WorldWideScience
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New renewable energy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This publication presents a review of the technological, economical and market status in the field of new renewable energy sources. It also deals briefly with the present use of energy, external conditions for new renewable energy sources and prospects for these energy sources in a future energy system. The renewable energy sources treated here are ''new'' in the sense that hydroelectric energy technology is excluded, being fully developed commercially. This publication updates a previous version, which was published in 1996. The main sections are: (1) Introduction, (2) Solar energy, (3) Bio energy, (4) Wind power, (5) Energy from the sea, (6) Hydrogen, (7) Other new renewable energy technologies and (8) New renewable s in the energy system of the future

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Renewable Energy Sources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The electricity requirements of the world including India are increasing at alarming rate and the power demand has been running ahead of supply. It is also now widely recognized that the fossil fuels (i.e., coal, petroleum and natural gas and other conventional resources, presently being used for generation of electrical energy, may not be either sufficient or suitable to keep pace with ever increasing demand of the electrical energy of the world. Also generation of electrical power by cold based steam power plant or nuclear power plants causes pollution, which is likely to be more accurate in future due to large generating capacity on one side and greater awareness of the people in this respect.This paper describes about different Renewable Energy Sources such as Hydro power Energy,Wind Energy,Solar Energy,Bio-mass Energy,Geo-thermal Energy,Ocean Energy,Hydrogen Energy.

K. KARTHIKEYAN

2012-11-01

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Renewable energy sources; Erneuerbare Energien  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The development of the use of renewable energy sources in Germany in 2011 significantly was influenced by the disaster in Fukushima (Japan) and the change of course in the German energy policy. In addition, there is the amendment of the Renewable Energy Law (EEG) in an increasingly controversial area of tension between climate protection, energy utilization, cost minimization and considerations on sustainability. With this in mind, the authors of the contribution under consideration report on developments in Germany in the year 2011 in the field of energy supply and fuel supply from renewable energies. Beside the energy-economic framework conditions for the various possibilities for the use of renewable energies, the current status, developments and prospects are analysed. The contribution gives an outlook on the possible expansion of the supply of renewable energies in 2012.

Lenz, Volker [Deutsches BiomasseForschungsZentrum gGmbH (DBFZ), Leipzig (Germany); Kaltschmitt, Martin [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Umwelttechnik und Energiewirtschaft

2012-07-01

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Renewable energy sources; Erneuerbare Energien  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the year 2012, the development of the utilization of the renewable energy supply in Germany was significantly determined by the discussion on the restriction on the EEG appointment - especially in terms of the further expansion of the photovoltaic power - as well as by the acceleration of the energetic retrofitting and the continuing development of renewable energies in the heating segment. In addition, especially aspects of sustainability inter alia in connection with the further expansion of the utilization of biomass are discussed - especially (but not exclusively) in terms of bio-fuels. Within the general trends, the contribution under consideration reports on the developments of the year 2012 in Germany regarding the supply of heat, electricity and fuel from renewable energy sources. The state of the art of the development as well as the emerging developments are analysed in addition to the actual energy-related background of the specific options for the use of renewable energy resources. Finally, a perspective of the potential utilization of the renewable energy resources is presented.

Lenz, Volker [Deutsches BiomasseForschungsZentrum (DBFZ) gGmbH, Leipzig (Germany); Kaltschmitt, Martin; Janczik, Sebastian [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Umwelttechnik und Energiewirtschaft

2013-04-01

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Renewable Energy Sources  

OpenAIRE

The electricity requirements of the world including India are increasing at alarming rate and the power demand has been running ahead of supply. It is also now widely recognized that the fossil fuels (i.e., coal, petroleum and natural gas) and other conventional resources, presently being used for generation of electrical energy, may not be either sufficient or suitable to keep pace with ever increasing demand of the electrical energy of the world. Also generation of electrical power by cold ...

Karthikeyan, K.

