The influence of isolation and confinement on social support and depressed mood was examined in a study of 235 men and women who spent a year at McMurdo Station in Antarctica, and a study of 77 men and women who spent a year at the Amundson-Scott South Pole Station. Although availability of support remained unchanged, there was a significant decrease in reported satisfaction with support obtained, as well as a significant increase in depressed mood. Satisfaction with support was inversely associated with depressed mood at the beginning and end of isolation and confinement. At the end of winter, this association varied by source of support. High levels of tension-anxiety, depression and anger preceded an increase in advice seeking, but high levels of advice seeking also preceded an increase in tension-anxiety and depression. Results suggest a significant erosion of social support under conditions of prolonged isolation and confinement, leading to an increase in depressed mood.
Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Johnson, Jeffrey C.; Boster, James S.
Understanding the emotional risk factors for cigarette smoking in adolescence can greatly inform prevention efforts. The current study examined prospective relationships between 3 affective dimensions--negative mood variability, overall negative mood, and depression---affect-related smoking motives, and future smoking patterns among adolescents. The current study expands on prior research by using real-time methods to assess mood and by focusing on a key developmental transition in smoking behavior: the progression from experimentation or low level, infrequent use to higher use. Ninth- and 10th-grade students (N = 461; 55% girls) provided data on cigarette use at a baseline and follow-up 15-month wave, and also provided ecological momentary assessments of negative moods via palmtop computers for 1 week at each wave. Negative mood was examined via the means of negative mood reports at each wave, and mood variability was examined via the intraindividual standard deviations of negative mood reports at each wave. Depressive symptoms and smoking motives were also assessed. Findings supported a complex self-medication model of smoking escalation in adolescence whereby mood-smoking relationships differed by affect dimension and gender. For girls, greater negative mood variability at baseline significantly predicted rapid escalation in smoking over time, whereas depressive symptoms and overall negative mood were unrelated to girls' smoking patterns. In contrast, overall negative mood significantly predicted boys' smoking escalation among those with affect-related motives for smoking. Results thus suggest that inconsistent mood-smoking relations in past work may be driven by the complex interrelationships among affect vulnerabilities, gender, and smoking patterns. PMID:23438244
Weinstein, Sally M; Mermelstein, Robin J
Two patients with schizophrenia and depressive mood experienced remission in both their psychotic and depressive symptoms during treatment with the atypical antipsychotic quetiapine. These case reports illustrate the antipsychotic clinical efficacy of quetiapine and its antidepressant effects in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia and depressive mood. PMID:10812533
Khouzam, H R
Aims. Depression requires the presence of either depressed mood or anhedonia, yet little research attention has been focused on distinguishing these two symptoms. This study aimed to obtain the prevalence rates of these two core depression symptoms and to explore the risk factors for each symptom by race/ethnicity. Methods. 2423 White, African American, Hispanic and Asian/Pacific Islander (API) women from the Massachusetts area completed the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) from 2007 to 2008. Results. Socioeconomic variables (SES) accounted for increased rates in depressed mood and anhedonia among African Americans and Hispanics compared with Whites. API women were still 2.1 times more likely to report anhedonia after controlling for SES. Stressors were associated with depressed mood across groups and associated with anhedonia for Whites and Hispanics. Having a female infant was associated with depressed mood for APIs. Being non-US born was associated with anhedonia for Whites, APIs and African Americans, but not Hispanics. Conclusions. Prevalence rates for depressed mood and anhedonia differ across race/ethnic groups and risks associated with depressed mood and anhedonia depend on the race/ethnic group, suggesting the importance of distinguishing depressed mood from anhedonia in depression assessment and careful inquiry regarding symptom experiences with a diverse patient population. PMID:23931673
Liu, C H; Tronick, E
Homeless gay and bisexual (G/B) men are at risk for suicide attempts and have high risk of depressed mood, defined as elevated level of depressive symptoms. This study describes baseline socio-demographic, cognitive, psychosocial, and health- and drug-related correlates of depressed mood in 267 stimulant-using homeless G/B young men who entered a study designed to reduce drug use. G/B men without social support were 11 times more likely to experience depressed mood than their counterparts who had support; those who reported severe body pain were almost six times more likely to report depressed mood than those without pain. Other factors that increased risk of depressed mood included being homeless in the last four months, injecting drugs, reporting poor or fair health status, and high levels of internalized homophobia. This study is one of the first studies to draw a link between pain experienced and depressed mood in homeless young G/B men. Understanding the correlates of depressed mood among homeless G/B young men can help service providers design more targeted treatment plans and provide more appropriate referrals to ancillary care services. PMID:23017039
Nyamathi, Adeline; Branson, Catherine; Idemundia, Faith; Reback, Cathy; Shoptaw, Steven; Marfisee, Mary; Keenan, Colleen; Khalilifard, Farinaz; Liu, Yihang; Yadav, Kartik
The present study used a cross-sectional survey design to examine how adolescent depressive mood was related to attributional styles and coping strategies with a sample of 326 youths (aged 8-14 years). With the cutting point adopted in the West, 20.9% of the current sample reported depressive symptoms. Regression analysis results show that, with…
Chan, Siu Mui
Objective: The aim of this study was to compare patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) following a life event to those suffering from adjustment disorder (AD) with depressed mood in terms of clinical features, nature of precipitating stress factors, and functioning. Methods: In this study, we included 32 individuals diagnosed as AD with depressed mood, 22 individuals diagnosed as MDD following a life event, and a control group of 30 individuals without any psychological or physical i...
Gülcan Güleç; Cem Kaptano?lu; Semiha Tufan Temiz
OBJECTIVE: At temperate latitudes, 1-5% of the population suffer from winter depression; during winter, mood difficulties tend to increase but may be alleviated by bright light therapy. Unlike indoor workers, outdoor workers are exposed to therapeutic levels of sunlight during winter. We hypothesized that outdoor work may protect against mood difficulties and depression. METHOD: We studied this hypothesis among 2910 civil servants from Århus, Denmark, who participated in a survey in January-February 2009. Mental symptoms (N=422) defined a common case category that we broke down into two parts: depression (N=66) and mood difficulties but no depression (N=356). A total of 222 controls were also sampled from the study population. All 644 participants reported the extent of outdoor work. RESULTS: The confounder-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of mood difficulties showed a decreasing trend by increasing hours of outdoor work of borderline statistical significance. The OR was 0.63 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.34-1.18)] for those working outdoors for >2 hours a day. No such effect was suggested for depression. CONCLUSION: Our study is limited by its cross-sectional design and low statistical power but nevertheless suggests that outdoor work during winter may protect against mood difficulties. If this finding holds true it may have significant impact on workers' health as well as public health in general. Therefore, further studies are recommended.
Hahn, Ina H; Grynderup, Matias B
Full Text Available Abstract Background The disability associated with depression and its impact on maternal and child health has important implications for public health policy. While the prevalence of postnatal depression is high, there are no prevalence data on antenatal depression in South Africa. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of depressed mood in pregnancy in Cape Town peri-urban settlements. Methods This study reports on baseline data collected from the Philani Mentor Mothers Project (PMMP, a community-based, cluster-randomized controlled trial on the outskirts of Cape Town, South Africa. The PMMP aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a home-based intervention for preventing and managing illnesses related to HIV, TB, alcohol use and malnutrition in pregnant mothers and their infants. Participants were 1062 pregnant women from Khayelitsha and Mfuleni, Cape Town. Measures included the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS, the Derived AUDIT-C, indices for social support with regards to partner and parents, and questions concerning socio-demographics, intimate partner violence, and the current pregnancy. Data were analysed using bivariate analyses followed by logistic regression. Results Depressed mood in pregnancy was reported by 39% of mothers. The strongest predictors of depressed mood were lack of partner support, intimate partner violence, having a household income below R2000 per month, and younger age. Conclusions The high prevalence of depressed mood in pregnancy necessitates early screening and intervention in primary health care and antenatal settings for depression. The effectiveness and scalability of community-based interventions for maternal depression must be developed for pregnant women in peri-urban settlements. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00972699.
le Roux Ingrid
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to compare patients with major depressive disorder (MDD following a life event to those suffering from adjustment disorder (AD with depressed mood in terms of clinical features, nature of precipitating stress factors, and functioning. Methods: In this study, we included 32 individuals diagnosed as AD with depressed mood, 22 individuals diagnosed as MDD following a life event, and a control group of 30 individuals without any psychological or physical illness. The participants completed the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAS, Hamilton Depression Scale (HDS, Rahe-Holmes Social Readjustment Rating Scale, Life Experiences Survey (LES, Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF Scale and the Social Functioning Scale (SFS. Both patient groups have been evaluated prospectively for six months. The data were analyzed using Spearman’s rank correlation, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance, chi-square and Mann-Whitney U tests.Results: The symptom profile of patients diagnosed as having AD with depressed mood was found to be similar to that of subjects with MDD. However, the patients suffering from AD with depressed mood had higher scores on HAS and HDS as compared to the individuals with MDD and, the functioning levels were lower in the MDD group than in the AD group. The severity of life event was related to the severity of psychopathology in the AD group, but this was not the case for the MD group. Conclusion: Clinically, AD is quite similar to MDD. AD, a disorder related to life event, is less severe disorder than MDD in terms of symptom profile. At the same time, AD patients demonstrate higher level of functioning than MDD patients. The relationship between MDD and AD should be investigated with larger sample size and long prospective studies. (Archives of Neuropsychiatry 2012; 49: 20-8
Full Text Available Cognitive reactivity to sad mood refers to the degree to which a mild dysphoric state reactivates negative thinking patterns. In this research, the contribution of the history of depression, the length of the current depressive episode and the intensity of the depressive symptoms were assessed in explaining the cognitive reactivity to sad mood measured with the Leiden Index of Depression Sensitivity (LEIDS. The sample consisted of 123 depressed outpatients. The results of principal components analysis suggested a three-factor solution of the LEIDS. The intensity of depressive symptoms, the history of depression and the length of the current depressive episode were all significant in explaining cognitive reactivity to sad mood. We have also found out a significant effect of interaction of the history of depression and the length of the current depressive episode, which demonstrated that a prolonged depression does not induce a stronger cognitive reactivity to sad mood during the relapse of a depressive episode, while during the first depressive episode a longer duration of depression does induce a stronger cognitive reactivity. Such a result demonstrates that the length of the first depressive episode, regardless of its intensity, is crucially important for the formation of cognitive reactivity.
The tendency to interpret ambiguous everyday situations in a relatively negative manner (negative interpretation bias) is central to cognitive models of depression. Limited tools are available to measure this bias, either experimentally or in the clinic. This study aimed to develop a pragmatic interpretation bias measure using an ambiguous scenarios test relevant to depressed mood (the AST-D).1AST-D: ambiguous scenarios test relevant to depressed mood1 In Study 1, after a pilot phase (N = 53)...
Berna, C.; Lang, Tj; Goodwin, Gm; Holmes, Ea
Objective. To describe the prevalence of patients who screen positive for bipolar disorder (BD) symptoms in primary care comparing two screening instruments: Mood Disorders Questionnaire (MDQ) and Hypomania Checklist (HCL-32). Participants. Adult patients presenting to their primary care practitioners for any cause and reporting current depression symptoms or a depressive episode in the last 6 months. Methods. Subjects completed MDQ and HCL-32, and clinical diagnosis was assessed by a psychia...
Anna Sasdelli; Loredana Lia; Claudia Luciano, C.; Claudia Nespeca; Domenico Berardi; Marco Menchetti
Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to explore the characteristics of the memory bias in Coronary heart disease with Depressive Mood, in which the inpatients with coronary heart disease (CHD have been surveyed by Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS and 60 inpatients were chosen for further experiment: half with depressive mood (16 mild, 9 moderate and 5 severe and the rest being normal. Then they were measured with the Autobiographical Memory test. The results revealed that ? The generalized scores of the CHD inpatients with depressive mood group were higher than those of the simple CHD in total memorizing clue words, positive and negative clue words, and a significant statistical difference(P0.05 ;? The scores of the CHD inpatients with different depressive moods had significant differences(P<0.01?that is: with the worsening of the depression, the scores of generalized autobiographical memories became higher. It can be concluded that the autobiographical memory of CHD inpatients with depressive mood has deficits, which is mainly manifested as over generality, and the generality of autobiographical memory is associated with the severity of depressive moods.
Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of antidepressants on recovery in bipolar depression. Method: The most recent depressive episode of patients with DSM-IV Bipolar Disorder, recruited from a specialized mood disorder outpatient unit in Turkey, were evaluated retrospectively. Thirty-four patients, only received mood stabilizer titration or did not change their current treatment regimens and thirty patients, treated with an antidepressant agent were compared on rates of recurrence and time to remission. Results: One third of patients in each group were taking at least one mood stabilizer during their depressive episodes. Mood stabilizer levels were similar in each group and were within therapeutic limits. There were no significant differences between groups on rates of recurrence or time to remission. Conclusions: In this preliminary retrospective study, patients with bipolar depression who were treated with antidepressants did not have a better outcome than patients who received no antidepressants.
BACKGROUND: Compared to unipolar depression (UD), depressed mood in bipolar disorder (BD) has been associated with amplified negative mental imagery of the future ('flashforwards'). However, imagery characteristics during positive mood remain poorly explored. We hypothesise first, that unlike UD patients, the most significant positive images of BD patients will be 'flashforwards' (rather than past memories). Second, that BD patients will experience more frequent (and more 'powerful') positive...
Ivins, A.; Di Simplicio, M.; Close, H.; Goodwin, Gm; Holmes, E.
Full Text Available Depression involves a dysfunction in an affective fronto-limbic circuitry including the prefrontal cortices, several limbic structures including the cingulate cortex, the amygdala and the hippocampus as well as the basal ganglia. A major emphasis of research on the etiology and treatment of mood disorders has been to assess the impact of centrally generated (top-down processes impacting the affective fronto-limbic circuitry. The present review shows that peripheral (bottom-up unipolar stimulation via the visual and the auditory modalities as well as by physical exercise modulates mood and depressive symptoms in humans and animals and activates the same central affective neurocircuitry involved in depression. It is proposed that the amygdala serves as a gateway by articulating the mood regulatory sensorimotor stimulation with the central affective circuitry by emotionally labeling and mediating the storage of such emotional events in long-term memory. Since both amelioration and aggravation of mood is shown to be possible by unipolar stimulation, the review suggests that a psychophysical assessment of mood modulation by multi-modal stimulation may uncover mood ameliorative synergisms and serve as adjunctive treatment for depression. Thus, the integrative review not only emphasizes the relevance of investigating the optimal levels of mood regulatory sensorimotor stimulation, but also provides a conceptual springboard for related future research.
We examined whether press reports on the collective mood of investors can predict changes in stock prices. We collected data on the use of emotion words in newspaper reports on traders' affect, coded these emotion words according to their location on an affective circumplex in terms of pleasantness and activation level, and created indices of collective mood for each trading day. Then, by using time series analyses, we examined whether these mood indices, depicting investors' emotion on a given trading day, could predict the next day's opening price of the stock market. The strongest findings showed that activated pleasant mood predicted increases in NASDAQ prices, while activated unpleasant mood predicted decreases in NASDAQ prices. We conclude that both valence and activation levels of collective mood are important in predicting trend continuation in stock prices. PMID:24015202
Cohen-Charash, Yochi; Scherbaum, Charles A; Kammeyer-Mueller, John D; Staw, Barry M
Comorbidity between antisocial behavior and depression in adolescence is widely recognized. This paper examines whether links with depressed mood differ among three subtypes of antisocial behavior: oppositionality, physical aggression and delinquency. In addition we examine two possible contributors to these links: negative life events that are…
Rowe, Richard; Maughan, Barbara; Eley, Thalia C.
The objectives of the current study were to (a) determine how lifetime community violence (CV) victimization, coping behavior, social support (SS), and depressed mood are related in young adults, and (b) assess whether the relationship between CV victimization and depressive reactions is moderated by perceived SS and coping style. Five hundred…
Haden, Sara C.; Scarpa, Angela
Full Text Available Previous research has found dysfunctional attitudes to be elevated in persons with elevated depressed mood, and a facet of dysfunctional attitudes referred to as Approval by Others has been a significant predictor of severity of depressed mood. The present study evaluated relations between Approval by Others and depression and examined the role of dysfunctional evaluative cognitions over life problems and hassles as a mediator of this relationship among 100 undergraduates. Approval By Others facet was found to be a significant predictor of severity of depressed mood. However, further analysis provided strong evidence that the effect of this dysfunctional attitudes facet is mediated by evaluative cognitions over life problems and hassles. Results are discussed in the context of previous research and cognitive behavioural therapy practice.
Full Text Available Background: Traumatic exposure may modulate the expression of impulsive behavioral dispositions and change the implementation of emotion regulation strategies associated with depressive mood. Past studies resulted in only limited comprehension of these relationships, especially because they failed to consider impulsivity as a multifactorial construct. Objective: Based on Whiteside and Lynam's multidimensional model that identifies four distinct dispositional facets of impulsive-like behaviors, namely urgency, (lack of premeditation, (lack of perseverance, and sensation seeking (UPPS, the current study used a sample of community volunteers to investigate whether an interaction exists between impulsivity facets and lifetime trauma exposure in predicting cognitive emotion regulation and depressive mood. Methods: Ninety-three adults completed questionnaires measuring lifetime trauma exposure, impulsivity, cognitive emotion regulation, and depressive mood. Results: Results showed that trauma-exposed participants with a strong disposition toward urgency (predisposition to act rashly in intense emotional contexts tended to use fewer appropriate cognitive emotion regulation strategies than other individuals. Unexpectedly, participants lacking in perseverance (predisposition to have difficulties concentrating on demanding tasks used more appropriate emotion regulation strategies if they had experienced traumatic events during their life than if they had not. Emotion regulation mediated the path between these two impulsivity facets and depressive mood. Conclusions: Together, these findings suggest that impulsivity has a differential impact on emotion regulation and depressive mood depending on lifetime exposure to environmental factors, especially traumatic events.
The role of negative cognition and effect in maintaining psychotic symptoms is increasingly recognized but has yet to be substantiated though longitudinal analysis. Based on an a priori theoretical model, we hypothesized that negative cognition and depressed mood play a direct causal role in maintaining paranoia in people with psychosis and that the effect of mood is mediated by negative cognition. We used data from the 301 patients in the Prevention of Relapse in Psychosis Trial of cognitive...
Fowler, D.; Hodgekins, J.; Garety, P.; Freeman, D.; Kuipers, E.; Dunn, G.; Smith, B.; Bebbington, Pe
Full Text Available Abstract Background Comorbid depression is common among adults with painful osteoarthritis (OA. We evaluated the relationship between depressed mood and receipt of mental health (MH care services. Methods In a cohort with OA, annual interviews assessed comorbidity, arthritis severity, and MH (SF-36 mental health score. Surveys were linked to administrative health databases to identify mental health-related visits to physicians in the two years following the baseline interview (1996-98. Prescriptions for anti-depressants were ascertained for participants aged 65+ years (eligible for drug benefits. The relationship between MH scores and MH-related physician visits was assessed using zero-inflated negative binomial regression, adjusting for confounders. For those aged 65+ years, logistic regression examined the probability of receiving any MH-related care (physician visit or anti-depressant prescription. Results Analyses were based on 2,005 (90.1% individuals (mean age 70.8 years. Of 576 (28.7% with probable depression (MH score any MH care. The likelihood of receiving any MH care exhibited a significant interaction between MH score and self-reported health status (p = 0.0009; with good general health, worsening MH was associated with increased likelihood of MH care; as general health declined, this effect was attenuated. Conclusions Among older adults with painful OA, more than one-quarter had depressed mood, but almost half received no mental health care, suggesting a care gap.
Phenomenological research suggests that pure manic and depressive states are less common than mixtures of the two and that the two poles of mood are characterized by opposite ways of experiencing time. In mania, the subjective experience of time is sped up and in depression it is slowed down, perhaps reflecting differences in circadian pathophysiology. The two classic mood states are also quite different in their effect on subjective awareness: manic patients lack insight into their excitation, while depressed patients are quite insightful into their unhappiness. Consequently, insight plays a major role in overdiagnosis of unipolar depression and misdiagnosis of bipolar disorder. The phenomenology of depression also is relevant to types of psychotherapies used to treat it. The depressive realism (DR) model, in contrast to the cognitive distortion model, appears to better apply to many persons with mild to moderate depressive syndromes. I suggest that existential psychotherapy is the necessary corollary of the DR model in those cases. Further, some depressive morbidities may in fact prove, after phenomenological study, to involve other mental states instead of depression. The chronic subsyndromal depression that is often the long-term consequence of treated bipolar disorder may in fact represent existential despair, rather than depression proper, again suggesting intervention with existential psychotherapeutic methods. PMID:17122410
Ghaemi, S. Nassir
Background: Depression is frequently characterized by patterns of inflexible, maladaptive, and ruminative thinking styles, which are thought to result from a combination of decreased attentional control, decreased executive functioning, and increased negative affect. Cognitive Control Training (CCT) uses computer-based behavioral exercises with the aim of strengthening cognitive and emotional functions. A previous study found that severely depressed participants who received CCT exhibited reduced negative affect and rumination as well as improved concentration. Aims: The present study aimed to extend this line of research by employing a more stringent control group and testing the efficacy of three sessions of CCT over a 2-week period in a community population with depressed mood. Method: Forty-eight participants with high Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) scores were randomized to CCT or a comparison condition (Peripheral Vision Training; PVT). Results: Significant large effect sizes favoring CCT over PVT were found on the BDI-II (d = 0.73, p < .05) indicating CCT was effective in reducing negative mood. Additionally, correlations showed significant relationships between CCT performance (indicating ability to focus attention on CCT) and state affect ratings. Conclusions: Our results suggest that CCT is effective in altering depressed mood, although it may be specific to select mood dimensions. PMID:24589123
Calkins, Amanda W; McMorran, Katherine E; Siegle, Greg J; Otto, Michael W
Background Cognitive theories of depression suggest that beliefs of low self-worth and the tendency to attribute negative events to causes that are global (widespread rather than specific) and stable (will persist rather than change in the future) are associated with the development of depressed mood. Such theories are supported by evidence from prospective studies and have guided the development of successful treatment and prevention strategies such as CBT. However, the relative importance of different psychological constructs within cognitive theories is unknown. This is important to refine cognitive theories and develop more efficient prevention strategies. Method We used prospective data from over 3500 young adults from the Avon Longitudinal Study for Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort in the UK to investigate the association between cognitive style, measured by short forms of the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale (DAS) and Cognitive Styles Questionnaire-Short Form (CSQ-SF) at age 18, and future depressed mood at age 19. Structural equation modelling techniques were used to separate cognitive style constructs. Results Cognitive styles were associated with future depressed mood, independently of baseline mood, both as measured by the DAS-SF and the CSQ-SF. Of the different CSQ-SF constructs, only global attributions were associated with both baseline and future mood independently of other constructs. Limitations The study was subject to attrition and the follow-up was relatively short (10 months). Conclusion The findings suggest that the tendency to attribute negative events specifically to global causes could be particularly important for depression. Reducing global attributions is potentially important in the prevention and treatment of depression. PMID:25285900
Pearson, R.M.; Heron, J.; Button, K.; Bentall, R.P.; Fernyhough, C.; Mahedy, L.; Bowes, L.; Lewis, G.
The relationship between major depressive disorder (MDD), treatment modality, and mood was evaluated in smokers participating in cessation programs. Participants (N = 549, 53.7% women, 46.3% men, 28% endorsing past MDD episodes) were randomly assigned to a cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) or health education (HE) intervention. Participants…
Haas, Amie L.; Munoz, Ricardo F.; Humfleet, Gary L.; Reus, Victor I.; Hall, Sharon M.
It has been hypothesized that cellular damage caused by oxidative stress is associated with late-life depression but epidemiological evidence is limited. In the present study we evaluated the association between urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin F2? (8-iso-PGF2?), a biomarker of lipid peroxidation, and depressed mood in a large sample of community-dwelling older adults. Participants were selected from the Health, Aging and Body Composition study, a community-based longitudinal study of older persons (aged 70–79 years). The present analyses was based on a subsample of 1027 men and 948 women free of mobility disability. Urinary concentration of 8-iso-PGF2? was measured by radioimmunoassay methods and adjusted for urinary creatinine. Depressed mood was defined as a score greater than 5 on the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale and/or use of antidepressant medications. Depressed mood was present in 3.0% of men and 5.5% of women. Depressed men presented higher urinary concentrations of 8-iso-PGF2? than non-depressed men even after adjustment for multiple sociodemographic, lifestyle and health factors (p?=?0.03, Cohen’s d?=?0.30). This association was not present in women (depressed status-by-sex interaction p?=?0.04). Our study showed that oxidative damage may be linked to depression in older men from a large sample of the general population. Further studies are needed to explore whether the modulation of oxidative stress may break down the link between late-life depression and its deleterious health consequences. PMID:23776478
Milaneschi, Yuri; Cesari, Matteo; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Kanaya, Alka M.; Yaffe, Kristine; Patrignani, Paola; Metti, Andrea; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Pahor, Marco; Ferrucci, Luigi; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.
Objective: To examine whether depressed mood and anger mediate the effects of sexual abuse and family conflict/violence on self-injurious behavior and substance use. Methods: A cross-sectional national survey was conducted including 9,085 16-19 year old students attending all high schools in Iceland in 2004. Participants reported frequency of…
Asgeirsdottir, Bryndis Bjork; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Gudjonsson, Gisli H.; Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik
This paper is an investigation of stress levels and depressed mood at work in sport managers and coaches. Three different questionnaires were applied to professional sport managers (n=60) and coaches (n=52) in Turkey to regard to potential sources of stress before, during and after competitions. This sample represented approximately 21% of the total professional football, basketball and volleyball clubs in Turkey. The questionnaires used are “Perceived Stress Questionnaire”, “Anxiety-St...
Bilge Donuk; Süleyman ?ahin; Faruk Yamaner
Depression involves a dysfunction in an affective fronto-limbic circuitry including the prefrontal cortices, several limbic structures including the cingulate cortex, the amygdala and the hippocampus as well as the basal ganglia. A major emphasis of research on the etiology and treatment of mood disorders has been to assess the impact of centrally generated (top-down) processes impacting the affective fronto-limbic circuitry. The present review shows that peripheral (bottom-up) unipolar stimu...
Full Text Available This paper is an investigation of stress levels and depressed mood at work in sport managers and coaches. Three different questionnaires were applied to professional sport managers (n=60 and coaches (n=52 in Turkey to regard to potential sources of stress before, during and after competitions. This sample represented approximately 21% of the total professional football, basketball and volleyball clubs in Turkey. The questionnaires used are “Perceived Stress Questionnaire”, “Anxiety-Stress Questionnaire” and “Depressed Mood at Work Questionnaire”. Our findings indicated that: The aim of first questionnaire was to assess perceived stressful situations and results show that general stress levels of managers and coaches are under the average. When we examine the second questionnaire consisting of health, physical condition, tension caused by stress; it is seen that negative effects of these factors increase. At last; according to the depressed mood at work questionnaire which evaluates the physiological conditions related to stress; it’s found out that both managers and coaches aren’t satisfied with their working atmosphere and managers’ unhappiness levels are higher than coaches are.
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Traditionally, depression among adolescents has been considered uncommon, with around 5% estimated to suffer from depressive disorder. The purpose is to investigate occurrence and psychological correlates for depressive symptoms in male and female high school adolescents in urban and rural settings. Methods: Participants were 1,069 high school students (response rate 92.0% with a mean age of 17.6 years. The instruments used were the Zung Depression Self-Rating Scale (SDS, Life Regard Index (LRI, the Neuroticism scale by Eysenck (EPQ-N, the Tension and Effort Stress Inventory (TESI, the Subjective Health Complaints scale (SHC, and the Sense of Humour Questionnaire (SHQ-6. Results: Analyzes of Variance showed sex and urban/rural main effects, and/or interactions (boys and rural students showing highest positive ratings. Stepwise regression analyzes on depression showed all but the TESI variables to significantly explain 41% of the variance in depression. The Sense of Humour and Life Regard Index were strong contributors to depression (55% of variation when effects of bodily complaints and scores on stressors and efforts were eliminated. Conclusions: The present study showed an unexpectedly high prevalence of severe (12.7% as well as moderate depressive symptoms (total of 49.2%. Therefore, the results indicate an increase of adolescent depression in recent years. Negative and positive mood, as well as sense of humour, goals in life, and fulfilment of goals seemed to be protecting. Prevalence of depressive symptoms in adolescents was shown to be higher than expected. Positive resource variables appeared to be protecting.
K. Gunnar Götestam
Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in english Background and Objectives: Traditionally, depression among adolescents has been considered uncommon, with around 5% estimated to suffer from depressive disorder. The purpose is to investigate occurrence and psychological correlates for depressive symptoms in male and female high school adolescents i [...] n urban and rural settings. Methods: Participants were 1,069 high school students (response rate 92.0%) with a mean age of 17.6 years. The instruments used were the Zung Depression Self-Rating Scale (SDS), Life Regard Index (LRI), the Neuroticism scale by Eysenck (EPQ-N), the Tension and Effort Stress Inventory (TESI), the Subjective Health Complaints scale (SHC), and the Sense of Humour Questionnaire (SHQ-6). Results: Analyzes of Variance showed sex and urban/rural main effects, and/or interactions (boys and rural students showing highest positive ratings). Stepwise regression analyzes on depression showed all but the TESI variables to significantly explain 41% of the variance in depression. The Sense of Humour and Life Regard Index were strong contributors to depression (55% of variation) when effects of bodily complaints and scores on stressors and efforts were eliminated. Conclusions: The present study showed an unexpectedly high prevalence of severe (12.7%) as well as moderate depressive symptoms (total of 49.2%). Therefore, the results indicate an increase of adolescent depression in recent years. Negative and positive mood, as well as sense of humour, goals in life, and fulfilment of goals seemed to be protecting. Prevalence of depressive symptoms in adolescents was shown to be higher than expected. Positive resource variables appeared to be protecting.
K., Gunnar Götestam; Sven, Svebak; Eva, Naper Jensen.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of the present study was to evaluate memory performance in tasks with and without affective content (to confirm the mood congruency phenomenon) in acutely admitted patients with bipolar I disorder (BD) and major depression disorder (MDD) and in healthy participants. Seventy-eight parti [...] cipants (24 BD, 29 MDD, and 25 healthy controls) were evaluated. Three word lists were used as the memory task with affective content (positive, negative and indifferent). Psychiatric symptoms were also evaluated with rating scales (Young Mania Rating Scale for mania and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale for depression). Patients were selected during the first week of hospitalization. BD patients showed higher scores in the word span with positive tone than MDD patients and healthy controls (P = 0.002). No other difference was observed for tests with affective tone. MDD patients presented significantly lower scores in the Mini-Mental State Exam, logical memory test, visual recognition span, and digit span, while BD patients presented lower scores in the visual recognition test and digit span. Mood congruency effect was found for word span with positive tone among BD patients but no similar effect was observed among MDD patients for negative items. MDD patients presented more memory impairment than BD patients, but BD patients also showed memory impairment
V.B., Delgado; F., Kapczinski; M.L.F., Chaves.
This longitudinal study examines comorbid trajectories of cigarette smoking and depressive mood from adolescence to adulthood and its association with low perceived self-control and low well-being in adulthood. Participants (N=607) were interviewed at six time waves. Growth mixture modeling (GMM) determined membership in joint trajectory groups of comorbid smoking and depressive mood from mean ages 14–32 years. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the associations between earlier trajectory group memberships and low perceived self-control and low well-being in adulthood. Trajectory groups characterized by earlier, comorbid chronic/heavy smoking and chronic/high depressive mood were most at risk for low perceived self-control and low well-being in adulthood. Counseling for adolescents and young adults with low perceived self-control and low well-being should address smoking and depressive mood. Interventions to reduce smoking and depressive mood may result in increased self-control and well-being. PMID:24471577
Brook, David W.; Brook, Judith S.; Zhang, Chenshu
Objectives Although it is understood that work-related factors, including job demands, job control, and workplace support, are associated with workers' health and well-being, the role played by personal characteristics, especially workaholism, has not been fully investigated. This study examined workaholism's associations with psychological ill health, low back pain with disability, and sickness absence among Japanese workers. Methods A cross-sectional Internet survey was conducted using self-administered questionnaires. Data from 3,899 Japanese workers were analyzed. Workaholism was measured using the Dutch Workaholism Scale (DUWAS). Scores were divided into tertiles, where respondents were classified into three groups (high, middle, and low). Depressive mood as a measure of psychological ill health was assessed using the SF-36 mental health subscale, and low back pain using a standardized question. Sickness absence, except that due to physical injuries, was categorized either as absence due to mental health problems or to physical/somatic problems including the common cold. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the association between workaholism and depressive mood, low back pain with disability, and sickness absence, adjusting for demographic characteristics, job demand, job control, and workplace support. Results Compared to the low workaholism group, the middle and high workaholism groups had significantly higher odds for depressive mood (Odds ratio (OR)?=?1.93 and 3.62 for the middle and high groups, respectively), disabling back pain (ORs?=?1.36 and 1.77 for the middle and high groups, respectively). Workaholism was more strongly associated with sickness absence due to mental health problems than that for other reasons (ORs?=?1.76 vs. 1.21 for the middle group and 3.52 vs. 1.37 for the high groups). Conclusions Workaholism is significantly associated with poor psychological health, disabling back pain, and sickness absence, particularly from mental health problems. Therefore, workaholism must be considered when addressing well-being of workers. PMID:24086457
Matsudaira, Ko; Shimazu, Akihito; Fujii, Tomoko; Kubota, Kazumi; Sawada, Takayuki; Kikuchi, Norimasa; Takahashi, Masaya
The epidemic character of depressive disorders has prompted further research into dietary habits that could make an etiological contribution. One clear change in the diet of the population in developed countries has been the replacement of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids by saturated fats and trans-fats as well as by omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are essential fatty acids, and the members of the -3 and -6 series are crucial for human health. In biochemical processes there is a competition between these two series. A higher dietary intake of omega-6 results in the excessive incorporation of these molecules in the cell membrane with numerous pathological consequences, presumably due to the formation of proinflammatory eicosanoids. Members of the omega-3 family and their derivatives modulate the inflammatory action. Essential fatty acids play a major role in brain development and brain functioning. The omega-3 series members docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) provide fluidity to the cell membrane, facilitating certain processes including neurotransmission and ion channel flow. It is thought that omega-3 deficiency during the fetal and postnatal period may have a long-term effect at various levels. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a positive association between omega-3 deficits and mood disorders. As for treatment, there is convincing evidence that add-on omega-3 fatty acids to standard antidepressant pharmacotherapy results in improved mood. There is no evidence that fatty acid monotherapy has a mood-elevating effect, with a possible exception for childhood depression. There are indications that omega-3 has a prophylactic effect on perinatal depression and has a negative effect on natural killer cell activity and T-lymphocyte function. These observations need further study in view of the popularity of self-medication. PMID:19034351
Pawels, E K J; Volterrani, D
Objective. To describe the prevalence of patients who screen positive for bipolar disorder (BD) symptoms in primary care comparing two screening instruments: Mood Disorders Questionnaire (MDQ) and Hypomania Checklist (HCL-32). Participants. Adult patients presenting to their primary care practitioners for any cause and reporting current depression symptoms or a depressive episode in the last 6 months. Methods. Subjects completed MDQ and HCL-32, and clinical diagnosis was assessed by a psychiatrist following DSM-IV criteria. Depressive symptoms were evaluated in a subgroup with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Results. A total of 94 patients were approached to participate and 93 completed the survey. Among these, 8.9% screened positive with MDQ and 43.0% with HCL-32. MDQ positive had more likely features associated with BD: panic disorder and smoking habit (P < .05). The best test accuracy was performed by cut-off 5 for MDQ (sensitivity = .91; specificity = .67) and 15 for HCL-32 (sensitivity = .64; specificity = .57). Higher total score of PHQ-9 was related to higher total scores at the screening tests (P < .001). Conclusion. There is a significant prevalence of bipolar symptoms in primary care depressed patients. MDQ seems to have better accuracy and feasibility than HCL-32, features that fit well in the busy setting of primary care. PMID:24236281
Sasdelli, Anna; Lia, Loredana; Luciano, C Claudia; Nespeca, Claudia; Berardi, Domenico; Menchetti, Marco
Abstract Objective To determine whether there were differences in depressed mood between overweight/obese men with and without type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and to examine any associations between depressed mood, physical functioning, and glycaemic control in overweight/obese men with and without T2DM. Methods Fifty seven overweight/obese men with (n?=?19, age?=?54.2?±?7.4 yrs, BMI?=?32.3?±?6.7 kg?m-2) and without T2DM (n?=?38, ag...
Levinger Itamar; Selig Steve; Jerums George; Stewart Andrew; Gaskin Cadeyrn J; Hare David L
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between depressive mood and pre-dialytic CKD, to localize and quantify depressive mood -related lesions in pre-dialytic CKD patients through statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis of brain positron emission tomography (PET), and to examine the usefulness of brain PET for early detection and proper treatment of depressive mood. Twenty one patients with stage 5 CKD and 22 healthy volunteers were analyzed by depressive mood assessment and statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis of 18F-FDG PET. Depressive mood assessment was done by Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). The largest clusters were areas including precentral gyrus, prefrontal cortex, and anterior cingulated cortex of left hemisphere. Other clusters were left transverse temporal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus, right prefrontal cortex, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 46, 44), right inferior frontal gyrus, right inferior parietal lobule, left angular gyrus. In addition, correlation was found between hypometabolized areas and HDRS scores of CKD patients in right prefrontal cortex (BA 11) and right anterior cingulated gyrus (BA 24). In conclusion, this study demonstrated specific depressive mood-related abnormal metabolic lesion. Interestingly, in CKD patients with severe depressive mood, cerebral metabolism was similar to that of MDD
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between depressive mood and pre-dialytic CKD, to localize and quantify depressive mood -related lesions in pre-dialytic CKD patients through statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis of brain positron emission tomography (PET), and to examine the usefulness of brain PET for early detection and proper treatment of depressive mood. Twenty one patients with stage 5 CKD and 22 healthy volunteers were analyzed by depressive mood assessment and statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis of 18F-FDG PET. Depressive mood assessment was done by Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). The largest clusters were areas including precentral gyrus, prefrontal cortex, and anterior cingulated cortex of left hemisphere. Other clusters were left transverse temporal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus, right prefrontal cortex, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 46, 44), right inferior frontal gyrus, right inferior parietal lobule, left angular gyrus. In addition, correlation was found between hypometabolized areas and HDRS scores of CKD patients in right prefrontal cortex (BA 11) and right anterior cingulated gyrus (BA 24). In conclusion, this study demonstrated specific depressive mood-related abnormal metabolic lesion. Interestingly, in CKD patients with severe depressive mood, cerebral metabolism was similar to that of MDD.
Jun, Sung Min; Song, Sang Heon; Kim, Seong Jang; Kim, Ji Hoon; Kwak, Ihm Soo; Kim, In Ju; Kim, Yong Ki [Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)
Nitric oxide (NO) has beneficial effects on cardiovascular and immune health. Stress and depression have been linked to a reduction in serum NO. In this study, we examined the effect of academic exam stress on the fraction of NO in exhaled air (FeNO) and spirometric lung function in 41 healthy college students. Participants completed assessments at mid-semester as well as in the early and late phase of an academic exam period. Negative affect, depressive mood, and salivary cortisol were elevated during exams, whereas FeNO and lung function decreased. Higher depressive mood was associated with lower FeNO, whereas higher negative affect was associated higher FeNO across time. These findings provide initial evidence that depression and prolonged stress can alter FeNO and lung function in healthy individuals, which could have adverse consequences for cardiovascular, airway, and immune health. PMID:23410759
Trueba, Ana F; Smith, Noelle B; Auchus, Richard J; Ritz, Thomas
Tinnitus, the perception of sound without external source, is a highly prevalent public health problem with about 8% of the population having frequently occurring tinnitus, and about 1–2% experiencing significant distress from it. Population studies, as well as studies on self-selected samples, have reported poor psychological well-being in individuals with tinnitus. However, no study has examined the long-term co-variation between mood and tinnitus prevalence or tinnitus severity. In this ...
He?bert, Sylvie; Canlon, Barbara; Hasson, Dan; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.; Westerlund, Hugo; Theorell, To?res
Background: Previous measures of pediatric depression have shown inconsistent validity in groups with differing demographics, comorbid diagnoses, and clinic or non-clinic origins. The current study re-examines the criterion validity of child- and parent-versions of the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (MFQ-C, MFQ-P) in a heterogeneous sample of…
Daviss, W. Burleson; Birmaher, Boris; Melhem, Nadine A.; Axelson, David A.; Michaels, Shana M.; Brent, David A.
