for age, gender, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and plasma cortisol in predicting CoMIR. CoMIR was explained by somatic subcomponents of depressive mood (BDI-S: Î²=-0.499, p=0.001), or BMI (Î²=-0.466, p<0.01) in separate models. The effects of BMI disappeared when BDI-S was controlled for in the model, while BDI-S remained a significant independent predictor for CoMIR (Î²=-0.369, p<0.05). However, BMI remained the only independent predictor when BDI-T or BDI-C were controlled for in the model. Mediation analyses also revealed that the relationship between BMI and CoMIR was mediated by BDI-S. The exploratory findings of the relative GR vs. MR roles in CoMIR, using GR and MR blockers, indicated that CoMIR in our cellular model was predominantly mediated by GRs at the higher cortisol dose (1Î¼M). There was initial indication that greater obesity and somatic depressive symptoms were associated with smaller efficacy of the blockers, which warrants further investigation. Our findings, although in a preclinical sample, signify the shared pathophysiology of immune dysregulation in depression and obesity and warrant further mechanistic investigation. PMID:26829709
Full Text Available Background Depression is a mental health state whose frequency has been increasing in modern societies. It imposes a great burden, because of the strong impact on peopleâs quality of life and happiness. Depression can be reliably diagnosed and treated in primary care: if more people could get effective treatments earlier, the costs related to depression would be reversed. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of socio-economic factors and gender on depressed mood, focusing on Korea. In fact, in spite of the great amount of empirical studies carried out for other countries, few epidemiological studies have examined the socio-economic determinants of depression in Korea and they were either limited to samples of employed women or did not control for individual health status. Moreover, as the likely data endogeneity (i.e. the possibility of correlation between the dependent variable and the error term as a result of autocorrelation or simultaneity, such as, in this case, the depressed mood due to health factors that, in turn might be caused by depression, might bias the results, the present study proposes an empirical approach, based on instrumental variables, to deal with this problem. Methods Data for the year 2008 from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES were employed. About seven thousands of people (N= 6,751, of which 43% were males and 57% females, aged from 19 to 75 years old, were included in the sample considered in the analysis. In order to take into account the possible endogeneity of some explanatory variables, two Instrumental Variables Probit (IVP regressions were estimated; the variables for which instrumental equations were estimated were related to the participation of women to the workforce and to good health, as reported by people in the sample. Explanatory variables were related to age, gender, family factors (such as the number of family members and marital status and socio-economic factors (such as education, residence in metropolitan areas, and so on. As the results of the Wald test carried out after the estimations did not allow to reject the null hypothesis of endogeneity, a probit model was run too. Results Overall, women tend to develop depression more frequently than men. There is an inverse effect of education on depressed mood (probability of -24.6% to report a depressed mood due to high school education, as it emerges from the probit model marginal effects, while marital status and the number of family members may act as protective factors (probability to report a depressed mood of -1.0% for each family member. Depression is significantly associated with socio-economic conditions, such as work and income. Living in metropolitan areas is inversely correlated with depression (probability of -4.1% to report a depressed mood estimated through the probit model: this could be explained considering that, in rural areas, people rarely have immediate access to high-quality health services. Conclusion This study outlines the factors that are more likely to impact on depression, and applies an IVP model to take into account the potential endogeneity of some of the predictors of depressive mood, such as female participation to workforce and health status. A probit model has been estimated too. Depression is associated with a wide range of socioeconomic factors, although the strength and direction of the association can differ by gender. Prevention approaches to contrast depressive symptoms might take into consideration the evidence offered by the present study.
de Wit, Linda; Jelsma, Judith G M; van Poppel, Mireille N M; Bogaerts, Annick; Simmons, David; Desoye, Gernot; Corcoy, Rosa; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Harreiter, Jürgen; van Assche, Andre; Devlieger, Roland; Timmerman, Dirk; Hill, David; Damm, Peter; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R; Wender-Ozegowska, Ewa; Zawiejska, Agnieszka; Rebollo, Pablo; Lapolla, Annunziata; Dalfrà, Maria G; Del Prato, Stefano; Bertolotto, Alessandra; Dunne, Fidelma; Jensen, Dorte M; Andersen, Liselotte; Snoek, Frank J
-related worries with the Cambridge Worry Scale (CWS). In addition, socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, and perceptions and attitude regarding weight management and physical activity were measured. Linear regression analyses were performed to assess the association of mental health status with...... with less physical activity. The combined risk of poor mental health and low physical activity levels makes women vulnerable for pregnancy complications. Whether a depressed mood may be a barrier for improving physical activity warrants further study.......BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between mental health status (i.e. depressed mood and pregnancy-related worries) and objectively measured physical activity levels in obese pregnant women from seven European countries. METHODS: Baseline data from the vitamin D...
Paxton, Susan J.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Hannan, Peter J.; Eisenberg, Marla E.
This research examined whether body dissatisfaction prospectively predicted depressive mood and low self-esteem in adolescent girls and boys 5 years later. Participants were early-adolescent girls (n = 440, Time 1 M age = 12.7 years) and boys (n = 366, Time 1 M age = 12.8 years) and midadolescent girls (n = 946, Time 1 M age = 15.8 years) and boys
Chau, N.; Baumann, Michèle
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) may be associated with depressive mood (DM), with a range of confounding effects depending on socioeconomic factors. This study assessed the associations between DM and CVD, their social disparities and the impact of education, living alone, smoking, alcohol abuse, and physical and cognitive disabilities. Methods: A random sample of 6216 people (2959 men and 3257 women), aged 15 years or over in north-eastern France, completed a postal survey covering alcohol ...
Full Text Available This paper is an investigation of stress levels and depressed mood at work in sport managers and coaches. Three different questionnaires were applied to professional sport managers (n=60 and coaches (n=52 in Turkey to regard to potential sources of stress before, during and after competitions. This sample represented approximately 21% of the total professional football, basketball and volleyball clubs in Turkey. The questionnaires used are Perceived Stress Questionnaire, Anxiety-Stress Questionnaire and Depressed Mood at Work Questionnaire. Our findings indicated that: The aim of first questionnaire was to assess perceived stressful situations and results show that general stress levels of managers and coaches are under the average. When we examine the second questionnaire consisting of health, physical condition, tension caused by stress; it is seen that negative effects of these factors increase. At last; according to the depressed mood at work questionnaire which evaluates the physiological conditions related to stress; its found out that both managers and coaches arent satisfied with their working atmosphere and managers unhappiness levels are higher than coaches are.
... They may say they're in a bad mood. A mood disorder is different. It affects a person's everyday emotional state. Nearly one in ten people aged 18 and older have mood disorders. These include depression and bipolar disorder (also ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Several patients with unipolar depression present with prominent dysphoric mood. We aimed at examining the effectiveness of the combination of an SSRI with an anticonvulsant in such patients. Methods Thirty-five newly admitted outpatients with substantial anger, irritability, aggressiveness or hostility who were diagnosed a DSM-IV unipolar depressive disorder were rated on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS, the Clinical Global Improvement (CGI scale, and a scale for the rapid dimensional assessment (SVARAD, were prescribed an SSRI and an anticonvulsant (usually valproate, and were followed up for 12 weeks. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to test for within-subject changes in scale scores over time. Results Thirty-two and 23 patients attended the follow-up visits 4 and 12 weeks later, respectively. Significant decreases (p Conclusion Although our study has several limitations, we observed a remarkable improvement in most unipolar depressed outpatients with dysphoric mood treated with an SSRI and an anticonvulsant. The effectiveness of anticonvulsants might be linked to their action on symptoms of aggression and behavioural activation.
Tuten, Michelle; Heil, Sarah H.; O'GRADY, KEVIN E.; Fitzsimons, Heather; Margaret S. Chisolm; Jones, Hendrée E.
Methadone-maintained pregnant patients with mood disorders have compromised treatment outcomes (1). This study examined the relationship between the presence of mood disorders and delivery and neonatal outcomes. Participants were categorized into two groups: no current mood disorder (n=30) or primary mood disorder (n=38). The mood disorder group reported more serious lifetime and current depression than did the no current mood disorder group. Neonates from mothers with mood disorders had a lo...
K. Gunnar Götestam
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Traditionally, depression among adolescents has been considered uncommon, with around 5% estimated to suffer from depressive disorder. The purpose is to investigate occurrence and psychological correlates for depressive symptoms in male and female high school adolescents in urban and rural settings. Methods: Participants were 1,069 high school students (response rate 92.0% with a mean age of 17.6 years. The instruments used were the Zung Depression Self-Rating Scale (SDS, Life Regard Index (LRI, the Neuroticism scale by Eysenck (EPQ-N, the Tension and Effort Stress Inventory (TESI, the Subjective Health Complaints scale (SHC, and the Sense of Humour Questionnaire (SHQ-6. Results: Analyzes of Variance showed sex and urban/rural main effects, and/or interactions (boys and rural students showing highest positive ratings. Stepwise regression analyzes on depression showed all but the TESI variables to significantly explain 41% of the variance in depression. The Sense of Humour and Life Regard Index were strong contributors to depression (55% of variation when effects of bodily complaints and scores on stressors and efforts were eliminated. Conclusions: The present study showed an unexpectedly high prevalence of severe (12.7% as well as moderate depressive symptoms (total of 49.2%. Therefore, the results indicate an increase of adolescent depression in recent years. Negative and positive mood, as well as sense of humour, goals in life, and fulfilment of goals seemed to be protecting. Prevalence of depressive symptoms in adolescents was shown to be higher than expected. Positive resource variables appeared to be protecting.
K., Gunnar Götestam; Sven, Svebak; Eva, Naper Jensen.
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Traditionally, depression among adolescents has been considered uncommon, with around 5% estimated to suffer from depressive disorder. The purpose is to investigate occurrence and psychological correlates for depressive symptoms in male and female high school adolescents i [...] n urban and rural settings. Methods: Participants were 1,069 high school students (response rate 92.0%) with a mean age of 17.6 years. The instruments used were the Zung Depression Self-Rating Scale (SDS), Life Regard Index (LRI), the Neuroticism scale by Eysenck (EPQ-N), the Tension and Effort Stress Inventory (TESI), the Subjective Health Complaints scale (SHC), and the Sense of Humour Questionnaire (SHQ-6). Results: Analyzes of Variance showed sex and urban/rural main effects, and/or interactions (boys and rural students showing highest positive ratings). Stepwise regression analyzes on depression showed all but the TESI variables to significantly explain 41% of the variance in depression. The Sense of Humour and Life Regard Index were strong contributors to depression (55% of variation) when effects of bodily complaints and scores on stressors and efforts were eliminated. Conclusions: The present study showed an unexpectedly high prevalence of severe (12.7%) as well as moderate depressive symptoms (total of 49.2%). Therefore, the results indicate an increase of adolescent depression in recent years. Negative and positive mood, as well as sense of humour, goals in life, and fulfilment of goals seemed to be protecting. Prevalence of depressive symptoms in adolescents was shown to be higher than expected. Positive resource variables appeared to be protecting.
Garland, Eric L; Brown, Samantha M; Howard, Matthew O
Emerging research suggests that prescription opioid craving is associated with negative mood and depression, but less is known about cognitive factors linking depressive symptoms to opioid craving among adults with chronic pain. The present cross-sectional study examined thought suppression as a mediator of the relation between depression and prescription opioid craving in a sample of chronic pain patients receiving long-term opioid pharmacotherapy. Data were obtained from 115 chronic pain patients recruited from primary care, pain, and neurology clinics who had taken prescription opioids daily or nearly every day for ?90 days prior to assessment. In this sample, 60 % of participants met DSM-IV criteria for current major depressive disorder. Depressed mood (r = .36, p thought suppression (r = .33, p thought suppression on the association between depressed mood and opioid craving (indirect effect = .09, 95 % CI .01, .20). Sensitivity analyses showed a similar indirect effect of suppression linking major depressive disorder diagnosis and opioid craving. Attempts to suppress distressing and intrusive thoughts may result in increased craving to use opioids among chronic pain patients with depressive symptoms. Results highlight the need for interventions that mitigate thought suppression among adults with pain and mood disorders. PMID:26345263
Shapiro, David; Cook, Ian A; Davydov, Dmitry M; Ottaviani, Cristina; Leuchter, Andrew F; Abrams, Michelle
Preliminary findings support the potential of yoga as a complementary treatment of depressed patients who are taking anti-depressant medications but who are only in partial remission. The purpose of this article is to present further data on the intervention, focusing on individual differences in psychological, emotional and biological processes affecting treatment outcome. Twenty-seven women and 10 men were enrolled in the study, of whom 17 completed the intervention and pre- and post-intervention assessment data. The intervention consisted of 20 classes led by senior Iyengar yoga teachers, in three courses of 20 yoga classes each. All participants were diagnosed with unipolar major depression in partial remission. Psychological and biological characteristics were assessed pre- and post-intervention, and participants rated their mood states before and after each class. Significant reductions were shown for depression, anger, anxiety, neurotic symptoms and low frequency heart rate variability in the 17 completers. Eleven out of these completers achieved remission levels post-intervention. Participants who remitted differed from the non-remitters at intake on several traits and on physiological measures indicative of a greater capacity for emotional regulation. Moods improved from before to after the yoga classes. Yoga appears to be a promising intervention for depression; it is cost-effective and easy to implement. It produces many beneficial emotional, psychological and biological effects, as supported by observations in this study. The physiological methods are especially useful as they provide objective markers of the processes and effectiveness of treatment. These observations may help guide further clinical application of yoga in depression and other mental health disorders, and future research on the processes and mechanisms. PMID:18227917
V.B., Delgado; F., Kapczinski; M.L.F., Chaves.
Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate memory performance in tasks with and without affective content (to confirm the mood congruency phenomenon) in acutely admitted patients with bipolar I disorder (BD) and major depression disorder (MDD) and in healthy participants. Seventy-eight parti [...] cipants (24 BD, 29 MDD, and 25 healthy controls) were evaluated. Three word lists were used as the memory task with affective content (positive, negative and indifferent). Psychiatric symptoms were also evaluated with rating scales (Young Mania Rating Scale for mania and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale for depression). Patients were selected during the first week of hospitalization. BD patients showed higher scores in the word span with positive tone than MDD patients and healthy controls (P = 0.002). No other difference was observed for tests with affective tone. MDD patients presented significantly lower scores in the Mini-Mental State Exam, logical memory test, visual recognition span, and digit span, while BD patients presented lower scores in the visual recognition test and digit span. Mood congruency effect was found for word span with positive tone among BD patients but no similar effect was observed among MDD patients for negative items. MDD patients presented more memory impairment than BD patients, but BD patients also showed memory impairment
Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate memory performance in tasks with and without affective content (to confirm the mood congruency phenomenon in acutely admitted patients with bipolar I disorder (BD and major depression disorder (MDD and in healthy participants. Seventy-eight participants (24 BD, 29 MDD, and 25 healthy controls were evaluated. Three word lists were used as the memory task with affective content (positive, negative and indifferent. Psychiatric symptoms were also evaluated with rating scales (Young Mania Rating Scale for mania and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale for depression. Patients were selected during the first week of hospitalization. BD patients showed higher scores in the word span with positive tone than MDD patients and healthy controls (P = 0.002. No other difference was observed for tests with affective tone. MDD patients presented significantly lower scores in the Mini-Mental State Exam, logical memory test, visual recognition span, and digit span, while BD patients presented lower scores in the visual recognition test and digit span. Mood congruency effect was found for word span with positive tone among BD patients but no similar effect was observed among MDD patients for negative items. MDD patients presented more memory impairment than BD patients, but BD patients also showed memory impairment
Charlot, Lauren; Deutsch, Curtis K.; Albert, Aranya; Hunt, Anne; Connor, Daniel F.; McIlvane, William J.
Recent reports suggest that individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) may experience depression at a high frequency, yet few published studies address this issue, especially among adults. In the current investigation, we reviewed features of depression and comorbid traits among depressed inpatients with intellectual disabilities (ID) as a function of ASD. A retrospective chart review was performed for 53 inpatients meeting criteria for depression (13 individuals with ASD and ID and 40 ...
Rice, Frances; Lifford, Kate J.; Thomas, Hollie V.; Thapar, Anita
Objective: To assess the value of maternal and self-ratings of adolescent depression by investigating the extent to which these reports predicted a range of mental health and functional outcomes 4 years later. The potential influence of mother's own depressed mood on her ratings of adolescent depression and suicidal ideation on adolescent outcome
Comparison of effects of bright light therapy alone or combined with fluoxetine on severity of depression, circadian rhythms, mood disturbance, and sleep quality, in patients with non-seasonal depression
Full Text Available Mehmet Yücel Agargün,1 Gokben Hizli Sayar,2 Hüseyin Bulut,3 Oguz Tan21Medipol University, Department of Psychiatry, Istanbul, Turkey; 2Uskudar University, Neuropsychiatry Istanbul Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey; 3Büyükçekmece Government Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Istanbul, TurkeyPurpose: To compare effects of bright light therapy (BLT alone or combined with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI fluoxetine, on severity of depression, circadian rhythms, mood disturbance, and sleep quality, in patients with non-seasonal depression.Patients and methods: Drug-free patients who were administered 10,000 lux of BLT for 30 minutes for 7 days comprised the BLT group (n = 7, while patients who started fluoxetine as an add-on treatment day comprised the SSRI + BLT group (n = 8. The primary outcomes were severity of depression, measured using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI; chronotype, measured using the Morningness Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ; mood disturbance, measured using the Profile of Mood States (POMS survey; and sleep quality, measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, before and after treatment in both groups.Results: All patients completed the study, and none reported obvious side effects. The mean onset age of depression was 26.1 years ± 5.3 years in the BLT group and 27 years ± 9.5 years in the SSRI + BLT group (P = 0.425. The number of past depressive episodes was 1.29 ± 0.76 in the BLT group, and 1.5 ± 0.8 in the SSRI + BLT group (P = 0.427. The difference between pre- and posttreatment scores revealed no significant difference between groups for the HAM-D scale, BDI, MEQ, POMS survey, and the PSQI.Conclusion: This study suggests that BLT is effective with respect to the severity of depression, circadian rhythms, mood disturbance, and sleep quality, in non-seasonal depression. However, there was no evidence in favor of adjunctive fluoxetine with BLT in the treatment of non-seasonal depression, for any of the rating scales used in our study.Keywords: bright light therapy, mood states, nonseasonal depression, sleep disorders, sleep quality
van Rijsbergen, Gerard D.; Bockting, Claudi L. H.; Burger, Huibert; Spinhoven, Philip; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; Ruhe, Henricus G.; Hollon, Steven D.; Schene, Aart H.
Objective: The current study examined whether cognitive reactivity, cognitive extremity reactivity, and mood reactivity following mood provocation predicted relapse in depression over 5.5 years. Additionally, this study was the 1st to examine whether changes in cognitive reactivity and mood reactivity following preventive cognitive therapy (PCT)
Snyder, Rebekah; Liebman, Lauren S; Simon, Asher B; Kellner, Charles H
The range of symptoms and clinical syndromes subsumed under the rubric "depression" is remarkably large. It covers the lay use of the word to describe transient sad feelings on the one hand and a devastating biological illness on the other. In consequence, society has failed to grasp that severe mood disorders do, in fact, represent life-threatening medical illness. In the present article, we outline the major historical and contemporary contributors to the present misapprehension of this severe illness and discuss the serious consequences for diagnosis, treatment, and clinical research. We suggest potential categorical and terminological revisions to current formulations of the disease and emphasize that being severely ill involves much more than is subsumed by the term "depression". PMID:23679999
Heikkinen, Riitta-Liisa; Berg, Stig; Avlund, Kirsten; Törmäkangas, Timo
they predicted depressed mood in this study. The study is a part of a 5-year follow-up of the Nordic comparative NORA study on functional capacity. A 5-year follow-up was carried out with the survivors in 1994. Depressive symptomatology was assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression...... score describing depressed mood (CES-D total scale) in any locality in either men or women. The mean score of those who died during the follow-up period differed significantly from the score of survivors among women in Göteborg and in Glostrup. The most clear predictors for depressed mood in this Nordic...
Frye, M A; Nassan, M; Jenkins, G D; Kung, S; Veldic, M; Palmer, B A; Feeder, S E; Tye, S J; Choi, D S; Biernacka, J M
The objective of this study was to determine whether proteomic profiling in serum samples can be utilized in identifying and differentiating mood disorders. A consecutive sample of patients with a confirmed diagnosis of unipolar (UP n=52) or bipolar depression (BP-I n=46, BP-II n=49) and controls (n=141) were recruited. A 7.5-ml blood sample was drawn for proteomic multiplex profiling of 320 proteins utilizing the Myriad RBM Discovery Multi-Analyte Profiling platform. After correcting for multiple testing and adjusting for covariates, growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15), hemopexin (HPX), hepsin (HPN), matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7), retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP-4) and transthyretin (TTR) all showed statistically significant differences among groups. In a series of three post hoc analyses correcting for multiple testing, MMP-7 was significantly different in mood disorder (BP-I+BP-II+UP) vs controls, MMP-7, GDF-15, HPN were significantly different in bipolar cases (BP-I+BP-II) vs controls, and GDF-15, HPX, HPN, RBP-4 and TTR proteins were all significantly different in BP-I vs controls. Good diagnostic accuracy (ROC-AUC?0.8) was obtained most notably for GDF-15, RBP-4 and TTR when comparing BP-I vs controls. While based on a small sample not adjusted for medication state, this discovery sample with a conservative method of correction suggests feasibility in using proteomic panels to assist in identifying and distinguishing mood disorders, in particular bipolar I disorder. Replication studies for confirmation, consideration of state vs trait serial assays to delineate proteomic expression of bipolar depression vs previous mania, and utility studies to assess proteomic expression profiling as an advanced decision making tool or companion diagnostic are encouraged. PMID:26645624
Henry, Michelle; Wolf, Pedro S A; Ross, Ian L; Thomas, Kevin G F
Standard replacement therapy for Addison's disease (AD) does not restore a normal circadian rhythm. In fact, hydrocortisone replacement in AD patients likely induces disrupted sleep. Given that healthy sleep plays an important role in improving quality of life, optimizing cognition, and ensuring affect regulation, the aim of this study was to investigate whether poor quality of life, mood alterations, and memory complaints reported by AD patients are associated with their disrupted sleep patterns. Sixty patients with AD and 60 matched healthy controls completed a battery of self-report questionnaires assessing perceived physical and mental health (Short-Form 36), mood (Beck Depression Inventory-II), sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), and cognition (Cognitive Failures Questionnaire). A latent variable model revealed that although AD had a significant direct effect on quality of life, the indirect effect of sleep was significantly greater. Furthermore, although AD had no direct effect on cognitive functioning, the indirect effect of sleep was significant. The overall model showed a good fit (comparative fit index = 0.91, root mean square of approximation = 0.09, and standardized root mean square residual = 0.05). Our findings suggest that disrupted sleep, and not the disease per se, may induce poor quality of life, memory impairment, and affect dysregulation in patients with AD. We think that improving sleep architecture may improve cognitive, affective, and physical functioning. PMID:26256520
Elliott A Beaton
Full Text Available Elliott A Beaton1, Louis A Schmidt2, Andrea R Ashbaugh2,5, Diane L Santesso2, Martin M Antony1,3,4, Randi E McCabe1,31Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; 2Department of Psychology, Neuroscience and Behaviour, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; 3Anxiety Treatment and Research Centre, St. Josephâs Healthcare, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; 4Department of Psychology, Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; 5Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec, CanadaAbstract: A number of studies have noted that the pattern of resting frontal brain electrical activity (EEG is related to individual differences in affective style in healthy infants, children, and adults and some clinical populations when symptoms are reduced or in remission. We measured self-reported trait shyness and sociability, concurrent depressive mood, and frontal brain electrical activity (EEG at rest and in anticipation of a speech task in a non-clinical sample of healthy young adults selected for high and low social anxiety. Although the patterns of resting and reactive frontal EEG asymmetry did not distinguish among individual differences in social anxiety, the pattern of resting frontal EEG asymmetry was related to trait shyness after controlling for concurrent depressive mood. Individuals who reported a higher degree of shyness were likely to exhibit greater relative right frontal EEG activity at rest. However, trait shyness was not related to frontal EEG asymmetry measured during the speech-preparation task, even after controlling for concurrent depressive mood. These findings replicate and extend prior work on resting frontal EEG asymmetry and individual differences in affective style in adults. Findings also highlight the importance of considering concurrent emotional states of participants when examining psychophysiological correlates of personality.Keywords: social anxiety, shyness, sociability, depression, mood, frontal EEG alpha asymmetry
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between depressive mood and pre-dialytic CKD, to localize and quantify depressive mood -related lesions in pre-dialytic CKD patients through statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis of brain positron emission tomography (PET), and to examine the usefulness of brain PET for early detection and proper treatment of depressive mood. Twenty one patients with stage 5 CKD and 22 healthy volunteers were analyzed by depressive mood assessment and statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis of 18F-FDG PET. Depressive mood assessment was done by Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). The largest clusters were areas including precentral gyrus, prefrontal cortex, and anterior cingulated cortex of left hemisphere. Other clusters were left transverse temporal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus, right prefrontal cortex, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 46, 44), right inferior frontal gyrus, right inferior parietal lobule, left angular gyrus. In addition, correlation was found between hypometabolized areas and HDRS scores of CKD patients in right prefrontal cortex (BA 11) and right anterior cingulated gyrus (BA 24). In conclusion, this study demonstrated specific depressive mood-related abnormal metabolic lesion. Interestingly, in CKD patients with severe depressive mood, cerebral metabolism was similar to that of MDD
Jun, Sung Min; Song, Sang Heon; Kim, Seong Jang; Kim, Ji Hoon; Kwak, Ihm Soo; Kim, In Ju; Kim, Yong Ki [Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between depressive mood and pre-dialytic CKD, to localize and quantify depressive mood -related lesions in pre-dialytic CKD patients through statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis of brain positron emission tomography (PET), and to examine the usefulness of brain PET for early detection and proper treatment of depressive mood. Twenty one patients with stage 5 CKD and 22 healthy volunteers were analyzed by depressive mood assessment and statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis of 18F-FDG PET. Depressive mood assessment was done by Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). The largest clusters were areas including precentral gyrus, prefrontal cortex, and anterior cingulated cortex of left hemisphere. Other clusters were left transverse temporal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus, right prefrontal cortex, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 46, 44), right inferior frontal gyrus, right inferior parietal lobule, left angular gyrus. In addition, correlation was found between hypometabolized areas and HDRS scores of CKD patients in right prefrontal cortex (BA 11) and right anterior cingulated gyrus (BA 24). In conclusion, this study demonstrated specific depressive mood-related abnormal metabolic lesion. Interestingly, in CKD patients with severe depressive mood, cerebral metabolism was similar to that of MDD.
Trueba, Ana F; Smith, Noelle B; Auchus, Richard J; Ritz, Thomas
Nitric oxide (NO) has beneficial effects on cardiovascular and immune health. Stress and depression have been linked to a reduction in serum NO. In this study, we examined the effect of academic exam stress on the fraction of NO in exhaled air (FeNO) and spirometric lung function in 41 healthy college students. Participants completed assessments at mid-semester as well as in the early and late phase of an academic exam period. Negative affect, depressive mood, and salivary cortisol were elevated during exams, whereas FeNO and lung function decreased. Higher depressive mood was associated with lower FeNO, whereas higher negative affect was associated higher FeNO across time. These findings provide initial evidence that depression and prolonged stress can alter FeNO and lung function in healthy individuals, which could have adverse consequences for cardiovascular, airway, and immune health. PMID:23410759
Hébert, Sylvie; Canlon, Barbara; Hasson, Dan; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Westerlund, Hugo; Theorell, Töres
Tinnitus, the perception of sound without external source, is a highly prevalent public health problem with about 8% of the population having frequently occurring tinnitus, and about 12% experiencing significant distress from it. Population studies, as well as studies on self-selected samples, have reported poor psychological well-being in individuals with tinnitus. However, no study has examined the long-term co-variation between mood and tinnitus prevalence or tinnitus severity. In this st...
Peter C. Clasen; Fisher, Aaron J.; Beevers, Christopher G.
Cognitive theories of depression suggest that mood-reactive self-esteem, a pattern of cognitive reactivity where low self-esteem is temporally dependent on levels of sadness, represents vulnerability for depression. Few studies have directly tested this hypothesis, particularly using intensive data collection methods (i.e., experience sampling) required to capture the temporal dynamics of sadness and self-esteem as they unfold naturally, over time. In this study we used participants smartpho...
McCauley Elizabeth; Lymp James; Tracy Melissa; Simpson Kate; Rhew Isaac C; Tsuang Debby; Stoep Ann
Abstract Background The use of short screening questionnaires may be a promising option for identifying children at risk for depression in a community setting. The objective of this study was to assess the validity of the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ) and one- and two-item screening instruments for depressive disorders in a school-based sample of young adolescents. Methods Participants were 521 sixth-grade students attending public middle schools. Child and parent versions of t...
Wicke, Felix S; Güthlin, Corina; Mergenthal, Karola; Gensichen, Jochen; Löffler, Christin; Bickel, Horst; Maier, Wolfgang; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G.; Weyerer, Siegfried; Wiese, Birgitt; König, Hans-Helmut; Schön, Gerhard; Hansen, Heike; Bussche, Hendrik van den; Scherer, Martin
Background: It is not well established how psychosocial factors like social support and depression affect health-related quality of life in multimorbid and elderly patients. We investigated whether depressive mood mediates the influence of social support on health-related quality of life. Methods: Cross-sectional data of 3,189 multimorbid patients from the baseline assessment of the German MultiCare cohort study were used. Mediation was tested using the approach described by Baron and Kenn...
Mazefsky, Carla A; Conner, Caitlin M.; Donald P. Oswald
Research suggests that children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and their relatives have high rates of depression and anxiety. However, relatively few studies have looked at both factors concurrently. This study examined the potential relationship between maternal mood symptoms and depression and anxiety in their children with ASD. Participants were 31 10- to 17-year-old children with an ASD diagnosis that was supported by gold-standard measures and their biological mothers. Mothers com...
Platt, Jonathan; Prins, Seth; Bates, Lisa; Keyes, Katherine
Mood disorders, such as depression and anxiety, are more prevalent among women than men. This disparity may be partially due to the effects of structural gender discrimination in the work force, which acts to perpetuate gender differences in opportunities and resources and may manifest as the gender wage gap. We sought to quantify and operationalize the wage gap in order to explain the gender disparity in depression and anxiety disorders, using data from a 2001-2002 US nationally representative survey of 22,581 working adults ages 30-65. Using established Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition methods to account for gender differences in individual-level productivity, our models reduced the wage gap in our sample by 13.5%, from 54% of men's pay to 67.5% of men's pay. We created a propensity-score matched sample of productivity indicators to test if the direction of the wage gap moderated the effects of gender on depression or anxiety. Where female income was less than the matched male counterpart, odds of both disorders were significantly higher among women versus men (major depressive disorder OR: 2.43, 95% CI: 1.95-3.04; generalized anxiety disorder OR: 4.11, 95% CI: 2.80-6.02). Where female income was greater than the matched male, the higher odds ratios for women for both disorders were significantly attenuated (Major Depressive Disorder OR: 1.20; 95% CI: 0.96-1.52) (Generalized Anxiety Disorder OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.04-2.29). The test for effect modification by sex and wage gap direction was statistically significant for both disorders. Structural forms of discrimination may explain mental health disparities at the population level. Beyond prohibiting overt gender discrimination, policies must be created to address embedded inequalities in procedures surrounding labor markets and compensation in the workplace. PMID:26689629
Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Asgeirsdottir, Bryndis Bjork; Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik; Gudjonsson, Gisli H.
This paper investigates the relationship between physical activity and depressed mood, under conditions of family conflict. We analyze data from a representative sample of 7232 Icelandic adolescents. Analysis of variance was carried out to test for main and interaction effects. The study shows that while family conflict increases the likelihood of
Luana Porto Barbosa
Full Text Available Background Maternal depression may be a risk factor for childhood trauma (CT, with resultant offspring development of mood disorders (MD in adult life. Objective To verify the relationship between maternal depression (as a risk factor for childhood trauma and mood disorders in young adults. Methods The sample was composed of 164 young adults and their mothers. Maternal depression was identified through the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.. Mood Disorders in the young adults were confirmed with the Structured Interview for the DSM-IV (SCID, whereas the CT was evaluated using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ. Results In the group of young adults with MD, individuals who had depressed mothers presented higher mean scores of CT in comparison to the ones who did not have mothers with Depression (p < 0.005. Childhood trauma was also associated with lower social classes (p < 0.005. In the group of young adults without MD, the only variable that was associated with CT was the young adults (not current work (p < 0.005. Discussion Maternal depression was considered to be a risk factor for CT and MD in young adults. Thus, preventing and treating maternal psychiatric disorders may diminish the risk of offspring childhood trauma, and, consequently, avoid negative effects in the offsprings adult life.
Heslin, Kevin C.; Stein, Judith A.; Dobalian, Aram; Simon, Barbara; Lanto, Andrew B.; Yano, Elizabeth M.; Rubenstein, Lisa V.
Alcohol problems may impede adaptive, proactive responses to disaster-related injury and loss, thus prolonging the adverse impact of disasters on mental health. Previous work suggests that veterans of the U.S. armed forces have a relatively high prevalence of alcohol misuse and other psychiatric disorders. This is the first study to estimate the impact of pre-disaster alcohol problems on post-disaster depressed mood among veterans, using data that were collected before and after the 1994 Northridge, California earthquake. We assessed the impact of alcohol problems on post-disaster depressed mood in an existing clinical cohort of veterans who experienced the 6.7-magnitude earthquake that struck Northridge in January 1994. One-to-three months after the disaster, interviewers contacted participants by telephone to administer a follow-up questionnaire based on a survey that had been done pre-earthquake. Post-earthquake data were obtained on 1144 male veterans for whom there were pre-earthquake data. We tested a predictive path model of the relationships between latent variables for pre-disaster alcohol problems, functional limitations, and depressed mood on latent variables representing post-disaster quake impact and depressive mood. Results showed that veterans who had more alcohol problems before the earthquake experienced more earthquake-related harms and severely depressed mood after the earthquake, compared with those who had fewer alcohol problems. Programs serving veterans with a high prevalence of alcohol problems should consider designing disaster response protocols to locate and assist these patients in the aftermath of disasters. PMID:23106638
Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Alonso, Jordi; Angermeyer, Matthias; Bromet, Evelyn; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Jonge, Peter; Demyttenaere, Koen; Florescu, Silvia E.; Gruber, Michael J.; Gureje, Oye; Hu, Chiyi; Huang, Yueqin; Karam, Elie G.; Jin, Robert; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Levinson, Daphna; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Medina-Mora, María E.; ONeill, Siobhan; Ono, Yutaka; Posada-Villa, José A.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Scott, Kate M.; Shahly, Victoria; Stein, Dan J.; Viana, Maria C.; Zarkov, Zahari; Kessler, Ronald C.
Background Although irritability is a core symptom of DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD) for youth but not adults, clinical studies find comparable rates of irritability between nonbipolar depressed adults and youth. Including irritability as a core symptom of adult MDD would allow detection of depression-equivalent syndromes with primary irritability hypothesized to be more common among males than females. We carried out a preliminary examination of this issue using cross-national community-based survey data from 21 countries in the World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys (n = 110,729). Methods The assessment of MDD in the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview includes one question about persistent irritability. We examined two expansions of the definition of MDD involving this question: (1) cases with dysphoria and/or anhedonia and exactly four of nine Criterion A symptoms plus irritability; and (2) cases with two or more weeks of irritability plus four or more other Criterion A MDD symptoms in the absence of dysphoria or anhedonia. Results Adding irritability as a tenth Criterion A symptom increased lifetime prevalence by 0.4% (from 11.2 to 11.6%). Adding episodes of persistent irritability increased prevalence by an additional 0.2%. Proportional prevalence increases were significantly higher, but nonetheless small, among males compared to females. Rates of severe role impairment were significantly lower among respondents with this irritable depression who did not meet conventional DSM-IV criteria than those with DSM-IV MDD. Conclusion Although limited by the superficial assessment in this single question on irritability, results do not support expanding adult MDD criteria to include irritable mood. PMID:23364997
Chau, K; Baumann, Michèle
Nowadays modern societies are to be more competitive and include more non-intact families and living difficulties due to employment and social deprivations. Adolescents may suffer from depressive mood (DM) which is common and multi-factorial. This study assessed, among boys and girls, the causal relationships between DM and parent education, nationality, occupation, income, divorce/separation, and death, repeating a school-year, lifetime alcohol/tobacco/cannabis/other drugs use...
Toshinori Kitamura; Yukiko Ohashi; Sachiko Kita; Megumi Haruna; Reiko Kubo
Objective: To investigate the relationships between depressive mood, bonding failure, and abusive parenting. Method: We distributed questionnaires to 1198 mothers attending a three-month postnatal health check-up in rural areas in Japan. The questionnaires assessed these three variables along with demographics. We evaluated the causal relationships by comparing different structural equation models to the data. Results: Although all the models fit the data well, the best Akaike Information Cr...
Frison, Eline; Eggermont, Steven
This study examined relationships among daily stress (i.e., school- and family-related stress), social support seeking through Facebook, perceived social support through Facebook, and depressed mood among adolescents (N = 910). Structural equation modeling showed that daily stress positively predicted adolescentsâ seeking of social support through Facebook. In addition, when social support was sought on Facebook and subsequently perceived, social support seeking through Facebook decreased a...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of short screening questionnaires may be a promising option for identifying children at risk for depression in a community setting. The objective of this study was to assess the validity of the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ and one- and two-item screening instruments for depressive disorders in a school-based sample of young adolescents. Methods Participants were 521 sixth-grade students attending public middle schools. Child and parent versions of the SMFQ were administered to evaluate the child's depressive symptoms. The presence of any depressive disorder during the previous month was assessed using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC as the criterion standard. First, we assessed the diagnostic accuracy of child, parent, and combined scores of the full 13-item SMFQ by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC, sensitivity and specificity. The same approach was then used to evaluate the accuracy of a two-item scale consisting of only depressed mood and anhedonia items, and a single depressed mood item. Results The combined child + parent SMFQ score showed the highest accuracy (AUC = 0.86. Diagnostic accuracy was lower for child (AUC = 0.73 and parent (AUC = 0.74 SMFQ versions. Corresponding versions of one- and two-item screens had lower AUC estimates, but the combined versions of the brief screens each still showed moderate accuracy. Furthermore, child and combined versions of the two-item screen demonstrated higher sensitivity (although lower specificity than either the one-item screen or the full SMFQ. Conclusions Under conditions where parents accompany children to screening settings (e.g. primary care, use of a child + parent version of the SMFQ is recommended. However, when parents are not available, and the cost of a false positive result is minimal, then a one- or two-item screen may be useful for initial identification of at-risk youth.
Full Text Available Abstract Background According to some studies, almost 40% of depressive patients half of them previously undetected are diagnosed of bipolar II disorder when systematically assessed for hypomania. Thus, instruments for bipolar disorder screening are needed. The Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ is a self-reported questionnaire validated in Spanish in stable patients with a previously known diagnosis. The purpose of this study is to evaluate in the daily clinical practice the usefulness of the Spanish version of the MDQ in depressive patients. Methods Patients (n = 87 meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for a major depressive episode, not previously known as bipolar were included. The affective module of the Structured Clinical Interview (SCID was used as gold standard. Results MDQ screened 24.1% of depressive patients as bipolar, vs. 12.6% according to SCID. For a cut-off point score of 7 positive answers, sensitivity was 72.7% (95% CI = 63.3 82.1 and specificity 82.9% (95% CI = 74.990.9. Likelihood ratio of positive and negative tests were 4,252 y 0,329 respectively. Limitations The small sample size reduced the power of the study to 62%. Conclusion Sensitivity and specificity of the MDQ were high for screening bipolar disorder in patients with major depression, and similar to the figures obtained in stable patients. This study confirms that MDQ is a useful instrument in the daily clinical assessment of depressive patients.
Fábio Lopes Rocha
Full Text Available Kleptomania has been found in association with major depression in a fairly large number of reports in recent years. We describe a patient with concurrent DSM-III-R Bipolar Mood Disorder and Kleptomania, whose symptoms remitted completely, apparently in response to lithium therapy, which raised the possibility that pharmacological treatment may benefit kleptomania. Further studies are needed to establish the possible relationship between kleptomania, mood disorders and lithium therapy.
Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was assessed on 26 mood disorder patients using 123I-iodoamphetamine and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and their correlations to depression scores of Hamilton's Rating Scale for Depression were studied. Region of interest (ROI) was established on coronary images and used as an indicator. As a result, left hemisphere was suspected of a primary lesion in mood disorder, however, the relationship between clinical symptoms and various lesion areas were not clarified. Further studies with neuropsychological loading or pharmaceutical loading such as antidepressant are thus expected to clarify the etiology of mood disorders. (S.Y.)
Weidt, Steffi; Wahle, Fabian; Rufer, Michael; Hörni, Anja; Kowatsch, Tobias
Major depression is regarded as a significant and serious disease with an increasing prevalence worldwide. However, not all individuals with depressive pressive symptoms seek help for their problems. These untreated "hidden" individuals with depressive symptoms require the design and dissemination of evidence-based, /ow-cost and scalable mental health interventions. Such interventions provided by mobile applications are promising as they have the potential to support people in their everyday life. However, as of today it is unclear how to design mental health applications that are effective and motivating yet non-intrusive. In addressing this problem, the MOSS application is a recent endeavor of a Swiss project team from Universitiitsspital Zurich, ETH Zurich, University of St. Gallen and makora AG, to support people with depressive symptoms. In particular, evidence-based micro-interventions are recommended and triggered by individual characteristics that are derived from self-reports, smartphone interactions and sensor data. After one year of development, the study team now conducts a first empirical study and thus, recruits people affected by depressive symptoms to improve not only the application as such but with it, the delivery of mental health interventions in the long run. PMID:26323953
Gudjonsson, Gisli H.; Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik; Adalsteinsson, Tomas F.; Young, Susan
Objective: To investigate the relative importance of ADHD symptoms, mood instability, and antisocial personality disorder traits in predicting self-reported offending. Method: A total of 295 Icelandic students completed two scales of offending behavior and measures of ADHD symptoms, mood instability, and antisocial personality traits. Results:â¦
Gudjonsson, Gisli H.; Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik; Adalsteinsson, Tomas F.; Young, Susan
Objective: To investigate the relative importance of ADHD symptoms, mood instability, and antisocial personality disorder traits in predicting self-reported offending. Method: A total of 295 Icelandic students completed two scales of offending behavior and measures of ADHD symptoms, mood instability, and antisocial personality traits. Results:
Full Text Available Abstract Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is commonly regarded as a functional disorder, and is hypothesized to be associated with anxiety and depression. This evidence mainly rests on population-based studies utilising self-report screening instruments for psychopathology. Other studies applying structured clinical interviews are generally based on small clinical samples, which are vulnerable to biases. The extant evidence base for an association between IBS and psychopathology is hence not conclusive. The aim of this study was therefore to re-examine the hypothesis using population-based data and psychiatric morbidity established with a structured clinical interview. Methods Data were derived from a population-based epidemiological study (n = 1077. Anxiety and mood disorders were established using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR (SCID-I/NP and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12. Current and lifetime IBS was self-reported. Hypertension and diabetes were employed as comparison groups as they are expected to be unrelated to mental health. Results Current IBS (n = 69, 6.4% was associated with an increased likelihood of current mood and/or anxiety disorders (OR = 2.62, 95%CI 1.49 - 4.60. Half the population reporting a lifetime IBS diagnosis also had a lifetime mood or anxiety disorder. Exploratory analyses demonstrated an increased prevalence of IBS across most common anxiety and mood disorders, the exception being bipolar disorder. The association with IBS and symptoms load (GHQ-12 followed a curved dose response pattern. In contrast, hypertension and diabetes were consistently unrelated to psychiatric morbidity. Conclusions IBS is significantly associated with anxiety and mood disorders. This study provides indicative evidence for IBS as a disorder with a psychosomatic aspect.