2012-01-01

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Energy management and renewable energy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The contribution is focused on cost-benefit analysis of wind energy use in energy management of buildings. Renewable energy sources are indeed cheap - in terms of acquisition of primary energy, but are difficult to use their technical support. The second drawback is their unpredictability (predictability of small) their actions. The paper presents a possible solution for the efficient use little energy wind. (Authors)

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Renewable energy sources and ecology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The share of renewable energy sources (RES) in the world energy balance is estimated from 1-2 to 10% of the total primary energy sources consumption. In EU since 1990 until now the power energy production from these sources is growing continuously by over 3% annually. The features of the updated Environmental Strategy for Bulgaria (ESB) elaborated with the World Bank in 1994 are: increasing the energy efficiency; utilising RES; granting preference to the regional energy concept and establishing regional energy centres based on the EU experience. In ESB the basic priorities are linked with disease factors - pollutants as lead in the air and soils (from leaded petrol, resp. from metallurgical enterprises), dust particles in the air (from household heating, industry and thermo-electric power stations) and sulfur dioxide and other gases (also from energy sector and industry). There is consistent policy for harmonization of the Bulgarian standards with those of the WHO. Among the implemented projects preference is granting to ones concerning new energy saving technologies and RES. Bulgaria got an environmental protection law harmonized with the international legislation and adapted to the economic situation inflicted by the market economy transition. The development of RES needs high investment cost and has low efficiency factor compared to the classical methods of energy production. Implementation of Environmental Action Programme (EAP) in Bulgaria with an international co-operation includes: solid wastes management; water sources management; water pollution problems; soil degradation; transport and environment; nuclear safety and nuclear waste problems and full value utilization of the RES. The Ministry of Environment and local Authorities have to develop their policies and implementing them by a range of activities to identify pollution control strategies, to identify areas where the greatest environmental benefits can be achieved at least cost and to incorporate the projects into national programmes. Possibilities for financing are linked with the expansion of Environmental Fund as well as with Western Donors and relevant international organizations

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Energy production from renewable energy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This table summarizes the electricity and heat produced in France and in overseas departments from renewable energy sources for 1998 (revised), 1999 (temporary) and 2000 (estimated): hydraulic, wind, solar photovoltaic and thermal, geothermal, solid municipal wastes, wood and wood wastes, biogas, ethanol and ester bio-fuels. (J.S.)

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Modeling of renewable hybrid energy sources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent developments and trends in the electric power consumption indicate an increasing use of renewable energy. Renewable energy technologies offer the promise of clean, abundant energy gathered from self-renewing resources such as the sun, wind, earth and plants. Virtually all regions of the world have renewable resources of one type or another. By this point of view studies on renewable energies focuses more and more attention. The present paper intends to present different mathematical models related to different types of renewable energy sources such as: solar energy and wind energy. It is also presented the validation and adaptation of such models to hybrid systems working in geographical and meteorological conditions specific to central part of Transylvania region. The conclusions based on validation of such models are also shown.

Dumitru Cristian Dragos

2009-12-01

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MODELING OF RENEWABLE HYBRID ENERGY SOURCES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent developments and trends in the electric power consumption indicate an increasing use of renewable energy. Renewable energy technologies offer the promise of clean, abundant energy gathered from self-renewing resources such as the sun, wind, earth and plants. Virtually all regions of the world have renewable resources of one type or another. By this point of view studies on renewable energies focuses more and more attention. The present paper intends to present different mathematical models related to different types of renewable energy sources such as: solar energy and wind energy. It is also presented the validation and adaptation of such models to hybrid systems working in geographical and meteorological conditions specific to central part of Transylvania region. The conclusions based on validation of such models are also shown.

Cristian-Dragos Dumitru

2009-11-01

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Renewable Energy Sources Brno '93  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The proceedings contain 27 contributions dealing with unconventional energy sources. The numbers of contributions in the individual classes of topics indicate that interest has mostly concentrated on the direct utilization of solar energy, whereas wind energy, hydroelectric energy and geothermal energy receive less attention and the use of biomass is at the margin of interest. (J.B.)

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Optimal Power Allocation for Renewable Energy Source  

OpenAIRE

Battery powered transmitters face energy constraint, replenishing their energy by a renewable energy source (like solar or wind power) can lead to longer lifetime. We consider here the problem of finding the optimal power allocation under random channel conditions for a wireless transmitter, such that rate of information transfer is maximized. Here a rechargeable battery, which is periodically charged by renewable source, is used to power the transmitter. All of above is for...