Hyperglycemia is seldom described in young patients with pituitary gigantism. Here, we describe the case of a 17-year-old Taiwanese boy who developed depressive mood disorder and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) at the presentation of pituitary gigantism. The boy complained of lethargy and dysphoric mood in June 2008. He presented at the emergency department with epigastralgia and dyspnea in January 2009. Results of laboratory tests suggested type 1 diabetes mellitus with DKA. However, serum C-peptide level was normal on follow-up. Although he had no obvious features of acral enlargement, a high level of insulin-like growth factor 1 was detected, and a 75 g oral glucose suppression test showed no suppression of serum growth hormone levels. A pituitary macroadenoma was found on subsequent magnetic resonance imaging. The pituitary adenoma was surgically removed, followed by gamma-knife radiosurgery, and Sandostatin long-acting release treatment. He was then administered metformin, 500 mg twice daily, and to date, his serum glycohemoglobin has been <7%. PMID:23729615
Kuo, Sheng-Fong; Chuang, Wen-Yu; Ng, Sohching; Chen, Chih-Hung; Chang, Chen-Nen; Chou, Chi-Hsiang; Weng, Wei-Chieh; Yeh, Chih-Hua; Lin, Jen-Der
Alcohol problems may impede adaptive, proactive responses to disaster-related injury and loss, thus prolonging the adverse impact of disasters on mental health. Previous work suggests that veterans of the U.S. armed forces have a relatively high prevalence of alcohol misuse and other psychiatric disorders. This is the first study to estimate the impact of pre-disaster alcohol problems on post-disaster depressed mood among veterans, using data that were collected before and after the 1994 Northridge, California earthquake. We assessed the impact of alcohol problems on post-disaster depressed mood in an existing clinical cohort of veterans who experienced the 6.7-magnitude earthquake that struck Northridge in January 1994. One-to-three months after the disaster, interviewers contacted participants by telephone to administer a follow-up questionnaire based on a survey that had been done pre-earthquake. Post-earthquake data were obtained on 1144 male veterans for whom there were pre-earthquake data. We tested a predictive path model of the relationships between latent variables for pre-disaster alcohol problems, functional limitations, and depressed mood on latent variables representing post-disaster “quake impact” and depressive mood. Results showed that veterans who had more alcohol problems before the earthquake experienced more earthquake-related harms and severely depressed mood after the earthquake, compared with those who had fewer alcohol problems. Programs serving veterans with a high prevalence of alcohol problems should consider designing disaster response protocols to locate and assist these patients in the aftermath of disasters. PMID:23106638
Heslin, Kevin C.; Stein, Judith A.; Dobalian, Aram; Simon, Barbara; Lanto, Andrew B.; Yano, Elizabeth M.; Rubenstein, Lisa V.
The aim of the present study was to examine whether a new low-cost psychological self-help intervention program with minimal coaching could be effective in improving depressed mood in people with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Thirteen persons with PAD and depressive symptoms participated in the self-help program, grounded in cognitive-behavioral therapy. They completed pre-test, post-test and follow-up questionnaires, including the PHQ-9, to measure symptoms of depression. To evaluate changes in depression scores from pre- to post-test to follow-up measurement, non-parametric repeated measures Wilcoxon signed rank tests were performed. The results showed that participants' depression scores significantly improved from pre-test to post-test and that there was no relapse from post-test to follow-up. The cognitive-behavioral self-help intervention could be an effective tool in people with PAD, to reduce symptoms of depression. PMID:23104185
Garnefski, N; Kraaij, V; Wijers, E; Hamming, J
The objective of this study was to review the literature on the hormonal changes that occur in aging males in order to determine if testosterone declines in relation to depressed mood and if testosterone might prove useful in treatment of depression. Pertinent articles were identified through a MEDLINE search from 1966 to 1999 and by careful review of the bibliographies of articles most relevant to the topic. There is a moderate decline of total testosterone and more significant decline of bioavailable testosterone in aging males. Elderly males who are depressed appear to have the lowest testosterone levels. In eugonadal males, testosterone replacement does not have a significant effect on mood; in hypogonadal males, some studies show an effect whereas others do not. In several small studies of depressed hypogonadal males, testosterone was effective in alleviating depression. Major side effects of testosterone include increased hematocrit and potential effects on the prostate and lipid metabolism. Testosterone replacement as primary or adjuvant treatment of depression may prove useful in elderly, hypogonadal males who fail to respond to conventional antidepressants. Further studies are needed to confirm these initial impressions. PMID:10912731
Margolese, H C
Abstract Early risk factors of the antenatal period and infancy have been increasingly linked to psychiatric disorders. The aim of this thesis was to study the associations between very early parental separation and maternal depressed mood in pregnancy on the other hand, and schizophrenia and criminality in the offspring in adolescence and adulthood, on the other, in two data sets. In the Christmas Seal Home Children Study the index cohort consisted of 3 020 subjects born in Finland ...
Influencia del estrés y el ánimo depresivo sobre la salud adolescente: análisis concurrente y prospectivo / Influence of Stress and Depressed Mood on Adolescent Health: Concurrent and Prospective Analysis
Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este estudio examinó las relaciones concurrentes y prospectivas entre los problemas de salud informados por adolescentes, y diversos factores emocionales, junto con las diferencias de género en dichas variables. Los participantes fueron 307 estudiantes de Concepción (Chile) con edades entre 14 y 19 [...] años. Los problemas de salud presentaron relaciones concurrentes significativas con los eventos estresantes experimentados, el estrés percibido y el ánimo depresivo. Además el ánimo depresivo fue un predictor significativo de los problemas de salud medidos 11 meses después. Comparadas con los hombres, las mujeres informaron mayores problemas de salud y obtuvieron puntajes significativamente mayores en todas las variables consideradas, con la excepción del número de eventos estresantes. Se proponen diversos factores para explicar los resultados obtenidos Abstract in english This study examined concurrent and prospective associations among adolescent's health problems and some emotional factors and to examine gender differences. Participants were 307 students, 14 to 19 years old, from Concepción (Chile). Results showed significant concurrent relationships of reported he [...] alth problems with stressful events, perceived stress and depressed mood. In the prospective analysis depressed mood was a significant predictor of reported health problems 11 month later. Compared to males, adolescent females reported higher levels of health problems and also higher scores in the other variables, except in the number of stressful events. Diverse explanatory factors for obtained results are proposed.
Intravenous ketamine (0.5 mg/kg) produces robust, rapid and long-lasting antidepressant effects, but is unpractical. Sublingual administration of ketamine renders better bioavailability (~30%) and less conversion to norketamine than oral administration. We evaluated the therapeutic effects and tolerability of very low dose sublingual (VLDS) racemic ketamine (10 mg from a 100 mg/ml solution for 5 min and swallowed), repeatedly administered every 2-3 d or weekly, in 26 out-patients with refractory unipolar or bipolar depression. According to patients' reports, VLDS ketamine produced rapid, clear and sustained effects, improving mood level and stability, cognition and sleep in 20 patients (77%), with only mild and transient light-headedness as a common side-effect (no euphoria, psychotic or dissociative symptoms). Remission remained in some patients after stopping ketamine. Thus, VLDS ketamine may have broad spectrum effects beyond its antidepressant properties, with rapid onset of action, high efficacy, good tolerability and low cost, allowing extended treatment as needed. PMID:23683309
Lara, Diogo R; Bisol, Luisa W; Munari, Luciano R
Introduction Intracranial epidermoid cysts are congenital cysts. They comprise 0.2-1.8% of primary intracranial tumours and are four to nine times as common as dermoid cysts. Case report We here in present the case of a 32-year-old man who reported sudden onset of symptoms of a depressive symptomatology and particularly severe headache, accompanied by fatigue, depressed mood most of the day, marked diminished interest or pleasure in all or almost all activities, insomnia and diminished ability to think or concentrate. Brain magnetic resolution imaging examination revealed a pineal epidermoid cystic lesion, visualised in the posterior part of the third ventricle, with a maximum diameter of ?2.8 cm and obstructing the aqueduct of Sylvius, causing obstructive hydrocephalus. Discussion Pineal cysts may enlarge over time, because of either increased cyst fluid or intracystic haemorrhage, and become symptomatic. Brain radiological investigations in patients with depressive symptomatology may be substantial. PMID:25287638
Kontoangelos, Konstantinos; Economou, Marina; Maltezou, Maria; Kandaraki, Anna; Papadimitriou, George N
Full Text Available Abstract Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is commonly regarded as a functional disorder, and is hypothesized to be associated with anxiety and depression. This evidence mainly rests on population-based studies utilising self-report screening instruments for psychopathology. Other studies applying structured clinical interviews are generally based on small clinical samples, which are vulnerable to biases. The extant evidence base for an association between IBS and psychopathology is hence not conclusive. The aim of this study was therefore to re-examine the hypothesis using population-based data and psychiatric morbidity established with a structured clinical interview. Methods Data were derived from a population-based epidemiological study (n = 1077. Anxiety and mood disorders were established using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR (SCID-I/NP and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12. Current and lifetime IBS was self-reported. Hypertension and diabetes were employed as comparison groups as they are expected to be unrelated to mental health. Results Current IBS (n = 69, 6.4% was associated with an increased likelihood of current mood and/or anxiety disorders (OR = 2.62, 95%CI 1.49 - 4.60. Half the population reporting a lifetime IBS diagnosis also had a lifetime mood or anxiety disorder. Exploratory analyses demonstrated an increased prevalence of IBS across most common anxiety and mood disorders, the exception being bipolar disorder. The association with IBS and symptoms load (GHQ-12 followed a curved dose response pattern. In contrast, hypertension and diabetes were consistently unrelated to psychiatric morbidity. Conclusions IBS is significantly associated with anxiety and mood disorders. This study provides indicative evidence for IBS as a disorder with a psychosomatic aspect.
Objective To assess whether functional activity, perceived health, and depressive symptoms differ between individuals with traumatic paraplegia with and without shoulder pain. Design Cross sectional and comparative investigation using the unified questionnaire. Setting Neural Regeneration and Repair Division unit of Taipei Veterans General Hospital in Taiwan. Participants Seventy-six patients with paraplegia (23 with and 53 without shoulder pain) who had experienced spinal cord injury at American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale T2 to T12 neurologic level (at least 6 months previously). Outcome measures Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM), a single item from the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) depression scale. Results Shoulder pain was prevalent in 30% patients. Patients with shoulder pain had significantly worse perceived health and greater depressive symptoms than those without. No significant difference was found in functional ability between groups. Greater shoulder pain intensity was related to higher depressive scores (r = 0.278, P = 0.017) and lower self-perceived health scores (r = -0.433, P health and higher depressive mood levels. PMID:25296991
Wang, Jia-Chi; Chan, Rai-Chi; Tsai, Yun-An; Huang, Wen-Cheng; Cheng, Henrich; Wu, Han-Lin; Huang, Shih-Fong
Within recent years the diagnostic concept of bipolar disorders has profoundly changed. The original view of one manic-depressive illness has become more and more a spectrum disorder ranging from personality traits to the full clinical feature of manic-depressive illness. Therefore, prevalence has increased in the general population. However, for differential treatment approaches with mood stabilisers the clinical distinction between bipolar I and bipolar II disorders becomes more and more relevant and, importantly, rapid cycling is a critical criterion for a differential indication of mood stabilisers. In acute treatment the psychopathological features such as euphoric versus dysphoric mania, the severity and the frequency of episodes play an important role for the choice of the mood stabiliser. According to international guidelines Lithium and Valproat are first-line treatment options. In addition, Lamotrigin has become a first-line treatment in special issues such as long-term treatment of bipolar depression. Carbamazepin, however, has lost its first-line place due to the evidence-based data situation and due to the side-effect profile. Within recent years the atypical anti-psychotics were investigated in bipolar disorder. Meanwhile, most of them have an indication for the treatment of acute mania, some of them for bipolar depression. Some studies also point to an efficacy in long-term prophylactic treatment. In summary, the psychopharmacological indications for the differential use of mood stabilisers are becoming more and more complex, therefore clear guidelines are needed. PMID:19496037
Major depressive disorder is a heritable neuropsychiatric syndrome characterized by relatively subtle cellular and molecular alterations localized to a complex network of neural substrates. These brain regions display dynamic neuroplastic adaptations to endocrine and immunologic stimuli arising from within and outside the central nervous system. Depression’s clinical and etiological heterogeneity adds a third level of complexity, implicating different pathophysiological mechanisms in differ...
Krishnan, Vaishnav; Nestler, Eric J.
Examines the relation of depression to locus of control and to the perceived causes of depression in a nonpsychiatric population. Findings suggest that adolescent females tend to hold themselves more responsible than males for unsatisfactory personal situations, and this extends to the attribution of causes for unhappy moods. (Author/PC)
Calhoun, Lawrence G.; And Others
Using prospective, longitudinal data from 467 youth over a 13-year period (late adolescence and young adulthood), the present study investigates three research questions: (1) to what extent do elevations in depressed mood continue (homotypic continuity) from adolescence to young adulthood, (2) to what extent do young adults' socioeconomic…
Wickrama, K. A. S.; Conger, Rand D.; Lorenz, Federick O.; Martin, Monica
Background: The informant-based Anxiety, Depression And Mood Scale was translated into Dutch and its feasibility, reliability and validity in older adults (aged greater than or equal to 50 years) with intellectual disabilities (ID) was studied. Method: Test-retest (n = 93) and interrater reliability (n = 83), and convergent (n = 202 and n = 787),…
Hermans, Heidi; Jelluma, Naftha; van der Pas, Femke H.; Evenhuis, Heleen M.
Full Text Available The goal of this study was to examine the effects of group music therapy on depression and mental health among college students. 80 students participated in this study, with 40 assigned to control group and other 40 assigned to experimental group. The results showed that after the group music therapy, for the experimental group, the depression scores have reduced significantly and the mental health scores have improved, while for the control group, no significant difference was obtained on the de-pression and mental health scores. This indicates that group music therapy can effectively reduce depression and improve mental health.
Objective: To assess depression rates in contemporary medical students. Method: The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was administered anonymously to two medical school classes at matriculation, the end of first year, and the end of second year. Results: Median scores for both classes were low at all points. The proportion of students scoring in the…
Levine, Ruth E.; Litwins, Stephanie D.; Frye, Ann W.
Full Text Available Living organizms show cyclic rhythmicity in a variety of physiological, hormonal, behavioral, and psychological processes. Sleep-wake cycles, body temperature, hormone levels, mood and cognition display a circadian rhythm in humans. Delays, advances or desynchronizations of circadian rhythm are known to be strongly associated with mental illness especially mood disorders such as bipolar disorder, major depression and seasonal affective disorder. Furthermore, some of the mood stabilizers, sleep deprivation and light treatment are employed to treat mood disorders by shifting circadian rhythm. This paper reviews the relationship between mood disorders and circadian rhythm, and describes treatment options by altering circadian rhythm.
The goal of this study was to examine the effects of group music therapy on depression and mental health among college students. 80 students participated in this study, with 40 assigned to control group and other 40 assigned to experimental group. The results showed that after the group music therapy, for the experimental group, the depression scores have reduced significantly and the mental health scores have improved, while for the control group, no significant difference was obtained on th...
Haizhen Wang; Jinliang Wang; Dajun Zhang
Current pharmacological treatments for depression have a significant treatment-onset-response delay, an insufficient efficacy for many patients and fail to reverse cognitive dysfunction. Erythropoietin (EPO) has neuroprotective and neurotrophic actions and improves cognitive function in animal models of acute and chronic neurodegenerative conditions and in patients with cognitive decline.
Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Vinberg, Maj
The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and symptom clusters of depressive mood in pre-dialytic chronic kidney disease (CKD). Twenty-seven patients with stage 4-5 CKD were subjected to statistical parametric mapping analysis of brain single-photon emission computed tomography. Correlation analyses between separate symptom clusters of depressive mood and rCBF were done. The first factor (depressive mood) was negatively correlated with rCBF in the right insula, posterior cingulate gyrus, and left superior temporal gyrus, and positively correlated with rCBF in the left fusiform gyrus. The second factor (insomnia) was negatively correlated with rCBF in the right middle frontal gyrus, bilateral cingulate gyri, right insula, right putamen, and right inferior parietal lobule, and positively correlated with rCBF in left fusiform gyrus and bilateral cerebellar tonsils. The third factor (anxiety and psychomotor aspects) was negatively correlated with rCBF in the left inferior frontal gyms, right superior frontal gyms, right middle temporal gyrus, right superior temporal gyrus, and left superior frontal gyrus, and positively correlated with rCBF in the right ligual gyrus and right parahippocampal gyrus. In this study, the separate symptom clusters were correlated with specific rCBF patterns similar to those in major depressive disorder patients without CKD. However, some areas with discordant rCBF patterns were also nowith discordant rCBF patterns were also noted when compared with major depressive disorder patients. Further larger scale investigations are needed. (author)
Mood self-assessment in bipolar disorder: a comparison between patients in mania, depression, and euthymia / Autoavaliação do estado de humor no transtorno bipolar: uma comparação entre pacientes em mania, depressão, e eutimia
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese CONTEXTO: Alguns estudos indicam que a capacidade de autoavaliação do estado de humor está mais comprometida em pacientes com transtorno bipolar na mania do que na depressão. OBJETIVO: Estudar variações na autoavaliação do humor em relação ao estado afetivo atual em indivíduos com transtorno bipolar [...] . MÉTODO: Um total de 165 pacientes com diagnóstico de transtorno bipolar tipo I ou tipo II tiveram seu estado afetivo avaliado utilizando os instrumentos Clinical Global Impressions Scale for use in bipolar illness (CGI-BP), Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) e Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). Além disso, foi aplicada um instrumento de autoavaliação, a escala visual analógica do humor (EVAH). Os pacientes foram divididos em três grupos (eutimia, mania e depressão) e comparados quanto aos resultados da EVAH. RESULTADOS: Dos 16 itens da EVAH, 14 foram avaliados pelos pacientes em mania de forma semelhante aos pacientes em eutimia. Em contraste, em apenas dois itens, os deprimidos mostraram escores semelhantes aos eutímicos. CONCLUSÃO: Pacientes bipolares em mania, mas não os deprimidos, avaliam de forma não fidedigna seu estado afetivo, o que reforça o comprometimento do insight na síndrome maníaca. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Some studies indicate that mood self-assessment is more severely impaired in patients with bipolar disorder in a manic episode than in depression. OBJECTIVES: To investigate variations in mood self-assessment in relation to current affective state in a group of individuals with bipolar d [...] isorder. METHODS: A total of 165 patients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder type I or type II had their affective state assessed using the Clinical Global Impressions Scale for use in bipolar illness (CGI-BP), the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). In addition, participants completed a self-report visual analog mood scale (VAMS). Patients were divided into three groups (euthymia, mania, and depression) and compared with regard to VAMS results. RESULTS: Manic patients rated their mood similarly to patients in euthymia in 14 out of 16 items in the VAMS. By contrast, depressed patients rated only two items similarly to euthymic patients. CONCLUSION: Patients with bipolar disorder in mania, but not those in depression, poorly evaluate their affective state, reinforcing the occurrence of insight impairment in the manic syndrome.
Rafael de Assis da, Silva; Daniel C., Mograbi; Luciana Angélica Silva, Silveira; Ana Letícia Santos, Nunes; Fernanda Demôro, Novis; Paola Anaquim, Cavaco; J., Landeira-Fernandez; Elie, Cheniaux.
Abstract Background The association between toxoplasmosis and psychiatric disorders has been reported in a few anecdotal reports. Case Presentation A case of depression with toxoplasma seropositivity is presented. The patient with depression showed poor response to antidepressants, for which he was investigated and was found positive on the serological test for the toxoplasma. The response to antidepressant treatment improved only after adequate treatment for to...
Misra Baikunthanath; Kar Nilamadhab
Opioids can have mood-elevating effects in healthy subjects and have been used successfully to treat refractory depressed patients. A few case reports indicate that opioid analgesics can induce mania. The authors investigated the mood reaction of opioid analgesics in patients with bipolar disorder. Nine (27%) of 33 patients who took opioid analgesics for medical reasons experienced a significant hypomanic/manic reaction, and two other patients reported an antidepressant effect. None of the comparison subjects reported a significant mood reaction from opioid analgesics. These results indicate that opioid analgesics can have an important mood-altering effect on patients with known bipolar disorder. PMID:18070849
Schaffer, Charles B; Nordahl, Thomas E; Schaffer, Linda C; Howe, Jeanne
Full Text Available Mood disorders are the most common psychiatric comorbid disorder that affects quality of life and prognosis in epilepsy. The relation between depression and epilepsy is bidirectional. Not only the risk of having a depression among epilepsy cases is more than the healthy control cases, but also the risk of having epilepsy among depressive cases is more than the healthy control cases. People diagnosed with epilepsy are five times more likely than their peers to commit suicide. Moreover it seems that some epilepsy types like temporal lobe epilepsy have a much higher risk (25 times for suicide. Risk of suicide in epilepsy, which is independent from depression, increases more with the presence of depression. The common pathway between epilepsy, depression and suicide is hypofrontality and irregularity of serotonin metabolism. Contrary to depression, data on relationship between bipolar disorder and epilepsy is limited. However, mood disorder, mixed episodes with irritable character and mania are more frequent than assumed. As a matter of fact, both disorders share some common features. Both are episodic and can become chronic. Kindling phenomenon, irregularities in neurotransmitters, irregularities in voltage gate ion channels and irregularities in secondary messenger systems are variables that are presented in the etiologies of both disorders. Anticonvulsant drugs with mood regulatory effects are the common points of treatment. Understanding their mechanisms of action will clarify the pathophysiological processes. In this article, the relationhip between epilepsy and mood disorders, comorbidity, secondary states and treatment options in both cases have been discussed.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronary heart disease (CHD and depression are leading causes of disease burden globally and the two often co-exist. Depression is common after Myocardial Infarction (MI and it has been estimated that 15-35% of patients experience depressive symptoms. Co-morbid depression can impair health related quality of life (HRQOL, decrease medication adherence and appropriate utilisation of health services, lead to increased morbidity and suicide risk, and is associated with poorer CHD risk factor profiles and reduced survival. We aim to determine the feasibility of conducting a randomised, multi-centre trial designed to compare a tele-health program (MoodCare for depression and CHD secondary prevention, with Usual Care (UC. Methods Over 1600 patients admitted after index admission for Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS are being screened for depression at six metropolitan hospitals in the Australian states of Victoria and Queensland. Consenting participants are then contacted at two weeks post-discharge for baseline assessment. One hundred eligible participants are to be randomised to an intervention or a usual medical care control group (50 per group. The intervention consists of up to 10 × 30-40 minute structured telephone sessions, delivered by registered psychologists, commencing within two weeks of baseline screening. The intervention focuses on depression management, lifestyle factors (physical activity, healthy eating, smoking cessation, alcohol intake, medication adherence and managing co-morbidities. Data collection occurs at baseline (Time 1, 6 months (post-intervention (Time 2, 12 months (Time 3 and 24 months follow-up for longer term effects (Time 4. We are comparing depression (Cardiac Depression Scale [CDS] and HRQOL (Short Form-12 [SF-12] scores between treatment and UC groups, assessing the feasibility of the program through patient acceptability and exploring long term maintenance effects. A cost-effectiveness analysis of the costs and outcomes for patients in the intervention and control groups is being conducted from the perspective of health care costs to the government. Discussion This manuscript presents the protocol for a randomised, multi-centre trial to evaluate the feasibility of a tele-based depression management and CHD secondary prevention program for ACS patients. The results of this trial will provide valuable new information about potential psychological and wellbeing benefits, cost-effectiveness and acceptability of an innovative tele-based depression management and secondary prevention program for CHD patients experiencing depression. Trial Registration Number Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR: ACTRN12609000386235
Hare David L
Full Text Available Background : Depression is one of the most prevalent forms of mood disorders. Compelling evidence suggests that mood disorders are characterized by reduced neuronal plasticity, which can be brought about by exposure to stress. Furthermore, there is good agreement in considering key proteins such as the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, as a central player for the effects of stress on brain function and plasticity and psychopathological implications. Still, there is a high non-responder rate in antidepressant therapy, which explains the need to find reliable predictors for adequate treatment. Previous studies revealed that plasma and serum BDNF levels in depressed patients were significantly lower than in healthy controls. Since the protein can cross the blood brain-barrier serum content correspondingly correlates with cortical BDNF concentrations suggesting BDNF levels as a promising candidate biomarker for depression and antidepressant treatment response. Methods : To investigate the association between?serum?BDNF levels and treatment outcome, blood was drawn from 28 patients with a major depressive episode (DMS-IV, ICD-10 that participated in a double-blind placebo controlled treatment study. All patients were treated with a stable mirtazapine monotherapy. Partial sleep deprivation (PSD was performed after one week. Placebo controlled additional morning treatment with the stimulant modafinil to reduce microsleep throughout the day was started during PSD and maintained over two weeks.?Serum concentrations?of?BDNF and cortisol were assessed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA from day 1 (“before PSD” at 8 am, 2 pm, 8 pm and day 2 (“after PSD” at 8 am, 2 pm and 8 pm. Samples were appropriately diluted and detection?of?soluble BDNF or cortisol was carried out in an antibody sandwich format in duplicates and means were calculated for the corresponding group. Moreover, sleep EEG and microsleep episodes were recorded with a portable EEG. Depression severity using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and mood, tiredness and relaxation were assessed with visual analog scales (VASs for psychological functioning at days 1, 2 and 3 (“after recovery night” as well as after one and two weeks?of?ongoing treatment. Results : Notably, depressive patients who showed an acute HDRS-6 improvement after PSD exhibited a prominent diurnal pattern of serum?BDNF levels during the day before PSD whereas acute non-responders did not show such a pattern and BDNF levels were rather constantly expressed. Serum BDNF levels were significantly elevated in acute responders compared to non-responders in the morning at 8.00 am before PSD corrected for Bonferroni (p>0.01. Also responders after two weeks (FU2 exhibited a prominent diurnal serum BDNF pattern before and after PSD on day one and two, while it was more pronounced after PSD. There was no diurnal pattern for non-responders after two weeks before; however, after PSD on day two an even modest diurnal change was visible in this group but less pronounced compared to FU2-responders. We found no association between treatment condition placebo vs. modafinil and response for acute neither response after two weeks. When we linked daily peak BDNF levels from day two at 2 pm with overall HDRS-6 improvement, responders were associated with elevated BDNF levels compared to non-responders on day three after recovery night already. Even after one (FU1 and two (FU2 weeks increased BDNF levels of day two at 2 pm were more prominent in the responder group. This difference between responders and non-responders of peak serum BDNF levels from 2 pm after PSD was statistically significant after two weeks. In addition, HDRS-6 improvement after two weeks of on-going treatment was significantly correlated with elevated serum BDNF levels in all patients. Moreover, peak levels of serum BDNF after PSD on day 2 at 2 pm were correlated with increased relaxation and improve
In order to assess differences between self-assessment and clinician's assessment of depression, 64 depressed in-patients were assessed for depressive symptomatology at admission (D0), 10 days (D10) and 28 days (D28) after the beginning of antidepressant treatment, using the Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology Clinician Rated (IDS-C) and the Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology Self-Rated (IDS-SR). Associated symptoms (SCL-90R) were assessed at D0 and personality dimensions (TCI) at D28. Although agreement was high between IDS-C and IDS-SR total scores, D0, D0-D10 and D0-D28 total scores were significantly different between IDS-C and IDS-SR, showing a higher sensitivity to change for IDS-C as compared to IDS-SR. Differences between IDS-C and IDS-SR were due mostly to mood items and not to somatic items. Discrepancies between self-assessment and clinician's assessment of depressive symptomatology were linked neither to age, sex, familial status, single/recurrent and length of episode, nor to depression severity, but to associated symptoms and, to a lesser extent, personality dimensions: patients over-estimating their depressive symptomatology change relative to the psychiatrist tended to score high on phobic anxiety, Cooperativeness (especially Social Acceptance) and Self-Transcendence (especially Self-forgetfulness) and vice-versa. PMID:10504014
Corruble, E; Legrand, J M; Zvenigorowski, H; Duret, C; Guelfi, J D
In Chapter 2, results of a study are reported in which remitted depressed patients are compared to healthy controls to investigate possible residual cognitive impairments that persist into the euthymic phase. Chapter 3 will describe the effects of an alpha-lactalbumin enriched diet on cognitive performance in unmedicated recovered depressed patients and healthy controls. In Chapter 4 the effects of alpha-lactalbumin on mood and stress-induced cortisol response in unmedicated recovered depress...
Twenty patients with major depression and observed diurnal variations of mood were examined using clinical and neuropsychological measures and perfusion HMPAO-SPECT at 8 a.m. and 8 p.m. In thirteen patients depression scores varied more than 15% although 4 patients with reverse diurnal variation caused mean group depression scores to be not different between morning and evening. There was an overall trend for higher depression scores to be associated with higher perfusion in posterior cingula...
One instrument potentially useful for schizophrenia research is the Revised Schizotypal Ambivalence Scale (rSAmb). However, previous research has not examined the construct validity of this instrument in people with schizophrenia. In the current study, people with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (n = 47) and bipolar disorder (BPD; n = 19) completed the rSAmb along with current symptom and other clinical data. As a group, the people with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder reported significantly less ambivalence on the rSAmb than did the people with BPD. In addition, the rSAmb was not significantly related to any schizophrenia symptom (all correlations < 0.15). Instead, the rSAmb was significantly associated with negative mood symptoms in the past week, a diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder rather than schizophrenia, and the number of negative terms used in speech. These results suggest that the rSAmb may be associated with negative mood and not with schizophrenia, although systematic examination of larger cohorts is warranted. PMID:24375215
Docherty, Anna R; Cicero, David C; Becker, Theresa M; Kerns, John G
Objective. This study explores the relationship between depressive symptoms, as measured by the PHQ-9 depression screen and blood glucose levels among patients with diabetes enrolled in Gold Choice, a Medicaid managed care program for individuals with mental illness and/or substance abuse. Methods. The PHQ-9 was mailed to 454 Gold Choice members and a questionnaire was mailed to their physicians requesting current HbA1c% and fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels. The pearson product-moment corre...
Kahn, Linda S.; Mcintyre, Roger S.; Lisa Rafalson; Berdine, Diane E.; Fox, Chester H.
Many military personnel returning from deployment experience increases in psychological symptoms, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and mood changes. Patient health diaries are commonly used for self-reporting over time away from the clinic. "T2 Mood Tracker" is an application ("app") for smartphones and other mobile devices that enables users to rate their moods, to self-monitor across time, and to report their emotional experiences to health providers. We designed T2 Mood Tracker to track symptoms associated with deployment-related behavioral health issues, including PTSD, Head Injury, Stress, Depression, Anxiety, and General Well-Being. We field-tested T2 Mood Tracker with a small sample of redeployed soldiers under treatment for behavioral health issues at a Warrior Transition Unit. Participants used the app an average of 10 different days over the 2- to 3-week test period. Consensus was that T2 Mood Tracker was easy to use, useful and beneficial. The majority said they would use the app in the future, would recommend it to other service members, and would use the app to share their mood information with a provider. Warrior Transition Unit providers were enthusiastic about the potential of T2 Mood Tracker as a tool for use with their patients. PMID:25469967
Bush, Nigel E; Ouellette, Gary; Kinn, Julie
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Routine Outcome Monitoring (ROM there is a high demand for short assessments. Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT is a promising method for efficient assessment. In this article, the efficiency of a CAT version of the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire, - Anhedonic Depression scale (MASQ-AD for use in ROM was scrutinized in a simulation study. Methods The responses of a large sample of patients (N = 3,597 obtained through ROM were used. The psychometric evaluation showed that the items met the requirements for CAT. In the simulations, CATs with several measurement precision requirements were run on the item responses as if they had been collected adaptively. Results CATs employing only a small number of items gave results which, both in terms of depression measurement and criterion validity, were only marginally different from the results of a full MASQ-AD assessment. Conclusions It was concluded that CAT improved the efficiency of the MASQ-AD questionnaire very much. The strengths and limitations of the application of CAT in ROM are discussed.
In Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, depression is not rare. The prevalence of major depressive episodes has been reported to be within the range of 20-25% in AD patients, despite there being no association between the severity of AD and prevalence of comorbid depressive symptoms or diagnosed depression. Depression in AD patients is associated with greater impairment of the quality of life and an increased caregiver burden. As well as earlier placement in a nursing home, bio-psycho-social factors are also associated with the manifestation of depression in AD patients, and biological factors, such as the brain pathology, may be the main influence. Depressive mood, loss of interest, and anxiety are among the most marked symptoms of depression in AD patients. In comparison with major depressive disorder, in depression in AD, psychomotor retardation is more prominent, while, in major depressive disorder, somatic anxiety is more marked. In the treatment of depression in AD, non-pharmacological and pharmacological therapies are applied. Basically, support and encouragement are required. In addition, psychosocial interventions, such as validation, reminiscence, physical exercise, and interventions for caregivers of those with dementia have been reported to be useful. The results of RCT with antidepressants are inconsistent. As the efficacy of cholinesterase inhibitor for depression in AD has been reported, it is reasonable to initially provide treatment with cholinesterase inhibitors rather than antidepressant therapy. PMID:24450144
Abstract Here, we publish a report of a previously practicing nurse practitioner who presented to a community hospital with severely depressed mood and neurovegetative symptoms in the context of recent relapse to alcohol and cocaine abuse. This patient had a long history of depression and polysubstance abuse. Additionally, the patient had a history of multiple previous suicide attempts with a high possibility for lethality. All of his attempts occurred in the setting of depression, escalating substance use, and interpersonal difficulties. Due to his chronic struggles with mental health and substance abuse issues, the patient lost his marriage, many close friends, and, eventually, his license to practice medicine. In this report, we highlight the increased risk of suicidal behavior or completed suicide in patients with co-occurring depressive and substance abuse disorders. We also look to highlight the often unmet need of mental health and substance abuse treatment for healthcare professionals. Studies suggest that healthcare providers experience increasing rates of burnout, mood and anxiety disorders, and substance use disorders, but available treatment resources remain scarce. This is a serious public health issue that will require increased vigilance by the community at large to ensure the safety and wellbeing of both patients and their providers. PMID:25411994
Kiraly, Drew D; Sher, Leo
We explored whether caffeine, and expectation of having consumed caffeine, affects attention, reward responsivity and mood using double-blinded methodology. 88 participants were randomly allocated to 'drink-type' (caffeinated/decaffeinated coffee) and 'expectancy' (told caffeinated/told decaffeinated coffee) manipulations. Both caffeine and expectation of having consumed caffeine improved attention and psychomotor speed. Expectation enhanced self-reported vigour and reward responsivity. Self-reported depression increased at post-drink for all participants, but less in those receiving or expecting caffeine. These results suggest caffeine expectation can affect mood and performance but do not support a synergistic effect. PMID:21824504
Dawkins, Lynne; Shahzad, Fatima-Zahra; Ahmed, Suada S; Edmonds, Caroline J
Within a sample of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD; n = 121) and bipolar affective disorder (BPAD; n = 69), the authors examined (a) diagnostic differences in family functioning at acute episode, (b) diagnostic differences in family functioning at episode recovery, (c) within-group changes in family functioning from acute episode to…
Weinstock, Lauren M.; Keitner, Gabor I.; Ryan, Christine E.; Solomon, David A.; Miller, Ivan W.
This study examined the co-occurrence of depression and delinquency in early adolescents, focusing on longitudinal associations with failure expectations and manipulativeness, and on perceptions of relationships with parents, school and teachers, and peers. Data were used from 1,059 Swedish adolescents aged 13 to 15, who participated in 2 waves…
Overbeek, Geertjan; Biesecker, Gretchen; Kerr, Margaret; Stattin, Hakan; Meeus, Wim; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.
... disorder," or "clinical depression." Click for more information Depression in Older Adults Important life changes that happen as we get ... subsyndromal depression, psychotic depression. and bipolar depression. ... is common among older adults. It includes less severe but clear symptoms of ...
This paper will describe an innovative method of treatment for women with postnatal depression that has been used in the south west of England since 2004 and has now been successfully piloted in other areas of the UK. My Time My Space is an arts-based group for women with postnatal depression that aims to improve mood by reducing social isolation and using creativity to improve self-esteem. Results of the programme will be shared, in addition to the ways in which the project has been implemented using collaborative working with children's centres and building community capacity by engaging local charities. The qualitative results have been collected from participants (n = 30) over the last two years using post-course evaluation forms with open questions to elicit participants' views. The quantitative results of a small pilot study (n = 8) based on pre- and post-group Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale scores (EPDS) are also reported. The findings suggest My Time My Space has a positive effect on women's mood and perceived social support, and provides an effective alternative or additional method of treatment for postnatal depression. PMID:23724760
Morton, Alison; Forsey, Philippa
In 1981, seven patients with nonseasonal depression were treated with bright white light in 1982, bright artificial light was used to treat a manic-depressive patient with a seasonal mood cycle. In the last 20 years, a plethora of studies have further defined the depressive populations, who are responsive to light treatment; the optimal timing, intensity, spectral frequency, and duration of treatment; its comparison with other pharmacological interventions; predictors of response; side-effect...
Parry, Barbara L.; Maurer, Eva L.
Bipolar disorder is characterized by recurrent episodes of mania and depression and affects about 1% of the adult population. The condition can have a major impact on an individual's ability to function and is associated with a long-term risk of suicide. In this paper, we report on the use of self-rated mood data to forecast the next week's depression ratings. The data used in the study have been collected using SMS text messaging and comprises one time series of approximately weekly mood rat...
Moore, Pj; Little, Ma; Mcsharry, Pe; Geddes, Jr; Goodwin, Gm
Abstract Vitamin B12 is one of the essential vitamins affecting various systems of the body. Reports of psychiatric disorders due to its deficiency mostly focus on middle aged and elderly patients. Here we report a case of vitamin B 12 deficiency in a 16-year old, male adolescent who presented with mixed mood disorder symptoms with psychotic features. Chief complaints were “irritability, regressive behavior, apathy, crying and truancy” which lasted for a year. Premorbid personal...
Tufan Ali; Bilici Rabia; Usta Genco; Erdo?an Ayten
The objective of this study was to determine associations between displayed depression symptoms on Facebook and self-reported depression symptoms using a clinical screen. Public Facebook profiles of undergraduates from two universities were examined for displayed depression references. Profiles were categorized as depression symptom displayers or non-displayers. Participants completed an online PHQ-9 depression scale. Analyses examined associations between PHQ-9 score and depression symptom d...
Moreno, Megan Andreas; Christakis, Dimitri A.; Egan, Katie G.; Jelenchick, Lauren A.; Cox, Elizabeth; Young, Henry; Villiard, Hope; Becker, Tara
Full Text Available Antonina Luca,1 Maria Luca,2 Carmela Calandra2 1Department GF Ingrassia, Section of Neuroscience, 2Department of Medical and Surgery Specialties, Psychiatry Unit, University Hospital Policlinico-Vittorio Emanuele, Catania, Sicily, Italy Abstract: Sleep disorders are so frequently associated with depression that, in the absence of sleep complaints, a diagnosis of depression should be made with caution. Insomnia, in particular, may occur in 60%–80% of depressed patients. Depressive symptoms are important risk factors for insomnia, and depression is considered an important comorbid condition in patients with chronic insomnia of any etiology. In addition, some drugs commonly prescribed for the treatment of depression may worsen insomnia and impair full recovery from the illness. The aim of this paper is to review briefly and discuss the following topics: common sleep disturbances during depression (in particular pavor nocturnus, nightmares, hypersomnia, and insomnia; circadian sleep disturbances; and treatment of depression by manipulation of the sleep-wake rhythm (chronotherapy, light therapy, cycles of sleep, and manipulation of the sleep-wake rhythm itself. Finally, we present a case report of a 65-year-old Caucasian woman suffering from insomnia associated with depression who was successfully treated with sleep deprivation. Keywords: sleep disorders, depression, insomnia, sleep-wake rhythm
The present study assesses the prevalence of subclinical eating disorders and examines their comorbidity with mood and anxiety disorders in a sample of adolescent girls. A DSM-III-R computerized self-reported interview was administered to 833 adolescent girls (mean age=15.7±0.5 years) from a population sample to assess the prevalence of subclinical eating disorders, major depression, dysthymia, separation anxiety, and generalized anxiety disorders. The prevalence of subclinical anorexia nervosa (restricting subtype) was 3.5%, 13.3% for weight concerns (restricting subtype), 3.8% for subclinical bulimia nervosa, and 10.8% for subclinical binge eating disorder. Girls with subclinical anorexia nervosa had a higher prevalence of separation anxiety diagnosis, and they reported significantly more major depressive and generalized anxiety symptoms compared with girls reporting no eating disorders. Girls with weight concerns reported significantly more major depressive, separation, and generalized anxiety symptoms compared with girls reporting no eating disorders. Girls with subclinical bulimia nervosa or binge eating disorder had a higher prevalence of mood disorders (major depression and dysthymia) compared with girls reporting no eating disorders. Furthermore, girls with subclinical bulimia nervosa or binge eating disorder also reported significantly more anxiety symptoms (separation anxiety and generalized anxiety) compared with girls reporting no eating disorders. In summary, adolescent girls suffering from subclinical eating disorders should be investigated concomitantly for mood and anxiety disorders while those suffering from mood and anxiety disorders should be investigated simultaneously for subclinical eating disorders. PMID:20546924
Touchette, Evelyne; Henegar, Adina; Godart, Nathalie T; Pryor, Laura; Falissard, Bruno; Tremblay, Richard E; Côté, Sylvana M
Background—Several reports indicate that physical activity can reduce the severity of symptoms in depressed patients. Some data suggest that even a single exercise bout may result in a substantial mood improvement.
Dimeo, F.; Bauer, M.; Varahram, I.; Proest, G.; Halter, U.
Full Text Available Social Anxiety Disorder is a common disorder leading functional impairment. The comorbidity between mood disorders with social anxiety disorder is relatively common. This comorbidity impacts the clinical severity, resistance and functionality of patients. The systematic evaluation of the comorbidity in both patient groups should not be ignored and be carefully conducted. In general, social anxiety disorder starts at an earlier age than mood disorders and is reported to be predictor for subsequent major depression. The absence of comorbidity in patients with social anxiety disorder is a predictor of good response to treatment. In bipolar disorder patients with comorbid social anxiety disorder, there is an increased level of general psychopathology. Besides, they have poor outcome and increased risk of suicide. In this article, comorbidity between these two disorders has been evaluated in detail.