Husebø, Bettina Sandgathe; Ballard, Clive; Fritze, Friederike; Sandvik, Reidun Karin; Aarsland, Dag
Background: Depression is common in nursing home (NH) patients with dementia, and often clustered with anxiety and other mood symptoms. An association between pain and depressive symptoms has been reported, but the impact of pain management on depression and other mood symptoms has not been investigated.
Objective: Secondary analyses of a cluster randomized clinical trial examine the response of dementia-related mood symptoms to a Stepwise Protocol of Treating Pain.
Benvenuti, Antonella; Rucci, Paola; Calugi, Simona; Cassano, Giovanni B.; Miniati, Mario; Frank, Ellen
The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship of residual mood and panicagoraphobic spectrum phenomenology to functional impairment and quality of life in 226 adult outpatients who had remitted from a major depressive episode. Quality of life and functioning were assessed using the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale. Residual symptoms were assessed using the Mood and PanicAgoraphobic Spectrum Questionnaires. Linear and l...
Bouhuys, A L; Bloem, G M; Groothuis, T G
The judgement of healthy subject rating the emotional expressions of a set of schematic drawn faces is validated (study 1) to examine the relationship between mood (depressed/elated) and judgement of emotional expressions of these faces (study 2). Study 1: 30 healthy subjects judged 12 faces with respect to the emotions they express (fear, happiness, anger, sadness, disgust, surprise, rejection and invitation). It was found that a particular face could reflect various emotions. All eight emotions were reflected in the set of faces and the emotions were consensually judged. Moreover, gender differences in judgement could be established. Study 2: In a cross-over design, 24 healthy subjects judged the faces after listening to depressing or elating music. The faces were subdivided in six 'ambiguous' faces (i.e., expressing similar amounts of positive and negative emotions) and six 'clear' faces (i.e., faces showing a preponderance of positive or negative emotions). In addition, these two types of faces were distinguished with respect to the intensity of emotions they express. 11 subjects who showed substantial differences in experienced depression after listening to the music were selected for further analysis. It was found that, when feeling more depressed, the subjects perceived more rejection/sadness in ambiguous faces (displaying less intensive emotions) and less invitation/happiness in clear faces. In addition, subjects saw more fear in clear faces that express less intensive emotions. Hence, results show a depression-related negative bias in the perception of facial displays. PMID:7790675
Correll, Christoph U; Detraux, Johan; De Lepeleire, Jan; De Hert, Marc
People with severe mental illness have a considerably shorter lifespan than the general population. This excess mortality is mainly due to physical illness. Next to mental illness-related factors, unhealthy lifestyle, and disparities in health care access and utilization, psychotropic medications can contribute to the risk of physical morbidity and mortality. We systematically reviewed the effects of antipsychotics, antidepressants and mood stabilizers on physical health outcomes in people with schizophrenia, depression and bipolar disorder. Updating and expanding our prior systematic review published in this journal, we searched MEDLINE (November 2009 - November 2014), combining the MeSH terms of major physical disease categories (and/or relevant diseases within these categories) with schizophrenia, major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder, and the three major psychotropic classes which received regulatory approval for these disorders, i.e., antipsychotics, antidepressants and mood stabilizers. We gave precedence to results from (systematic) reviews and meta-analyses wherever possible. Antipsychotics, and to a more restricted degree antidepressants and mood stabilizers, are associated with an increased risk for several physical diseases, including obesity, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, thyroid disorders, hyponatremia; cardiovascular, respiratory tract, gastrointestinal, haematological, musculoskeletal and renal diseases, as well as movement and seizure disorders. Higher dosages, polypharmacy, and treatment of vulnerable (e.g., old or young) individuals are associated with greater absolute (elderly) and relative (youth) risk for most of these physical diseases. To what degree medication-specific and patient-specific risk factors interact, and how adverse outcomes can be minimized, allowing patients to derive maximum benefits from these medications, requires adequate clinical attention and further research. PMID:26043321
Cheng, Philip; Preston, Stephanie D; Jonides, John; Mohr, Alicia Hofelich; Thummala, Kirti; Casement, Melynda; Hsing, Courtney; Deldin, Patricia J
Depression is consistently associated with biased retrieval and interpretation of affective stimuli, but evidence for depressive bias in earlier cognitive processing, such as attention, is mixed. In five separate experiments, individuals with depression (three experiments with clinically diagnosed major depression, two experiments with dysphoria measured via the Beck Depression Inventory) completed three tasks designed to elicit depressive biases in attention, including selective attention, attentional switching, and attentional inhibition. Selective attention was measured using a modified emotional Stroop task, while attentional switching and inhibition was examined via an emotional task-switching paradigm and an emotional counter task. Results across five different experiments indicate that individuals with depression perform comparably with healthy controls, providing corroboration that depression is not characterized by biases in attentional processes. PMID:26477954
Joormann, Jutta; Cooney, Rebecca E.; Henry, Melissa L.; Gotlib, Ian H.
Daughters of depressed mothers are at significantly elevated risk for developing a depressive disorder themselves. We have little understanding, however, of the specific factors that contribute to this risk. The ability to regulate negative affect effectively is critical to emotional and physical health and may play an important role in influencing risk for depression. We examined whether never-disordered daughters whose mothers have experienced recurrent episodes of depression during their d...
K Gunnar Götestam; Sven Svebak; Eva Naper Jensen
Background and Objectives: Traditionally, depression among adolescents has been considered uncommon, with around 5% estimated to suffer from depressive disorder. The purpose is to investigate occurrence and psychological correlates for depressive symptoms in male and female high school adolescents in urban and rural settings. Methods: Participants were 1,069 high school students (response rate 92.0%) with a mean age of 17.6 years. The instruments used were the Zung Depression Self-Rating Scal...
Haines, Mary E.; And Others
Assessed college students on measures of depression, concentration, and academic performance. Depression was negatively related to academic performance, although the relationship between depression and cognitive functioning was not detected on a brief measure of concentration. Suggests that isolated testing sessions may mask the detrimental
González-Maeso, Javier; Meana, J. Javier
Mood disorders such as major depression and bipolar disorder are common, severe, chronic and often life-threatening illnesses. Suicide is estimated to be the cause of death in up to approximately 10-15% of individuals with mood disorders. Alterations in the signal transduction through G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) pathways have been reported in the etiopathology of mood disorders and the suicidal behavior. In this regard, the implication of certain GPCR subtypes such as ?2A-adrenoceptor h...
Henry, Michelle; Wolf, Pedro S. A.; Ian L. Ross; Thomas, Kevin G. F.
Standard replacement therapy for Addison's disease (AD) does not restore a normal circadian rhythm. In fact, hydrocortisone replacement in AD patients likely induces disrupted sleep. Given that healthy sleep plays an important role in improving quality of life, optimizing cognition, and ensuring affect regulation, the aim of this study was to investigate whether poor quality of life, mood alterations, and memory complaints reported by AD patients are associated with their disrupted sleep patt...
Rohrbacher, H; Blackwell, SE; Holmes, EA; Reinecke, A
Negative interpretation is thought to be crucial in the development and maintenance of depression. Recently developed cognitive bias modification paradigms, intending to change these biases towards a more optimistic interpretation tendency (CBM-I), seem to offer new promising implications for cognitive therapy innovation. This study aimed to increase our knowledge of the underlying mechanisms of action of imagery-based CBM-I in the context of depressed mood. We therefore compared the efficacy...
Calhoun, Lawrence G.; And Others
Examines the relation of depression to locus of control and to the perceived causes of depression in a nonpsychiatric population. Findings suggest that adolescent females tend to hold themselves more responsible than males for unsatisfactory personal situations, and this extends to the attribution of causes for unhappy moods. (Author/PC)
Chung, William Y.; Chen, Chuansheng; Greenberger, Ellen; Heckhausen, Jutta
This 1-year longitudinal study investigated the effects of adolescents' depressed mood on perceived parental and peer warmth during the transition to young adulthood. We hypothesized that ethnicity would moderate such effects. As part of a larger study, 511 adolescents (154 European, 205 Hispanic, and 152 Asian Americans) participated in this
Wickrama, K. A. S.; Conger, Rand D.; Lorenz, Federick O.; Martin, Monica
Using prospective, longitudinal data from 467 youth over a 13-year period (late adolescence and young adulthood), the present study investigates three research questions: (1) to what extent do elevations in depressed mood continue (homotypic continuity) from adolescence to young adulthood, (2) to what extent do young adults' socioeconomic
... shifts affect the brain's mood chemistry in a way that can lead to sadness, low mood, and depression that lingers. Stress hormones may have an added effect on mood. Some women might experience this more than others. When to ...
Full Text Available Living organizms show cyclic rhythmicity in a variety of physiological, hormonal, behavioral, and psychological processes. Sleep-wake cycles, body temperature, hormone levels, mood and cognition display a circadian rhythm in humans. Delays, advances or desynchronizations of circadian rhythm are known to be strongly associated with mental illness especially mood disorders such as bipolar disorder, major depression and seasonal affective disorder. Furthermore, some of the mood stabilizers, sleep deprivation and light treatment are employed to treat mood disorders by shifting circadian rhythm. This paper reviews the relationship between mood disorders and circadian rhythm, and describes treatment options by altering circadian rhythm.
Michelle Abrams; Cristina Ottaviani; Leuchter, Andrew F.; Dmitry M. Davydov; Cook, Ian A.; David Shapiro
Preliminary findings support the potential of yoga as a complementary treatment of depressed patients who are taking anti-depressant medications but who are only in partial remission. The purpose of this article is to present further data on the intervention, focusing on individual differences in psychological, emotional and biological processes affecting treatment outcome. Twenty-seven women and 10 men were enrolled in the study, of whom 17 completed the intervention and pre- and post-interv...
Haizhen Wang; Jinliang Wang; Dajun Zhang
The goal of this study was to examine the effects of group music therapy on depression and mental health among college students. 80 students participated in this study, with 40 assigned to control group and other 40 assigned to experimental group. The results showed that after the group music therapy, for the experimental group, the depression scores have reduced significantly and the mental health scores have improved, while for the control group, no significant difference was obtained on th...
Lewis, Sarah J; Araya, Ricardo; Davey Smith, George; Freathy, Rachel; Gunnell, David; Palmer, Tom; Munafò, Marcus
Smokers have a higher prevalence of major depressive episodes and depressive symptoms than the general population, but whether this association is causal, or is due to confounding or reverse causation is uncertain because of the problems inherent in some epidemiological studies. Mendelian randomization, in which a genetic variant is used as a surrogate for measuring exposure, is an approach which may be used to better understand this association. We investigated the rs1051730 single nucleotid...
The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and symptom clusters of depressive mood in pre-dialytic chronic kidney disease (CKD). Twenty-seven patients with stage 4-5 CKD were subjected to statistical parametric mapping analysis of brain single-photon emission computed tomography. Correlation analyses between separate symptom clusters of depressive mood and rCBF were done. The first factor (depressive mood) was negatively correlated with rCBF in the right insula, posterior cingulate gyrus, and left superior temporal gyrus, and positively correlated with rCBF in the left fusiform gyrus. The second factor (insomnia) was negatively correlated with rCBF in the right middle frontal gyrus, bilateral cingulate gyri, right insula, right putamen, and right inferior parietal lobule, and positively correlated with rCBF in left fusiform gyrus and bilateral cerebellar tonsils. The third factor (anxiety and psychomotor aspects) was negatively correlated with rCBF in the left inferior frontal gyms, right superior frontal gyms, right middle temporal gyrus, right superior temporal gyrus, and left superior frontal gyrus, and positively correlated with rCBF in the right ligual gyrus and right parahippocampal gyrus. In this study, the separate symptom clusters were correlated with specific rCBF patterns similar to those in major depressive disorder patients without CKD. However, some areas with discordant rCBF patterns were also noted when compared with major depressive disorder patients. Further larger scale investigations are needed. (author)
Tabaszewska, Agnieszka; Barszcz, Zbigniew; Józefowicz, Olga; Kropiwnicki, Pawe?; Rabe-Jab?o?ska, Jolanta
Memantine and other glutamatergic agents have been currently investigated in some off-label indications due to glutamatergic involvement in several psychoneurological disorders. We assumed that memantine similarly to ketamine may positively influence mood, moreover having a potential to improve cognition and general quality of life. We report a case of a 49-year-old male hospitalized during a manic and a subsequent moderate depressive episode. After an ineffective use of lithium, olanzapine and antidepressive treatment with mianserin, memantine was added up to 20 mg per day for 10 weeks. The mental state was assessed using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, the Young Mania Rating Scale, the Hamilton Anxiety Scale, the Clinical Global Inventory, the World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale and psychological tests. After 10 weeks the patient achieved a partial symptomatic improvement in mood, anxiety and quality of sleep, but his activity remained insufficient. We also observed an improvement in the parameters of cognitive functioning and quality of life. There was neither significant mood variations during the memantine use nor mood changes after its termination. No significant side effects were noted during the memantine treatment. We conclude that using memantine in bipolar depression may improve mood, cognitive functioning and quality of life. PMID:24474993
Kendall, Ashley D; Zinbarg, Richard E; Bobova, Lyuba; Mineka, Susan; Revelle, William; Prenoveau, Jason M; Craske, Michelle G
Low positive emotion distinguishes depression from most types of anxiety. Formative work in this area employed the Anhedonic Depression scale from the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (MASQ-AD), and the MASQ-AD has since become a popular measure of positive emotion, often used independently of the full MASQ. However, two key assumptions about the MASQ-AD-that it should be represented by a total scale score, and that it measures time-variant experiences-have not been adequately tested. The present study factor analyzed MASQ-AD data collected annually over 3 years (n = 618, mean age = 17 years at baseline), and then decomposed its stable and unstable components. The results suggested the data were best represented by a hierarchical structure, and that less than one quarter of the variance in the general factor fluctuated over time. The implications for interpreting past findings from the MASQ-AD, and for conducting future research with the scale, are discussed. PMID:25657305
Hammerton, Gemma; Zammit, Stanley; Potter, Robert; Thapar, Anita; Collishaw, Stephan
The Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (MFQ) is widely used for the assessment of depression in adolescents. The main aim of this study was to examine the concurrent and predictive validity of a composite of four MFQ items related to suicidal ideation using an interview measure of suicidal ideation. A prospective 3-wave high-risk study of offspring of parents with recurrent depression was used including 294 families where children were initially aged 9-17 years. Measures included four parent and child rated MFQ items assessing suicide-related ideation (referred to here as the "MFQ-SI") and a clinically-defined interview measure of suicidal ideation. A parent-child combined MFQ-SI subscale performed well as a screening tool against the interview measure of suicidal ideation (baseline area under the curve (AUC) (95% CI):0.92 (0.85-1.00)). Longitudinally, this measure showed reasonable predictive validity against future suicidal ideation (AUC (95% CI):0.73 (0.58-0.88)). Lastly, there was evidence that a child-rated MFQ-SI scale performed better than a parent-rated one in detecting concurrent suicidal ideation. Longitudinally, both parent and child scales showed reasonable predictive validity against future suicidal ideation. In summary, a brief screen using four MFQ items related to suicidal ideation performs well in identifying concurrent and future suicidal ideation in high-risk adolescents. PMID:24534124
McGowan, Patrick O; Kato, Tadafumi
Depression develops as an interaction between stress and an individual's vulnerability to stress. The effect of early life stress and a gene-environment interaction may play a role in the development of stress vulnerability as a risk factor for depression. The epigenetic regulation of the promoter of the glucocorticoid receptor gene has been suggested as a molecular basis of such stress vulnerability. It has also been suggested that antidepressive treatment, such as antidepressant medication and electroconvulsive therapy, may be mediated by histone modification on the promoter of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene. Clinical genetic studies in bipolar disorder suggest the role of genomic imprinting, although no direct molecular evidence of this has been reported. The role of DNA methylation in mood regulation is indicated by the antimanic effect of valproate, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, and the antidepressive effect of S-adenosyl methionine, a methyl donor in DNA methylation. Studies of postmortem brains of patients have implicated altered DNA meA methylation of the promoter region of membrane-bound catechol-O-methyltransferase in bipolar disorder. An altered DNA methylation status of PPIEL (peptidylprolyl isomerase E-like) was found in a pair of monozygotic twins discordant for bipolar disorder. Hypomethylation of PPIEL was also found in patients with bipolar II disorder in a case control analysis. These fragmentary findings suggest the possible role of epigenetics in mood disorders. Further studies of epigenetics in mood disorders are warranted. PMID:19568875
Austin, Adelaide; Jiga-Boy, Gabriela M.; Rea, Sara; Newstead, Simon A.; Roderick, Sian; Davis, Nick J.; Clement, R. Marc; Boy, FrÃ©dÃ©ric
Negative emotional responses to the daily life stresses have cumulative effects which, in turn, impose wide-ranging negative constraints on emotional well being and neurocognitive performance (Kalueff and Nutt, 2007; Nadler et al., 2010; Charles et al., 2013). Crucial cognitive functions such as memory and problem solving, as well more short term emotional responses (e.g., anticipation of- and response to- monetary rewards or losses) are influenced by mood. The negative impact of these behavioral responses is felt at the individual level, but it also imposes major economic burden on modern healthcare systems. Although much research has been undertaken to understand the underlying mechanisms of depressed mood and design efficient treatment pathways, comparatively little was done to characterize mood modulations that remain within the boundaries of a healthy mental functioning. In one placebo-controlled experiment, we applied daily prefrontal transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) at five points in time, and found reliable improvements on self-reported mood evaluation. Using a new team of experimenters, we replicated this finding in an independent double-blinded placebo-controlled experiment and showed that stimulation over a shorter period of time (3 days) is sufficient to create detectable mood improvements. Taken together, our data show that repeated bilateral prefrontal tDCS can reduce psychological distress in non-depressed individuals. PMID:26973591
Benson, Paul R.; Karlof, Kristie L.
"Stress proliferation" (the tendency for stressors to create additional stressors) has been suggested as an important contributor to depression among caregivers. The present study utilized longitudinal data from 90 parents of children with ASD to replicate and extend a prior cross-sectional study on stress proliferation by Benson (J Autism Develop
Alberts, J.W.; Vastenburg, M.H.; Desmet, P.M.A.
Elderly users have widely adopted digital communication. Digital communication is often text-only, e.g. instant messaging (IM) and e-mail. Text-only communication has been found less effective than communication that uses richer channels such as audio and video. Mood expression instruments, such as emoticons, are used to increase the communication bandwidth and to compensate for the less-effective text-only communication. It is however unknown if elderly are able to express their moods using ...
Danaher, Brian G; Milgrom, Jeannette; Seeley, John R; STUART, SCOTT; Schembri, Charlene; Tyler, Milagra S.; Ericksen, Jennifer; Lester, Whitney; Gemmill, Alan W; Kosty, Derek B; LEWINSOHN, PETER
Background Postpartum depression (PPD)âthe most common complication of childbirthâis a significant and prevalent public health problem that severely disrupts family interactions and can result in serious lasting consequences to the health of women and the healthy development of infants. These consequences increase in severity when left untreated; most women with PPD do not obtain help due to a range of logistical and attitudinal barriers. Objective This pilot study was designed to test the fe...
Nauta Maaike H; Festen Helma; Reichart Catrien G; Nolen Willem A; Stant A; Bockting Claudi LH; van der Wee Nic JA; Beekman Aartjan; Doreleijers Theo AH; Hartman Catharina A; de Jong Peter J; de Vries Sybolt O
Abstract Background Anxiety and mood disorders are highly prevalent and pose a huge burden on patients. Their offspring is at increased risk of developing these disorders as well, indicating a clear need for prevention of psychopathology in this group. Given high comorbidity and non-specificity of intergenerational transmission of disorders, prevention programs should target both anxiety and depression. Further, while the indication for preventive interventions is often elevated symptoms, off...
Anabela, Rosando; Margarida Gaspar de, Matos.
Full Text Available O presente trabalho analisa a associação entre ambiente físico e social e a psicopatologia, nomeadamente depressão, numa amostra de 254 adolescentes, 82 do sexo masculino e 172 do sexo feminino, todos estudantes do ensino secundário de três escolas de uma zona perto de Lisboa, com uma média de idade [...] de 16,9 (DP = 1,48). A recolha de dados foi efetuada com recurso a um Questionário Demográfico, ao Inventário de Depressão Infantil - CDI (Kovacs, 1981) e ao Inventário de Sintomas Breve - BSI (Derogatis, 1982). Os resultados confirmaram a hipótese de uma associação entre sexo, grau de escolaridade, a ESE parental e as condições ambientais da habitação e do bairro. As implicações dos resultados são discutidas sobre os esforços para aumentar a prevenção de bem-estar e saúde mental durante a adolescência. Abstract in english The present work analyse the association of the social and physical environment and the psychopathology, namely depression, in a sample of 254 teenagers, 82 males and 172 females, all them high school students from three schools nearby area of Lisbon, with a average age of 16.9 (SD = 1.48). The data [...] collection included a Demographic Questionnaire, the Children´s Depression Inventory - CDI (Kovacs, 1981) and the Brief Symptom Inventory - BSI (Derogatis, 1982). Results confirmed the hypothesis of an association among gender, school grade, parental SES and the environmental conditions of the housing and neighbourhood. Implications of the results are discussed namely concerning preventing efforts to increase wellbeing and mental health during adolescence.
Swandby, Janet R.
The literature on the relationships between changes in mood and the menstrual cycle reveals many inconsistencies due to the absence of certain control procedures. Daily self-reports of moods and physical symptoms were collected from women with normal cycles, women using oral contraceptives, and men for 35 days in a camouflaged study. Retrospective
Papmeyer, Martina; Sussmann, Jessika E; Stewart, Tiffany; Giles, Stephen; Centola, John G; Zannias, Vasileios; Lawrie, Stephen M; Whalley, Heather C; McIntosh, Andrew M
Subcortical volumetric brain abnormalities have been observed in mood disorders. However, it is unknown whether these reflect adverse effects predisposing to mood disorders or emerge at illness onset. Magnetic resonance imaging was conducted at baseline and after two years in 111 initially unaffected young adults at increased risk of mood disorders because of a close family history of bipolar disorder and 93 healthy controls (HC). During the follow-up, 20 high-risk subjects developed major depressive disorder (HR-MDD), with the others remaining well (HR-well). Volumes of the lateral ventricles, caudate, putamen, pallidum, thalamus, hippocampus and amygdala were extracted for each hemisphere. Using linear mixed-effects models, differences and longitudinal changes in subcortical volumes were investigated between groups (HC, HR-MDD, HR-well). There were no significant differences for any subcortical volume between groups controlling for multiple testing. Additionally, no significant differences emerged between groups over time. Our results indicate that volumetric subcortical brain abnormalities of these regions using the current method appear not to form familial trait markers for vulnerability to mood disorders in close relatives of bipolar disorder patients over the two-year time period studied. Moreover, they do not appear to reduce in response to illness onset at least for the time period studied. PMID:26778365
Moore, Raeanne C; Depp, Colin A; Wetherell, Julie Loebach; Lenze, Eric J
As mobile data capture tools for patient-reported outcomes proliferate in clinical research, a key dimension of measure performance is sensitivity to change. This study compared performance of patient-reported measures of mindfulness, depression, and anxiety symptoms using traditional paper-and-pencil forms versus real-time, ambulatory measurement of symptoms via ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Sixty-seven emotionally distressed older adults completed paper-and-pencil measures of mindfulness, depression, and anxiety along with two weeks of identical items reported during ambulatory monitoring via EMA before and after participation in a randomized trial of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) or a health education intervention. We calculated effect sizes for these measures across both measurement approaches and estimated the Number-Needed-to-Treat (NNT) in both measurement conditions. Study outcomes greatly differed depending on which measurement method was used. When EMA was used to measure clinical symptoms, older adults who participated in the MBSR intervention had significantly higher mindfulness and significantly lower depression and anxiety than participants in the health education intervention at post-treatment. However, these significant changes in symptoms were not found when outcomes were measured with paper-and-pencil measures. The NNT for mindfulness and depression measures administered through EMA were approximately 25-50% lower than NNTs derived from paper-and-pencil administration. Sensitivity to change in anxiety was similar across administration modes. In conclusion, EMA measures of depression and mindfulness substantially outperformed paper-and-pencil measures with the same items. The additional resources associated with EMA in clinical trials would seem to be offset by its greater sensitivity to detect change in key outcome variables. PMID:26851494
Tal-Krivisky, Katy; Kronfeld-Schor, Noga; Einat, Haim
Physical exercise is a non-pharmacological treatment for affective disorders. The mechanisms of its effects are unknown although some suggest a relationship to synchronization of circadian rhythms. One way to explore mechanisms is to utilize animal models. We previously demonstrated that the diurnal fat sand rat is an advantageous model for studying the interactions between photoperiods and mood. The current study was designed to evaluate the effects of voluntary exercise on activity rhythms and anxiety and depression-like behaviors in sand rats as a step towards better understanding of the underlying mechanisms. Male sand rats were housed in short photoperiod (SP; 5h light/19h dark) or neutral light (NP; 12h light/12h dark) regimens for 3weeks and divided into subgroups with or without running wheels. Activity was monitored for 3 additional weeks and then animals were tested in the elevated plus-maze, the forced swim test and the social interaction test. Activity rhythms were enhanced by the running wheels. As hypothesized, voluntary exercise had significant effects on SP animals' anxiety- and depression-like behaviors but not on NP animals. Results are discussed in the context of interactions between physical exercise, circadian rhythms and mood. We suggest that the sand rat model can be used to explore the underlying mechanism of the effects of physical exercise for mood disorders. PMID:26253214
Allmann, Anna E S; Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C; Klein, Daniel N
Considerable research exists documenting the relationship between maternal mood disorders, primarily major depressive disorder (MDD), and a variety of negative child outcomes. By contrast, research exploring the reverse pathway whereby child traits are associated with later maternal mood disorders is much more limited. We examined whether young children's temperament and psychopathology predicted maternal mood disorders approximately 6Â years later. Child temperament and symptoms were assessed at age three using semi-structured diagnostic interviews and parent-report inventories. Maternal psychopathology was assessed with semi-structured interviews when children were 3 and 9Â years old. Mothers also reported on their marital satisfaction when children were 3 and 6Â years old. Child temperamental negative affectivity (NA), depressive symptoms, and externalizing behavior problems significantly predicted maternal mood disorders over and above prior maternal mood, anxiety, and substance disorders. The link between children's early externalizing symptoms and maternal mood disorders 6Â years later was mediated by maternal marital satisfaction 3Â years after the initial assessment. These findings suggest that early child temperament and psychopathology contribute to risk for later maternal mood disorders both directly and through their impact on the marital system. Research indicates that effective treatment of maternal depression is associated with positive outcomes for children; however, this study suggests that treating early child problems may mitigate the risk of later maternal psychopathology. PMID:26219263
Silverman, K; Griffiths, R R
A caffeine versus placebo discrimination procedure was used to determine the lowest caffeine dose that could produce discrimination and self-reported mood effects in normal volunteers. During daily sessions under double-blind conditions, caffeine-abstinent subjects orally ingested a capsule containing 178 mg caffeine or placebo. Before beginning discrimination training, the compounds were identified to subjects by letter codes. Fifteen, 30, and 45 min after capsule ingestion, subjects guessed...
Strzelecki, Dominik; Tabaszewska, Agnieszka; Barszcz, Zbigniew; Józefowicz, Olga; Kropiwnicki, Pawe?; Rabe-Jab?o?ska, Jolanta
Memantine and other glutamatergic agents have been currently investigated in some off-label indications due to glutamatergic involvement in several psychoneurological disorders. We assumed that memantine similarly to ketamine may positively influence mood, moreover having a potential to improve cognition and general quality of life. We report a case of a 49-year-old male hospitalized during a manic and a subsequent moderate depressive episode. After an ineffective use of lithium, olanzapine a...
Chen, Mu-Hong; Liou, Ying-Jay
A 51-year-old woman had panic disorder with agoraphobia and major depressive disorder sequentially. The aforementioned symptoms subsided significantly after treatment with milnacipran, 125 mg, administered daily for 2 months. However, panic attacks with agoraphobia were noted frequently when she tapered down milnacipran to 50 mg daily. She consequently experienced depression that gradually increased in degree, with poor energy, poor sleep, thoughts of helplessness, and ideas of death. After administration of a daily dose of 125 mg of milnacipran for 1 month, her panic attacks with agoraphobia and depressed mood were again alleviated. The present report shows significant effects of milnacipran on the comorbidity of panic disorder with agoraphobia and major depressive disorder. PMID:21926486
Danaher, Brian G; Milgrom, Jeannette; Seeley, John R; STUART, SCOTT; Schembri, Charlene; Tyler, Milagra S.; Ericksen, Jennifer; Lester, Whitney; Gemmill, Alan W; LEWINSOHN, PETER
Background Postpartum depression is a significant public health problem affecting approximately 13% of women. There is strong evidence supporting Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for successful psychosocial treatment. This treatment model combines cognitive and behavioral strategies to address pessimism, attributions for failure, low self-esteem, low engagement in pleasant activities, social withdrawal, anxiety, and low social support. Encouraging results have been reported for using Web-ba...
Previous studies report emotion-related, mood-congruent information processing biases in patients with Major Depression. We examined whether rapidly presented emotional word stimuli influenced visual attentional processing; recruiting a sample of 24 psychiatrically healthy participants following induced neutral and sad (n=12) or happy (n=12) mood. Mood induction procedures (MIPs) by means of self-referential statements and music were used to manipulate mood. We developed an emotional version ...
Sillanmäki Lauri H; Koskenvuo Markku J; Suominen Sakari B; Sumanen Markku PT; Mattila Kari J
Abstract Background The typical symptoms of coronary heart disease (CHD), chest pain and breathlessness, are well-known. They are considered quite dramatic, and can thus be fairly reliably mapped by a survey. However, people might have other clearly unpleasant symptoms impairing quality of life. The aim of this study is to evaluate the appearance of these complaints of working-aged people with self-reported CHD. Methods The study consists of a postal questionnaire of randomly selected Finns i...
Efecto de diversas actividades físicas en el estado anímico depresivo en estudiantes universitarios costarricenses / Effect of physical activities on depressive mood in Costa Rican university students
Cinthya, Campos Salazar; José, Moncada Jiménez.
Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar el efecto de actividades físicas en el estado anímico depresivo de estudiantes universitarios costarricenses. Método: Participaron 522 estudiantes (259 mujeres y 263 hombres) matriculados en la Universidad de Costa Rica. Se construyeron dos categorías según la finalidad del curs [...] o matriculado: a) acondicionamiento físico (n = 208) y b) actividad deportiva (n = 314). Los instrumentos: Perfil de Estados Anímicos (POMS) y el Inventario de Depresión de Beck (BDI-II), se aplicaron al inicio, a la segunda semana y al final del curso. El programa fue de 12 semanas. Resultados: el 16.25% del estudiantado presentó síntomas depresivos entre leve y severo. Se encontró una correlación significativa entre el Índice de masa Corporal y los síntomas de depresión para quienes obtuvieron puntajes de depresión entre leve, moderada y severa (r = 0.224; p = 0.041). Se encontraron porcentajes de cambio diferentes para el constructo depresión cuando los participantes realizaron actividades deportivas o de acondicionamiento físico; sin embargo, éstos variaron según el instrumento utilizado. Con el BDI-II ambos grupos experimentaron reducción significativa en depresión (p Abstract in english Objective: The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of physical activities on the depressive mood of Costa Rican university students. Methods: Participants were 522 students (259 females and 263 males) attending the University of Costa Rica. Two categories were constructed based on the r [...] egistered course goal: a) fitness class (n = 208) and b) sports class (n= 314). The data collection instruments Profile of Mood States (POMS) and Becks Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) were filled out at the beginning of the semester, two-weeks after, and at the end of the course. The course duration was 12 weeks long. Results: 16.25% of the students showed light and severe depressive symptoms. A significant correlation between body mass index and depression symptoms was found among participants scoring light, moderate and severe depression mood (r =0.224; p = 0.041). Percentage change scores were found for the depression construct when participants performed sports or fitness activities; however, scores varied according to the measurement instrument used. When the BDI-II scale was used both groups showed a significant reduction in depression (p
Full Text Available Mood disorders are the most common psychiatric comorbid disorder that affects quality of life and prognosis in epilepsy. The relation between depression and epilepsy is bidirectional. Not only the risk of having a depression among epilepsy cases is more than the healthy control cases, but also the risk of having epilepsy among depressive cases is more than the healthy control cases. People diagnosed with epilepsy are five times more likely than their peers to commit suicide. Moreover it seems that some epilepsy types like temporal lobe epilepsy have a much higher risk (25 times for suicide. Risk of suicide in epilepsy, which is independent from depression, increases more with the presence of depression. The common pathway between epilepsy, depression and suicide is hypofrontality and irregularity of serotonin metabolism. Contrary to depression, data on relationship between bipolar disorder and epilepsy is limited. However, mood disorder, mixed episodes with irritable character and mania are more frequent than assumed. As a matter of fact, both disorders share some common features. Both are episodic and can become chronic. Kindling phenomenon, irregularities in neurotransmitters, irregularities in voltage gate ion channels and irregularities in secondary messenger systems are variables that are presented in the etiologies of both disorders. Anticonvulsant drugs with mood regulatory effects are the common points of treatment. Understanding their mechanisms of action will clarify the pathophysiological processes. In this article, the relationhip between epilepsy and mood disorders, comorbidity, secondary states and treatment options in both cases have been discussed.
Rates of depression double in the transition to adolescence. Symptoms of depression in adolescence also predict adult mood disorders. From a preventative perspective, research into the risk factors for adolescent depression is critical. Simultaneously, there is also growing interest in understanding why adolescence reflects a particularly critical period for the onset of early mood symptoms. Here, we review (a) the role of social, genetic, neural and cognitive factors in explaining individual...
Grace Sherry L; Gucciardi Enza; Stewart Donna E
Abstract Health Issue Depression causes significant distress or impairment in physical, social, occupational and other key areas of functioning. Women are approximately twice as likely as men to experience depression. Psychosocial factors likely mediate the risks for depression incurred by biological influences. Key Findings Data from the 1999 National Population Health Survey show that depression is more common among Canadian women, with an annual self-reported incidence of 5.7% compared wit...
Stewart, Donna E; Gucciardi, Enza; Grace, Sherry L.
Health Issue Depression causes significant distress or impairment in physical, social, occupational and other key areas of functioning. Women are approximately twice as likely as men to experience depression. Psychosocial factors likely mediate the risks for depression incurred by biological influences. Key Findings Data from the 1999 National Population Health Survey show that depression is more common among Canadian women, with an annual self-reported incidence of 5.7% compared with 2.9% in...
Klausen, Julie Midtgaard; Rørth, Mikael Rahbek; Stelter, Reinhard; Tveterås, Anders; Andersen, Christina; Quist, Morten; Møller, Tom; Adamsen, Lis Ørgaard
Little is known about the role of exercise in improving cancer patients' mood while undergoing chemotherapy. In this phase II study changes in self-reported anxiety and depression and fitness (VO2max) are reported in relation to a 6-week, 9 h weekly, multidimensional exercise program. A total of 91 patients receiving chemotherapy, between 18 and 65 years old, completed a Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale Questionnaire (HADS; response rate 91%, adherence rate 78%). Anxiety (p < 0.001) and dep...
Deniker, P; Ginestet, D; Lôo, H
Pharmaco-psychiatry has contributed to the study of mood regulation mechanisms (thymo-regulation). Anti-manic neuroleptics may induce depressions: anti-depressants may cause mood inversion (with artificial "bipolarity"), and lithium has an action upon alternating disorders of the mood. Correlations with the extrapyramidal syndromes are to be noted: parkinsonism going along with depression, and the antiparkinsonian action with the stimulation of mood. The extent of the role played by neuro-hormones, beta-inhibitors, and releasing-factors is still under discussion. The theoretical notion of mood regualtion makes it possible to single out a special type of psycho-stimulation implying manifold applications. PMID:815083
Hare David L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronary heart disease (CHD and depression are leading causes of disease burden globally and the two often co-exist. Depression is common after Myocardial Infarction (MI and it has been estimated that 15-35% of patients experience depressive symptoms. Co-morbid depression can impair health related quality of life (HRQOL, decrease medication adherence and appropriate utilisation of health services, lead to increased morbidity and suicide risk, and is associated with poorer CHD risk factor profiles and reduced survival. We aim to determine the feasibility of conducting a randomised, multi-centre trial designed to compare a tele-health program (MoodCare for depression and CHD secondary prevention, with Usual Care (UC. Methods Over 1600 patients admitted after index admission for Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS are being screened for depression at six metropolitan hospitals in the Australian states of Victoria and Queensland. Consenting participants are then contacted at two weeks post-discharge for baseline assessment. One hundred eligible participants are to be randomised to an intervention or a usual medical care control group (50 per group. The intervention consists of up to 10 × 30-40 minute structured telephone sessions, delivered by registered psychologists, commencing within two weeks of baseline screening. The intervention focuses on depression management, lifestyle factors (physical activity, healthy eating, smoking cessation, alcohol intake, medication adherence and managing co-morbidities. Data collection occurs at baseline (Time 1, 6 months (post-intervention (Time 2, 12 months (Time 3 and 24 months follow-up for longer term effects (Time 4. We are comparing depression (Cardiac Depression Scale [CDS] and HRQOL (Short Form-12 [SF-12] scores between treatment and UC groups, assessing the feasibility of the program through patient acceptability and exploring long term maintenance effects. A cost-effectiveness analysis of the costs and outcomes for patients in the intervention and control groups is being conducted from the perspective of health care costs to the government. Discussion This manuscript presents the protocol for a randomised, multi-centre trial to evaluate the feasibility of a tele-based depression management and CHD secondary prevention program for ACS patients. The results of this trial will provide valuable new information about potential psychological and wellbeing benefits, cost-effectiveness and acceptability of an innovative tele-based depression management and secondary prevention program for CHD patients experiencing depression. Trial Registration Number Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR: ACTRN12609000386235
... for Your Child All About Food Allergies Understanding Depression KidsHealth > For Parents > Understanding Depression Print A A ... or a child you know, seems depressed. About Depression Depression isn't just bad moods and occasional ...
Bancroft, John; Janssen, Erick; Strong, David; Carnes, Lori; Vukadinovic, Zoran; Long, J Scott
This paper reports on a study of individual variability in the relationship between negative mood and sexuality in men. Part 1 involves a questionnaire survey of 919 white heterosexual men, asking what typically happens to sexual interest and response when (a) depressed and (b) anxious/stressed, using the Mood and Sexuality Questionnaire (MSQ). Trait measures of sexual inhibition and excitation, depression, anxiety, and sensation seeking were also used. Relationships between trait measures and MSQ scores were tested using multiple linear and ordinal logistic regression. Of those reporting the experience of depression, 9.4% indicated increased and 42% decreased sexual interest when depressed; for anxiety/stress, the percentages were 20.6 and 28.3%, respectively. Increase in sexual interest during negative mood states was negatively related to age and trait measures of sexual inhibition and positively related to depression proneness and sexual excitation. In Part 2, the relationship between mood and sexuality was explored qualitatively, using in-depth interviews with 43 participants from Part 1. This supported the findings in Part 1, while finding more complex relations with depression than anxiety. Sex when depressed can serve needs for intimacy and self-validation as well as sexual pleasure. Sex when anxious appears to be more simply related to the calming effect of sexual release, plus a possible "excitation transfer" effect of anxious arousal. Further research is needed to explore these relationships in clinical mood disorders. Paradoxical increases of sexual interest with negative mood may help explain high risk as well as "out of control" patterns of sexual behavior. PMID:12807294
Nauta Maaike H
Full Text Available Abstract Background Anxiety and mood disorders are highly prevalent and pose a huge burden on patients. Their offspring is at increased risk of developing these disorders as well, indicating a clear need for prevention of psychopathology in this group. Given high comorbidity and non-specificity of intergenerational transmission of disorders, prevention programs should target both anxiety and depression. Further, while the indication for preventive interventions is often elevated symptoms, offspring with other high risk profiles may also benefit from resilience-based prevention programs. Method/design The current STERK-study (Screening and Training: Enhancing Resilience in Kids is a randomized controlled clinical trial combining selected and indicated prevention: it is targeted at both high risk individuals without symptoms and at those with subsyndromal symptoms. Individuals without symptoms meet two of three criteria of the High Risk Index (HRI; female gender, both parents affected, history of a parental suicide (attempt. This index was developed in an earlier study and corresponds with elevated risk in offspring of depressed patients. Children aged 817 years (n?=?204 with subthreshold symptoms or meeting the criteria on the HRI are randomised to one of two treatment conditions, namely (a 10 weekly individual child CBT sessions and 2 parent sessions or (b minimal information. Assessments are held at pre-test, post-test and at 12 and 24 months follow-up. Primary outcome is the time to onset of a mood or anxiety disorder in the offspring. Secondary outcome measures include number of days with depression or anxiety, child and parent symptom levels, quality of life, and cost-effectiveness. Based on models of aetiology of mood and anxiety disorders as well as mechanisms of change during interventions, we selected potential mediators and moderators of treatment outcome, namely coping, parentchild interaction, self-associations, optimism/pessimism, temperament, and emotion processing. Discussion The current intervention trial aims to significantly reduce the risk of intergenerational transmission of mood and anxiety disorders with a short and well targeted intervention that is directed at strengthening the resilience in potentially vulnerable children. We plan to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of such an intervention and to identify mechanisms of change. Trial registration NTR2888
derdiagnosis of bipolar disorder in depressed patients. Other contributory factors include that patients often do not feel ill or seek treatment for the consequences of their high mood, and that hypomania can be hidden by substance use disorders (SUD. Hidden hypomanic syndromes are important because associated with treatment resistance, high comorbidity with anxiety/panic and SUD, psychotic and cognitive symptoms, dementia and higher mortality. Anxiety, too, is doubtless a mood disorder but there is still no concept which integrates anxiety with bipolar disorder and depression. Classification involves the definition of artificial subgroups and is necessary for treatment and communication but clinicians, when in doubt, (...
Dallaspezia, Sara; Suzuki, Masahiro; Benedetti, Francesco
Chronobiological therapies for mood disorders include manipulations of the sleep-wake cycle such as sleep deprivation and sleep phase advance and the controlled exposure to light and darkness. Their antidepressant efficacy can overcome drug resistance and targets the core depressive symptoms including suicide, thus making them treatment options to be tried either alone or as adjunctive treatments combined with common psychopharmacological interventions. The specific pattern of mood change observed with chronobiological therapies is characterized by rapid and sustained effects, when used among themselves or combined with drugs. Effects sizes are the same reported for the most effective psychiatric treatments, but side effects are usually marginal or absent. New treatment protocols are developed to adapt them in different clinical settings. This review deals with the general principles of clinical chronobiology and the latest findings in this rapidly developing field. PMID:26478195
Just, Mark Jean; Kozakiewicz, Mariusz
Background Anemia is a disease that can co-exist with depression, other mental disorders, or somatic diseases. Anemia can imitate symptoms of depression, while depression symptoms can mask concurring symptoms of anemia. Case presentation I am presenting a case of a 48-year-old woman with AddisonBiermer anemia, with co-existing mood disorders. The clinical analysis of the presented patients history indicates diagnostic problems and a need for a detailed analysis of drug-related complications that occurred during previous treatment, eg, in the form of neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Conclusion The presented case report contains valuable guidelines that can be of assistance in diagnostics and treatment of patients treated for mental disorders, who are also diagnosed with somatic diseases. PMID:25995639
Pagliaccio, David; Luby, Joan; Gaffrey, Mike; Belden, Andrew; Botteron, Kelly; Gotlib, Ian H.; Barch, Deanna M.