Sinha, Abhinav; Chaporkar, Prasanna

2011-01-01

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Renewable energy sources in agriculture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Greenhouse crop evolution if from one hand improves the quality of products and productive cycles, from another hand cause negative effects on the natural resources, the environment and the economy of the country. Although renewable energies already feature to some extent in the European Union's regional, the 2007-2013 Structural Funds package could be the occasion to increase the weight given to RES within the energy programmes for less favoured regions (particularly in ex-objective 1 areas). In those areas, greenhouse crop sector is particularly developed as agriculture industrial activity. According to numerous investigations, agricultural greenhouse consumption for greenhouse acclimatization represents approximately between 2% to 6% of the E U's-27 total energy consumption. This report is intended to give a general overview to the potential of renewable energy and technology in Italy, particularly geothermal, wind and solar (thermic and photovoltaic) as energy for greenhouse crop sector. RES have a high potential for developing of indigenous resources, service activities, new job creation and reducing Co2 emissions.

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Life cycle assessment of renewable energy sources  

CERN Document Server

Governments are setting challenging targets to increase the production of energy and transport fuel from sustainable sources. The emphasis is increasingly on renewable sources including wind, solar, geothermal, biomass based biofuel, photovoltaics or energy recovery from waste. What are the environmental consequences of adopting these other sources? How do these various sources compare to each other? Life Cycle Assessment of Renewable Energy Sources tries to answer these questions based on the universally adopted method of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). This book introduces the concept and impor

Singh, Anoop; Olsen, Stig Irving

2013-01-01

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Biogas: A renewable energy source  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Biogas refers to a gas produced by the biological breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen. Biogas can be used as a fuel in any country for any heating purpose such as cooking. By means of digesters, the energy in the gas can be converted to electricity and heat. Biogas like natural gas can also be used to power motor vehicle. Biogas is a renewable fuel which qualifies it for a renewable energy subsidy. It is non-toxic, environment-friendly and serve as a means of combating global warming. Biogas is presently being used in U.S.A, U.K, China, Sweden, Brazil, and India amongst others for domestic purposes, transportation and power generation. In this regard, this paper discusses biogas production. It also presents a model design of domestic biogas plant suitable for Nigerian households. The paper recommends that Nigerian Government should intensify efforts in educating the masses on this novel technology for a sustainable global development. A biogas plant designed for Nigerian household discussed in this paper is also recommended.

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Environmental impacts of renewable energy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The global attention has always been focused on the adverse environmental impacts of conventional energy sources. In contrast nonconventional energy sources, particularly the renewable ones, have enjoyed a clean image vis a vis environmental impacts. The only major exception to this general trend has been large hydropower projects; experience has taught that they can be disastrous for the environment. The belief now is that mini hydro and microhydro projects are harmless alternatives. But are renewable energy sources really as benign as is widely believed? The present essay addresses this question in the background of Lovin's classical paradigm which had postulated the hard (malignant) and soft (benign) energy concepts in the first place. It then critically evaluates the environmental impacts of major renewable energy sources. It then comes up with the broad conclusion that renewable energy sources are not the panacea they are popularly perceived to be; indeed in some cases their adverse environmental impacts can be as strongly negative as the impacts of conventional energy sources. The paper also dwells on the steps needed to utilize renewable energy sources without facing environmental backlashes of the type experienced from hydropower projects

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Renewable Energy Sources for Electricity Generation  

OpenAIRE

The use of conventional energy sources for electricity generation, such as fossil fuel combustion and nuclear power, is questioned because of environmental and safety issues and concerns about possible anthropogenic climate change. This has led to rapid developments in the field of renewable energy exploitation. Entire new fast-growing industries are formed to supply equipment for renewable power plants. The contribution from Swedish industry to this development has so far largely been limite...