Full Text Available The present research aimed to test the role of mood in the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT; Bechara et al., 1994. In the IGT, participants can win or lose money by picking cards from four different decks. They have to learn by experience that two decks are overall advantageous and two decks are overall disadvantageous. Previous studies have shown that at an early stage in this card-game, players begin to display a tendency towards the advantageous decks. Subsequent research suggested that at this stage, people base their decisions on conscious gut feelings (Wagar and Dixon, 2006. Based on empirical evidence for the relation between mood and cognitive processing-styles, we expected and consistently found that, compared to a negative mood state, reported and induced positive mood states increased this early tendency towards advantageous decks. Our results provide support for the idea that a positive mood causes stronger reliance on affective signals in decision-making than a negative mood.
Marieke de Vries
Theoretical models postulate an important role of attributional style (AS) in the formation and maintenance of persecutory delusions and other positive symptoms of schizophrenia. However, current research has gathered conflicting findings. In a cross-sectional design, patients with persistent positive symptoms of schizophrenia (n = 258) and healthy controls (n = 51) completed a revised version of the Internal, Personal and Situational Attributions Questionnaire (IPSAQ-R) and assessments of psychopathology. In comparison to controls, neither patients with schizophrenia in general nor patients with persecutory delusions (n = 142) in particular presented an externalizing and personalizing AS. Rather, both groups showed a "self-blaming" AS and attributed negative events more toward themselves. Persecutory delusions were independently predicted by a personalizing bias for negative events (beta = 0.197, P = .001) and by depression (beta = 0.152, P = .013), but only 5% of the variance in persecutory delusions could be explained. Cluster analysis of IPSAQ-R scores identified a "personalizing" (n = 70) and a "self-blaming" subgroup (n = 188), with the former showing slightly more pronounced persecutory delusions (P = .021). Results indicate that patients with schizophrenia and patients with persecutory delusions both mostly blamed themselves for negative events. Nevertheless, still a subgroup of patients could be identified who presented a more pronounced personalizing bias and more severe persecutory delusions. Thus, AS in patients with schizophrenia might be less stable but more determined by individual and situational characteristics that need further elucidation. PMID:24743864
Mehl, Stephanie; Landsberg, Martin W; Schmidt, Anna-Christine; Cabanis, Maurice; Bechdolf, Andreas; Herrlich, Jutta; Loos-Jankowiak, Stephanie; Kircher, Tilo; Kiszkenow, Stephanie; Klingberg, Stefan; Kommescher, Mareike; Moritz, Steffen; Müller, Bernhard W; Sartory, Gudrun; Wiedemann, Georg; Wittorf, Andreas; Wölwer, Wolfgang; Wagner, Michael
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Psychiatric side effects of deep brain stimulation are not uncommon. It is often limited to transient mood alterations. We report for the first time a case of acute stimulation-dependent fear during intraoperative test stimulation. Case presentation During test stimulation for electrode placement to the left subthalamic nucleus, a 58-year-old caucasian man with Parkinson's disease developed a severe reproducible feeling of fear together with elevated heart rate and sweating. Postoperatively, the patient developed a therapy refractory major depression in spite of excellent motor-control. Reprogramming the stimulator using a more rostral contact resulted in an abrupt and complete disappearance of the depressive syndrome. Conclusion Postoperative re-evaluation of the stimulation site of the patient inducing acute fear by analyzing his intraoperative microrecordings and Talairach coordinates revealed stimulation within his right substantia nigra. The contrast analysis of the postoperative stimulation site suggests induction of depression in the patient by stimulation of the caudal part of his subthalamic nucleus. Acute psychiatric side effects of deep brain stimulation are relatively rare but must not be overlooked while concentrating on the improvement of motor deficit.
Rarely screened in psychiatric patients, primary and/or secondary Carnitine deficiency could be influencing and/or mimicking the mood symptoms of our patient population. The brain and specifically neurons are highly vulnerable to impairments in oxidative metabolism, which can lead to neuronal cell death and disorders of neurotransmitters causing changes in cognition and behavior. For this reason, identification of this disorder is important since its treatment could result in symptom improvement and better quality of life of our patients. We present a case where exacerbation of mood symptoms was associated to primary and secondary Carnitine deficiency. PMID:24282920
Santos-Cubiñá, Javier; Torres-Rodríguez, Alexis; Castaing-Lespier, Pedro A; Sabaté, Nuria; Torres-Martin, Ana; Carlo, Simón
Depression represents a huge pharmaceutical market opportunity. There are approximately 350 million people worldwide with depression, and it is the leading cause of disability in the world. In the U.S., 9.1% of the population suffers from depression. Globally, fewer than half of depression sufferers receive treatment for their illness, and in some countries this figure falls to fewer than 1 in 10. The high incidence rate, combined with limited market penetration, makes depression a high potential market for pharmaceuticals. However, companies developing drugs for depression also face a number of serious challenges. Psychosocial treatment options remain the preferred first-line therapy ahead of medication-and when it comes to drug treatment, the abundance of generic options available has significantly contributed to halving the value of the branded antidepressant market over recent years. Another hurdle faced by new drugs is the requirement that all antidepressants carry a black-box warning regarding the increased risk of suicide in children, adolescents and young adults, which limits their use in this population. Switching between medications presents both an opportunity and a challenge, as a significant number of patients will switch away from their first medication within the first year of treatment. The lack of complete understanding of why depression occurs also makes this area a difficult one, although it opens the door for the development of drugs with novel mechanisms of action. PMID:24696870
D'Souza, P; Jago, C
This study examined whether deficits in dealing with daily problems emerge before a depressive episode (i.e., pre-existing vulnerability) or after a depressive episode (i.e., psychosocial scar). Participants completed a 30-day daily diary in which they reported their most negative event of the day, their appraisals of that event, and their mood. Three years later, they completed a structured depression interview. The sample consisted of 350 college students, 24 of whom had a past history of d...
O’grady, Megan A.; Tennen, Howard; Armeli, Stephen
Full Text Available In an attempt to test the conceptual model by Lane and Terry, the purposes of this study were 1 to assess mood states in non-depressed and depressed young karate athletes; 2 to assess mood states in relation to performance in young karate athletes. The participants were recruited from the 2004 Malaysian Games (72 males, 19.20 ± 1.16 years; 37 females, 18.78 ± 0.88 years. The athletes were divided into winners (medalists and losers. The Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS was administered prior to the start of competition. MANOVA was employed to treat the data, while Pearson correlations were calculated for mood states in each depressed mood group and by gender. In terms of non-depressed and depressed mood, tension in the females was higher in the depressed group (5.61 ± 3.02 vs. 3.11 ± 1.90, p = 0.026, eta2 = 0.133, as was fatigue (3.64 ± 2.61 vs. 0.89 ± 1.69, p = 0.006, eta2 = 0.199. Tension in the males was higher in the depressed group (4.41 ± 2.52 vs. 1.50 ± 1.55, p < 0.001, eta2 = 0.215, as was anger (1.43 ± 1.88 vs. 0.25 ± 1.00, p = 0.019, eta2 = 0.076. The highest associations among mood subscales were between anger and depression (r = 0.57, and between depression and fatigue ( r = 0.55 in depressed males. The female winning karateka scored higher on anger (3.08 ± 2.96 vs. 1.29 ± 2.24, p = 0.046, eta2 = 0.109. The highest correlations between mood dimensions in depressed females were between depression and anger (r = 0.85 and between depression and confusion (r = 0.85. Contrary to previous research on the influence of depression on anger, only the female winners scored higher on anger. Several negative mood dimensions were higher in both male and female depressed groups, lending some support to the conceptual model advanced by Lane and Terry
Rebecca S. K. Wong
Full Text Available Abstract Background Omnivorous diets are high in arachidonic acid (AA compared to vegetarian diets. Research shows that high intakes of AA promote changes in brain that can disturb mood. Omnivores who eat fish regularly increase their intakes of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, fats that oppose the negative effects of AA in vivo. In a recent cross-sectional study, omnivores reported significantly worse mood than vegetarians despite higher intakes of EPA and DHA. This study investigated the impact of restricting meat, fish, and poultry on mood. Findings Thirty-nine omnivores were randomly assigned to a control group consuming meat, fish, and poultry daily (OMN; a group consuming fish 3-4 times weekly but avoiding meat and poultry (FISH, or a vegetarian group avoiding meat, fish, and poultry (VEG. At baseline and after two weeks, participants completed a food frequency questionnaire, the Profile of Mood States questionnaire and the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales. After the diet intervention, VEG participants reduced their EPA, DHA, and AA intakes, while FISH participants increased their EPA and DHA intakes. Mood scores were unchanged for OMN or FISH participants, but several mood scores for VEG participants improved significantly after two weeks. Conclusions Restricting meat, fish, and poultry improved some domains of short-term mood state in modern omnivores. To our knowledge, this is the first trial to examine the impact of restricting meat, fish, and poultry on mood state in omnivores.
Beezhold Bonnie L
Using daily diary data, this study examined cross-day associations between family conflict and school problems and tested mediating effects of daily negative mood and moderating effects of psychological symptoms. For 2 weeks, parents and adolescents (N = 106; Mage = 15.4) reported daily conflict; adolescents reported daily negative mood and school problems. Results indicated bidirectional, multiday spillover between parent-adolescent conflict and school problems with daily negative mood statistically accounting for spillover both within and across days. Externalizing symptoms strengthened links between father-adolescent conflict and school problems, whereas depressive and anxious symptoms strengthened links between parent-adolescent conflict and daily negative mood. By demonstrating cross-domain transmission of daily problems, these findings highlight the salience of everyday events as possible intervention targets. PMID:25346538
Timmons, Adela C; Margolin, Gayla
Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivos: describir un caso de una persona que en relación con el uso de Sibutramina presenta trastorno del estado de ánimo. Métodos: reporte de caso. Resultados: paciente de 28 años, quien presenta primer episodio maniaco con síntomas psicóticos y posterior asociación de sintomatología depresiva i [...] nducida probablemente por el uso de Sibutramina. Conclusiones: la Sibutramina puede estar relacionada con la presentación de cuadros afectivos y psicóticos en personas vulnerables, por lo que se recomienda la evaluación del estado mental y los antecedentes de la persona a quien se va a prescribir. Abstract in english Objectives: Describe a case of Mood Disorder in relation to the use of Sibutramine. Methods: Case Report. Results: A 28 year-old patient who shows the first episode of mania with psychotic features, with later association of depressive symptoms possibly induced by the administration of Sibutramine. [...] Conclusions: Sibutramine can be related with the development of affective and psychotic symptoms in a vulnerable patient. The evaluation of the mental state and history is recommended before its prescription.
Juan, Carlos Alba; Miguel, Uribe; Eduardo, Gutiérrez; Néstor, Torres.
Full Text Available Objetivos: describir un caso de una persona que en relación con el uso de Sibutramina presenta trastorno del estado de ánimo. Métodos: reporte de caso. Resultados: paciente de 28 años, quien presenta primer episodio maniaco con síntomas psicóticos y posterior asociación de sintomatología depresiva inducida probablemente por el uso de Sibutramina. Conclusiones: la Sibutramina puede estar relacionada con la presentación de cuadros afectivos y psicóticos en personas vulnerables, por lo que se recomienda la evaluación del estado mental y los antecedentes de la persona a quien se va a prescribir.Objectives: Describe a case of Mood Disorder in relation to the use of Sibutramine. Methods: Case Report. Results: A 28 year-old patient who shows the first episode of mania with psychotic features, with later association of depressive symptoms possibly induced by the administration of Sibutramine. Conclusions: Sibutramine can be related with the development of affective and psychotic symptoms in a vulnerable patient. The evaluation of the mental state and history is recommended before its prescription.
Juan Carlos Alba
Since the 1980s a large body of empirical effort has been devoted to mood-congruent memory (MCM) biases in clinical depression. Whereas there is broad, albeit not unequivocal, evidence that depressive patients retain negative-valenced memory items better than neutral material, few studies have investigated false memories in depression. In a pilot study we gathered support for both enhanced true and false memory for emotional material in depression. The present study aimed to extend these preliminary findings. In view of investigations suggesting that arousing and meaningful stimuli have facilitated access to memory, personal salience was considered a moderator for MCM. In the present study 21 depressed and 22 healthy participants were presented six false memory lists dealing with neutral, negative, and positive themes. At recognition, each item had to be appraised for its degree of valence subsequent to an old-new judgement. Pre-categorised and subjective valence did not discriminate groups. However, relative to controls depressed patients showed both more veridical as well as false recognition for items that concurrently elicited higher salience ratings in patients. In contrast, group differences in recognition performance did not significantly affect salience ratings. Results indicate that salience modulates MCM and may account for discrepancies in the literature. PMID:18819024
Moritz, Steffen; Voigt, Katharina; Arzola, G Marina; Otte, Christian
Observed the interactions of 24 well and 26 depressed mothers with their 5-year-old children. Found no difference between well and depressed mothers' granting or denial of their children's requests. Depressed, but not well, mothers' responses to child requests could be predicted from their self-reported mood and child behavior. (BC)
Kochanska, Grazyna; Kuczynski, Leon
Objective?To explore depressed mood in the breastfeeding dyad.?Method?N?=?50 mothers of 12-day-olds reported depressed mood (EPDS) and anxiety (STAI), then were videotaped while breastfeeding. Infants were weighed before and after breastfeeding.?Results?An ANCOVA on weight gain, which controlled for infant age and birth weight, found EPDS inversely related to weight gain. Following a significant MANCOVA on infant biobehavioral measures, ANCOVAs which controlled for birth weight,...
Hart, Sybil L.; Jackson, Shera C.; Boylan, L. Mallory
Full Text Available During the menstrual cycle, pregnancy and breast-feeding periods, as well as in menopausal and post-menopausal periods, the physiological and psychological processes that change according to the hormonal fluctuations influence every women similarly and each one differently. These physiological processes are controlled by neuroendocrine sequences, of which the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis are the most important ones. The hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis affects mood, anxiety, cognition and pain. The interaction of these hormones with mood and behavior is bidirectional. The differences in phenomenology and epidemiology of mood disorders with regards to gender can be explained with the effects of hormones. All of the periods mentioned above are related with mood disorders at terms of risk factors, disease symptoms, progress of disease and response to treatment. Epidemiologic data supports the relationship between the mood disorders and reproductive processes. The prevalence of major depression increases in women with the menarche and ceases in post- menopausal period. Similarly, the initial symptoms of bipolar disorder begins around the menarche period in 50% of the cases. Despite proper treatment, some female patients with major depression experience recurrence during the premenstrual period of their menstrual cycles. The conformity and change in a woman’s brain during pregnancy is controlled dominantly by the neuroendocrine systems, while it is controlled by the external stimuli actively related to the baby during nursing period. The changes that occur are closely related to postpartum mood disorders. Again, all the changes and suspension of medication during this procedure are risk factors for early depressive and dysphoric situations. Variables of a wide range, from follicle stimulating hormone, melatonin, and sleep to body mass index interact with mood disorders in menopausal and post-menopausal periods. Interest on the effects of gonadal steroids on the central nervous system has grown parallel with our increasing knowledge. In the last decade, the place of hormonal treatments in the treatment of mood disorders have been discussed continously. During this period, along with the anti-depressant efficacy of estrogen, anti-manic efficacy of tamoxifen was also demonstrated in several studies. In this paper, the complex relationship between the physiological changes and the mood disorders during a menstrual cycle, pregnancy, nursing, menopausal and post-menopausal periods are briefly reviewed and discussed over the reproductive hormones in the context of etiology, phenomenology and treatment.
SUMMMARY Patient of “psychotic depression” who digested large quantity of water and subsequently developed grand mal seizure and serum sodium levels of less than 121 meq/litre is presented. The physiology of psychogenic polydypsia and related disorders is reviewed. The relation of this disorder to the use of phenothiazines and antidepressants is considered. PMID:21927494
Mahla, V.P.; Trehan, V.; Puri, D.K.
Patient of “psychotic depression” who digested large quantity of water and subsequently developed grand mal seizure and serum sodium levels of less than 121 meq/litre is presented. The physiology of psychogenic polydypsia and related disorders is reviewed. The relation of this disorder to the use of phenothiazines and antidepressants is considered.
Mahla, V. P.; Trehan, V.; Puri, D. K.
Two cases of lycanthropy presenting as part of a depressive disorder are described. The patients responded favorably to pharmacotherapy. In both cases, a positive history of dog bite influenced the presentation of symptoms. The authors speculate whether the defense of identification with the aggressor was operative. PMID:10364724
Rao, K; Gangadhar, B N; Janakiramiah, N
The possibility that a subclinical deficiency of the trace element selenium might exist in a sample of the British population was examined by giving a selenium supplement for 5 weeks. Using a double-blind cross-over design, 50 subjects received either a placebo or 100 mcg selenium on a daily basis. On three occasions they filled in the Profile of Moods States. A food frequency questionnaire was used to estimate the intake of selenium in the diet. Intake was associated with a general elevation of mood and in particular, a decrease in anxiety. The change in mood when taking the active tablet was correlated with the level of selenium in the diet, which was estimated from a food frequency questionnaire. The lower the level of selenium in the diet the more reports of anxiety, depression, and tiredness, decreased following 5 weeks of selenium therapy. The results are discussed in terms of the low level of selenium in the food chain in some parts of the world. PMID:1873372
Benton, D; Cook, R
Improving mood with psychoanalytic and cognitive therapies (IMPACT: a pragmatic effectiveness superiority trial to investigate whether specialised psychological treatment reduces the risk for relapse in adolescents with moderate to severe unipolar depression: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial
Full Text Available Abstract Background Up to 70% of adolescents with moderate to severe unipolar major depression respond to psychological treatment plus Fluoxetine (20-50 mg with symptom reduction and improved social function reported by 24 weeks after beginning treatment. Around 20% of non responders appear treatment resistant and 30% of responders relapse within 2 years. The specific efficacy of different psychological therapies and the moderators and mediators that influence risk for relapse are unclear. The cost-effectiveness and safety of psychological treatments remain poorly evaluated. Methods/Design Improving Mood with Psychoanalytic and Cognitive Therapies, the IMPACT Study, will determine whether Cognitive Behavioural Therapy or Short Term Psychoanalytic Therapy is superior in reducing relapse compared with Specialist Clinical Care. The study is a multicentre pragmatic effectiveness superiority randomised clinical trial: Cognitive Behavioural Therapy consists of 20 sessions over 30 weeks, Short Term Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy 30 sessions over 30 weeks and Specialist Clinical Care 12 sessions over 20 weeks. We will recruit 540 patients with 180 randomised to each arm. Patients will be reassessed at 6, 12, 36, 52 and 86 weeks. Methodological aspects of the study are systematic recruitment, explicit inclusion criteria, reliability checks of assessments with control for rater shift, research assessors independent of treatment team and blind to randomization, analysis by intention to treat, data management using remote data entry, measures of quality assurance, advanced statistical analysis, manualised treatment protocols, checks of adherence and competence of therapists and assessment of cost-effectiveness. We will also determine whether time to recovery and/or relapse are moderated by variations in brain structure and function and selected genetic and hormone biomarkers taken at entry. Discussion The objective of this clinical trial is to determine whether there are specific effects of specialist psychotherapy that reduce relapse in unipolar major depression in adolescents and thereby costs of treatment to society. We also anticipate being able to utilise psychotherapy experience, neuroimaging, genetic and hormone measures to reveal what techniques and their protocols may work best for which patients. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN83033550
Full Text Available ... for your specific condition. ©1995-2013, The Patient Education Institute, Inc. www.X-Plain.com mh010106 Last reviewed: 07/28/2013 2 Causes of Depression Combination of genetic, psychological, and environmental factors can cause depression. Major depression is often ...
Human anxiety is frequently accompanied by depression, and when they co-occur both conditions exhibit greater severity and resistance to treatment. Little is known, however, about the molecular processes linking these emotional and mood disorders. Based on previously reported phosphorylation patterns of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in the brain, we hypothesized that ERK’s upstream activators intertwine fear and mood regulation through their hippocampal actions. We tested this...
Tronson, Natalie C.; Schrick, Christina; Fischer, Andre; Sananbenesi, Farahnaz; Page?s, Gilles; Pouysse?gur, Jacques; Radulovic, Jelena
Full Text Available Maria Luca,1 Giuseppa Prossimo,1 Vincenzo Messina,1 Antonina Luca,2 Salvatore Romeo,1 Carmela Calandra11Department of Medical and Surgery Specialties, Psychiatry Unit, 2Department of Neuroscience, University Hospital Policlinico-Vittorio Emanuele, Catania, Sicily, ItalyBackground: The present study aimed: to assess prescribing patterns in the treatment of major depression, bipolar disorder type I, cyclothymia, and dysthymia from 1996 to 2007 in a day hospital setting; to evaluate the prevalence of the above-mentioned mood disorders and gender distribution; and to relate familiality, comorbidity, and marital status to each diagnosis.Methods: Medical records for 777 day hospital patients with a diagnosis of major depression, bipolar disorder type I, cyclothymia, or dysthymia were grouped into two 6-year periods so as to compare the prescribing patterns of tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, noradrenergic reuptake inhibitors, serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressants, first-generation antipsychotics, second-generation antipsychotics, and mood stabilizers. Gender, prevalence, familiality, comorbidity, and marital status were related to each diagnosis.Results: The most common mood disorder, with a female preponderance, was major depression, regardless of marital status. High percentages of familiality and comorbidity were found for major depression, while a reduction was found in the utilization of tricyclic antidepressants. There was no statistically significant difference in rates of prescription of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and noradrenergic reuptake inhibitors, but some irregularities were found upon evaluating each diagnosis (eg, increased utilization of these agents in dysthymia and major depression, respectively. There was an increase in prescriptions for serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, but no marked differences in utilization of noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressants, which remained basically low. There was no significant difference in prescribing of first-generation antipsychotic agents, although a reduction was found. There was a significant increase in utilization of second-generation antipsychotics and mood stabilizers.Conclusion: Our epidemiological findings are consistent with data reported in the literature regarding the high prevalence of major depression among the mood disorders, as well as the impact of familiality and comorbidity. Analysis of prescribing patterns for antidepressants, antipsychotics, and mood stabilizers in the treatment of mood disorders shows a shift from older to newer drugs, and wider use of mood stabilizers.Keywords: antidepressants, antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, prescribing patterns, mood disorders, treatment
Cognitive deficits are common symptom presentations in neurology and psychiatry. Cognitive symptoms during major depressive episodes cause subjective distress as well as difficulties during therapy and psychosocial reintegration. Depression-associated cognitive symptoms are characterized by a mood-congruent information processing bias as well as by cognitive performance deficits. A diagnostically relevant profile of neuropsychological impairments specific to depression has not yet been identified. Nevertheless, deficits of executive and declarative memory functions have repeatedly been reported. The time course of cognitive deficits after remission of mood is not entirely clear. Depending on the point of time of the reinvestigation, patients may still exhibit pronounced cognitive deficits. This article presents the current knowledge about cognitive symptoms in major depression, including the pathophysiology and treatment options. PMID:25604917
Konrad, C; Losekam, S; Zavorotnyy, M
Full Text Available Abstract Vitamin B12 is one of the essential vitamins affecting various systems of the body. Reports of psychiatric disorders due to its deficiency mostly focus on middle aged and elderly patients. Here we report a case of vitamin B 12 deficiency in a 16-year old, male adolescent who presented with mixed mood disorder symptoms with psychotic features. Chief complaints were “irritability, regressive behavior, apathy, crying and truancy” which lasted for a year. Premorbid personality was unremarkable with no substance use/exposure or infections. No stressors were present. The patient was not vegetarian. Past medical history and family history was normal. Neurological examination revealed glossitis, ataxia, rigidity in both shoulders, cog-wheel rigidity in the left elbow, bilateral problems of coordination in cerebellar examination, reduced swinging of the arms and masked face. Romberg’s sign was present. Laboratory evaluations were normal. Endoscopy and biopsy revealed atrophy of the gastric mucosa with Helicobacter Pylori colonization. Schilling test was suggestive of malabsorbtion. He was diagnosed with Mood disorder with Mixed, Psychotic Features due to Vitamin B12 Deficiency and risperidone 0.5?mg/day and intramuscular vitamin B12 500 mcg/day were started along with referral for treatment of Helicobacter pylori. A visit on the second week revealed no psychotic features. Romberg’s sign was negative and cerebellar tests were normal. Extrapyramidal symptoms were reduced while Vitamin B12 levels were elevated. Risperidone was stopped and parenteral Vitamin B12 treatment was continued with monthly injections for 3?months. Follow-up endoscopy and biopsy at the first month demonstrated eradication of H. pylori. He was followed monthly for another 6?months and psychiatric symptoms did not recur at the time of last evaluation. Despite limitations, this case may underline the observation that mood disorders with psychotic features especially with accompanying extrapyramidal symptoms lacking a clear etiology may be rare manifestation of vitamin B12 and/or folate deficiency in children and adolescents and be potentially amenable to treatment.
It is unknown how antidepressants reverse mood-congruent memory bias, a cognitive core factor causing and maintaining depression. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design, we investigated the effect of a short-term treatment (14 days) with the dual reuptake inhibitor duloxetine on neural correlates of mood-congruent and mood-incongruent memory formation and retrieval in healthy volunteers who underwent a sad mood induction procedure. Duloxetine did not affect acute mood sta...
Tendolkar, Indira -.; Wingen, Guido A.; Urner, Maren; Verkes, Robbert; Ferna?ndez, Guille?n
Full Text Available ... to stop using alcohol or illicit drugs. Some medications, especially blood pressure medications, can lead to a chemical imbalance in the ... depression. If this is the case, stopping these medications may be enough to treat depression. However, never ...
Full Text Available ... person may even consider suicide. Suicide and attempted suicide are very tragic consequences of depression. If a person ever feels like ending their ... 2013 4 More advanced cases with ideas of ... in treating mild cases of depression. They are often also necessary in more advanced ...
Abstract Background Though vascular factors may be important in the aetiology of late-life depression, it is not clear whether they have a major effect on the risk of depression after a stroke. We investigated the relationship between physiological, biochemical, neuro-imaging and socio-economic factors and late-phase post-stroke depression in a cross-sectional case-control study. Methods People living at home at least 9 months after a stroke were interviewed usi...
Fall Susan; Chatterjee Kausik; Barer David
We describe the results of an open-label study designed to assess the effectiveness and tolerability of aripiprazole addition to an antidepressant in patients with major depressive disorder with postpartum onset who had not experienced significant clinical improvement following an adequate trial of an antidepressant. Eight of ten women completed the trial with augmentation of aripiprazole (2-10 mg) to their existing antidepressant treatment. Our results suggest a possible therapeutic role for aripiprazole when added to an antidepressant in non-breastfeeding women with postpartum depression. Aripiprazole addition appeared effective and safe with no serious adverse events reported. PMID:25223952
Sharma, Verinder; Sommerdyk, Christina; Xie, Bin
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder is prevalent in the adolescent psychiatric clinical setting and often comorbid with other primary psychiatric diagnoses such as ADHD or social anxiety disorder. Systematic manual-based diagnostic procedures are recommended to identify such comorbidity but they are time-consuming and often not fully implemented in clinical practice. Screening for depressive symptoms in the child psychiatric context using brief, user-friendly and easily managed self-assessment scales may be of clinical value and utility. The aim of the study is to test the psychometric validity of two such scales, which may be used in a two-step screening procedure, the WHO-Five Well-being Index (WHO-5) and the six-item version of Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI-6). METHOD: 66 adolescent psychiatric patients with a clinical diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD), 60 girls and 6 boys, aged 14--18 years, mean age 16.8 years, completed the WHO-5 scale as well as the BDI-6. Statistical validitywas tested by Mokken and Rasch analyses. RESULTS: The correlation between WHO-5 and BDI-6 was -0.49 (p=0.0001). Mokken analyses showed a coefficient of homogeneity for the WHO-5 of 0.52 and for the BDI-6 of 0.46. Rasch analysis also accepted unidimensionality when testing males versus females (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The WHO-5 is psychometrically valid in an adolescent psychiatric context including both genders to assess the wellness dimension and applicable as a first step in screening for MDD. The BDI-6 may be recommended as a second step in the screening procedure, since it is statistically valid and has the ability to unidimensionally capture the severity of depressed mood.
Blom, Eva Henje; Bech, Per
Full Text Available Abstract Background Major depressive disorder is prevalent in the adolescent psychiatric clinical setting and often comorbid with other primary psychiatric diagnoses such as ADHD or social anxiety disorder. Systematic manual-based diagnostic procedures are recommended to identify such comorbidity but they are time-consuming and often not fully implemented in clinical practice. Screening for depressive symptoms in the child psychiatric context using brief, user-friendly and easily managed self-assessment scales may be of clinical value and utility. The aim of the study is to test the psychometric validity of two such scales, which may be used in a two-step screening procedure, the WHO-Five Well-being Index (WHO-5 and the six-item version of Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI-6. Method 66 adolescent psychiatric patients with a clinical diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD, 60 girls and 6 boys, aged 14–18 years, mean age 16.8 years, completed the WHO-5 scale as well as the BDI-6. Statistical validity was tested by Mokken and Rasch analyses. Results The correlation between WHO-5 and BDI-6 was ?0.49 (p=0.0001. Mokken analyses showed a coefficient of homogeneity for the WHO-5 of 0.52 and for the BDI-6 of 0.46. Rasch analysis also accepted unidimensionality when testing males versus females (p > 0.05. Conclusions The WHO-5 is psychometrically valid in an adolescent psychiatric context including both genders to assess the wellness dimension and applicable as a first step in screening for MDD. The BDI-6 may be recommended as a second step in the screening procedure, since it is statistically valid and has the ability to unidimensionally capture the severity of depressed mood.
Blom Eva Henje
Women with polycystic ovary syndrome have gynecologic, reproductive and metabolic co-morbidities that span their entire lifespan. More recently a higher risk of mood and anxiety disorders has been reported in women with PCOS. Women with PCOS have higher depression scores and a higher risk of depression independent of BMI. Although clinical features of hyperandrogenism affect health related quality of life, the association between hirsutism, acne, body image and depression is currently unclear. Similarly there is limited data on the association between variables such as biochemical hyperandrogenism or infertility and depression. Women with PCOS are also at risk for symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder. There is insufficient data examining the risk of other anxiety disorders such as social phobia, obsessive compulsive disorders and panic disorder. In a number of patients some of these disorders coexist increasing the health burden. These data underscore the need to screen all women with PCOS for mood and anxiety disorders and adequately treat women who are diagnosed with these conditions. PMID:22178257
Objective The association between inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and depression provides a unique opportunity to understand the relation between systemic inflammation and depressive symptom profiles. Methods Youth (n = 226) ages 9 to 17 years with comorbid IBD and depression underwent psychiatric assessment and evaluation of IBD activity. Latent profile analysis (LPA) identified depressive subgroups based on similar responses to the Children’s Depression Rating Scale-Revised. Demographic factors, depression severity, anxiety, IBD activity, inflammatory markers, IBD-related medications, and illness perception were evaluated as predictors of profile membership. Results Mean age was 14.3 years; 75% had Crohn disease; 31% were taking systemic corticosteroids. Mean depressive severity was moderate, whereas IBD activity, which reflects inflammation, was mild. LPA identified 3 subgroups: Profile-1 (mild, 75%) had diverse low-grade depressive symptoms and highest quality of life; Profile-2 (somatic, 19%) had severe fatigue, appetite change, anhedonia, decreased motor activity, and depressed mood with concurrent high-dose steroid therapy and the highest IBD activity; and Profile-3 (cognitive, 6%) had the highest rates of self-reported depressive symptoms, ostomy placements, and anxiety with IBD symptoms in the relative absence of inflammation. Conclusions Evidence was found for 3 depression profiles in youth with IBD and depression. Our analyses determined that patients with predominantly somatic or cognitive symptoms of depression comprised 25% of our cohort. These findings may be used to design subgroup-specific interventions for depression in adolescents with IBD and other physical illnesses associated with systemic inflammation. PMID:24345836
Szigethy, Eva M.; Youk, Ada O.; Benhayon, David; Fairclough, Diane L.; Newara, Melissa C.; Kirshner, Margaret A.; Bujoreanu, Simona I.; Mrakotsky, Christine; Bousvaros, Athos; Srinath, Arvind I.; Keljo, David J.; Kupfer, David J.; DeMaso, David R.
Seasonal variation in mood and behavior was examined in 87 American men and women who spent the 1991 austral winter at three different research stations in Antarctica. The South Pole station (90 degrees S) crew reported a significant decline in tension/anxiety, depression, anger, confusion, and fatigue from March to August, followed by a significant increase in tension/anxiety and fatigue and a significant decline in vigor from August to October. The McMurdo station (78 degrees 51' S) crew also reported a significant decline in tension/anxiety from March to July and a significant increase in tension/anxiety from July to August. In contrast, the Palmer station (64 degrees 46' S) crew experienced no significant changes in any mood subscale from May to October. The nonlinear pattern of change in mood suggests that adaptation to prolonged isolation and confinement in an extreme environment occurs in two or three stages. PMID:11542941
Palinkas, L A; Houseal, M
Depressed mood and poor quality of life in male patients with chronic renal failure undergoing hemodialysis / Comportamento depressivo e má qualidade de vida em homens com insuficiência renal crônica submetidos à hemodiálise
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Avaliar o estado de humor e a qualidade de vida de homens em tratamento hemodialítico, correlacionar as alterações observadas no humor com os diferentes domínios do questionário de qualidade de vida. MÉTODO: Foram incluídos 47 homens em tratamento hemodialítico estável há mais de seis mese [...] s. Foram aplicadas a Escala de Hamilton de depressão e o Kidney Disease Quality of Life Questionnaire, questionário de qualidade de vida relacionado à saúde, em sua forma traduzida e adaptada para a língua portuguesa. RESULTADOS: A média da idade dos pacientes era 39,4 ± 8,9 anos. Na avaliação pela Escala de Hamilton, observou-se em 32 (68,1%) pacientes a presença de depressão. Encontramos correlação negativa significativa entre os resultados obtidos na escala de Hamilton e os seguintes parâmetros das dimensões específicas do Kidney Disease Quality of Life Questionnaire: lista de sintomas e problemas (rs = -0,399; p = 0,005), qualidade da interação social (rs = -0,433; p = 0,002) e sono (rs = -0,585; p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To assess mood and quality of life in male hemodialysis patients, and to correlate mood swings with the different domains of the quality of life questionnaire. METHOD: Forty-seven male patients undergoing regular hemodialysis for more than six months were included in the study. The Hamilt [...] on Rating Scale for Depression and the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Questionnaire, in a version translated into and adapted to Portuguese, were used. RESULTS: The patients' age was 39.4 ± 8.9 years (median ± SD). Depression was observed in 32 (68.1%) patients according to the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. A significant negative correlation was found between the results from the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression and the following parameters of the specific dimensions of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Questionnaire: list of symptoms and problems (rs = -0.399; p = 0.005), quality of social interaction (rs = -0.433; p = 0.002), and quality of sleep (rs = -0.585; p
Thales Weber, Garcia; Joel Paulo Russomano, Veiga; Lucilia Domingues Casulari da, Motta; Flávio José Dutra de, Moura; Luiz Augusto, Casulari.
Tested accuracy of motivational theory of depression for adjustment disorder with depressed mood in 48 patients with terminal and nonterminal cancer. Results supported motivational theory: cancer patients exhibited low expectations and low values; hence, they were unmotivated and depressed. (NRB)
Layne, Christopher; And Others
Abstract Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is commonly regarded as a functional disorder, and is hypothesized to be associated with anxiety and depression. This evidence mainly rests on population-based studies utilising self-report screening instruments for psychopathology. Other studies applying structured clinical interviews are generally based on small clinical samples, which are vulnerable to biases. The extant evidence base for an association between IBS and psy...
Mykletun Arnstein; Jacka Felice; Williams Lana; Pasco Julie; Henry Margaret; Nicholson Geoffrey C; Kotowicz Mark A; Berk Michael
Synaesthesia is a condition that gives rise to unusual secondary sensations (e.g., colours are perceived when listening to music). These unusual sensations tend to be reported as being stable throughout adulthood (e.g., Simner & Logie, 2007, Neurocase, 13, 358) and the consistency of these experiences over time is taken as the behavioural hallmark of genuineness. Our study looked at the influence of mood states on synaesthetic colours. In Experiment 1, we recruited grapheme-colour synaesthetes (who experience colours from letters/digits) and elicited their synaesthetic colours, as well as their mood and depression states, in two different testing sessions. In each session, participants completed the PANAS-X (Watson & Clark, 1999) and the BDI-II (Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996, Manual for Beck Depression Inventory-II), and chose their synaesthetic colours for letters A-Z from an interactive colour palette. We found that negative mood significantly decreased the luminance of synaesthetic colours. In Experiment 2, we showed that synaesthetic colours were also less luminant for synaesthetes with anxiety disorder, versus those without. Additional evidence suggests that colour saturation, too, may inversely correlate with depressive symptoms. These results show that fluctuations in mood within both a normal and clinical range influence synaesthetic colours over time. This has implications for our understanding about the longitudinal stability of synaesthetic experiences, and of how mood may interact with the visual (imagery) systems. PMID:25413977
Kay, Collette L; Carmichael, Duncan A; Ruffell, Henry E; Simner, Julia
Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS is a disease which defined as medically unexplained, disabling fatigue of 6 months or more duration and often accompanied by several of a long list of physical complaints. We aimed to investigate abnormalities of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis hormones and cortisol concentrations in premenopausal women with CFS and find out effects of depression rate on these hormones. Methods We examined follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, estradiol, progesterone and cortisol concentrations in 43 premenopausal women (mean age: 32.86 ± 7.11 with CFS and compared matched 35 healthy controls (mean age: 31.14 ± 6.19. Patients were divided according to menstrual cycle phases (follicular and luteal and compared with matched phase controls. Depression rate was assessed by Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, and patients with high BDI scores were compared to patients with low BDI scores. Results There were no significant differences in FSH, LH, estradiol and progesterone levels in both of menstrual phases of patients versus controls. Cortisol levels were significantly lower in patients compared to controls. There were no significant differences in all hormone levels in patients with high depression scores versus patients with low depression scores. Conclusion In spite of high depression rate, low cortisol concentration and normal HPG axis hormones of both menstrual phases are detected in premenopausal women with CFS. There is no differentiation between patients with high and low depression rate in all hormone levels. Depression condition of CFS may be different from classical depression and evaluation of HPG and HPA axis should be performed for understanding of pathophysiology of CFS and planning of treatment.
Summary We evaluated risks of preterm delivery and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy among pregnant women with mood and migraine disorders. We used data from a cohort study of 3,432 pregnant women. Maternal pre-gestational or early pregnancy (before 20 weeks gestational) mood disorder and pre-gestational migraine diagnoses were ascertained from in-person interview and medical record review. We fitted generalized linear models to derive risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of preterm delivery and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy for women with isolated mood, isolated migraine, and comorbid mood-migraine disorders, respectively. Reported RRs were adjusted for maternal age, race/ethnicity, marital status, parity, smoking status, chronic hypertension or pre-existing diabetes mellitus, and pre-pregnancy body mass index. Women without mood or migraine disorders were defined as the reference group. The risks for preterm delivery and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were more consistently elevated among women with comorbid mood-migraine disorders than among women with isolated mood or migraine disorder. Women with comorbid disorders were almost twice as likely to deliver preterm (adjusted RR=1.87, 95% CI 1.05–3.34) compared with the referent group. There was no clear evidence of increased risks of preterm delivery and its subtypes with isolated migraine disorder. Women with mood disorder had elevated risks of preeclampsia (adjusted RR=3.57, 95% CI 1.83–6.99). Our results suggest an association between isolated migraine disorder and pregnancy-induced hypertension (adjusted RR=1.42, 95% CI 1.00–2.01). This is the first study examining perinatal outcomes in women with comorbid mood-migraine disorders. Pregnant women with a history of migraine may benefit from depression screening during prenatal care, and vigilant monitoring, especially for women with comorbid mood-migraine disorders. PMID:21281324
Cripe, Swee May; Frederick, Ihunnaya O.; Qiu, Chunfang; Williams, Michelle A.
Full Text Available Abstract Background To ascertain the impact of postpartum onset (PPO on the subsequent time course of mood disorders. Methods This retrospective study compared per year rates of excited (manic or mixed and depressive episodes between fifty-five women with bipolar (N = 22 or major depressive (N = 33 disorders with first episode occurring postpartum (within four weeks after childbirth according to DSM-IV definition and 218 non-postpartum onset (NPPO controls. Such patients had a traceable illness course consisting of one or more episodes alternating with complete symptom remission and no additional diagnoses of axis I disorders, mental retardation or brain organic diseases. A number of variables reported to influence the course of mood disorders were controlled for as possible confounding factors Results Bipolar women with postpartum onset disorder had fewer excited episodes (p = 0.005 and fewer episodes of both polarities (p = 0.005 compared to non-postpartum onset subjects. No differences emerged in the rates of depressive episodes. All patients who met criteria for rapid cycling bipolar disorder (7 out of 123 were in the NPPO group. Among major depressives, PPO patients experienced fewer episodes (p = 0.016. With respect to clinical and treatment features, PPO-MDD subjects had less personality disorder comorbidity (p = 0.023 and were less likely to be on maintenance treatment compared to NPPO comparison subjects (p = 0.002 Conclusion Such preliminary findings suggest that PPO mood disorders may be characterized by a less recurrent time course. Future research in this field should elucidate the role of comorbid personality disorders and treatment. Moreover it should clarify whether PPO disorders are also associated with a more positive outcome in terms of social functioning and quality of life.