While major depressive disorder has been shown to be a significant mental health issue for school-age children, recent research indicates that depression can be observed in children as early as the preschool period. Yet, little work has been done to explore the neurobiological factors associated with this early form of depression. Given research suggesting a relation between adult depression and anomalies in emotion-related neural circuitry, the goal of the current study was to elucidate chan...
Stevanovic, Dejan; Jancic, Jasna; Topalovic, Mirko; Tadic, Ivana
The levels of agreement between self- and parent/proxy-reports of anxiety and depressive symptoms in pediatric epilepsy were evaluated. Data were drawn from 56 pairs of children with epilepsy and at least one parent. Anxiety symptoms were assessed using the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED), while depressive symptoms were assessed using the Mood and Feeling Questionnaire (MFQ). Moderate to substantial levels of agreement between raters when reporting various anxiety symptoms, such as panic/somatic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, separation anxiety disorder, social phobia, and school phobia symptoms, were observed. Levels of agreement between raters were substantial when reporting depressive symptoms. However, levels of agreement differed if raw or criterion-referenced questionnaires' scores were used. In case of using raw questionnaire scores, substantial agreements appeared when reporting overall anxiety and depressive symptoms. On the other hand, moderate agreements appeared when reporting particular anxiety symptoms with raw questionnaire scores or when using criterion-referenced scores that indicate the presence of certain symptoms in a clinical range. Therefore, it is advisable to include both raters when assessing anxiety and depressive symptoms in pediatric epilepsy. PMID:23032119
Picardi, Angelo; Gaetano, Paola
In the last decades, psychotherapy has gained increasing acceptance as a major treatment option for mood disorders. Empirically supported treatments for major depression include cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), behavioural therapy and, to a lesser extent, short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy. Meta-analytic evidence suggests that psychotherapy has a significant and clinically relevant, though not large, effect on chronic forms of depression. Psychothera...
Grunebaum, Michael F.; Ellis, Steven P.; Duan, Naihua; Burke, Ainsley K.; Oquendo, Maria A.; John Mann, J
Randomized controlled trials in depressed patients selected for elevated suicidal risk are rare. The resultant lack of data leaves uncertainty about treatment in this population. This study compared a serotonin reuptake inhibitor with a noradrenergic/dopaminergic antidepressant in major depression with elevated suicidal risk factors. We conducted a double-blind, randomized, clinical pilot trial of paroxetine (N=36) or bupropion (N=38) in DSM IV major depression with a suicide attempt history ...
Full Text Available We report the negative emotional state as pessimistic mood of a case with narcissisticpersonality disorder during the period of narcissistic decompensation. In addition, we identifiedthe clinical differences between pessimistic mood and depressive disorder. An 28-yearoldunmarried woman experienced herself; her life and the external object as futile and disappointingafter repeated failure to satisfy her grandiose fantasies about the search for ideallove. The patient then gave up her formerly gratifying activities, and fell into a prolongedstate of negative emotions and passivity dominated by pessimistic mood characterized by anoverwhelming sense of futility. The patient did not respond to medical treatment with antidepressantsfirstly. However after a 2-year course of intensive psychotherapy , the patientwas able to restore her zest to find a new boyfriend with a more rational and realistic attitude.Clinically, decompensated narcissistic patients do not exhibit the typical attitude ofworthlessness or guilty feelings, and are devoid of certain specific depressive emotions(e.g.,sadness, sorrow, etc.. In contrast, decompenssted narcissistic patients with pessimistic moodexhibit a dominant sense of futility and other negative emotions presented as outrage anddisappointment. The purpose of this case report was to emphasize the importance to recognizeclinical features of pessimistic mood for the differential diagnosis and management ofthe decompensated narcissistic patient.
Manocha, R.; Black, D.; Sarris, J; Stough, C.
Objective. To assess the effect of meditation on work stress, anxiety and mood in full-time workers. Methods. 178 adult workers participated in an 8-week, 3-arm randomized controlled trial comparing a mental silence approach to meditation (n = 59) to a relaxation active control (n = 56) and a wait-list control (n = 63). Participants were assessed before and after using Psychological Strain Questionnaire (PSQ), a subscale of the larger Occupational Stress Inventory (OSI), the State compone...
Dra?e Saa; Desrichard Olivier
In the present study we test the hypothesis that the effect of mood congruence in autobiographical recall is underlain by mood. Thirty-eight female participants were subjected to positive, negative and neutral mood inductions, and then asked to recall three personal memories. Participants mood was assessed using self-report questionnaires and by electromyograph (EMG) measurements of corrugator supercilii and zygomaticus major muscle activity. We replicated the congruence effect between...
We measured regional cerebral blood flow with the xenon 133 inhalation technique in 41 patients with major depressive disorder and 40 matched, normal controls during an eyes-closed, resting condition. The depressed group had a marked reduction in global cortical blood flow. To examine topographic abnormalities, traditional multivariate analyses were applied, as well as a new scaled subprofile model developed to identify abnormal functional neural networks in clinical samples. Both approaches indicated that the depressed sample had an abnormality in topographic distribution of blood flow, in addition to the global deficit. The scaled subprofile model identified the topographic abnormality as being due to flow reduction in the depressed patients in selective frontal, central, superior temporal, and anterior parietal regions. This pattern may reflect dysfunction in the parallel distributed cortical network involving frontal and temporoparietal polymodal association areas. The extent of this topographic abnormality, as revealed by the scaled subprofile model, was associated with both patient age and severity of depressive symptoms
Rao, Jagadeesh S; Rapoport, Stanley I.
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe psychiatric illness characterized by recurrent manic and depressive episodes, without a characteristic neuropathology or clear etiology. Drugs effective in BD target many key signaling pathways in animal and cell studies. However, their mode of action in the BD brain remains elusive. In the rat brain, some of the mood stabilizers effective in treating mania (lithium, carbamazepine, valproate) or depression (lamotrigine) in BD are reported to decrease transcri...
Tresno, Fiona; Ito, Yoshimi; Mearns, Jack
Self-injurious behavior is increasing among college students, and is common in both psychiatric and nonclinical populations. People's engaging in self-injury is associated with childhood maltreatment, poor negative mood regulation expectancies, and depression. During times of distress, maltreated children without healthy coping strategies tend to have impairment in mood regulation, which contributes to engaging in self-injury. This study investigated differences between nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and non-self-injury groups in history of childhood maltreatment, negative mood regulation expectancies, and depression in a sample of Japanese college students. We also assessed risk factors for self-injurious behavior, including mood regulation expectancies as a moderator of the relationship between childhood maltreatment and NSSI. Participants were 313 undergraduate students, who completed anonymous self-report questionnaires-Deliberate Self-Harm Inventory, Child Abuse and Trauma Scale, Negative Mood Regulation Scale, and short version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale. Ten percent (n = 31) of all participants had injured themselves. Consistent with past literature, participants with self-injury history reported more severe childhood maltreatment, poorer mood regulation expectancies, and more depression, compared to non-self-injurers. Frequency of NSSI positively correlated with childhood maltreatment and depression, and negatively correlated with negative mood regulation expectancies. Regression analysis revealed that stronger expectancies for negative mood regulation interacted with maltreatment to predict self-injury: More maltreatment was associated with more self-injury, particularly among those with weaker expectancies. Results suggested childhood maltreatment, low expectancies for negative mood regulation, and depression predicted self-injury. Consistent with our moderation hypothesis, strong expectancies for negative mood regulation buffered the effects of childhood maltreatment, reducing the risk for self-injury. PMID:23082995
Depression may be described as feeling sad, blue, unhappy, miserable, or down in the dumps. Most of ... one time or another for short periods. Clinical depression is a mood disorder in which feelings of ...
Misra, B.N.; Mohapatra, P. K.; D. Roy
Very rarely Stevens Johnson Syndrome develops following drug therapy particularly Lithium and Valproate. Worldwide, the reports regarding Lithium and Valproate induced Stevens Johnson Syndrome are very few. Here, we present two cases of Stevens Johnson Syndrome following treatment with Lithium and Valproate for Mood Disorder.
Bauer, Michael; Rasgon, Natalie; Grof, Paul; Gyulai, Laszlo; Glenn, Tasha; Whybrow, Peter C.
Abstract and Introduction Abstract Context Automating data collection from patients can improve data quality, enhance compliance, and decrease costs in longitudinal studies. About half of all households in industrialized countries now have a home computer. Objective While we previously validated the ChronoRecord software for self-reporting mood on a home computer with patients who have bipolar disorder, this study further investigates whether this technology created a bias in the collected data. Methods During the validation study, 80 of 96 (83%) patients returned 8662 days of data (mean, 114.7 ± 32.3 SD days). The patients' demographics were compared with those of similar longitudinal studies in which patients used paper-based data collection tools. In addition, because demographic characteristics may influence attitudes toward technology, observer-rated scores on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Young Mania Rating Scale were used to group patients by severity of illness, and the self-reported mood ratings were analyzed for evidence of bias from the patients' gender, ethnicity, diagnosis, age, disability status, or years of education. Analysis was performed using the 2-way analysis of variance and general linear model. Results The patients' demographic characteristics were very similar to those of patients with bipolar disorder who participated in comparable longitudinal studies using paper-based tools. After grouping the patients by severity of illness, none of the demographic variables had a significant effect on the patients' self-reported mood using the automated tool. Conclusion The use of a computer does not seem to bias sample data. As with studies using paper-based self-reporting, results from studies of patients using ChronoRecord software on a home computer to report mood can be generalized. Introduction Bipolar disorder is a leading cause of disability among both physical and psychiatric illnesses and is the most expensive psychiatric diagnosis in the United States for patients and their insurance plans. Bipolar disorder is difficult to study, as the course of disease is episodic, recurrent, and characterized by both interindividual variation and heterogeneity among patients. While the inherent complexity and chronicity make longitudinal studies an effective methodology, there are several problems with the paper-based instruments most common in these studies: the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) LifeChart Method; the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder (STEP-BD) Mood Chart; and the ChronoSheet. Specifically: Data entry from paper-based forms is expensive, slow, and associated with high error rates that affect the quality of the data.Patients frequently complete paper-based forms sporadically, often just before a study visit, and retrospective recall can be inaccurate.Longitudinal studies are often associated with high rates of missing data and unbalanced numbers of observations from participants.Patients with conditions, such as chronic pain or asthma, often prefer an automated approach, thereby increasing compliance with electronic rather than paper diaries.[13,14] To improve on the available paper-based tools, we developed an automated tool (ChronoRecord) for daily self-reporting of mood, sleep, and medications by patients with mood disorders. In our validation study, 80 of 96 (83%) patients with bipolar disorder from 3 locations showed high acceptance of the computerized approach, entering 8662 days of data for a 3-month period (mean, 114.7 ± 32.3 SD days). The mean percentage of days missing for mood data was 6.1% ± 9.3 SD, which was equivalent to missing 7.3 of the 114.7 days. Concurrent validity was found between the observer ratings on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) and the self-reported ChronoRecord mood ratings. While it is generally accepted that using a paper-based data collection tool does not yield biased data from patients with bipolar disorder, automating self-reporting of m
Boujut, Emilie; Gana, Kamel
Although it is generally agreed that eating disorders (EDs) and depressive mood (DM) are related, the main ambiguity arises from difficulties in determining their cause-effect relationships. The aim of this study was to examine the longitudinal reciprocal causation between EDs and DM among female students. Several models (cross-lagged effects and simultaneous effects) were tested in order to disentangle the prospective relationships between DM (measured by the Beck Depression Inventory-Short Form) and EDs (measured by the Eating Attitudes Test-26) using structural equation modeling with latent variables on one-year longitudinal data. A total of 567 female students were interviewed at the beginning of the first university year (T1); 373 of them were re-interviewed 6 months later (T2), and 359 were re-interviewed after a further 6 months (T3). The results support (1) the prospective reciprocal effects model and (2) the simultaneous reciprocal effects model. The implications of the findings in terms of theoretical improvements and effective treatments are discussed. PMID:25064295
Full Text Available Background : Depression is one of the most prevalent forms of mood disorders. Compelling evidence suggests that mood disorders are characterized by reduced neuronal plasticity, which can be brought about by exposure to stress. Furthermore, there is good agreement in considering key proteins such as the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, as a central player for the effects of stress on brain function and plasticity and psychopathological implications. Still, there is a high non-responder rate in antidepressant therapy, which explains the need to find reliable predictors for adequate treatment. Previous studies revealed that plasma and serum BDNF levels in depressed patients were significantly lower than in healthy controls. Since the protein can cross the blood brain-barrier serum content correspondingly correlates with cortical BDNF concentrations suggesting BDNF levels as a promising candidate biomarker for depression and antidepressant treatment response. Methods : To investigate the association betweenâserumâBDNF levels and treatment outcome, blood was drawn from 28 patients with a major depressive episode (DMS-IV, ICD-10 that participated in a double-blind placebo controlled treatment study. All patients were treated with a stable mirtazapine monotherapy. Partial sleep deprivation (PSD was performed after one week. Placebo controlled additional morning treatment with the stimulant modafinil to reduce microsleep throughout the day was started during PSD and maintained over two weeks.âSerum concentrationsâofâBDNF and cortisol were assessed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA from day 1 (âbefore PSDâ at 8 am, 2 pm, 8 pm and day 2 (âafter PSDâ at 8 am, 2 pm and 8 pm. Samples were appropriately diluted and detectionâofâsoluble BDNF or cortisol was carried out in an antibody sandwich format in duplicates and means were calculated for the corresponding group. Moreover, sleep EEG and microsleep episodes were recorded with a portable EEG. Depression severity using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and mood, tiredness and relaxation were assessed with visual analog scales (VASs for psychological functioning at days 1, 2 and 3 (âafter recovery nightâ as well as after one and two weeksâofâongoing treatment. Results : Notably, depressive patients who showed an acute HDRS-6 improvement after PSD exhibited a prominent diurnal pattern of serumâBDNF levels during the day before PSD whereas acute non-responders did not show such a pattern and BDNF levels were rather constantly expressed. Serum BDNF levels were significantly elevated in acute responders compared to non-responders in the morning at 8.00 am before PSD corrected for Bonferroni (p>0.01. Also responders after two weeks (FU2 exhibited a prominent diurnal serum BDNF pattern before and after PSD on day one and two, while it was more pronounced after PSD. There was no diurnal pattern for non-responders after two weeks before; however, after PSD on day two an even modest diurnal change was visible in this group but less pronounced compared to FU2-responders. We found no association between treatment condition placebo vs. modafinil and response for acute neither response after two weeks. When we linked daily peak BDNF levels from day two at 2 pm with overall HDRS-6 improvement, responders were associated with elevated BDNF levels compared to non-responders on day three after recovery night already. Even after one (FU1 and two (FU2 weeks increased BDNF levels of day two at 2 pm were more prominent in the responder group. This difference between responders and non-responders of peak serum BDNF levels from 2 pm after PSD was statistically significant after two weeks. In addition, HDRS-6 improvement after two weeks of on-going treatment was significantly correlated with elevated serum BDNF levels in all patients. Moreover, peak levels of serum BDNF after PSD on day 2 at 2 pm were correlated with increased relaxation and improved mood in all depressive patients. In addition, placebo treated patients during PSD exhibited a significant increase of serum cortisol levels during PSD when compared to morning peak levels at 8 am between day one and two. There was no serum cortisol increase in the modafinil treated group during PSD intervention. Conclusions : Altogether, it seems that a diurnal pattern of serum BDNF during the day is necessarily associated with acute and response after two weeks in terms of partial sleep deprivation independently from additional treatment (modafinil vs. placebo. BDNF levels peaking in the morning and declining during the day seem to be favourable for an antidepressant response. Therefore, BDNF expression profile in serum at baseline could be used as possible predictor for therapy outcome.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Routine Outcome Monitoring (ROM there is a high demand for short assessments. Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT is a promising method for efficient assessment. In this article, the efficiency of a CAT version of the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire, - Anhedonic Depression scale (MASQ-AD for use in ROM was scrutinized in a simulation study. Methods The responses of a large sample of patients (N = 3,597 obtained through ROM were used. The psychometric evaluation showed that the items met the requirements for CAT. In the simulations, CATs with several measurement precision requirements were run on the item responses as if they had been collected adaptively. Results CATs employing only a small number of items gave results which, both in terms of depression measurement and criterion validity, were only marginally different from the results of a full MASQ-AD assessment. Conclusions It was concluded that CAT improved the efficiency of the MASQ-AD questionnaire very much. The strengths and limitations of the application of CAT in ROM are discussed.
Saules, Karen K; Pomerleau, Cynthia S; Snedecor, Sandy M; Mehringer, Ann M; Shadle, Minden B; Kurth, Candace; Krahn, Dean D
To investigate the issue of smoking initiation during college, we administered a survey of women's health behavior to college women during freshman orientation, at the end of their freshman year and again during their senior year. Never smokers (NS; n=374), early-onset smokers (EOS; n=52), and late-onset smokers (LOS; n=64) were compared on dieting concerns, mood problems, alcohol-related problems, and frequency of binge drinking episodes. By the senior year of college, 55% (64/116) of those who had smoked in the past month had started smoking during college, although they were more likely than never smokers to have experimented with cigarettes prior to college. Escalating depression during the first year of college, dieting concerns, and alcohol-related problems were significant risk factors for smoking initiation during college, while binge drinking appeared to covary with cigarette smoking. Results suggest that prevention efforts should target nonsmokers with high dieting concerns and escalating depression early in college, while intervention efforts may need to target not only smoking but also problematic alcohol use among smoking college women. PMID:15219333
Krebs, Georgina; Bolhuis, Koen; Heyman, Isobel; Mataix-Cols, David; Turner, Cynthia; Stringaris, Argyris
Background: Temper outbursts in youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are a common source of concern, but remain poorly understood. This study examined a set of hypotheses related to: (a) the prevalence of temper outbursts in paediatric OCD, (b) the associations of temper outbursts with OCD severity and depressive symptoms; and (c) the
Krebs, Georgina; Bolhuis, Koen; Heyman, Isobel; Mataix-Cols, David; Turner, Cynthia; Stringaris, Argyris
Background: Temper outbursts in youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are a common source of concern, but remain poorly understood. This study examined a set of hypotheses related to: (a) the prevalence of temper outbursts in paediatric OCD, (b) the associations of temper outbursts with OCD severity and depressive symptoms; and (c) theâ¦
Hormones are partial determinants of certain sexually dimorphic behaviors and interact with psychosocial, environmental, and other physiologic factors. The part played by sex hormones in the direct control of overt human behavior is, compared with that found in lower animals, slight and less readily definable. In humans, these hormones, although necessary for maintenance of libido and sexual behavior, seem to control the intensity of such behavior rather than its direction. In most women of reproductive age, the different phases of the menstrual cycle are not associated with major physical or psychologic discomfort. Some women actually report positive changes during the premenstrual period. Only 5-10% of women in this age group have changes in mood, sleep, eating habits, level of energy, and physical symptoms that appear to be linked temporally to the late-luteal phase of the cycle. It is plausible to assume that women with LLPDD are vulnerable to the menstrual cycle as a Zeitgeber. In these women, a cascade of events triggered originally along the HPG axis brings about the shift from an existing vulnerability to the actual manifestations of LLPDD and other forms of female-specific mood disorders. The degree of vulnerability becomes apparent at puberty when girls are exposed to increasing estrogenic influences. Particularly vulnerable times are the periods that mark shifts in the reproductive stages (menarche, the premenstruum, puerperium, and menopause), periods associated with major hormonal turmoil and psychosocial stresses. A conditioning-sensitization model has been described to explain the longitudinal course of affective disorders, and it also has been proposed for PMS. According to this model, even low levels of psychosocial stress are capable of triggering episodes of dysphoria in vulnerable previously sensitized subjects. LLPDD is associated strongly with a lifetime diagnosis of major depression, and the concurrent comorbidity in these women is also high. Future epidemiologic studies on depression should consider the effects of female-specific Zeitgeber on mood disorders in the populations studied. PMID:1521388
Tufan Ali; Bilici Rabia; Usta Genco; ErdoÄan Ayten
Abstract Vitamin B12 is one of the essential vitamins affecting various systems of the body. Reports of psychiatric disorders due to its deficiency mostly focus on middle aged and elderly patients. Here we report a case of vitamin B 12 deficiency in a 16-year old, male adolescent who presented with mixed mood disorder symptoms with psychotic features. Chief complaints were âirritability, regressive behavior, apathy, crying and truancyâ which lasted for a year. Premorbid personality was unrema...
Wong, Rebecca S K; Thung, Jin Seng; Pieter, Willy
In an attempt to test the conceptual model by Lane and Terry, the purposes of this study were 1) to assess mood states in non-depressed and depressed young karate athletes; 2) to assess mood states in relation to performance in young karate athletes. The participants were recruited from the 2004 Malaysian Games (72 males, 19.20 ± 1.16 years; 37 females, 18.78 ± 0.88 years). The athletes were divided into winners (medalists) and losers. The Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS) was administered prior to the start of competition. MANOVA was employed to treat the data, while Pearson correlations were calculated for mood states in each depressed mood group and by gender. In terms of non-depressed and depressed mood, tension in the females was higher in the depressed group (5.61 ± 3.02 vs. 3.11 ± 1.90, p = 0.026, eta(2) = 0.133), as was fatigue (3.64 ± 2.61 vs. 0.89 ± 1.69, p = 0.006, eta(2) = 0.199). Tension in the males was higher in the depressed group (4.41 ± 2.52 vs. 1.50 ± 1.55, p advanced by Lane and Terry. Key PointsTo date, there is no information about the relationship between mood and martial arts performance in Malaysian athletes.There might be cultural differences in the way Malaysian athletes respond to psychological questionnaires.The mood-performance and depressed mood-non-depressed mood relationships might be mediated by age. PMID:24357977
Kiraly, Drew D; Sher, Leo
Here, we publish a report of a previously practicing nurse practitioner who presented to a community hospital with severely depressed mood and neurovegetative symptoms in the context of recent relapse to alcohol and cocaine abuse. This patient had a long history of depression and polysubstance abuse. Additionally, the patient had a history of multiple previous suicide attempts with a high possibility for lethality. All of his attempts occurred in the setting of depression, escalating substance use, and interpersonal difficulties. Due to his chronic struggles with mental health and substance abuse issues, the patient lost his marriage, many close friends, and, eventually, his license to practice medicine. In this report, we highlight the increased risk of suicidal behavior or completed suicide in patients with co-occurring depressive and substance abuse disorders. We also look to highlight the often unmet need of mental health and substance abuse treatment for healthcare professionals. Studies suggest that healthcare providers experience increasing rates of burnout, mood and anxiety disorders, and substance use disorders, but available treatment resources remain scarce. This is a serious public health issue that will require increased vigilance by the community at large to ensure the safety and wellbeing of both patients and their providers. PMID:25411994
Kolstad, Henrik; Hansen, Åse Marie; Kærgaard, Anette; Thomsen, Jane F; Kaerlev, Linda; Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard; Mors, Ole; Rugulies, Reiner; Kristensen, Ann Suhl; Andersen, Niels Johan; Bonde, Jens Peter
It is unknown whether the relation between job strain and depression reflects causal characteristics of the working environment or reporting bias. The authors investigated reporting bias by analyzing individual versus work-unit measures of job strain and the risk of depressive symptoms (n = 287) and a diagnosis of depression (n = 97) among 4,291 employees within 378 work units in Aarhus, Denmark, 2007. All participants reported psychological demands and decision latitude, and the authors estimat...
Kolstad, Henrik; Hansen, Åse Marie; Kærgaard, Anette; Thomsen, Jane Frølund; Kærlev, Linda; Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Grynderup, Matias; Mors, Ole; Rugulies, Reiner; Kristensen, Ann Suhl; Andersen, Johan Hviid; Bonde, Jens Peter
It is unknown whether the relation between job strain and depression reflects causal characteristics of the working environment or reporting bias. The authors investigated reporting bias by analyzing individual versus work-unit measures of job strain and the risk of depressive symptoms (n = 287) and a diagnosis of depression (n = 97) among 4,291 employees within 378 work units in Aarhus, Denmark, 2007. All participants reported psychological demands and decision latitude, and the authors estimat...
KESSLER, RONALD C.; Stang, Paul; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Stein, Murray B; Walters, Ellen E.
Background. General population data were used to study co-morbidities between lifetime social phobia and mood disorders. Methods. Data come from the US National Comorbidity Survey (NCS). Results. Strong associations exist between lifetime social phobia and major depressive disorder (odds ratio 2·9), dysthymia (2·7) and bipolar disorder (5·9). Odds ratios increase in magnitude with number of social fears. Reported age of onset is earlier for social phobia than mood disorders in the vast ...
Fábio Lopes Rocha; Maria Elizabete Guimarães Rocha
Kleptomania has been found in association with major depression in a fairly large number of reports in recent years. We describe a patient with concurrent DSM-III-R Bipolar Mood Disorder and Kleptomania, whose symptoms remitted completely, apparently in response to lithium therapy, which raised the possibility that pharmacological treatment may benefit kleptomania. Further studies are needed to establish the possible relationship between kleptomania, mood disorders and lithium therapy.Os auto...
Full Text Available Mark Jean Just,1 Mariusz Kozakiewicz2 1Department of General and Endocronological Surgery, Piekary Medical Centre, Piekary Slaskie, 2Department of Food Chemistry Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Torun, Poland Background: Anemia is a disease that can co-exist with depression, other mental disorders, or somatic diseases. Anemia can imitate symptoms of depression, while depression symptoms can mask concurring symptoms of anemia.Case presentation: I am presenting a case of a 48-year-old woman with AddisonBiermer anemia, with co-existing mood disorders. The clinical analysis of the presented patients history indicates diagnostic problems and a need for a detailed analysis of drug-related complications that occurred during previous treatment, eg, in the form of neuroleptic malignant syndrome.Conclusion: The presented case report contains valuable guidelines that can be of assistance in diagnostics and treatment of patients treated for mental disorders, who are also diagnosed with somatic diseases. Keywords: anemia, autoimmune diseases, depression, neuroleptic malignant syndrome
Johnstone, Tom; Van Reekum, Carina Marije; Urry, Heather L.; Kalin, Ned H.; Davidson, Richard J
Although depressed mood is a normal occurrence in response to adversity in all individuals, what distinguishes those who are vulnerable to major depressive disorder (MDD) is their inability to effectively regulate negative mood when it arises. Investigating the neural underpinnings of adaptive emotion regulation and the extent to which such processes are compromised in MDD may be helpful in understanding the pathophysiology of depression. We report results from a functional magnetic resonance...
Bergmann, Natasha; Ballegaard, SØren
The aim of this study was to test i) whether patients having diabetes and ischemic heart disease (IHD), i.e., patients suffering from two chronic diseases, demonstrate a higher degree of chronic stress when compared with patients suffering from IHD alone, and ii) whether suffering from the two chronic diseases results in an elevation in specific elements of the chronic stress concept. A total of 361 participants with IHD were included, of whom 47 suffered from concomitant diabetes. Stress was measured by pressure pain sensitivity (PPS) and by the following questionnaires: the Major Depression Inventory (MDI), the SF-36 Quality of Life questionnaire (SF-36 QOL), the WHO-5 Well-being Index, and the clinical stress signs (CSSs) scale. Participants with diabetes and IHD had a higher MDI score, a lower SF-36 physical component summary score, and a lower score of several sub-measurements of the SF-36 mental component score when compared with patients with IHD without diabetes. No significant differences were observed regarding stress measured by the PPS measure, the WHO-5 Well-being Index, or the number of CSSs. In conclusion, the combination of diabetes and IHD seems to be associated with increased depressive symptoms, lower overall physical QOL, and reduced mental QOL on several sub-elements of the questionnaire. This should be recognized in the management of patients with double diagnoses.
Sandra Sif Sæmundsdóttir 1990
It is believed that individuals under the age of 17 are responsible for about 20% of all sexual offences. There are various factors that contribute to this behaviour and this topic has been the subject in numerous studies aimed at finding what factors sexual offenders have in common. This study investigated whether males were more likely to report sexual offending and if those who report sexual offending also reported history of sexually abuse and history physical abuse. Anger and depressed m...
Full Text Available Antonina Luca,1 Maria Luca,2 Carmela Calandra2 1Department GF Ingrassia, Section of Neuroscience, 2Department of Medical and Surgery Specialties, Psychiatry Unit, University Hospital Policlinico-Vittorio Emanuele, Catania, Sicily, Italy Abstract: Sleep disorders are so frequently associated with depression that, in the absence of sleep complaints, a diagnosis of depression should be made with caution. Insomnia, in particular, may occur in 60%80% of depressed patients. Depressive symptoms are important risk factors for insomnia, and depression is considered an important comorbid condition in patients with chronic insomnia of any etiology. In addition, some drugs commonly prescribed for the treatment of depression may worsen insomnia and impair full recovery from the illness. The aim of this paper is to review briefly and discuss the following topics: common sleep disturbances during depression (in particular pavor nocturnus, nightmares, hypersomnia, and insomnia; circadian sleep disturbances; and treatment of depression by manipulation of the sleep-wake rhythm (chronotherapy, light therapy, cycles of sleep, and manipulation of the sleep-wake rhythm itself. Finally, we present a case report of a 65-year-old Caucasian woman suffering from insomnia associated with depression who was successfully treated with sleep deprivation. Keywords: sleep disorders, depression, insomnia, sleep-wake rhythm
Moreno, Megan Andreas; Christakis, Dimitri A; Egan, Katie G.; Jelenchick, Lauren A; Cox, Elizabeth; Young, Henry; Villiard, Hope; Becker, Tara
The objective of this study was to determine associations between displayed depression symptoms on Facebook and self-reported depression symptoms using a clinical screen. Public Facebook profiles of undergraduates from two universities were examined for displayed depression references. Profiles were categorized as depression symptom displayers or non-displayers. Participants completed an online PHQ-9 depression scale. Analyses examined associations between PHQ-9 score and depression symptom d...
... Where can I find more information? Share Postpartum Depression Facts Download PDF Download ePub Download Mobi Order ... for herself or her family. What is postpartum depression? Postpartum depression is a mood disorder that can ...
Kolstad, Henrik; Hansen, Åse Marie; Kærgaard, Anette; Thomsen, Jane F; Kaerlev, Linda; Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard; Mors, Ole; Rugulies, Reiner; Kristensen, Ann Suhl; Andersen, Niels Johan; Bonde, Jens Peter
It is unknown whether the relation between job strain and depression reflects causal characteristics of the working environment or reporting bias. The authors investigated reporting bias by analyzing individual versus work-unit measures of job strain and the risk of depressive symptoms (n = 287) ...
Relationship between maternal depression as a risk factor for childhood trauma and mood disorders in young adults / Relação entre depressão materna como fator de risco para trauma na infância e transtornos de humor em jovens
Luana Porto, Barbosa; Luciana, Quevedo; Giovanna Del Grande Da, Silva; Karen, Jansen; Pedro, Magalhães; Ricardo Tavares, Pinheiro; Ricardo Azevedo da, Silva.
Full Text Available Contexto Depressão materna pode ser um fator de risco para trauma na infância (TI), com consequente desenvolvimento de transtornos de humor (TH) em seus filhos na vida adulta. Objetivo Verificar a relação entre depressão materna (como fator de risco para TI) e TH em jovens. Métodos A amostra [...] foi composta de 164 jovens adultos e suas mães. A depressão materna foi identificada por meio do Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.). Transtornos de humor nos jovens foram confirmados pela entrevista estruturada para o DSM-IV (SCID), enquanto o TI foi avaliado pelo Questionário de Trauma na Infância (CTQ). Resultados No grupo de jovens com TH, indivíduos que tiveram mães deprimidas apresentaram escores médios de TI mais altos em comparação aos que não tinham mães com depressão (p Abstract in english Background Maternal depression may be a risk factor for childhood trauma (CT), with resultant offspring development of mood disorders (MD) in adult life. Objective To verify the relationship between maternal depression (as a risk factor for childhood trauma) and mood disorders in young adults. [...] Methods The sample was composed of 164 young adults and their mothers. Maternal depression was identified through the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.). Mood Disorders in the young adults were confirmed with the Structured Interview for the DSM-IV (SCID), whereas the CT was evaluated using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Results In the group of young adults with MD, individuals who had depressed mothers presented higher mean scores of CT in comparison to the ones who did not have mothers with Depression (p
Marieke de Vries
Full Text Available The present research aimed to test the role of mood in the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT; Bechara et al., 1994. In the IGT, participants can win or lose money by picking cards from four different decks. They have to learn by experience that two decks are overall advantageous and two decks are overall disadvantageous. Previous studies have shown that at an early stage in this card-game, players begin to display a tendency towards the advantageous decks. Subsequent research suggested that at this stage, people base their decisions on conscious gut feelings (Wagar and Dixon, 2006. Based on empirical evidence for the relation between mood and cognitive processing-styles, we expected and consistently found that, compared to a negative mood state, reported and induced positive mood states increased this early tendency towards advantageous decks. Our results provide support for the idea that a positive mood causes stronger reliance on affective signals in decision-making than a negative mood.
Moreno, Megan Andreas; Christakis, Dimitri A; Egan, Katie G; Jelenchick, Lauren A; Cox, Elizabeth; Young, Henry; Villiard, Hope; Becker, Tara
The objective of this study was to determine associations between displayed depression symptoms on Facebook and self-reported depression symptoms using a clinical screen. Public Facebook profiles of undergraduates from two universities were examined for displayed depression references. Profiles were categorized as depression symptom displayers or non-displayers. Participants completed an online PHQ-9 depression scale. Analyses examined associations between PHQ-9 score and depression symptom displayers versus non-displayers. The mean PHQ-9 score for non-displayers was 4.7 (SD?=?4.0), the mean PHQ-9 score for depression symptom displayers was 6.4 (SD?=?5.1; p?=?0.018). A trend approaching significance was noted that participants who scored into a depression category by their PHQ-9 score were more likely to display depression symptom references. Displayed references to depression symptoms were associated with self-reported depression symptoms. PMID:21863354
Acker, Helmut; Schmidt-Rathjens, Claudia; Acker, Till; Fandrey, Joachim; Ehleben, Wilhelm
Mood expressions encompassing positive scales like "activity, elation, contemplation, calmness" and negative scales like "anger, excitement, depression, fatigue" were applied for introducing a new tool to assess the effects of acupuncture on brain structures. Traditional acupuncture points defined in the literature for their effects on task negative and task positive brain structures were applied to chronic disease patients supposed to have dominant negative mood scales. Burn-out syndrome (n=10) and female chronic pain patients (n=22) showed a significant improvement on positive mood scales and a decline in negative mood scales after 10 acupuncture sessions. We observed a direct effect of acupuncture on brain structures in 5 burn-out syndrome patients showing an immediate, fast suppression of unusual slow high amplitude EEG waves in response to acupuncture needle rotation. These EEG waves described here for the first time in awake patients disappeared after 10 sessions but gradually returned after 1-1.5 years without acupuncture. This was accompanied with deterioration of positive mood scales and a return to negative mood scales. Both male (n=16) and female chronic pain patients reported a significant decrease of pain intensity after 10 sessions. Female patients only, however, showed a linear correlation between initial pain intensity and pain relief as well as a linear correlation between changes in pain intensity and mood scales accompanied by a drop of their heart rate during the acupuncture sessions. We hypothesized that mood scale recordings are a sensitive and specific new tool to reveal individual acupuncture-brain interaction. PMID:26025590
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Psychiatric side effects of deep brain stimulation are not uncommon. It is often limited to transient mood alterations. We report for the first time a case of acute stimulation-dependent fear during intraoperative test stimulation. Case presentation During test stimulation for electrode placement to the left subthalamic nucleus, a 58-year-old caucasian man with Parkinson's disease developed a severe reproducible feeling of fear together with elevated heart rate and sweating. Postoperatively, the patient developed a therapy refractory major depression in spite of excellent motor-control. Reprogramming the stimulator using a more rostral contact resulted in an abrupt and complete disappearance of the depressive syndrome. Conclusion Postoperative re-evaluation of the stimulation site of the patient inducing acute fear by analyzing his intraoperative microrecordings and Talairach coordinates revealed stimulation within his right substantia nigra. The contrast analysis of the postoperative stimulation site suggests induction of depression in the patient by stimulation of the caudal part of his subthalamic nucleus. Acute psychiatric side effects of deep brain stimulation are relatively rare but must not be overlooked while concentrating on the improvement of motor deficit.
Evans, Dina M.
Affective disorder is characterized by maladaptive changes in mood, attitudes, energy level, and physical status. These changes constitute the basic dimensions of depression. Depression results from a combination of genetic and experiential factors. There are sex differences and age differences with regard to depression, and there is a high
Dimeo, F.; Bauer, M.; Varahram, I; Proest, G; Halter, U
BackgroundSeveral reports indicate that physical activity can reduce the severity of symptoms in depressed patients. Some data suggest that even a single exercise bout may result in a substantial mood improvement.
Rebecca S. K. Wong
Full Text Available In an attempt to test the conceptual model by Lane and Terry, the purposes of this study were 1 to assess mood states in non-depressed and depressed young karate athletes; 2 to assess mood states in relation to performance in young karate athletes. The participants were recruited from the 2004 Malaysian Games (72 males, 19.20 ± 1.16 years; 37 females, 18.78 ± 0.88 years. The athletes were divided into winners (medalists and losers. The Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS was administered prior to the start of competition. MANOVA was employed to treat the data, while Pearson correlations were calculated for mood states in each depressed mood group and by gender. In terms of non-depressed and depressed mood, tension in the females was higher in the depressed group (5.61 ± 3.02 vs. 3.11 ± 1.90, p = 0.026, eta2 = 0.133, as was fatigue (3.64 ± 2.61 vs. 0.89 ± 1.69, p = 0.006, eta2 = 0.199. Tension in the males was higher in the depressed group (4.41 ± 2.52 vs. 1.50 ± 1.55, p < 0.001, eta2 = 0.215, as was anger (1.43 ± 1.88 vs. 0.25 ± 1.00, p = 0.019, eta2 = 0.076. The highest associations among mood subscales were between anger and depression (r = 0.57, and between depression and fatigue ( r = 0.55 in depressed males. The female winning karateka scored higher on anger (3.08 ± 2.96 vs. 1.29 ± 2.24, p = 0.046, eta2 = 0.109. The highest correlations between mood dimensions in depressed females were between depression and anger (r = 0.85 and between depression and confusion (r = 0.85. Contrary to previous research on the influence of depression on anger, only the female winners scored higher on anger. Several negative mood dimensions were higher in both male and female depressed groups, lending some support to the conceptual model advanced by Lane and Terry
Nakatake, Masayuki; Teraishi, Toshiya; Ide, Makoto; Wakizono, Tomoki; Ogawa, Tetsuo; Kuwahara, Tatsuro; Yoshino, Aihide; Nomura, Soichiro
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is primarily indicated for mood disorders and schizophrenia. Clinicians may encounter cases in which ECT is administered to patients with various kinds of complications. However, to our knowledge, no detailed medical guideline is available about the indications for ECT in psychiatric illness complicated with a concomitant brain tumor, which is one of the most likely physical complications that can directly affect ECT. We report a case in which 3 courses of modified ECT (m-ECT) were successfully administered without any neurological deterioration to a patient, who was frequently hospitalized for recurrent depressive disorder with stupor. We did not undertake any additional measures for reducing adverse events derived from the meningioma during m-ECT. In this report, we discuss the relation between brain tumor and depression. PMID:21222352
Beezhold Bonnie L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Omnivorous diets are high in arachidonic acid (AA compared to vegetarian diets. Research shows that high intakes of AA promote changes in brain that can disturb mood. Omnivores who eat fish regularly increase their intakes of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, fats that oppose the negative effects of AA in vivo. In a recent cross-sectional study, omnivores reported significantly worse mood than vegetarians despite higher intakes of EPA and DHA. This study investigated the impact of restricting meat, fish, and poultry on mood. Findings Thirty-nine omnivores were randomly assigned to a control group consuming meat, fish, and poultry daily (OMN; a group consuming fish 3-4 times weekly but avoiding meat and poultry (FISH, or a vegetarian group avoiding meat, fish, and poultry (VEG. At baseline and after two weeks, participants completed a food frequency questionnaire, the Profile of Mood States questionnaire and the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales. After the diet intervention, VEG participants reduced their EPA, DHA, and AA intakes, while FISH participants increased their EPA and DHA intakes. Mood scores were unchanged for OMN or FISH participants, but several mood scores for VEG participants improved significantly after two weeks. Conclusions Restricting meat, fish, and poultry improved some domains of short-term mood state in modern omnivores. To our knowledge, this is the first trial to examine the impact of restricting meat, fish, and poultry on mood state in omnivores.
Cetola, Henry W.; Reno, Raymond R.
Two experiments were conducted examining the mood altering effects of humor and the moderating effect of laughter on both humor appreciation and mood. The mood of the subjects in the first experiment was manipulated to make them feel slightly elated or slightly depressed. They then listened to either comedy routines or an interview. The comedy
Moritz, Steffen; Voigt, Katharina; Arzola, G Marina; Otte, Christian
Since the 1980s a large body of empirical effort has been devoted to mood-congruent memory (MCM) biases in clinical depression. Whereas there is broad, albeit not unequivocal, evidence that depressive patients retain negative-valenced memory items better than neutral material, few studies have investigated false memories in depression. In a pilot study we gathered support for both enhanced true and false memory for emotional material in depression. The present study aimed to extend these preliminary findings. In view of investigations suggesting that arousing and meaningful stimuli have facilitated access to memory, personal salience was considered a moderator for MCM. In the present study 21 depressed and 22 healthy participants were presented six false memory lists dealing with neutral, negative, and positive themes. At recognition, each item had to be appraised for its degree of valence subsequent to an old-new judgement. Pre-categorised and subjective valence did not discriminate groups. However, relative to controls depressed patients showed both more veridical as well as false recognition for items that concurrently elicited higher salience ratings in patients. In contrast, group differences in recognition performance did not significantly affect salience ratings. Results indicate that salience modulates MCM and may account for discrepancies in the literature. PMID:18819024
Øyane, Nicolas Melchior Frederic
The way seasons affect humans varies considerably between individuals, nevertheless most humans mood and behaviour change throughout the year. Almost 25 years ago, Seasonal Affective Disorder was described as recurring major depressive episodes during a certain time of the year. Seasonal Affective Disorder has been reported to be associated with hypersomnia, increased appetite and carbohydrate craving, and the disorder is most common in subjects with high education and socioec...