Norrga, Staffan; Stridh, Bengt; Meier, Stephan; Nee, Hans-peter

2012-01-01

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Renewable energy sources development in Europe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Given the European effort of doubling its renewable sources share by 2010, the main target of this paper is to understand costs and benefits of such an effort and propose some energy scenarios in the contest of the Kyoto Protocol. The research is carried out by means of a system dynamics model which considers four sectors. For each sector the model calculates energy consumptions, CO2 emissions and savings in CO2 emissions deriving from the expansion of renewables

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Alternative and Renewable Energy Sources Course Model  

Science.gov (United States)

The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) has provided this course development model on renewable energy sources including solar energy, wind power, hydropower, fuel cells, biomass, and alternative transportation. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

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Renewable energy sources. European Commission papers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ''Directive on the Promotion of Electricity from Renewable Sources of Energy in the Internal Electricity Market'' was adopted in September 2001. Its purpose is to promote an increase in the contribution of renewable energy sources to electricity production in the internal market for electricity and to create a basis for a future Community framework. Energie-Cites provides in this document a summary of its opinion on the Green Paper and on Alterner II and gives a proposal for an Action Plan concerning the White Paper. (A.L.B.)

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Promotion of renewable energy sources in Romania  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Romania's climate and geographical conditions offer the following types of renewable energy sources: solar energy, wind energy, hydro energy, biomass and geothermal energy. These are here considered within the country's energy balance on medium and long term. Romania has a significant renewable energy potential. Unfortunately at present this potential is not used but to a small extent, except for hydraulic energy and biomass (especially as firewood), the latter being used in the great majority of cases in low performance installations. Government Decision No. 443/2003 on the promotion of electric energy generation from RES and Government Decision No. 1535/2003 regarding the Strategy of RES, establish the legal framework necessary for the promotion of RES in Romania. Consequently, an Action Plan defining actions, measures, responsibilities and financial sources has been settled. (author)

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Action plan for renewable energy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the Finnish Energy Strategy, approved by the Finnish Government in 1997, the emphasis is laid on the importance of bioenergy and other renewable energy sources for the creation of such prerequisites for the Finnish energy economy that the supply of energy can be secured, the price on energy is competitive and the emissions from energy generation are within the limits set by the international commitments made by Finland. In 1998, the European Union Meeting of the Ministers of Energy adopted a resolution taking a positive attitude to the Communication from the Commission 'Energy for the future: Renewable sources of energy' - White Paper for a Community Strategy and Action Plan. National measures play a key role in the achievement of the objectives set in the White Paper. This Action Plan for Renewable Energy Sources is a national programme in line with the EU's White Paper. It comprises all renewable sources of energy available in Finland. It encompasses even peat, which in Finland has traditionally been considered to be a solid biofuel but is internationally classified as one of the non-renewable sources of energy. In the Action Plan, objectives are set for the volume of renewable energy sources used in the year 2010 including a prognosis on the development by the year 2025. The goal is that by the year 2010 the volume of energy generated using renewable energy sources has increased by 50% compared with the year 1995. This would mean an increase by 3 Mtoe, which is about 1 Mtoe more than anticipated in the outlook based on the Finnish Energy Strategy. A further goal is to double the use of renewable energy sources by the year 2025. The aggregate use of renewable energy sources depends to a large extent both on the development of the price on energy produced using other energy sources and on possible changes in the production volume of the Finnish forest industry. The most important objective stated in the Action Plan is to improve the competitiveness of renewable energy sources in relation to other energy sources. The objective in the long term is to make them as competitive as possible in the open energy market. Among those measures of crucial importance included in the Action Plan, we can mention development and commercialisation of new technology as well as several financial measures, of which taxation and investment aid are considered to have the greatest effect. In addition, the Action Plan presents several administrative measures for the promotion of renewable energy sources. A separate assessment of the environmental impact of the Action Plan has been made resulting in an environmental impact statement (EIS) that contains a detailed account of the environmental impacts of the use of renewable energy sources and the use of peat in energy production. The most important environmental impact of the implementation of the Action Plan will be a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. As a result of the intensified measures to be taken in accordance with the Action Plan, carbon dioxide emissions are estimated to be reduced at least by 2 million tons per year compared with the outlook presented in the Energy Strategy. Further, the use of waste, which otherwise would have been transported to tips, in energy production is estimated to reduce methane emissions by 1 million ton per year (C02 equivalent). The reduction might be even much bigger in the next few years. To ensure that the objectives of the Action Plan will be achieved, the contribution by the State (tax subsidies, investment aid and other forms of aid) should be approx. FIM 500 million on an average per year in the next ten years. In 1998, the State's contribution exceeded FIM 300 million. Further, financing amounting to approx. FIM 200 million is channelled to the research on and the development of energy production technology, which in the future to a larger extent than now will be channelled to the development of such forms of energy production technology that are using renewable energy sources. (orig.)