This study examined the prevalence of self-reported depressive symptoms and the self reported somatic depressive symptoms as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) among patients hospitalized for acute coronary syndrome (ACS), and explored the impact of gender on both. A convenience sample of 789 adults (248 women and 541 men) was recruited for the study during hospital admission for ACS and participants were screened for self-reported depressive symptoms. BDI-II scores of ?1...
Bogaev, Roberta C.; Malini Udtha; Stanley Cron; Fang Liu; Jennifer Sanner; Erica Yu; Stephanie Coulter; Lorraine Frazier
Little is known about the role of exercise in improving cancer patients' mood while undergoing chemotherapy. In this phase II study changes in self-reported anxiety and depression and fitness (VO2max) are reported in relation to a 6-week, 9 h weekly, multidimensional exercise program. A total of 91 patients receiving chemotherapy, between 18 and 65 years old, completed a Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale Questionnaire (HADS; response rate 91%, adherence rate 78%). Anxiety (p < 0.001) and depression (p = 0.042) was significantly reduced. The mean ± SD of the change was [minus sign]1.14 ± 2.91 for anxiety and [minus sign]0.44 ± 2.77 for depression. Improvements in fitness were correlated with improvements in depression, [chi]2(1) = 3.966, p = 0.046, but not with improvements in anxiety, [chi]2(1) = 0.540, p = 0.462. The research suggests that exercise intervention may have a beneficial impact on psychological distress for cancer patients receiving chemotherapy with low to moderate levels of baseline psychomorbidity. The study furthermore indicates that changes in distress may be associated with disease status and levels of physical activity undertaken during disease. The study is followed up by an ongoing randomized clinical controlled trial to evaluate potential causal effects of exercise intervention on psychological distress and fitness in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy.
Klausen, Julie Midtgaard; RØrth, Mikael Rahbek
When papers published in highly-prestigious journals in 2010 and 2011 were categorized, the number of papers on genestic studies was found to be the largest, followed by papers on brain imaging, postmortem brain studies, and animal model studies. Follow-up studies of the findings of initial genome-wide association analyses constitute a major part of genetic studies. Recent brain imaging studies were found to integrate previous findings that indicated altered responces of prefrontal cortex to cognitive stimuli and enhanced responces of amygdala to emotional faces. Reduced size of the hippocampus is reportedly not a result of stress but perhaps a vulnerability factor. Among animal model studies, molecular mechanisms underlying rapid anti-depressive effects of ketamine are drawing attention. The role of neurogenesis in fear memory and depression is complex, and a link between psychopathology and neuroscience may be needed to understand the roles of neurogenesis. Postmortem brain analyses are currently used to investigate several pathophysiological hypotheses related to the roles of monoamine, neuroplasticity, and neuroinflammation in depression, as well as the roles of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons and mitochondria in bipolar disorder. Several studies are integrating postmortem brain analysis and animal model studies. Genetic and neuroimaging studies of mood disorders have advanced, and neurobiological basis of the findings of these studies should be furthefindings of these studies should be further elucidated in animal models and postmortem brains. (author)
This study applied the Behavioral Model for Vulnerable Populations framework to examine the correlates of depression and the receipt of medical treatment among low-income Hispanics and African Americans residing in public housing. We compared three groups: those who reported (1) self-diagnosed but without physician-diagnosed depression, (2) depression diagnosed by a physician but who did not receive pharmaceutical treatment, and (3) depression diagnosed by a physician and antidepressant pharmacotherapy consumed by patient. Random samples of 287 adults from three public housing communities were surveyed. Over 48% of this sample reported that they were suffering from depression. One out of three people who reported being depressed also said that a physician had never diagnosed his or her condition. Only 40% of those who said that a physician had diagnosed depression also reported taking antidepressant medication. Untreated depression among underserved racial and ethnic minorities is alarming and points to an urgent need for intervention. PMID:15937396
Bazargan, Mohsen; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Baker, Richard S
... improve the lives of people who have mood disorders. The Power of Peers DBSA envisions wellness for people who live with depression and bipolar disorder. Because DBSA was created for and is led ...
BACKGROUND: Volumetric changes in mood-relevant distributed limbic/paralimbic neurocircuitry have been reported in the recent literature on the course of Major Depression (MD). A decrease in hippocampal gray matter volumes is one of the possible mechanisms involved in pathogenesis of depression [Nifosì et al. 2010]. Converging evidences suggest that a reduced neurogenesis may occur in this area in recurrent depression and its positive modulation is fundamental for antidepressive action. Neu...
Full Text Available ... have them also. Drinking alcohol and using illicit drugs can lead to depression, since drugs and alcohol affect the chemicals in the brain. ... the patient to stop using alcohol or illicit drugs. Some medications, especially blood pressure medications, can lead ...
Full Text Available Background: Some physicians have reported lower serum albumin levels in patients withmajor depression in Western countries. In this study, the relationshipbetween serum albumin levels and mood disorders (including mania andmajor depression was investigated during the acute phases in Taiwanesepsychiatric inpatients.Methods: A review of medical charts during a 1-year period was carried out in a populationof 213 Taiwanese psychiatric inpatients that included 61 patients withmood disorders (with or without suicide attempts. The collected dataincluded age, body weight, height, serum albumin levels, and routine bloodbiochemistry examination results. These data were compared with data froma healthy control group (N=32 drawn from the staff of the psychiatric ward.Statistical analysis was done using covariance after age adjustment.Results: The mean serum albumin levels were 40.2¡ 4.0 g/L in patients with mania(N=25, 39.8¡ 2.8 g/L in patients with major depression (N=36, and 45.8¡ 2.0 g/L in the control group. Patients with mania (F=64.6, p = 0.000 andmajor depression (F=68.9, p = 0.000, respectively, had significantly loweralbumin levels than the control group after age adjustment. However, for thepatients with major depression, no significant difference in serum albuminlevels were found between patients who had attempted suicide and thosewho had not.Conclusion: Lower serum albumin levels were noted during the acute phases of maniaand major depression in Taiwanese psychiatric inpatients.
Full Text Available Psychosis and depression are mental disorders that can exist secondary to some medical disorders and may be associated with the use of drugs. The most frequent causes of these disorders are substance abuse, infections (especially central nervous system infections, hormone or collagen tissue disorders, cancer, and side effect of drugs used to treat diseases. Hypercalcemia is referred as high level of calcium in the blood - higher than 10,2 mg/dl - and is often seen with parathyroid adenoma. Hypercalcemia may cause several symptoms. In this case report, we represent the case of a patient who presented with delusion of persecution and depressive symptoms probably secondary to hypercalcemia. (Archives of Neuropsychiatry 2013;50: 75-77
Full Text Available Anxiety is characterized by attentional biases to threat, but findings are inconsistent for depression. To address this inconsistency, the present study systematically assessed the role of co-occurring anxiety in attentional bias in depression. In addition, the role of emotional valence, arousal, and gender was explored. Ninety-two nonpatients completed the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ; Meyer et al., 1990; Molina & Borkovec, 1994 and portions of the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (MASQ; Watson, Clark, et al., 1995; Watson, Weber, et al., 1995. Individuals reporting high levels of depression and low levels of anxiety (depression only, high levels of depression and anxiety (combined, or low levels of both (control completed an emotion-word Stroop task during event-related brain potential (ERP recording. Pleasant and unpleasant words were matched on emotional arousal level. An attentional bias was not evident in the depression-only group. Women in the combined group had larger N200 amplitude for pleasant than unpleasant stimuli, and the combined group as a whole had larger right-lateralized P300 amplitude for pleasant than unpleasant stimuli, consistent with an early and later attentional bias that is specific to unpleasant valence in the combined group. Men in the control group had larger N200 amplitude for pleasant than unpleasant stimuli, consistent with an early attentional bias that is specific to pleasant valence. The present study indicates that the nature and time course of attention prompted by emotional valence and not arousal differentiates depression with and without anxiety, with some evidence of gender moderating early effects. Overall, results suggest that co-occurring anxiety is more important than previously acknowledged in demonstrating evidence of attentional biases in depression.
Full Text Available Purpose. People with stroke living in the community have an increased prevalence of depression and lower quality of life than healthy older adults. This cross-sectional observational study investigated whether participation in regular exercise was associated with improved mood and quality of life. Methods. We recruited three groups of community dwelling participants: 13 healthy older adults, 17 adults post-stroke who regularly participated in group exercise at a community fitness facility and 10 adults post-stroke who did not regularly exercise. We measured mood using the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale (DASS and quality of life using the Assessment of Quality of Life (AQoL scale. Results. Levels of stress and depression were significantly greater in the people with stroke who did not undertake regular exercise (p = 0.004 and p = 0.004 respectively, although this group had more recent strokes (p < 0.001. Both stroke groups had lower quality of life scores (p = 0.04 than the healthy adults. Conclusions. This small, community-based study confirms that people following stroke report poorer quality of life than stroke-free individuals. However, those who exercise regularly have significantly lower stress and depression compared to stroke survivors who do not. Future research should focus on the precise type and amount of exercise capable of improving mood following stroke.
Michelle N. McDonnell
Patients with cardiomyopathy have a higher incidence of mood and anxiety disorders, resulting in greater probability for hospitalisation and increased risk for arrhythmia and death. We report a case of a 16-year-old boy with Danon disease, Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, who later developed depression and significant weight loss. The patient was successfully treated for his anxiety and depression with mirtazapine without any adverse cardiac effects. PMID:25400066
Tanidir, Canan; Tanidir, Ibrahim C; Tuzcu, Volkan
Antonina Luca,1 Maria Luca,2 Carmela Calandra2 1Department GF Ingrassia, Section of Neuroscience, 2Department of Medical and Surgery Specialties, Psychiatry Unit, University Hospital Policlinico-Vittorio Emanuele, Catania, Sicily, Italy Abstract: Sleep disorders are so frequently associated with depression that, in the absence of sleep complaints, a diagnosis of depression should be made with caution. Insomnia, in particular, may occur in 60%–80% of depressed patients. Depressive sympto...
Luca A; Luca M; Calandra C
Fahr's disease is a rare neuropsychiatric disease characterized by bilateral intracranial calcification, primarily in the basal ganglia. The more general term, Fahr's syndrome, is used for primary and secondary basal ganglia calcification, regardless of the etiology, but the term Fahr's disease is used to describe primary, idiopathic cases. Fahr's disease may present with neurological symptoms, such as parkinsonism and extrapyramidal symptoms, dysarthria, paresis, convulsion, and syncope. Psychiatric disorders, including behavioral disorders, psychosis, and mood disorders, as well as cognitive disorders can occur. CT is useful for the diagnosis of Fahr's disease. Herein we present a patient diagnosed as Fahr's disease that presented with symptoms of depression, delusions, and auditory hallucinations. The 47-year-old male patient was hospitalized in a forensic psychiatry inpatient clinic due to aggressive behavior and was subsequently diagnosed with major depressive disorder with psychotic features. While hospitalized he was treated with antidepressant and antipsychotic drugs, as well as electroconvulsive therapy, resulting in significant improvement in his symptoms. As bilateral basal ganglia calcification was observed via CT, the patient was diagnosed as Fahr's disease. This case report emphasizes the importance of cranial imaging and detailed laboratory examination when evaluating patients with psychosis and affective symptoms. Pathologies such as Fahr's disease must be included in the differential diagnosis, especially in cases with neurological symptoms and cranial imaging findings. PMID:24936761
Özer, Ürün; Görgülü, Yasemin; Can Güngör, Ferda; Gençtürk, Mert
While depression has been associated with infertility treatments, it is not routinely assessed in women prior to undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment. Findings are mixed regarding the degree to which women report depression prior to IVF. The purpose of this study was to (1) examine response profiles in women preparing for IVF and (2) compare responses to those of postpartum, primary care, and general population groups. Female IVF patients (n = 321; 19-45 years) completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) at their first visit. Clinical and demographic characteristics and incidence of major depressive disorder (MDD) and other depressive disorders (ODD) were examined. Overall score distributions of the IVF group were compared to those of local postpartum patients and published primary care and general populations. Demographic or clinical characteristics did not account for response differences within the IVF group. The IVF group had lower incidences of MDD and ODD than a PHQ-9 normative group. Women in the IVF group reported no depressive symptoms significantly more than postpartum, primary care, and general population groups. Women preparing to undergo IVF report fewer symptoms of depression than multiple comparison groups. Specific quality of life measures may be needed to assess distress in this population. PMID:23138273
Lewis, Adam M; Liu, Dawei; Stuart, Scott P; Ryan, Ginny
Abstract Background Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a disease which defined as medically unexplained, disabling fatigue of 6 months or more duration and often accompanied by several of a long list of physical complaints. We aimed to investigate abnormalities of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis hormones and cortisol concentrations in premenopausal women with CFS and find out effects of depression rate on these hormones. Methods We examined follicle sti...
Nas Kemal; Acar Suat; Gur Ali; Cevik Remzi; Sarac Ay?egül
This study reports on the experiences of 45 male focus group participants with a history of depression. Men responded to questions addressing the interaction between the male role, masculinity, depression, and experiences with treatment for depression. Using a qualitative, thematic-based coding strategy, three primary themes emerged. First, participants described aspects of the male gender as being in conflict or incongruent with their experiences of depression and beliefs about appropriate h...
Rochlen, Aaron B.; Paterniti, Debora A.; Epstein, Ronald M.; Duberstein, Paul; Willeford, Lindsay; Kravitz, Richard L.
Mood disorders have been recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO) as the leading cause of disability worldwide. Notwithstanding the established efficacy of conventional mood agents, many treated individuals continue to remain treatment refractory and/or exhibit clinically significant residual symptoms, cognitive dysfunction, and psychosocial impairment. Therefore, a priority research and clinical agenda is to identify pathophysiological mechanisms subserving mood disorders to improve therapeutic efficacy. During the past decade, inflammation has been revisited as an important etiologic factor of mood disorders. Therefore, the purpose of this synthetic review is threefold: 1) to review the evidence for an association between inflammation and mood disorders, 2) to discuss potential pathophysiologic mechanisms that may explain this association and 3) to present novel therapeutic options currently being investigated that target the inflammatory-mood pathway. Accumulating evidence implicates inflammation as a critical mediator in the pathophysiology of mood disorders. Indeed, elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines have been repeatedly demonstrated in both major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) patients. Further, the induction of a pro-inflammatory state in healthy or medically ill subjects induces 'sickness behavior' resembling depressive symptomatology. Potential mechanisms involved include, but are not limited to, direct effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines on monoamine levels, dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, pathologic microglial cell activation, impaired neuroplasticity and structural and functional brain changes. Anti-inflammatory agents, such as acetyl-salicylic acid (ASA), celecoxib, anti-TNF-? agents, minocycline, curcumin and omega-3 fatty acids, are being investigated for use in mood disorders. Current evidence shows improved outcomes in mood disorder patients when anti-inflammatory agents are used as an adjunct to conventional therapy; however, further research is needed to establish the therapeutic benefit and appropriate dosage. PMID:24468642
Rosenblat, Joshua D; Cha, Danielle S; Mansur, Rodrigo B; McIntyre, Roger S
Full Text Available Research until today has found a positive relationship between vascular risk factors and depression. With the advance in neuroimaging methods in the last years, a more definite relation between cerebrovascular diseases and old-age depression have been described, and in the light of the studies in this field, a ‘vascular depression’ subtype has been defined. According to this hypothesis, ‘vascular depression’ implies a special depression subtype which begins first time in old age, which is accompanied less by depressive mood, characterized by impairment in cognitive abilities, especially in executive functions, dominated by psychomotor retardation and somatic symptoms, and lack of family history of depression. A group of researchers stated that defining vascular depression only with clinical findings would be insufficient, suggested brain imaging findings are required for the diagnosis, and subcortical hyperintensities are related to depression symptoms. Late-onset depression is shown to be related to frontal subcortical white-matter hyperintensities, and these findings were found to be correlated with affect dysregulation and executive dysfunction in late-life depression. Executive dysfunction as well as memory and attention problems in late-onset depression have been shown in different studies. Thus, vascular depression hypothesis is thought to be related with subcortical dementia upon these findings. There is currently no consensus on the concept of vascular depression and diagnostic criteria. But this concept which is explaining a subgroup of late-life depressions, predicting the treatment outcome, and implying a preventable disease with the control of vascular factors, makes vascular depression a very important topic. In this review, research on vascular depression hypothesis, findings and critics about the concept will be reviewed.(Archives of Neuropsychiatry 2013; 50: 1-8
Yunus Emre Sönmez
Full Text Available Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV, postpartum depression may include any nonpsychotic depressive disorder during the first four weeks of postpartum, according to research criteria during the first year after birth. The exact cause of postpartum depression is not yet known, and most researchers believe that postpartum depression is a bio-psycho-social problem. So far, the biological aspect of the disease is explained by changing the levels of estrogen and progesterone during pregnancy, and by decrease of hormone levels after birth. Psychological correlates are often associated with low selfesteem, pessimism as a personality trait, bad strategies of coping with stress, mood swings and emotional reactions. The social aspect of the disease is associated with the existential conditions of pregnant woman, support of partners and education level. This paper will include issues like hereditary causes and possible psychological factors of postpartum depression prevention. Nowadays, it is estimated that on average 15% of women, regardless of the pregnancy outcome, are suffering from postpartum depression. However, this information includes only those women who were diagnosed with postpartum depression and who themselves reported about it. Almost every woman receives basic care during pregnancy to prevent complications in the physiological level. This paper has shown possible psychological factors of postpartum depression prevention, the impact of optimism, self-esteem and coping skills.
Full Text Available Barbara L ParryDepartment of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, USAAbstract: Only recently has the perimenopause become recognized as a time when women are at risk for new onset and recurrence of major depression. Untreated depression at this time not only exacerbates the course of a depressive illness, but also puts women at increased risk for sleep disorders, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and osteoporosis. Although antidepressant medication is the mainstay of treatment, adjunctive therapy, especially with estrogen replacement, may be indicated in refractory cases, and may speed the onset of antidepressant action. Many, but not all, studies, report that progesterone antagonizes the beneficial effects of estrogen. Although some antidepressants improve vasomotor symptoms, in general they are not as effective as estrogen alone for relieving these symptoms. Estrogen alone, however, does not generally result in remission of major depression in most (but not all studies, but may provide benefit to some women with less severe symptoms if administered in therapeutic ranges. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs in addition to estrogen are usually more beneficial in improving mood than SSRIs or estrogen treatment alone for major depression, whereas the selective norepinephrine and serotonin reuptake inhibitors do not require the addition of estrogen to exert their antidepressant effects in menopausal depression. In addition to attention to general health, hormonal status, and antidepressant treatment, the optimal management of perimenopausal depression also requires attention to the individual woman’s psychosocial and spiritual well being.Keywords: menopause, depression, management
Barbara L Parry
PET studies (LCMRGlc units of ? moles/min/100g and errors in std. dev.) were performed in patients with unipolar depression (n=11), bipolar depression (n=8), hypomania (n=8) and bipolar mixed states (n=3) in drug free states as well as during spontaneous or drug induced changes in mood, and age/sex matched normals (n=9). The major findings were: bipolar depressed patients had lower (P<0.001) supratentorial CMRGlc (16.7 +- 3.7) than normals (23.6 +- 1.9), hypomanic bipolars (24.7 + 44.6) or unipolars (24.5 +- 3.0). Bipolar mixed (16.4 +- 4.8) were not different from bipolar depressed but were different from all other states (P<0.02). Bipolar depressed and mixed showed increased (30%) supratentorial CMRGlc (P<0.05) with elevated mood (euthymic or hypomanic). Three rapid cycling bipolar patients (2 studies depressed and 1 hypomanic) also showed consistent increases (35%) in supratentorial CMRGlc from depressed to elevated mood state. Unipolar depressed patients had a low LCMRGlc ratio of caudate to hemispheric (c/Hem) (1.18 +- 0.09) compared to bipolar depression (1.30 +- 0.13) or normals (1.32 +- 0.07). Four unipolar patients studied after drug induced recovery showed corresponding return of Cd/Hem ratio to normal. Results of these studies show; delineation of bipolar depressed from unpolar depressed and normals. Separation of mixed biopolar from unipolar and correspondence of the former with bipolar rather than unipolar depression (controversial characterization by otion (controversial characterization by other diagnostic criteria), separation of unipolar from normal and bipolar by reduced LCMRGlc of caudate, and direct correspondence of changes in mood state with changes in LCMRGlc independent of whether changes in mood were drug induced or spontaneous
Diurnal variation of depressive symptoms appears to be part of the core of depression. Yet longitudinal investigation of an individual's pattern regularity, relation to clinical state, and clinical improvement reveals little homogeneity. Morning lows, afternoon slump, evening worsening - all can occur during a single depressive episode. Mood variability, or the propensity to produce mood swings, appears to be the characteristic that most predicts capacity to respond to treatment. Laboratory s...
Depression is a term that has been used to describe a variety of ailments, ranging from minor to incapacitating. Clinically significant depression, termed as major depression, is a serious condition characterized not only by depressed mood but also by a cluster of somatic, cognitive, and motivational symptoms. Significant research efforts are aimed to understand the neurobiological as well as psychiatric disorders, and the evaluation of treatment of these disorders is still based solely on th...
Tamatam, Anand; Khanum, Farhath; Bawa, Amarinder Singh
We evaluated the risks of preterm delivery and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy among pregnant women with mood and migraine disorders, using a cohort study of 3432 pregnant women. Maternal pre-pregnancy or early pregnancy (<20 weeks gestation) mood disorder and pre-pregnancy migraine diagnoses were ascertained from interview and medical record review. We fitted generalised linear models to derive risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of preterm delivery and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy for women with isolated mood, isolated migraine and co-morbid mood-migraine disorders, respectively. Reported RR were adjusted for maternal age, race/ethnicity, marital status, parity, smoking status, chronic hypertension or pre-existing diabetes mellitus, and pre-pregnancy body mass index. Women without mood or migraine disorders were defined as the reference group. The risks for preterm delivery and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were more consistently elevated among women with co-morbid mood-migraine disorders than among women with isolated mood or migraine disorder. Women with co-morbid disorders were almost twice as likely to deliver preterm (adjusted RR=1.87, 95% CI 1.05, 3.34) compared with the reference group. There was no clear evidence of increased risks of preterm delivery and its subtypes with isolated migraine disorder. Women with mood disorder had elevated risks of pre-eclampsia (adjusted RR=3.57, 95% CI 1.83, 6.99). Our results suggest an association between isolated migraine disorder and pregnancy-induced hypertension (adjusted RR=1.42, 95% CI 1.00, 2.01). This is the first study examining perinatal outcomes in women with co-morbid mood-migraine disorders. Pregnant women with a history of migraine may benefit from screening for depression during prenatal care and vigilant monitoring, especially for women with co-morbid mood and migraine disorders. PMID:21281324
Cripe, Swee May; Frederick, Ihunnaya O; Qiu, Chunfang; Williams, Michelle A
Comparison of effects of bright light therapy alone or combined with fluoxetine on severity of depression, circadian rhythms, mood disturbance, and sleep quality, in patients with non-seasonal depression
Mehmet Yücel Agargün,1 Gokben Hizli Sayar,2 Hüseyin Bulut,3 Oguz Tan21Medipol University, Department of Psychiatry, Istanbul, Turkey; 2Uskudar University, Neuropsychiatry Istanbul Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey; 3Büyükçekmece Government Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Istanbul, TurkeyPurpose: To compare effects of bright light therapy (BLT) alone or combined with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine, on severity of depression, circadian ...
My, Ag?arg Amp Uuml N.; H?zl? Sayar G; Bulut H; Tan O
The high rate of comorbidity of asthma and mood disorders would imply the possibility of potential shared pathophysiologic factors. Proposed links between asthma and mood disorders include a vulnerability (trait) and state connection. Vulnerability for both asthma and mood disorders may involve genetic and early developmental factors. State-related connections may include obstructive factors, inflammatory factors, sleep impairment, psychological reactions to chronic medical illness, as well a...
Kewalramani, Anupama; Bollinger, Mary E.; Postolache, Teodor T.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The physical health status of vegetarians has been extensively reported, but there is limited research regarding the mental health status of vegetarians, particularly with regard to mood. Vegetarian diets exclude fish, the major dietary source of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, critical regulators of brain cell structure and function. Omnivorous diets low in EPA and DHA are linked to impaired mood states in observational and experimental studies. Methods We examined associations between mood state and polyunsaturated fatty acid intake as a result of adherence to a vegetarian or omnivorous diet in a cross-sectional study of 138 healthy Seventh Day Adventist men and women residing in the Southwest. Participants completed a quantitative food frequency questionnaire, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS, and Profile of Mood States (POMS questionnaires. Results Vegetarians (VEG:n = 60 reported significantly less negative emotion than omnivores (OMN:n = 78 as measured by both mean total DASS and POMS scores (8.32 ± 0.88 vs 17.51 ± 1.88, p = .000 and 0.10 ± 1.99 vs 15.33 ± 3.10, p = .007, respectively. VEG reported significantly lower mean intakes of EPA (p p p p p p p p p p Conclusions The vegetarian diet profile does not appear to adversely affect mood despite low intake of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids.
Johnston Carol S
Full Text Available Background: A relationship between symptom attitudes and negative affect has consistently been found in a range of different symptom domains. Little is known, however, about the role of different aspects of the self in this rela-tionship. We explored the mediating role of in-terferences of symptom with the self-concept in the association of menstrual symptom attitudes and depressive mood. Methods: Eighty-one women completed an online survey on men-strual symptom attitudes, perceived interfer-ences of symptoms with various self-aspects and negative mood states. We tested our hy-pothesis in a mediation analysis. Results: We found a complete mediation of the relationship of symptom attitudes and depressive mood by interferences of symptoms with self-aspects. However, interferences with self-aspects did not play a role in the association of anxious mood and symptom report. Conclusion: The self- concept should receive greater attention in re-search on symptom attitudes and psychological well-being. This would be particularly important in research on medically unexplained symptom report.
Zulma S Tovar-Spinoza, Peter D KimDepartment of Neurosurgery, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse NYAbstract: There are limited reports of neonatal depressed skull fractures in the absence of any known trauma or obvious risk factors. Here we describe a male neonate with a significant frontal nontraumatic depressed fracture, his course of treatment, and a literature review. A male neonate was attended for a significant congenital depressed skull fracture in the left frontal bone. He was ...
Zs, Tovar-spinoza; Pd, Kim
We report here a patient with major depressive disorder who experienced severe adverse effects after the administration of SSRIs (serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors) without improvement of his depressive symptoms. These adverse effects disappeared and his depressive symptoms improved after discontinuation of the SSRIs and the administration of tianeptine. The patient exhibited a low value for the loudness dependent of auditory evoked potentials (LDAEP) -0.14 at baseline, which means that...
Park, Young-min; Lee, Seung-hwan; Park, Eun Jin
Depression is a debilitating condition that adversely affects many aspects of a person's life and general health. Earlier work has supported the idea that there may be a relationship between the use of certain media and depression. In this study, we tested if self-report of depression (SRD), which is not a clinically based diagnosis, was associated with increased internet, television, and social media usage by using data collected in the Media Behavior and Influence Study (MBIS) database (N=1...
Martin Block; Stern, Daniel B.; Sang Lee; Bobby Calder; Rudick, Charles N.; Blood, Anne J.
Obesity and depression represent a growing health concern worldwide. For many years, basic science and medicine have considered obesity as a metabolic illness, while depression was classified a psychiatric disorder. Despite accumulating evidence suggesting that obesity and depression may share commonalities, the causal link between eating and mood disorders remains to be fully understood. This etiology is highly complex, consisting of multiple environmental and genetic risk factors that inter...
Rossetti, Clara; Halfon, Olivier; Boutrel, Benjamin
Physical exercises and relaxation have been found to be beneficial for depression. However, there is little evidence on the use of Qigong, a mind-body practice integrating gentle exercise and relaxation, in the management of depression. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effects of Qigong on depression. The paper examined clinical trials measuring the effect of Qigong on depression within six large-scale medical research databases (PubMed, Medline, ProQuest, Science Direct, EMBASE, and PsycInfo) till October 2011. Key words "Qigong," "depression," and "mood" were used. Ten studies were identified as original randomized controlled trial (RCT) studies investigating the effect of Qigong on depression as primary (n = 2) or secondary outcome (n = 8). Four studies reported positive results of the Qigong treatment on depression; two reported that Qigong effect on depression was as effective as physical exercise. One study reported that Qigong was comparable to a conventional rehabilitation program, but the remaining three studies found no benefits of Qigong on depression. While the evidence suggests the potential effects of Qigong in the treatment of depression, the review of the literature shows inconclusive results. Further research using rigorous study designs is necessary to investigate the effectiveness of Qigong in depression. PMID:23533461
Oh, Byeongsang; Choi, Sun Mi; Inamori, Aya; Rosenthal, David; Yeung, Albert
Bipolar depression is more common, disabling, and difficult-to-treat than the manic and hypomanic phases that define bipolar disorder. Unlike the treatment of so-called “unipolar” depressions, antidepressants generally are not indicated as monotherapies for bipolar depressions and recent studies suggest that -even when used in combination with traditional mood stabilizers –...
Thase, Michael E.
Full Text Available Mood disorders are characterised with high relapse and hospitalization rates as well as dramatic consequences in quality of life, professional and social functioning resulting from chronic course. Deterioration of social functioning remains in remission periods. A systematic review of the literature published on psychoeducation up to 2007 was carried out using the electronic data bases. Psychoeducation is defined as “educating or improving a person with psychiatric disease to serve a treatment and rehabilitation purpose”. The opinion that only drug treatment is not sufficient in treating psychiatric diseases and that psychosocial rehabilitation programs should also be widely used, becomes widespread. Educating the people with psychiatric disease and their families is an important factor. Thus,the patient and his family become parties of a therapeutic cooperation with the treatment team. It has been observed that when patients are educated about their diseases and the drugs they use, they tend to take more responsibility and adherence to drug therapy and the adherence increases with sharing ther experiences, wrongful thought and problems. This relieves the patient’s burden and contributes to the treatment results positively. Consequently, psychoeducation provides significant improvements in bipolar disorder and its treatment; attitude toward disease, symptom recovery, prevention of depressive and hypo(manic episodes, decrease in hospitalization periods and rates, improvement in social-professional functioning and quality of life, contribution of the family to the treatment and prevention of suicides. Psychoeducation is strongly recommended but it is also emphasized that it should be used in additionto other treatments and not alone. Educational attempts not only decrease the relapses and recurrences but also lead to awareness of the symptoms of an impending disease and shorter and less severe episodes.
In this article, the authors examine the preponderance of publications pertaining to relationships between allergies and anxiety and mood syndromes. Through a review of the relevant articles in the PubMed and PsycINFO databases, the authors found that the majority of studies (9 of 11 studies on anxiety syndromes, 10 of 12 studies on depressive syndromes) indicate associations between allergies and anxiety/mood syndromes, despite a number of methodological variances. In addition, there appear ...
Sansone, Randy A.; Sansone, Lori A.
Mood disorders cause many social problems, often involving family relationships. Few studies are available in the literature comparing patients with bipolar, unipolar, dysthymic, and double depressive disorders concerning these aspects. In the present study, demographic and disease data were collected using a specifically prepared questionnaire. Social adjustment was assessed using the Disability Adjustment Scale and family relationships were evaluated using the Global Assessment of Relationa...
Tucci, A. M.; Kerr-corre?a, F.; Dias, R. S.
Abstract Introduction Psychiatric side effects of deep brain stimulation are not uncommon. It is often limited to transient mood alterations. We report for the first time a case of acute stimulation-dependent fear during intraoperative test stimulation. Case presentation During test stimulation for electrode placement to the left subthalamic nucleus, a 58-year-old caucasian man with Parkinson's disease developed a severe reproducible feeling of fear together wit...
Sabolek Michael; Uttner Ingo; Seitz Klaus; Kraft Eduard; Storch Alexander
The Addiction Severity Index (ASI) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were compared as screening tests for current mood disorder in pregnant substance-dependent patients (N = 187). Mean ASI psychiatric Interviewer Severity Rating (ISR) and BDI scores for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder-IV diagnosed current mood disorder patients (n = 51) were 4.4 and 17.1, respectively, and for those without current mood disorder (n = 136) were 2.7 and 14.0, respectively. Areas under rec...
Chisolm, Margaret S.; Tuten, Michelle; Strain, Eric C.; Jones, Hendre?e E.
Full Text Available Inbtroduction: Recent epidemiological, clinical, neuroimaging and neuropathological studies have reported substantial evidence on the complex interactive relationships between depression and cerebrovascular diseases, especially in older populations, and plausible explanations of the etiopathogenetic mechanisms in both directions have been proposed. Poststroke depression Although there is no general consensus regarding its prevalence, it is widely accepted that major depression after stroke is common and that it should be recognized as a key factor in rehabilitation and outcome following stroke. Vascular depression The "vascular depression" hypothesis presupposes that late-onset depression may often result from vascular damage to frontal-subcortical circuits implicated in mood regulation. This concept has stimulated many researches and the obtained results support the proposed hypothesis. Depression as a stroke risk factor Recent large studies have emphasized the role of depression per se in the development of subsequent stroke. Mechanisms proposed to explain the increased risk of cerebrovascular diseases in depressed patients There are a number of plausible mechanisms that could explain why depression may increase the risk of subsequent cerebrovascular disease, the most important being sympathoadrenal hyperactivity, platelet activation, an increase in inflammatory cytokines and an increased risk of arrhythmias. Conclusion: Thorough clinical examinations determining the conventional stroke risk factors in the population with depression, as well as management of depression as part of the overall measures for the reduction of cerebrovascular risk factors are of utmost importance.
It is well established that stress is a risk factor for onset of mood disorders. Emerging evidence suggests that genetic vulnerability may also moderate individual responsiveness to stress. The most compelling evidence regards the polymorphism within the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (SERTPR), which has been reported to moderate the risk for depression, in conjunction with life stressors. In the present paper we analysed SERTPR in the onset of mood disorders, along with adverse life events, and other candidate genes: the serotonin receptor 1A (5-HT1A), the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) and the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). The sample was composed of 686 Italian subjects, affected by major depression and bipolar disorder. Patients were asked to report about life stressors within the year preceding onset of their first mood-disorder episode and genotyped. A 'case-only' design was employed to investigate the interaction between genes and stressors. COMT was associated with depression following exposure to stressors (chi2=13.05, d.f.=2, p=0.0015) and SERTPR also showed a positive association (chi2=6.70, d.f.=2, p=0.035), mainly among women and among major depressives. The interaction between COMT and SERTPR was also significant (p=0.0005). In our retrospective study SERTPR is hypothesized to lead to the onset of major depression via its influence on reaction to adversities, particularly in females. Moreover, COMT was risk factor for onset of both major depression and bipolar disorder, in conjunction with adversities. PMID:16756688
Mandelli, Laura; Serretti, Alessandro; Marino, Elena; Pirovano, Adele; Calati, Raffaella; Colombo, Cristina
The relation between mood and attentional functioning in young adults seeking psychoeducational evaluation has not been previously reported. This study examined the relation of self-reported depression and anxiety on attentional abilities among 161 young adults referred for psychoeducational evaluation. Depression and anxiety were measured with the Beck Depression Inventory-II and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, respectively. Attentional functioning was assessed using the Trail Making Test, the d2 Test of Attention, the Conners' Continuous Performance Test, and the WAIS-III Working Memory and Processing Speed Indices. The unique variance accounted for by depression or anxiety was minimal (typically <1.5%); these null results were confirmed by diagnostic subgroup analyses and also after examining the interaction between depression and anxiety. These results suggest that performance on measures of attention within samples of young adults seeking psychoeducational evaluation is minimally related to self-reported depression and anxiety. PMID:18789645
Hill, B D; Smitherman, Todd A; Pella, Russell D; O'Jile, Judith R; Gouvier, Wm Drew
Mood stabilizers form a cornerstone in the long-term treatment of bipolar disorder. The first representative of their family was lithium, still considered a prototype drug for the prevention of manic and depressive recurrences in bipolar disorder. Along with carbamazepine and valproates, lithium belongs to the first generation of mood stabilizers, which appeared in psychiatric treatment in the 1960s. Atypical antipsychotics with mood-stabilizing properties and lamotrigine, which were introduc...
Rybakowski, Janusz K.
Clinical accounts of depression underscore its relation to negative emotional experiences; yet few empirical studies examine emotional experiences in adults with depression, with even less work on depression and emotion in children. Using a nonclinical sample of school-aged children (n = 89) ages 8 to 12, this study evaluated whether greater mood…
Borelli, Jessica L.; Sbarra, David A.; Crowley, Michael J.; Mayes, Linda C.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Finasteride is a competitive inhibitor of 5 alpha-reductase enzyme, and is used for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and androgenetic alopecia. Animal studies have shown that finasteride might induce behavioral changes. Additionally, some cases of finasteride-induced depression have been reported in humans. The purpose of this study was to examine whether depressive symptoms or anxiety might be induced by finasteride administration. Methods One hundred and twenty eight men with androgenetic alopecia, who were prescribed finasteride (1 mg/day were enrolled in this study. Information on depressed mood and anxiety was obtained by Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Participants completed BDI and HADS questionnaires before beginning the treatment and also two months after it. Results Mean age of the subjects was 25.8(± 4.4 years. At baseline, mean BDI and HADS depression scores were 12.11(± 7.50 and 4.04(± 2.51, respectively. Finasteride treatment increased both BDI (p Conclusion This preliminary study suggests that finasteride might induce depressive symptoms; therefore this medication should be prescribed cautiously for patients with high risk of depression. It seems that further studies would be necessary to determine behavioral effects of this medication in higher doses and in more susceptible patients.