Full Text Available During the menstrual cycle, pregnancy and breast-feeding periods, as well as in menopausal and post-menopausal periods, the physiological and psychological processes that change according to the hormonal fluctuations influence every women similarly and each one differently. These physiological processes are controlled by neuroendocrine sequences, of which the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis are the most important ones. The hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis affects mood, anxiety, cognition and pain. The interaction of these hormones with mood and behavior is bidirectional. The differences in phenomenology and epidemiology of mood disorders with regards to gender can be explained with the effects of hormones. All of the periods mentioned above are related with mood disorders at terms of risk factors, disease symptoms, progress of disease and response to treatment. Epidemiologic data supports the relationship between the mood disorders and reproductive processes. The prevalence of major depression increases in women with the menarche and ceases in post- menopausal period. Similarly, the initial symptoms of bipolar disorder begins around the menarche period in 50% of the cases. Despite proper treatment, some female patients with major depression experience recurrence during the premenstrual period of their menstrual cycles. The conformity and change in a womans brain during pregnancy is controlled dominantly by the neuroendocrine systems, while it is controlled by the external stimuli actively related to the baby during nursing period. The changes that occur are closely related to postpartum mood disorders. Again, all the changes and suspension of medication during this procedure are risk factors for early depressive and dysphoric situations. Variables of a wide range, from follicle stimulating hormone, melatonin, and sleep to body mass index interact with mood disorders in menopausal and post-menopausal periods. Interest on the effects of gonadal steroids on the central nervous system has grown parallel with our increasing knowledge. In the last decade, the place of hormonal treatments in the treatment of mood disorders have been discussed continously. During this period, along with the anti-depressant efficacy of estrogen, anti-manic efficacy of tamoxifen was also demonstrated in several studies. In this paper, the complex relationship between the physiological changes and the mood disorders during a menstrual cycle, pregnancy, nursing, menopausal and post-menopausal periods are briefly reviewed and discussed over the reproductive hormones in the context of etiology, phenomenology and treatment.
Maulik, Pallab K; Das, Sudipto; Saxena, Shekhar
This case report describes the improvement obtained by using tranylcypromine in a patient of severe treatment resistant depression. The adverse effects faced and steps taken to overcome them have also been discussed.
OâGrady, Megan A.; Tennen, Howard; Armeli, Stephen
This study examined whether deficits in dealing with daily problems emerge before a depressive episode (i.e., pre-existing vulnerability) or after a depressive episode (i.e., psychosocial scar). Participants completed a 30-day daily diary in which they reported their most negative event of the day, their appraisals of that event, and their mood. Three years later, they completed a structured depression interview. The sample consisted of 350 college students, 24 of whom had a past history of d...
desRosiers, G; Robinson, D
Four groups of healthy women matched for age and IQ were reliably classified on the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire as being either high or low in extraversion or neuroticism. As part of a larger research project, each participant was administered a range of psychometric measures together with three paired-associate learning lists varying in hedonic tone and difficulty levels together with the Beck Depression Inventory. Performance on the hedonic lists covaried with personality categories but, unlike what typically obtains in clinical patients, less association emerged between performance and mood states. Performance was particularly polarized in women scoring high in neuroticism but low in extraversion. Speculations about the apparent correlates of so-called mood congruence in healthy subjects are put forward and parallels are drawn with studies reporting the phenomenon in clinically depressed patients. PMID:1574548
Bonsall, MB; Wallace-Hadrill, SM; Geddes, JR; Goodwin, GM; Holmes, EA
Bipolar disorder is a psychiatric condition characterized by episodes of elevated mood interspersed with episodes of depression. While treatment developments and understanding the disruptive nature of this illness have focused on these episodes, it is also evident that some patients may have chronic week-to-week mood instability. This is also a major morbidity. The longitudinal pattern of this mood instability is poorly understood as it has, until recently, been difficult to quantify. We prop...
... dance, and find creative self-expression through art, music, or journaling. Daily exercise, meditation, daylight, and positive emotions all can affect the brain's activity in ways that restore mood ...
Adaman, Jill E.; Blaney, Paul H.
A music mood-induction procedure was used to induce either elated, depressed, or neutral mood in 71 college undergraduates. Creativity measures revealed that the subjects in the elated and depressed groups showed significantly greater creativity than subjects in the neutral group. (Author/DB)
Stepped care for depression and anxiety: from primary care to specialized mental health care: a randomised controlled trial testing the effectiveness of a stepped care program among primary care patients with mood or anxiety disorders
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mood and anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and have a large impact on the lives of the affected individuals. Therefore, optimal treatment of these disorders is highly important. In this study we will examine the effectiveness of a stepped care program for primary care patients with mood and anxiety disorders. A stepped care program is characterized by different treatment steps that are arranged in order of increasing intensity. Methods This study is a randomised controlled trial with two conditions: stepped care and care as usual, whereby the latter forms the control group. The stepped care program consists of four evidence based interventions: (1 Watchful waiting, (2 Guided self-help, (3 Problem Solving Treatment and (4 Medication and/or specialized mental health care. The study population consists of primary care attendees aged 1865 years. Screeners are sent to all patients of the participating general practitioners. Individuals with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of mental disorders (DSM diagnosis of major depression, dysthymia, panic disorder (with or without agoraphobia, generalized anxiety disorder, or social phobia are included as well as individuals with minor depression and anxiety disorders. Primary focus is the reduction of depressive and anxiety symptoms. Both conditions are monitored at 8, 16 and 24 weeks. Discussion This study evaluates the effectiveness of a stepped care program for patients with depressive and anxiety disorder. If effective, a stepped care program can form a worthwhile alternative for care as usual. Strengths and limitations of this study are discussed. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trails: ISRCTN17831610.
Improving mood with psychoanalytic and cognitive therapies (IMPACT: a pragmatic effectiveness superiority trial to investigate whether specialised psychological treatment reduces the risk for relapse in adolescents with moderate to severe unipolar depression: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial
Full Text Available Abstract Background Up to 70% of adolescents with moderate to severe unipolar major depression respond to psychological treatment plus Fluoxetine (20-50 mg with symptom reduction and improved social function reported by 24 weeks after beginning treatment. Around 20% of non responders appear treatment resistant and 30% of responders relapse within 2 years. The specific efficacy of different psychological therapies and the moderators and mediators that influence risk for relapse are unclear. The cost-effectiveness and safety of psychological treatments remain poorly evaluated. Methods/Design Improving Mood with Psychoanalytic and Cognitive Therapies, the IMPACT Study, will determine whether Cognitive Behavioural Therapy or Short Term Psychoanalytic Therapy is superior in reducing relapse compared with Specialist Clinical Care. The study is a multicentre pragmatic effectiveness superiority randomised clinical trial: Cognitive Behavioural Therapy consists of 20 sessions over 30 weeks, Short Term Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy 30 sessions over 30 weeks and Specialist Clinical Care 12 sessions over 20 weeks. We will recruit 540 patients with 180 randomised to each arm. Patients will be reassessed at 6, 12, 36, 52 and 86 weeks. Methodological aspects of the study are systematic recruitment, explicit inclusion criteria, reliability checks of assessments with control for rater shift, research assessors independent of treatment team and blind to randomization, analysis by intention to treat, data management using remote data entry, measures of quality assurance, advanced statistical analysis, manualised treatment protocols, checks of adherence and competence of therapists and assessment of cost-effectiveness. We will also determine whether time to recovery and/or relapse are moderated by variations in brain structure and function and selected genetic and hormone biomarkers taken at entry. Discussion The objective of this clinical trial is to determine whether there are specific effects of specialist psychotherapy that reduce relapse in unipolar major depression in adolescents and thereby costs of treatment to society. We also anticipate being able to utilise psychotherapy experience, neuroimaging, genetic and hormone measures to reveal what techniques and their protocols may work best for which patients. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN83033550
PAYNE, JENNIFER L; Klein, Sarah R; Zamoiski, Rachel B.; Zandi, Peter P.; Bienvenu, Oscar J; MacKinnon, Dean F.; Mondimore, Francis M.; Schweizer, Barbara; SWARTZ, KAREN L.; Crowe, Raymond P.; Scheftner, William A.; WEISSMAN, MYRNA M; Levinson, Douglas F.; DePaulo, J. Raymond; Potash, James B.
We sought to determine whether premenstrual mood symptoms exhibit familial aggregation in bipolar disorder or major depression pedigrees. Two thousand eight hundred seventy-six women were interviewed with the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies as part of either the NIMH Genetics Initiative Bipolar Disorder Collaborative study or the Genetics of Early Onset Major Depression (GenRED) study and asked whether they had experienced severe mood symptoms premenstrually. In families with two or ...
Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance Crisis Hotline Information Coping with a Crisis Suicide Prevention Information Psychiatric Hospitalization ... training, events Visit the podcast archive Mood Disorders Depression Bipolar Disorder Anxiety Screening Center Co-occurring Illnesses/ ...
Depression and Suicide Risk (2014) Definition: A mood disorder that causes a persistent feeling of sadness and ... i Prevalence: 1. Ranges of lifetime risk for depression: from 6.7% overall to 40% in men, ...
Tufan, Ali Evren; Bilici, Rabia; Usta, Genco; ErdoÄan, Ayten
Vitamin B12 is one of the essential vitamins affecting various systems of the body. Reports of psychiatric disorders due to its deficiency mostly focus on middle aged and elderly patients. Here we report a case of vitamin B 12 deficiency in a 16-year old, male adolescent who presented with mixed mood disorder symptoms with psychotic features. Chief complaints were "irritability, regressive behavior, apathy, crying and truancy" which lasted for a year. Premorbid personality was unremarkable with no substance use/exposure or infections. No stressors were present. The patient was not vegetarian. Past medical history and family history was normal. Neurological examination revealed glossitis, ataxia, rigidity in both shoulders, cog-wheel rigidity in the left elbow, bilateral problems of coordination in cerebellar examination, reduced swinging of the arms and masked face. Romberg's sign was present. Laboratory evaluations were normal. Endoscopy and biopsy revealed atrophy of the gastric mucosa with Helicobacter Pylori colonization. Schilling test was suggestive of malabsorbtion. He was diagnosed with Mood disorder with Mixed, Psychotic Features due to Vitamin B12 Deficiency and risperidone 0.5âmg/day and intramuscular vitamin B12 500 mcg/day were started along with referral for treatment of Helicobacter pylori. A visit on the second week revealed no psychotic features. Romberg's sign was negative and cerebellar tests were normal. Extrapyramidal symptoms were reduced while Vitamin B12 levels were elevated. Risperidone was stopped and parenteral Vitamin B12 treatment was continued with monthly injections for 3âmonths. Follow-up endoscopy and biopsy at the first month demonstrated eradication of H. pylori. He was followed monthly for another 6âmonths and psychiatric symptoms did not recur at the time of last evaluation. Despite limitations, this case may underline the observation that mood disorders with psychotic features especially with accompanying extrapyramidal symptoms lacking a clear etiology may be rare manifestation of vitamin B12 and/or folate deficiency in children and adolescents and be potentially amenable to treatment. PMID:22726236
Full Text Available Abstract Vitamin B12 is one of the essential vitamins affecting various systems of the body. Reports of psychiatric disorders due to its deficiency mostly focus on middle aged and elderly patients. Here we report a case of vitamin B 12 deficiency in a 16-year old, male adolescent who presented with mixed mood disorder symptoms with psychotic features. Chief complaints were âirritability, regressive behavior, apathy, crying and truancyâ which lasted for a year. Premorbid personality was unremarkable with no substance use/exposure or infections. No stressors were present. The patient was not vegetarian. Past medical history and family history was normal. Neurological examination revealed glossitis, ataxia, rigidity in both shoulders, cog-wheel rigidity in the left elbow, bilateral problems of coordination in cerebellar examination, reduced swinging of the arms and masked face. Rombergâs sign was present. Laboratory evaluations were normal. Endoscopy and biopsy revealed atrophy of the gastric mucosa with Helicobacter Pylori colonization. Schilling test was suggestive of malabsorbtion. He was diagnosed with Mood disorder with Mixed, Psychotic Features due to Vitamin B12 Deficiency and risperidone 0.5âmg/day and intramuscular vitamin B12 500 mcg/day were started along with referral for treatment of Helicobacter pylori. A visit on the second week revealed no psychotic features. Rombergâs sign was negative and cerebellar tests were normal. Extrapyramidal symptoms were reduced while Vitamin B12 levels were elevated. Risperidone was stopped and parenteral Vitamin B12 treatment was continued with monthly injections for 3âmonths. Follow-up endoscopy and biopsy at the first month demonstrated eradication of H. pylori. He was followed monthly for another 6âmonths and psychiatric symptoms did not recur at the time of last evaluation. Despite limitations, this case may underline the observation that mood disorders with psychotic features especially with accompanying extrapyramidal symptoms lacking a clear etiology may be rare manifestation of vitamin B12 and/or folate deficiency in children and adolescents and be potentially amenable to treatment.
Henn, Fritz (East Patchogue, NY)
Methods for treatment of depression-related mood disorders in mammals, particularly humans are disclosed. The methods of the invention include administration of compounds capable of enhancing glutamate transporter activity in the brain of mammals suffering from depression. ATP-sensitive K.sup.+ channel openers and .beta.-lactam antibiotics are used to enhance glutamate transport and to treat depression-related mood disorders and depressive symptoms.
Methods for treatment of depression-related mood disorders in mammals, particularly humans are disclosed. The methods of the invention include administration of compounds capable of enhancing glutamate transporter activity in the brain of mammals suffering from depression. ATP-sensitive K.sup.+ channel openers and .beta.-lactam antibiotics are used to enhance glutamate transport and to treat depression-related mood disorders and depressive symptoms.
Cognitive symptoms are an emerging clinical focus in patients with major depressive disorder. Deficits in executive function, memory, attention, and processing speed, as well as negative cognitive bias, can contribute to low mood symptoms and reduced occupational and social functioning. Both patient reports and objective measures demonstrate that cognitive symptoms are common in patients with depression. Cognitive dysfunction may be present even before the first depressive episode and may remain after mood symptoms have remitted. Clinicians must assess cognitive symptoms in their patients with major depressive disorder, monitor symptoms throughout the course of the disorder and after remission, and understand how these symptoms affect daily function. PMID:26231021
Nadine Correia Santos
Full Text Available It is relevant to unravel the factors that may mediate the cognitive decline observed during aging. Previous reports indicate that education has a positive influence on cognitive performance, while age, female gender and, especially, depressed mood were associated with poorer performances across multiple cognitive dimensions (memory and general executive function. Herein, the present study aimed to characterize the cognitive performance of community-dwelling individuals within distinct educational groups categorized by the number of completed formal school years: less than 4, 4, completed primary education, and more than 4. Participants (n = 1051 were randomly selected from local health registries and representative of the Portuguese population for age and gender. Neurocognitive and clinical assessments were conducted in local health care centers. Structural equation modeling was used to derive a cognitive score, and hierarchical linear regressions were conducted for each educational group. Education, age and depressed mood were significant variables in directly explaining the obtained cognitive score, while gender was found to be an indirect variable. In all educational groups, mood was the most significant factor with effect on cognitive performance. Specifically, a depressed mood led to lower cognitive performance. The clinical disease indices cardiac and stroke associated with a more negative mood, while moderate increases in BMI, alcohol consumption and physical activity associated positively with improved mood and thus benefitted cognitive performance. Results warrant further research on the cause-effect (longitudinal relationship between clinical indices of disease and risk factors and mood and cognition throughout aging.
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Flávia de L. Osório
Full Text Available Objectives: Ayahuasca (AYA, a natural psychedelic brew prepared from Amazonian plants and rich in dimethyltryptamine (DMT and harmine, causes effects of subjective well-being and may therefore have antidepressant actions. This study sought to evaluate the effects of a single dose of AYA in six volunteers with a current depressive episode. Methods: Open-label trial conducted in an inpatient psychiatric unit. Results: Statistically significant reductions of up to 82% in depressive scores were observed between baseline and 1, 7, and 21 days after AYA administration, as measured on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D, the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS, and the Anxious-Depression subscale of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS. AYA administration resulted in nonsignificant changes in Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS scores and in the thinking disorder subscale of the BPRS, suggesting that AYA does not induce episodes of mania and/or hypomania in patients with mood disorders and that modifications in thought content, which could indicate psychedelic effects, are not essential for mood improvement. Conclusions: These results suggest that AYA has fast-acting anxiolytic and antidepressant effects in patients with a depressive disorder.
Flávia de L., Osório; Rafael F., Sanches; Ligia R., Macedo; Rafael G., dos Santos; João P., Maia-de-Oliveira; Lauro, Wichert-Ana; Draulio B., de Araujo; Jordi, Riba; José A., Crippa; Jaime E., Hallak.
Full Text Available Objectives: Ayahuasca (AYA), a natural psychedelic brew prepared from Amazonian plants and rich in dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and harmine, causes effects of subjective well-being and may therefore have antidepressant actions. This study sought to evaluate the effects of a single dose of AYA in six vo [...] lunteers with a current depressive episode. Methods: Open-label trial conducted in an inpatient psychiatric unit. Results: Statistically significant reductions of up to 82% in depressive scores were observed between baseline and 1, 7, and 21 days after AYA administration, as measured on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D), the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), and the Anxious-Depression subscale of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). AYA administration resulted in nonsignificant changes in Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) scores and in the thinking disorder subscale of the BPRS, suggesting that AYA does not induce episodes of mania and/or hypomania in patients with mood disorders and that modifications in thought content, which could indicate psychedelic effects, are not essential for mood improvement. Conclusions: These results suggest that AYA has fast-acting anxiolytic and antidepressant effects in patients with a depressive disorder.
Lau, JY; Eley, TC
Studying the genetics of mood disorders has never been more exciting. We have moved rapidly from establishing the genetic basis of depression to asking questions about how genes are expressed. This has been made possible by the capacity to collect and sequence DNA for large samples cheaply. But "multidisciplinary" approaches investigating interrelationships between risk factors have also been increasingly adopted, encouraging collaborations between those studying genes and those studying the ...
Cizza, G; Ravn, Pernille; Chrousos, G P; Gold, P W
Existing studies of the relationship between depression and osteoporosis have been heterogeneous in their design and use of diagnostic instruments for depression, which might have contributed to the different results on the comorbidity of these two conditions. Nevertheless, these studies reveal a...... strong association between depression and osteoporosis. Endocrine factors such as depression-induced hypersecretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone and hypercortisolism, hypogonadism, growth hormone deficiency and increased concentration of circulating interleukin 6, might play a crucial role in the...... bone loss observed in subjects suffering from major depression....
Field, Tiffany; Martinez, Alex; Nawrocki, Thomas; Pickens, Jeffrey; Fox, Nathan A.; Schanberg, Saul
Fourteen chronically depressed female adolescents listened to rock music for a 23-minute session. EEG was recorded and saliva samples were collected to determine the effects of the music on stress hormone cortisol levels. No differences were reported for mood state; however, cortisol levels decreased and relative right-frontal activation was
Field, Tiffany; Martinez, Alex; Nawrocki, Thomas; Pickens, Jeffrey; Fox, Nathan A.; Schanberg, Saul
Fourteen chronically depressed female adolescents listened to rock music for a 23-minute session. EEG was recorded and saliva samples were collected to determine the effects of the music on stress hormone cortisol levels. No differences were reported for mood state; however, cortisol levels decreased and relative right-frontal activation wasâ¦
Lane, Andrew M; Hewston, Ruth M.; Redding, Emma; Whyte, Gregory P
Full-time dancers typically spend a large proportion of time participating in dance classes. The present study examined mood state changes following two contrasting modern-dance styles on a sample of full-time dancers. Twenty-three dancers completed the Brunel University Mood Scale (Terry, Lane, Lane, & Keohane, 1999) to assess anger, confusion, depression, fatigue, tension, and vigor before and after two different dance classes. One class taught was the Jose Limon technique style, characteri...
Gemma Modinos; Andrea Mechelli; William Pettersson-Yeo; Paul Allen; Philip McGuire; Andre Aleman
We used Support Vector Machine (SVM) to perform multivariate pattern classification based on brain activation during emotional processing in healthy participants with subclinical depressive symptoms. Six-hundred undergraduate students completed the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II). Two groups were subsequently formed: (i) subclinical (mild) mood disturbance (n = 17) and (ii) no mood disturbance (n = 17). Participants also completed a self-report questionnaire on subclinical psychotic sym...
Tonelli, Leonardo H; Holmes, Andrew; Postolache, Teodor T.
The association between activation of the immune system and mood disorders has been reported by several studies. However, the mechanisms by which the immune system affects mood are only partially understood. In the present study, we detected depressive-like behavior in a rat animal model which involves the induction of inflammation in the nasal cavities by intranasal (i.n.) instillation of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Female rats showed depressive-like behavior as evidenced by the for...
Adjunctive Triple Chronotherapy (Combined Total Sleep Deprivation, Sleep Phase Advance, and Bright Light Therapy) Rapidly Improves Mood and Suicidality in Suicidal Depressed Inpatients: An Open Label Pilot Study
Sahlem, Gregory L.; Kalivas, Benjamin; Fox, James B.; Lamb, Kayla; Roper, Amanda; Williams, Emily N.; Williams, Nolan R; Korte, Jeffrey E; Zuschlag, Zachary D.; El Sabbagh, Salim; Guille, Constance; Barth, Kelly S.; Uhde, Thomas W.; George, Mark S.; Short, E. Baron
Previous studies have demonstrated that combined total sleep deprivation (Wake therapy), sleep phase advance, and bright light therapy (Triple Chronotherapy) produce a rapid and sustained antidepressant effect in acutely depressed individuals. To date no studies have explored the impact of the intervention on unipolar depressed individuals with acute concurrent suicidality. Participants were suicidal inpatients (N=10, Mean age=44Â±16.4SD, 6F) with unipolar depression. In addition to standard o...
Tendolkar, Indira -; van Wingen, Guido A.; Urner, Maren; Verkes, Robbert; Fernández, Guillén
It is unknown how antidepressants reverse mood-congruent memory bias, a cognitive core factor causing and maintaining depression. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design, we investigated the effect of a short-term treatment (14 days) with the dual reuptake inhibitor duloxetine on neural correlates of mood-congruent and mood-incongruent memory formation and retrieval in healthy volunteers who underwent a sad mood induction procedure. Duloxetine did not affect acute mood sta...
Transtornos do humor em enfermaria de clínica médica e validação de escala de medida (HAD) de ansiedade e depressão / Mood disorders among medical in-patients: a validation study of the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HAD)
Neury J., Botega; Márcia R., Bio; Maria Adriana, Zomignani; Celso, Garcia Jr; Walter A. B., Pereira.
Full Text Available Para estimar a prevalência de transtornos do humor, foram utilizadas a entrevista estruturada, "Clinical Interview Schedule" (CIS-R), e a escala "Hospital Anxiety and Depression" (HAD) em 78 pacientes internados em uma enfermaria geral de adultos (43 homens e 35 mulheres, média de idade = 43,2 anos) [...] . Foi encontrada prevalência instantânea de 39% de transtornos do humor. Dezesseis (20,5%) pacientes preencheram critérios para ansiedade, a maioria dos casos sendo de gravidade leve. Vinte e seis (33%) casos de depressão foram detectados, 7 dos quais de gravidade moderada. Observou-se uma combinação de sintomas de preocupação, depressão, ansiedade e insônia. A HAD mostrou-se de fácil compreensão pelos pacientes. As subescalas de ansiedade e de depressão tiveram consistência interna de 0,68 e 0,77, respectivamente. A correlação dos itens com as respectivas subescalas sugere que essas possuem validades convergentes, não discriminantes. Com ponto de corte 8/9, a sensibilidade e a especificidade foram 93,7% e 72,6%, para ansiedade, e 84,6% e 90,3%, para depressão. Na prática clínica, a utilização da HAD poderia auxiliar na detecção de casos de transtornos do humor que necessitam de tratamento. Abstract in english The revised Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) Scale were used to estimate the prevalence of mood disorders among 78 consecutive admissions to a general medical ward in a university general hospital in Brazil (43 males and 35 females; mean age = 43.2yr) [...] . Interviewers also completed a 5-point symptom severity scales for anxiety and depression. The definition of cases of anxiety [and depression] was based on two criteria: a. score > 2 on the CIS-R section of anxiety [> 4 on the CIS-R sections of depression and depressive ideas]; and b. score > 2 on the clinical severity scale for anxiety [score > 2 on the clinical severity scale for depression]. A 39% prevalence rate of affective disorders was found. Sixteen (20.5%) patients met criteria for anxiety, most of the disorders being of mild severity. Twenty-sic patients (33%) were depressed, 7 of them in a moderate degree. The HAD was easily understood by the patients. Anxiety and depression subscales had internal consistency of 0.68 and 0.77, respectively. At a cut-off point of 8/9 sensibility and specificity were 93.7% and 72.6% for anxiety, and 84.6% and 90.3% for depression. HAD items correlated positively with the respective subscales. To a lesser degree, they also correlated with the alternative subscale. Our findings confirm the high prevalence of mood disorders among medical in-patients. In clinical practice, the HAD may have a useful role in detecting those patients requiring further psychological care.
Transtornos do humor em enfermaria de clínica médica e validação de escala de medida (HAD de ansiedade e depressão Mood disorders among medical in-patients: a validation study of the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HAD
Neury J. Botega
Full Text Available Para estimar a prevalência de transtornos do humor, foram utilizadas a entrevista estruturada, "Clinical Interview Schedule" (CIS-R, e a escala "Hospital Anxiety and Depression" (HAD em 78 pacientes internados em uma enfermaria geral de adultos (43 homens e 35 mulheres, média de idade = 43,2 anos. Foi encontrada prevalência instantânea de 39% de transtornos do humor. Dezesseis (20,5% pacientes preencheram critérios para ansiedade, a maioria dos casos sendo de gravidade leve. Vinte e seis (33% casos de depressão foram detectados, 7 dos quais de gravidade moderada. Observou-se uma combinação de sintomas de preocupação, depressão, ansiedade e insônia. A HAD mostrou-se de fácil compreensão pelos pacientes. As subescalas de ansiedade e de depressão tiveram consistência interna de 0,68 e 0,77, respectivamente. A correlação dos itens com as respectivas subescalas sugere que essas possuem validades convergentes, não discriminantes. Com ponto de corte 8/9, a sensibilidade e a especificidade foram 93,7% e 72,6%, para ansiedade, e 84,6% e 90,3%, para depressão. Na prática clínica, a utilização da HAD poderia auxiliar na detecção de casos de transtornos do humor que necessitam de tratamento.The revised Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD Scale were used to estimate the prevalence of mood disorders among 78 consecutive admissions to a general medical ward in a university general hospital in Brazil (43 males and 35 females; mean age = 43.2yr. Interviewers also completed a 5-point symptom severity scales for anxiety and depression. The definition of cases of anxiety [and depression] was based on two criteria: a. score > 2 on the CIS-R section of anxiety [> 4 on the CIS-R sections of depression and depressive ideas]; and b. score > 2 on the clinical severity scale for anxiety [score > 2 on the clinical severity scale for depression]. A 39% prevalence rate of affective disorders was found. Sixteen (20.5% patients met criteria for anxiety, most of the disorders being of mild severity. Twenty-sic patients (33% were depressed, 7 of them in a moderate degree. The HAD was easily understood by the patients. Anxiety and depression subscales had internal consistency of 0.68 and 0.77, respectively. At a cut-off point of 8/9 sensibility and specificity were 93.7% and 72.6% for anxiety, and 84.6% and 90.3% for depression. HAD items correlated positively with the respective subscales. To a lesser degree, they also correlated with the alternative subscale. Our findings confirm the high prevalence of mood disorders among medical in-patients. In clinical practice, the HAD may have a useful role in detecting those patients requiring further psychological care.
Holmes, EA; Lang, TJ; Shah, DM
Two interpretation bias modification experiments found that mental imagery vs. verbal processing of positive material have differential emotional effects. In Experiment 1, participants were instructed to imagine positively resolved auditory descriptions or to listen to the same events while thinking about their verbal meaning. Increases in positive mood and bias were greater in the imagery than in the verbal condition, replicating E. A. Holmes, A. Mathews, T. Dalgleish, and B. Mackintosh (200...
Blom, Eva Henje; Bech, Per
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder is prevalent in the adolescent psychiatric clinical setting and often comorbid with other primary psychiatric diagnoses such as ADHD or social anxiety disorder. Systematic manual-based diagnostic procedures are recommended to identify such comorbidity but they are time-consuming and often not fully implemented in clinical practice. Screening for depressive symptoms in the child psychiatric context using brief, user-friendly and easily managed self-assessment scales may be of clinical value and utility. The aim of the study is to test the psychometric validity of two such scales, which may be used in a two-step screening procedure, the WHO-Five Well-being Index (WHO-5) and the six-item version of Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI-6). METHOD: 66 adolescent psychiatric patients with a clinical diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD), 60 girls and 6 boys, aged 14--18 years, mean age 16.8 years, completed the WHO-5 scale as well as the BDI-6. Statistical validity was tested by Mokken and Rasch analyses. RESULTS: The correlation between WHO-5 and BDI-6 was -0.49 (p=0.0001). Mokken analyses showed a coefficient of homogeneity for the WHO-5 of 0.52 and for the BDI-6 of 0.46. Rasch analysis also accepted unidimensionality when testing males versus females (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The WHO-5 is psychometrically valid in an adolescent psychiatric context including both genders to assess the wellness dimension and applicable as a first step in screening for MDD. The BDI-6 may be recommended as a second step in the screening procedure, since it is statistically valid and has the ability to unidimensionally capture the severity of depressed mood.
Päären, Aivar; Bohman, Hannes; von Knorring, Anne-Liis; von Knorring, Lars; Olsson, Gunilla; Jonsson, Ulf
Background: We investigated whether adolescents with hypomania spectrum episodes have an excess risk of mental and physical morbidity in adulthood, as compared with adolescents exclusively reporting major depressive disorder (MDD) and controls without a history of adolescent mood disorders. Methods: A community sample of adolescents (N = 2 300) in the town of Uppsala, Sweden, was screened for depressive symptoms. Both participants with positive screening and matched controls (in total 631) we...
Alvarez-Lozano, Jorge; Frost, Mads; Osmani, Venet; Bardram, Jakob; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Mayora, Oscar; Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria
Bipolar Disorder is a disease that is manifested with cycling periods of polar episodes, namely mania and depression. Depressive episodes are manifested through disturbed mood, psychomotor retardation, behaviour change, decrease in energy levels and length of sleep. Manic episodes are manifested...... through elevated mood, psychomotor acceleration and increase in intensity of social interactions. In this paper we report results of a clinical trial with bipolar patients that amongst other aspects, investigated whether changes in general behaviour of patients due to onset of a bipolar episode, can be...... behaviour before the psychiatric evaluation and after the psychiatric evaluation. The results show that patients have strong correlation of patterns of app usage with different aspects of their self-reported state including mood, sleep and irritability. While, on the other hand, the patients application...
The purpose of the study was to identify groups of adolescents based on their reported use of different coping strategies and compare levels of depression and anxiety symptoms across the groups. Tenth and eleventh grade public school students (N=982; 51% girls; 66% Caucasian; M age=16.04, SD=0.73) completed a battery of self-report measures that assessed their use of different coping strategies, depressive symptoms, and anxiety symptoms. Latent profile analysis (LPA) classified the participants into four distinct groups based on their responses on subscales of the COPE inventory (Carver et al., 1989). Groups differed in amount of coping with participants in each group showing relative preference for engaging in certain strategies over others. Disengaged copers reported the lowest amounts of coping with a preference for avoidance strategies. Independent copers reported moderate levels of coping with relatively less use of support-seeking. Social support-seeking copers and active copers reported the highest levels of coping with a particular preference for support-seeking strategies. The independent copers reported the lowest levels of depressive symptoms compared to the three other groups. The Social Support Seeking and Active Coping Groups reported the highest levels of anxiety. Although distinct coping profiles were observed, findings showed that adolescents between the ages of 14 and 16 engage in multiple coping strategies and are more likely to vary in their amount of coping than in their use of specific strategies. PMID:26275359
Turner, Margaret A.; Andrewes, David G.
This study investigated whether increasing positive mood improved interpersonal attitudes and relieved depression in depressed stroke patients despite levels of cognitive and emotional dysfunction. Depressed stroke (n = 30) and rheumatic/orthopaedic controls (n = 30) were compared on the effect of verbal and nonverbal positive and neutral mood
Full Text Available The article describes a clinical case of organic depressive disorder in the personality who sustained a traumatic brain injury and who abused alcohol, with distinguishing number of clinical and psychopathological features. Depressed mood, slowed thinking process, sleep disturbances, low self-esteem, hypochondriacal tendencies allowed to diagnose depressive disorder. Clinical history on sustained brain concussion, as well as inertness of nervous and mental processes revealed in psychodiagnostic study testified to organic genesis of the disease. Alcohol abuse by the person having an adverse organic background contributed to appearance of psychotic symptoms in clinical picture. Hallucinatory and delusional inclusions relatively quickly stopped on a background of antipsychotic treatment; this testified that they are secondary to the affective (depressive symptoms.
O'Reilly, Kally; Bailey, Sarah J; Lane, Michelle A
Vitamin A and its derivatives, the retinoids, have long been studied for their ability to alter central nervous system (CNS) development. Increasingly, it is recognized that sufficient levels of retinoids may also be required for adult CNS function. However, excess dietary vitamin A, due to the consumption of supplements or foods rich in vitamin A, has been reported to induce psychosis. In addition, 13-cis-retinoic acid (13-cis-RA, isotretinoin), the active ingredient in the acne treatment Accutane, has been reported to cause adverse psychiatric events, including depression and suicidal ideation. Nevertheless, epidemiological studies have reported no consistent link between Accutane use and clinical depression in humans. Using an animal model, we have recently shown that 13-cis-RA induces an increase in depression-related behavior. Impairments in spatial learning and memory have also been demonstrated following 13-cis-RA treatment in mice. This review focuses on the behavioral and possible cellular effects of retinoid deficiency or excess in the adult brain in relation to altered mood. Specifically, we discuss the effect of retinoids on depression-related behaviors and whether norepinephrinergic, dopaminergic, or serotonergic neurotransmitter systems may be impaired. In addition, we consider the evidence that adult neurogenesis, a process implicated in the pathophysiology of depression, is reduced by retinoid signaling. We suggest that 13-cis-RA treatment may induce depression-related behaviors by decreasing adult neurogenesis and/or altering the expression of components of serotonergic neurotransmitter system, thereby leading to impaired serotonin signaling. PMID:18296731
Depressed mood and poor quality of life in male patients with chronic renal failure undergoing hemodialysis / Comportamento depressivo e má qualidade de vida em homens com insuficiência renal crônica submetidos à hemodiálise
Thales Weber, Garcia; Joel Paulo Russomano, Veiga; Lucilia Domingues Casulari da, Motta; Flávio José Dutra de, Moura; Luiz Augusto, Casulari.
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o estado de humor e a qualidade de vida de homens em tratamento hemodialítico, correlacionar as alterações observadas no humor com os diferentes domínios do questionário de qualidade de vida. MÉTODO: Foram incluídos 47 homens em tratamento hemodialítico estável há mais de seis mese [...] s. Foram aplicadas a Escala de Hamilton de depressão e o Kidney Disease Quality of Life Questionnaire, questionário de qualidade de vida relacionado à saúde, em sua forma traduzida e adaptada para a língua portuguesa. RESULTADOS: A média da idade dos pacientes era 39,4 ± 8,9 anos. Na avaliação pela Escala de Hamilton, observou-se em 32 (68,1%) pacientes a presença de depressão. Encontramos correlação negativa significativa entre os resultados obtidos na escala de Hamilton e os seguintes parâmetros das dimensões específicas do Kidney Disease Quality of Life Questionnaire: lista de sintomas e problemas (rs = -0,399; p = 0,005), qualidade da interação social (rs = -0,433; p = 0,002) e sono (rs = -0,585; p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To assess mood and quality of life in male hemodialysis patients, and to correlate mood swings with the different domains of the quality of life questionnaire. METHOD: Forty-seven male patients undergoing regular hemodialysis for more than six months were included in the study. The Hamilt [...] on Rating Scale for Depression and the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Questionnaire, in a version translated into and adapted to Portuguese, were used. RESULTS: The patients' age was 39.4 ± 8.9 years (median ± SD). Depression was observed in 32 (68.1%) patients according to the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. A significant negative correlation was found between the results from the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression and the following parameters of the specific dimensions of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Questionnaire: list of symptoms and problems (rs = -0.399; p = 0.005), quality of social interaction (rs = -0.433; p = 0.002), and quality of sleep (rs = -0.585; p
Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS is a disease which defined as medically unexplained, disabling fatigue of 6 months or more duration and often accompanied by several of a long list of physical complaints. We aimed to investigate abnormalities of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis hormones and cortisol concentrations in premenopausal women with CFS and find out effects of depression rate on these hormones. Methods We examined follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, estradiol, progesterone and cortisol concentrations in 43 premenopausal women (mean age: 32.86 ± 7.11 with CFS and compared matched 35 healthy controls (mean age: 31.14 ± 6.19. Patients were divided according to menstrual cycle phases (follicular and luteal and compared with matched phase controls. Depression rate was assessed by Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, and patients with high BDI scores were compared to patients with low BDI scores. Results There were no significant differences in FSH, LH, estradiol and progesterone levels in both of menstrual phases of patients versus controls. Cortisol levels were significantly lower in patients compared to controls. There were no significant differences in all hormone levels in patients with high depression scores versus patients with low depression scores. Conclusion In spite of high depression rate, low cortisol concentration and normal HPG axis hormones of both menstrual phases are detected in premenopausal women with CFS. There is no differentiation between patients with high and low depression rate in all hormone levels. Depression condition of CFS may be different from classical depression and evaluation of HPG and HPA axis should be performed for understanding of pathophysiology of CFS and planning of treatment.
Fall Susan; Chatterjee Kausik; Barer David
Abstract Background Though vascular factors may be important in the aetiology of late-life depression, it is not clear whether they have a major effect on the risk of depression after a stroke. We investigated the relationship between physiological, biochemical, neuro-imaging and socio-economic factors and late-phase post-stroke depression in a cross-sectional case-control study. Methods People living at home at least 9 months after a stroke were interviewed using a structured proforma. Depre...
Johansen, Jon O. J.
Nyhederne er fulde af historier om depression. Overskrifter som: âDanskerne propper sig med lykkepillerâ eller âdepression er stadigvÃ¦k tabuâ gÃ¥r tit igen i dagspressen. Men hvor er nuancerne, og hvorfor gider vi lÃ¦se de samme historier igen og igen? MÃ¥ske er det fordi, vores egne forestillinger er...
Approximately ten percent of the population suffers from a depressive illness each year. Although the economic cost is high, the cost in human suffering is immeasurable. To help educate the population about this disorder, this paper presents a definition of depression and its common manifestations. The symptoms that people often experience are
McClung, Colleen A.
For many years, researchers have suggested that abnormalities in circadian rhythms may underlie the development of mood disorders such as bipolar disorder, major depression and seasonal affective disorder. Furthermore, some of the treatments that are currently employed to treat mood disorders are thought to act by shifting or âresettingâ the circadian clock, including total sleep deprivation and bright light therapy. There is also reason to suspect that many of the mood stabilizers and antide...
Kay, Collette L; Carmichael, Duncan A; Ruffell, Henry E; Simner, Julia
Synaesthesia is a condition that gives rise to unusual secondary sensations (e.g., colours are perceived when listening to music). These unusual sensations tend to be reported as being stable throughout adulthood (e.g., Simner & Logie, 2007, Neurocase, 13, 358) and the consistency of these experiences over time is taken as the behavioural hallmark of genuineness. Our study looked at the influence of mood states on synaesthetic colours. In Experiment 1, we recruited grapheme-colour synaesthetes (who experience colours from letters/digits) and elicited their synaesthetic colours, as well as their mood and depression states, in two different testing sessions. In each session, participants completed the PANAS-X (Watson & Clark, 1999) and the BDI-II (Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996, Manual for Beck Depression Inventory-II), and chose their synaesthetic colours for letters A-Z from an interactive colour palette. We found that negative mood significantly decreased the luminance of synaesthetic colours. In Experiment 2, we showed that synaesthetic colours were also less luminant for synaesthetes with anxiety disorder, versus those without. Additional evidence suggests that colour saturation, too, may inversely correlate with depressive symptoms. These results show that fluctuations in mood within both a normal and clinical range influence synaesthetic colours over time. This has implications for our understanding about the longitudinal stability of synaesthetic experiences, and of how mood may interact with the visual (imagery) systems. PMID:25413977
Full Text Available Abstract Background Though vascular factors may be important in the aetiology of late-life depression, it is not clear whether they have a major effect on the risk of depression after a stroke. We investigated the relationship between physiological, biochemical, neuro-imaging and socio-economic factors and late-phase post-stroke depression in a cross-sectional case-control study. Methods People living at home at least 9 months after a stroke were interviewed using a structured proforma. Depression was diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria, together with a Montgomery Asberg (MADRS score >17. Stroke survivors of similar age and functional status but without symptoms of, or recent treatment for, depression and with MADRS score Results Stroke survivors with depression were more likely than controls to have been smokers, to have had hypertension or peripheral arterial disease, and to have had more than one stroke or multiple discrete brainscan lesions. In univariate analysis they had significantly higher blood pressure, lower Mini-Mental State (MMSE scores, higher serum homocysteine and lower folate levels, as well as more extensive white matter and basal ganglia changes on brainscan. In logistic regression, previous hypertension (OR 3.4, peripheral vascular disease (OR 4.7, number of strokes (OR 2, MMSE score (OR 0.76 and basal ganglia changes (OR 2.2, were independently associated with depression. Conclusion These results suggest that patients with hypertension, hyperhomocysteinaemia and other factors associated with cerebral small vessel disease, may be more susceptible to post-stroke depression. Future intervention trials should focus on such high risk groups.
When papers published in highly-prestigious journals in 2010 and 2011 were categorized, the number of papers on genestic studies was found to be the largest, followed by papers on brain imaging, postmortem brain studies, and animal model studies. Follow-up studies of the findings of initial genome-wide association analyses constitute a major part of genetic studies. Recent brain imaging studies were found to integrate previous findings that indicated altered responces of prefrontal cortex to cognitive stimuli and enhanced responces of amygdala to emotional faces. Reduced size of the hippocampus is reportedly not a result of stress but perhaps a vulnerability factor. Among animal model studies, molecular mechanisms underlying rapid anti-depressive effects of ketamine are drawing attention. The role of neurogenesis in fear memory and depression is complex, and a link between psychopathology and neuroscience may be needed to understand the roles of neurogenesis. Postmortem brain analyses are currently used to investigate several pathophysiological hypotheses related to the roles of monoamine, neuroplasticity, and neuroinflammation in depression, as well as the roles of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons and mitochondria in bipolar disorder. Several studies are integrating postmortem brain analysis and animal model studies. Genetic and neuroimaging studies of mood disorders have advanced, and neurobiological basis of the findings of these studies should be further elucidated in animal models and postmortem brains. (author)
When papers published in highly-prestigious journals in 2010 and 2011 were categorized, the number of papers on genestic studies was found to be the largest, followed by papers on brain imaging, postmortem brain studies, and animal model studies. Follow-up studies of the findings of initial genome-wide association analyses constitute a major part of genetic studies. Recent brain imaging studies were found to integrate previous findings that indicated altered responces of prefrontal cortex to cognitive stimuli and enhanced responces of amygdala to emotional faces. Reduced size of the hippocampus is reportedly not a result of stress but perhaps a vulnerability factor. Among animal model studies, molecular mechanisms underlying rapid anti-depressive effects of ketamine are drawing attention. The role of neurogenesis in fear memory and depression is complex, and a link between psychopathology and neuroscience may be needed to understand the roles of neurogenesis. Postmortem brain analyses are currently used to investigate several pathophysiological hypotheses related to the roles of monoamine, neuroplasticity, and neuroinflammation in depression, as well as the roles of GABAergic neurons and mitochondria in bipolar disorder. Several studies are integrating postmortem brain analysis and animal model studies. Genetic and neuroimaging studies of mood disorders have advanced, and neurobiological basis of the findings of these studies should be further elucidated in animal models and postmortem brains. PMID:22308257
Klausen, Julie Midtgaard; RÃ¸rth, Mikael Rahbek; Stelter, Reinhard; TveterÃ¥s, Anders; Andersen, Christina; Quist, Morten; MÃ¸ller, Tom; Adamsen, Lis Ãrgaard
Little is known about the role of exercise in improving cancer patients' mood while undergoing chemotherapy. In this phase II study changes in self-reported anxiety and depression and fitness (VO2max) are reported in relation to a 6-week, 9 h weekly, multidimensional exercise program. A total of 91...... anxiety and [minus sign]0.44 Â± 2.77 for depression. Improvements in fitness were correlated with improvements in depression, [chi]2(1) = 3.966, p = 0.046, but not with improvements in anxiety, [chi]2(1) = 0.540, p = 0.462. The research suggests that exercise intervention may have a beneficial impact on...... patients receiving chemotherapy, between 18 and 65 years old, completed a Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale Questionnaire (HADS; response rate 91%, adherence rate 78%). Anxiety (p < 0.001) and depression (p = 0.042) was significantly reduced. The mean Â± SD of the change was [minus sign]1.14 Â± 2.91 for...