23

CIVIL REGULATION OF USING RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article deals with civil regulation of using renewable energy sources. To deal with such items we need to understand a clear definition of this concept and to consider the specifics of Public-Private Partnership in such claims

Kamyshanskiy V. P.

2013-10-01

24

Renewable energy sources: Energy Efficiency Agency  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper presents the activities of the Energy Efficiency Agency, its main functions, as well as the new legislation stimulating the use of RES, stipulated in the new Energy Law of Bulgaria. The second part of the paper describes the potential of renewable energy in i.e. wind energy; solar energy; biomass energy; hydro energy; geothermal energy; draft of a National Program on RES 2005-2015. The third part describes the main issues of the new ENERGY EFFICIENCY LAW and the established Energy efficiency fund. (Author)

25

Optimal Power Allocation for Renewable Energy Source  

CERN Document Server

Battery powered transmitters face energy constraint, replenishing their energy by a renewable energy source (like solar or wind power) can lead to longer lifetime. We consider here the problem of finding the optimal power allocation under random channel conditions for a wireless transmitter, such that rate of information transfer is maximized. Here a rechargeable battery, which is periodically charged by renewable source, is used to power the transmitter. All of above is formulated as a Markov Decision Process. Structural properties like the monotonicity of the optimal value and policy derived in this paper will be of vital importance in understanding the kind of algorithms and approximations needed in real-life scenarios. The effect of curse of dimensionality which is prevalent in Dynamic programming problems can thus be reduced. We show our results under the most general of assumptions.

Sinha, Abhinav

2011-01-01

26

CARDOON, RENEWABLE SOURCE OF ENERGY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cardoon (Cynara cardunculus is a herbaceous perennial plant in the vegetable, artichoke, wild or garden, which belongs to the Compositae family (Asteraceae Compositae-and more precisely Cynara species and is grown specifically for the production of biomass (solid bio fuel as a pellet, or solid and liquid bio fuel, bio diesel. In this paper I have tried to highlight the profitability and economic efficiency of growing of this plant. Production capacity exceeding 2 tonnes dry matter/1000mp. The yield depends on climatic conditions, adequate soil moisture, soil nutrients, and range from 1 to 3 t/1000mp, dry. Cardoon seed contains on average 24% oil (category: 19-32%, with the same qualities as the sunflower. Quantity of seed production to 480 kgs/1000mp, while ordinary productivities range 70 to 330 kg/1000mp, always depending on the total biomass production. Growing cardooncan replace traditional crops, partly by ensuring a good profit for the farmer (double the wheat and rapeseed and bio fuel production with high energy content. Solid bio fuels (pellets, briquettes, artichokes, etc. can reach the enduser, at prices up to 30-40% lower than the price of oil. Because cardoon is a perennial plant which grows once every 10-12 years, and preparing the ground and sowing it will be carried out at intervals so large (this plant is harvested annually,it is remarkable cost reduction efficiency of growing this plant.In addition to the obvious environmental advantages by producing green energy, growing artichokes garden preserves the soil covered for the most part of the year, thereby minimizing the risk of soil erosion and limit the pollution of soil and groundwater with agrochemical products, especially in areas with intensive agriculture, because it does not require additional fertilization and/or with the use of chemical fertilizers or pesticides.