This study evaluated and compared the performance of three self-report measures: (1) 30-item Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self-Report (IDS-SR30); (2) 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self-Report (QIDS-SR16); and (3) Patient Global Impression-Improvement (PGI-I) in assessing clinical outcomes in depressed patients during a 12-week, acute phase, randomized, controlled trial comparing nefazodone, cognitive-behavioral analysis system of psychotherapy (CBASP), and the combination in the treatment of chronic depression. The IDS-SR30, QIDS-SR16, PGI-I, and the 24-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS24) ratings were collected at baseline and at weeks 1-4, 6, 8, 10, and 12. Response was defined a priori as a > or =50% reduction in baseline total score for the IDS-SR30 or for the QIDS-SR16 or as a PGI-I score of 1 or 2 at exit. Overall response rates (LOCF) to nefazodone were 41% (IDS-SR30), 45% (QIDS-SR16), 53% (PCI-I), and 47% (HDRS17). For CBASP, response rates were 41% (IDS-SR30), 45% (QIDS-SR16), 48% (PGI-I), and 46% (HDRS17). For the combination, response rates were 68% (IDS-SR30 and QIDS-SR16), 73% (PGI-I), and 76% (HDRS17). Similarly, remission rates were comparable for nefazodone (IDS-SR30=32%, QIDS-SR16=28%, PGI-I=22%, HDRS17=30%), for CBASP (IDS-SR30=32%, QIDS-SR16=30%, PGI-I=21%, HDRS17=32%), and for the combination (IDS-SR30=52%, QIDS-SR16=50%, PGI-I=25%, HDRS17=49%). Both the IDS-SR30 and QIDS-SR16 closely mirrored and confirmed findings based on the HDRS24. These findings raise the possibility that these two self-reports could provide cost- and time-efficient substitutes for clinician ratings in treatment trials of outpatients with nonpsychotic MDD without cognitive impairment. Global patient ratings such as the PGI-I, as opposed to specific item-based ratings, provide less valid findings. PMID:15578008
Rush, A John; Trivedi, Madhukar H; Carmody, Thomas J; Ibrahim, Hisham M; Markowitz, John C; Keitner, Gabor I; Kornstein, Susan G; Arnow, Bruce; Klein, Daniel N; Manber, Rachel; Dunner, David L; Gelenberg, Alan J; Kocsis, James H; Nemeroff, Charles B; Fawcett, Jan; Thase, Michael E; Russell, James M; Jody, Darlene N; Borian, Frances E; Keller, Martin B
Full Text Available Naseem Akhtar Qureshi,1 Abdullah Mohammed Al-Bedah21General Administration for Research and Studies, Sulaimania Medical Complex, 2National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: Mood disorders are a major public health problem and are associated with considerable burden of disease, suicides, physical comorbidities, high economic costs, and poor quality of life. Approximately 30%–40% of patients with major depression have only a partial response to available pharmacological and psychotherapeutic interventions. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM has been used either alone or in combination with conventional therapies in patients with mood disorders. This review of the literature examines evidence-based data on the use of CAM in mood disorders. A search of the PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, and Quertile databases using keywords was conducted, and relevant articles published in the English language in the peer-reviewed journals over the past two decades were retrieved. Evidence-based data suggest that light therapy, St John's wort, Rhodiola rosea, omega-3 fatty acids, yoga, acupuncture, mindfulness therapies, exercise, sleep deprivation, and S-adenosylmethionine are effective in the treatment of mood disorders. Clinical trials of vitamin B complex, vitamin D, and methylfolate found that, while these were useful in physical illness, results were equivocal in patients with mood disorders. Studies support the adjunctive role of omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid in unipolar and bipolar depression, although manic symptoms are not affected and higher doses are required in patients with resistant bipolar depression and rapid cycling. Omega-3 fatty acids are useful in pregnant women with major depression, and have no adverse effects on the fetus. Choline, inositol, 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan, and N-acetylcysteine are effective adjuncts in bipolar patients. Dehydroepiandrosterone is effective both in bipolar depression and depression in the setting of comorbid physical disease, although doses should be titrated to avoid adverse effects. Ayurvedic and homeopathic therapies have the potential to improve symptoms of depression, although larger controlled trials are needed. Mind-body-spirit and integrative medicine approaches can be used effectively in mild to moderate depression and in treatment-resistant depression. Currently, although CAM therapies are not the primary treatment of mood disorders, level 1 evidence could emerge in the future showing that such treatments are effective.Keywords: complementary and alternative medicine, mood disorders, Ayurveda, homeopathy, integrative medicine
Leucodystrophies are a heterogeneous group of progressive white matter diseases which may be inherited in dominant, recessive or X-linked fashion depending on the type. Adrenoleucodystrophy (ALD) and metachromatic leucodystrophy (MLD) are rather commoner forms of leucodystrophies whereas krabbes disease, alexander disease, cannavans disease etc. are of less common type. Adult-onset autosomal dominant leucodystrophy (ADLD) is a lately described rarer form of leucodystrophy with perhaps no case report from India. Various leucodystrophies may have different clinical presentations, ranging from subtle cognitive and psychiatric manifestations to gross motor disabilities, visual impairment and seizure. Psychiatric manifestations in the form of psychoses and frank schizophrenia are commonly described in MLD. Depression though uncommonly reported in MLD, cyclic mood disorders have been rarely described in any form of leucodystrophies. We are reporting an eye opener, a case of ADLD which masqueraded as a rapid cyclic mood disorder for initial four years, later to be followed by progressive neurological signs and symptoms. To the best of our knowledge, this is perhaps the first case report of ADLD presenting as rapid cyclic mood disorder in the world literature. PMID:24813031
Jain, Rajendra S; Prakash, Swayam; Raghavendra, B S; Nagpal, Kadam; Handa, Rahul
Self-report measures of depression differ in their construction and scoring rules. In the present study from the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services (MIDAS) project we tested the hypothesis that the loss of information due to scoring rules or rating formats reduces the validity of depression severity assessment. One hundred fifty-three outpatients with DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD) who presented for treatment or who were in ongoing treatment and had their medication changed due to lack of efficacy completed the Clinically Useful Depression Outcome Scale (CUDOS), Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS) and Remission from Depression Questionnaire (RDQ) at the initiation of treatment and 4 month follow-up. The patients were evaluated with the 17-item Hamilton Depression scale (HAMD). The CUDOS and RDQ were equally highly correlated with the HAMD at baseline and follow-up. There was no significant difference in the correlations between the modified and original scoring algorithms of the QIDS with the HAMD at baseline and the follow-up. On each scale, the patients showed significant levels of improvement from baseline to 4 months, and the effect sizes were similar. These findings suggest that the loss of information due to the scoring rules of the QIDS or the rating format of the RDQ did not reduce the validity of depression severity assessment. PMID:24745466
Zimmerman, Mark; D'Avanzato, Catherine; Attiullah, Naureen; Friedman, Michael; Toba, Cristina; Boerescu, Daniela A
For a long period in the history of psychological research, emotion and cognition have been studied independently, as if one were irrelevant to the other. The renewed interest of researchers for the study of the relations between cognition and emotion has led to the development of a range of laboratory methods for inducing temporary mood states. This paper aims to review the main mood induction procedures allowing the induction of a negative mood as well as a positive mood, developed since the pioneer study of Schachter and Singer [Psychol Rev 69 (1962) 379-399] and to account for the usefulness and problems related to the use of such techniques. The first part of this paper deals with the detailed presentation of some of the most popular mood induction procedures according to their type: simple (use of only one mood induction technique) or combined (association of two or more techniques at once). The earliest of the modern techniques is the Velten Mood Induction Procedure [Behav Res Ther 6 (1968) 473-482], which involves reading aloud sixty self-referent statements progressing from relative neutral mood to negative mood or dysphoria. Some researchers have varied the procedure slightly by changing the number of the statements [Behav Res Ther 21 (1983) 233-239, Br J Clin Psychol 21 (1982) 111-117, J Pers Soc Psychol 35 (1977) 625-636]. Various other mood induction procedures have been developed including music induction [Cogn Emotion 11 (1997) 403-432, Br J Med Psychol 55 (1982) 127-138], film clip induction [J Pers Soc Psychol 20 (1971) 37-43, Cogn Emotion 7 (1993) 171-193, Rottenberg J, Ray RR, Gross JJ. Emotion elicitation using films. In: Coan JA, Allen JJB, editors. The handbook of emotion elicitation and assessment. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007], autobiographical recall [J Clin Psychol 36 (1980) 215-226, Jallais C. Effets des humeurs positives et négatives sur les structures de connaissances de type script. Thèse de doctorat non publiée. Université de Nantes, Nantes] or combined inductions [Gilet AL. Etude des effets des humeurs positives et négatives sur l'organisation des connaissances en mémoire sémantique. Thèse de doctorat non publiée, Université de Nantes, Nantes, J Ment Imagery 19 (1995) 133-150]. In music or film clip inductions, subjects are asked to listen or view some mood-suggestive pieces of material determined by the experimenter according to standardized music or film sets [J Ment Imagery 19 (1995) 133-150, Cogn Emotion 7 (1993) 171-193] and selected to elicit target moods. According to many authors, these two mood induction procedures seem to be among the most effective manners to induce moods [Br J Psychol 85 (1994) 55-78, Eur J Soc Psychol 26 (1996) 557-580] in an individual or in a group setting [Jallais C. Effets des humeurs positives et négatives sur les structures de connaissances de type script. Thèse de doctorat non publiée. Université de Nantes, Nantes]. As it is believed that multiple inductions contribute additively to a mood [Am Psychol 36 (1981) 129-148], researchers proposed to combine two or more techniques at the same time. Thus, the Velten Mood Induction Procedure has been successively associated with the hypnosis mood induction procedure [J Pers Soc Psychol 42 (1982) 927-934], the music mood induction procedure [Behav Res Ther 21 (1983) 233-239, J Exp Soc Psychol 26 (1990) 465-480] or the imagination mood induction procedure [Br J Clin Psychol 21 (1982) 111-117]. Successful combinations of inductions usually use a first induction that occupies foreground attention and a second one that contributes to congruent background atmosphere. One of the most successful combined mood induction procedures has been developed by Mayer, Allen and Beauregard [J Ment Imagery 19 (1995) 133-150]. This technique associates guided imagery with music and is supposed to increase effectiveness of the induction. In the second part of this paper the aim is to present the usefulness of mood induction procedures in the study of cognitive processes in depression [Clin Psychol Rev 25 (20
The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of combined aerobic and resistance exercise training among self-reported mood disturbances, perceived stress, frequency of self-reported symptoms, and symptom distress in a sample of HIV+ adults. For this purpose, 49 participants were randomly assigned into an exercise (EX) or control (CON) group. Those in the EX group completed 50?min of supervised aerobic and resistance training at a moderate intensity twice a week for 6 weeks. The CON group reported to the university and engaged in sedentary activities. Data were collected at baseline before randomization and 6 weeks post intervention. Measures included the symptom distress scale (SDS), perceived stress scale (PSS), profile of mood states (POMS) total score, and the POMS sub-scale for depression and fatigue. A 2 way ANOVA was used to compare between and within group interactions. The EX group showed a significant decrease in reported depression scores (p=0.03) and total POMS (p=0.003). The CON group reported no change in POMS or SDS, but showed a significant increase in PSS. These findings indicate that combination aerobic and resistance training completed at a moderate intensity at least twice a week provides additional psychological benefits independent of disease status and related symptoms. PMID:25322262
Jaggers, J R; Hand, G A; Dudgeon, W D; Burgess, S; Phillips, K D; Durstine, J L; Blair, S N
Abstract PURPOSE/AIMS: The objectives of the study were to analyze the association between Parkinson's disease and restless legs syndrome, and to explore the relationship between mood disorder comorbidity (anxiety and depression), pain, and restless legs syndrome. PMID:25469455
Rana, Abdul Qayyum; Qureshi, Abdul Rehman M; Rahman, Labiba; Jesudasan, Ajantha; Hafez, Kevin K; Rana, Mohammad A
AIM: The aim of this paper is to report a study of the lived experience of postpartum stress among depressed Hong Kong Chinese mothers. BACKGROUND: Research consistently relates postpartum stress to the mood and well-being of mothers during the postpartum period. While several studies have used questionnaires to assess the stress levels of mothers or have identified stressors by asking them to list stressful events, the existing literature lacks in-depth information on the lived experience of...
Arthur, Dg; Martinson, Im; Leung, Ssk
Full Text Available Abstract Background Health management is impeded when consumers do not possess adequate knowledge about their illness. At a public health level, consumer knowledge about depression is particularly important because depression is highly prevalent and causes substantial disability and burden. However, currently little is known about the information needs of people with depression. This study aimed to investigate the explicit and implicit information needs of users of an online depression support forum. Methods A sample of 2680 posts was systematically selected from three discussion forums on an online depression bulletin board (blueboard.anu.edu.au. Data were examined for evidence of requests for information (reflecting explicit needs and reports of past or current problems (implicit needs. Thematic analysis was conducted using a data-driven inductive approach with the assistance of NVivo 7, and instances of questions and people reporting particular types of problems were recorded. Results A total of 134 participants with personal experience of depression contributed to the data analysed. Six broad themes represented participant queries and reported problems: Understanding depression; disclosure and stigma; medication; treatment and services; coping with depression; and comorbid health problems. A variety of specific needs were evident within these broad thematic areas. Some people (n = 46 expressed their information needs by asking direct questions (47 queries but the majority of needs were expressed implicitly (351 problems by the 134 participants. The most evident need for information related to coping with depression and its consequences, followed by topics associated with medication, treatment and services. Conclusions People with depression have substantial unmet information needs and require strategies to deal with the difficulties they face. They require access to high quality and relevant online resources and professionals; thus, there is a need to rectify current gaps in the provision of information and limitations of dissemination. Greater knowledge about depression and its treatment is also needed at the general community level.
Banfield Michelle A
Full Text Available Susan Reif,1 Rae Jean Proeschold-Bell,1,2 Jia Yao,1 Sara LeGrand,1,2 Anna Uehara,2 Edgar Asiimwe,2 Evelyn Byrd Quinlivan31Duke Center for Health Policy and Inequalities Research, 2Duke Global Health Institute, Duke University, Durham, NC, 3Center for Infectious Diseases, University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USABackground: Adherence with medication regimens for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is a life-saving behavior for people with HIV infection, yet adherence is challenging for many individuals with co-occurring substance use and/or mood disorders. Medication-taking self-efficacy, which is the confidence that one can take one's medication as prescribed, is associated with better adherence with HIV medication. However, little is known about the influence that other kinds of self-efficacy have on adherence with HIV medication, especially among HIV-infected individuals with co-occurring substance use and/or mood disorders. We sought to examine the relationship between adherence with HIV medication among substance users and three specific kinds of self-efficacy, ie, one's confidence that one can communicate with medical providers, get support, and manage one's mood. We further sought to examine whether symptoms of depression and anxiety moderate these relationships.Methods: Patients were recruited from three HIV clinics in the southeastern United States as part of an integrated study of treatment for HIV and substance use.Results: We interviewed 154 patients with HIV and substance use who reported taking HIV medications. Based on symptoms of depression and anxiety using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety, 63% had probable depression and/or anxiety. Higher levels of self-efficacy in provider communication (? = 3.86, P < 0.01, getting needed support (? = 2.82, P < 0.01, and mood management (? = 2.29, P < 0.05 were related to better self-reported adherence with HIV medication among study participants with probable depression and/or anxiety. The three kinds of self-efficacy were not associated with medication adherence among participants with HIV and substance use only.Conclusion: In the search for mutable factors to improve medication adherence among individuals triply diagnosed with HIV, substance use, and mood disorders, these findings support previous research indicating the benefit of enhancing self-efficacy, and further point to three specific kinds of self-efficacy that may benefit medication adherence, ie, provider communication, getting support, and mood management.Keywords: human immunodeficiency virus, self-efficacy, substance use, depression, anxiety, interventions
People often prefer familiar stimuli, presumably because familiarity signals safety. This preference can occur with merely repeated “old” stimuli, but it is most robust with “new” but highly familiar prototypes of a known category (beauty-in-averages effect). However, is familiarity always warm? Tuning accounts of mood hold that positive mood signals a safe environment whereas negative mood signals an unsafe environment. Thus, the value of familiarity should depend on mood. We show that compared to a sad mood, a happy mood eliminates the preference for familiar stimuli, as shown in measures of self-reported liking and physiological measures of affect (EMG indicator of spontaneous smiling). The basic effect of exposure on preference and its modulation by mood were most robust on prototypes (category averages). All this occurs even though prototypes might be more familiar in a happy mood. We conclude that mood changes the hedonic implications of familiarity cues. PMID:20424063
de Vries, Marieke; Holland, Rob W.; Chenier, Troy; Starr, Mark J.; Winkielman, Piotr
BACKGROUND: Few studies have directly assessed the impact of a specific media report in vulnerable people. This study investigates possible influences of media reporting of a celebrity suicide on subsequent suicidal behaviors and associated risk factors among depressive patients. METHODS: Depressive patients (N=461) were assessed through a structured interview soon after extensive media reporting of a celebrity suicide. RESULTS: Among 438 depressive patients exposed to the media report, 38.8%...
Cheng, At; Hawton, K.; Chen, Th; Yen, Am; Chang, Jc; Chong, My; Liu, Cy; Lee, Y.; Teng, Pr; Chen, Lc
Growing research literature has documented the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions for anxiety and depressive disorders. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) teaches a series of mindfulness meditation and yoga practices, delivered in a group format during eight weekly sessions plus one full-day session. This case report demonstrates how MBSR was associated with dramatic clinical improvement of an individual with symptoms of panic, generalized anxiety, and depression. Scores on clinical assessment measures suggested clinically severe levels of anxious arousal, generalized anxiety, worry, fear of negative evaluation, and depression at the beginning of the intervention. The scores on all these measures fell well within normal limits 7 weeks later at the end of the intervention, and no remaining symptoms were reported afterward. Increased life satisfaction and quality of life were documented as well. This case illustrates the potential benefit of MBSR as an alternative or adjunctive treatment for comorbid anxiety and depressive disorder symptoms. PMID:23124187
In this investigation of the roles of 2 different dimensions of mood (pleasantness and arousal) in mood-dependent memory (MDM), participants generated words while listening to a selection of independently rated mood music (normative study and Experiment 5). Then they recalled the words while listening to another mood-music selection (Experiments 1-3) or to a verbal-mood scenario (Experiment 4). Changing only the dimension of mood pleasantness from generation to recall decreased memory whether the intended moods were explicitly defined or not. However, changing only arousal decreased memory only when moods were defined. Thus, pleasantness-dependent memory, but not arousal-dependent memory, occurred consistently. Although MDM also occurred with simultaneous changes in both dimensions, the effect was not significantly greater than that of pleasantness-dependent memory. The results are discussed in terms of 2-dimensional theories of emotion as applied to memory. PMID:9949709
Balch, W R; Myers, D M; Papotto, C
Background. Research on mood disorders has progressively focused on the study of seasons and on the mood in association with them during depressive or manic episodes yet few studies have focused on the seasonal fluctuation that characterizes the patient's clinical course both during an illness episode and during euthymic periods. Methods. 113 euthymic outpatients 46 affected by major recurrent depression and 67 affected by bipolar disorder were recruited. We evaluated the impact of clinical ?...
Cristina Colombo; Barbara Barbini; Mara Cigala Fulgosi; Dario Delmonte; Chiara Gavinelli; Chiara Brambilla; Enrico Smeraldi
The prefrontal cortex shows structural and functional alterations in mood disorders. Retinoid signaling, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and its receptor TrkB are reported to be involved in depression. Here, we found that mRNA levels of key elements of retinoid signaling were significantly reduced in the postmortem dorsolateral prefrontal cortex/anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) from elderly depressed patients who did not die from suicide. Decreased mRNA levels of BDNF and TrkB isoforms were also found. Similar alterations were observed in rats subjected to chronic unpredictable mild stress. Along with neurons immunopositive for both retinoic acid receptor-? (RAR?) and TrkB, a positive correlation between mRNA levels of the 2 receptors was found in the ACC of control subjects but not of depressed patients. In vitro studies showed that RAR? was able to bind to and transactivate the TrkB promoter via a putative RA response element within the TrkB promoter. In conclusion, the retinoid and BDNF-TrkB signaling in the prefrontal cortex are compromised in mood disorders, and the transcriptional upregulation of TrkB by RAR? provide a possible mechanism for their interaction. The retinoid signaling pathway that may activate TrkB expression will be an alternative novel target for BDNF-based antidepressant treatment. PMID:23960204
Qi, Xin-Rui; Zhao, Jun; Liu, Ji; Fang, Hui; Swaab, Dick F; Zhou, Jiang-Ning
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The identification and treatment of mood disorders in children and adolescents has grown over the last decades. Major depression is one of the most common and debilitating disorders worldwide, imposing a massive burden to the youth population. Bipolar disorder is being increasingly recognized as hav [...] ing its roots early in life, and its presentation during childhood and adolescence has been submitted to extensive research. This review aims to highlight clinical aspects of the current knowledge on mood disorders in the pediatric population, presenting updated information on epidemiology, diagnostic procedures, and management strategies. Limitations of available evidence and future directions of research in the field are also discussed.
Thiago Botter Maio, Rocha; Cristian Patrick, Zeni; Sheila Cavalcante, Caetano; Christian, Kieling.
Theory and research on the effects of mood on cognition have shown that persons in a negative mood tend toward analytic effortful processing strategies, whereas individuals in a positive mood prefer simplifying heuristic strategies. A review of the literature shows that (a) mainly the influence of mood on cognition and social behavior (e.g., persuasion) has been investigated; and (b) achievements in memory and cognitive tasks were of central concern (Abele, 1991; Schwarz, Bless & Bohner, 1991). With this background, and based on propositional network models of human information processing, the present study investigates influences in the opposite direction, i.e., the effect of cognitive style on feeling states. The compatibility thesis (Otto & Schmitz, 1993), which postulates that an interaction of feeling state and information processing style is necessary for the continuation of a mood state, is generalized to negative feeling states (anxiety) and analytic information processing style (probabilistic judgments). Equivalent emotional states and cognitive productions have to go together to sustain the mood states. In a 2 x 2 x 4 mixed design, 76 male and female students from introductory classes in psychology served as subjects. Using a 15-minute mood induction procedure (autobiographical recollection methodology), a negative, anxiety-prone, or neutral feeling state was elicited in half of the participants. During the next 10 minutes half of each group worked on a list of future life events (Weinstein, 1980), either with the instruction to rate the chances of the items (probabilistic judgments) or with the instruction to rate the items' general applicability (control condition). Repeated sampling of a measurement repetition factor served as a baseline assessment and as a manipulation check, along with measurements of the feeling states while completing the task. The feeling states were assessed by means of a multifactor instrument (Eigenschaftswörterliste; Janke & Debus, 1978). The results support the generalization of the compatibility thesis to negative feeling states (anxiety). Only the group in which a negative feeling state and a probabilistic processing style interacted reported a negative mood and anxious state throughout the task completion. Neither the induced negative (anxious) mood nor the probabilistic judgments alone could sustain a negative feeling state. Moods seem to be best conceivable as a combination of genuine emotional elements (feeling states) and cognitive elements (probabilistic judgments in the case of anxiety). PMID:7941621
Otto, J H
An email survey of patients attending a PMS and Menopause Centre produced 238 patients whose principal presenting symptom was depression. Seventy-seven percent claimed to have had severe or moderate depression, 17% had had at least one psychotic episode and 14% had attempted suicide. Fifty-eight percent had seen a psychiatrist. Seventy-one percent had received antidepressants and 17% had received mood stabilising drugs. Twelve percent had been admitted to a psychiatric hospital and 3.8% had received electroconvulsive therapy. Sixty-eight percent had premenstrual syndrome as a teenager and 145 women (89%) out of 165 women who had been pregnant had no depression during pregnancy but 110 (66%) developed postnatal depression. Ninety-seven women (58%) who had been pregnant had suffered both premenstrual depression and postnatal depression. All were treated with transdermal estrogens and 93% also had transdermal testosterone. One hundred and seventy-one patients had a uterus and received cyclical progestogen to protect the endometrium and 63% of these developed the premenstrual syndrome-type symptoms of progesterone intolerance during the progestogen days. Thirty-five percent of patients claimed to be cured and 55% had a considerable improvement with estrogen therapy. Only 3.7% reported that there was no improvement. For 94%, the hormone therapy was a life-changing event for the better. None were worse. Forty patients had hysterectomy and bilateral oophorectomy for progesterone intolerance or heavy uterine bleeding and 38 replied that it was life changing for the better with less or no depression. It is concluded that premenstrual and postnatal depressions appear in the same vulnerable women. These women are typically well during pregnancy and are a sub group of reproductive depression which also develops climacteric depression in the transition phase. These types of depression are the product of hormonal changes and respond well to transdermal hormone therapy. PMID:25398672
... average of 29%). 2 In a community-based study on people with epilepsy, the rate of depression was 37%. In patients ... NEED TO BE TREATED When people have both epilepsy and depression, studies show that the depression correlates more strongly with ...
Full Text Available Restless leg syndrome (RLS is a sensorimotor disorder with symptoms including uncomfortable subjective sensations in the legs and the urge to move them. This common disorder affects 10% of the population and may reduce quality of life. The pathophysiology of RLS is not well understood but dysfunction of dopaminergic pathways is the most prominent theory. Antidepressants, especially SSRIs, can aggravate the symptoms of RLS. Here we present a 42 year old woman diagnosed with major depressive disorder and comorbid RLS and who had been treated with paroxetine 20 mg/day for 2 months who benefited from switching to bupropion treatment. In this case the RLS symptoms had existed for approximately 3 years but were milder before paroxetine treatment. The patient met the diagnostic criteria for RLS. We used the International Restless Legs Scale (IRLS and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS to measure the patient’s symptom severity. The severity of her depressive symptoms was similar to baseline despite the two month paroxetine treatment. Due to symptoms of RLS and her ongoing depressive complaints, we decided to switch from paroxetine to bupropion. With 150 mg/day bupropion XL treatment, her RLS symptoms improved substantially at a one month follow-up while her depression severity was not changed significantly. Due to inadequate response for depression, bupropion XL was titrated to 300 mg/day. Her depressive symptoms improved significantly at a further one month follow-up. Comorbidity of RLS and depression was found to be as a frequent occurence reported in the literature. We concluded that bupropion, as a selective noradrenergic-dopaminergic reuptake inhibitor can be a good alternative to the SSRIs for patients, who suffer from both depression and RLS.
We report here a patient with major depressive disorder who experienced severe adverse effects after the administration of SSRIs (serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors) without improvement of his depressive symptoms. These adverse effects disappeared and his depressive symptoms improved after discontinuation of the SSRIs and the administration of tianeptine. The patient exhibited a low value for the loudness dependent of auditory evoked potentials (LDAEP) -0.14 at baseline, which means that his central serotonergic neurotransmission was already highly active. We assumed that it was this high serotonergic activity that rendered him unresponsive to SSRIs, and brought on him the adverse effects, and that the tianeptine was effective due to the lack of serotonin reuptake inhibitory action. Thus, we suggest that LDAEP can be used to predict an individual patient's tolerability and clinical response to SSRIs in major depression. PMID:22396689
Park, Young-Min; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Park, Eun Jin
According to recent research on language comprehension, the semantic features of a text are not the only determinants of whether incoming information is understood as consistent. Listeners' pre-existing affective states play a crucial role as well. The current fMRI experiment examines the effects of happy and sad moods during comprehension of consistent and inconsistent story endings, focusing on brain regions previously linked to two integration processes: inconsistency detection, evident in stronger responses to inconsistent endings, and fluent processing (accumulation), evident in stronger responses to consistent endings. The analysis evaluated whether differences in the BOLD response for consistent and inconsistent story endings correlated with self-reported mood scores after a mood induction procedure. Mood strongly affected regions previously associated with inconsistency detection. Happy mood increased sensitivity to inconsistency in regions specific for inconsistency detection (e.g., left IFG, left STS), whereas sad mood increased sensitivity to inconsistency in regions less specific for language processing (e.g., right med FG, right SFG). Mood affected more weakly regions involved in accumulation of information. These results show that mood can influence activity in areas mediating well-defined language processes, and highlight that integration is the result of context-dependent mechanisms. The finding that language comprehension can involve different networks depending on people's mood highlights the brain's ability to reorganize its functions. PMID:25225000
Egidi, Giovanna; Caramazza, Alfonso
Full Text Available Food is a potent natural reward and food intake is a complex process. Reward and gratification associated with food consumption leads to dopamine (DA production, which in turn activates reward and pleasure centers in the brain. An individual will repeatedly eat a particular food to experience this positive feeling of gratification. This type of repetitive behavior of food intake leads to the activation of brain reward pathways that eventually overrides other signals of satiety and hunger. Thus, a gratification habit through a favorable food leads to overeating and morbid obesity. Overeating and obesity stems from many biological factors engaging both central and peripheral systems in a bi-directional manner involving mood and emotions. Emotional eating and altered mood can also lead to altered food choice and intake leading to overeating and obesity. Research findings from human and animal studies support a two-way link between three concepts, mood, food, and obesity. The focus of this article is to provide an overview of complex nature of food intake where various biological factors link mood, food intake, and brain signaling that engages both peripheral and central nervous system signaling pathways in a bi-directional manner in obesity.
Full Text Available The author has treated almost 400 chronically depressed outpatients during his career. He has also participated as a Field Trial Coordinator in the Unipolar Field Trials of DSM-IV and consulted with the DSM-V Mood Disorders Workgroup concerning his research for the new diagnostic nomenclature for the chronic depressions, Chronic Depression Disorder. In addition, he has served as Principal Investigator in several large clinical trials involving 2200 chronically depressed outpatients. The current paper is a Brief Report describing his negative reactions to the way 40 of his chronically depressed patients have been treated today by both Psychologists and Psychiatrists. All the patients are his patients and have been seen by him in psychotherapy over the past decade. Several reasons are proposed for the inadequate treatment and specific proposals are made for the improvement of treatment for the early-onset chronically depressed patient.
James P. McCullough
The goal of the study described here was to learn more about dream content in patients who had recovered from serious depression. The question was asked whether these formerly depressed patients still showed depressive traits in their nocturnal dreams, even though their daytime behavior and mood now approached entirely normal levels. (Author)
Studying moods and the effects that a mood has is an important topic in research into advertising. But nearly all data on mood effects are gathered in a forced exposure and lab context. In a real-life study we relate in this contribution mood to moments of media consumption. So we analyze at the level of a specific media consumption moment. Concluded is that there is a relation between mood and media experience and via this route with advertising effectiveness. And that this relationship diff...
Bronner, F.; Velthoven, S.
This study aimed to assess, whether depression in adulthood was associated with self-reported chewing difficulties at older age, and examine whether the strength of the association differed according to the number of depression episodes in earlier adult life. We used Whitehall II study data from 277 participants who completed a questionnaire in 2011. Depression was measured with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) in 2003 and 2008. The association between CES-D depression and self-reported chewing ability was assessed using regression models adjusted for some socio-demographic factors. Participants with depression at some point in their earlier adulthood had an odds ratio (95% CI) of 2·01 (1·06, 3·82) for reporting chewing difficulties in older adulthood, compared to those without depression. The respective odds ratios were 1·42 (0·66, 3·04) for individuals with depression in only one phase, but 3·53 (1·51, 8·24) for those with depression in two phases. In conclusion, while further research is required, there was an association between depression and chewing difficulty that was independent of demographic and socio-economic characteristics. Furthermore, this increased odds for chewing difficulties was primarily among adults that experienced two episodes or a prolonged period of depression. PMID:25284358
AlJameel, A H; Watt, R G; Brunner, E J; Tsakos, G
Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN DBS) in Parkinson disease (PD) improves motor function but has variable effects on mood. Little is known about the relationship between electrode contact location and mood response. We identified the anatomical location of electrode contacts and measured mood response to stimulation with the Visual Analog Scale in 24 STN DBS PD patients. Participants reported greater positive mood, decreased anxiety and apathy with bilateral and unilatera...
Campbell, Meghan C.; Black, Kevin J.; Weaver, Patrick M.; Lugar, Heather M.; Videen, Tom O.; Tabbal, Samer D.; Karimi, Morvarid; Perlmutter, Joel S.; Hershey, Tamara
Full Text Available Yuji Kitaichi,1 Takeshi Inoue,1 Nobuyuki Mitsui,1 Shin Nakagawa,1 Rie Kameyama,1 Yoshiyuki Hayashishita,1 Tohru Shiga,2 Ichiro Kusumi,1 Tsukasa Koyama1 1Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan; 2Department of Nuclear Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan Abstract: We report a case in which selegiline, an irreversible monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B inhibitor, greatly improved depressive symptoms in an adult with stage 5 treatment-resistant major depressive disorder. Four antidepressants and four augmentation therapies had previously been ineffective or intolerable, and electroconvulsive therapy had only a temporary effect. After 20 weeks of treatment with selegiline (10 mg/day, the patient's score on the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS had decreased from 19 to 4 points. [18F]-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET showed increased glucose metabolism in the bilateral basal ganglia after initiating selegiline treatment; blood dopamine levels were also increased after selegiline treatment. These results raise the possibility that selegiline enhances dopaminergic neural transmission in treatment-resistant depression, thus leading to an improvement in depressive symptoms. Keywords: treatment-resistant depression, FDG-PET, glucose metabolism, basal ganglia
Full Text Available Zulma S Tovar-Spinoza, Peter D KimDepartment of Neurosurgery, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse NYAbstract: There are limited reports of neonatal depressed skull fractures in the absence of any known trauma or obvious risk factors. Here we describe a male neonate with a significant frontal nontraumatic depressed fracture, his course of treatment, and a literature review. A male neonate was attended for a significant congenital depressed skull fracture in the left frontal bone. He was born full term after an uncomplicated delivery to a multiparous mother who was a human immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV-positive immigrant from sub-Saharan Africa. The pregnancy was otherwise uncomplicated. There was no history of trauma to the mother during the pregnancy or delivery. Ultrasonography had been unremarkable. No other abnormalities were noted. The patient was brought to the operating room at the age of 13 days for elevation of his fracture due to its nonreducible nature. A small linear incision was made just posterior to the coronal suture. The dura mater was stripped and a combination of Penfield and periostial elevators was used to elevate the depressed fracture. Nontraumatic depressed skull fractures are uncommon in neonates. The cause of this entity has not been identified, and many theories about its origin have been proposed. Treatment can be either surgical or conservative.Keywords: neonatal, congenital, depressed fracture, spontaneous, nontraumatic
Full Text Available The aim of this 2-week study was to examine the effects of self-administered acupressure intervention onlevels of mood of 54 students (34 males and 20 females majoring in acupuncture and moxibustion medicineat a college located in Fukuoka, Japan. Eligibility criteria were the ability to complete the intervention accurately and no history of psychiatric diseases. The students were randomly assigned to one of the two groups: an intervention group (IG, n = 28 and a control group (CG, n = 26. The IG participants completed fiveacupressure sessions three times a day (morning, noon, and night, involving the application of pressure to six acupuncture points (GB12, SI17, and LI18 according to 2008 World Health OrganizationRegional Office in the Western Pacific standard, three on the left and three on the right side of the neck for 5 s each. The CG participants were requested to spend their time as usual. Self-reported levels of tension-anxiety, depression-dejection, anger-hostility, vigor, fatigue, and confusion over the past [recent?] week were measured before and after the study as the main outcomes. Side effects were not predicted and not assessed. The retention rate of this trial was 100%. Improvements in mood, defined as a change from baseline to 2 weeks later, were significantly greater in IG. Our results showed that self-administered intervention had the ability to alter mood levels in college students.
Full Text Available Depression is a debilitating condition that adversely affects many aspects of a person's life and general health. Earlier work has supported the idea that there may be a relationship between the use of certain media and depression. In this study, we tested if self-report of depression (SRD, which is not a clinically based diagnosis, was associated with increased internet, television, and social media usage by using data collected in the Media Behavior and Influence Study (MBIS database (N=19,776 subjects. We further assessed the relationship of demographic variables to this association. These analyses found that SRD rates were in the range of published rates of clinically diagnosed major depression. It found that those who tended to use more media also tended to be more depressed, and that segmentation of SRD subjects was weighted toward internet and television usage, which was not the case with non-SRD subjects, who were segmented along social media use. This study found that those who have suffered either economic or physical life setbacks are orders of magnitude more likely to be depressed, even without disproportionately high levels of media use. However, among those that have suffered major life setbacks, high media users – particularly television watchers – were even more likely to report experiencing depression, which suggests that these effects were not just due to individuals having more time for media consumption. These findings provide an example of how Big Data can be used for medical and mental health research, helping to elucidate issues not traditionally tested in the fields of psychiatry or experimental psychology.
Depression is a debilitating condition that adversely affects many aspects of a person's life and general health. Earlier work has supported the idea that there may be a relationship between the use of certain media and depression. In this study, we tested if self-report of depression (SRD), which is not a clinically based diagnosis, was associated with increased internet, television, and social media usage by using data collected in the Media Behavior and Influence Study (MBIS) database (N = 19,776 subjects). We further assessed the relationship of demographic variables to this association. These analyses found that SRD rates were in the range of published rates of clinically diagnosed major depression. It found that those who tended to use more media also tended to be more depressed, and that segmentation of SRD subjects was weighted toward internet and television usage, which was not the case with non-SRD subjects, who were segmented along social media use. This study found that those who have suffered either economic or physical life setbacks are orders of magnitude more likely to be depressed, even without disproportionately high levels of media use. However, among those that have suffered major life setbacks, high media users-particularly television watchers-were even more likely to report experiencing depression, which suggests that these effects were not just due to individuals having more time for media consumption. These findings provide an example of how Big Data can be used for medical and mental health research, helping to elucidate issues not traditionally tested in the fields of psychiatry or experimental psychology. PMID:25309388
Block, Martin; Stern, Daniel B; Raman, Kalyan; Lee, Sang; Carey, Jim; Humphreys, Ashlee A; Mulhern, Frank; Calder, Bobby; Schultz, Don; Rudick, Charles N; Blood, Anne J; Breiter, Hans C
Building on the work of Terry and colleagues (Terry, P. C., Lane, A. M., Lane, H. J., & Keohane, L. (1999). Development and validation of a mood measure for adolescents. Journal of Sports Sciences, 17, 861-872; Terry, P. C., Lane, A. M., & Fogarty, G. J. (2003). Construct validity of the Profile of Mood States-Adolescents for use with adults. Psychology of Sport & Exercise, 4, 125-139.), the present study examined the validity and internal consistency reliability of the Chinese version of the Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS-C) among 2,548 participants, comprising adolescent athletes (n = 520), adult athletes (n = 434), adolescent students (n = 673), and adult students (n = 921). Both adolescent and adult athletes completed the BRUMS-C before, during, or after regular training and both adolescent and adult students completed the BRUMS-C in a classroom setting. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) provided support for the factorial validity of a 23-item six-factor model, with one item removed from the hypothesised measurement model. Internal consistency reliabilities were satisfactory for all subscales across each of the four samples. Criterion validity was supported with strong relationships between the BRUMS-C, abbreviated POMS, and Chinese Affect Scale consistent with theoretical predictions. Multi-sample CFAs showed the BRUMS-C to be invariant at the configural, metric, strong, and structural levels for all samples. Furthermore, latent mean difference analyses showed that athletes reported significantly higher levels of fatigue than students while maintaining almost the same levels of vigour, and adolescent students reported significantly higher levels of depressed mood than the other three samples. PMID:24702192
Zhang, Chun-Qing; Si, Gangyan; Chung, Pak-Kwong; Du, Mengmeng; Terry, Peter C
In this survey paper I start from two classical theses of speech act theory : that speech act content is uniformly propositional, and that sentence mood encodes illocutionary force. These theses have been questioned in recent work, both in philosophy and linguistics. The force/content distinction itself -- a cornerstone of twentieth-century philosophy of language -- has come to be rejected by some theorists, unmoved by the famous 'Frege-Geach' argument. The paper reviews some of these debates.
Measures of six self-reported moods (assessed using the Mood Questionnaire), serum cholesterol levels, and serum uric acid (SUA) levels were obtained from 26 divers attending the Saturation Diver Training (SDT) course, the most sophisticated and arduous diving course offered by the U.S. Navy. These measures were correlated with various types of diving activity that occurred during the seven years following graduation from the SDT course. Multiple regression analyses showed that two moods, Fear and Happiness, from the Mood Questionnaire, were independently related to years of subsequent diving experience, while mood Fear and cholesterol levels were associated with total number of dives made during this period. The number of dives made to depths of over 100 feet of sea water was related independently to cholesterol levels and mood Happiness. A high frequency of saturation diving (i.e., dives that last for periods in excess of 12 hours) was found for divers with high SUA levels and low scores on mood Fear. Variations in significant mood and biochemical measures across the different types of diving criteria are discussed in terms of the level of stress involved, prior diving experience, psychological traits including perceived control and achievement motivation, and attitudes formed toward diving during the SDT course. PMID:6470474
Biersner, R J; McHugh, W B; Rahe, R H
Mental health is closely linked to physical health. Depression (e.g., major depression) is highly prevalent worldwide and a major cause of disability. In a subgroup with treatment-resistant depression, standard pharmacotherapy interventions provide small if any incremental improvement in patient outcomes and may also require the application of an alternate approach. Therefore, in addition to the standard pharmacotherapies prescribed, patients will also be advised on the benefits of psychological counseling, electroconvulsive therapy, and transcranial magnetic stimulation or increasing physical activity and reducing harmful substance consumption. Numerous nutraceuticals have a beneficial role in treatment-resistant depression and include, herbal medicines of which Hypericum perforatum is the best studied, omega-3 fatty acid preparations, S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine (SAMe), various mineral formulations (e.g., magnesium) and folate (singly or in combination with B group vitamins) are prescribed to a lesser extent. Furthermore, a largely neglected area of research activity has been the role of live probiotic cultures that contribute to repairing dysbiosis (a leaky gut barrier abnormality) in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). In this commentary, we build a hypothesis that in addition suggests that GIT metabolites that are elaborated by the microbiome cohort may provide novel and significant avenues for efficacious therapeutic interventions for mood disorders. We posit that the microbiome in the gastrointestinal tract is implicit as an important participant for the amelioration of adverse mood conditions via the diverse metabolic activities provided by live beneficial bacteria (probiotics) as an active adjuvant treatment. This activity is in part triggered by a controlled release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and hence further questions the antioxidant/oxidative stress postulate. PMID:25266952
Vitetta, Luis; Bambling, Matthew; Alford, Hollie
The objective is to estimate prevalence of parent-reported depression or anxiety among children with ASD, and describe parental concerns for their children. The design is Analysis of National Survey of Children's Health, 2003-2004. The participants are a national sample of 102,353 parents. 311,870 (544/100,000) parents of children ages 4-17 in the…
McPheeters, Melissa L.; Davis, Alaina; Navarre, J. Richard; Scott, Theresa A.
Full Text Available Depressive episodes are significant in bipolar illness since patients can spend up to one-third of their lives in depression. Although the treatment of bipolar depression remains an understudied area, new data from randomized, controlled trials and naturalistic studies expanded the range of treatments avaliable. The main aim in the treatment of bipolar depression is the prevention of the patient switching to mania and cycle acceleration, and antidepressant therapy may be contraindicated because of the risk for switching. Guidelines for the acute treatment of the bipolar depression emphasize treatment with a mood stabilizer, of which lithium has been the most thoroughly studied in randomized, controlled trials in acute bipolar depression. Lamotrigine had found significant ellicacy in recent studies as well and got FDA approval for its effect on preventing new episodes.