Klausen, Julie Midtgaard; RØrth, Mikael Rahbek
Little is known about the role of exercise in improving cancer patients' mood while undergoing chemotherapy. In this phase II study changes in self-reported anxiety and depression and fitness (VO2max) are reported in relation to a 6-week, 9 h weekly, multidimensional exercise program. A total of 91 patients receiving chemotherapy, between 18 and 65 years old, completed a Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale Questionnaire (HADS; response rate 91%, adherence rate 78%). Anxiety (p < 0.001) and depression (p = 0.042) was significantly reduced. The mean ± SD of the change was [minus sign]1.14 ± 2.91 for anxiety and [minus sign]0.44 ± 2.77 for depression. Improvements in fitness were correlated with improvements in depression, [chi]2(1) = 3.966, p = 0.046, but not with improvements in anxiety, [chi]2(1) = 0.540, p = 0.462. The research suggests that exercise intervention may have a beneficial impact on psychological distress for cancer patients receiving chemotherapy with low to moderate levels of baseline psychomorbidity. The study furthermore indicates that changes in distress may be associated with disease status and levels of physical activity undertaken during disease. The study is followed up by an ongoing randomized clinical controlled trial to evaluate potential causal effects of exercise intervention on psychological distress and fitness in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy.
Bess, Kiana D.; Adams, Julie; Watt, Melissa H.; O'Donnell, Julie K.; Gaynes, Bradley N.; Thielman, Nathan M; Heine, Amy; Zinski, Anne; Raper, James L.; Pence, Brian W
Depression is highly prevalent among HIV-infected patients, yet little is known about the quality of HIV providers' depression treatment practices. We assessed depression treatment practices of 72 HIV providers at three academic medical centers in 20102011 with semi-structured interviews. Responses were compared to national depression treatment guidelines. Most providers were confident that their role included treating depression. Providers were more confident prescribing a first antidepress...
Layne, Christopher; And Others
Tested accuracy of motivational theory of depression for adjustment disorder with depressed mood in 48 patients with terminal and nonterminal cancer. Results supported motivational theory: cancer patients exhibited low expectations and low values; hence, they were unmotivated and depressed. (NRB)
... pharmaceutical products are diverted to the illicit market. Teens can obtain depressants from the family medicine cabinet, friends, family members, the Internet, doctors, and hospitals. This content came from a ...
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Full Text Available Psychosis and depression are mental disorders that can exist secondary to some medical disorders and may be associated with the use of drugs. The most frequent causes of these disorders are substance abuse, infections (especially central nervous system infections, hormone or collagen tissue disorders, cancer, and side effect of drugs used to treat diseases. Hypercalcemia is referred as high level of calcium in the blood - higher than 10,2 mg/dl - and is often seen with parathyroid adenoma. Hypercalcemia may cause several symptoms. In this case report, we represent the case of a patient who presented with delusion of persecution and depressive symptoms probably secondary to hypercalcemia. (Archives of Neuropsychiatry 2013;50: 75-77
This report describes and compares four current concepts and definitions of atypical depression. Since its emergence, atypical depression has been considered a depressive state that can be relieved by MAO inhibitors. Davidson classified the symptomatic features of atypical depression into type A, which is predominated by anxiety symptoms, and type V, which is represented by atypical vegetative symptoms, such as hyperphagia, weight gain, oversleeping, and increased sexual drive. Features that are shared by both subtypes include: early onset, female predominance, outpatient predominance, mildness, few suicide attempts, nonbipolarity, nonendogeneity, and few psychomotor changes. Based on these features, bipolar depression can also be defined as atypical depression type V. Herein, we examine and classify four concepts of atypical depression according to the endogenous-nonendogenous (melancholic-nonmelancholic) and unipolar-bipolar dichotomies. The Columbia University group (see Quitkin, Stewart, McGrath, Klein et al.) and the New South Wales University group (see Parker) consider atypical depression to be chronic, mild, nonendogenous (nonmelancholic), unipolar depression. The former group postulates that mood reactivity is necessary, while the latter asserts the structural priority of anxiety symptoms over mood symptoms and the significance of interpersonal rejection sensitivity. For the Columbia group, the significance of mood reactivity reflects the theory that mood nonreactivity is the essential symptom of "endogenomorphic depression", which was proposed by Klein as typical depression. Thus, mood reactivity is not related to overreactivity or hyperactivity, which are often observed in atypical depressives. However, Parker postulates that psychomotor symptoms are the essential features of melancholia, which he recognizes as typical depression; therefore, the New South Wales group does not recognize the significance of mood reactivity. The New South Wales group accepts the relationship between anxiety symptoms and interpersonal rejection sensitivity, while the Columbia group does not recognize the importance of anxiety symptoms because they could not identify a relationship between such symptoms and the efficacy of MAO inhibitors. The concept of atypical depression proposed by the New South Wales group overlaps considerably with that of hysteroid dysphoria, which was proposed by Klein et al., and was the progenitor of Columbia group's concept of atypical depression. The Pittsburgh University group (see Himmelhoch, Kupfer, Thase et al.) and the soft bipolar spectrum group (see Akiskal, Perugi, Benazzi et al.) regard atypical depression as a depressive state that can be observed in bipolar disorder. The former groups takes into account reversed vegetative symptoms and lethargy as signs of bipolar disorder, while the latter recognizes that atypical depression shares features with bipolar II disorder or soft bipolar spectrum disorder. The soft bipolar spectrum group maintains their unique concept of bipolar disorder, which regards some unipolar depressions as bipolar disorder, while the Pittsburg group continues to share the conventional concept of a unipolar-bipolar dichotomy with other groups. The fundamental pattern of atypical depression is represented by chronic mild depressions, which are characterized by a younger age at onset, female predominance, interpersonal rejection sensitivity, and mood lability, which are difficult to distinguish from a characterological pathology. Patients who present with such patterns are frequently diagnosed with borderline, histrionic, or avoidant personality disorders; therefore, we must recognize the significance of atypical depression as a concept that can suggest the utility of medication for these patients. For such patients, however, various groups have proposed different kinds of definition and therapeutic guidelines that are difficult to synthesize and utilize in clinical settings. Moreover, some features of atypical depression outlined in the Columbia University criteria, such as a younger age at onset, chronicity, mildness, and female predominance, were excluded from DSM-IV. Consequently, the concept of atypical depression has become overextended and gradually lost its construct validity. Therefore, the diagnostic criteria for atypical depression should be reconsidered in reference to various definitions and concepts and refined through accumulated clinical research. PMID:20184236
Michelle N. McDonnell
Full Text Available Purpose. People with stroke living in the community have an increased prevalence of depression and lower quality of life than healthy older adults. This cross-sectional observational study investigated whether participation in regular exercise was associated with improved mood and quality of life. Methods. We recruited three groups of community dwelling participants: 13 healthy older adults, 17 adults post-stroke who regularly participated in group exercise at a community fitness facility and 10 adults post-stroke who did not regularly exercise. We measured mood using the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale (DASS and quality of life using the Assessment of Quality of Life (AQoL scale. Results. Levels of stress and depression were significantly greater in the people with stroke who did not undertake regular exercise (p = 0.004 and p = 0.004 respectively, although this group had more recent strokes (p < 0.001. Both stroke groups had lower quality of life scores (p = 0.04 than the healthy adults. Conclusions. This small, community-based study confirms that people following stroke report poorer quality of life than stroke-free individuals. However, those who exercise regularly have significantly lower stress and depression compared to stroke survivors who do not. Future research should focus on the precise type and amount of exercise capable of improving mood following stroke.
Dallaspezia, Sara; Benedetti, Francesco
Alteration of the sleep-wake cycle and of the sleep structure are core symptoms of a major depressive episode, and occur both in course of bipolar disorder and of major depressive disorder. Many other circadian rhythms, such as the daily profiles of body temperature, cortisol, thyrotropin, prolactin, growth hormone, melatonin and excretion of various metabolites in the urine, are disrupted in depressed patients, both unipolar and bipolar individuals. These disrupted rhythms seem to return to normality with patient recovery. Research on circadian rhythms and sleep have led to the definition of nonpharmacological therapies of mood disorder that can be used in everyday practice. These strategies, named chronotherapeutics, are based on controlled exposures to environmental stimuli that act on biological rhythms, and demonstrate good efficacy in the treatment of illness episodes. They include manipulations of the sleep-wake rhythm (such as partial and total sleep deprivation, and sleep phase advance) and of the exposure to the light-dark cycle (light therapy and dark therapy). In recent years, an increasing literature about the safety and efficacy of chronobiological treatments in everyday psychiatric settings has supported the inclusion of these techniques among the first-line antidepressant strategies for patients affected by mood disorders. PMID:21721914
Adjunctive triple chronotherapy (combined total sleep deprivation, sleep phase advance, and bright light therapy) rapidly improves mood and suicidality in suicidal depressed inpatients: an open label pilot study.
Sahlem, Gregory L; Kalivas, Benjamin; Fox, James B; Lamb, Kayla; Roper, Amanda; Williams, Emily N; Williams, Nolan R; Korte, Jeffrey E; Zuschlag, Zachary D; El Sabbagh, Salim; Guille, Constance; Barth, Kelly S; Uhde, Thomas W; George, Mark S; Short, E Baron
Previous studies have demonstrated that combined total sleep deprivation (Wake therapy), sleep phase advance, and bright light therapy (Triple Chronotherapy) produce a rapid and sustained antidepressant effect in acutely depressed individuals. To date no studies have explored the impact of the intervention on unipolar depressed individuals with acute concurrent suicidality. Participants were suicidal inpatients (N = 10, Mean age = 44 ± 16.4 SD, 6F) with unipolar depression. In addition to standard of care, they received open label Triple Chronotherapy. Participants underwent one night of total sleep deprivation (33-36 h), followed by a three-night sleep phase advance along with four 30-min sessions of bright light therapy (10,000 lux) each morning. Primary outcome measures included the 17 item Hamilton depression scale (HAM17), and the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale (CSSRS), which were recorded at baseline prior to total sleep deprivation, and at protocol completion on day five. Both HAM17, and CSSRS scores were greatly reduced at the conclusion of the protocol. HAM17 scores dropped from a mean of 24.7 ± 4.2 SD at baseline to a mean of 9.4 ± 7.3 SD on day five (p = .002) with six of the ten individuals meeting criteria for remission. CSSRS scores dropped from a mean of 19.5 ± 8.5 SD at baseline to a mean of 7.2 ± 5.5 SD on day five (p = .01). The results of this small pilot trial demonstrate that adjunctive Triple Chronotherapy is feasible and tolerable in acutely suicidal and depressed inpatients. Limitations include a small number of participants, an open label design, and the lack of a comparison group. Randomized controlled studies are needed. PMID:25231629
Hill, E. M.; Griffiths, F. E.; House, T.
Depression is a major public health concern worldwide. There is evidence that social support and befriending influence mental health, and an improved understanding of the social processes that drive depression has the potential to bring significant public health benefits. We investigate transmission of mood on a social network of adolescents, allowing flexibility in our model by making no prior assumption as to whether it is low mood or healthy mood that spreads. Here, we show that while depression does not spread, healthy mood among friends is associated with significantly reduced risk of developing and increased chance of recovering from depression. We found that this spreading of healthy mood can be captured using a non-linear complex contagion model. Having sufficient friends with healthy mood can halve the probability of developing, or double the probability of recovering from, depression over a 612-month period on an adolescent social network. Our results suggest that promotion of friendship between adolescents can reduce both incidence and prevalence of depression. PMID:26290075
Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N; Nimatoudis, Ioannis; Iacovides, Apostolos; Kaprinis, George
Introduction The current study is a short report of 3 cases of bipolar patients. Material and methods Three bipolar patients were prospectively followed up. All were partial responders to lithium therapy alone, and unresponsive to other therapies (anticonvulsants, antidepressants, typical antipsychotics, various combinations). Results All manifested complete remission of symptoms after combination therapy with lithium (plasma levels above 0.8 mEq/lt) plus 13 mg of risperidone daily. The two of them are still free of symptomatology during the maintenance period for 28 and 38 months respectively. The third patient, after several months during which she was free of symptomatology discontinued lithium against the psychiatrist's advise and received only 3 mg of risperidone daily. For the next 15 months the patient was under risperidone monotherapy and free of symptomatology. She discontinued therapy to become pregnant, the illness recurred several times during pregnancy and after the delivery the patient restarted risperidone therapy. She was free of symptoms for the following 9 months until her last follow-up. Discussion The current study provides preliminary evidence concerning the long term efficacy of risperidone in the treatment of bipolar patients PMID:15163347
Full Text Available Anxiety is characterized by attentional biases to threat, but findings are inconsistent for depression. To address this inconsistency, the present study systematically assessed the role of co-occurring anxiety in attentional bias in depression. In addition, the role of emotional valence, arousal, and gender was explored. Ninety-two nonpatients completed the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ; Meyer et al., 1990; Molina & Borkovec, 1994 and portions of the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (MASQ; Watson, Clark, et al., 1995; Watson, Weber, et al., 1995. Individuals reporting high levels of depression and low levels of anxiety (depression only, high levels of depression and anxiety (combined, or low levels of both (control completed an emotion-word Stroop task during event-related brain potential (ERP recording. Pleasant and unpleasant words were matched on emotional arousal level. An attentional bias was not evident in the depression-only group. Women in the combined group had larger N200 amplitude for pleasant than unpleasant stimuli, and the combined group as a whole had larger right-lateralized P300 amplitude for pleasant than unpleasant stimuli, consistent with an early and later attentional bias that is specific to unpleasant valence in the combined group. Men in the control group had larger N200 amplitude for pleasant than unpleasant stimuli, consistent with an early attentional bias that is specific to pleasant valence. The present study indicates that the nature and time course of attention prompted by emotional valence and not arousal differentiates depression with and without anxiety, with some evidence of gender moderating early effects. Overall, results suggest that co-occurring anxiety is more important than previously acknowledged in demonstrating evidence of attentional biases in depression.
Mileviciute, I.; Hartley, S. L.
Background: Virtually nothing is known about potential differences in the types of depression symptoms reported by adults with mild intellectual disability (ID) on self-reported questionnaires as compared with the types of symptoms reported by caregivers on informant questionnaires. Moreover, little is known about how the presentation of
De Luca A; Luca M; Calandra C
Antonina Luca,1 Maria Luca,2 Carmela Calandra2 1Department GF Ingrassia, Section of Neuroscience, 2Department of Medical and Surgery Specialties, Psychiatry Unit, University Hospital Policlinico-Vittorio Emanuele, Catania, Sicily, Italy Abstract: Sleep disorders are so frequently associated with depression that, in the absence of sleep complaints, a diagnosis of depression should be made with caution. Insomnia, in particular, may occur in 60%80% of depressed patients. Depressive sympto...
Duman, Ronald S.; Voleti, Bhavya
Basic and clinical studies demonstrate that stress and depression are associated with atrophy and loss of neurons and glia, which contribute to decreased size and function of limbic brain regions that control mood and depression, including the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Here, we review findings that suggest that opposing effects of stress/depression and antidepressants on neurotrophic factor expression and signaling partly explain these effects. We also discuss recent reports that sug...
Buras, Aleksandra; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Szulc, Agata
It is known that the prevalence of depression in rheumatologic patients is higher than in the general population. Socioeconomic factors are not a sufficient explanation of mood disorder in these patients. Symptoms reported by patients with chronic inflammatory diseases resemble changes defined as "sickness behavior". Mood disorders among somatic patients could be explained by disturbances of the immune system according to the monoaminergic theory of depression. Inflammatory factors such as IL-1 (interleukin-1), IL-2 (interleukin-2), IL-6 (interleukin-6), TNF-? (tumor necrosis factor ?), and IFN-? (interferon-?) act within the CNS (central nervous system). They get through from peripheral tissues as well as being synthesized de novo by neurons. This cytokine activity correlates positively with depression intensity as well as with genetic polymorphism of the serotonin (5-HT) transporter. The theory of glucocorticoid resistance-mediated depression (limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal [LHPA] axis) is also connected with gained proinflammatory cytokines activity. It might assume the form of a vicious circle. Depressed mood is probably linked with depression in immune-mediated diseases. An elevated level of proinflammatory cytokines is able to activate IDO (indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase) - an enzyme catabolizing tryptophan (5-HT precursor). Those reactions probably play the main role at the biochemical level. IDO metabolites extensively disturb neurotransmission. 3-Hydroxykynurenine (3OH-KYN), quinolinic acid (Quin) and kynurenic acid (KYNA) are neurotoxic by releasing oxidative stress mediators. Moreover, they activate MAO (monoamine oxidase), which degrades neurotransmitters responsible for stable mood. Bidirectional communication between the neuroendocrine and immune systems is significant for depression treatment, as well as CNS protection against incremental neurodegeneration among seemingly diverse diseases. PMID:26943313
... loss and generally does not require professional mental health treatment. However, grief that lasts for a very long time following a loss may require treatment. Depression and Suicide Though it is widely believed that suicide more often affects young people, suicide is a serious problem among ...
Nas Kemal; Acar Suat; Gur Ali; Cevik Remzi; Sarac Ay?egül
Abstract Background Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a disease which defined as medically unexplained, disabling fatigue of 6 months or more duration and often accompanied by several of a long list of physical complaints. We aimed to investigate abnormalities of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis hormones and cortisol concentrations in premenopausal women with CFS and find out effects of depression rate on these hormones. Methods We examined follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteini...
Fantino Bruno; Moore Nicholas
Abstract Background The use of Patient-reported Outcomes (PROs) as secondary endpoints in the development of new antidepressants has grown in recent years. The objective of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the 9-item, patient-administered version of the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS-S). Methods Data from a multicentre, double-blind, 8-week, randomised controlled trial of 278 outpatients diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder were used to evaluate th...
Barwick, Fiona H; Arnett, Peter A
Cognitive impairment and depressed mood are common symptoms in multiple sclerosis (MS), which significantly impact patients' role functioning and quality of life. Cross-sectional studies indicate a modest association between cognitive impairment and depressive symptoms in MS. Longitudinal studies show inconsistent results but provide some data indicating a relationship between increasing global cognitive decline and increasing depressive symptoms over time. Establishing whether such a relationship exists represents an important first step in understanding the temporal nature of that relationship along with any treatment implications. The current study investigated this relationship by using the adjusted difference between a demographic estimate of premorbid intellectual functioning (Barona) and a performance measure of current intellectual functioning (Shipley Institute of Living) to capture long-term global cognitive decline in MS patients. Degree of global cognitive decline was then related to a self-report measure of mood, evaluative, and vegetative depression symptoms (Chicago Multiscale Depression Inventory). Global cognitive decline accounted for 5% of the variance in mood-evaluative symptoms but none of the variance in vegetative symptoms. When groups experiencing moderate, mild, and no global cognitive decline were compared on depression symptom subscales, MS patients experiencing moderate cognitive decline reported significantly higher mood and evaluative, but not vegetative, depressive symptoms than MS patients with stable cognitive functioning. PMID:21246447
Tanidir, Canan; Tanidir, Ibrahim C; Tuzcu, Volkan
Patients with cardiomyopathy have a higher incidence of mood and anxiety disorders, resulting in greater probability for hospitalisation and increased risk for arrhythmia and death. We report a case of a 16-year-old boy with Danon disease, Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, who later developed depression and significant weight loss. The patient was successfully treated for his anxiety and depression with mirtazapine without any adverse cardiac effects. PMID:25400066
Costafreda, S. G.; Chu, C.; Ashburner, J.; Fu, C. H. Y.
Background: Depression is experienced as a persistent low mood or anhedonia accompanied by behavioural and cognitive disturbances which impair day to day functioning. However, the diagnosis is largely based on self-reported symptoms, and there are no neurobiological markers to guide the choice of treatment. In the present study, we examined the prognostic and diagnostic potential of the structural neural correlates of depression.Methodology and Principal Findings: Subjects were 37 patients wi...
Brambilla, Chiara; Gavinelli, Chiara; Delmonte, Dario; Fulgosi, Mara Cigala; Barbini, Barbara; Colombo, Cristina; Smeraldi, Enrico
Background. Research on mood disorders has progressively focused on the study of seasons and on the mood in association with them during depressive or manic episodes yet few studies have focused on the seasonal fluctuation that characterizes the patient's clinical course both during an illness episode and during euthymic periods. Methods. 113 euthymic outpatients 46 affected by major recurrent depression and 67 affected by bipolar disorder were recruited. We evaluated the impact of clinical "rhythmical" factors: seasonality, sleep disturbance, and chronotype. Patients completed the SPAQ+ questionnaire, the MEQ questionnaire, and the medical outcomes study (MOS) sleep scale. We used t-test analyses to compare differences of clinical "rhythmical" and sociodemographic variables and of differences in the assessment scales among the diagnostic groups. Results. Patients reporting a family history for mood disorders have higher fluctuations throughout seasons. Sleep disturbance is more problematic in unipolars when compared to bipolars. Conclusions. Sleep, light, and seasonality seem to be three interconnected features that lie at the basis of chronobiology that, when altered, have an important effect both on the psychopathology and on the treatment of mood disorders. PMID:22203895
Lau, Jennifer Y F; Eley, Thalia C
Studying the genetics of mood disorders has never been more exciting. We have moved rapidly from establishing the genetic basis of depression to asking questions about how genes are expressed. This has been made possible by the capacity to collect and sequence DNA for large samples cheaply. But "multidisciplinary" approaches investigating interrelationships between risk factors have also been increasingly adopted, encouraging collaborations between those studying genes and those studying the brain, cognition, and/or the social environment. In this review, we first describe findings from quantitative and molecular studies investigating the genetic basis of depression. Second, we present overviews of three hot topics of genetic research: gene-environment interplay, which considers how genetic factors shape exposure and responses toward the social environment; endophenotypic research, which identifies neurophysiological and psychological mediators of genetic risk; and epigenetics, which explain how early environments can foster changes in gene expression, altering subsequent emotional development. PMID:20001729
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The typical depression presentation in primary care is dominated by physical (somatic complaints as opposed to psychological complaints. More than 50% of patients with depression report somatic complaints only and at least 60% of these somatic complaints are pain related. AIMS & OBJECTIVES: 1. To study the symptomatology of depression in different age groups. 2. To compare the symptomatology of depression found in each age groups. MATERALS & METHODS: Patients who have attended out-patient psychiatric department of tertiary general hospital in urban area and diagnosed as having depression were divided in four age groups (60years and were evaluated for depressive symptomatology. The SYMPTOMATOLOGY part was assessed by using two scales, (1 Inventory of depressive symptomatology scale (IDS-30 and (2 Hamilton depression rating scale (HDRS-17. RESULTS: There is high frequency of somatic symptoms (both general and gastrointestinal spontaneously as well as on systemic evaluation across all age groups amongst which most disturbing was headache followed by fatigue in all age groups. In all age groups who have reported primary depressive features like sadness and loss of pleasure, most of them had history of previous affective episodes so that they might have some insight into their depression. CONCLUSION: Our patients cannot voice their complaints spontaneously as there is a more of somatic symptoms presentation and striking rarity of spontaneously expressed depressed mood but it is invariably present on systemic interview across all age groups
PET studies (LCMRGlc units of ? moles/min/100g and errors in std. dev.) were performed in patients with unipolar depression (n=11), bipolar depression (n=8), hypomania (n=8) and bipolar mixed states (n=3) in drug free states as well as during spontaneous or drug induced changes in mood, and age/sex matched normals (n=9). The major findings were: bipolar depressed patients had lower (P<0.001) supratentorial CMRGlc (16.7 +- 3.7) than normals (23.6 +- 1.9), hypomanic bipolars (24.7 + 44.6) or unipolars (24.5 +- 3.0). Bipolar mixed (16.4 +- 4.8) were not different from bipolar depressed but were different from all other states (P<0.02). Bipolar depressed and mixed showed increased (30%) supratentorial CMRGlc (P<0.05) with elevated mood (euthymic or hypomanic). Three rapid cycling bipolar patients (2 studies depressed and 1 hypomanic) also showed consistent increases (35%) in supratentorial CMRGlc from depressed to elevated mood state. Unipolar depressed patients had a low LCMRGlc ratio of caudate to hemispheric (c/Hem) (1.18 +- 0.09) compared to bipolar depression (1.30 +- 0.13) or normals (1.32 +- 0.07). Four unipolar patients studied after drug induced recovery showed corresponding return of Cd/Hem ratio to normal. Results of these studies show; delineation of bipolar depressed from unpolar depressed and normals. Separation of mixed biopolar from unipolar and correspondence of the former with bipolar rather than unipolar depression (controversial characterization by other diagnostic criteria), separation of unipolar from normal and bipolar by reduced LCMRGlc of caudate, and direct correspondence of changes in mood state with changes in LCMRGlc independent of whether changes in mood were drug induced or spontaneous
Thiago Botter Maio, Rocha; Cristian Patrick, Zeni; Sheila Cavalcante, Caetano; Christian, Kieling.
Full Text Available The identification and treatment of mood disorders in children and adolescents has grown over the last decades. Major depression is one of the most common and debilitating disorders worldwide, imposing a massive burden to the youth population. Bipolar disorder is being increasingly recognized as hav [...] ing its roots early in life, and its presentation during childhood and adolescence has been submitted to extensive research. This review aims to highlight clinical aspects of the current knowledge on mood disorders in the pediatric population, presenting updated information on epidemiology, diagnostic procedures, and management strategies. Limitations of available evidence and future directions of research in the field are also discussed.
Kewalramani, Anupama; Mary E Bollinger; Postolache, Teodor T.
The high rate of comorbidity of asthma and mood disorders would imply the possibility of potential shared pathophysiologic factors. Proposed links between asthma and mood disorders include a vulnerability (trait) and state connection. Vulnerability for both asthma and mood disorders may involve genetic and early developmental factors. State-related connections may include obstructive factors, inflammatory factors, sleep impairment, psychological reactions to chronic medical illness, as well a...
Jaser, Sarah S.; Langrock, Adela M.; Keller, Gary; Merchant, Mary Jane; Benson, Molly A.; Reeslund, Kristen; Champion, Jennifer E.; Compas, Bruce E.
This study examined associations between adolescents' self-reports and parents' reports of adolescents' exposure to family stress, coping, and symptoms of anxiety/depression and aggression in a sample of 78 adolescent offspring of depressed parents. Significant cross-informant correlations were found between adolescents' reports of family stress,
Yunus Emre Sönmez
Full Text Available Research until today has found a positive relationship between vascular risk factors and depression. With the advance in neuroimaging methods in the last years, a more definite relation between cerebrovascular diseases and old-age depression have been described, and in the light of the studies in this field, a vascular depression subtype has been defined. According to this hypothesis, vascular depression implies a special depression subtype which begins first time in old age, which is accompanied less by depressive mood, characterized by impairment in cognitive abilities, especially in executive functions, dominated by psychomotor retardation and somatic symptoms, and lack of family history of depression. A group of researchers stated that defining vascular depression only with clinical findings would be insufficient, suggested brain imaging findings are required for the diagnosis, and subcortical hyperintensities are related to depression symptoms. Late-onset depression is shown to be related to frontal subcortical white-matter hyperintensities, and these findings were found to be correlated with affect dysregulation and executive dysfunction in late-life depression. Executive dysfunction as well as memory and attention problems in late-onset depression have been shown in different studies. Thus, vascular depression hypothesis is thought to be related with subcortical dementia upon these findings. There is currently no consensus on the concept of vascular depression and diagnostic criteria. But this concept which is explaining a subgroup of late-life depressions, predicting the treatment outcome, and implying a preventable disease with the control of vascular factors, makes vascular depression a very important topic. In this review, research on vascular depression hypothesis, findings and critics about the concept will be reviewed.(Archives of Neuropsychiatry 2013; 50: 1-8
Questionnaires concerning models of depression were completed by 90 general practitioners (GPs) and 681 patients. GPs and patients held similar beliefs about the role of mood-related symptoms, psychological causes, and non-medical treatments. However, the GPs reported greater support for somatic symptoms, medical causes, and medical treatments. Therefore, GPs and patients report different models of depression, with GPs favouring a more medical perspective. In addition, the results illustrated...
Barbara L Parry
Full Text Available Barbara L ParryDepartment of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, USAAbstract: Only recently has the perimenopause become recognized as a time when women are at risk for new onset and recurrence of major depression. Untreated depression at this time not only exacerbates the course of a depressive illness, but also puts women at increased risk for sleep disorders, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and osteoporosis. Although antidepressant medication is the mainstay of treatment, adjunctive therapy, especially with estrogen replacement, may be indicated in refractory cases, and may speed the onset of antidepressant action. Many, but not all, studies, report that progesterone antagonizes the beneficial effects of estrogen. Although some antidepressants improve vasomotor symptoms, in general they are not as effective as estrogen alone for relieving these symptoms. Estrogen alone, however, does not generally result in remission of major depression in most (but not all studies, but may provide benefit to some women with less severe symptoms if administered in therapeutic ranges. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs in addition to estrogen are usually more beneficial in improving mood than SSRIs or estrogen treatment alone for major depression, whereas the selective norepinephrine and serotonin reuptake inhibitors do not require the addition of estrogen to exert their antidepressant effects in menopausal depression. In addition to attention to general health, hormonal status, and antidepressant treatment, the optimal management of perimenopausal depression also requires attention to the individual womans psychosocial and spiritual well being.Keywords: menopause, depression, management
Full Text Available Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV, postpartum depression may include any nonpsychotic depressive disorder during the first four weeks of postpartum, according to research criteria during the first year after birth. The exact cause of postpartum depression is not yet known, and most researchers believe that postpartum depression is a bio-psycho-social problem. So far, the biological aspect of the disease is explained by changing the levels of estrogen and progesterone during pregnancy, and by decrease of hormone levels after birth. Psychological correlates are often associated with low selfesteem, pessimism as a personality trait, bad strategies of coping with stress, mood swings and emotional reactions. The social aspect of the disease is associated with the existential conditions of pregnant woman, support of partners and education level. This paper will include issues like hereditary causes and possible psychological factors of postpartum depression prevention. Nowadays, it is estimated that on average 15% of women, regardless of the pregnancy outcome, are suffering from postpartum depression. However, this information includes only those women who were diagnosed with postpartum depression and who themselves reported about it. Almost every woman receives basic care during pregnancy to prevent complications in the physiological level. This paper has shown possible psychological factors of postpartum depression prevention, the impact of optimism, self-esteem and coping skills.
Diurnal variation of depressive symptoms appears to be part of the core of depression. Yet longitudinal investigation of an individual's pattern regularity, relation to clinical state, and clinical improvement reveals little homogeneity. Morning lows, afternoon slump, evening worsening - all can occur during a single depressive episode. Mood variability, or the propensity to produce mood swings, appears to be the characteristic that most predicts capacity to respond to treatment. Laboratory s...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Around 9% to 20% of bereaved individuals experience symptoms of complicated grief (CG that are associated with significant distress and impairment. A major issue is whether CG represents a distinctive nosographic entity, independent from other mental disorders, particularly major depression (MD, and the role of symptoms of adult separation anxiety. The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical features of patients with CG versus a sample of healthy control subjects, with particular focus on adult separation anxiety and lifetime mood spectrum symptoms. Methods A total of 53 patients with CG and 50 healthy control subjects were consecutively recruited and assessed by means of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I disorders (SCID-I/P, Inventory of Complicated Grief (ICG, Adult Separation Anxiety Questionnaire (ASA-27, Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS and Mood Spectrum-Self Report (MOODS-SR lifetime version. Results Patients with CG reported significantly higher scores on the MOODS-SR, ASA-27, and WSAS with respect to healthy control subjects. The scores on the ASA-27 were significantly associated with the MOODS-SR depressive and manic components amongst both patients and healthy control subjects, with a stronger association in the latter. Conclusions A major limitation of the present study is the small sample size that may reduce the generalizability of the results. Moreover, lifetime MOODS-SR does not provide information about the temporal sequence of the manic or depressive symptoms and the loss. The frequent comorbidity with MD and the association with both depressive and manic lifetime symptoms do not support the independence of CG from mood disorders. In our patients, CG is associated with high levels of separation anxiety in adulthood. However, the presence of lifetime mood instability, as measured by the frequent presence of depressive and hypomanic lifetime symptoms, suggests that cyclothymia might represent the common underlying feature characterizing the vulnerability to both adult separation anxiety and CG.
Tamatam, Anand; Khanum, Farhath; Bawa, Amarinder Singh
Depression is a term that has been used to describe a variety of ailments, ranging from minor to incapacitating. Clinically significant depression, termed as major depression, is a serious condition characterized not only by depressed mood but also by a cluster of somatic, cognitive, and motivational symptoms. Significant research efforts are aimed to understand the neurobiological as well as psychiatric disorders, and the evaluation of treatment of these disorders is still based solely on th...
Johnston Carol S
Full Text Available Abstract Background The physical health status of vegetarians has been extensively reported, but there is limited research regarding the mental health status of vegetarians, particularly with regard to mood. Vegetarian diets exclude fish, the major dietary source of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, critical regulators of brain cell structure and function. Omnivorous diets low in EPA and DHA are linked to impaired mood states in observational and experimental studies. Methods We examined associations between mood state and polyunsaturated fatty acid intake as a result of adherence to a vegetarian or omnivorous diet in a cross-sectional study of 138 healthy Seventh Day Adventist men and women residing in the Southwest. Participants completed a quantitative food frequency questionnaire, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS, and Profile of Mood States (POMS questionnaires. Results Vegetarians (VEG:n = 60 reported significantly less negative emotion than omnivores (OMN:n = 78 as measured by both mean total DASS and POMS scores (8.32 ± 0.88 vs 17.51 ± 1.88, p = .000 and 0.10 ± 1.99 vs 15.33 ± 3.10, p = .007, respectively. VEG reported significantly lower mean intakes of EPA (p p p p p p p p p p Conclusions The vegetarian diet profile does not appear to adversely affect mood despite low intake of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids.
Full Text Available Mood disorders are characterised with high relapse and hospitalization rates as well as dramatic consequences in quality of life, professional and social functioning resulting from chronic course. Deterioration of social functioning remains in remission periods. A systematic review of the literature published on psychoeducation up to 2007 was carried out using the electronic data bases. Psychoeducation is defined as educating or improving a person with psychiatric disease to serve a treatment and rehabilitation purpose. The opinion that only drug treatment is not sufficient in treating psychiatric diseases and that psychosocial rehabilitation programs should also be widely used, becomes widespread. Educating the people with psychiatric disease and their families is an important factor. Thus,the patient and his family become parties of a therapeutic cooperation with the treatment team. It has been observed that when patients are educated about their diseases and the drugs they use, they tend to take more responsibility and adherence to drug therapy and the adherence increases with sharing ther experiences, wrongful thought and problems. This relieves the patients burden and contributes to the treatment results positively. Consequently, psychoeducation provides significant improvements in bipolar disorder and its treatment; attitude toward disease, symptom recovery, prevention of depressive and hypo(manic episodes, decrease in hospitalization periods and rates, improvement in social-professional functioning and quality of life, contribution of the family to the treatment and prevention of suicides. Psychoeducation is strongly recommended but it is also emphasized that it should be used in additionto other treatments and not alone. Educational attempts not only decrease the relapses and recurrences but also lead to awareness of the symptoms of an impending disease and shorter and less severe episodes.
Rajkowska, G; Miguel-Hidalgo, J.J.
Recent research has changed the perception of glia from being no more than silent supportive cells of neurons to being dynamic partners participating in brain metabolism and communication between neurons. This discovery of new glial functions coincides with growing evidence of the involvement of glia in the neuropathology of mood disorders. Unanticipated reductions in the density and number of glial cells are reported in fronto-limbic brain regions in major depression and bipolar illness. Mor...
Sharma, R. C.
A 35 year old, married, educated woman of well to do economic condition who was referred by court for psychiatric opinion was found to suffer from Kleptomania with recurrent major depressive disorder. The patient had been stealing and hoarding (at times giving away when caught) defective and useless objects for the past 3 years .mostly during periods of depression and had been arrested twice for stealing. Her kleplomanic symptoms improved moderately when her depression lifted with antidep...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Growing evidence supports comorbidity of asthma and allergies with mood disorders and various connections between these diseases. It still remains unclear whether this comorbidity is caused by the same pathophysiological factors or whether there are other links between asthma and depression. There is no definite answer to the question of an optimal treatment to deal with both asthma and depression, when they occur simultaneously. Epidemiological and clinical trials on the influence of nutrition on certain diseases suggest the effects of ?3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs in aiding treatment of mood disorders and inflammatory conditions. Objective This is an overview showing the connections between asthma, allergic disease, and mood disorders, and the influence of nutrition on these conditions. Evidence indicates positive correlations between consumption of PUFAs and mood correction. Several analyses show the connection between diet and asthma. They may form a basis for potential recommending ?3 PUFAs as an adjuvant in prevention and treatment of mental disorders, asthma, and allergy.
Depression is one of the leading causes of morbidity worldwide and represents a huge burden to society. As with many other psychiatric disorders, a genetic basis for depression has been identified. Evidence for the role of circadian genes in depression is particularly compelling. Circadian gene mutations are also associated with circadian rhythm disorders such as familial advanced sleep phase syndrome, delayed sleep phase syndrome, and non-24-hour sleep-wake syndrome. Such disorders, plus the other manifestations of a disrupted circadian system such as hormone dysregulation, are often observed among those with depression. This suggests a shared aetiology between circadian disruption and depression, although the exact mechanisms underlying the association are unclear. This paper reviews the molecular mechanisms involved in depression, with an emphasis on circadian genes. Twin studies in depression have reported probandwise concordance rates of 40% and 70% using narrow and broad diagnostic criteria, respectively, and heritability of over 85% for bipolar disorder. In association studies, increased susceptibility to depression has been noted in those with polymorphisms in the following: D-amino-acid-oxidase activator/G30 gene complex, glucocorticoid receptor gene, serotonin transporter gene, tryptophan hydroxylase 2 gene, dopamine transporter gene and G protein-coupled receptor 50 gene. Polymorphisms in these genes have also been linked to a better or worse response to antidepressant therapy, an increased likelihood of responding poorly to adversity and increased suicide ideation. Polymorphisms in the CLOCK, BMAL1, Per3 and TIMELESS genes have been associated with susceptibility to mood disorder, and single nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotypes in several circadian genes have been observed among those displaying certain circadian phenotypes, including worse mood in the evening, insomnia in mania and early, middle or late insomnia in depression. Manipulation of the circadian timing system via sleep deprivation, bright light or pharmacological therapy has also been shown to alleviate depressive symptoms, providing further evidence for the role of circadian dysfunction in depression pathophysiology. The new antidepressant agomelatine is the first melatonergic antidepressant with an innovative mode of action: it is a melatonergic MT(1), MT(2) receptor agonist and 5-HT(2c) antagonist, and is able to restore the internal clock, which is profoundly disturbed in depression, thus being efficacious in major depressive disorders. In conclusion, a wealth of evidence is now available supporting a genetic basis for depression. The apparent importance of mutations in the circadian genes in determining disease susceptibility, disease recurrence and response to treatment suggests that the circadian pathway represents an attractive target for pharmacological manipulation to improve management of this debilitating disorder. PMID:19708722
Chaudhury, Dipesh; Liu, He; Han, Ming-Hu
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common psychiatric disorder effecting approximately 121 million people worldwide and recent reports from the World Health Organization (WHO) suggest that it will be the leading contributor to the global burden of diseases. At present, the most commonly used treatment strategies are still based on the monoamine hypothesis that has been the predominant theory in the last 60 years. Clinical observations show that only a subset of depressed patients exhibits full remission when treated with classical monoamine-based antidepressants together with the fact that patients exhibit multiple symptoms suggest that the pathophysiology leading to mood disorders may differ between patients. Accumulating evidence indicates that depression is a neural circuit disorder and that onset of depression may be located at different regions of the brain involving different transmitter systems and molecular mechanisms. This review synthesises findings from rodent studies from which emerges a role for different, yet interconnected, molecular systems and associated neural circuits to the aetiology of depression. PMID:26542802
Aimee C. Richardson
Full Text Available Studies investigating possible associations between iron status and mood or depressive symptoms have reported inconsistent results. However, they have neither used body iron to measure iron status nor measured mood using daily measures. We investigated whether body iron was associated with depressive symptoms, daily mood, daily tiredness, difficulty concentrating, and stress in young adult women and men. Young adult (17â25 years women (n = 562 and men (n = 323 completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, then reported negative and positive mood, and other states daily for 13 days. Non-fasting venous blood was collected to determine hemoglobin, serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor (to calculate body iron, C-reactive protein, and alpha-1-acid glycoprotein concentration. Regression models tested linear associations between body iron and the outcome variables, controlling for possible confounders. No associations were found between body iron and the outcome variables in women. However, higher body iron was associated with more depressive symptoms in men (3.4% more per body iron mg/kg; 95% confidence intervals (CI: 0.8%, 5.9%. In young adult women, body iron is unlikely to be associated with significant deficits in mood or depressive symptoms. However, higher body iron may be associated with more depressive symptoms in young adult men.
Richardson, Aimee C; Heath, Anne-Louise M; Haszard, Jillian J; Polak, Maria A; Houghton, Lisa A; Conner, Tamlin S
Studies investigating possible associations between iron status and mood or depressive symptoms have reported inconsistent results. However, they have neither used body iron to measure iron status nor measured mood using daily measures. We investigated whether body iron was associated with depressive symptoms, daily mood, daily tiredness, difficulty concentrating, and stress in young adult women and men. Young adult (17-25 years) women (n = 562) and men (n = 323) completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, then reported negative and positive mood, and other states daily for 13 days. Non-fasting venous blood was collected to determine hemoglobin, serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor (to calculate body iron), C-reactive protein, and alpha-1-acid glycoprotein concentration. Regression models tested linear associations between body iron and the outcome variables, controlling for possible confounders. No associations were found between body iron and the outcome variables in women. However, higher body iron was associated with more depressive symptoms in men (3.4% more per body iron mg/kg; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.8%, 5.9%). In young adult women, body iron is unlikely to be associated with significant deficits in mood or depressive symptoms. However, higher body iron may be associated with more depressive symptoms in young adult men. PMID:26213963
Williams, P G; Surwit, R S; Babyak, M A; McCaskill, C C
The clinical utility of a model of normal emotional functioning (vs. psychopathology) and the moderating effects of neuroticism (N) and extraversion (E) on mood were examined during a 6-week weight-loss trial. Participants were 40 obese women who completed measures of negative affect (NA) and positive affect (PA) weekly during the diet and measures of anxiety and depression (Beck Depression Inventory [BDI]) at pre-, mid-, and postdiet. Results indicated that (a) average NA and PA were each uniquely related to postdiet BDI scores, (b) N was significantly related to NA during the diet and postdiet BDI scores, and (c) N and E interacted to predict PA during the diet. The results suggest that assessment of personality and normal mood variation may be useful additions to weight-loss intervention and research. PMID:9874913
Rossetti, Clara; Halfon, Olivier; Boutrel, Benjamin
Obesity and depression represent a growing health concern worldwide. For many years, basic science and medicine have considered obesity as a metabolic illness, while depression was classified a psychiatric disorder. Despite accumulating evidence suggesting that obesity and depression may share commonalities, the causal link between eating and mood disorders remains to be fully understood. This etiology is highly complex, consisting of multiple environmental and genetic risk factors that inter...
Hermens, Daniel F; Naismith, Sharon L; Chitty, Kate M; Lee, Rico S C; Tickell, Ashleigh; Duffy, Shantel L; Paquola, Casey; White, Django; Hickie, Ian B; Lagopoulos, Jim
While numerous studies have employed magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to determine in vivo neurometabolite levels associated with mood disorders the findings in both unipolar depression and bipolar disorder have been mixed. Data-driven studies may shed new light on this literature by identifying distinct subgroups of patients who may benefit from different treatment strategies. The objective of the present study was to utilize hierarchical cluster analysis in order to generate new hypotheses with respect to neurometabolic profiling of mood disorder. Participants were 165 young persons (18-30 yrs) with a mood disorder and 40 healthy controls. Neurometabolite levels were recorded via proton-MRS ((1)H MRS). The ratios (relative to creatine) of glutamate (GLU), N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) and myo-inositol (MI) measured within the hippocampus. Self-reported and clinician rated symptoms as well as cognition were also measured. The unipolar depression (N=90) and bipolar disorder (N=75) groups did not significantly differ (from each other or controls) in their levels of GLU, NAA or MI. Cluster analyses derived four subgroups of patients who were distinguished by all three metabolites. There was a pattern of positive association between NAA and GLU, whereby clusters were abnormally increased (clusters 1, 2) or normal (cluster 4) or abnormally decreased (cluster 3) in these neurometabolites. These findings suggest that there are neurometabolic abnormalities in subgroups of young people with mood disorder, which may occur despite diagnostic similarities. Such evidence highlights that the underlying neurobiology of mood disorder is complex and MRS may have unique utility in delineating underlying neurobiology and targeting treatment strategies. PMID:25795519
Martin Block; Stern, Daniel B.; Sang Lee; Bobby Calder; Rudick, Charles N; Blood, Anne J
Depression is a debilitating condition that adversely affects many aspects of a person's life and general health. Earlier work has supported the idea that there may be a relationship between the use of certain media and depression. In this study, we tested if self-report of depression (SRD), which is not a clinically based diagnosis, was associated with increased internet, television, and social media usage by using data collected in the Media Behavior and Influence Study (MBIS) database (N=1...
Hepner, Kimberly A.; Azocar, Francisca; Greenwood, Gregory L.; MIRANDA, JEANNE; Burnam, M. Audrey
Although mental health policy initiatives have called for quality improvement in depression care, practical tools to describe the quality of psychotherapy for depression are not available. We developed a clinician-report measure of adherence to three types of psychotherapy for depressioncognitive behavioral therapy, interpersonal therapy, and psychodynamic therapy. A total of 727 clinicians from a large, national managed behavioral health care organization responded to a mail survey. The mea...
Minoru Nakagawa; Kenji Sugiu; Koji Tokunaga; Chihoko Sakamoto; Kenjiro Fujiwara
Patients with dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) in the transverse-sigmoid sinus suffer from several symptoms: bruit, headache, visual impairment, and so on. But depression is rare in patients with DAVF. The authors reported a rare case presenting the improvement of depression after the treatment of a dural arteriovenous fistula in the left transverse-sigmoid sinus. A 46-year-old male had suffered from depression and was treated with antidepressants at a local hospital for four years. Th...
Kok, Renske; Avendano, Mauricio; d'Uva, Teresa Bago; Mackenbach, Johan
Depression is one of the leading causes of disability in the developed world. Previous studies have shown varying depression prevalence rates between European countries, and also within countries, between socioeconomic groups. However, it is unclear whether these differences reflect true variations in prevalence or whether they are attributable to
Rao, Prasad G.
This review has been done after careful research of articles published in indian journal of psychiatry with the search words of manic depressive psychosis and bipolar mood disorder. Many articles in the following areas are included: 1) Etiology: genetic studies: 2) Etiology neuro psychological impairment: 3) Adult bipolar disorder 4) Epidemological 5) Clinical picture phenomenology: 6) Course of bipolar mood disorder: 7) Juvenile onset bipolar affective disorder 8) Secondary mania: 9) Cli...
Sansone, Randy A.; Sansone, Lori A.
In this article, the authors examine the preponderance of publications pertaining to relationships between allergies and anxiety and mood syndromes. Through a review of the relevant articles in the PubMed and PsycINFO databases, the authors found that the majority of studies (9 of 11 studies on anxiety syndromes, 10 of 12 studies on depressive syndromes) indicate associations between allergies and anxiety/mood syndromes, despite a number of methodological variances. In addition, there appear ...
Quello, Susan B.; Brady, Kathleen T.; Sonne, Susan C
Mood disorders, including depression and bipolar disorders, are the most common psychiatric comorbidities among patients with substance use disorders. Treating patients co-occurring mood disorders may reduce their substance craving and taking and enhance their overall outcomes. A methodical, staged screening and assessment can ease the diagnostic challenge of distinguishing symptoms of affective disorders from manifestations of substance intoxication and withdrawal. Treatment should maximize...
This study was set out to assess the importance of listening to mood congruent songs versus mood incongruent songs in terms of mood change. Forty-eight participants were divided into four groups (1) participants with a happy pretest score and who received a happy song (mood congruent), (2) participants with a sad pretest mood and who received a happy song (mood incongruent) (3) participants with a happy pretest score who received a sad song and (mood incongruent)(4) participants with a sad pr...
Sabolek Michael; Uttner Ingo; Seitz Klaus; Kraft Eduard; Storch Alexander
Abstract Introduction Psychiatric side effects of deep brain stimulation are not uncommon. It is often limited to transient mood alterations. We report for the first time a case of acute stimulation-dependent fear during intraoperative test stimulation. Case presentation During test stimulation for electrode placement to the left subthalamic nucleus, a 58-year-old caucasian man with Parkinson's disease developed a severe reproducible feeling of fear together with elevated heart rate and sweat...
Crippling depression and chronic anxiety are the biggest causes of misery in Britain today. They are the great submerged problem, which shame keeps out of sight. But if you mention them, you soon discover how many families are affected. According to the respected Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, one in six of us would be diagnosed as having depression or chronic anxiety disorder, which means that one family in three is affected. That is the bad news. The good news is that we now have evidence-ba...
Proposes and experimentally tests mood adjustment approach, complementing mood management theory. Discusses how results regarding self-exposure across time show that patterns of popular music listening among a group of undergraduate students differ with initial mood and anticipation, lending support to mood adjustment hypotheses. Describes howâ¦
Vöhringer, Paul A; Perlis, Roy H
Rates of misdiagnosis between major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder have been reported to be substantial, and the consequence of such misdiagnosis is likely to be a delay in achieving effective control of symptoms, in some cases spanning many years. Particularly in the midst of a depressive episode, or early in the illness course, it may be challenging to distinguish the 2 mood disorders purely on the basis of cross-sectional features. To date, no useful biological markers have been reliably shown to distinguish between bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder. PMID:26876315
Putu Andrika Kusuma
Full Text Available Depression led to the decline quality of life. With more incidence in women due tohormonal cycle caused women more susceptible to depression. Hormone that fluctuatesand holds a key role in brain and nerve cells is estrogen. Estrogen in premenopausalwomen already decreases. Treatment of depression in premenopausal women who gopast the various considerations needs to consider the provision of hormonal therapy. Inthe case of patients treated with psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy in the form of 2 x20 mg Fluoxetine by mouth and hormonal therapy in the form of 1 x 2 mg Estradiol.Feasibility study to evaluate the hormonal therapy contraindications such as breastcancer also needs to be done.
... Editors David C. Spencer, MD Steven Karceski, MD Epilepsy and mood Update Steven Karceski, MD In their ... important and worrisome topic for peo- ple with epilepsy. In short, a patient may wonder, Will the ...
Full Text Available While it is widely accepted that music evokes moods, there is disagreement over whether music-induced moods are relevant to the aesthetic appreciation of music as such. The arguments against the aesthetic relevance of music-induced moods are: (1 moods cannot be intentionally directed at the music and (2 music-induced moods are highly subjective experiences and are therefore a kind of mind-wandering. This paper presents a novel account of musical moods that avoids these objections. It is correct to say that a listener's entire mood is not relevant to the aesthetic appreciation of music. However, the experience of mood consists of having different feelings. Music induces feelings that are intentionally directed at the music and clusters of these feelings can be recognized as typical of a specific mood. Therefore, mood-feelings are relevant to the aesthetic appreciation of music.
While it is widely accepted that music evokes moods, there is disagreement over whether music-induced moods are relevant to the aesthetic appreciation of music as such. The arguments against the aesthetic relevance of music-induced moods are: (1) moods cannot be intentionally directed at the music and (2) music-induced moods are highly subjective experiences and are therefore a kind of mind-wandering. This paper presents a novel account of musical moods that avoids these objections. It is correct to say that a listeners entire mood is not relevant to the aesthetic appreciation of music. However, the experience of mood consists of having different feelings. Music induces feelings that are intentionally directed at the music and clusters of these feelings can be recognized as typical of a specific mood. Therefore, mood-feelings are relevant to the aesthetic appreciation of music. PMID:24795677
Maccio, Elaine M.; Pangburn, Jaimee A.
Despite the frequency of postpartum depression, little is known about the experiences of lesbian birth mothers and their female partners, or comothers. In this modest yet important exploratory investigation, 20 lesbian mothers completed a survey of self-reported postpartum depressive symptoms (PDS) and related risk factors. Results indicate that
... of experimental psychology at the University of Oxford. "Parents whose children identify with this subculture need not be concerned," she said. "The majority of Goths were not depressed and did not self-harm." Moreover, she cautioned ...
Caroline Elizabeth Konradt
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify early experiences of childhood abuse and neglect among young with bipolar disorder (BD, major depression (MDD, and controls. METHOD: Case-control study nested to a population-based cross-sectional study. The diagnosis was performed via the structured clinical interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID. Traumatic events were analyzed using the Portuguese version - Questionário sobre Traumas na Infância (CTQ - based on the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. RESULTS: The sample comprised 231 adolescents with 95 individuals in the control group, 82 with MDD and 54 with BD (32 of type I and 22 type II. The prevalence of trauma or violence in childhood was 42.2%; among those, 54.7% had BD, 62.2% had MDD and 18.1% were in the control group. Young people with BD or MDD obtained higher means in total CTQ and among their components when compared with those in the control group. DISCUSSION: Reports on early traumatic experiences were more frequent among young people with mood disorders than in the general population, corroborating the literature on the subject. In this sense, the traumatic experiences during childhood seemed to contribute to the onset of the disorder.
Jae Seung Chang
Full Text Available Patients with bipolar disorder spend more time in a depressed than manic state, even with individualized treatment. To date, bipolar depression is often misdiagnosed and ineffectively managed both for acute episodes and residual symptoms. This review attempts to summarize the current status of available treatment strategies in the treatment of bipolar depression. For acute and prophylactic treatment, a substantial body of evidence supports the antidepressive efficacy of lithium for bipolar disorders and its antisuicidal effects. Among numerous anticonvulsants with mood-stabilizing properties, valproate and lamotrigine could be first-line options for bipolar depression. Due to receptor profile, mood-stabilizing properties of second-generation antipsychotics have been explored, and up to date, quetiapine and olanzapine appear to be a reasonable option for bipolar depression. The usefulness of antidepressants in bipolar depression is still controversial. Current guidelines generally recommend the cautious antidepressant use in combination with mood stabilizers to reduce the risk of mood elevation or cycle acceleration. Results from clinical trials on psychosocial intervention are promising, especially when integrated with pharmacotherapy. Most patients with bipolar depression need individualized and combined treatment, although the published evidence on this type of treatment strategy is limited. Future studies on the utility of currently available agents and modalities including psychosocial intervention are required.
Fábio Lopes, Rocha; Maria Elizabete Guimarães, Rocha.
Full Text Available Os autores descrevem e comentam o caso de uma paciente com Distúrbio de Humor Bipolar e Cleptomanía (DSM-III-R) que apresentou remissão de seu quadro compulsivo após instituição de litioterapia. Discutem a possibilidade de tratamento medicamentoso para este distúrbio e apontam para a necessidade de [...] estudos que estabeleçam a eventual relação entre cleptomania, distúrbios do humor e litioterapia. Abstract in english Kleptomania has been found in association with major depression in a fairly large number of reports in recent years. We describe a patient with concurrent DSM-III-R Bipolar Mood Disorder and Kleptomania, whose symptoms remitted completely, apparently in response to lithium therapy, which raised the [...] possibility that pharmacological treatment may benefit kleptomania. Further studies are needed to establish the possible relationship between kleptomania, mood disorders and lithium therapy.
Song, Ji-Hye; Yu, Bum-Hee; Lee, Dongsoo; Yoon, Se Chang; Jeon, Hong Jin
Antidepressants are known to have no significant ability to cause addiction. However, a recent study showed many individuals with mood disorders self-medicated with antidepressants to relieve symptoms. We report here a male physician, diagnosed five years ago with major depressive disorder, with insomnia, anxiousness, and chest heaviness. He began self-medicating with 150 mg of venlafaxine daily, without any monitoring. During his most recent severe depressive episode, he was taking up to 1,5...
Full Text Available Jean-Pierre Lépine1, Mike Briley21Hôpital Lariboisière Fernand Widal, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris Unité INSERM 705 CNRS UMR 8206, Université Paris Diderot, Paris, France; 2NeuroBiz Consulting and Communication, Castres, FranceAbstract: Recent epidemiological surveys conducted in general populations have found that the lifetime prevalence of depression is in the range of 10% to 15%. Mood disorders, as defined by the World Mental Health and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, have a 12-month prevalence which varies from 3% in Japan to over 9% in the US. A recent American survey found the prevalence of current depression to be 9% and the rate of current major depression to be 3.4%. All studies of depressive disorders have stressed the importance of the mortality and morbidity associated with depression. The mortality risk for suicide in depressed patients is more than 20-fold greater than in the general population. Recent studies have also shown the importance of depression as a risk factor for cardiovascular death. The risk of cardiac mortality after an initial myocardial infarction is greater in patients with depression and related to the severity of the depressive episode. Greater severity of depressive symptoms has been found to be associated with significantly higher risk of all-cause mortality including cardiovascular death and stroke. In addition to mortality, functional impairment and disability associated with depression have been consistently reported. Depression increases the risk of decreased workplace productivity and absenteeism resulting in lowered income or unemployment. Absenteeism and presenteeism (being physically present at work but functioning suboptimally have been estimated to result in a loss of $36.6 billion per year in the US. Worldwide projections by the World Health Organization for the year 2030 identify unipolar major depression as the leading cause of disease burden. This article is a brief overview of how depression affects the quality of life of the subject and is also a huge burden for both the family of the depressed patient and for society at large.Keywords: epidemiology, DALY, mortality risk, economic burden, family burden, depression
Full Text Available Inbtroduction: Recent epidemiological, clinical, neuroimaging and neuropathological studies have reported substantial evidence on the complex interactive relationships between depression and cerebrovascular diseases, especially in older populations, and plausible explanations of the etiopathogenetic mechanisms in both directions have been proposed. Poststroke depression Although there is no general consensus regarding its prevalence, it is widely accepted that major depression after stroke is common and that it should be recognized as a key factor in rehabilitation and outcome following stroke. Vascular depression The "vascular depression" hypothesis presupposes that late-onset depression may often result from vascular damage to frontal-subcortical circuits implicated in mood regulation. This concept has stimulated many researches and the obtained results support the proposed hypothesis. Depression as a stroke risk factor Recent large studies have emphasized the role of depression per se in the development of subsequent stroke. Mechanisms proposed to explain the increased risk of cerebrovascular diseases in depressed patients There are a number of plausible mechanisms that could explain why depression may increase the risk of subsequent cerebrovascular disease, the most important being sympathoadrenal hyperactivity, platelet activation, an increase in inflammatory cytokines and an increased risk of arrhythmias. Conclusion: Thorough clinical examinations determining the conventional stroke risk factors in the population with depression, as well as management of depression as part of the overall measures for the reduction of cerebrovascular risk factors are of utmost importance.
Hewston, RM; Lane, AM; Karageorghis, CI
This study designed a measure to assess the perceived effectiveness of music as a strategy to regulate mood among a sport and exercise population. A strategy of assessing and comparing the integrity of competing hypotheses to explain the underlying factor structure of the scale was used. A 21-item Music Mood-Regulation Scale (MMRS) was developed to assess the extent to which participants used music to alter the mood states of anger, calmness, depression, fatigue, happiness, tension, and vigor...
Platte, Petra; Herbert, Cornelia; Pauli, Paul; Breslin, Paul A.S.
This study examined the impact of three clinical psychological variables (non-pathological levels of depression and anxiety, as well as experimentally manipulated mood) on fat and taste perception in healthy subjects. After a baseline orosensory evaluation, sad, happy and neutral video clips were presented to induce corresponding moods in eighty participants. Following mood manipulation, subjects rated five different oral stimuli, appearing sweet, umami, sour, bitter, fatty, which were ...
Woo, Jong-Min; Postolache, Teodor T.
The purpose of this paper is to review the evidence estimating an impact of occupational factors on mood disorders and suicide, and the efficacy of interventions. This review is based on literature searches using Medline and Psych INFO from 1966 to 2007 (keywords: work stress, job insecurity, job strain, shift work, violence, occupational health, mood disorders, depression, and suicide). To establish the relationship between occupational variables and mood disorders, we focused on clinically ...
McClung, Colleen A.
Mood disorders are serious diseases that affect a large portion of the population. There have been many hypotheses put forth over the years to explain the development of major depression (MDD), bipolar disorder (BD) and other mood disorders. These hypotheses include disruptions in monoamine transmission, HPA axis function, immune function, neurogenesis, mitochondrial dysfunction and neuropeptide signaling (to name a few). Nearly all people suffering from mood disorders have significant disrup...
Mangiola, Francesca; Ianiro, Gianluca; Franceschi, Francesco; Fagiuoli, Stefano; Gasbarrini, Giovanni; Gasbarrini, Antonio
The hypothesis of an important role of gut microbiota in the maintenance of physiological state into the gastrointestinal (GI) system is supported by several studies that have shown a qualitative and quantitative alteration of the intestinal flora in a number of gastrointestinal and extra-gastrointestinal diseases. In the last few years, the importance of gut microbiota impairment in the etiopathogenesis of pathology such as autism, dementia and mood disorder, has been raised. The evidence of the inflammatory state alteration, highlighted in disorders such as schizophrenia, major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder, strongly recalls the microbiota alteration, highly suggesting an important role of the alteration of GI system also in neuropsychiatric disorders. Up to now, available evidences display that the impairment of gut microbiota plays a key role in the development of autism and mood disorders. The application of therapeutic modulators of gut microbiota to autism and mood disorders has been experienced only in experimental settings to date, with few but promising results. A deeper assessment of the role of gut microbiota in the development of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), as well as the advancement of the therapeutic armamentarium for the modulation of gut microbiota is warranted for a better management of ASD and mood disorders. PMID:26755882
For a long period in the history of psychological research, emotion and cognition have been studied independently, as if one were irrelevant to the other. The renewed interest of researchers for the study of the relations between cognition and emotion has led to the development of a range of laboratory methods for inducing temporary mood states. This paper aims to review the main mood induction procedures allowing the induction of a negative mood as well as a positive mood, developed since the pioneer study of Schachter and Singer [Psychol Rev 69 (1962) 379-399] and to account for the usefulness and problems related to the use of such techniques. The first part of this paper deals with the detailed presentation of some of the most popular mood induction procedures according to their type: simple (use of only one mood induction technique) or combined (association of two or more techniques at once). The earliest of the modern techniques is the Velten Mood Induction Procedure [Behav Res Ther 6 (1968) 473-482], which involves reading aloud sixty self-referent statements progressing from relative neutral mood to negative mood or dysphoria. Some researchers have varied the procedure slightly by changing the number of the statements [Behav Res Ther 21 (1983) 233-239, Br J Clin Psychol 21 (1982) 111-117, J Pers Soc Psychol 35 (1977) 625-636]. Various other mood induction procedures have been developed including music induction [Cogn Emotion 11 (1997) 403-432, Br J Med Psychol 55 (1982) 127-138], film clip induction [J Pers Soc Psychol 20 (1971) 37-43, Cogn Emotion 7 (1993) 171-193, Rottenberg J, Ray RR, Gross JJ. Emotion elicitation using films. In: Coan JA, Allen JJB, editors. The handbook of emotion elicitation and assessment. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007], autobiographical recall [J Clin Psychol 36 (1980) 215-226, Jallais C. Effets des humeurs positives et négatives sur les structures de connaissances de type script. Thèse de doctorat non publiée. Université de Nantes, Nantes] or combined inductions [Gilet AL. Etude des effets des humeurs positives et négatives sur l'organisation des connaissances en mémoire sémantique. Thèse de doctorat non publiée, Université de Nantes, Nantes, J Ment Imagery 19 (1995) 133-150]. In music or film clip inductions, subjects are asked to listen or view some mood-suggestive pieces of material determined by the experimenter according to standardized music or film sets [J Ment Imagery 19 (1995) 133-150, Cogn Emotion 7 (1993) 171-193] and selected to elicit target moods. According to many authors, these two mood induction procedures seem to be among the most effective manners to induce moods [Br J Psychol 85 (1994) 55-78, Eur J Soc Psychol 26 (1996) 557-580] in an individual or in a group setting [Jallais C. Effets des humeurs positives et négatives sur les structures de connaissances de type script. Thèse de doctorat non publiée. Université de Nantes, Nantes]. As it is believed that multiple inductions contribute additively to a mood [Am Psychol 36 (1981) 129-148], researchers proposed to combine two or more techniques at the same time. Thus, the Velten Mood Induction Procedure has been successively associated with the hypnosis mood induction procedure [J Pers Soc Psychol 42 (1982) 927-934], the music mood induction procedure [Behav Res Ther 21 (1983) 233-239, J Exp Soc Psychol 26 (1990) 465-480] or the imagination mood induction procedure [Br J Clin Psychol 21 (1982) 111-117]. Successful combinations of inductions usually use a first induction that occupies foreground attention and a second one that contributes to congruent background atmosphere. One of the most successful combined mood induction procedures has been developed by Mayer, Allen and Beauregard [J Ment Imagery 19 (1995) 133-150]. This technique associates guided imagery with music and is supposed to increase effectiveness of the induction. In the second part of this paper the aim is to present the usefulness of mood induction procedures in the study of cognitive processes in depression [Clin Psychol Rev 25 (20
Full Text Available Naseem Akhtar Qureshi,1 Abdullah Mohammed Al-Bedah21General Administration for Research and Studies, Sulaimania Medical Complex, 2National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: Mood disorders are a major public health problem and are associated with considerable burden of disease, suicides, physical comorbidities, high economic costs, and poor quality of life. Approximately 30%â40% of patients with major depression have only a partial response to available pharmacological and psychotherapeutic interventions. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM has been used either alone or in combination with conventional therapies in patients with mood disorders. This review of the literature examines evidence-based data on the use of CAM in mood disorders. A search of the PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, and Quertile databases using keywords was conducted, and relevant articles published in the English language in the peer-reviewed journals over the past two decades were retrieved. Evidence-based data suggest that light therapy, St John's wort, Rhodiola rosea, omega-3 fatty acids, yoga, acupuncture, mindfulness therapies, exercise, sleep deprivation, and S-adenosylmethionine are effective in the treatment of mood disorders. Clinical trials of vitamin B complex, vitamin D, and methylfolate found that, while these were useful in physical illness, results were equivocal in patients with mood disorders. Studies support the adjunctive role of omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid in unipolar and bipolar depression, although manic symptoms are not affected and higher doses are required in patients with resistant bipolar depression and rapid cycling. Omega-3 fatty acids are useful in pregnant women with major depression, and have no adverse effects on the fetus. Choline, inositol, 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan, and N-acetylcysteine are effective adjuncts in bipolar patients. Dehydroepiandrosterone is effective both in bipolar depression and depression in the setting of comorbid physical disease, although doses should be titrated to avoid adverse effects. Ayurvedic and homeopathic therapies have the potential to improve symptoms of depression, although larger controlled trials are needed. Mind-body-spirit and integrative medicine approaches can be used effectively in mild to moderate depression and in treatment-resistant depression. Currently, although CAM therapies are not the primary treatment of mood disorders, level 1 evidence could emerge in the future showing that such treatments are effective.Keywords: complementary and alternative medicine, mood disorders, Ayurveda, homeopathy, integrative medicine
While it is widely accepted that music evokes moods, there is disagreement over whether music-induced moods are relevant to the aesthetic appreciation of music as such. The arguments against the aesthetic relevance of music-induced moods are: (1) moods cannot be intentionally directed at the music and (2) music-induced moods are highly subjective experiences and are therefore a kind of mind-wandering. This paper presents a novel account of musical moods that avoids these objections. It is cor...
Depression is a common condition that often remains undiagnosed and untreated; however, symptoms are more likely to be recognized today than in past decades. Survey data suggest that female, nonwhite patients are more likely to report depressive symptoms, especially those who are less educated, poor, and covered by Medicaid. Depression may be a finding suggestive of dysthymic disorder, minor or major depressive disorder, seasonal affective disorder, episodic depression, or a sign of an associ...
Brummelte, Susanne; Galea, Liisa A M
This article is part of a Special Issue "Parental Care". Pregnancy and postpartum are associated with dramatic alterations in steroid and peptide hormones which alter the mothers' hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic pituitary gonadal (HPG) axes. Dysregulations in these endocrine axes are related to mood disorders and as such it should not come as a major surprise that pregnancy and the postpartum period can have profound effects on maternal mood. Indeed, pregnancy and postpartum are associated with an increased risk for developing depressive symptoms in women. Postpartum depression affects approximately 10-15% of women and impairs mother-infant interactions that in turn are important for child development. Maternal attachment, sensitivity and parenting style are essential for a healthy maturation of an infant's social, cognitive and behavioral skills and depressed mothers often display less attachment, sensitivity and more harsh or disrupted parenting behaviors, which may contribute to reports of adverse child outcomes in children of depressed mothers. Here we review, in honor of the "father of motherhood", Jay Rosenblatt, the literature on postnatal depression in the mother and its effect on mother-infant interactions. We will cover clinical and pre-clinical findings highlighting putative neurobiological mechanisms underlying postpartum depression and how they relate to maternal behaviors and infant outcome. We also review animal models that investigate the neurobiology of maternal mood and disrupted maternal care. In particular, we discuss the implications of endogenous and exogenous manipulations of glucocorticoids on maternal care and mood. Lastly we discuss interventions during gestation and postpartum that may improve maternal symptoms and behavior and thus may alter developmental outcome of the offspring. PMID:26319224
Full Text Available This multicultural study aimed at examining moodchange of English, French and Chinese speaking immigrants in Ottawa-Gatineau Region, Canada, and identifying demographic factors that impact the change. 810 immigrants of English, French and Chinese speaking sub-groupswere recruited by purposive-sampling. Using self-reports, respondents answered questions regarding moodchange (moodstatus change and mood belief change and demography in Multicultural Lifestyle Change Questionnaire of English, French or Chinese version. Data were analyzed statistically for the different immigrant sub-groups. Immigrants of different gender, language and category sub-groups exhibited different Mood Change Rates, Mood Improving Rates,Mood Declining Rates and MoodBelief Change Rates. There was no statistical difference between the ratesof immigrant sub-groups.Mood Change (MoodStatus Change + MoodBelief Change was correlated positively with Mother Tongue and negatively with Speaking Languages. Mood Status Change was negatively correlated with Marital Status and Highest Level of Education. Mother Tongue, Speaking Languages and Highest Level of Education significantly impacted MoodChange (Mood Status Change + Mood Belief Change. Marital Status and Highest Level of Education significantly influenced Mood Status Change. Immigrants of different sub-groups in Canada experienceddifferentmoodchanges. Marital Status and Highest Level of Educationwerethe main factors impacting Mood Status Change. Mother Tongue and Speaking Languages werethe principal factors influencing Mood Belief Change. Culture was an important factor contributing Mood Change. Acculturation could impact Mood Status Change and Mood Belief Change. Data of immigrant mood change can provide evidence for health policy-making and policy-revising in Canada.
... Facts for Families Guide Skip breadcrumb navigation Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (DMDD) Quick Links Facts For Families ... Guide - Search No. 110; Updated May 2013 Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (DMDD) is a relatively new diagnosis ...
Aswathi, A; Rajendiren, Soundravally; Nimesh, Archana; Philip, R Ravi; Kattimani, Shivanand; Jayalakshmi, D; Ananthanarayanan, P H; Dhiman, Pooja
In view of the reported cases of mood disorders that occur in mothers following childbirth and believing that sex steroid hormones contribute to mood and behavioral changes, this study has been aimed to explore the role of sex steroid hormones as an etiological factor for postpartum depression (PPD). This study was conducted at JIPMER, Puducherry, India between January 2010 and 2011. 103 women were recruited in the study after childbirth, out of which 62 women who were believed to be suffering from PPD were categorized as cases and the remaining 41 with no mood changes as controls, using Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS) (cases had EPDS score ?10 at 24-28h, controls had score women following childbirth and PPD. PMID:26372084
Alvarez-Lozano, Jorge; Frost, Mads
Bipolar Disorder is a disease that is manifested with cycling periods of polar episodes, namely mania and depression. Depressive episodes are manifested through disturbed mood, psychomotor retardation, behaviour change, decrease in energy levels and length of sleep. Manic episodes are manifested through elevated mood, psychomotor acceleration and increase in intensity of social interactions. In this paper we report results of a clinical trial with bipolar patients that amongst other aspects, investigated whether changes in general behaviour of patients due to onset of a bipolar episode, can be captured through the analysis of smartphone usage. We have analysed changes in smartphone usage, specifically app usage and how these changes correlate with the self-reported patient state. We also used psychiatric evaluation scores provided by the clinic to understand correlation of the patient smartphone behaviour before the psychiatric evaluation and after the psychiatric evaluation. The results show that patients have strong correlation of patterns of app usage with different aspects of their self-reported state including mood, sleep and irritability. While, on the other hand, the patients application usage shows discernable changes in the period before and after psychiatric evaluation.
Lehmann, Michael L.; Brachman, Rebecca A.; Martinowich, Keri; Schloesser, Robert J.; Herkenham, Miles
Both social defeat stress and environmental enrichment stimulate adrenal glucocorticoid secretion, but they have opposing effects on hippocampal neurogenesis and mood. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation and decreased neurogenesis are consequences of social defeat. These outcomes are correlated with depressive states, but a causal role in the etiology of depression remains elusive. The antidepressant actions of environmental enrichment are neurogenesis-dependent, but the c...
Ross, Lori E; Murray, Brian J.; Steiner, Meir
Pregnancy and the postpartum period are recognized as times of vulnerability to mood disorders, including postpartum depression and psychosis. Recently, changes in sleep physiology and sleep deprivation have been proposed as having roles in perinatal psychiatric disorders. In this article we review what is known about changes in sleep physiology and behaviour during the perinatal period, with a focus on the relations between sleep and postpartum blues, depression and psychosis and on sleep-...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Finasteride is a competitive inhibitor of 5 alpha-reductase enzyme, and is used for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and androgenetic alopecia. Animal studies have shown that finasteride might induce behavioral changes. Additionally, some cases of finasteride-induced depression have been reported in humans. The purpose of this study was to examine whether depressive symptoms or anxiety might be induced by finasteride administration. Methods One hundred and twenty eight men with androgenetic alopecia, who were prescribed finasteride (1 mg/day were enrolled in this study. Information on depressed mood and anxiety was obtained by Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Participants completed BDI and HADS questionnaires before beginning the treatment and also two months after it. Results Mean age of the subjects was 25.8(± 4.4 years. At baseline, mean BDI and HADS depression scores were 12.11(± 7.50 and 4.04(± 2.51, respectively. Finasteride treatment increased both BDI (p Conclusion This preliminary study suggests that finasteride might induce depressive symptoms; therefore this medication should be prescribed cautiously for patients with high risk of depression. It seems that further studies would be necessary to determine behavioral effects of this medication in higher doses and in more susceptible patients.
Terry, P C; Lane, A M; Warren, L
The study assessed the influence of age, gender and weight category upon eating attitudes, body shape perceptions, and mood. Elite rowers (N = 103) participating in the 1996 World Championships or Great Britain National Championships completed the Eating Attitude Test (EAT), the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ), and a short form of the Profile of Mood States (POMS-C). Participants were grouped as lightweight (Female: Body shape concerns were higher for heavyweights than lightweights and for females than males. The interaction effect was not significant. BSQ scores were negatively correlated with age. Depression, Confusion and Tension scores collectively predicted 37% of the variance in BSQ scores while Depression scores predicted 9% of the variance in EAT scores. The results provide further evidence that the risk of eating disorders among elite rowers is moderated by age, gender and weight category. Further, they suggest that measures of mood may help identify athletes at risk from eating disorders. PMID:10331477
Campbell, Meghan C; Black, Kevin J; Weaver, Patrick M; Lugar, Heather M; Videen, Tom O; Tabbal, Samer D; Karimi, Morvarid; Perlmutter, Joel S; Hershey, Tamara
Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN DBS) in Parkinson's disease (PD) improves motor functioning but has variable effects on mood. Little is known about the relationship between electrode contact location and mood response. The authors identified the anatomical location of electrode contacts and measured mood response to stimulation with the Visual Analog Scale in 24 STN DBS PD patients. Participants reported greater positive mood and decreased anxiety and apathy with bilateral and unilateral stimulation. Left DBS improved mood more than right DBS. Right DBS-induced increase in positive mood was related to more medial and dorsal contact locations. These results highlight the functional heterogeneity of the STN. PMID:22450611
Cristina Colombo; Barbara Barbini; Mara Cigala Fulgosi; Dario Delmonte; Chiara Gavinelli; Chiara Brambilla; Enrico Smeraldi
Background. Research on mood disorders has progressively focused on the study of seasons and on the mood in association with them during depressive or manic episodes yet few studies have focused on the seasonal fluctuation that characterizes the patient's clinical course both during an illness episode and during euthymic periods. Methods. 113 euthymic outpatients 46 affected by major recurrent depression and 67 affected by bipolar disorder were recruited. We evaluated the impact of clinical ...
Full Text Available Susan Reif,1 Rae Jean Proeschold-Bell,1,2 Jia Yao,1 Sara LeGrand,1,2 Anna Uehara,2 Edgar Asiimwe,2 Evelyn Byrd Quinlivan31Duke Center for Health Policy and Inequalities Research, 2Duke Global Health Institute, Duke University, Durham, NC, 3Center for Infectious Diseases, University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USABackground: Adherence with medication regimens for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is a life-saving behavior for people with HIV infection, yet adherence is challenging for many individuals with co-occurring substance use and/or mood disorders. Medication-taking self-efficacy, which is the confidence that one can take one's medication as prescribed, is associated with better adherence with HIV medication. However, little is known about the influence that other kinds of self-efficacy have on adherence with HIV medication, especially among HIV-infected individuals with co-occurring substance use and/or mood disorders. We sought to examine the relationship between adherence with HIV medication among substance users and three specific kinds of self-efficacy, ie, one's confidence that one can communicate with medical providers, get support, and manage one's mood. We further sought to examine whether symptoms of depression and anxiety moderate these relationships.Methods: Patients were recruited from three HIV clinics in the southeastern United States as part of an integrated study of treatment for HIV and substance use.Results: We interviewed 154 patients with HIV and substance use who reported taking HIV medications. Based on symptoms of depression and anxiety using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety, 63% had probable depression and/or anxiety. Higher levels of self-efficacy in provider communication (? = 3.86, P < 0.01, getting needed support (? = 2.82, P < 0.01, and mood management (? = 2.29, P < 0.05 were related to better self-reported adherence with HIV medication among study participants with probable depression and/or anxiety. The three kinds of self-efficacy were not associated with medication adherence among participants with HIV and substance use only.Conclusion: In the search for mutable factors to improve medication adherence among individuals triply diagnosed with HIV, substance use, and mood disorders, these findings support previous research indicating the benefit of enhancing self-efficacy, and further point to three specific kinds of self-efficacy that may benefit medication adherence, ie, provider communication, getting support, and mood management.Keywords: human immunodeficiency virus, self-efficacy, substance use, depression, anxiety, interventions
Osler, Merete; Bruunsgaard, Helle; Lykke Mortensen, Erik
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the influence of lifetime socio-economic position (SEP) on adult depression. We examined the association of SEP during the life course with depressive mood in late midlife and explored whether cognitive function at age 20, health-related behaviour and inflammatory biomarkers explained any associations. METHODS: A cohort of 2482 Danish men born in 1953 with information from birth, and conscript board examinations was followed-up with assessment of depressive mood...
Growing research literature has documented the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions for anxiety and depressive disorders. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) teaches a series of mindfulness meditation and yoga practices, delivered in a group format during eight weekly sessions plus one full-day session. This case report demonstrates how MBSR was associated with dramatic clinical improvement of an individual with symptoms of panic, generalized anxiety, and depression. Scores on clinical assessment measures suggested clinically severe levels of anxious arousal, generalized anxiety, worry, fear of negative evaluation, and depression at the beginning of the intervention. The scores on all these measures fell well within normal limits 7 weeks later at the end of the intervention, and no remaining symptoms were reported afterward. Increased life satisfaction and quality of life were documented as well. This case illustrates the potential benefit of MBSR as an alternative or adjunctive treatment for comorbid anxiety and depressive disorder symptoms. PMID:23124187
Qi, Xin-Rui; Zhao, Jun; Liu, Ji; Fang, Hui; Swaab, Dick F; Zhou, Jiang-Ning
The prefrontal cortex shows structural and functional alterations in mood disorders. Retinoid signaling, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and its receptor TrkB are reported to be involved in depression. Here, we found that mRNA levels of key elements of retinoid signaling were significantly reduced in the postmortem dorsolateral prefrontal cortex/anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) from elderly depressed patients who did not die from suicide. Decreased mRNA levels of BDNF and TrkB isoforms were also found. Similar alterations were observed in rats subjected to chronic unpredictable mild stress. Along with neurons immunopositive for both retinoic acid receptor-? (RAR?) and TrkB, a positive correlation between mRNA levels of the 2 receptors was found in the ACC of control subjects but not of depressed patients. In vitro studies showed that RAR? was able to bind to and transactivate the TrkB promoter via a putative RA response element within the TrkB promoter. In conclusion, the retinoid and BDNF-TrkB signaling in the prefrontal cortex are compromised in mood disorders, and the transcriptional upregulation of TrkB by RAR? provide a possible mechanism for their interaction. The retinoid signaling pathway that may activate TrkB expression will be an alternative novel target for BDNF-based antidepressant treatment. PMID:23960204
Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Crawford, Susan G.; Field, Catherine J.; Simpson, J. Steven A.
In this article, the authors explore the breadth and depth of published research linking dietary vitamins and minerals (micronutrients) to mood. Since the 1920s, there have been many studies on individual vitamins (especially B vitamins and Vitamins C, D, and E), minerals (calcium, chromium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and selenium), and vitamin-like
Full Text Available Food is a potent natural reward and food intake is a complex process. Reward and gratification associated with food consumption leads to dopamine (DA production, which in turn activates reward and pleasure centers in the brain. An individual will repeatedly eat a particular food to experience this positive feeling of gratification. This type of repetitive behavior of food intake leads to the activation of brain reward pathways that eventually overrides other signals of satiety and hunger. Thus, a gratification habit through a favorable food leads to overeating and morbid obesity. Overeating and obesity stems from many biological factors engaging both central and peripheral systems in a bi-directional manner involving mood and emotions. Emotional eating and altered mood can also lead to altered food choice and intake leading to overeating and obesity. Research findings from human and animal studies support a two-way link between three concepts, mood, food, and obesity. The focus of this article is to provide an overview of complex nature of food intake where various biological factors link mood, food intake, and brain signaling that engages both peripheral and central nervous system signaling pathways in a bi-directional manner in obesity.
Cheng, AT; Hawton, K.; Chen, TH; Yen, AM; Chang, JC; Chong, MY; Liu, CY; Lee, Y.; Teng, PR; Chen, LC
BACKGROUND: Few studies have directly assessed the impact of a specific media report in vulnerable people. This study investigates possible influences of media reporting of a celebrity suicide on subsequent suicidal behaviors and associated risk factors among depressive patients. METHODS: Depressive patients (N=461) were assessed through a structured interview soon after extensive media reporting of a celebrity suicide. RESULTS: Among 438 depressive patients exposed to the media report, 38.8%...
Jeffery, Robert W; Linde, Jennifer A; SIMON, GREGORY E; Evette J. Ludman; Rohde, Paul; Ichikawa, Laura E; Finch, Emily A
This paper examines the relationships among reports of depressive symptoms, BMI and frequency of consumption of 30 foods in 4,655 middle-aged women. Food was grouped into three categories: high-calorie sweet, high-calorie nonsweet, and low calorie. Controlling for total energy intake, BMI and depressive symptoms were both inversely associated with a higher frequency of consumption of low-calorie foods. BMI was positively associated with consumption of high-calorie nonsweet foods and negativel...
Würtzen, Hanne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Elsass, Peter; Sumbundu, Antonia Dorthea; Steding-Jensen, Marianne; Karlsen, Randi Valbjørn; Andersen, Klaus Kaae; Flyger, Henrik L; Pedersen, Anne E.; Johansen, Christoffer
INTRODUCTION: As the incidence of and survival from breast cancer continue to raise, interventions to reduce anxiety and depression before, during and after treatment are needed. Previous studies have reported positive effects of a structured 8-week group mindfulness-based stress reduction program (MBSR) among patients with cancer and other conditions. PURPOSE: To test the effect of such a programme on anxiety and depression among women with breast cancer in a population-based randomised control...
Felver, Joshua C.; Butzer, Bethany; Olson, Katherine J.; Smith, Iona M.; Khalsa, Sat Bir S.
The purpose of the present study was to directly compare the acute effects of participating in a single yoga class versus a single standard physical education (PE) class on student mood. Forty-seven high school students completed self-report questionnaires assessing mood and affect immediately before and after participating in a single yoga class
Lee, Sang Min; Moon, Kyoung-Suk; Puig, Ana; Cho, Eunsoo; Lee, Sun Young; Back, Sun Hee; Woo, Yeon Kyoung
The authors describe the development and psychometric properties of the Korean Mood State Inventory (KMSI), which is designed to measure the mood states of Korean college students. Factor structure, concurrent validity, and internal consistency of the KMSI scores are reported. Implications, limitations, and recommendations for future research are
Nadine Correia Santos; Pedro Cunha
It is relevant to unravel the factors that may mediate the cognitive decline observed during aging. Previous reports indicate that education has a positive influence on cognitive performance, while age, female gender and, especially, depressed mood were associated with poorer performances across multiple cognitive dimensions (memory and general executive function). Herein, the present study aimed to characterize the cognitive performance of community-dwelling individuals within distinct educa...