Cognitive reappraisal and acceptance are two presumably adaptive emotion regulation strategies in depression. More recently, self-compassion has been discussed as another potentially effective strategy for coping with depression. In the present study, we compared the effectiveness of self-compassion with a waiting condition, reappraisal, and acceptance in a clinically depressed sample, and tested the hypothesis that the intensity of depressed mood would moderate the differential efficacy of these strategies. In an experimental design, we induced depressed mood at four points in time in 48 participants meeting criteria for major depressive disorder. After each mood induction, participants were instructed to wait, reappraise the situation, accept their negative emotions, or employ self-compassion to regulate their depressed mood. Self-ratings of depressed mood were assessed before and after each mood induction and regulation phase. Results showed that the reduction of depressed mood was significantly greater in the self-compassion condition than in the waiting condition. No significant differences were observed between the self-compassion and the reappraisal condition, and between the self-compassion and the acceptance condition in patients' mood ratings. However, the intensity of self-rated depressed mood at baseline was found to moderate the comparative effectiveness of self-compassion and reappraisal with a trend of self-compassion being more effective than reappraisal in high depressed mood at baseline. These findings support the use of self-compassion as another adaptive emotion regulation strategy for patients with major depressive disorder, especially for those suffering from high levels of depressed mood. PMID:24929927
Diedrich, Alice; Grant, Michaela; Hofmann, Stefan G; Hiller, Wolfgang; Berking, Matthias
Full Text Available The present study investigated the influence of personality on exercise-induced mood changes. It was hypothesised that (a exercise would be associated with significant mood enhancement across all personality types, (b extroversion would be associated with positive mood and neuroticism with negative mood both pre- and post-exercise, and (c personality measures would interact with exercise-induced mood changes. Participants were 90 female exercisers (M = 25.8 yr, SD = 9.0 yr who completed the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI once and the Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS before and after a 60-minute exercise session. Median splits were used to group participants into four personality types: stable introverts (n = 25, stable extroverts (n = 20, neurotic introverts (n = 26, and neurotic extroverts (n = 19. Repeated measures MANOVA showed significant mood enhancement following exercise across all personality types. Neuroticism was associated with negative mood scores pre- and post-exercise but the effect of extroversion on reported mood was relatively weak. There was no significant interaction effect between exercise-induced mood enhancement and personality. In conclusion, findings lend support to the notion that exercise is associated with improved mood. However, findings show that personality did not influence this effect, although neuroticism was associated with negative mood
Andrew M. Lane
Mood disorders are elicited through a combination of genetic and environmental stress factors, and treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors ameliorates depressive symptoms. Changes in the serotonin transporter (SERT) binding may therefore occur in depressive patients and in subjects at risk for developing depression. The aim of this study was to explore whether abnormalities in SERT might be present in healthy individuals with familial predisposition to mood disorder. Nine individuals at high familial risk (mean age 32.2+/-4.2 years) and 11 individuals at low risk (mean age 32.4+/-5.0 years) for developing mood disorder were included. The subjects were healthy twins with or without a co-twin history of mood disorder identified by linking information from the Danish Twin Register and the Danish Psychiatric Central Register. Regional in vivo brain serotonin transporter binding was measured with [(11)C]DASB PET. The volumes of interest included the orbitofrontal cortex, the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, caudate, putamen, thalamus, and midbrain. We found that individuals at high familial risk for mood disorders had a 35% reduction in SERT binding in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (p=0.014, Bonferroni corrected) and on a trend basis a 15% reduction in anterior cingulate (p=0.018, un-corrected). The depression and symptom scores of the high and the low risk individuals were not significantly different. In conclusion, our data suggest that a low SERT binding in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex represents a trait marker for mood disorders.
Frokjaer, Vibe G; Vinberg, Maj
Depression is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), coronary heart disease (CHD) and cardiac death. Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function is frequent in major depression and hypercortisolemia may be a mediating factor in these relationships. The aim of this study was to assess HPA axis function measured with the dexamethasone suppression test (DST) in relation to CVD and CHD mortality in a cohort of 382 inpatients with mood disorder admitted to the department of Psychiatry at the Karolinska University Hospital between 1980 and 2000. Death certificates ascertained that 75 patients had died of cardiovascular disease and 30 patients of CHD during the mean follow-up of 18 years. DST non-suppression and higher baseline serum cortisol predicted CVD death. In male inpatients with mood disorder, the DST non-suppressor status was significantly associated with CVD death but not with CHD death. In depressed female inpatients the DST non-suppression was not associated with cardiovascular mortality. Baseline serum cortisol and post-dexamethasone serum cortisol levels at 4:00 p.m. showed a trend to be higher in female CVD/CHD victims. Effect of aging on HPA axis functioning was shown in male CHD deaths. HPA axis dysregulation may be a mediating factor between depression and increased risk of cardiovascular death in male mood disorder inpatients indicating that HPA-axis hyperactivity is a long term risk factor for cardiovascular mortality. PMID:19054568
Jokinen, Jussi; Nordström, Peter
The aim of this article is to develop a view of play as a relation between play practices and play moods based on an empirical study of children's everyday life and by using Bateson's term of ‘framing’ [(1955/2001). In Steps to an ecology of mind (pp. 75–80). Chicago: University of Chicago Press], Schmidt's notion of ‘commonness’ [(2005). Om respekten. København: Danmarks Pædagogiske Universitets Forlag; (2011). On respect. Copenhagen: Danish School of Education University Press] and Heidegger's term ‘mood’ [(1938/1996). Time and being. Cornwall: Wiley-Blackwell.]. Play mood is a state of being in which we are open and ready, both to others and their production of meaning and to new opportunities for producing meaning. This play mood is created when we engage with the world during play practices. The article points out four types of play moods – devotion, intensity, tension and euphorica – which show an affiliation with four types of play practices such as sliding, shifting, displaying and exceeding. Though play practices and play moods become possible, this conceptual framework makes it possible to highlight three features of play – first, moods are essential to play; second, moods are always in plural and finally, different moods describe different ways of being in play which means different ways of engaging with the world and the people around us.
Karoff, Helle Skovbjerg
Wake therapy improves mood in Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD), a depressive disorder in DSM-IV. We tested the hypothesis that the therapeutic effect of wake therapy in PMDD is mediated by altering sleep phase with melatonin secretion.
Parry, Barbara L.; Meliska, Charles J.; Marti?nez, L. Fernando; Lo?pez, Ana M.; Sorenson, Diane L.; Hauger, Richard L.; Elliott, Jeffrey A.
Abstract Background Major depressive disorder is prevalent in the adolescent psychiatric clinical setting and often comorbid with other primary psychiatric diagnoses such as ADHD or social anxiety disorder. Systematic manual-based diagnostic procedures are recommended to identify such comorbidity but they are time-consuming and often not fully implemented in clinical practice. Screening for depressive symptoms in the child psychiatric context using brief, user-friendly and ea...
Blom Eva Henje; Bech Per; Högberg Göran; Larsson Jan Olov; Serlachius Eva
People often prefer familiar stimuli, presumably because familiarity signals safety. This preference can occur with merely repeated old stimuli, but it is most robust with new but highly familiar prototypes of a known category (beauty-in-averageness effect). However, is familiarity always warm? Tuning accounts of mood hold that positive mood signals a safe environment, whereas negative mood signals an unsafe environment. Thus, the value of familiarity should depend on mood. We show that compared with a sad mood, a happy mood eliminates the preference for familiar stimuli, as shown in measures of self-reported liking and physiological measures of affect (electromyographic indicator of spontaneous smiling). The basic effect of exposure on preference and its modulation by mood were most robust for prototypes (category averages). All this occurs even though prototypes might be more familiar in a happy mood. We conclude that mood changes the hedonic implications of familiarity cues. PMID:20424063
de Vries, Marieke; Holland, Rob W; Chenier, Troy; Starr, Mark J; Winkielman, Piotr
The authors empirically studied the self-medication hypothesis of drug abuse by examining drug effects and motivation for drug use in 494 hospitalized drug abusers. Most patients reported that they used drugs in response to depressive symptoms and experienced mood elevation, regardless of their drug of choice. Drug use to relieve depressive symptoms was far more likely in men if they had major depression, but was equally common in women with and without major depression. Information regarding a history of self-medication may thus be more helpful in diagnosing major depression in men than in women. Difficulties in diagnosing psychiatric disorders in substance abusers are discussed, as are the limitations of obtaining retrospective data on drug-using behavior. The implications of these limitations on the generalizability of the findings are reviewed. PMID:1562010
Weiss, R D; Griffin, M L; Mirin, S M
The present research aimed to test the role of mood in the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT; Bechara et al., 1994). In the IGT, participants can win or lose money by picking cards from four different decks. They have to learn by experience that two decks are overall advantageous and two decks are overall disadvantageous. Previous studies have shown that at an early stage in this card-game, players begin to display a tendency towards the advantageous decks. Subsequent research suggested that at this st...
Marieke de Vries; Holland, Rob W.; Witteman, Cilia L. M.
Depression develops as an interaction between stress and an individual’s vulnerability to stress. The effect of early life stress and a gene–environment interaction may play a role in the development of stress vulnerability as a risk factor for depression. The epigenetic regulation of the promoter of the glucocorticoid receptor gene has been suggested as a molecular basis of such stress vulnerability. It has also been suggested that antidepressive treatment, such as antidepressant medicat...
Mcgowan, Patrick O.; Kato, Tadafumi
Neuroimaging and neuropathological studies of major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) have identified abnormalities of brain structure in areas of the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, striatum, hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, and raphe nucleus. These structural imaging abnormalities persist across illness episodes, and preliminary evidence suggests they may in some cases arise prior to the onset of depressive episodes in subjects at high familial risk for MDD. In other cases...
Drevets, Wayne C.
Abstract Background Mental health during pregnancy has not been investigated in Vietnam. Antenatal depression is an established risk factor for postpartum mood disturbance and two representative cohort studies have found rates of depression after childbirth in Vietnam two to three times higher than those in high income countries. Aim The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate the prevalence and determinants of depression in a cohort of pregnant Vietnam...
Rw, Fisher Jane; Tran Huong; Tran Tuan
Abnormalities in fronto-limbic-striatal white matter (WM) have been reported in bipolar disorder (BD), but results have been inconsistent across studies. Furthermore, there have been no detailed investigations as to whether acute mood states contribute to microstructural changes in WM tracts. In order to compare fiber density and structural integrity within WM tracts between BD depression and remission, whole-brain fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were assessed in 37 bipol...
Zanetti, Marcus V.; Jackowski, Marcel P.; Versace, Amelia; Almeida, Jorge R. C.; Hassel, Stefanie; Duran, Fa?bio L. S.; Busatto, Geraldo F.; Kupfer, David J.; Phillips, Mary L.
Full Text Available ... also showed that depression was more prevalent among women 40 to 59 years of age and people living below the poverty line. Of those with severe depressive symptoms, about 43% reported serious difficulties at work, home and in social activities. Only about one- ...
This paper describes a possible framework of hormones and their binding proteins (BPs) that might be responsible for the increased incidence of depression in women, including postnatal depression. It is based on three reported facts: Increased cortisol exposure reduces growth hormone (GH) secretion. Cortisol and GH show opposite effects on mood. Liver secretion of various hormone binding proteins is increased under estrogen exposure. If we accept that pure cortisol exposure leads to depressive mood, while simultaneous brain exposure to cortisol and an anabolic (growth hormone or somatomammotropin) is less mood affecting, the occurrence of depression an be more likely in persons: with altered sleep patterns and thus reduced GH secretion, in individuals with increased chronic cortisol exposure (any individual under repeated or sustained stress, older individuals with stressful memories, etc.). The proposed mechanism can be enhanced in women of reproductive age through increased transcortin and GH BP pools due to estrogen action on liver. A particularly vulnerable phase seems to be the early postnatal period, when sudden discontinuation of somatomammotropin anabolic actions might lead to postnatal depression that takes weeks or months to resolve, until the GH/cortisol circadian rhythm normalization. PMID:18996648
Dodig-Curkovic, Katarina; Kurbel, Sven; Matic, Vesna Cacinovic
Full Text Available Abstract Background The onset and course of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS are strongly influenced by psychological factors, and treatment often includes cognitive-behavioral therapy. We conducted a study of the relationships between cognitive appraisal of IBS symptoms and negative mood for the subtypes of IBS. Method The participants were 1087 college students who completed a set of questionnaires that included the Rome II Modular Questionnaire, Self-reported IBS Questionnaire, Cognitive Appraisal Rating Scale, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results The participants included 206 individuals with IBS; 61 had diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBSD and 45 had constipation-predominant IBS (IBSC. The overall IBS group scored higher on anxiety and depression than the control group. The IBSD and IBSC groups each had significantly higher scores for anxiety but did not significantly differ from the control group in scores for depression. There were no significant differences between the IBSD and IBSC groups in their cognitive appraisal of IBS symptoms. For the IBSD group, anxiety was significantly, positively correlated with commitment, effect, and threat, and depression was significantly, negatively correlated with controllability. In contrast, there were no significant correlations between mood and cognitive appraisal for the IBSC group. Multiple regression analyses with abdominal symptoms as dependent variables and cognitive appraisals as independent variables showed that for the IBSD group, abdominal pain was significantly, positively correlated with commitment, and abdominal discomfort was significantly, positively correlated with appraisal of effect and threat. For the IBSC group, abdominal pain and hard stool were significantly, positively correlated with commitment, and abdominal discomfort was significantly, positively correlated with appraisal of effect and threat. Conclusion IBS patients as a general group report high levels of anxiety and depression. However, IBSD and IBSC were both associated only with high anxiety, but not depression, when compared to the non-IBS control group. For the IBSD group, anxiety was associated with cognitive appraisals, but this association was not found for the IBSC group. These groups did not differ in their associated cognitive appraisals, and are similar in terms of the positive relationship between abdominal pain and discomfort and the cognitive appraisals of coping.
The self-report of depressive symptoms of high school adolescents from two populations were compared. The study aims to find out whether or not; 1) there are significant sex differences between two communities and 2) with regard to the same-sex, there are significant differences between two communities. Nine hundred and twenty eight adolescents from London and 2012 adolescents from six cities from Iran were requested to fill in the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS). The results showed that significant differences between two sexes in each population. All girls had higher mean scores on all items on DSRS than boys. With regard to the same-sex, significant differences were found between either female or male populations in two communities. The research showed that female adolescents from Iran were significantly experienced more depressive symptoms than the Londoners. Similar results were repeated for the male groups. In conclusion, female adolescents are vulnerable to life stressors and tend to experience more negative feedback and interpretations than boys. Moreover, social roles and limitations, particularly for Iranian adolescents, may influence female adolescents to demonstrate depression symptoms.
Seyed-Hossein, Salimi; Mohamad-Reza, Tagavi; Parviz, Azad-Fallah; Reza, Karaminia; Tayebi, A.
The present study examined relationships among stressful events, personality characteristics, and affective status in males and females of various alcohol drinking patterns. We examined a total of 154 participants from three distinct alcohol subgroups: alcohol dependent, problem drinker, and light social drinker. These subjects did not meet criteria for any concurrent nonalcohol comorbid psychiatric disorder. The study included an alcohol quantity-frequency interview and self-report questionnaires on stressful life events, depressive symptoms, trait anxiety, and personality characteristics. Results showed female alcoholics reported significantly greater depression, anxiety, and neuroticism compared to their male counterparts (and all other drinking groups). Female problem drinkers reported significantly greater depressive symptoms and health-related stressful events compared to male problem drinkers and the light drinkers. In contrast, male problem drinkers did not show elevations on these dimensions and more closely resembled light drinkers, of whom no gender differences were found. The findings support theories suggesting a "telescoping" of complications, health-related stress, and mood dysfunction in women at a lower threshold level of alcohol consumption compared to their male counterparts. PMID:12507535
King, Andrea C; Bernardy, Nancy C; Hauner, Katherina
Delusional paranoia has been associated with severe mental illness for over a century. Kraepelin introduced a disorder called “paranoid depression,” but “paranoid” became linked to schizophrenia, not to mood disorders. Paranoid remains the most common subtype of schizophrenia, but some of these cases, as Kraepelin initially implied, may be unrecognized psychotic mood disorders, so the relationship of paranoid schizophrenia to psychotic bipolar disorder warrants reevaluation. To addres...
Lake, Charles Raymond
The effects of tryptophan depletion on impulsivity and mood in healthy men and women Reduced serotonergic neurotransmission contributes to the pathophysiology of mood disorders, and the majority of modern antidepressants block the serotonin reuptake in the brain. It is also known that people with major depressive disorder are frequently found to have impaired impulse control, and that impulsivity is associated with serotonin. In two separate studies with healthy participants using differen...
Objectives. To review the literature addressing the relationship between mood disorders and fibromyalgia/chronic pain and our current understanding of overlapping pathophysiological processes and pain and depression circuitry. Methods. We selectively reviewed articles on the co-occurrence of mood disorders and fibromyalgia/chronic pain published between 1990 and July 2012 in PubMed. Bibliographies and cross references were considered and included when appropriate. Result...
Atzeni, F.; Sgiarovello, P.; Alciati, A.; Sarzi-puttini, P.
The prefrontal cortex is involved in mood and emotional processing. In patients suffering from depression, the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is hypoactive, while activity of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is enhanced. Counterbalancing these pathological excitability alterations by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) improves mood in these patients. In healthy subjects, however, rTMS of the same areas has no majo...
When screening for depression in glioma patients, the utility of proxy carer report is unknown. We studied how patients and proxies differed in the frequency, severity and agreement of reported depressive symptoms, the external validity of these reports, and whether patient-proxy agreement was associated with cognitive function. This was a cross-sectional study within a prospective cohort study of depression in glioma. Eligible patients were adults with a new diagnosis of cerebral glioma whose cohabiting partners chose to attend study interviews. Patients completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9, maximum score 27) to screen for major depressive disorder. Proxies independently completed the PHQ-9 'for the patient'. A structured clinical interview for MDD was then given. From 55 couples attending, 41 participated (74 %). Patient-proxy total PHQ-9 score differed by 3 or more points in 26/41 cases (63.4 %). Disagreement within dyads ranged from -7 to +10 points. Proxies observed more individual depressive symptoms than patients reported (mean 2.7 vs 1.8 symptoms respectively, p = 0.013, Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test), and a greater severity of symptom burden (mean PHQ-9 score 8.4 vs 6.8 respectively, p = 0.016, Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test). Proxies were more reliable than patients on objective behavioural symptoms of depression. Dyadic agreement was not associated with severity of patient cognitive impairment. There was frequent disagreement between glioma patients and proxies reports of depressive symptoms. Proxies reported more depressive symptoms than patients, and were more reliable when reporting observable behavioural symptoms. When diagnosing depression in glioma, collateral history should be obtained. PMID:23436131
Rooney, Alasdair Grant; McNamara, Shanne; Mackinnon, Mairi; Fraser, Mary; Rampling, Roy; Carson, Alan; Grant, Robin
Full Text Available Purpose: This study was designed to compare the effects of two different relaxation techniques, namely progressive muscle relaxation (PMR and autogenic relaxation (AGR on moods of young soccer players. Methods: Sixteen adolescent athletes (mean age: 14.1 ± 1.3 received either PMR or AGR training. Using Profile of Mood States-Adolescents, their mood states were measured one week before relaxation training, before the first relaxation session, and after the twelfth relaxation session. Results: Mixed ANOVA revealed no significant interaction effects and no significant main effects in any of the subscales. However, significant main effects for testing sessions were found for confusion, depression, fatigue, and tension subscales. Post hoc tests revealed post-intervention reductions in the confusion, depression, fatigue, and tension subscale scores. Conclusions: These two relaxation techniques induce equivalent mood responses and may be used to regulate young soccer players' mood states.
Hazwani Hanafi@Ahmad Yusof
Music is one of the most expressive media to show and manipulate emotions, but there have been few studies on how to generate music connected to emotions. Such studies have always been shunned upon by musicians affirming that a machine cannot create expressive music, as it's the composer's and player's experiences and emotions that get poured into the piece. At the same time another problem is that music is highly complicated (and subjective) and finding out which elements transmit certain emotions is not an easy task. This demo wants to show how the manipulation of a set of features can actually change the mood the music transmits, hopefully awakening an interest in this area of research.
Sickle cell anemia is a chronic illness associated with important nonmedical complications. The prevalence of depression and its clinical profile among Congolese children suffering from sickle cell disease are unknown. We therefore conducted a cross-sectional study in children between 8 and 17 years. The main goal of this study was to describe prevalence and characteristics of depression in this population living in Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of Congo. The cross-sectional survey is of patients attending 2 referral centers. Children aged 8 to 17 years old were evaluated by a semistructured interview and standardized scales for depression separated by age and sex, the Multiscore Depression Inventory for Children. Completed questionnaires were received from 81 respondents. There were 43 girls and 38 boys. Depression symptoms were observed in 70 (86.4%) cases. Among this group, 6 children (8.6%) were observed to have severe depression. The most common symptoms were observed to be social introversion (81.5%), defiance (77.8%), helplessness (76.5%), and sad mood (70.4%). Of the 70 subjects, 19 (23.5%) had suicidal ideation. In Kinshasa, the prevalence of depression was high to those reported in western countries. Psychological interventions for individuals with sickle cell disease might complement current medical treatment in our midst. PMID:25354254
Lukoo, Rita N; Ngiyulu, René M; Mananga, Gilbert L; Gini-Ehungu, Jean-Lambert; Ekulu, Pépé M; Tshibassu, Pierre M; Aloni, Michel N
Does treatment of subsyndromal depression improve depression and diabetes related outcomes: protocol for a randomised controlled comparison of psycho-education, physical exercise and treatment as usual
Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of mood difficulties in persons with diabetes is approximately twice that in the general population, affecting the health outcomes and patients' quality of life in an undesirable way. Although subsyndromal depression is an important predictor of a more serious clinical depression, it is often overlooked. This study aims to compare the effects of two non-pharmacological interventions for subsyndromal depression, psychoeducation and physical exercise, with diabetes treatment as usual on mood- and diabetes-related outcomes. Methods and Design Type 2 diabetic patients aged 18-65 yrs. who report mood difficulties and the related need for help in a mail survey will be potential participants. After giving informed consent, they will be randomly assigned to one of the three groups (psychoeducation, physical activity, treatment as usual. Depressive symptoms, diabetes distress, health-related quality of life and diabetes self-care activities will be assessed at baseline, at 6 weeks, 6 months and 12 months. A structured clinical interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I will be performed at baseline and at one-year follow-up in order to determine the clinical significance of the patients' depressive symptoms. Disease-related data will be collected from patients' files and from additional physical examinations and laboratory tests. The two interventions will be comparable in terms of format (small group work, duration (six sessions and approach (interactive learning; supporting the participants' active roles. The group treated as usual will be informed about their screening results and about the importance of treating depression. They will be provided with brief re-education on diabetes and written self-help instructions to cope with mood difficulties. Primary outcomes will be depressive symptoms. Secondary outcomes will be glycaemic control, diabetes-related distress, self-management of diabetes and health-related quality of life. Tertiary outcomes will be biochemical markers reflecting common pathophysiological processes of insulin resistance, inflammation and oxidative damage that are assumed to be intertwined in both diabetes and depression. The mixed-effect linear model will be used to compare the outcome variables. Power analysis has indicated that the two intervention groups and the control group should comprise 59 patients to enable detection of clinically meaningful differences in depressive symptoms with a power of 80% and alpha = 0.05. Outcomes will be analysed on an intention-to-treat basis. Trial Registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN05673017
Research indicates that physical exercise can contribute to better sleep quality. This study investigates the six-week influence of a combined intervention on self-rated sleep quality, daytime mood, and quality of life. A nonclinical sample of 114 adults with chronic initiating and the maintaining of sleep complaints participated in the study. The intervention group of 70 adults underwent moderate physical exercise, conducted weekly, plus sleep education sessions. Improvements among participa...
Michael Schredl; Daniel Erlacher; Carmen Gebhart
Full Text Available ... December 4, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Depression Health Statistics Transcript Nearly 8% of Americans report having moderate ... data released by the National Center for Health Statistics. The data were collected through symptom-based questionnaires ...
Full Text Available The prefrontal cortex is involved in mood and emotional processing. In patients suffering from depression, the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is hypoactive, while activity of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is enhanced. Counterbalancing these pathological excitability alterations by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS improves mood in these patients. In healthy subjects, however, rTMS of the same areas has no major effect, and the effects of tDCS are mixed. We aimed to evaluate the effects of prefrontal tDCS on mood and mood-related cognitive processing in healthy humans. In a first study, we administered excitability-enhancing anodal, excitability-diminishing cathodal and placebo tDCS to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, combined with antagonistic stimulation of the right frontopolar cortex, and tested acute mood changes by an adjective checklist. Subjective mood was not influenced by tDCS. Emotional face identification, however, which was explored in a second experiment, was subtly improved by a tDCS-driven excitability modulation of the prefrontal cortex, markedly by anodal tDCS of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex for positive emotional content. We conclude that tDCS of the prefrontal cortex improves mood processing in healthy subjects, but does not influence subjective mood state.
Full Text Available Introduction: Depression is one of the Common psychological disorders. From the cognitive point of view, the unhealthy attitudes increase the severity of the depression. The aim of this study was to investigate depression and unhealthy attitudes in coronary patients hospitalized at Tabriz Shahid Madani Heart Center. Methods: One hundred twenty eight hospitalized patients having myocardial Infarctions were studied regarding unhealthy attitudes, severity of depression and demographic data. Results: The study showed a significant relation between unhealthy attitudes, BDI (Beck Depression Inventory and severe depression. Moreover, a significant relation existed between gender and depression (P=0.0001. In addition, the level of education increased the intensity of unhealthy attitudes (P=0.0001. Several researches in both outside and inside Iran support the idea. Conclusion: Based on present study and more other investigations, it can be suggested to provide the necessary elements and parameters such as antidepressant medication, psychologists, complementary treatment for coping with negative mood and its unwanted consequences.
Background: With the rise in the aging population and absence of a cure for dementia, cost-effective prevention strategies for those 'at risk' of dementia including those with depression and/or mild cognitive impairment are urgently required. Objective: This study evaluated the efficacy of a multifaceted Healthy Brain Ageing Cognitive Training (HBA-CT) program for older adults 'at risk' of dementia. Methods: Using a single-blinded design, 64 participants (mean age = 66.5 years, SD = 8.6) were randomized to an immediate treatment (HBA-CT) or treatment-as-usual control arm. The HBA-CT intervention was conducted twice-weekly for seven weeks and comprised group-based psychoeducation about cognitive strategies and modifiable lifestyle factors pertaining to healthy brain aging, and computerized cognitive training. Results: In comparison to the treatment-as-usual control arm, the HBA-CT program was associated with improvements in verbal memory (p = 0.03), self-reported memory (p = 0.03), mood (p = 0.01), and sleep (p = 0.01). While the improvements in memory (p = 0.03) and sleep (p = 0.02) remained after controlling for improvements in mood, only a trend in verbal memory improvement was apparent after controlling for sleep. Conclusion: The HBA-CT program improves cognitive, mood, and sleep functions in older adults 'at risk' of dementia, and therefore offers promise as a secondary prevention strategy. PMID:25408218
Diamond, Keri; Mowszowski, Loren; Cockayne, Nicole; Norrie, Louisa; Paradise, Matthew; Hermens, Daniel F; Lewis, Simon J G; Hickie, Ian B; Naismith, Sharon L
Gene variants exert a complex range of effects on human normal and abnormal behavior. We previously reported the effect of gene variants in serotoninergic and dopaminergic pathways, in a range of clinical features in mood disorders, such as symptomathology, periodicity, social adjustment and treatment response. In this paper we hypothesized that the same gene variants could influence temperamental traits in mood disorders patients. We focused on genes of the serotoninergic and dopaminergic systems (dopamine receptor D4 gene, DRD4; serotonin transporter gene, promoter region SERTPR; tryptophan hydroxylase gene, TPH; monoamine oxidase A gene, MAO-A). Two hundred and seven euthymic subjects, affected by major depressive disorder (n=73) and bipolar disorder (n=134) were assessed by the Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and typed using PCR-based analyses. Possible stratification factors such as demographic, clinical and other temperamental factors were also taken into account. We observed that homozygosity for the short SERTPR allele was associated with low novelty-seeking scores (p=0.006) and genotypes containing the DRD4 long allele were marginally associated with low harm avoidance (p=0.05). Finally, the long MAO-A allele was associated with decreased persistence scores among females (p=0.006). Our observation of a pattern of influence on temperamental dimension exerted by serotonergic and dopaminergic genes suggests that the contribution of these polymorphisms to the clinical presentation of mood disorders could be mediated by an influence on personality differences. PMID:16319504
Serretti, Alessandro; Mandelli, Laura; Lorenzi, Cristina; Landoni, Samuela; Calati, Raffaella; Insacco, Chiara; Cloninger, C Robert
Full Text Available Thomas M Penders,1 Salina Agarwal,2 Rachel Rohaidy11Department of Psychiatric Medicine, Brody School of Medicine, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, USA; 2Menninger Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USAAbstract: There has been increasing recognition that the second-generation antipsychotic drugs can produce extrapyramidal side effects. This case reports the development of severe akathisia in a patient being treated with ziprasidone for bipolar depression. The case illustrates that this symptom can be easily mistaken for worsening agitated depression. Akathisia may produce considerable distress and elevate suicide risk. Such symptoms may persist for weeks and be refractory to discontinuation of the offending agent or to pharmacological interventions commonly used to mitigate this reaction.Keywords: extrapyramidal, second-generation, affective, antipsychotic, suicide, mood disorder
Background: Depressed mood has been associated with decreased white matter and reduced hippocampal volumes. However, the relationship between brain structure and mood may be unique among adolescents who use marijuana heavily. The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between white matter and hippocampal volumes and depressive symptoms…
Medina, Krista Lisdahl; Nagel, Bonnie J.; Park, Ann; McQueeny, Tim; Tapert, Susan F.
BACKGROUND: Cognitive reactivity to sad mood is a vulnerability marker of depression. Implicit self-depressed associations are related to depression status and reduced remission probability. It is unknown whether these cognitive vulnerabilities precede the first onset of depression. AIM: To test the predictive value of cognitive reactivity and implicit self-depressed associations for the incidence of depressive disorders. METHODS: Prospective cohort study of 834 never-depressed individuals, f...
Kruijt, Aw; Antypa, N.; Booij, L.; Jong, Pj; Glashouwer, K.; Penninx, Bw; Does, W.
Full Text Available Colleen Doyle,1–3 David Dunt,2 David Ames,1 Suganya Selvarajah11National Ageing Research Institute, Royal Melbourne Hospital Royal Park Campus, Parkville, Victoria, Australia; 2Centre for Health Policy, Programs and Economics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia; 3Australian Catholic University, Fitzroy, Victoria, AustraliaBackground: There is good evidence for the positive benefits of pulmonary rehabilitation (PR in the prevention of hospital admissions, lower mortality, and improved health-related quality of life. There is also increasing evidence about the impact of PR on mental health and, in particular, mood disorders. We aimed to identify how depression in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients in Victoria, Australia, is being managed in PR, to identify the prevalence of depressive symptoms among COPD patients who attend PR, and to determine whether patients with depressive symptoms or anxiety symptoms dropped out of PR early.Method: Of 61 PR clinics, 44 were invited and 22 agreed to participate. Telephone interviews were conducted to see how depression and anxiety in COPD patients were being recognized and managed in these clinics. A total of 294 questionnaires were distributed to patients by clinic coordinators to determine the prevalence of anxiety/depression, as measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Coordinators were contacted to provide information on whether respondents dropped out of rehabilitation early or continued with their treatment at 2–4 months post program.Results: Seven clinics were not aware of local guidelines on assessment/treatment/management of mood. Four clinics did not use any screening tools or other aids in the recognition and management of depression and/or anxiety. Overall, eight clinics participating in this study requested advice on suitable screening tools. The patient survey indicated that the mean depression score on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was 5.0 (standard deviation 3.0, range 1–13. The mean anxiety score was 5.5 (standard deviation 3.4, range 0–18. There was no evidence of a link between failure to complete rehabilitation and depression or anxiety scores, as only three of 105 patients failed to complete their rehabilitation.Discussion: Awareness of management guidelines for depression and anxiety in COPD patients was variable across the clinics recruited into our study. We found no link between compliance with rehabilitation and depression, but our sample had limitations.Conclusion: Future research needs to investigate how best to encourage more use of available guidelines regarding integrating psychological and psychosocial support to supplement the exercise and education that are currently offered routinely by all PR clinics studied in Victoria, Australia.Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, depression, anxiety, pulmonary rehabilitation
A relationship between genetic makeup and susceptibility to major depressive disorder (MDD) has long been suspected on the basis of family and twin studies. A metaanalysis of reports on the basis of twin studies has estimated MDD's degree of heritability to be 0.33 (confidence interval, 0.26-0.39). Among families exhibiting an increased prevalence of MDD, risk of developing the illness was enhanced in members exposed to a highly stressful environment. Aberrant genes can predispose to depression in a number of ways, for example, by diminishing production of growth factors that act during brain development. An aberrant gene could also increase or decrease a neurotransmitter's release into synapses, its actions, or its duration of activity. The gene products of greatest interest at present are those involved in the synthesis and actions of serotonin; among them, the serotonin-uptake protein localized within the terminals and dendrites of serotonin-releasing neurons. It has been found that the Vmax of platelet serotonin uptake is low in some patients with MDD; also, Vmax is highly correlated in twins. Antidepressant drugs such as the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors act on this uptake protein. The specific genetic locus causing serotonin uptake to be lower in some patients with major depression involves a polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) in the promoter region of the gene for the uptake protein. The gene itself exists as several alleles, the short "S" allele and the long "L" allele. The S variant is associated with less, and the L variant with more, of the uptake protein. The effect of stressful life events on depressive symptoms in young adults was found to be significantly stronger among SS or SL subjects than among LL subjects. Neuroimaging studies showed that people with the SS or SL alleles exhibited a greater activation of the amygdala in response to fearful stimuli than those with LL. It has been reported recently that mutations in the gene that controls serotonin synthesis in the human brain (tryptophan hydroxylase) also predispose to mood disturbances. It may be asked whether people who lack a psychiatric history should be advised to avoid stressful environments if they are found to carry the SS or SL alleles. PMID:15877307
Wurtman, Richard J
Oseltamivir was developed for prophylactic and therapeutic use against influenza, specifically targeting the viral enzyme's highly-conserved active site. In recent years, there have been case reports of neuropsychiatric events during or after oseltamivir treatment, in Japan and other countries. However, a search of the literature revealed no such cases in South Korea. We present the case of a 15-year-old female adolescent diagnosed with depressive episode after taking oseltamivir. Oseltamivir is generally well tolerated. Its most frequent adverse effects include nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. In influenza patients taking oseltamivir, neuropsychiatric adverse events include delirium, behavioral disturbance, suicide, delusion, panic attack, convulsion, depressed mood, loss of consciousness, etc. Reportedly, such neuropsychiatric adverse events were more common in children than in adults and generally occurred within 48 hours of administration. Here, we report a retrospective review case of an oseltamivir-related neuropsychiatric event in a female adolescent in South Korea. PMID:21253416
Chung, Sungho; Joung, Yoo Sook
Full Text Available Introduction: Interaction of several genes is responsible for psychiatric diseases such as depression. Despite the numerous microarray studies in this field, findings are controversial and hard to conclude. Methods: Male Wistar rats were randomly selected to receive Chronic Mild Stress model for 4 weeks. Different aspects of depression were measured by forced swimming test, open field trial and sucrose preference tests in the experience group and controls. Results: Sucrose was preferred by 40% of CMS group and 80% of controls (p=0.025. Twenty percent of CMS group and 80% of controls were “active” (p=0.001. Last escape was at minute 238 for CMS group and minute 245 for controls and controls had more escape efforts. Conclusion: This paper is a preliminary report of a genomic study on animal model of depression which tries to achieve reliable results by a joint of clinical view with recent techniques. Predicted challenges in this procedure and the solutions as well as the limitations may be helpful for future researches.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Neurocardiogenic syncope (NCS is a condition where the patient has a temporary loss of consciousness or feelings of weakness and fatigue. There are triggers such as prolonged sitting or standing, pain, and heavy exercise, but often episodes are random. Treatments are limited and the use of specific serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI have had mixed results, but a limited number of studies have suggested that paroxetine may be effective in improving the symptoms of NCS. METHODS: This is a single case report of a 20-year old female who was diagnosed with NCS by a tilt test and treated conservatively with increased fluid and salt intake, and counter-pressure maneuvers. She was given one dose of sertraline, but immediately experienced disturbing visual images. She presented at the Depression Center with moderate depressive symptoms and was started on paroxetine and given cognitive/behavioral strategies to manage the NCS. RESULTS: Since the patient had a negative experience with a prior SSRI, she was started on a low dose of paroxetine and omega-3 fatty acids. She also was given a detailed explanation of NCS and a number of cognitive/behavioral strategies such as deep breathing, progressive relaxation, imagery, and sleep. CONCLUSION: After 2-weeks of the multi-faceted treatment approach, she had a significant decrease in her depressive symptoms. After 6-months, the patient had no episodes of syncope and no depressive symptoms. She was able to stand for long periods and exercise without feelings of weakness and fatigue. A multimodal approach may offer the best treatment strategy to achieve full remission in patients with NCS.
Reg Arthur Williams
Depression interferes with the human ability to make decisions. Multiple criteria have been adopted for the diagnosis of depression in humans, but no clear indicators are available in animal models to reflect the depressive mood, involving higher cognitive functions. The act of foraging is a species-specific behaviour which is believed to involve the decision-making and higher cognitive functions. We previously established a method to detect the foraging behaviour of rodents, in which our results demonstrated that NMDA and dopamine receptors were involved. Conversely, increased NMDA receptors and reduced dopamine have been reported in depression model rodents. However, we hypothesise that foraging activities may also be impaired in depression. To test the theory, we successfully established a mouse model of depression using the chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) paradigm. Most interestingly, the food foraging activity of mice after CUMS was significantly reduced. In addition, the treatment of anti-depressant fluoxetine reversed most depressive symptoms and reduced glial fibrillary associated protein (GFAP) expression in the hippocampus, but was less effective in the reduction of foraging activities. However, clozapine reversed all symptoms of CUMS-exposed mice including reduction of GFAP expression in the hippocampus and impaired foraging activity. Our findings of GFAP expression as a marker to validate the CUMS protocol provide further validation of our hypothesis, that the reduced food foraging is probably a new behavioural finding of depression in which the serotoninergic system could not be singly involved. Our study suggests that NMDA receptors, serotoninergic and dopaminergic systems are differentially involved in these food foraging behaviours. Our data suggest that the foraging test in rodents can be a useful tool to assess the ability of decision-making in depression. PMID:23873577
Yang, C R; Zhang, Z G; Bai, Y Y; Zhou, H Fiona; Zhou, L; Ruan, C S; Li, F; Li, C Q; Zheng, H Y; Shen, L J; Zhou, X F
Purpose:The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between perception of emotional intelligence and beliefs in the extent to which exercising leads to mood-enhancement. Methods: Volunteer participants (N= 315) completed a 33-item self-report measure of trait emotional intelligence and an exercise-mood regulation scale.Results: Emotional intelligence significantly correlated with beliefs that exercise could be used to regulate mood (r =0.45, P<0 .01).Conclusion: Findings demonst...
Lane, Andrew M.; Dharmendra Solanki
OBJECTIVE: To measure the previously reported beta blocker induced adverse changes in mood state and anxiety measures, and to determine if prolonged aerobic exercise attenuates such mood modifications. METHODS: After 4 days of drug treatment with comparable doses of propranolol (40 and 80 mg), metoprolol (50 and 100 mg), or placebo, mood (POMS) and anxiety states (STAI) were assessed in healthy volunteers, before and after 1 h of treadmill walking exercise at 50% maximum oxygen uptake. RESULT...
Head, A.; Kendall, M. J.; Ferner, R.; Eagles, C.
Although there is clinical and historical evidence for a vivid relation between the vestibular and emotional systems, the neuroscientific underpinnings are poorly understood. The “spin doctors” of the nineteenth century used spinning chairs (e.g., Cox’s chair) to treat conditions of mania or elevated arousal. On the basis of a recent study on a hexapod motion-simulator, in this prototypic investigation we explore the impact of yaw stimulation on a spinning chair on mood states. Using a controlled experimental stimulation paradigm on a unique 3-D-turntable at the University of Zurich we included 11 healthy subjects and assessed parameters of mood states and autonomic nervous system activity. The Multidimensional Mood State Questionnaire and Visual Analog Scales (VAS) were used to assess changes of mood in response to a 100?s yaw stimulation. In addition heart rate was continuously monitored during the experiment. Subjects indicated feeling less “good,” “relaxed,” “comfortable,” and “calm” and reported an increased alertness after vestibular stimulation. However, there were no objective adverse effects of the stimulation. Accordingly, heart rate did not significantly differ in response to the stimulation. This is the first study in a highly controlled setting using the historical approach of stimulating the vestibular system to impact mood states. It demonstrates a specific interaction between the vestibular system and mood states and thereby supports recent experimental findings with a different stimulation technique. These results may inspire future research on the clinical potential of this method. PMID:24133463
Winter, Lotta; Wollmer, M. Axel; Laurens, Jean; Straumann, Dominik; Kruger, Tillmann H. C.
Although there is clinical and historical evidence for a vivid relation between the vestibular and emotional systems, the neuroscientific underpinnings are poorly understood. The "spin doctors" of the nineteenth century used spinning chairs (e.g., Cox's chair) to treat conditions of mania or elevated arousal. On the basis of a recent study on a hexapod motion-simulator, in this prototypic investigation we explore the impact of yaw stimulation on a spinning chair on mood states. Using a controlled experimental stimulation paradigm on a unique 3-D-turntable at the University of Zurich we included 11 healthy subjects and assessed parameters of mood states and autonomic nervous system activity. The Multidimensional Mood State Questionnaire and Visual Analog Scales (VAS) were used to assess changes of mood in response to a 100?s yaw stimulation. In addition heart rate was continuously monitored during the experiment. Subjects indicated feeling less "good," "relaxed," "comfortable," and "calm" and reported an increased alertness after vestibular stimulation. However, there were no objective adverse effects of the stimulation. Accordingly, heart rate did not significantly differ in response to the stimulation. This is the first study in a highly controlled setting using the historical approach of stimulating the vestibular system to impact mood states. It demonstrates a specific interaction between the vestibular system and mood states and thereby supports recent experimental findings with a different stimulation technique. These results may inspire future research on the clinical potential of this method. PMID:24133463
Winter, Lotta; Wollmer, M Axel; Laurens, Jean; Straumann, Dominik; Kruger, Tillmann H C
Full Text Available Objectives. To review the literature addressing the relationship between mood disorders and fibromyalgia/chronic pain and our current understanding of overlapping pathophysiological processes and pain and depression circuitry. Methods. We selectively reviewed articles on the co-occurrence of mood disorders and fibromyalgia/chronic pain published between 1990 and July 2012 in PubMed. Bibliographies and cross references were considered and included when appropriate. Results. Forty-nine out of 138 publications were retained for review. The vast majority of the studies found an association between depression and fibromyalgia. There is evidence that depression is often accompanied by symptoms of opposite polarity characterised by heights of mood, thinking and behaviour that have a considerable impact on pharmacological treatment. Recent developments support the view that the high rates of fibromyalgia and mood disorder comorbidity is generated by largely overlapping pathophysiological processes in the brain, that provide a neurobiological basis for the bidirectional, mutually exacerbating and disabling relationship between pain and depression. Conclusions. The finding of comparable pathophysiological characteristics of pain and depression provides a framework for understanding the relationship between the two conditions and sheds some light on neurobiological and therapeutic aspects.