Song, Sunmi; Graham-Engeland, Jennifer E; Mogle, Jacqueline; Martire, Lynn M
We examined the effect of daily negative and positive mood on the sleep quality of knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients (N = 152) and whether a partner's daily responses to a patient's pain behaviors moderated these associations. Patients and their partners completed a baseline interview and 22 daily diary assessments. After controlling for demographic characteristics, OA severity, comorbidities, medication use, relationship satisfaction, and depressed mood, multilevel modeling analyses demonstrated main effects of negative and positive mood on sleep quality indicators. Mood and partner responses interacted such that high solicitous and punishing responses strengthened the association between negative mood and worse sleep. Further, high solicitous responses increased the degree of association between low positive mood and poor sleep, and empathic responses combined with positive mood were associated with better sleep. Results demonstrate that daily negative and positive mood fluctuations can interact with partner responses to affect sleep quality among older adults with chronic pain. PMID:26143147
Full Text Available Abstract Background The current study explored the prevalence of depressed mood among Chinese undergraduate students and examined the coping patterns and degree of flexibility of flexibility of such patterns associated with such mood. Methods A set of questionnaire assessing coping patterns, coping flexibility, and depressive symptoms were administered to 428 students (234 men and 194 women. Results A total of 266 participants both completed the entire set of questionnaires and reported a frequency of two or more stressful life events (the criterion needed to calculate variance in perceived controllability. Findings showed that higher levels of depressive symptoms were significantly associated with higher levels of both event frequency (r = .368, p Conclusions Findings indicate that Chinese university students with depressive symptoms reported experiencing a greater number of negative events than did non-depressed university students. In addition, undergraduates with depressive symptoms were more likely than other undergraduates to utilize maladaptive coping methods. Such findings highlight the potential importance of interventions aimed at helping undergraduate students with a lower coping flexibility develop skills to cope with stressful life events.
Qureshi, Naseem Akhtar; Al-Bedah, Abdullah Mohammed
Mood disorders are a major public health problem and are associated with considerable burden of disease, suicides, physical comorbidities, high economic costs, and poor quality of life. Approximately 30%-40% of patients with major depression have only a partial response to available pharmacological and psychotherapeutic interventions. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has been used either alone or in combination with conventional therapies in patients with mood disorders. This review of the literature examines evidence-based data on the use of CAM in mood disorders. A search of the PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, and Quertile databases using keywords was conducted, and relevant articles published in the English language in the peer-reviewed journals over the past two decades were retrieved. Evidence-based data suggest that light therapy, St John's wort, Rhodiola rosea, omega-3 fatty acids, yoga, acupuncture, mindfulness therapies, exercise, sleep deprivation, and S-adenosylmethionine are effective in the treatment of mood disorders. Clinical trials of vitamin B complex, vitamin D, and methylfolate found that, while these were useful in physical illness, results were equivocal in patients with mood disorders. Studies support the adjunctive role of omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid in unipolar and bipolar depression, although manic symptoms are not affected and higher doses are required in patients with resistant bipolar depression and rapid cycling. Omega-3 fatty acids are useful in pregnant women with major depression, and have no adverse effects on the fetus. Choline, inositol, 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan, and N-acetylcysteine are effective adjuncts in bipolar patients. Dehydroepiandrosterone is effective both in bipolar depression and depression in the setting of comorbid physical disease, although doses should be titrated to avoid adverse effects. Ayurvedic and homeopathic therapies have the potential to improve symptoms of depression, although larger controlled trials are needed. Mind-body-spirit and integrative medicine approaches can be used effectively in mild to moderate depression and in treatment-resistant depression. Currently, although CAM therapies are not the primary treatment of mood disorders, level 1 evidence could emerge in the future showing that such treatments are effective. PMID:23700366
Moura, Daniela Silva; Sultan, Serge; Georgin-Lavialle, Sophie; Pillet, Nathalie; Montestruc, François; Gineste, Paul; Barete, Stéphane; Damaj, Gandhi; Moussy, Alain; Lortholary, Olivier; Hermine, Olivier
Depression in patients with mastocytosis is often reported but its prevalence and characteristics are not precisely described. In addition, the impact of therapies targeting mast cells proliferation, differentiation and degranulation on psychic symptoms of depression have never been investigated. Our objective was to determine the prevalence and to describe features of depression in a large cohort of mastocytosis patients (n?=?288) and to investigate the therapeutic impact of the protein kinase inhibitor masitinib in depression symptoms. The description of depression was based on the analysis of a database with Hamilton scores using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Efficacy of masitinib therapy was evaluated using non parametric Wilcoxon test for paired data within a three months period (n?=?35). Our results show that patients with indolent mastocytosis present an elevated prevalence of depression (64%). Depression was moderate in 56% but severe in 8% of cases. Core symptoms (such as psychic anxiety, depressed mood, work and interests) characterized depression in mastocytosis patients. Masitinib therapy was associated with significant improvement (67% of the cases) of overall depression, with 75% of recovery cases. Global Quality of Life slightly improved after masitinib therapy and did not predicted depression improvement. In conclusion, depression is very frequent in mastocytosis patients and masitinib therapy is associated with the reduction its psychic experiences. We conclude that depression in mastocytosis may originate from processes related to mast cells activation. Masitinib could therefore be a useful treatment for mastocytosis patients with depression and anxiety symptoms. PMID:22031830
Pasquale Caponnetto; Riccardo Polosa; Roberta Auditore; Cristina Russo; Davide Campagna
The association between nicotine dependence and affective disorders, particularly major depressive disorder (MDD), is well known with high prevalence rates being reported for smokers. The reason for this association is not clear, but, it has been argued that smoking may help individuals to cope with stress or medicate depressed mood. Smoking cessation programs are useful in helping smokers to quit, but smoking is a very difficult addiction to break, especially for people suffering from depres...
Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of extreme environments on mood state changes in hypoxic conditions and cold conditions in comparison to baseline conditions. The research design involved participants completing a two-hour stationary cycle ergometer ride at a simulated altitude of 2,500 metres, O°C, and normal laboratory conditions at a pace equivalent of lactate threshold. Eight male elite cyclists (Age: M = 26.23 yrs., SD = 6.74 completed the hypoxia- normal cycling trials. Ten male highly trained cyclists (Age: M = 23.34 yrs., SD = 5.45 participated in the cold-normal trials. Mood was assessed before, after one hour, and after two hours using the 24-item Brunel Mood Scale. MANOVA results indicated no significant interaction effect for mood changes over time by environment condition (Wilks' Lambda = .73, p = .32, Eta2 = .05, a significant main effect for mood changes over time (Wilks' Lambda = .61. p < .001, Partial Eta2 = .15 and a significant main effect for differences in mood by condition (Wilks' Lambda = .72, p < .000, Partial Eta2 = .15. Results indicated that increased anger, depression and fatigue were associated with performing at altitude, particularly after two hours of exercise. Collectively, results lend support to the notion that altitude is associated with negative mood states, although it should be noted that environment conditions did not affect the change in mood states over time. We suggest that further research is needed to explore mechanisms that individuals use to regulate negative mood during strenuous exercise.
Full Text Available Depression is a term that has been used to describe a variety of ailments, ranging from minor to incapacitating. Clinically significant depression, termed as major depression, is a serious condition characterized not only by depressed mood but also by a cluster of somatic, cognitive, and motivational symptoms. Significant research efforts are aimed to understand the neurobiological as well as psychiatric disorders, and the evaluation of treatment of these disorders is still based solely on the assessment of symptoms. In order to identify the biological markers for depression, we have focused on gathering information on different factors responsible for depression including stress, genetic variations, neurotransmitters, and cytokines and chemokines previously suggested to be involved in the pathophysiology of depression. The present review illustrates the potential of biomarker profiling for psychiatric disorders, when conducted in large collections. The review highlighted the biomarker signatures for depression, warranting further investigation.
Platte, Petra; Herbert, Cornelia; Pauli, Paul; Breslin, Paul A S
This study examined the impact of three clinical psychological variables (non-pathological levels of depression and anxiety, as well as experimentally manipulated mood) on fat and taste perception in healthy subjects. After a baseline orosensory evaluation, 'sad', 'happy' and 'neutral' video clips were presented to induce corresponding moods in eighty participants. Following mood manipulation, subjects rated five different oral stimuli, appearing sweet, umami, sour, bitter, fatty, which were delivered at five different concentrations each. Depression levels were assessed with Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI) and anxiety levels were assessed via the Spielberger's STAI-trait and state questionnaire. Overall, subjects were able to track the concentrations of the stimuli correctly, yet depression level affected taste ratings. First, depression scores were positively correlated with sucrose ratings. Second, subjects with depression scores above the sample median rated sucrose and quinine as more intense after mood induction (positive, negative and neutral). Third and most important, the group with enhanced depression scores did not rate low and high fat stimuli differently after positive or negative mood induction, whereas, during baseline or during the non-emotional neutral condition they rated the fat intensity as increasing with concentration. Consistent with others' prior observations we also found that sweet and bitter stimuli at baseline were rated as more intense by participants with higher anxiety scores and that after positive and negative mood induction, citric acid was rated as stronger tasting compared to baseline. The observation that subjects with mild subclinical depression rated low and high fat stimuli similarly when in positive or negative mood is novel and likely has potential implications for unhealthy eating patterns. This deficit may foster unconscious eating of fatty foods in sub-clinical mildly depressed populations. PMID:23755167
Full Text Available Deirdre A Conroy, Anameti Usoro, Robert F Hoffmann, Kirk J Brower, Roseanne ArmitageUniversity of Michigan, Department of Psychiatry, Ann Arbor, MI, USAPurpose: Sleep disturbances can lead to the onset and relapse of psychiatric disorders. However, the age at which this relationship begins and the role of sleep disturbances in the trajectory to the onset of a psychiatric disorder are still not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to explore, based on self- and parental-reports of mood symptoms, subjective and objective sleep in young children who are at risk of developing a psychiatric disorder but who have not yet met diagnostic criteria.Patients and methods: Twenty-one children (eleven girls between the ages of 8 and 11 (mean age = 9.7 years, standard deviation = 1.1 years were dichotomized into low mood (LM and not low mood (NLM groups based on scoring below or above the median threshold score on at least two of the following questionnaires: the Child Depressive Rating Scale (CDRS, Weinberg Screening Affective Scale (WSAS, and Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS. The children completed sleep diaries and underwent two nights (for adaptation and baseline of polysomnography. Sleep stages and sleep microarchitecture (alpha, sigma, beta, and delta in the first half of the night, were analyzed.Results: Self-reported sleep disturbance accounted for 72% of the variance (F[3, 20] = 15, P < 0.005 of the Weinberg Screening Affective Scale in LM children. LM children had fewer arousals at night, but awakened earlier than NLM children. Regardless of mood, girls had more sleep disturbance, as well as lower alpha, beta, and delta power in the first half of the night, compared to boys. Girls with LM had shorter sleep times and a lower percentage of rapid eye movement sleep.Conclusions: Girls with and without LM, and without a clinical diagnosis of depression, showed more sleep disturbances than boys of the same age. Sleep disturbances evident early in life and in LM girls may reflect greater risk for future sleep or psychiatric disorders.Keywords: depression, insomnia, EEG, pediatrics
Full Text Available Restless leg syndrome (RLS is a sensorimotor disorder with symptoms including uncomfortable subjective sensations in the legs and the urge to move them. This common disorder affects 10% of the population and may reduce quality of life. The pathophysiology of RLS is not well understood but dysfunction of dopaminergic pathways is the most prominent theory. Antidepressants, especially SSRIs, can aggravate the symptoms of RLS. Here we present a 42 year old woman diagnosed with major depressive disorder and comorbid RLS and who had been treated with paroxetine 20 mg/day for 2 months who benefited from switching to bupropion treatment. In this case the RLS symptoms had existed for approximately 3 years but were milder before paroxetine treatment. The patient met the diagnostic criteria for RLS. We used the International Restless Legs Scale (IRLS and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS to measure the patients symptom severity. The severity of her depressive symptoms was similar to baseline despite the two month paroxetine treatment. Due to symptoms of RLS and her ongoing depressive complaints, we decided to switch from paroxetine to bupropion. With 150 mg/day bupropion XL treatment, her RLS symptoms improved substantially at a one month follow-up while her depression severity was not changed significantly. Due to inadequate response for depression, bupropion XL was titrated to 300 mg/day. Her depressive symptoms improved significantly at a further one month follow-up. Comorbidity of RLS and depression was found to be as a frequent occurence reported in the literature. We concluded that bupropion, as a selective noradrenergic-dopaminergic reuptake inhibitor can be a good alternative to the SSRIs for patients, who suffer from both depression and RLS.
Humensky, Jennifer; Kuwabara, Sachiko A; Fogel, Joshua; Wells, Corrie; Goodwin, Brady; Van Voorhees, Benjamin W
We examine school performance among 83 adolescents at risk for major depression. Negative mood interfered with subjective measures of school performance, including ability to do well in school, homework completion, concentrate in class, interact with peers, and going to class. No significant relationships were found for mood and objective measures of school performance (school attendance, English, and Math grades). Students with a college-educated parent had stronger performance in objective measures (school attendance and Math grades), whereas males had lower English grades. In qualitative interviews, adolescents reported that negative thinking led to procrastination, which led to poor school performance, which led to more negative thinking. Adolescents with depressive symptoms that do not meet the threshold for referral report struggles in school. Understanding the specific challenges faced by adolescents with even low levels of depressive symptoms can help school nurses, teachers, and parents identify appropriate interventions to help adolescents succeed in school. PMID:20606058
WÃ¼rtzen, Hanne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Elsass, Peter; Sumbundu, Antonia Dorthea; Steding-Jensen, Marianne; Karlsen, Randi ValbjÃ¸rn; Andersen, Klaus Kaae; Flyger, Henrik L; Pedersen, Anne E.; Johansen, Christoffer
INTRODUCTION: As the incidence of and survival from breast cancer continue to raise, interventions to reduce anxiety and depression before, during and after treatment are needed. Previous studies have reported positive effects of a structured 8-week group mindfulness-based stress reduction program...... (MBSR) among patients with cancer and other conditions. PURPOSE: To test the effect of such a programme on anxiety and depression among women with breast cancer in a population-based randomised controlled study. METHODS: A total of 336 women who had been operated on for breast cancer (stage I-III) were...... randomised to usual care or MBSR+usual care. Questionnaires including the Symptom Checklist-90r anxiety and depression subscales and the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale were administered before randomisation and immediately, 6 and 12 months after the intervention. RESULTS: Intention...
Alexander, Jeanne Leventhal; Dennerstein, Lorraine; Kotz, Krista; Richardson, Gregg
Women experience a high prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders, and comorbidity of mood and anxiety disorders is highly prevalent. Both mood and anxiety disorders disturb sleep, attention and, thereby, cognitive function. They result in a variety of somatic complaints. The mood disorder continuum includes minor depression, dysthymia, major depression and bipolar disorder. Chronobiological disorders, such as seasonal affective disorder as well as premenstrual dysphoric disorder, occur in some women, with comorbid seasonal affective disorder and premenstrual dysphoric disorder in just under half of these individuals  . Early life experience, heritability, gender, other psychiatric illness, stress and trauma all interact dynamically in the development of mood and anxiety disorders. The epidemiology, nomenclature and clinical diagnostic issues of these illnesses in midlife woman are reviewed. PMID:18039068
Full Text Available Atypical depression is defined as a specifier of major depressive disorder. Columbia criteria for atypical depression are commonly used to make a diagnosis. Female sex, onset at early age, chronic course, and higher rate of comorbidity (especially anxiety disorder and bipolar disorder is noteworthy in atypical depression. Although, the atypical depression seems to support the familial genetic transition, there is not any specific study supporting these data. In the treatment of atypical depression, monoamine oxidase inhibitors are reported to be more effective than tricyclic antidepressants. In recent studies, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have also proven to be efficient.
Ehrlich, Katherine B.; Cassidy, Jude; Dykas, Matthew J.
The issue of informant discrepancies about child and adolescent functioning is an important concern for clinicians, developmental psychologists, and others who must consider ways of handling discrepant reports of information, but reasons for discrepancies in reports have been poorly understood. Adolescent attachment and informant depressive
Hess, Elaine A.; Becker, Martin A.; Pituch, Keenan A.; Saathoff, Andrea K.
This article examines college students' self-reported mood states during a suicidal crisis and the relationship between mood and indicators of suicidality. Multilevel modeling demonstrated that the moods of hopelessness and anger predicted stronger intent; anxiety/worry predicted weaker thoughts of suicide; hopelessness increased the odds of
Full Text Available Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the association among painful temporomandibular disorders (TMD, self reported tinnitus, and levels of depression. Method The sample consisted of 224 individuals with ages ranges from 18 to 76 years. The Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders Axis I were used to classify TMD and Axis II were used for self reported tinnitus, and to score the levels of depression. The odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence interval (CI was applied. Results The presence of painful TMD without tinnitus was significantly associated with moderate/severe levels of depression (OR=9.3, 95%; CI: 3.44-25.11. The concomitant presence of painful TMD and tinnitus self-report increased the magnitude of the association with moderate/severe levels of depression (OR=16.3, 95%; CI, 6.58-40.51. Conclusion Painful temporomandibular disorders, high levels of depression, and self reported tinnitus are deeply associated. However, this association does not imply a causal relationship.
Dingemans, Alexandra E; Visser, Hiske; Paul, Linda; van Furth, Eric F
Executive functions play an important role in problem-solving and self-control. Set-shifting is an aspect of executive functioning and represents cognitive flexibility. The inability to control eating in Binge Eating Disorder (BED) may imply deficits in set-shifting which could be exacerbated by negative mood and depressive symptoms. The aim of the study was to test whether there is a causal relationship between set-shifting ability, changes in mood and loss of control over eating in BED. Seventy-five participants diagnosed with BED were randomly assigned to a negative or neutral mood induction. Set-shifting abilities, depressive symptoms, current mood and loss of control over eating were assessed. Having depressive symptoms and poorer set-shifting abilities resulted in a more negative mood after a negative mood induction, whereas this was not observed in the neutral mood induction. Post-hoc analyses revealed that individuals with poorer set-shifting abilities and more changes in negative mood, experienced more feelings of loss of control over eating than individuals whose set-shifting abilities were better and whose mood did not change. The results suggest that both depressive symptoms and deficits in set-shifting abilities may decrease an individual's ability to handle negative affect and increase loss of control over eating in individuals with BED. PMID:26365690
Christodoulou, Joan; Burke, Deborah M
Although mood congruity effects on episodic memory have been reported extensively in adults, they have not been reported for children younger than 10years. The current research investigated mood congruity effects in story recall using an embodied approach to mood induction involving a facial manipulation task with 3- and 4-year-old children. Participants held a chopstick or a popsicle stick in their mouths in a way to either produce or inhibit a smile while they listened to a story featuring happy events for a happy character and sad events for a sad character. Children's mood ratings before and after mood induction indicated that mood became more positive in the smile condition, with no change in the no smile condition. Children in the smile condition, but not in the no smile condition, remembered more about the happy character than the sad character in the story. These results extend mood congruity effects to 3- and 4-year olds, suggesting that at this age representations of emotion interact with basic memory processes. Moreover, the efficacy of reenactment of sensorimotor components of emotion in modifying mood is consistent with embodied representation of emotion during early childhood. PMID:26601787
Goodnick, P J; Chaudry, T; Artadi, J; Arcey, S
Since the introduction of antidepressants in the 1950s, it was assumed for the next several decades that there were no special reasons to look at the application of these medications to women. In the past half-century, particularly in the past decade, since the advent of the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRI), a series of specific foci have developed. Firstly, there appear to be differences in the degree of response to particular antidepressants between the genders. Secondly, there is data concerning hormonal effects of particular relevance to women, i.e. prolactin, which separates out among the antidepressants. Also of concern to women are the potential teratogenic effects of these medications, which impact on their use during pregnancy. Finally, there are certain diagnostic syndromes that are particularly relevant to women: premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD); postpartum depression (PPD) and perimenopausal depression (PMD). It appears that the SSRIs may be more effective, relative to the older tricyclic antidepressants (TCA), in women than in men. The SSRIs have shown to be effective in treating these disorders, with the possibility of intermittent luteal phase treatment of PMDD. Non-antidepressant (AD) approaches have generally been found to be less effective. In the first trimester of pregnancy, there is data available supporting the safe use of SSRIs, particularly those first released, i.e. fluoxetine and sertraline. Finally, all SSRIs, with the exception of sertraline, can increase the risk of hyperprolactinaemia. This can lead to a variety of complications including amenorrhea and osteoporosis. This effect of sertraline, due to its unique profile in blocking re-uptake of dopamine, extends itself into additional relative benefits for sleep and memory. The issues associated for women with bipolar disorder are dealt with in terms of both increased risk of relapse during pregnancy and postpartum periods, as well as the relative risk of use of lithium and mood stabilizers in pregnancy and lactation. PMID:11249499
Reif, Susan; Proeschold-Bell, Rae Jean; Yao, Jia; LeGrand, Sara; Uehara, Anna; Asiimwe, Edgar; Quinlivan, Evelyn Byrd
Background Adherence with medication regimens for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a life-saving behavior for people with HIV infection, yet adherence is challenging for many individuals with co-occurring substance use and/or mood disorders. Medication-taking self-efficacy, which is the confidence that one can take ones medication as prescribed, is associated with better adherence with HIV medication. However, little is known about the influence that other kinds of self-efficacy have on adherence with HIV medication, especially among HIV-infected individuals with co-occurring substance use and/or mood disorders. We sought to examine the relationship between adherence with HIV medication among substance users and three specific kinds of self-efficacy, ie, ones confidence that one can communicate with medical providers, get support, and manage ones mood. We further sought to examine whether symptoms of depression and anxiety moderate these relationships. Methods Patients were recruited from three HIV clinics in the southeastern United States as part of an integrated study of treatment for HIV and substance use. Results We interviewed 154 patients with HIV and substance use who reported taking HIV medications. Based on symptoms of depression and anxiety using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety, 63% had probable depression and/or anxiety. Higher levels of self-efficacy in provider communication (? = 3.86, P < 0.01), getting needed support (? = 2.82, P < 0.01), and mood management (? = 2.29, P < 0.05) were related to better self-reported adherence with HIV medication among study participants with probable depression and/or anxiety. The three kinds of self-efficacy were not associated with medication adherence among participants with HIV and substance use only. Conclusion In the search for mutable factors to improve medication adherence among individuals triply diagnosed with HIV, substance use, and mood disorders, these findings support previous research indicating the benefit of enhancing self-efficacy, and further point to three specific kinds of self-efficacy that may benefit medication adherence, ie, provider communication, getting support, and mood management. PMID:23836979
Steer, R A; Rissmiller, D J; Beck, A T
To provide information about the clinical utility of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) [Beck, A.T., Steer, R.A., & Brown, G.K. (1996b). Manual for the Beck Depression Inventory-II. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation] with geriatric inpatients, the BDI-II was administered to 130 psychiatric inpatients who were 55 years old or above and who were diagnosed with principal DSM-IV major depressive disorders (MDD) (N = 85, 65%) or adjustment disorders with depressed mood (N = 45, 35%). The internal consistency of the BDI-II was high (coefficient alpha = 0.90), and its total score was not significantly related to sex, age, or ethnicity. An iterated maximum-likelihood factor analysis found the Cognitive and Noncognitive dimensions which have been reported for the BDI-II by Steer and co-workers (Steer R.A., Ball R., Ranieri W.F., & Beck A.T. (1999). Dimensions of the Beck Depression Inventory-II in clinically depressed outpatients. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 55, 117-128) in a younger sample of clinically depressed psychiatric outpatients. The mean BDI-II total score of the 85 geriatric inpatients with MDD was also comparable to that of 42 younger (< or = 54 years old) inpatients with MDD. The results were discussed as supporting the use of the BDI-II with clinically depressed geriatric inpatients. PMID:10665163
An email survey of patients attending a PMS and Menopause Centre produced 238 patients whose principal presenting symptom was depression. Seventy-seven percent claimed to have had severe or moderate depression, 17% had had at least one psychotic episode and 14% had attempted suicide. Fifty-eight percent had seen a psychiatrist. Seventy-one percent had received antidepressants and 17% had received mood stabilising drugs. Twelve percent had been admitted to a psychiatric hospital and 3.8% had received electroconvulsive therapy. Sixty-eight percent had premenstrual syndrome as a teenager and 145 women (89%) out of 165 women who had been pregnant had no depression during pregnancy but 110 (66%) developed postnatal depression. Ninety-seven women (58%) who had been pregnant had suffered both premenstrual depression and postnatal depression. All were treated with transdermal estrogens and 93% also had transdermal testosterone. One hundred and seventy-one patients had a uterus and received cyclical progestogen to protect the endometrium and 63% of these developed the premenstrual syndrome-type symptoms of progesterone intolerance during the progestogen days. Thirty-five percent of patients claimed to be cured and 55% had a considerable improvement with estrogen therapy. Only 3.7% reported that there was no improvement. For 94%, the hormone therapy was a life-changing event for the better. None were worse. Forty patients had hysterectomy and bilateral oophorectomy for progesterone intolerance or heavy uterine bleeding and 38 replied that it was life changing for the better with less or no depression. It is concluded that premenstrual and postnatal depressions appear in the same vulnerable women. These women are typically well during pregnancy and are a sub group of reproductive depression which also develops climacteric depression in the transition phase. These types of depression are the product of hormonal changes and respond well to transdermal hormone therapy. PMID:25398672
Frokjaer, Vibe G; Vinberg, Maj; Erritzoe, David; Svarer, Claus; Baaré, William Frans Christian; Budtz-Joergensen, Esben; Madsen, Karine; Madsen, Jacob; Kessing, Lars V; Knudsen, Gitte Moos
Mood disorders are elicited through a combination of genetic and environmental stress factors, and treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors ameliorates depressive symptoms. Changes in the serotonin transporter (SERT) binding may therefore occur in depressive patients and in subjects...... at risk for developing depression. The aim of this study was to explore whether abnormalities in SERT might be present in healthy individuals with familial predisposition to mood disorder. Nine individuals at high familial risk (mean age 32.2+/-4.2 years) and 11 individuals at low risk (mean age 32.......4+/-5.0 years) for developing mood disorder were included. The subjects were healthy twins with or without a co-twin history of mood disorder identified by linking information from the Danish Twin Register and the Danish Psychiatric Central Register. Regional in vivo brain serotonin transporter binding was...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of Patient-reported Outcomes (PROs as secondary endpoints in the development of new antidepressants has grown in recent years. The objective of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the 9-item, patient-administered version of the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS-S. Methods Data from a multicentre, double-blind, 8-week, randomised controlled trial of 278 outpatients diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder were used to evaluate the validity, reliability and sensitivity to change of the MADRS-S using psychometric methods. A Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve was plotted to identify the most appropriate threshold to define perceived remission. Results No missing values were found at the item level, indicating good acceptability of the scale. The construct validity was satisfactory: all items contributed to a common underlying concept, as expected. The correlation between MADRS-S and physicians' MADRS was moderate (r = 0.54, p Conclusion Taking account of patient's perceptions of the severity of their own symptoms along with the psychometric properties of the MADRS-S enable its use for evaluative purposes in the development of new antidepressant drugs.
Khalsa, Sat Bir S; Shorter, Stephanie M; Cope, Stephen; Wyshak, Grace; Sklar, Elyse
Yoga and meditation can alleviate stress, anxiety, mood disturbance, and musculoskeletal problems, and can enhance cognitive and physical performance. Professional musicians experience high levels of stress, performance anxiety, and debilitating performance-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMDs). The goal of this controlled study was to evaluate the benefits of yoga and meditation for musicians. Young adult professional musicians who volunteered to participate in a 2-month program of yoga and meditation were randomized to a yoga lifestyle intervention group (n = 15) or to a group practicing yoga and meditation only (n = 15). Additional musicians were recruited to a no-practice control group (n = 15). Both yoga groups attended three Kripalu Yoga or meditation classes each week. The yoga lifestyle group also experienced weekly group practice and discussion sessions as part of their more immersive treatment. All participants completed baseline and end-program self-report questionnaires that evaluated music performance anxiety, mood, PRMDs, perceived stress, and sleep quality; many participants later completed a 1-year followup assessment using the same questionnaires. Both yoga groups showed a trend towards less music performance anxiety and significantly less general anxiety/tension, depression, and anger at end-program relative to controls, but showed no changes in PRMDs, stress, or sleep. Similar results in the two yoga groups, despite psychosocial differences in their interventions, suggest that the yoga and meditation techniques themselves may have mediated the improvements. Our results suggest that yoga and meditation techniques can reduce performance anxiety and mood disturbance in young professional musicians. PMID:19657730
Horiuchi, Satoshi; Tsuda, Akira; Honda, Yasuhiro; Kobayashi, Hisanori; Naruse, Mayu; Tsuchiyagaito, Aki
The aim of this 2-week study was to examine the effects of self-administered acupressure intervention onlevels of mood of 54 students (34 males and 20 females) majoring in acupuncture and moxibustion medicineat a college located in Fukuoka, Japan. Eligibility criteria were the ability to complete the intervention accurately and no history of psychiatric diseases. The students were randomly assigned to one of the two groups: an intervention group (IG, n = 28) and a control group (CG, n = 26). The IG participants completed fiveacupressure sessions three times a day (morning, noon, and night), involving the application of pressure to six acupuncture points (GB12, SI17, and LI18 according to 2008 World Health OrganizationRegional Office in the Western Pacific standard), three on the left and three on the right side of the neck for 5 s each. The CG participants were requested to spend their time as usual. Self-reported levels of tension-anxiety, depression-dejection, anger-hostility, vigor, fatigue, and confusion over the past week were measured before and after the study as the main outcomes. Side effects were not predicted and not assessed. The retention rate of this trial was 100%. Improvements in mood, defined as a change from baseline to 2 weeks later, were significantly greater in IG. Our results showed that self-administered intervention had the ability to alter mood levels in college students. PMID:25946916
Full Text Available Previous studies report emotion-related, mood-congruent information processing biases in patients with Major Depression. We examined whether rapidly presented emotional word stimuli influenced visual attentional processing; recruiting a sample of 24 psychiatrically healthy participants following induced neutral and sad (n=12 or happy (n=12 mood. Mood induction procedures (MIPs by means of self-referential statements and music were used to manipulate mood. We developed an emotional version of an RSVP paradigm wherein participants were instructed to identify a neutral yellow (T1 and neutral or emotional green (T2 word in a rapidly presented visual stream of distractor items (5 letter consonant strings. The attentional blink (AB, a phenomenon identified in RSVP paradigms, is the reduced ability to identify the second target word (T2 when participants are also required to identify the first target word (T1. We hypothesised that the AB would be associated with suppression of ERFs at 300-450ms (M3 component and 450-600ms (M4 component post-stimulus onset in left frontal and inferior parietal cortices. This effect would be reduced when T2 valence was congruent with the participants mood state, i.e. negative T2 following a sad MIP. Sad and happy MIPs altered mood state in the expected directions. A preliminary analysis of the behavioural data for the first 18 participants to complete the study following neutral and sad (n=8 or happy (n=10 MIPs was conducted. We found a main effect of duration (p<0.001 wherein a shorter latency between T1 and T2 presentation was associated with a larger proportion of T2 blinked trials. However the predicted interaction of mood*valence could not be found. A time-locked analysis of magnetoencephalography (MEG data for T2 blinked trials will be presented to investigate the predicted effects, and beamformer analysis will utilise MRI data to model the sources of the electrophysiological brain activity.
Block, Martin; Stern, Daniel B.; Raman, Kalyan; Lee, Sang; Carey, Jim; Humphreys, Ashlee A.; Mulhern, Frank; Calder, Bobby; Schultz, Don; Rudick, Charles N.; Blood, Anne J.; Breiter, Hans C.
Depression is a debilitating condition that adversely affects many aspects of a person's life and general health. Earlier work has supported the idea that there may be a relationship between the use of certain media and depression. In this study, we tested if self-report of depression (SRD), which is not a clinically based diagnosis, was associated with increased internet, television, and social media usage by using data collected in the Media Behavior and Influence Study (MBIS) database (N = 19,776 subjects). We further assessed the relationship of demographic variables to this association. These analyses found that SRD rates were in the range of published rates of clinically diagnosed major depression. It found that those who tended to use more media also tended to be more depressed, and that segmentation of SRD subjects was weighted toward internet and television usage, which was not the case with non-SRD subjects, who were segmented along social media use. This study found that those who have suffered either economic or physical life setbacks are orders of magnitude more likely to be depressed, even without disproportionately high levels of media use. However, among those that have suffered major life setbacks, high media usersparticularly television watcherswere even more likely to report experiencing depression, which suggests that these effects were not just due to individuals having more time for media consumption. These findings provide an example of how Big Data can be used for medical and mental health research, helping to elucidate issues not traditionally tested in the fields of psychiatry or experimental psychology. PMID:25309388
Block, Martin; Stern, Daniel B; Raman, Kalyan; Lee, Sang; Carey, Jim; Humphreys, Ashlee A; Mulhern, Frank; Calder, Bobby; Schultz, Don; Rudick, Charles N; Blood, Anne J; Breiter, Hans C
Depression is a debilitating condition that adversely affects many aspects of a person's life and general health. Earlier work has supported the idea that there may be a relationship between the use of certain media and depression. In this study, we tested if self-report of depression (SRD), which is not a clinically based diagnosis, was associated with increased internet, television, and social media usage by using data collected in the Media Behavior and Influence Study (MBIS) database (N = 19,776 subjects). We further assessed the relationship of demographic variables to this association. These analyses found that SRD rates were in the range of published rates of clinically diagnosed major depression. It found that those who tended to use more media also tended to be more depressed, and that segmentation of SRD subjects was weighted toward internet and television usage, which was not the case with non-SRD subjects, who were segmented along social media use. This study found that those who have suffered either economic or physical life setbacks are orders of magnitude more likely to be depressed, even without disproportionately high levels of media use. However, among those that have suffered major life setbacks, high media users-particularly television watchers-were even more likely to report experiencing depression, which suggests that these effects were not just due to individuals having more time for media consumption. These findings provide an example of how Big Data can be used for medical and mental health research, helping to elucidate issues not traditionally tested in the fields of psychiatry or experimental psychology. PMID:25309388
Full Text Available Depression is a debilitating condition that adversely affects many aspects of a person's life and general health. Earlier work has supported the idea that there may be a relationship between the use of certain media and depression. In this study, we tested if self-report of depression (SRD, which is not a clinically based diagnosis, was associated with increased internet, television, and social media usage by using data collected in the Media Behavior and Influence Study (MBIS database (N=19,776 subjects. We further assessed the relationship of demographic variables to this association. These analyses found that SRD rates were in the range of published rates of clinically diagnosed major depression. It found that those who tended to use more media also tended to be more depressed, and that segmentation of SRD subjects was weighted toward internet and television usage, which was not the case with non-SRD subjects, who were segmented along social media use. This study found that those who have suffered either economic or physical life setbacks are orders of magnitude more likely to be depressed, even without disproportionately high levels of media use. However, among those that have suffered major life setbacks, high media users particularly television watchers were even more likely to report experiencing depression, which suggests that these effects were not just due to individuals having more time for media consumption. These findings provide an example of how Big Data can be used for medical and mental health research, helping to elucidate issues not traditionally tested in the fields of psychiatry or experimental psychology.
The goal of the study described here was to learn more about dream content in patients who had recovered from serious depression. The question was asked whether these formerly depressed patients still showed depressive traits in their nocturnal dreams, even though their daytime behavior and mood now approached entirely normal levels. (Author)
Full Text Available Mood disorders cause many social problems, often involving family relationships. Few studies are available in the literature comparing patients with bipolar, unipolar, dysthymic, and double depressive disorders concerning these aspects. In the present study, demographic and disease data were collected using a specifically prepared questionnaire. Social adjustment was assessed using the Disability Adjustment Scale and family relationships were evaluated using the Global Assessment of Relational Functioning Scale. One hundred patients under treatment for at least 6 months were evaluated at the Psychiatric Outpatient Clinic of the Botucatu School of Medicine, UNESP. Most patients were women (82% more than 50 (49% years old with at least two years of follow-up, with little schooling (62% had less than 4 years, and of low socioeconomic level. Logistic regression analysis showed that a diagnosis of unipolar disorder (P = 0.003, OR = 0.075, CI = 0.014-0.403 and dysthymia (P = 0.001, OR = 0.040, CI = 0.006-0.275 as well as family relationships (P = 0.002, OR = 0.953, CI = 0914-0.992 played a significant role in social adjustment. Unipolar and dysthymic patients presented better social adjustment than bipolar and double depressive patients (P < 0.001, results that were not due to social class. These patients, treated at a teaching hospital, may represent the severest mood disorder cases. Evaluations were made knowing the diagnosis of the patients, which might also have influenced some of the results. Social disabilities among mood disorder patients are very frequent and intensive.
Karoff, Helle Skovbjerg
The aim of this article is to develop a view of play as a relation between play practices and play moods based on an empirical study of children's everyday life and by using Bateson's term of framing [(1955/2001). In Steps to an ecology of mind (pp. 7580). Chicago: University of Chicago Press], Schmidt's notion of commonness [(2005). Om respekten. København: Danmarks Pædagogiske Universitets Forlag; (2011). On respect. Copenhagen: Danish School of Education University Press] and Heidegger's term mood [(1938/1996). Time and being. Cornwall: Wiley-Blackwell.]. Play mood is a state of being in which we are open and ready, both to others and their production of meaning and to new opportunities for producing meaning. This play mood is created when we engage with the world during play practices. The article points out four types of play moods devotion, intensity, tension and euphorica which show an affiliation with four types of play practices such as sliding, shifting, displaying and exceeding. Though play practices and play moods become possible, this conceptual framework makes it possible to highlight three features of play first, moods are essential to play; second, moods are always in plural and finally, different moods describe different ways of being in play which means different ways of engaging with the world and the people around us.
Ranta, Klaus; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Pelkonen, Mirjami; Marttunen, Mauri
Associations of peer victimization with adolescent depression and social phobia (SP), while controlling for comorbidity between them, have not been sufficiently explored in earlier research. A total of 3156 Finnish adolescents aged 15-16 years participated in a survey study. Self-reported peer victimization, as well as self-reported depression
Burleson, Yi-An Lo
Relationship quality has been determined to be a positive factor in the treatment of depression (Brown, 2000; Fagan, 2009). Although the importance of marriage has been broadly studied, little research has investigated correlations among relationship quality, depressive moods, and attachment styles. Although the prevalence of depressive moods has
McPheeters, Melissa L.; Davis, Alaina; Navarre, J. Richard; Scott, Theresa A.
The objective is to estimate prevalence of parent-reported depression or anxiety among children with ASD, and describe parental concerns for their children. The design is Analysis of National Survey of Children's Health, 2003-2004. The participants are a national sample of 102,353 parents. 311,870 (544/100,000) parents of children ages 4-17 in the
Esbensen, Anna J.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S.; Benson, Betsey A.
The psychometric properties of the Self-Report Depression Questionnaire (SRDQ) were evaluated, extending a previous assessment of this instrument. Data from two independent studies (Esbensen, 2004; Seltzer & Krauss, 1989) were pooled to generate a sample of 192 individuals with primarily mild or moderate mental retardation. Reliability estimates
Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich W.; Trull, Timothy J.
In this review, we discuss ecological momentary assessment (EMA) studies on mood disorders and mood dysregulation, illustrating 6 major benefits of the EMA approach to clinical assessment: (a) Real-time assessments increase accuracy and minimize retrospective bias; (b) repeated assessments can reveal dynamic processes; (c) multimodal assessmentsâ¦
Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich W.; Trull, Timothy J.
In this review, we discuss ecological momentary assessment (EMA) studies on mood disorders and mood dysregulation, illustrating 6 major benefits of the EMA approach to clinical assessment: (a) Real-time assessments increase accuracy and minimize retrospective bias; (b) repeated assessments can reveal dynamic processes; (c) multimodal assessments
Piotr D?browski; Tomasz Wikarek; Wojciech Gruszka; El?bieta Semik-Grabarczyk; Joanna Janowska; Barbara Zahorska-Markiewicz; Piotr Koce?ak; Magdalena Olszanecka-Glinianowicz
Adult obesity has been associated with depression, especially in women. Whether depression leads to obesity or obesity causes depression is unclear. Chronic inflammation is observed in obesity and depression. In 63 obese women without additional diseases depression level was assessed with the Beck's questionnaire. After evaluation of depression level study group was divided into groups according to the mood status (Awithout depression, Bmild depression, and Csevere depression), and serum c...
McGowan, Patrick O.; Kato, Tadafumi
Depression develops as an interaction between stress and an individuals vulnerability to stress. The effect of early life stress and a geneenvironment interaction may play a role in the development of stress vulnerability as a risk factor for depression. The epigenetic regulation of the promoter of the glucocorticoid receptor gene has been suggested as a molecular basis of such stress vulnerability. It has also been suggested that antidepressive treatment, such as antidepressant medication ...
The NIMH Treatment of Depression Collaborative Research Program (TDCRP) was a collaborative agreement between NIMH (Mood, Anxiety and Personality Disorder Research Branch) and three research sites, George Washington University, University of Oklahoma and the University of Pittsbu...
Andrew M. Lane
Full Text Available The present study investigated the influence of personality on exercise-induced mood changes. It was hypothesised that (a exercise would be associated with significant mood enhancement across all personality types, (b extroversion would be associated with positive mood and neuroticism with negative mood both pre- and post-exercise, and (c personality measures would interact with exercise-induced mood changes. Participants were 90 female exercisers (M = 25.8 yr, SD = 9.0 yr who completed the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI once and the Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS before and after a 60-minute exercise session. Median splits were used to group participants into four personality types: stable introverts (n = 25, stable extroverts (n = 20, neurotic introverts (n = 26, and neurotic extroverts (n = 19. Repeated measures MANOVA showed significant mood enhancement following exercise across all personality types. Neuroticism was associated with negative mood scores pre- and post-exercise but the effect of extroversion on reported mood was relatively weak. There was no significant interaction effect between exercise-induced mood enhancement and personality. In conclusion, findings lend support to the notion that exercise is associated with improved mood. However, findings show that personality did not influence this effect, although neuroticism was associated with negative mood
E. Timuçin Oral
Full Text Available Introduction: Despite bipolar patients spend up to one third of their lives in depression, the treatment of bipolar depression remains as an understudied area. Although more atypical depressive symptoms are expected to be seen in bipolar depression, ethnocultural differences and regular follow-ups can change the onset and expression of clinical symptoms. Thus, in the present study, we aimed to evaluate the symptoms of depressive bipolar patients who are followed up in a specialized mood disorder unit. Methods: The most severe depressive symptoms of 144 bipolar patients were followed up using standardized forms in a specialized mood disorder outpatient unit. Obtained data analyzed by descriptive statistics. Results: It was determined that less than 10% of depressive symptoms were severe. Feelings of guilt and low self-esteem were not detected in nearly half of the patients (45,8%; active (3,5% or passive (15,3% suicidal ideation was seen approximately in one-fifth of the patients. The rate of psychotic symptoms was considerably low (4,2%. Beside this, vegetative symptoms other than loss of energy and lack of concentration were not seen in more than half of the patients. Adding a mood stabilizer or titrating the levels and psychotherapeutic interventions were adequate for remission in one-third of the patients. Discussion: Although previously it was reported bipolar depressive symptoms were severe with higher suicide rates, in less than 10% of patients, depressive symptoms were severe and the rate of active suicidal ideation was 3,5% in our study. Moreover, the rate of psychotic symptoms was found 4,2%. Although occurrence of milder symptoms contradicts with the literature, this can be explained by the follow-up of the patients in a specialized unit and early intervention before symptoms get more severe. Decreased need for pharmacological intervention can also be explained by the same reason.
Meltzer-Brody, Samantha; Jones, Ian
The perinatal period is a time of high risk for women with unipolar and bipolar mood disorders. We discuss treatment considerations for perinatal mood disorders, including unipolar and bipolar depression as well as postpartum psychosis. We further explore the unique issues faced by women and their families across the full trajectory of the perinatal period from preconception planning through pregnancy and following childbirth. Treatment of perinatal mood disorders requires a collaborative care approach between obstetrics practitioners and mental health providers, to ensure that a thoughtful risk : benefit analysis is conducted. It is vital to consider the risks of the underlying illness versus risks of medication exposure during pregnancy or lactation. When considering medication treatment, attention must be paid to prior medication trials that were most efficacious and best tolerated. Lastly, it is important to assess the impact of individual psychosocial stressors and lifestyle factors on treatment response. PMID:26246794
Full Text Available There is growing evidence to support the rapid, albeit short-lived antidepressant effect of subanesthetic dose of ketamine, a noncompetitive glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist in treatment-resistant unipolar and bipolar depression. Ketamine is known to cause transient mood elevation or euphoria, psychotomimetic effects, and dissociative symptoms, but its use in unipolar or bipolar depression has not been reported to induce an affective switch amounting to persistent or prolonged hypomania/mania or manic-like syndrome. We report the case of a 52-year-old male with first episode, continuous, nonpsychotic, treatment-resistant, unipolar major depression of 10 years duration, who manifested a switch from depression to mania while being treated with subanesthetic dose of ketamine, given intramuscularly. This case suggests that polarity switch should be considered as a potential side effect while using ketamine for treatment-resistant depression.
Blom, Eva Henje; Bech, Per; Högberg, Göran; Larsson, Jan Olov; Serlachius, Eva
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder is prevalent in the adolescent psychiatric clinical setting and often comorbid with other primary psychiatric diagnoses such as ADHD or social anxiety disorder. Systematic manual-based diagnostic procedures are recommended to identify such comorbidity but they are time-consuming and often not fully implemented in clinical practice. Screening for depressive symptoms in the child psychiatric context using brief, user-friendly and easily managed self-...
Full Text Available Hypericum perforatum extracts, popularly known as St. Johns wort (known as sar? kantaron in Turkish are widely used for the treatment of major depression, especially in German speaking countries. Data on the effectiveness of such extracts for the maintenance treatment of major depression is limited. In this case report, a female patient who was euthymic under escitalopram treatment and experienced a recurrence of depression following a switch to St. Johns wort will be described.
Mackinnon Andrew J.; Barney Lisa; Leach Liana S; Christensen Helen; Griffiths Kathy M
Abstract Background To date, there has been very little work investigating behaviour changes induced by interventions that are designed to increase help seeking. The present paper examines the effects of two Internet depression websites on help seeking. Methods 414 individuals with elevated scores on a depression assessment scale were randomly allocated to a depression information website, a cognitive-behavioural skills training website (CBT) or an attention control condition. Reports of help...
Full Text Available Depressive episodes are significant in bipolar illness since patients can spend up to one-third of their lives in depression. Although the treatment of bipolar depression remains an understudied area, new data from randomized, controlled trials and naturalistic studies expanded the range of treatments avaliable. The main aim in the treatment of bipolar depression is the prevention of the patient switching to mania and cycle acceleration, and antidepressant therapy may be contraindicated because of the risk for switching. Guidelines for the acute treatment of the bipolar depression emphasize treatment with a mood stabilizer, of which lithium has been the most thoroughly studied in randomized, controlled trials in acute bipolar depression. Lamotrigine had found significant ellicacy in recent studies as well and got FDA approval for its effect on preventing new episodes.
Karoff, Helle Skovbjerg
The aim of this article is to develop a view of play as a relation between play practices and play moods based on an empirical study of children's everyday life and by using Bateson's term of framing [(1955/2001). In Steps to an ecology of mind (pp. 7580). Chicago: University of Chicago Press......], Schmidt's notion of commonness [(2005). Om respekten. København: Danmarks Pædagogiske Universitets Forlag; (2011). On respect. Copenhagen: Danish School of Education University Press] and Heidegger's term mood [(1938/1996). Time and being. Cornwall: Wiley-Blackwell.]. Play mood is a state of being in...... which we are open and ready, both to others and their production of meaning and to new opportunities for producing meaning. This play mood is created when we engage with the world during play practices. The article points out four types of play moods devotion, intensity, tension and euphorica which...
Akiskal, H S; Judd, L L; Gillin, J C; Lemmi, H
We summarize clinical and polysomnographic findings in support of the existence of a broad and prevalent spectrum of less than syndromal or subthreshold depressive conditions that constitute subeffective disorders. Many of these conditions were previously subsumed under such rubrics as 'neurotic,' 'characterological,' and 'existential' depressions. Prospective follow-up studies of neurotic depressions (defined by a predominance of the psychological features of, in most instances, less than syndromal depression) have demonstrated their transformation into moderate to melancholic or psychotic depressive, and even bipolar, disorders. Many characterological depressives (outpatients with early insidious onset and fluctuating chronicity of subthreshold manifestations falling short of full syndromal depression), were shown to have shortened REM latency, increased REM%, redistribution of REM to the first part of the night, classic diurnality, high rates of family history for mood disorders, positive response to antidepressants and sleep deprivation, and prospective follow-up course leading to major affective episodes. Shortened REM latency and related sleep neurophysiological disturbances have also been reported to characterize so-called 'borderline' personality disorder even when examined in the absence of concomitant major depression. Finally, among primary care referrals to a sleep disorders center, short REM latency was found in a large number of patients without subjective mood change but with somatic manifestations of depression (meeting Probable Feighner Depression and/or lesser subacute manifestations). Rather than being incidental, the REM disturbances in the foregoing studies appear consistently on consecutive nights of polysomnography in the subthreshold affective group; this was not the case for patients with non-affective personality and anxiety disorders. The findings overall tend to support a common neurophysiological substrate for subthreshold and melancholic depressions and, interpreted in the context of clinical observations, family history and follow-up course, uphold the validity of dysthymic, intermittent and subsyndromal depressions. PMID:9268775
Stenager, E N; Christensen, Lard
The frequency of depressive illness was investigated in 195 patients who had been referred consecutively after attempted suicide during the period 15. February 1989-15, October 1989. A total of 130 of these patients were admitted to hospital while the remainder were treated in the psychiatric emergency room or admission department. Registration of depressive symptoms on admission revealed that 85% had depressed mood and other depressive symptoms. According to the criteria established by Feighner et al. 51% suffered from definite depressive disease on admission. According to Zung's Depression Scale, 60% were depressed. On the basis of observations during hospitalization, 25% suffered from depressive disease according to the criteria established by Feighner et al. 19% of these patients suffered from endogenic depression according to the Newcastle I scale which corresponds to 5% of all the hospitalized patients with attempted suicide. Approximately 10% were treated with antidepressives. Only 8% were discharged with the diagnoses of endogenic or reactive psychoses (ICD-8). It is concluded that depressive symptoms occur in the majority of patients with attempted suicide but that slight non-endogenic depressive states are most commonly concerned and that many of these improve rapidly during hospitalization without medicinal treatment. Restraint should be observed in prescription of antidepressive medicine to patients with attempted suicide until the diagnosis of depressive disease is verified.
Acklin, M W; Sauer, A; Alexander, G; Dugoni, B
In order to investigate the utility of earliest childhood memories (EMs) in clinical assessment, this study investigated the value of EMs in predicting naturally occurring depressive mood states. Of interest were those features of EMs that discriminate depressed from nondepressed individuals. Subjects were 212 undergraduate volunteers who completed the Beck Depression Inventory, the Profile of Mood States, and a self-administered EM questionnaire. Utilizing thematic predictors derived from cognitive and psychodynamic theories of depression, depressed subjects were differentiated from nondepressed subjects at a rate significantly greater than chance, p less than .001, with a highly respectable estimate of cross-validation shrinkage. The findings demonstrate the phenomenon of mood dependent recall in autobiographical memory, namely, that memory attributes are strongly influenced by current mood state. Consistent with psychodynamic theories of depression and in contrast to cognitive theory, depressive mood states appear to facilitate retrieval of memory schemas involving deprivation and disturbing human interaction. Schemas involving loss of control, failure, or reactions to noncontingent reinforcement (perceptions of the self as agent) appear less salient than relationship schemas (perceptions of the self as related) in depressive experience. PMID:2918458
A Nair; V A Vaidya
Depression is the major psychiatric ailment of our times, afflicting â¼20% of the population. Despite its prevalence, the pathophysiology of this complex disorder is not well understood. In addition, although antidepressants have been in existence for the past several decades, the mechanisms that underlie their therapeutic effects remain elusive. Building evidence implicates a role for the plasticity of specific neuro-circuitry in both the pathophysiology and treatment of depression. Damage to limbic regions is thought to contribute to the etiology of depression and antidepressants have been reported to reverse such damage and promote adaptive plasticity. The molecular pathways that contribute to the damage associated with depression and antidepressant-mediated plasticity are a major focus of scientific enquiry. The transcription factor cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) and the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are targets of diverse classes of antidepressants and are known to be regulated in animal models and in patients suffering from depression. Given their role in neuronal plasticity, CREB and BDNF have emerged as molecules that may play an important role in modulating mood. The purpose of this review is to discuss the role of CREB and BDNF in depression and as targets/mediators of antidepressant action.
Depression - major; Depression - clinical; Clinical depression; Unipolar depression; Major depressive disorder ... Doctors do not know the exact causes of depression. It is believed that chemical changes in the ...
Yates, Jennifer A; Clare, Linda; Woods, Robert T; Matthews, Fiona E
Subjective memory complaints (SMC) are a criterion in many definitions of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, there is controversy over whether this is useful and appropriate, as previous research has suggested that SMC may be a function of mood problems such as anxiety and depression. This paper aimed to establish the relationship between MCI and mood in older people and to investigate the role that SMC play in the relationship. Structured interviews were conducted with community dwelling older people in Wales to collect information regarding cognitive functioning, mood, and well-being. A widely-used algorithm was used to categorize 3,173 participants into three groups: not cognitively impaired, MCI including SMC (MCI), and MCI without SMC (MCIW). The odds of experiencing anxiety or depression were calculated for each cognitive group. Participants with MCI had increased odds of experiencing symptoms of both anxiety and depression, but the odds were not changed for participants in the not cognitively impaired or MCIW categories. A mediation analysis was performed on the whole sample using cognition as a dichotomous variable, grouped using an age-, education-, and gender-adjusted median cut off point. This showed that SMC partially mediated the relationship between anxiety and cognition, and depression and cognition. Mood problems may be related to SMC rather than objective cognitive impairment, as only participants with MCI that included SMC showed increased odds of experiencing anxiety and depression. SMC are likely to play a mediating role in the relationship between mood and cognitive functioning. PMID:26402102
Hulsken, Sjoerd; Märtin, Antje; Mohajeri, M Hasan; Homberg, Judith Regina
The most frequently described drugs in the treatment of mood disorders are selective serotonin reuptake and monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors, enhancing serotonin levels in the brain. However, side-effects have been reported for these drugs. Because serotonin levels in the brain are dependent on the availability of the food-derived precursor tryptophan, foods such as chicken, soyabeans, cereals, tuna, nuts and bananas may serve as an alternative to improve mood and cognition. Here we discuss the effects of high- or low-tryptophan-containing food, as well as plant extracts with a modest monoamine reuptake and MAO-A inhibition functional profile, on mood and cognition in healthy and vulnerable human subjects and rodents. Together the studies suggest that there is an inverted U-shaped curve for plasma tryptophan levels, with low and too high tryptophan levels impairing cognition, and moderate to high tryptophan levels improving cognition. This relationship is found for both healthy and vulnerable subjects. Whereas this relationship may also exist for mood, the inverted U-shaped curve for plasma tryptophan levels and mood may be based on different tryptophan concentrations in healthy v. vulnerable individuals. Animal studies are emerging and allow further understanding of effects and the mode of action of food-derived serotonergic components on mood, cognition and mechanisms. Ultimately, insight into the concentrations of tryptophan and other serotonergic components in food having beneficial effects on mood and cognition in healthy, but particularly vulnerable, subjects may support well-being in our highly demanding society. PMID:24134856
Schuch, Stefanie; Koch, Iring
Conflict adaptation can be measured by the "congruency sequence effect", denoting the reduction of congruency effects after incongruent trials (where response conflict occurs) relative to congruent trials (without response conflict). Recently, it has been reported that conflict adaptation is larger in negative mood than in positive mood (van Steenbergen et al., Psychological Science 21:1629-1634, 2010). We conducted two experiments further investigating this important finding. Two different interference paradigms were applied to measure conflict adaptation: Experiment 1 was a Flanker task, Experiment 2 was a Stroop-like task. To get as pure a measure of conflict adaptation as possible, we minimized the influence of trial-to-trial priming effects by excluding all kinds of stimulus repetitions. Mood states were induced by presenting film clips with emotional content prior to the interference task. Three mood states were manipulated between subjects: amused, anxious, and sad. Across both interference paradigms, we consistently found conflict adaptation in negative, but not in positive mood. Taken together with van Steenbergen et al. (Psychological Science 21:1629-1634, 2010) findings, the results suggest that the negative-mood-triggered increase in conflict adaptation is a general phenomenon that occurs independently of the particular mood-induction procedure and interference paradigm involved. PMID:25100233
Music is one of the most expressive media to show and manipulate emotions, but there have been few studies on how to generate music connected to emotions. Such studies have always been shunned upon by musicians affirming that a machine cannot create expressive music, as it's the composer's and player's experiences and emotions that get poured into the piece. At the same time another problem is that music is highly complicated (and subjective) and finding out which elements transmit certain emotions is not an easy task. This demo wants to show how the manipulation of a set of features can actually change the mood the music transmits, hopefully awakening an interest in this area of research.
Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Vinberg, Maj; Macoveanu, Julian; Ehrenreich, Hannelore; Køster, Nicolai; Inkster, Becky; Paulson, Olaf B; Kessing, Lars V; Skimminge, Arnold; Siebner, Hartwig R
assessment with the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, and mood ratings with the Beck Depression Inventory, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and Young Mania Rating Scale at baseline and week 14. Hippocampus segmentation and analysis of hippocampal volume, shape, and gray matter density were conducted with...... analyzed for 69 patients (EPO: n = 35, saline: n = 34). Compared with saline, EPO was associated with mood-independent memory improvement and reversal of brain matter loss in the left hippocampal cornu ammonis 1 to cornu ammonis 3 and subiculum. Using the entire sample, memory improvement was associated...... with subfield hippocampal volume increase independent of mood change. CONCLUSIONS: EPO-associated memory improvement in TRD and BD may be mediated by reversal of brain matter loss in a subfield of the left hippocampus. EPO may provide a therapeutic option for patients with mood disorders who have...
Wernicke, Rachel A.; Pearlman, Michelle Y.; Thorndike, Frances P; Haaga, David A. F.
In the context of a project examining depression vulnerability and cigarette smoking, this study tested whether depression-vulnerable people differed from less vulnerable people in their reactions to a depressive stimulus. Regular smokers with a history of depression, but not currently depressed (n = 63) and never-depressed smokers (n = 64) listened to audiotapes of confederates reading depressive and non-depressive scripts, and reported their reactions. Neither history of depression nor self...
Michael Schredl; Daniel Erlacher; Carmen Gebhart
Research indicates that physical exercise can contribute to better sleep quality. This study investigates the six-week influence of a combined intervention on self-rated sleep quality, daytime mood, and quality of life. A nonclinical sample of 114 adults with chronic initiating and the maintaining of sleep complaints participated in the study. The intervention group of 70 adults underwent moderate physical exercise, conducted weekly, plus sleep education sessions. Improvements among participa...
Giedgowd, Grace E.; Karelitz, Joshua L.; Conklin, Cynthia A.; Lerman, Caryn
Introduction: Negative mood situations often increase smoking behavior and reward, effects that may be greater among women and smokers low in tolerance for distress. Methods: Adult dependent smokers (N = 164; 86 men, 78 women) first completed measures of distress tolerance via self-report and by mirror-tracing and breath-holding tasks. They then participated in 2 virtually identical laboratory sessions, involving induction of negative versus neutral mood (control) via pictorial slides and music. They rated negative affect (NA) before and during mood induction and smoked their preferred brand ad libitum during the last 14 min of mood induction. Our aim was to examine mood effects on NA, smoking reward (liking), and smoking intake (puff volume and number) as a function of sex and distress tolerance. Results: Negative mood induction increased NA, as planned, and smoking reward and intake compared with neutral mood. Increases in NA and puff volume due to negative mood were greater in women compared with men, as hypothesized, but no main effects of the self-report or behavioral distress tolerance measures were seen in responses to mood induction. However, unexpectedly, lower self-reported distress tolerance was associated with greater smoking intake due to negative (but not neutral) mood in men and generally due to neutral (but not negative) mood in women. Conclusions: Negative mood may increase smoking intake more in women compared with men. Yet, low distress tolerance may enhance smoking intake due to negative versus neutral mood differentially between women and men, suggesting that sex and distress tolerance may interact to influence smoking responses to negative mood. PMID:22416115
Mineur, Yann S.; Picciotto, Marina R.
Nicotine dependence is still the major preventable cause of death in the developed world, and has strong comorbity with mood disorders including major depression. Depressed patients are more likely to smoke cigarettes, and quitting can precipitate an episode of depression in some subjects. Interestingly, antidepressants, particularly the atypical antidepressant buproprion, are therapeutics that can help smokers quit. Despite these observations, the underlying biological factors of the relatio...
Holmes, E A; Bonsall, M B; Hales, S A; Mitchell, H; Renner, F; Blackwell, S E; Watson, P; Goodwin, G M; Di Simplicio, M
Treatment innovation for bipolar disorder has been hampered by a lack of techniques to capture a hallmark symptom: ongoing mood instability. Mood swings persist during remission from acute mood episodes and impair daily functioning. The last significant treatment advance remains Lithium (in the 1970s), which aids only the minority of patients. There is no accepted way to establish proof of concept for a new mood-stabilizing treatment. We suggest that combining insights from mood measurement with applied mathematics may provide a step change: repeated daily mood measurement (depression) over a short time frame (1 month) can create individual bipolar mood instability profiles. A time-series approach allows comparison of mood instability pre- and post-treatment. We test a new imagery-focused cognitive therapy treatment approach (MAPP; Mood Action Psychology Programme) targeting a driver of mood instability, and apply these measurement methods in a non-concurrent multiple baseline design case series of 14 patients with bipolar disorder. Weekly mood monitoring and treatment target data improved for the whole sample combined. Time-series analyses of daily mood data, sampled remotely (mobile phone/Internet) for 28 days pre- and post-treatment, demonstrated improvements in individuals' mood stability for 11 of 14 patients. Thus the findings offer preliminary support for a new imagery-focused treatment approach. They also indicate a step in treatment innovation without the requirement for trials in illness episodes or relapse prevention. Importantly, daily measurement offers a description of mood instability at the individual patient level in a clinically meaningful time frame. This costly, chronic and disabling mental illness demands innovation in both treatment approaches (whether pharmacological or psychological) and measurement tool: this work indicates that daily measurements can be used to detect improvement in individual mood stability for treatment innovation (MAPP). PMID:26812041
de Filippis, S.; Salvatori, E; Bozzao, A.; Fantozzi, L. M.; Martelletti, P
B.D. is a 48yearold professional woman. She has been suffering for migraine since she was 28, but she did not have serious problems until last year, when headache episodes became more frequent and it was necessary an admission to emergency room. At the beginning, the events were about 6 per month, lasting from 2 to 4 days, beating and of high intensity together with nausea, vomit, photo and phonophobia and visual area. Looking at the anamnesis, we report a psychiatric treatment since about ...
Utne, Inger; Miaskowski, Christine; Bjordal, Kristin; PAUL, STEVEN M; Rustøen, Tone
Objective: The study purposes were to describe the percentage of patients in one of four mood groups (i.e., neither anxiety nor depression [NEITHER], only anxiety [ANX], only depression [DEP], both anxiety and depression [BOTH]) and to evaluate how differences in mood states are related to pain, hope, and quality of life (QOL). Methods: Oncology inpatients (n=225) completed Brief Pain Inventory, Herth Hope Index (HHI), and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core QO...
Cooper, Gregory S; Zhang, Amy Y.
This study investigated the ICD-9 diagnostic rates of depressive and anxiety disorders, including major depression, neurotic depression, adjustment disorder with depressed mood, depressive disorder NOS (not elsewhere classified), and anxiety states, among elderly Medicare beneficiaries (age â¥ 65) who received a colorectal cancer diagnosis between 1998 and 2002 in U.S. The Seer-Medicare data, representing 14â25% of the U.S. population, was used to examine ICD-9 diagnostic rates of depressive a...
Kim, Dong Soo; Park, Yoon Ghil; Choi, Jung Hwa; Im, Sang-Hee; Jung, Kang Jae; Cha, Young A; Jung, Chul Oh; Yoon, Yeo Hoon
Purpose To investigate the effects of music therapy on depressive mood and anxiety in post-stroke patients and evaluate satisfaction levels of patients and caregivers. Materials and Methods Eighteen post-stroke patients, within six months of onset and mini mental status examination score of over 20, participated in this study. Patients were divided into music and control groups. The experimental group participated in the music therapy program for four weeks. Psychological status was evaluated...
Edgar, N; Sibille, E
Altered glial structure and function is implicated in several major mental illnesses and increasing evidence specifically links changes in oligodendrocytes with disrupted mood regulation. Low density and reduced expression of oligodendrocyte-specific gene transcripts in postmortem human subjects points toward decreased oligodendrocyte function in most of the major mental illnesses. Similar features are observed in rodent models of stress-induced depressive-like phenotypes, such as the unpredi...
The serotonin (5-HT) system has been implicated in both depression and reward and punishment processing. This thesis presents data from four studies designed to better understand the role of serotonin in decision-making and mood. Following the general introduction and description of the main experimental methods, the first experimental chapter presents a study that examined the relationship between naturally-varying 5-HT1A receptor availability, measured using positron emission tomography, an...
Giovanna Martelli; Lucio Tonello; Luca Sardi; Massimo Cocchi
The work examines the hypothesis that the behavioural disorders found in pigs under conditions of stress may also be attributable to inherent conditions of alteration in mood. In light of new evidence that links the biochemical characterization of human depression to a particular profile of fatty acids in platelets, in particular the Palmitic Acid, Linoleic and Arachidonic, the decision was made to investigate platelet fatty acids of different animal species (pig, cattle, cat, sheep), togethe...
Robinson, OJ; Cools, R.; Crockett, MJ; Sahakian, BJ
Reduction of the monoamine serotonin (5-HT) via the dietary manipulation of tryptophan (acute tryptophan depletion; ATD) has been shown to induce negative cognitive biases similar to those found in depression in healthy individuals. However, evidence also indicates that there can be positive effects of ATD on both mood and reinforcement processing. Here, we present two separate studies, with remarkably similar findings, which may help explain these discrepancies. In both experiments, we asses...
Qureshi NA; Al-Bedah AM
Naseem Akhtar Qureshi,1 Abdullah Mohammed Al-Bedah21General Administration for Research and Studies, Sulaimania Medical Complex, 2National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: Mood disorders are a major public health problem and are associated with considerable burden of disease, suicides, physical comorbidities, high economic costs, and poor quality of life. Approximately 30%40% of patients with major depression have only...
In summary, then, moods are ordinary psychic phenomenon which serve important unconscious functions. Like the dream, a mood has a kind of necessary autistic structure to it: people who are in a mood, like persons who are asleep, are inside a special state where a temporal element is at play. They will emerge, like the dreamer, after the spell is over. Some moods, particularly those that are a part of a person's character, are occasions for the expression of a conservative object, as a conservative object is that internal self state that has been preserved intact during childhood often upon some breakdown between the child in relation to his parents. When a person goes 'into' a mood he becomes that child self who was refused expression in relation to his parents for one reason or another. As such, moods are often the existential registers of the moment of a breakdown between a child and his parents, and partly notate the parent's own developmental arrest, in that the parent was unable to deal appropriately with the child's particular maturational needs. What was a self experience in the child, one that could have been integrated into the child's continuing self development, was rejected by the parents, who failed to perform adequately as ordinary 'transformational objects', thereby destining a self state to be frozen by the child into a conservative object that fated such a state of being to be subsequently represented only through moods. PMID:6735602
Lake, Charles Raymond
Delusional paranoia has been associated with severe mental illness for over a century. Kraepelin introduced a disorder called paranoid depression, but paranoid became linked to schizophrenia, not to mood disorders. Paranoid remains the most common subtype of schizophrenia, but some of these cases, as Kraepelin initially implied, may be unrecognized psychotic mood disorders, so the relationship of paranoid schizophrenia to psychotic bipolar disorder warrants reevaluation. To address whethe...
The prefrontal cortex is involved in mood and emotional processing. In patients suffering from depression, the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is hypoactive, while activity of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is enhanced. Counterbalancing these pathological excitability alterations by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) improves mood in these patients. In healthy subjects, however, rTMS of the same areas has no majo...
Dalgas, U; Stenager, E; Jakobsen, J; Petersen, T; Hansen, H J; Knudsen, C; Overgaard, K; Ingemann-Hansen, T
Fatigue occurs in the majority of multiple sclerosis patients and therapeutic possibilities are few. Fatigue, mood and quality of life were studied in patients with multiple sclerosis following progressive resistance training leading to improvement of muscular strength and functional capacity. Fatigue (Fatigue Severity Scale, FSS), mood (Major Depression Inventory, MDI) and quality of life (physical and mental component scores, PCS and MCS, of SF36) were scored at start, end and follow-up of a r...
Nanavati, Dhaval; Austin, Daniel R.; Catapano, Lisa A.; LUCKENBAUGH, DAVID A.; Dosemeci, Ayse; MANJI, HUSSEINI K.; Chen, Guang; Markey, Sanford P.
Bipolar disorder is a devastating illness that is marked by recurrent episodes of mania and depression. There is growing evidence that the disease is correlated with disruptions in synaptic plasticity cascades involved in cognition and mood regulation. Alleviating the symptoms of bipolar disorder involves chronic treatment with mood stabilizers like lithium or valproate. These two structurally dissimilar drugs are known to alter prominent signaling cascades in the hippocampus, but their effec...
Corruble Emmanuelle; Barry Caroline; Varescon Isabelle; Durrbach Antoine; Samuel Didier; Lang Philippe; Castaing Denis; Charpentier Bernard; Falissard Bruno
Abstract Background Little research has explored pre-transplantation psychological factors as predictors of outcome after liver or kidney transplantation. Our objective is to determine whether report of depressive symptoms on waiting list predicts outcome of liver and kidney transplantation. Methods Patients on waiting list for liver or kidney transplantation were classified for report or non-report of depressive symptoms on waiting list. 339 were transplanted 6 months later on average, and f...
Parent, Justin; Forehand, Rex; Dunbar, Jennifer P; Watson, Kelly H; Reising, Michelle M; Seehuus, Martin; Compas, Bruce E
The current study examined the congruence of parent and adolescent reports of positive and negative parenting with observations of parent-adolescent interactions as the criterion measure. The role of parent and adolescent depressive symptoms in moderating the associations between adolescent or parent report and observations of parenting also was examined. Participants were 180 parents (88.9 % female) with a history of clinical depression and one of their 9-to-15 year old children (49.4 % female). Parents and adolescents reported on parenting skills and depressive symptoms, and parenting was independently observed subsequently in the same session. Findings indicated adolescent report of positive, but not negative, parenting was more congruent with observations than parent report. For negative parenting, depressive symptoms qualified the relation between the parent or adolescent report and independent observations. For parents, higher levels of depressive symptoms were associated with more congruence with observed parenting (supporting a depressive realism hypothesis) whereas an opposite trend emerged for adolescents (providing some supporting evidence for a depression-distortion hypothesis). PMID:23851629
Full Text Available Abstract Background The onset and course of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS are strongly influenced by psychological factors, and treatment often includes cognitive-behavioral therapy. We conducted a study of the relationships between cognitive appraisal of IBS symptoms and negative mood for the subtypes of IBS. Method The participants were 1087 college students who completed a set of questionnaires that included the Rome II Modular Questionnaire, Self-reported IBS Questionnaire, Cognitive Appraisal Rating Scale, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results The participants included 206 individuals with IBS; 61 had diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBSD and 45 had constipation-predominant IBS (IBSC. The overall IBS group scored higher on anxiety and depression than the control group. The IBSD and IBSC groups each had significantly higher scores for anxiety but did not significantly differ from the control group in scores for depression. There were no significant differences between the IBSD and IBSC groups in their cognitive appraisal of IBS symptoms. For the IBSD group, anxiety was significantly, positively correlated with commitment, effect, and threat, and depression was significantly, negatively correlated with controllability. In contrast, there were no significant correlations between mood and cognitive appraisal for the IBSC group. Multiple regression analyses with abdominal symptoms as dependent variables and cognitive appraisals as independent variables showed that for the IBSD group, abdominal pain was significantly, positively correlated with commitment, and abdominal discomfort was significantly, positively correlated with appraisal of effect and threat. For the IBSC group, abdominal pain and hard stool were significantly, positively correlated with commitment, and abdominal discomfort was significantly, positively correlated with appraisal of effect and threat. Conclusion IBS patients as a general group report high levels of anxiety and depression. However, IBSD and IBSC were both associated only with high anxiety, but not depression, when compared to the non-IBS control group. For the IBSD group, anxiety was associated with cognitive appraisals, but this association was not found for the IBSC group. These groups did not differ in their associated cognitive appraisals, and are similar in terms of the positive relationship between abdominal pain and discomfort and the cognitive appraisals of coping.
Banasr, Mounira; Dwyer, Jason M; Duman, Ronald S.
Depression is associated with structural alterations in limbic brain regions that control emotion and mood. Studies of chronic stress in animal models and postmortem tissue from depressed subjects demonstrate that these structural alterations result from atrophy and loss of neurons and glial cells. These findings indicate that depression and stress-related mood disorders can be considered mild neurodegenerative disorders. Importantly, there is evidence that these structural alterations can be...
Seyed-Hossein, Salimi; Mohamad-Reza, Tagavi; Parviz, Azad-Fallah; Reza, Karaminia; Tayebi, A.
The self-report of depressive symptoms of high school adolescents from two populations were compared. The study aims to find out whether or not; 1) there are significant sex differences between two communities and 2) with regard to the same-sex, there are significant differences between two communities. Nine hundred and twenty eight adolescents from London and 2012 adolescents from six cities from Iran were requested to fill in the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS). The results showed that significant differences between two sexes in each population. All girls had higher mean scores on all items on DSRS than boys. With regard to the same-sex, significant differences were found between either female or male populations in two communities. The research showed that female adolescents from Iran were significantly experienced more depressive symptoms than the Londoners. Similar results were repeated for the male groups. In conclusion, female adolescents are vulnerable to life stressors and tend to experience more negative feedback and interpretations than boys. Moreover, social roles and limitations, particularly for Iranian adolescents, may influence female adolescents to demonstrate depression symptoms.
Hofmann, Stefan G; Petrocchi, Nicola; Steinberg, James; Lin, Muyu; Arimitsu, Kohki; Kind, Shelley; Mendes, Adriana; Stangier, Ulrich
Conventional treatments for mood disorders primarily focus on reducing negative affect, but little on enhancing positive affect. Loving-kindness meditation (LKM) is a traditional meditation practice directly oriented toward enhancing unconditional and positive emotional states of kindness towards oneself and others. We report here two independent and uncontrolled studies carried out at different centers, one in Boston, USA (n = 10), and one in Frankfurt, Germany (n = 8), to examine the potential therapeutic utility of a brief LKM group intervention for symptoms of dysthymia and depression. Results at both centers suggest that LKM was associated with large-sized effects on self-reported symptoms of depression (d = 3.33 and 1.90), negative affect (d = 1.98 and 0.92), and positive affect (d = 1.63 and 0.94). Large effects were also found for clinician-reported changes in depression, rumination and specific positive emotions, and moderate effects for changes in adaptive emotion regulation strategies. The qualitative data analyses provide additional support for the potential clinical utility of the intervention. This proof-of-concept evaluation of LKM as a clinical strategy warrants further investigation. PMID:26136807
Bershadsky, Svetlana; Trumpfheller, Linda; Kimble, Holly Beck; Pipaloff, Diana; Yim, Ilona S
Perinatal depression impacts maternal and child health, and little is known about effective interventions. The effects of prenatal Hatha yoga on cortisol, affect and depressive symptoms were investigated in 51 women. Twice during pregnancy, yoga group participants reported on affect and provided a saliva sample before and after a 90-min prenatal Hatha yoga session. Corresponding measures were obtained from yoga and control group participants on days of usual activity. Depressive symptoms were assessed in pregnancy and post partum. Cortisol was lower (p yoga compared to usual activity days. Negative affect and contentment (p yoga session. Yoga group participants showed fewer postpartum (p depressive symptoms than control group participants. Findings indicate that prenatal Hatha yoga may improve current mood and may be effective in reducing postpartum depressive symptoms. PMID:24767955
Connor, Cody J; Liu, Vincent; Fiedorowicz, Jess G
Psoriasis is a chronic, immune-mediated skin condition with a high rate of psychiatric comorbidity, which often goes unrecognized. Beyond the negative consequences of mood disorders like depression and anxiety on patient quality of life, evidence suggests that these conditions can worsen the severity of psoriatic disease. The mechanisms behind this relationship are not entirely understood, but inflammation seems to be a key feature linking psoriasis with mood disorders, and physiologic modulators of this inflammation, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and sympathetic nervous system, demonstrate changes with psychopathology that may be contributory. Cyclical disruptions in the secretion of the sleep hormone, melatonin, are also observed in both depression and psoriasis, and with well-recognized anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity, this aberration may represent a shared contributor to both conditions as well as common comorbidities like diabetes and cardiovascular disease. While understanding the complexities of the biological mechanisms at play will be key in optimizing the management of patients with comorbid psoriasis and depression/anxiety, one thing is certain: recognition of psychiatric comorbidity is an imperative first step in effectively treating these patients as a whole. Evidence that improvement in mood decreases psoriasis severity underscores how psychological awareness can be critical to clinicians in their practice. PMID:26550011
Obesity markedly increases the odds of developing depression. Depressed mood not only impairs motivation, quality of life and overall functioning but also increases the risks of obesity complications. Abdominal obesity is a better predictor of depression and anxiety risk than overall adipose mass. A growing amount of research suggests that metabolic abnormalities stemming from central obesity that lead to metabolic disease may also be responsible for the increased incidence of depression in o...
Costa i Font, Joan; Gil, Joan
Recent evidence questions some conventional view on the existence of income-related inequalities in depression suggesting in turn that other determinants might be in place, such as activity status and educational attainment. Evidence of socio-economic inequalities is especially relevant in countries such as Spain that have a limited coverage of mental health care and are regionally heterogeneous. This paper aims at measuring and explaining the degree of socio-economic inequality in reported d...
Hazwani Hanafi@Ahmad Yusof
Full Text Available Purpose: This study was designed to compare the effects of two different relaxation techniques, namely progressive muscle relaxation (PMR and autogenic relaxation (AGR on moods of young soccer players. Methods: Sixteen adolescent athletes (mean age: 14.1 ± 1.3 received either PMR or AGR training. Using Profile of Mood States-Adolescents, their mood states were measured one week before relaxation training, before the first relaxation session, and after the twelfth relaxation session. Results: Mixed ANOVA revealed no significant interaction effects and no significant main effects in any of the subscales. However, significant main effects for testing sessions were found for confusion, depression, fatigue, and tension subscales. Post hoc tests revealed post-intervention reductions in the confusion, depression, fatigue, and tension subscale scores. Conclusions: These two relaxation techniques induce equivalent mood responses and may be used to regulate young soccer players' mood states.
Ryan, Kelly A; Dawson, Erica L; Kassel, Michelle T; Weldon, Anne L; Marshall, David F; Meyers, Kortni K; Gabriel, Laura B; Vederman, Aaron C; Weisenbach, Sara L; McInnis, Melvin G; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Langenecker, Scott A
Major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder share symptoms that may reflect core mood disorder features. This has led to the pursuit of intermediate phenotypes and a dimensional approach to understand neurobiological disruptions in mood disorders. Executive dysfunction, including cognitive control, may represent a promising intermediate phenotype across major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. This study examined dimensions of cognitive control in women with major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder in comparison to healthy control subjects using two separate, consecutive experiments. For Experiment 1, participants completed a behavioural cognitive control task (healthy controls = 150, major depressive disorder = 260, bipolar disorder = 202; age range 17-84 years). A sample of those participants (healthy controls = 17, major depressive disorder = 19, and bipolar disorder = 16) completed a similar cognitive control task in an event-related design functional magnetic resonance imaging protocol for Experiment 2. Results for Experiment 1 showed greater impairments on the cognitive control task in patients with mood disorders relative to healthy controls (P Experiment 2 revealed only a few areas of shared activation differences in mood disorder greater than healthy controls. Activation analyses using performance as a regressor, irrespective of diagnosis, revealed within and extra-network areas that were more active in poor performers. In summary, performance and activation during cognitive control tasks may represent an intermediate phenotype for mood disorders. However, cognitive control dysfunction is not uniform across women with mood disorders, and activation is linked to performance more so than disease. These findings support subtype and dimensional approaches to understanding risk and expression of mood disorders and are a promising area of inquiry, in line with the Research Domain Criteria initiative of NIMH. PMID:25818869
Cropley, Mark; Banks, Adrian P; Boyle, Julia
This trial evaluated the impact of a Rhodiola rosea L. extract on self-reported anxiety, stress, cognition, and other mood symptoms. Eighty mildly anxious participants were randomized into two different groups of either Rhodiola rosea L (2?×?200 mg dose Vitano®, 1 tablet taken before breakfast and 1tablet before lunch) or a control condition (no treatment). Self-report measures and cognitive tests were completed at four testing sessions over a period of 14 days. Relative to the controls, the experimental group demonstrated a significant reduction in self-reported, anxiety, stress, anger, confusion and depression at 14 days and a significant improvements in total mood. No relevant differences in cognitive performance between the groups were observed. Rhodiola rosea L (Vitano®) presented a favourable safety tolerability profile. Although this was a non-placebo controlled trial, it is unlikely that the findings were the result of placebo effects as changes appeared gradual and were specific to certain psychological measures. However, we cannot determine a causal relationship; further investigations are recommended to support the effects of Rhodiola rosea L. extract on stress related symptoms. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26502953
Xin, Li-Min; Chen, Lin; Ji, Zhen-Peng; Zhang, Suo-Yuan; Wang, Jun; Liu, Yan-Hong; Chen, Da-Fang; Yang, Fu-De; Wang, Gang; Fang, Yi-Ru; Lu, Zheng; Yang, Hai-Chen; Hu, Jian; Chen, Zhi-Yu; Huang, Yi; Sun, Jing; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Li, Hui-Chun; Zhang, Jin-Bei; Si, Tian-Mei
Objective To analyze the sociodemographic and clinical factors related to anxiety in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods This study involved a secondary analysis of data obtained from the Diagnostic Assessment Service for People with Bipolar Disorders in China (DASP), which was initiated by the Chinese Society of Psychiatry (CSP) and conducted from September 1, 2010 to February 28, 2011. Based on the presence or absence of anxiety-related characteristics, 1,178 MDD patients were classified as suffering from anxious depression (n=915) or non-anxious depression (n=263), respectively. Results Compared with the non-anxious group, the anxious-depression group had an older age at onset (t=?4.39, p<0.001), were older (t=?4.69, p<0.001), reported more lifetime depressive episodes (z=?3.24, p=0.001), were more likely to experience seasonal depressive episodes (?2=6.896, p=0.009) and depressive episodes following stressful life events (?2=59.350, p<0.001), and were more likely to have a family history of psychiatric disorders (?2=6.091, p=0.014). Their positive and total scores on the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) and the 32-item Hypomania Checklist (HCL-32) (p<0.05) were also lower. The logistic regression analysis indicated that age (odds ratio [OR]=1.03, p<0.001), a lower total MDQ score (OR=0.94, p=0.011), depressive episodes following stressful life events (OR=3.04, p<0.001), and seasonal depressive episodes (OR=1.75, p=0.039) were significantly associated with anxious depression. Conclusion These findings indicate that older age, fewer subclinical bipolar features, an increased number of depressive episodes following stressful life events, and seasonal depressive episodes may be risk factors for anxiety-related characteristics in patients with MDD. PMID:26598584
De Burgo De Lima Ramos, Joana
This thesis goal was to test the role of mood in the mobilisation of mental effort. Based on the Mood-Behavior-Model, study 1 intended to clarify that mood effects on effort mobilization are context-dependent; study 2 was designed to provide a more conclusive test of mood informational impact on behavior-related judgments; and studies 3 and 4 manipulated judgment context itself, while accounting for the context-dependency of moods. Effort mobilization was operationalized as cardiovascular rea...
Mason, Malia F.; Bar, Moshe
Mood affects the way people think. But can the way people think affect their mood? In the present investigation, we examined this promising link by testing whether mood is influenced by the presence or absence of associative progression by manipulating the scope of participants' information processing and measuring their subsequent mood. In
Semkovska, Maria; Noone, Martha; Carton, Mary; McLoughlin, Declan M
Autobiographical amnesia assessments in depression need to account for normal changes in consistency over time, contribution of mood and type of memories measured. We report herein validation studies of the Columbia Autobiographical Memory Interview - Short Form (CAMI-SF), exclusively used in depressed patients receiving electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) but without previous published report of normative data. The CAMI-SF was administered twice with a 6-month interval to 44 healthy volunteers to obtain normative data for retrieval consistency of its Semantic, Episodic-Extended and Episodic-Specific components and assess their reliability and validity. Healthy volunteers showed significant large decreases in retrieval consistency on all components. The Semantic and Episodic-Specific components demonstrated substantial construct validity. We then assessed CAMI-SF retrieval consistencies over a 2-month interval in 30 severely depressed patients never treated with ECT compared with healthy controls (n=19). On initial assessment, depressed patients produced less episodic-specific memories than controls. Both groups showed equivalent amounts of consistency loss over a 2-month interval on all components. At reassessment, only patients with persisting depressive symptoms were distinguishable from controls on episodic-specific memories retrieved. Research quantifying retrograde amnesia following ECT for depression needs to control for normal loss in consistency over time and contribution of persisting depressive symptoms. PMID:22397910
Autobiographical amnesia assessments in depression need to account for normal changes in consistency over time, contribution of mood and type of memories measured. We report herein validation studies of the Columbia Autobiographical Memory Interview - Short Form (CAMI-SF), exclusively used in depressed patients receiving electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) but without previous published report of normative data. The CAMI-SF was administered twice with a 6-month interval to 44 healthy volunteers to obtain normative data for retrieval consistency of its Semantic, Episodic-Extended and Episodic-Specific components and assess their reliability and validity. Healthy volunteers showed significant large decreases in retrieval consistency on all components. The Semantic and Episodic-Specific components demonstrated substantial construct validity. We then assessed CAMI-SF retrieval consistencies over a 2-month interval in 30 severely depressed patients never treated with ECT compared with healthy controls (n=19). On initial assessment, depressed patients produced less episodic-specific memories than controls. Both groups showed equivalent amounts of consistency loss over a 2-month interval on all components. At reassessment, only patients with persisting depressive symptoms were distinguishable from controls on episodic-specific memories retrieved. Research quantifying retrograde amnesia following ECT for depression needs to control for normal loss in consistency over time and contribution of persisting depressive symptoms.