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined how ethnic differences in sleep and depression were related to environmental illumination and circadian rhythms. Methods In an ancillary study to the Women's Health Initiative, 459 postmenopausal women were recorded for one week in their homes, using wrist monitors. Sleep and illumination experience were estimated. Depression was self-rated with a brief adjective check list. Affective diagnoses were made using the SCID interview. Sleep disordered breathing was monitored with home pulse oximetry. Results Hispanic and African-American women slept less than European-American women, according to both objective recordings and their own sleep logs. Non-European-American women had more blood oxygen desaturations during sleep, which accounted for 26% of sleep duration variance associated with ethnicity. Hispanic women were much more depressed. Hispanic, African-American and Native-American women experienced less daily illumination. Less daily illumination experience was associated with poorer global functioning, longer but more disturbed sleep, and more depression. Conclusions Curtailed sleep and poor mood were related to ethnicity. Sleep disordered breathing was a factor in the curtailed sleep of minority women. Less illumination was experienced by non-European-American women, but illumination accounted for little of the contrasts between ethnic groups in sleep and mood. Social factors may be involved.
Background This study examined how ethnic differences in sleep and depression were related to environmental illumination and circadian rhythms. Methods In an ancillary study to the Women's Health Initiative, 459 postmenopausal women were recorded for one week in their homes, using wrist monitors. Sleep and illumination experience were estimated. Depression was self-rated with a brief adjective check list. Affective diagnoses were made using the SCID interview. Sleep disordered breathing was monitored with home pulse oximetry. Results Hispanic and African-American women slept less than European-American women, according to both objective recordings and their own sleep logs. Non-European-American women had more blood oxygen desaturations during sleep, which accounted for 26% of sleep duration variance associated with ethnicity. Hispanic women were much more depressed. Hispanic, African-American and Native-American women experienced less daily illumination. Less daily illumination experience was associated with poorer global functioning, longer but more disturbed sleep, and more depression. Conclusions Curtailed sleep and poor mood were related to ethnicity. Sleep disordered breathing was a factor in the curtailed sleep of minority women. Less illumination was experienced by non-European-American women, but illumination accounted for little of the contrasts between ethnic groups in sleep and mood. Social factors may be involved. PMID:15070419
Kripke, Daniel F; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Elliott, Jeffrey A; Klauber, Melville R; Rex, Katharine M; Tuunainen, Arja; Langer, Robert D
... postpartum depression? • When does postpartum depression occur? • What causes postpartum depression? • If I think I have postpartum depression, when ... College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists f AQ What causes postpartum depression? Postpartum depression probably is caused by a combination ...
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of depressive symptoms in the third trimester of pregnancy and at 3 months postpartum and to prospectively identify risk factors associated with elevated depressive symptoms during pregnancy and with postpartum onset. About 364 women attending antenatal clinics or at the time of their ultrasound were recruited and completed questionnaires in pregnancy and 226 returned their questionnaires at 3 months postpartum. Depressed mood was assessed by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS; score of???10). The rate of depressed mood during pregnancy was 28.3% and 16.4% at 3 months postpartum. Among women with postpartum depressed mood, 6.6% were new postpartum cases. In the present study, belonging to a non-Caucasian ethnic group, a history of emotional problems (e.g. anxiety and depression) or of sexual abuse, comorbid anxiety, higher anxiety sensitivity and having experienced stressful events were associated with elevated depressed mood during pregnancy. Four risk factors emerged as predictors of new onset elevated depressed mood at 3 months postpartum: higher depressive symptomatology during pregnancy, a history of emotional problems, lower social support during pregnancy and a delivery that was more difficult than expected. The importance of identifying women at risk of depressed mood early in pregnancy and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:25123985
Verreault, Nancy; Da Costa, Deborah; Marchand, André; Ireland, Kierla; Dritsa, Maria; Khalifé, Samir
... behavior or mood change. In people who have Spina Bifida and shunted hydrocephalus, this is especially important because ... are at high risk of depression: people with Spina Bifida and hydrocephalus, chronic pain sufferers, women, especially those ...
Despite the high prevalence of depression and hypertension, the relationship between the two diseases has received little attention. This paper reviews the epidemiological, pathophysiological, and prognostic aspects of this association, as well as its implications for treatment. A Medline search was conducted using the following key words: depression, blood pressure, blood pressure variability, physical morbidity, hypertension, mood, stress, hypertension, antidepressive agents, and genetics, from 1980 to 2004. We found descriptions of increased prevalence of hypertension in depressed patients, increased prevalence of depression in hypertensive patients, association between depressive symptomatology and hypotension, and alteration of the circadian variation of blood pressure in depressed patients. There is considerable evidence suggesting that hyperreactivity of the sympathetic nervous system and genetic influences are the underlying mechanisms in the relationship between depression and hypertension. Depression can negatively affect the course of hypertensive illness. Additionally, the use of antidepressive agents can interfere with blood pressure control of patients with hypertension by inducing changes in blood pressure and orthostatic hypotension. PMID:15962086
Scalco, Andréia Zavaloni; Scalco, Mônica Zavaloni; Azul, João Batista Serro; Lotufo Neto, Francisco
It has been suggested that being an "evening type" might enhance susceptibility to non-seasonal and seasonal affective disorders (SAD). In a survey and a prospective study, we examine the relationship between mood seasonality and circadian typology. In the survey study, the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) and the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ) were administered to 1715 university students from Spain and Italy. In the prospective study, 18 subjects, selected from the Italian sample, self-assessed their mood monthly for over a year. A slight but significant negative correlation between the MEQ score and the Global Seasonality Score was found in the survey study, with a significantly higher incidence of evening versus morning types among the students with seasonal depression. These results were not replicated when the Spanish sample was analysed separately. In the prospective study, evening types did not present a higher annual range of mood variations than morning types. Caution should be exercised in ascribing eveningness as a risk factor in SAD since other underestimated factors, including social-cultural conditions, might be involved in the pathogenesis of mood seasonality. PMID:16023219
Natale, Vincenzo; Adan, Ana; Scapellato, Paolo
Full Text Available Irene Hegeman Richard1, Kori A LaDonna1, Rosanne Hartman2, Carol Podgorski1, Roger Kurlan1, SAD-PD Study Group31University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY, USA; 2Canisius College, Buffalo, NY, USA; 3Please see Appendix for members of the SAD-PD Study GroupAbstract: We report results of a survey assessing patients’ knowledge about and attitudes towards depression in Parkinson’s disease (PD. 345 patients from 8 tertiary care centers responded (43% response rate. Overall, patients were relatively knowledgeable about depression and its occurrence in PD. However, many patients believed that depression is a normal reaction to the illness. While many respondents would be reluctant to initiate a discussion of depression during a clinical evaluation, most would feel comfortable talking about depression with their physician if he or she asked them questions about their mood. Based on the results of this survey, we recommend the following approach for physicians: (1 inform PD patients that, although a frequent occurrence, depression need not be accepted as a “normal reaction” to PD; and (2 routinely inquire about depressive symptoms rather than waiting for the patient to spontaneously report them.Keywords: depression, Parkinson’s disease, survey
Irene Hegeman Richard
Mood is widely assessed in nutrition research, usually with rating scales. A core assumption is that positive mood reinforces ingestion, so it is important to measure mood well. Four relevant theoretical issues are reviewed: (i) the distinction between protracted and transient mood; (ii) the distinction between mood and emotion; (iii) the phenomenology of mood as an unstable tint to consciousness rather than a distinct state of consciousness; (iv) moods can be caused by social and cognitive processes as well as physiological ones. Consequently, mood is difficult to measure and mood rating is easily influenced by non-nutritive aspects of feeding, the psychological, social and physical environment where feeding occurs, and the nature of the rating system employed. Some of the difficulties are illustrated by reviewing experiments looking at the impact of food on mood. The mood-rating systems in common use in nutrition research are then reviewed, the requirements of a better mood-rating system are described, and guidelines are provided for a considered choice of mood-rating system including that assessment should: have two main dimensions; be brief; balance simplicity and comprehensiveness; be easy to use repeatedly. Also mood should be assessed only under conditions where cognitive biases have been considered and controlled. PMID:25472005
Hammersley, Richard; Reid, Marie; Atkin, Stephen L
Assessing Latina/o Undergraduates' Depressive Symptomatology: Comparisons of the Beck Depression Inventory-II, the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale, and the Self-Report Depression Scale
The use of depression scales as screening tools at university and college centers is increasing and thus, the question of whether scales are culturally valid for different student groups is increasingly more relevant with increased severity of depression for students and changing student demographics. As such, this study examined the reliability…
Gloria, Alberta M.; Castellanos, Jeanett; Kanagui-Munoz, Marlen; Rico, Melissa A.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Depressive and anxiety symptoms often co-occur resulting in a debate about common and distinct features of depression and anxiety. Methods An exploratory factor analysis (EFA and a bifactor modelling approach were used to separate a general distress continuum from more specific sub-domains of depression and anxiety in an adolescent community sample (n = 1159, age 14. The Mood and Feelings Questionnaire and the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale were used. Results A three-factor confirmatory factor analysis is reported which identified a mood and social-cognitive symptoms of depression, b worrying symptoms, and c somatic and information-processing symptoms as distinct yet closely related constructs. Subsequent bifactor modelling supported a general distress factor which accounted for the communality of the depression and anxiety items. Specific factors for hopelessness-suicidal thoughts and restlessness-fatigue indicated distinct psychopathological constructs which account for unique information over and above the general distress factor. The general distress factor and the hopelessness-suicidal factor were more severe in females but the restlessness-fatigue factor worse in males. Measurement precision of the general distress factor was higher and spanned a wider range of the population than any of the three first-order factors. Conclusions The general distress factor provides the most reliable target for epidemiological analysis but specific factors may help to refine valid phenotype dimensions for aetiological research and assist in prognostic modelling of future psychiatric episodes.
Full Text Available Introduction: One of the main aims of religions is to improve psychological health in society and interpersonal relationships. It has been shown that religious education can be used in primary and secondary prevention of psychiatric disorders. Material and Methods: The samples of study were the teachers of guidance schools of the capital city of Tehran. The samples were 40 depressed female teachers that were chosen randomly among the 30-40 year old teachers who were not using any drugs. Data gathering tool was a questionnaire containing Hamilton test with 24 questions about mood disorders (including depression. Another questionnaire including demographic characteristics and questions regarding change of mood after attending religious education classes was also used. Results: The results showed that 90% of the subjects were satisfied with religious methods such as prayer, fasting and blessing for decreasing their depression; 92.5% were satisfied with regular education of religious values. A total of 80% of the samples believed that training by a particular teacher would influence their interest in the religious values; 55% reported calmness after praying. There was a significant differences between the mean score of depression before and after attending religious education classes (p=0.000. Conclusion: According to the findings of this research, education of the religious values can affect anxiety, sadness, hopelessness, sleeplessness and lack of appetite and depression. Performing religious acts such as prayers causes a type of relaxation and good feeling in the patients.
Objective: Expectancies about nicotine's ability to alleviate negative mood states may play a role in the relationship between smoking and depression. The authors examined the role of negative affect regulation expectancies as a potential mediator of depression (history of depression and depressive symptoms) and smoking among college students.…
Schleicher, Holly E.; Harris, Kari Jo; Catley, Delwyn; Nazir, Niaman
This study examined predictive relations between 9 therapist behaviors and client involvement in manual-guided, cognitive-behavioral therapy for adolescent depression. Analyses included 42 adolescents who met criteria for a depressive disorder (major depressive disorder, dysthymic disorder, or adjustment disorder with depressed mood) and who were…
Jungbluth, Nathaniel J.; Shirk, Stephen R.
The effects of musically-induced positive and anxious mood on explicit alcohol-related cognitions (alcohol expectancy strength) in 47 undergraduate students who consume alcohol either to enhance positive mood states (for enhancement motives) or to cope with anxiety (for anxiety-related coping motives) were investigated. Pre- and post-mood induction, participants completed the emotional reward and emotional relief subscales of the Alcohol Craving Questionnaire - Now. The hypothesis that anxiety-related coping motivated drinkers in the anxious mood condition (but not those in the positive mood condition) would exhibit increases in strength of explicit emotional relief alcohol expectancies after the mood induction was supported. An additional, unanticipated finding was that enhancement-motivated drinkers in the anxious condition also showed significant increases in strength of explicit emotional relief (but not emotional reward) alcohol expectancies. The hypothesis that enhancement-motivated (but not anxiety-related coping motivated) participants would exhibit increases in explicit emotional reward expectancies following exposure to the positive mood induction procedure was not supported. Taken together with past research findings, the current results highlight the importance of distinguishing between subtypes of negative affect (i.e., anxious and depressed affect) in exploring the affective antecedents of explicit alcohol outcome expectancies. PMID:17530496
Grant, Valerie V; Stewart, Sherry H
Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) screening for recurrence of a coiled intracranial aneurysm and formation of new aneurysms long-term after coiling may induce anxiety and depression. In coiled patients, we evaluated effects on mood and level of anxiety from long-term follow-up MRA in comparison to general population norms. Of 162 patients participating in a long-term (>4.5 years) MRA follow-up after coiling, 120 completed the EQ-5D questionnaire, a visual analog health scale and a self-developed screening related questionnaire at the time of MRA. Three months later, the same questionnaires were completed by 100 of these 120 patients. Results were compared to general population norms adjusted for gender and age. Any problem with anxiety or depression was reported in 56 of 120 patients (47%; 95%CI38<->56%) at baseline and 42 of 100 patients (42%; 95%CI32<->52%) at 3 months, equally for screen-positives and -negatives. Compared to the reference population, participants scored 38% (95%CI9<->67%) and 27% (95%CI4<->50%) more often any problem with anxiety or depression. Three months after screening, 21% (20 of 92) of screen-negatives and 13% (one of eight) of screen-positives reported to be less afraid of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) compared to before screening. One of eight screen-positives reported increased fear of SAH. Patients with coiled intracranial aneurysms participating in long-term MRA screening reported significantly more often to be anxious or depressed than a reference group. Screening did not significantly increase anxiety or depression temporarily. However, subjectively, patients did report an increase in anxiety caused by screening, which decreased after 3 months. (orig.)
Ferns, Sandra P.; Nieuwkerk, Pythia T.; Majoie, Charles B.L.M. [Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rooij, Willem Jan J. van [St. Elisabeth Ziekenhuis, Department of Radiology, Tilburg (Netherlands); Rinkel, Gabriel J.E. [University Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience, Utrecht (Netherlands)
Bipolar disorder is frequently encountered in primary care settings, often in the form of poor response to treatment for depression. Although lifetime prevalence of bipolar I disorder is 1%, the prevalence of bipolar spectrum disorders (e.g., bipolar I, bipolar II, and cyclothymia) is much higher, especially among patients with depression. The consequences of misdiagnosis can be devastating. One way to improve recognition of bipolar spectrum disorders is to screen for them. The Mood Disorder ...
Hirschfeld, Robert M. A.
Examined prevalence and correlates of self-reported memory problems among 1,250 black elders. Over 48.3% of sample reported poor memory/forgetfulness as very or somewhat serious problem. Subjects with hearing impairments, higher number of stressful life events, higher level of depression, and poorer health were more likely to complain of memory…
Bazargan, Mohsen; Barbre, Ann R.
INTRODUCTION In the latest edition of our series of neuroanatomical areas of importance for neuropsychiatry, Wayne Drevets, MD, and Jonathan Savitz, PhD, have outlined the clinical importance of the ventral anterior cingulate structures for the regulation of mood. This area was an early target for interventional neurosurgery for depression some half a century ago, and today has become one of the key sites of deep brain stimulation for affective disorders. The anterior cingulate cortex was a part of the initial circuit of Papez thought to be related to the regulation of emotion. However, since then, much experimental work has outlined different cingulate regions with differing anatomical connectivity and functions. Drevets and Savitz draw attention to the subgenual area and describe the local and distant anatomical connectivities that emphasize its relevance for several neuropsychiatric disorders. ABSTRACT The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) ventral to the genu of the corpus callosum has been implicated in the modulation of emotional behavior on the basis of neuroimaging studies in humans and lesion analyses in experimental animals. In a combined positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging study of mood disorders, we demonstrated that the mean gray matter volume of this “subgenual” ACC (sgACC) cortex is abnormally reduced in subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder, irrespective of mood state. Neuropathological assessments of sgACC tissue acquired postmortem from subjects with MDD or bipolar disorder confirmed the decrement in gray matter volume, and revealed that this abnormality was associated with a reduction in glia, with no equivalent loss of neurons. In positron emission tomography studies, the metabolic activity was elevated in this region in the depressed relative to the remitted phases of the same MDD subjects, and effective antidepressant treatment was associated with a reduction in sgACC activity. Other laboratories replicated and extended these findings, and the clinical importance of this treatment effect was underscored by a study showing that deep brain stimulation of the sgACC ameliorates depressive symptoms in treatment-resistant MDD. This article discusses the functional significance of these findings within the context of the preclinical literature that implicates the putative homologue of this region in the regulation of emotional behavior and stress response. In experimental animals, this region participates in an extended “visceromotor network” of structures that modulates autonomic/neuroendocrine responses and neurotransmitter transmission during the neural processing of reward, fear, and stress. These data thus hold important implications for the development of neural models of depression that can account for the abnormal motivational, neuroendocrine, autonomic, and emotional manifestations evident in human mood disorders. PMID:18704022
Drevets, Wayne C.; Savitz, Jonathan; Trimble, Michael
Living with another addict, being unemployed, and having previously attempted drug abuse treatment related positively to the combined estimate of depression. Mean scores indicated that the sample was mildly depressed. (Author)
Steer, Robert A.; And Others
We test the effect of players' moods on their behavior in a gift-exchange game.In the first stage of the game, player 1 chooses a transfer to player 2.In the second stage, player 2 chooses an effort level.Higher effort is more costly for player 2, but it increases player 1's payoff.We say that player 2 reciprocates if effort is increasing in the transfer received.Player 2 is generous if an effort is incurred even when no transfer is received.Subjects play this game in two different moods.To i...
Kirchsteiger, G.; Rigotti, L.; Rustichini, A.
Mood disturbances are frequent in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), even in non-disabled patients and in the remitting stages of the disease. It is still largely unknown how the pathophysiological process on MS causes anxiety and depression, but the dopaminergic system is likely involved. Aim of the present study was to investigate depressive-like behavior in mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model of MS, and its possible link to dopaminergic neurotransmission. Behavioral, amperometric and biochemical experiments were performed to determine the role of inflammation in mood control in EAE. First, we assessed the independence of mood alterations from motor disability during the acute phase of the disease, by showing a depressive-like behavior in EAE mice with mild clinical score and preserved motor skills (mild-EAE). Second, we linked such behavioral changes to the selective increased striatal expression of interleukin-1beta (IL-1?) in a context of mild inflammation and to dopaminergic system alterations. Indeed, in the striatum of EAE mice, we observed an impairment of dopamine (DA) neurotransmission, since DA release was reduced and signaling through DA D1- and D2-like receptors was unbalanced. In conclusion, the present study provides first evidence of the link between the depressive-like behavior and the alteration of dopaminergic system in EAE mice, raising the possibility that IL-1? driven dysfunction of dopaminergic signaling might play a role in mood disturbances also in MS patients. PMID:25511803
Gentile, Antonietta; Fresegna, Diego; Federici, Mauro; Musella, Alessandra; Rizzo, Francesca Romana; Sepman, Helena; Bullitta, Silvia; De Vito, Francesca; Haji, Nabila; Rossi, Silvia; Mercuri, Nicola B; Usiello, Alessandro; Mandolesi, Georgia; Centonze, Diego
Rumination to negative affect has been linked to the onset and maintenance of mood disorders in adults as well as children. Responses to positive affect have received far less attention thus far. A few recent studies in adults suggest that responses to positive affect are involved in the development of both depressive and hypomanic symptoms, but…
Bijttebier, Patricia; Raes, Filip; Vasey, Michael W.; Feldman, Gregory C.
Full Text Available Obesity markedly increases the odds of developing depression. Depressed mood not only impairs motivation, quality of life and overall functioning but also increases the risks of obesity complications. Abdominal obesity is a better predictor of depression and anxiety risk than overall adipose mass. A growing amount of research suggests that metabolic abnormalities stemming from central obesity that lead to metabolic disease may also responsible for the increased incidence of depression in obesity. As reviewed here, a higher mass of dysfunctional adipose tissue is associated with several metabolic disturbances that are either directly or indirectly implicated in the control of emotions and mood. To better comprehend the development of depression in obesity, this review pulls together select findings addressing the link between adiposity, diet and negative emotional states and discusses the evidence that alterations in glucocorticoids, adipose-derived hormones and inflammatory signalling that are characteristic of central obesity may be involved.
Metabolic encephalopathy is an acute disturbance in cellular metabolism in the brain evoked by conditions of hypoxia, hypoglycaemia, oxidative stress and/or inflammation. It usually develops acutely or subacutely and is reversible if the systemic disorder is treated. If left untreated, however, metabolic encephalopathy may result in secondary structural damage to the brain. Most encephalopathies are present with neuropsychiatric symptoms, one in particular being depression. However, mood disorders are often co-morbid with cardiovascular, liver, kidney and endocrine disorders, while increasing evidence concurs that depression involves inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes. This would suggest that metabolic disturbances resembling encephalopathy may underscore the basic neuropathology of depression at a far deeper level than currently realized. Viewing depression as a form of encephalopathy, and exploiting knowledge gleaned from our understanding of the neurochemistry and treatment of metabolic encephalopathy, may assist in our understanding of the neurobiology of depression, but also in realizing new ideas in the pharmacotherapy of mood disorders. PMID:18435513
Harvey, Brian H
This paper presents the methods for mining the music, based on mood dimension. Mood is an emerging metadata type and access point in music digital libraries (MDL) and online music repositories.There is a growing interest in developing and evaluating Music Information Retrieval (MIR) systems that can provide automated access to the mood dimension of music. Music is nice thing to all. Mood as a music access feature that is not well understood as well as not standardized. To better understanding...
Rajesh, D.; Karpagalakshmi R. C.
Full Text Available This paper presents the methods for mining the music, based on mood dimension. Mood is an emerging metadata type and access point in music digital libraries (MDL and online music repositories.There is a growing interest in developing and evaluating Music Information Retrieval (MIR systems that can provide automated access to the mood dimension of music. Music is nice thing to all. Mood as a music access feature that is not well understood as well as not standardized. To better understanding we develop method to evaluate automated mood access techniques. This paper explore the relationships that mood has with genre, artist and usage metadata. There is an important consistency within the genre-mood and artist-mood relationships. These consistencies lead to us to develop a cluster based approach by creating a relatively small set of data derived. The emotional component of music has been recognized as the most important factor. Music information behavior studies have also identified music mood as an important criterion used by people in music. Music evokes various human emotions or creates music moods through low level musical features. In fact, typical music consists of one or more moods and this can be used as an important factor for determining the similarity between music. In this paper, we propose a new music retrieval scheme based on the mood change pattern.
5. nov.-st Tallinna Kunstihoones näitus "Look at me", Suurbritannia mood ja fotograafia 1960ndatest tänapäevani. Kuraatorid Val Willams, Brett Rogers. Osalejaid. 6. XI samas eesti moekunstnike britiaineline moeshow. Osalevad Anu Lensment, Eve Hanson, Marit Ahven, Jaanus Vahtra, Marju Tammik, Anu Samarüütel
This study evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of lisdexamfetamine (LDX) in the treatment of bipolar depression. Twenty-five outpatients with bipolar I or II disorder and syndromal depression despite at least 4 weeks of stable mood stabilizer and/or antipsychotic therapy were randomized to receive LDX (N=11) or placebo (N=14) in an 8-week, prospective, parallel-group, double-blind study. In the primary longitudinal analysis, LDX and placebo produced similar rates of improvement in depressive symptoms as assessed by the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Scale. However, LDX was associated with a statistically significantly greater rate of improvement in self-reported depressive symptoms and daytime sleepiness, and with greater reductions in fasting levels of low-density lipoprotein and total cholesterol. In the secondary baseline-to-endpoint analysis, LDX was associated with statistically significant improvements in self-reported measures of depression, daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and binge eating, as well as with improvements in fasting levels of triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein and total cholesterol. LDX was well tolerated and was not associated with any serious adverse events, but there was one case of suspected misuse. The small sample size (because of premature study termination by the funding sponsor) may have limited the detection of important drug-placebo differences. Larger studies on the use of psychostimulants for treatment of bipolar depression seem warranted. PMID:25340384
McElroy, Susan L; Martens, Brian E; Mori, Nicole; Blom, Thomas J; Casuto, Leah S; Hawkins, John M; Keck, Paul E
A depressogenic attributional style, i.e., internal, stable and global causal interpretations of negative events, is a stable vulnerability factor for depression. Current measures of pessimistic attributional style can be time-consuming to complete, and some are designed for specific use with student populations. We developed and validated a new short questionnaire suitable for the measurement of depressogenic attributions in clinical settings, the Depressive Attributions Questionnaire (DAQ). The 16-item DAQ, and measures of depression and related cognitive concepts were completed by three samples of depressed patients and matched controls, or depressed and non-depressed participants who had been exposed to a recent uncontrollable stressful life event (total N?=?375). The DAQ had high (i) internal reliability, (ii) test-retest reliability, (iii) convergent, discriminant and construct validity. It predicted a diagnosis of major depression at 6 months after an uncontrollable stressor, over and above what could be predicted from initial depression severity. Depressed patients rated the scale as acceptable. The DAQ may be a useful short measure of depressogenic attributions, which is easy to administer, and predicts concurrent and future depression. It has possible applications as a screening measure for risk of depression, or as a treatment process measure. PMID:21909186
Kleim, Birgit; Gonzalo, Désirée; Ehlers, Anke
Objective: Early life experiences are associated with severe and long-lasting effects on behavioural and emotional functioning, which in turn are thought to increase the risk for unipolar depression and other disorders of affect regulation. The neurobiological and psychological mechanisms through which adverse early life experiences confer risk are poorly understood. Method: Alterations in brain structure and function in limbic and prefrontal cortical regions have been linked to early negative experiences and to mood disorders. Results: There are a number of psychological domains that may be dysfunctional in people with mood disorders, and which, if the dysfunction occurs prior to onset of mood symptoms, may signify a risk factor for depression. Cognitive dysfunction has been examined in patients with mood disorders, with some suggestion that changes in cognitive function may antedate the onset of mood symptoms, and may be exacerbated in those who experienced early negative trauma. Social cognition, including emotion comprehension, theory of mind and empathy, represent under-studied domains of psychological function that may be negatively influenced by early adverse experience. Temperament and personality factors may also leave people vulnerable to mood instability. Conclusion: This review summarizes the evidence for dysfunction in each of these domains for people with mood disorders. PMID:22114609
Hassel, Stefanie; McKinnon, Margaret C.; Cusi, Andrée M.; MacQueen, Glenda M.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Avaliar as relações entre o uso agudo e crônico de cannabis e alterações do humor. MÉTODO: Os artigos foram selecionados por meio de busca eletrônica no indexador PubMed. Capítulos de livros e as listas de referências dos artigos selecionados também foram revisados. RESULTADOS: Observam-se [...] elevados índices de comorbidade entre abuso/dependência de cannabis e transtornos afetivos em estudos transversais e em amostras clínicas. Estudos longitudinais indicam que, em longo prazo, o uso mais intenso de cannabis está relacionado com um risco maior de desenvolvimento de doença bipolar e, talvez, depressão maior em indivíduos inicialmente sem quadros afetivos; porém, os mesmos não encontraram maior risco de uso de cannabis entre aqueles com mania ou depressão sem esta comorbidade. Outra importante observação é que o uso de substâncias psicoativas em bipolares pode estar associado a uma série de características negativas, como dificuldade na recuperação dos sintomas afetivos, maior número de internações, piora na adesão ao tratamento, risco aumentado de suicídio, agressividade e a uma pobre resposta ao lítio. Tratamentos psicossociais e farmacológicos são indicados para o manejo da comorbidade entre cannabis e transtornos afetivos. CONCLUSÃO: As relações entre o uso de cannabis e alterações do humor são observadas tanto epidemiologicamente quanto nos contextos clínicos. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the relationship between acute and chronic use of cannabis and mood changes. METHOD: Articles were selected by electronic search in PubMed. Chapters in books and reference lists of selected articles were also reviewed. As the research did not involve humans, there was no evaluati [...] on by a Research Ethics Committee. RESULTS: High rates of comorbidity between use/abuse/dependence of cannabis and affective disorders in longitudinal studies and in clinical samples were observed. Longitudinal studies indicate that, in long-term, the higher use of cannabis is associated with an increased risk of developing bipolar disorder, and probably, major depression in subjects initially without affective disorder, but was not found increased risk of cannabis use among those initially only with mania or depression. Another important observation is that substance abuse in bipolar patients may be associated with a number of negative characteristics, such as difficulty in recovering the affective symptoms, more hospitalizations, poor compliance with treatment, increased risk of suicide, aggression and a poor response to lithium. Psychosocial and pharmacological treatments are indicated for the management of comorbidity between cannabis and affective disorders. CONCLUSION: The relationship between cannabis use and mood changes are observed both in the epidemiological research and in the clinical settings.
Rafael Faria, Sanches; João Mazzoncini de Azevedo, Marques.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has shown that family interactions are associated with depressive symptoms in children. However, detailed classifications of family interaction types have not been studied thoroughly. This study aims to understand the types of family interactions children experience and to identify the specific types of family interactions that are associated with a higher risk of depressive symptoms in children. Methods Data used in the study was collected as part of the Child and Adolescent Behavior in Long term Evolution (CABLE project in 2003. CABLE is a longitudinal cohort study that commenced in 2001 and collects data annually from children in Taipei city and Hsinchu county in northern Taiwan. The data analyzed in this study was that obtained from the sixth graders (aged 11 to 12 years old in 2003. Of the 2,449 sixth graders, 51.2% were boys and 48.8% were girls. Factor analysis and cluster analysis were used to investigate the types of family interactions. One way ANOVA was used to establish the relationship between family interaction types and children's self-reports of depressive symptoms. Results Based on the results of factor analysis, the latent factors for family interactions included supporting activities, psychological control, parental discipline, behavioral supervision, and family conflict. After conducting cluster analysis using factor scores, four types of family interactions were revealed: supervised (29.66%, disciplined (13.56%, nurtured (40.96% and conflict (15.82%. Children from the disciplined or conflict families were more likely to report depressive symptoms. Children from the nurtured families were least likely to report depressive symptoms. Conclusion Family interactions can be classified into four different types, which are related to children's self-reports of depressive symptoms. The creation of a family interaction environment that is beneficial for children's mental health is an important issue for health education and health promotion professionals.
Full Text Available The management of psychiatric disturbances during pregnancy, particularly depression and bipolar disorders, is complex. This article reviews the existing data regarding the impact of an untreated psychiatric illness on the infant's development. In addition, the potential risks to the fetus due to prenatal exposure to different psychotropic agents, including antidepressants, mood stabilizers, antipsychotics, and benzodiazepines, are summarized. Moreover, this article emphasizes that no decision is risk-free, and the ultimate goal is to reduce the exposure to both the illness and the potential teratogenic effects of the treatment. Therefore, clinicians should seek a treatment strategy, which poses the least risk for both mother and infant.
Soares Claudio N
Full Text Available En el presente artículo se presenta el caso de un paciente con depresión mayor, asociado a hipotiroidismo y uso crónico de corticoides. Se comentan las dificultades diagnósticas y posteriormente se revisa la relación entre las alteraciones tiroideas y la presencia de cuadros afectivos.The following article illustrates the case of a patient with major depression associated with hypothyroidism and chronic use of corticosteroids. Brief commentaries about the diagnostic difficulties seen in these types of patients will be made throughout this article making emphasis on the relationship between thyroid dysfunction and mood disorders.
Lina Ortiz Pérez
Intuitively, good and bad outcomes affect our emotional state, but whether the emotional state feeds back onto the perception of outcomes remains unknown. Here, we use behaviour and functional neuroimaging of human participants to investigate this bidirectional interaction, by comparing the evaluation of slot machines played before and after an emotion-impacting wheel-of-fortune draw. Results indicate that self-reported mood instability is associated with a positive-feedback effect of emotional state on the perception of outcomes. We then use theoretical simulations to demonstrate that such positive feedback would result in mood destabilization. Taken together, our results suggest that the interaction between emotional state and learning may play a significant role in the emergence of mood instability. PMID:25608088
Eldar, Eran; Niv, Yael
In this study we examined the association of optimism and depressive symptoms with self-reported physical symptoms in 241 low-income, inner-city African American women with or without a chronic illness (HIV). Although optimism was not a unique predictor of self-reported physical symptoms over and above depressive symptoms, optimism interacted with…
Jones, Deborah J.; O'Connell, Cara; Gound, Mary; Heller, Laurie; Forehand, Rex
Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to give useful information to guide clinicians when treating pregnant women affected by bipolar disorder. This review focuses on mood stabilizers including lithium, sodium valproate, carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, gabapentin, lamotrigine and topiramate. Data have been extracted from a MEDLINE search. Data from prospective, retrospective and case-control studies as well as systematic reviews, meta-analysis and data from Pregnancy Registry were included. Major congenital malformations as well as specific malformations were reported for each drug. Preliminary findings seem to identify lamotrigine as one of the safest antiepileptic drugs to be used in pregnancy. Teratogenity risk of topiramate is still largely unknown and there are not enough studies to draw even preliminary conclusions. Preliminary studies failed to report an increased risk for major congenital malformations among gabapentin or oxcarbazepine exposed pregnancies. Even if raising less concern when compared to valproate, carbamazepine should be avoided for its documented teratogenity risk. Valproate seems to be the worst considering major congenital malformations, specific malformations as well as its detrimental effects on neurodevelopment. On the other hand, lithium might be considered a good option when treating pregnant women affected by bipolar disorder. Given the limited research on mood stabilizers in pregnancy, clinicians need to be very careful when treating child bearing age women. Clinicians have to balance the potential teratogenity risk against that of untreated mental illness considering individual circumstances such as severity of illness and risk of relapse.
Full Text Available
Purpose:This study was designed to compare the effects of two different relaxation techniques, namely progressive muscle relaxation (PMR and autogenic relaxation (AGR on moods of young soccer players.
Methods:Sixteen adolescent athletes (mean age: 14.1 ? 1.3 received either PMR or AGR training. Using Profile of Mood States-Adolescents, their mood states were measured one week before relaxation training, before the first relaxation session, and after the twelfth relaxation session.
Results:Mixed ANOVA revealed no significant interaction effects and no significant main effects in any of the subscales. However, significant main effects for testing sessions were found for confusion, depression, fatigue, and tension subscales. Post hoc tests revealed post-intervention reductions in the confusion, depression, fatigue, and tension subscale scores.
Conclusions:These two relaxation techniques induce equivalent mood responses and may be used to regulate young soccer players' mood states.
Hazwani Hanafi@Ahmad Yusof
This study examined the extent to which postsecondary students endorse symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and whether experienced level of stress, depression, or anxiety are associated with higher reporting of ADHD symptoms. Students attending a combined health and counseling service completed the Conners Adult ADHD Rating…
Harrison, Allyson G.; Alexander, Sandra J.; Armstrong, Irene T.
Depression is a serious psychiatric condition affecting millions of patients worldwide. Unipolar depression is characterized by low mood, anhedonia, social withdrawal and other severely debilitating psychiatric symptoms. Bipolar disorder manifests in alternating depressed mood and 'hyperactive' manic/hypomanic states. Animal experimental models are an invaluable tool for research into the pathogenesis of bipolar/unipolar depression, and for the development of potential treatments. Due to their high throughput value, genetic tractability, low cost and quick reproductive cycle, zebrafish (Danio rerio) have emerged as a promising new model species for studying brain disorders. Here, we discuss the developing utility of zebrafish for studying depression disorders, and outline future areas of research in this field. We argue that zebrafish represent a useful model organism for studying depression and its behavioral, genetic and physiological mechanisms, as well as for anti-depressant drug discovery. PMID:24657522
Nguyen, Michael; Stewart, Adam Michael; Kalueff, Allan V
We report four cases of patients with clinically isolated apathy which was mistaken for depression even though they were suffering from voluminous brain tumors. These cases remind us that rigorous clinical analysis is essential: searching for signs of organic origin or psychiatric etiology is fundamental to avoid an incorrect diagnosis. In particular, these four patients displayed anosmia, an uncommon symptom for patients suffering from depression. In addition, brain imaging is important to correctly identify the most prudent medical and/or surgical management strategy. In this short discussion, we propose an algorithm for the clinical diagnosis of apathy. PMID:20434745
Cretin, B; Echaniz-Laguna, A; Meyer, C; Blanc, F; Sellal, F
In this article we examined evidence for the acute treatment of depression in bipolar I disorder, focusing on double-blind, placebo-controlled studies with a definite primary outcome measure and published in peer review journals. Quetiapine and olanzapine/fluoxetine are currently approved by the FDA for the treatment of bipolar depression and a number of additional agents (including other atypical antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, antidepressants, and novel compounds) have been studied with varying degrees of efficacy. The medication with the most evidence for efficacy in bipolar depression is quetiapine with five studies showing positive efficacy compared to placebo. In contrast five studies of lamotrigine were negative although meta-analyses of the pooled have found some treatment effects. Two studies of olanzapine and olanzapine/fluoxetine and three small studies of divalproex showed significant efficacy in treating bipolar depression. Two studies of aripiprazole found no differences compared to placebo. Early research on lithium in bipolar depression had significant methodological flaws and only one study of lithium met our primary search criteria. To better understand the role of anti-depressants we also examined studies of antidepressants as adjunctive treatment of bipolar depression in participants taking mood stabilizers or atypical antipsychotics. These studies reported mixed results for a variety of antidepressants but the majority found no differences compared to placebo. Other studies of adjunctive treatment were also discussed. There has been one positive adjunctive study each of lamotrigine, omega-3 fatty acids, modafinil, and Armodafinil while there was one negative trial each of omega-3 fatty acids, ziprasidone, and levetiracetam. PMID:23507138
Cerullo, Michael A.; Strakowski, Stephen M.
Depression is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) perhaps mediated by hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis or vagal dysregulation. We investigated circadian mood variation and HPA-axis and autonomic function in older (55 years) depressed and nondepressed volunteers at risk for CVD by assessing diurnal positive and negative affect (PA, NA), cortisol, and cardiopulmonary variables in 46 moderately depressed and 19 nondepressed volunteers with elevated CVD risk. Participants sat quietly for 5-min periods (10:00, 12:00, 14:00, 17:00, 19:00, and 21:00), and then completed an electronic diary assessing PA and NA. Traditional and respiration-controlled heart rate variability (HRV) variables were computed for these periods as an index of vagal activity. Salivary cortisols were collected at waking, waking+30min, 12:00, 17:00, and 21:00h. Cortisol peaked in the early morning after waking, and gradually declined over the day, but did not differ between groups. PA was lower and NA was higher in the depressed group throughout the day. HRV did not differ between groups. Negative emotions were inversely related to respiratory sinus arrhythmia in nondepressed participants. We conclude that moderately depressed patients do not show abnormal HPA-axis function. Diurnal PA and NA distinguish depressed from nondepressed individuals at risk for CVD, while measures of vagal regulation, even when controlled for physical activity and respiratory confounds, do not. Diurnal mood variations of older individuals at risk for CVD differ from those reported for other groups and daily fluctuations in NA are not related to cardiac autonomic control in depressed individuals. PMID:17884093
Conrad, Ansgar; Wilhelm, Frank H; Roth, Walton T; Spiegel, David; Taylor, C Barr
Full Text Available Abstract Background Comorbidity between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and mood disorders is common. Alterations of the cerebellum and frontal regions have been reported in neuro-imaging studies of ADHD and major depression. Methods Thirty chronically depressed adult females of whom 16 had scores below, and 14 scores above, cut-offs on the 25-items Wender Utah Retrospective Scale (WURS-25 and the Wender-Reimherr Adult Attention Deficit Disorder Scale (WRAADDS were divided into subgroups designated "Depression" and "Depression + ADHD", respectively. Twenty-one of the patients had some audiological symptom, tinnitus and/or hearing impairment. The patients were investigated with other rating scales and 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT. Controls for 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT were 16 healthy females. SPECT was analyzed by both statistical parametric mapping (SPM2 and the computerized brain atlas (CBA. Discriminant analysis was performed on the volumes of interest generated by the CBA, and on the scores from rating scales with the highest group differences. Results The mean score of a depression rating scale (MADRS-S was significantly lower in the "Depression" subgroup compared to in the "Depression + ADHD" subgroup. There was significantly decreased tracer uptake within the bilateral cerebellum at both SPM and CBA in the "Depression + ADHD" subgroup compared to in the controls. No decrease of cerebellar tracer uptake was observed in "Depression". Significantly increased tracer uptake was found at SPM within some bilateral frontal regions (Brodmann areas 8, 9, 10, 32 in the "Depression + ADHD" subgroup compared to in "Depression". An accuracy of 100% was obtained for the discrimination between the patient groups when thalamic uptake was used in the analysis along with scores from Socialization and Impulsivity scales. Conclusion The findings confirm the previous observation of a cerebellar involvement in ADHD. Higher bilateral frontal 99mTc-HMPAO uptake in "Depression + ADHD" compared to in "Depression" indicate a difference between these subgroups. 99mTc-HMPAO uptake mechanisms are discussed.
There is evidence that some antidepressant drugs are beneficial in the prophylaxis of migraine. Previous reports have shown that migraine patients may respond to various antidepressant agents used for prophylactic therapy. The main purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of antidepressants from 2 different groups (venlafaxine vs escitalopram) on people who had migraine headache without depression or anxiety. In this prospective study, we evaluated the headache diaries of 93 patients who were being treated with venlafaxine (n = 35) and escitalopram (n = 58). At the end of the 3-month period, patients were reassessed, and those with marked differences in attack frequency, duration, intensity (with visual analog scales), lost work-day equivalent index, and migraine disability assessment questionnaire were compared. There was a clear reduction in headache frequency (P migraine disability assessment group. According to our findings, venlafaxine and escitalopram are both effective in the prophylaxis of migraine headache without depression and anxiety. This effect was independent of mood disorder. Escitalopram should be the first choice because of its fewer side effects, but venlafaxine may be used if escitalopram is found to be insufficient. PMID:19667978
This report is based on a study of 12 cases of depression (8 endogenous, 4 neurotic) with a view to explore the possible association between urinary melatonin and the illness prior to and following treatment. While cases of endogenous depression had low 24 hour as well as nocturnal urinary melatonin levels, the neurotic depressives showed higher than normal levels. A rise in the 24 hour melatonin levels occurred in all cases of endogenous depression though this did not apply, to the nocturnal...
Rao, A. Venkoba; Devi, S. Parvathi; Srinivasan, V.
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a case of treatment-resistant depression in which the patient was evaluated for sleep disordered breathing as the cause and in which rapid palatal expansion to permanently treat the sleep disordered breathing produced a prolonged symptom-free period off medication. Case presentation An 18-year-old Caucasian man presented to our sleep disorders center with chronic severe depression that was no longer responsive to medication but that had recently responded to electroconvulsive therapy. Ancillary, persistent symptoms included mild insomnia, moderate to severe fatigue, mild sleepiness and severe anxiety treated with medication. Our patient had no history of snoring or witnessed apnea, but polysomnography was consistent with upper airway resistance syndrome. Although our patient did not have an orthodontic indication for rapid palatal expansion, rapid palatal expansion was performed as a treatment of his upper airway resistance syndrome. Following rapid palatal expansion, our patient experienced a marked improvement of his sleep quality, anxiety, fatigue and sleepiness. His improvement has been maintained off all psychotropic medication and his depression has remained in remission for approximately two years following his electroconvulsive therapy. Conclusions This case report introduces the possibility that unrecognized sleep disordered breathing may play a role in adolescent treatment-resistant depression. The symptoms of upper airway resistance syndrome are non-specific enough that every adolescent with depression, even those responding to medication, may have underlying sleep disordered breathing. In such patients, rapid palatal expansion, by widening the upper airway and improving airflow during sleep, may produce a prolonged improvement of symptoms and a tapering of medication. Psychiatrists treating adolescents may benefit from having another treatment option for treatment-resistant depression.
This paper demonstrates that heartbeat complex dynamics is modulated by different pathological mental states. Multiscale entropy analysis was performed on R-R interval series gathered from the electrocardiogram of eight bipolar patients who exhibited mood states among depression, hypomania, and euthymia, i.e., good affective balance. Three different methodologies for the choice of the sample entropy radius value were also compared. We show that the complexity level can be used as a marker of mental states being able to discriminate among the three pathological mood states, suggesting to use heartbeat complexity as a more objective clinical biomarker for mental disorders.
Valenza, G.; Nardelli, M.; Bertschy, G.; Lanata, A.; Scilingo, E. P.
Little research has been done on the use of antidepressants among homebound older adults, especially low-income homebound older adults, and their perceptions of the effectiveness of their medication. The purposes of this study were to examine self-reported use of antidepressants among depressed homebound older adults, class and type of antidepressants used, individual-level correlates of antidepressant use, and users’ perceptions of the effectiveness of antidepressants. Data on self-reporte...
Choi, Namkee G.; Bruce, Martha L.; Sirrianni, Leslie; Marinucci, Mary Lynn; Kunik, Mark E.
Full Text Available ... clinical studies on depression or bipolar disorder, please contact 1-877-MOODS-JH Dr. Potash: So, if I had a family member ... What is the key to assessing psychotic depression? Dr. Potash: One ... key is getting as much information as possible from the people who know the ...
Full Text Available ... focusses on the psychotic forms of depression and bipolar disorder, and the hypothesis that genes predisposing to these ... in genetic or clinical studies on depression or bipolar disorder, please contact 1-877-MOODS-JH Dr. Potash: ...
Objective: The purpose of the present study was to provide preliminary data extending earlier research on shame and guilt, examining their relationships both to symptoms of depression and to psychological maltreatment. Symptoms of depression were expected to correlate positively with shame, but not with guilt. Psychological maltreatment was also…
Webb, Marcia; Heisler, Dawn; Call, Steve; Chickering, Sarah A.; Colburn, Trina A.
This study examined the relationships between changes in physical activity and depressive symptoms in adolescent girls. Participants were 277 urban adolescent girls. Physical activity was measured using the 3-Day Physical Activity Recall and depressive symptoms were assessed using questionnaire. Data were collected on three occasions over a 3-year…
Raudsepp, Lennart; Neissaar, Inga
Comorbid diabetes and depression are a major clinical challenge as the outcomes of each condition are worsened by the other. This article is based on the presentations and discussions during an international meeting on diabetes and depression convened by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) in collaboration with the National Institute of Mental Health and the Dialogue on Diabetes and Depression. While the psychological burden of diabetes may contribute to depression in some cases, this explanation does not sufficiently explain the relationship between these two conditions. Shared biological and behavioral mechanisms, such as hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation, inflammation, autonomic dysfunction, sleep disturbance, inactive lifestyle, poor dietary habits, and environmental and cultural risk factors, are important to consider in understanding the link between depression and diabetes. Both individual psychological and pharmacological depression treatments are effective in people with diabetes, but the current range of treatment options is limited and has shown mixed effects on glycemic outcomes. More research is needed to understand what factors contribute to individual differences in vulnerability, treatment response, and resilience to depression and metabolic disorders across the life course and how best to provide care for people with comorbid diabetes and depression in different health care settings. Training programs are needed to create a cross-disciplinary workforce that can work in different models of care for comorbid conditions. PMID:25061135
Holt, Richard I G; de Groot, Mary; Lucki, Irwin; Hunter, Christine M; Sartorius, Norman; Golden, Sherita H
Jean-Pierre Lépine1, Mike Briley21Hôpital Lariboisière Fernand Widal, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris Unité INSERM 705 CNRS UMR 8206, Université Paris Diderot, Paris, France; 2NeuroBiz Consulting and Communication, Castres, FranceAbstract: Recent epidemiological surveys conducted in general populations have found that the lifetime prevalence of depression is in the range of 10% to 15%. Mood disorders, as defined by the Worl...
Amp Eacute Pine J-p, L.; Briley M
Depressive symptoms are very common among referrals to general hospital and comprise the most frequent cause for psychiatric consultation. Comorbidity of medical and psychiatric disorders are common among uneducated, unemployed people with low income. These conditions make it difficult to recognize and treat such patient group. The prevalence of medical disorders increase when there is a difficulty in reaching health services. The depressive mood may decrease the person’s willingness to acc...
Ozden Ar?soy; Mehmet Hamid Boztas
Depressive mood is a common accompaniment of schizophrenia. The present study was taken up with the aim to study the effect of imipramine on depressivse symptoms of schizophrenia. Eighteen patients of schizophrenia with depressive symptoms were studied under a double blind controlled design with a chlorpromazine-imipramine and a chlorpromazine-placebo group. Both the groups showed significant improvement (p< .001) after the 6 week trial and the addition of imipramine to chlorpromazine therapy...
Dua, Dinesh; Agarwal, A. K.; Dalal, P. K.
Mounting research shows that the tendency to co-ruminate with peers regarding ongoing problems increases adolescents' depression risk; however, the means by which this interpersonal process fosters risk has not been identified. This said, theorists have proposed that co-rumination increases depression risk, in part, by increasing one's tendency to ruminate when alone. We tested this hypothesis in a study of 201 high-school freshmen who completed two assessments, six months apart. Supporting the proposed model, co-rumination predicted prospective increases in rumination and rumination predicted increases in depressive symptoms. The direct effect of co-rumination on depressive symptom change was not significant. Results indicate that co-rumination with friends may serve to increase rumination, which in turn increases depression risk. PMID:25460674
Stone, Lindsey B; Gibb, Brandon E
The endocannabinoid (eCB) system regulates mood, emotion, and stress coping, and dysregulation of the eCB system is critically involved in pathophysiology of depression. The eCB ligand 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) is inactivated by monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL). Using chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUS) as a mouse model of depression, we examined how 2-AG signaling in the hippocampus was altered in depressive-like states and how this alteration contributed to depressive-like behavior. We report that CUS led to impairment of depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition (DSI) in mouse hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, and this deficiency in 2-AG-mediated retrograde synaptic depression was rescued by MAGL inhibitor JZL184. CUS induced depressive-like behaviors and decreased mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activation in the hippocampus, and these biochemical and behavioral abnormalities were ameliorated by chronic JZL184 treatments. The effects of JZL184 were mediated by cannabinoid CB1 receptors. Genetic deletion of mTOR with adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector carrying the Cre recombinase in the hippocampus of mTORf/f mice recapitulated depressive-like behaviors induced by CUS and abrogated the antidepressant-like effects of chronic JZL184 treatments. Our results suggest that CUS decreases eCB-mTOR signaling in the hippocampus, leading to depressive-like behaviors, whereas MAGL inhibitor JZL184 produces antidepressant-like effects through enhancement of eCB-mTOR signaling. PMID:24476943
Zhong, Peng; Wang, Wei; Pan, Bin; Liu, Xiaojie; Zhang, Zhen; Long, Jonathan Z; Zhang, Han-ting; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Liu, Qing-song
Full Text Available Abstract Background To date, there has been very little work investigating behaviour changes induced by interventions that are designed to increase help seeking. The present paper examines the effects of two Internet depression websites on help seeking. Methods 414 individuals with elevated scores on a depression assessment scale were randomly allocated to a depression information website, a cognitive-behavioural skills training website (CBT or an attention control condition. Reports of help seeking for specific treatments, from specific sources and for categories of treatments were assessed. Results Relative to the control, the depression information site was associated with decreases in seeking support from friends and family, the use of music and of everyday treatments and no increase in seeking evidence based interventions. The CBT site was associated with the report of help seeking for CBT, massage and exercise. Conclusion Methods to encourage the use of evidence-based treatments need further research to determine whether the assistance sought is evidence based and whether there are unintended effects.
Mackinnon Andrew J
The objectives of this study were to find out how motivated depressed patients are to exercise regularly, to measure the physical activity of depressed patients and to find out how regular Nordic Walking affects the mood and physical fitness of depressed patients. A cross-sectional study was carried out. Three years after the Prediction of Primary…
Suija, Kadri; Pechter, Ulle; Kalda, Ruth; Tahepold, Heli; Maaroos, Jaak; Maaroos, Heidi-Ingrid
The purpose is to examine the effects of melatonin supplementation on sleep, mood, and hot flashes in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 95 postmenopausal women with a prior history of stage 0-III breast cancer, who had completed active cancer treatment (including hormonal therapy) were randomly assigned 1:1 to either 3 mg oral melatonin (n = 48) or placebo daily (n = 47) for 4 months. Sleep, mood, and hot flashes were assessed at baseline and 4 months via self-administered questionnaire using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D), and the North Central Cancer Treatment Group (NCCTG) hot flash diary, respectively. Eighty-six women (91 %) completed the study and provided pre- and post-questionnaires. At baseline, 52 % of participants reported poor sleep in the month prior to enrollment. Compared to subjects on placebo, subjects randomized to melatonin experienced significantly greater improvements in subjective sleep quality as measured by the PSQI, including domains on sleep quality, daytime dysfunction and total score. For example, the mean change in PSQI score was -0.1 in the placebo group compared to -1.9 in the melatonin group (p Sleep disturbances are common among breast cancer survivors, even after completion of active cancer treatment. This is the first randomized placebo-controlled study among breast cancer survivors to demonstrate that melatonin was associated with an improvement in subjective sleep quality, without any significant adverse effects. PMID:24718775
Chen, Wendy Y; Giobbie-Hurder, Anita; Gantman, Kathryn; Savoie, Jennifer; Scheib, Rochelle; Parker, Leroy M; Schernhammer, Eva S
Nearly one million women each year have pregnancy complications that cause antepartum and postpartum anxiety and depression. This exploratory study determined 1) feasibility of using social media to recruit women with depressive symptoms following high risk pregnancy, 2) women's barriers to treatment, 3) use of online resources for assistance with PPD, and 4) preferences for internet treatment. Among a national sample of 53 women, nearly 70% had major depression. Common barriers were lack of time and stigma. Over 90% of women would use the internet to learn coping strategies for PPD. Women expressed interest in web-based PPD treatment and identified desired characteristics of an intervention. PMID:23540519
Maloni, Judith A; Przeworski, Amy; Damato, Elizabeth G
... a sign that you should seek treatment. What causes depression? What are the symptoms? Depression is caused by ... get depression. Medications for other illnesses may also cause, mimic or worsen depression. A period of at least two weeks during ...
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the factorial validity of the Brunel Mood Scale, which measures anger, confusion, depression, fatigue, tension, and vigor, for water-skiers. Participants were 345 water-skiers (age range 16 to 39 years, men: n=311, women: n=34) who completed the scale approximately 1 hour before a water-skiing competition. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated support for the validity of the 6-factor model, with a Comparative Fit Index of .90 and Root Mean Squared Error of Approximation of .07. Internal consistency coefficients were above the .70 criterion. It is suggested that the Brunel Mood Scale shows factorial validity for use with water-skiers and that researchers should continue to assess validation of the Brunel Mood Scale with other measures and with specific appropriate samples. PMID:14620257
Fazackerley, Richie; Lane, Andrew M; Mahoney, Craig
Children's sleep problems are common and associated with increased risk for adjustment problems. We examined daily links between children's sleep and mood, using a daily diary method and actigraphy. We also tested children's daily mood as a mediator of relations among sleep and children's broader internalizing and externalizing symptoms. A community sample of 142 children (mean age = 10.69 years; 57% girls; 69% European American, 31% African American) and their parents participated. For 1 week, children wore actigraphs and parents completed a daily telephone interview about their child's mood. Following the week of actigraphy, mothers and fathers reported on their child's adjustment. Multi-level models indicated within-person relations between children's mood and subsequent sleep fragmentation (indicated by increased activity) and sleep latency, and between-person relations between sleep latency and subsequent mood on the next day. Significant indirect effects were found such that a more negative daily mood (aggregated across diary days) mediated relations between poor sleep efficiency and longer sleep latency and parent-reported internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Findings extend previous research by highlighting disruptions to children's daily mood as a potential mechanism linking sleep problems to children's mental health. PMID:25212526
Kouros, Chrystyna D; El-Sheikh, Mona
Compulsive buying (CB) is excessive and leads to impairment and distress. Several studies aimed to explore the phenomenology and antecedents of CB, especially affective states. However, these studies mostly used retrospective self-report and mostly focused on compulsive buyers only. Therefore, this study aims to directly compare consumers with CB propensity and controls on experimental proxies of buying behavior and to investigate 1) effects of neutral vs. negative mood inductions and 2) whether mood effects on buying behavior are specific to CB. Forty female consumers with CB propensity and 40 female controls were randomly assigned to a neutral or negative mood induction. Buying related behavior (likelihood to expose oneself to a shopping situation, urge and probability to buy, willingness to pay) was assessed. Consumers with CB propensity differed from controls in all buying behavior aspects except for willingness to pay. Neither main effects of mood nor group×mood interaction effects on buying behavior were found. However, consumers with CB propensity were emotionally more strongly affected by a negative mood induction. Although negative affect has previously been reported to precede buying episodes in CB, our findings do not indicate specific negative mood effects on buying, neither in CB nor in controls. PMID:25108590
Vogt, Sinje; Hunger, Antje; Türpe, Tina; Pietrowsky, Reinhard; Gerlach, Alexander L
Full Text Available Jorge Mauriño1, Julio Sanjúan2, Josep Maria Haro3, Teresa Díez1, Javier Ballesteros41AstraZeneca Medical Department, Madrid, Spain; 2Department of Psychiatry, University of Valencia, CIBERSAM, Valencia, Spain; 3Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Deu, CIBERSAM, Sant Boi de Llobregat, Spain; 4Department of Neuroscience-Psychiatry, University of the Basque Country, UPV/EHU, CIBERSAM, Leioa, SpainObjective: The subjective experience of psychotic patients toward treatment is a key factor in medication adherence, quality of life, and clinical outcome. The aim of this study was to assess the subjective well-being in patients with schizophrenia and to examine its relationship with the presence and severity of depressive symptoms.Methods: A multicenter, cross-sectional study was conducted with clinically stable outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia. The Subjective Well-Being under Neuroleptic Scale – short version (SWN-K and the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS were used to gather information on well-being and the presence and severity of depressive symptoms, respectively. Spearman’s rank correlation was used to assess the associations between the SWN-K total score, its five subscales, and the CDSS total score. Discriminative validity was evaluated against that criterion by analysing the area under the curve (AUC.Results: Ninety-seven patients were included in the study. Mean age was 35 years (standard deviation = 10 and 72% were male. Both the total SWN-K scale and its five subscales correlated inversely and significantly with the CDSS total score (P < 0.0001. The highest correlation was observed for the total SWN-K (Spearman’s rank order correlation [rho] = –0.59, being the other correlations: mental functioning (–0.47, social integration (–0.46, emotional regulation (–0.51, physical functioning (–0.48, and self-control (–0.41. A total of 33 patients (34% were classified as depressed. Total SWN-K showed the highest AUC when discriminating between depressive severity levels (0.84, followed by emotional regulation (0.80, social integration (0.78, physical functioning and self-control (0.77, and mental functioning (0.73. Total SWN-K and its five subscales showed a significant linear trend against CDSS severity levels (P < 0.001.Conclusion: The presence of moderate to severe depressive symptoms was relatively high, and correlated inversely with patients’ subjective well-being. Routine assessment of patient-reported measures in patients with schizophrenia might reduce potential discrepancy between patient and physician assessment, increase therapeutic alliance, and improve outcome.Keywords: schizophrenia, subjective well-being, patient-reported outcome, depressive symptoms
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A vitamina B12, ou cianocobalamina, desempenha importantes funções metabólicas e neurotróficas. Sua deficiência está associada a distúrbios hematológicos, neurológicos e psiquiátricos. É relatado o caso de uma paciente com depressão refratária ao tratamento com antidepressivos que melhorou somente a [...] pós a detecção e o tratamento da deficiência de vitamina B12. Esse relato ilustra a importância de o psiquiatra considerar causas secundárias de depressão em casos refratários. Abstract in english Vitamin B12, cyanocobalamin, is implicated in metabolic and neurotrophic functions. Its deficiency is associated with hematological, neurological and psychiatric disorders. Herein we report the case of a patient presenting with refractory depression who improved after the identification and treatmen [...] t of vitamin B12 deficiency. This report highlights the relevance of considering secondary causes of depression in refractory cases.
Bruno Cópio, Fábregas; Flávia Domingues, Vitorino; Antônio Lucio, Teixeira.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression during pregnancy can have significant health consequences for the mother and her infant. Antidepressant medications, which pass through the placenta, may increase the risk of low birth weight and preterm delivery. The use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs during pregnancy may induce serotonergic symptoms in the infant after delivery. Antidepressant medications in breast milk may also be passed to an infant. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS therapy is an effective non-pharmacologic treatment for treatment-resistant depression (TRD, but little information exists regarding the use of VNS therapy during pregnancy. Case presentation The patient began receiving VNS therapy for TRD in March 1999. The therapy was effective, producing substantial reductions in depressive symptoms and improvement of function. In 2002, the patient reported that she was pregnant. She continued receiving VNS therapy throughout her pregnancy, labor, and delivery, which enabled the sustained remission of her depression. The pregnancy was uneventful; a healthy daughter was delivered at full term. Conclusion In this case, VNS therapy provided effective treatment for TRD during pregnancy and delivery. VNS was safe for the patient and her child.
Case: A shy, depressed 30 year old male discussed his frequent ego-syntonic indoor prostitution consumption in small peer groups. Several distinctive non-sexual functions of this paid sex habit were identified.
Gysin, Fa?tima; Gysin, Franc?ois
Validez de la versión venezolana del cuestionario de trastornos del estado de ánimo (MDQ) para detectar al trastorno bipolar tipo II en pacientes con depresión mayor / Validation of the spanish version of the mood disorder questionnaire to detect bipolar disorder type II in patients with major depression disorder
Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El Cuestionario de Trastornos del Estado de Ánimo (MDQ) ha sido validado en varios países para pesquisar al trastorno bipolar tipo II (TB II). Por esta razón los autores nos propusimos determinar la validez de criterio del MDQ -versión venezolana- en pacientes con el diagnóstico previo de trastorno [...] depresivo mayor, episodio único o recurrente. Mediante un estudio realizado en dos etapas, fueron evaluados 199 pacientes provenientes de la Consulta Externa de Psiquiatría del Hospital Vargas de Caracas, Venezuela. Inicialmente fueron sometidos a una evaluación diagnóstica guiada por la Entrevista Clínica Estructurada para los Trastornos del Eje I del DSM-IV (SCID-I) y, posteriormente, se les pidió que contestaran el MDQ con un punto de corte ³ 7/13. El protocolo fue aprobado por el comité de ética de la institución. La mayoría de los pacientes pertenecían al sexo femenino (78,4%). La edad media de las mujeres fue de 43,94 años (DE = 12,06) y la de los hombres fue de 43,60 años (DE = 14,19). La frecuencia de falsos unipolares fue de 28,1% (23,6% trastorno bipolar tipo I y 4,5% TB II). Al asociar los resultados obtenidos mediante la SCID-I y el MDQ, se encontró una sensibilidad de 100% (95% IC: 0,66-1,00) y una especificidad de 61,1% (95% IC: 0,53-0,68) para el diagnóstico de TB II. Sobre la base de los índices de validez obtenidos, los autores concluimos que el MDQ, con un punto de corte ³7/13, es un instrumento válido para detectar al TB II en una consulta de psiquiatría general venezolana. Abstract in english The Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) is an inventory used to detect bipolar disorder type II (BD II) and it has been validated in several countries, other than Venezuela. For this reason, the authors tried to determine the criterion validity of the Venezuelan version of the MDQ in Venezuelan patien [...] ts. The study was carried out in two stages at the Psychiatric Department of the Hospital Vargas of Caracas, Venezuela, which is a general teaching hospital. A group of 199 adult outpatients, who had been previously diagnosed as suffering from major depression disorder -single episode or recurrent- were evaluated. Initially, they were diagnosed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV for Axis I Disorders (SCID-I). Afterwards, they were asked to answer the MDQ using a cut-off point ³ 7/13. The protocol was approved by the institutional review board of the Hospital Vargas of Caracas. A total of 78.4% of the subjects were female. The mean age was 43.60 years for males (SD = 14.19) and 43.94 years for females (SD = 12.06). The frequency of false unipolar patients was 28.1% (23.6% bipolar disorder type I and 4.5% BD II). While comparing the results of the SCID-I and the MDQ, a sensibility of 100.0% (95% CI: 0.66-1.00) and a specificity of 61.1% (95% CI: 0.53-0.68) were found for the diagnosis of BD II. According to our results, the MDQ with a cut-off point ³ 7/13 is a valid instrument to detect the bipolar disorder type II in Venezuelan depressed outpatients.
Alfonso, González; Astrid, Arias; Salvador, Mata; Lucimey, Lima.
Introduction: Interaction of several genes is responsible for psychiatric diseases such as depression. Despite the numerous microarray studies in this field, findings are controversial and hard to conclude. Methods: Male Wistar rats were randomly selected to receive Chronic Mild Stress model for 4 weeks. Different aspects of depression were measured by forced swimming test, open field trial and sucrose preference tests in the experience group and controls. Results: Sucrose was preferred by 40...
Sara Farhang; Sajjad Kahni; Alireza Farnam; Leila Roshangar; Ali Fakhari
?vair?s autoriai skirtingai klasifikuoja stresogenini? situacij? ?veikos strategijas. Ši? strategij? strukt?ra priklauso ir nuo kult?rinio konteksto. Galima manyti, kad studentams, patiriantiems stres? akademin?je aplinkoje, b?dinga kitokia stresogenini? situacij? ?veikos strukt?ra, tod?l svarbu išsiaiškinti, kokias strategijas naudoja universiteto studentai Lietuvoje. Tyrimo tikslas – nustatyti universiteto student? stresogenini? situacij? ?veikos strategij? strukt...
Sapranavic?iu?te?, Laura; Perminas, Aidas; Kavaliauskaite?, Evelina
The objective of this paper is to assess the contribution of disease activity, pain, and psychological factors to self-reported sleep disturbance in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and to evaluate whether depression mediates the effects of pain on sleep disturbance. The sample included 106 patients with confirmed RA participated in an assessment of their disease activity, pain, psychological functioning, and sleep disturbance during a baseline evaluation prior to participating in a p...
Nicassio, Perry M.; Ormseth, Sarah R.; Kay, Morgan; Custodio, Mara; Irwin, Michael R.; Olmstead, Richard; Weisman, Michael H.
Depression and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are major causes of disability. Identifying COPD patients at risk for depression would facilitate the alleviation of an important comorbidity conferring additional risk for poor outcomes. The purpose of this study was to determine the utility of a brief screening measure, the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15), in detecting the mood disorders in persons with COPD. This is a cross-sectional study of 188 persons with COPD, str...
Julian, Laura J.; Gregorich, Steven E.; Earnest, Gillian; Eisner, Mark D.; Chen, Hubert; Blanc, Paul D.; Yelin, Ed H.; Katz, Patricia P.
It is highly recommended to promptly assess depression in heart disease patients as it represents a crucial risk factor which may result in premature deaths following acute cardiac events and a more severe psychopathology, even in cases of subsequent nonfatal cardiac events. Patients and professionals often underestimate or misjudge depressive symptomatology as cardiac symptoms; hence, quick, reliable, and early mood changes assessments are warranted. Failing to detect depressive signals may ...
Ceccarini, M.; Manzoni, G. M.; Castelnuovo, G.
Lactose malabsorption is characterized by a deficiency of mucosal lactase. As a consequence, lactose reaches the colon where it is broken down by bacteria to short-chain fatty acids, CO2, and H2. Bloating, cramps, osmotic diarrhea, and other symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome are the consequence and can be seen in about 50% of lactose malabsorbers. Having made the observation that females with lactose malabsorption not only showed signs of irritable bowel syndrome but also signs of premenstrual syndrome and mental depression, it was of interest to establish whether a statistical correlation existed between lactose malabsorption and mental depression. Thirty female volunteers were analyzed by measuring breath H2 concentrations after an oral dose of 50 g lactose and were classified as normals or lactose malabsorbers according to their breath H2 concentrations. All patients filled out a Beck's depression inventory questionnaire. Of the 30 female volunteers, six were lactose intolerant (20%) and 24 were normal lactose absorbers (80%). Subjects with lactose malabsorption showed a significantly higher score in the Beck's depression inventory than normal lactose absorbers did. The data thus suggest that lactose malabsorption may play a role in the development of mental depression. In lactose malabsorption high intestinal lactose concentrations may interfere with L-tryptophan metabolism and 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) availability. Lactose malabsorption should be considered in patients with signs of mental depression. PMID:9824144
Ledochowski, M; Sperner-Unterweger, B; Fuchs, D
Biofeedback with or without combined autogenic training is known to be effective for the treatment of migraine. This study aimed to examine the effect of biofeedback treatment on headache activity, anxiety, and depression in Korean female patients with migraine headache. Patients were randomized into the treatment group (n=17) and monitoring group (n=15). Mood states including anxiety and depression, and psychophysiological variables such as mean skin temperature of the patients were compared...
Kang, Eun-ho; Park, Joo-eon; Chung, Chin-sang; Yu, Bum-hee
Glutamatergic dysfunctions have recently been postulated to play a considerable role in mood disorders. However, molecular mechanisms underlying these effects have been poorly deciphered. Previous work demonstrated the contribution of GluA1-containing AMPA receptors (AMPAR) to a depression-like and anxiety-like phenotype. Here we investigated the effect of temporally and spatially restricted gene manipulation of GluA1 on behavioural correlates of mood disorders in mice. Here we show that tamoxifen-induced GluA1 deletion restricted to forebrain glutamatergic neurons of post-adolescent mice does not induce depression- and anxiety-like changes. This differs from the phenotype of mice with global AMPAR deletion suggesting that for mood regulation AMPAR may be particularly important on inhibitory interneurons or already early in development. PMID:24895223
Vogt, Miriam A; Elkin, Hasan; Pfeiffer, Natascha; Sprengel, Rolf; Gass, Peter; Inta, Dragos
Full Text Available The short (S allele of the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR has been associated with increased susceptibility to depression. Previous neuroimaging studies have consistently showed increased amygdala activity during the presentation of negative stimuli or regulation of negative emotion in the homozygous short allele carriers, suggesting the key role of amygdala response in mediating increased risk for depression. The default brain network (DMN has also been shown to modulate amygdala activity. However, it remains unclear whether 5-HTTLPR genetic variation modulates functional connectivity between the amygdala and regions of DMN. In this study, we re-analyzed our previous imaging dataset and examined the effects of 5-HTTLPR genetic variation on amygdala connectivity. A total of 15 homozygous short (S/S and 15 homozygous long individuals (L/L were scanned in functional MRI during four blocks: baseline, sad mood, mood recovery, and return to baseline. The S/S and L/L groups showed a similar pattern of functional connectivity and no differences were found between the two groups during baseline and sad mood scans. However, during mood recovery, the S/S group showed significantly reduced anti-correlations between amygdala and posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus (PCC/PCu compared to the L/L group. Moreover, PCC/PCu-amygdala connectivity correlated with amygdala activity in the S/S group but not the L/L group. These results suggest that 5-HTTLPR genetic variation modulates amygdala connectivity which subsequently affects its activity during mood regulation, providing an additional mechanism by which the S allele confers depression risk.
The present study assessed food cravings in a cohort of 229 women who differed in smoking history (i.e., never smoker, former smoker, and current smoker) and body weight (i.e., normal weight, overweight, and obese). Each subject completed the Food Craving Inventory (FCI), which measures cravings for sweets, high fats, carbohydrates/starches, and fast-food fats, and the Profile of Mood States (POMS), which measures psychological distress. Smoking and obesity were independently associated with specific food cravings and mood states. Current smokers craved high fats more frequently than former and never smokers. They also craved starches more frequently and felt more depressed and angry than never smokers, but not former smokers. Whereas cravings for starchy foods and some mood states may be characteristic of women who are likely to smoke, more frequent cravings for fat among smokers is related to smoking per se. Similarly, obese women craved high fats more frequently than nonobese women and depression symptoms were intensified with increasing body weights. We hypothesize that the overlapping neuroendocrine alterations associated with obesity and smoking and the remarkable similarities in food cravings and mood states between women who smoke and women who are obese suggest that common biological mechanisms modulate cravings for fat in these women. PMID:19247281
Pepino, M Yanina; Finkbeiner, Susana; Mennella, Julie A
Full Text Available A Presicci1, P Lecce1, P Ventura1, F Margari2, S Tafuri3, L Margari11Child Neuropsychiatric Unit, Department of Neurologic and Psychiatric Science, Aldo Moro University of Bari, Bari, Italy; 2Psychiatric Unit, Department of Neurologic and Psychiatric Science, Aldo Moro University of Bari, Bari, Italy; 3Hygiene Section, Department of Biomedical Science and Human Oncology, Aldo Moro University of Bari, Bari, ItalyBackground: Diagnosis and treatment of mood disorders in youth are still problematic because in this age the clinical presentation is atypical, and the diagnostic tools and the therapies are the same as that used for the adults. Mood disorders are categorically divided into unipolar disorders (major depressive disorder and dysthymic disorder and bipolar disorder in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition, Text Revision, but mood symptoms are also comprised in the diagnostic criteria of the adjustment disorder (AD, which occur in many different psychiatric disorders, and may also be found in some physical conditions. The differential diagnosis is not much addressed in the midst of clinical investigation and so remains the major problem in the clinical practice.Aims: The associations between some variables and the depressive disorder and AD were analyzed to make considerations about differential diagnosis.Patients and methods: We reported a retrospective study of 60 patients affected by depressive disorder and AD. The analysis has evaluated the association between some variables and the single diagnostic categories. We have considered 10 variables, of which 6 are specific to the disorders, and 4 have been considered related problems.Results: The statistical analysis showed significant results for the associations of 3 variables (prevalent symptoms, treatment, and family history with the single diagnostic categories.Conclusion: The discriminate analysis resulted in statistically significant differences between patients with depressive disorders and those with AD on 3 variables, of which 2 are specific to the disorders, and 1 is included in the related problems. The other variables were weakly associated with the single diagnostic categories without any statistically significant differences. The 3 variables that were associated with the single diagnostic categories support the distinct construct validity of the 2 diagnostic categories, but, to date, it is difficult to establish if these variables can be considered diagnostic predictors. On the other hand, the other variables did not support the distinct construct validity of the 2 diagnostic categories, which suggest an overlapping and dimensional concept. The spectrum approach could unify categorical classification that is essential with a dimensional view. Combination of dimensional and categorical principles for classifying mood disorders may help to reduce the problems of underdiagnosis and undertreatment.Keywords: depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, spectrum
This work develops a computational methodology new to linguistics that empirically evaluates competing linguistic theories on Spanish verbal mood choice through the use of computational techniques to learn mood and other hidden linguistic features from Spanish belief statements found in corpora. The machine learned probabilistic linguistic models…
Robinson, Jason R.
Behavioral economics tells us that emotions can profoundly affect individual behavior and decision-making. Does this also apply to societies at large, i.e., can societies experience mood states that affect their collective decision making? By extension is the public mood correlated or even predictive of economic indicators? Here we investigate whether measurements of collective mood states derived from large-scale Twitter feeds are correlated to the value of the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) over time. We analyze the text content of daily Twitter feeds by two mood tracking tools, namely OpinionFinder that measures positive vs. negative mood and Google-Profile of Mood States (GPOMS) that measures mood in terms of 6 dimensions (Calm, Alert, Sure, Vital, Kind, and Happy). We cross-validate the resulting mood time series by comparing their ability to detect the public's response to the presidential election and Thanksgiving day in 2008. A Granger causality analysis and a Self-Organizing Fuzzy Neural Network...
Bollen, Johan; Zeng, Xiao-Jun
The aim in the current study was to investigate the effectiveness of an online, self-directed cognitive-behavioral therapy program (MoodGYM) in preventing and reducing the symptoms of anxiety and depression in an adolescent school-based population. A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted with 30 schools (N = 1,477) from across…
Calear, Alison L.; Christensen, Helen; Mackinnon, Andrew; Griffiths, Kathleen M.; O'Kearney, Richard
The D2/D3 receptor agonist pramipexole has clinical efficacy as an antidepressant, but its neural mechanisms are unknown. We used 18FDG-PET to investigate the cerebral metabolic effects of pramipexole augmentation of mood stabilizers in bipolar II depression. Fifteen bipolar II depressed patients on mood stabilizers were imaged at baseline and following 6 wk of pramipexole (n=7) or placebo (n=8) augmentation. Relative to placebo, pramipexole treatment was associated with reductions in normali...
Mah, Linda; Zarate, Carlos A.; Nugent, Allison C.; Singh, Jaskaran B.; Manji, Husseini K.; Drevets, Wayne C.
Diminished expressivity is a poorly understood, but important construct for a range of mental diseases. In the present study, we employed computerized acoustic analysis of natural speech to understand diminished expressivity in patients with schizophrenia and mood disorders. We were interested in the degree to which speech characteristics tapping alogia (i.e., average pause duration) and blunted affect (i.e., prosody computed from fundamental frequency and intensity) reflected psychiatric symptoms (i.e., depression, anxiety, paranoia and bizarre behavior) versus neurocognitive deficits. Twenty-six subjects with schizophrenia and 22 subjects with mood disorders provided speech samples in response to a variety of laboratory stimuli and completed neuropsychological batteries assessing a range of abilities. For both the schizophrenia and mood disorder groups, attentional coding deficits were significantly correlated with increased pause time (at large effect size levels) and, for the schizophrenia group only, reduced prosody (also at a large effect size level). For the mood disorder but not the schizophrenia group, increased average pause time was also significantly associated with neurocognitive deficits on a range of other tests (medium to large effect size levels). Psychiatric symptoms were not significantly associated with speech characteristics for either group (generally, negligible effect sizes). These results suggest that there is a link between expressivity and neurocognitive dysfunctions for both patients with schizophrenia and mood disorders. Implications and future research directions are discussed. PMID:23481582
Cohen, Alex S; Kim, Yunjung; Najolia, Gina M
The relationship between depression and disability in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) was examined in 31 outpatients. Thirteen percent had current major depression (MD), 10% dysthymia, and 32% a lifetime history of MD. Depression was significantly related to both illness severity and functional impairment. Male patients with early-onset PD (before age 55) had more mood and anxiety disorders than late-onset male patients. Patients with right-sided PD had significantly more depressive symptoms than those with left-sided PD. On multiple regression analyses, depression predicted impaired social, role, and physical functioning for men (but not for women), independent of the impact of illness severity. The results suggest that treatment of depression may improve function; however, findings of gender differences will require replication. PMID:8845697
Cole, S A; Woodard, J L; Juncos, J L; Kogos, J L; Youngstrom, E A; Watts, R L
Full Text Available Maurizio Pompili1,2, Marco Innamorati3, Michele Raja4, Ilaria Falcone2, Giuseppe Ducci5, Gloria Angeletti2, David Lester6, Paolo Girardi2, Roberto Tatarelli2, Eleonora De Pisa21McLean Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 2Department of Psychiatry, Sant’Andrea Hospital, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Italy; 3Università Europea di Roma, Italy; 4Diagnostic and Therapeutic Psychiatric Services, Department of Mental Health, Santo Spirito Hospital, Rome, Italy; 5Diagnostic and Therapeutic Psychiatric Services, Department of Mental Health, San Filippo Neri Hospital, Rome, Italy; 6Center for the Study of Suicide, Blackwood, NJ, USAAbstract: The aims of the present study were to examine clinical, personality, and sociodemographic predictors of suicide risk in a sample of inpatients affected by major affective disorders. The participants were 74 inpatients affected by major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder-I. Patients completed a semi-structured interview, the Beck Hopelessness Scale, the Aggression Questionnaire, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, and the Hamilton scales for depression and anxiety. Over 52% of the patients were high suicide risks. Those at risk reported more severe depressive-anxious symptomatology, more impulsivity and more hostility. Impulsivity, the use of antidepressants, anxiety/somatization, and the use of mood stabilizers (a negative predictor resulted in accurate predicting of suicide intent. Impulsivity and antidepressant use were the strongest predictors even after controlling for several sociodemographic and clinical variables.Keywords: suicide, mood disorders, pharmacotherapy, impulsiveness, aggressiveness
Full Text Available This study deals with the discourse function of the Spanish subjunctive mood. Traditional approaches focus on its semantics, invoking the notions of volition, doubt, negation, and emotion while maintaining the importance of the clause's subordinate status and change of subject from matrix verb to subordinate verb. Notwithstanding, thirty years of linguistic research on the Spanish mood contrast have given rise to the descriptors ± assertion: indicative is +assertive while subjunctive is -assertive. Although these descriptors are appropriate, viewing the subjunctive mood as a discourse cohesive device makes apparent the true nature of the mood contrast. Anaphoric, exophoric, and cataphoric features of languages refer to antecedents, elements of the physical context, or foreshadowed events/information, respectively. This article proposes a mechanism by which Spanish subjunctive clauses fulfill all three functions, circumscribing the Spanish mood contrast within the language's deictic system, and suggests avenues for future research.
Amy E. Gregory
This study investigated whether exposure to musical mood induction procedures (MMIP) differentially increases the strength of specific alcohol expectancies for coping motivated (CM) versus enhancement motivated (EM) drinkers. Participants were 86 undergraduates who had elevated scores on either the CM or EM subscale of the Dr