Cecilia NEAGU

2013-01-01

27

Renewable energy sources and nuclear installations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This comprehensive work report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) made by the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI takes a look at work done in connection with the updating of the office's Energy Perspectives. In particular, the topic of electricity is reviewed in the light of pending important decisions in the area of nuclear energy and the newer renewable sources of energy. The report makes an attempt to estimate the effect on Swiss power production that the new renewables and new nuclear installations could have in the next 30-40 years and to what costs this could be done and which obstacles would have to overcome. The renewable energy sources include small hydro, wind, photovoltaics, solar thermal power plants, biogas, geothermal energy, wave-power and solar chemistry. The methods used include literature study and contacts with internal PSI experts on the various areas involved. The most important system characteristics were noted and learning curves for the various technologies were taken into account. Ecological and social factors were also considered

28

ECONOMICS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN INDIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Providing access to quality and sufficient energy to all households, individuals, sectors, and institutions at all times is the minimum condition for economic development. The climate change is gradually harming the environment, social and economic development of world economy. The major culprit fuelling the climate change is burning of fossil fuel. Hence, the power generation in India should not only aim at sufficient power generation, but also at generating clean, green and sustainable energy. The major sources of renewable power in India are 1 Wind power 2 Small Hydro power 3 Biomass 4 Cogeneration biogases and 5 waste to energy. India is having 89,760 MW estimated potential of renewable energy. But less than 2% are harnessed in actual terms.

S. R. Keshava

2014-06-01

29

New renewable energy sources; Nye fornybare energikilder. Revidert utgave 2001  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This publication presents a review of the technological, economical and market status in the field of new renewable energy sources. It also deals briefly with the present use of energy, external conditions for new renewable energy sources and prospects for these energy sources in a future energy system. The renewable energy sources treated here are ''new'' in the sense that hydroelectric energy technology is excluded, being fully developed commercially. This publication updates a previous version, which was published in 1996. The main sections are: (1) Introduction, (2) Solar energy, (3) Bio energy, (4) Wind power, (5) Energy from the sea, (6) Hydrogen, (7) Other new renewable energy technologies and (8) New renewables in the energy system of the future.

NONE

2001-06-01

30

Osmotic power : a new renewable energy source  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article described the world's first osmosis-driven power generation plant. The prototype was built by Oslo-based Statkraft for use as a research tool for producing power at a competitive cost and determining methods of upscaling components to commercial scale. The prototype will function for 2-3 years, after which a 1 to 2 MW plant is planned for a subsequent phase. Osmosis occurs when fresh water mixes with salty water. Osmosis is triggered by the drive to establish equilibrium between different fluid concentrations. The effects of seawater and fresh water mixing creates a strong mixing force. Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) transfers released chemical energy into pressure instead of heat. Fresh water and seawater are led into a closed system, where the seawater is pressurized to approximately half the osmotic pressure while fresh water migrates through a membrane into the pressurized seawater. The pressurized seawater is then used to generate power in a hydropower turbine. The prototype plant has also been equipped with energy recovery devices. The estimated cost of osmotic power is comparable to other renewable energy source equipment. It is estimated that the technology will potentially allow the harnessing of more than 1600 TWh per year of energy. 4 figs.

Skilhagen, S.E. [Statkraft, Oslo (Norway)

2010-01-15

31

Renewable Sources of Energy and Development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reviewed are the status of conventional sources of energy, prospects for the development of alternative sources of energy, and the consequences of that development on countries that are in the process of industrialization. (BT)

Diatta, Christian Sina

1979-01-01

32

RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN POLAND - CONDITIONS AND POSSIBILITES OF DEVELOPMENT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper describes the state of the art in renewable energy sources development. The obligation resulting from the membership of Poland in the European Union as well as from other international agreements in the scope of renewable energy sources development are described. The production of electricity, heat and biofuels in Poland is given and the perspectives of development of particular renewable energy sources in Poland are discussed in the view of potential reserves and other constrains. The economic aspects of renewable energy technologies are shown. The environmental pros and cons of biomass energy development are described. Arguments for development of renewable energy sources use are stated: the decrease of dependence from primary energy sources, the decrease the emission of green house gases and the recovery of agricultural regions of the country. In conclusion it is stated that the significance of renewable energy sources in Polish conditions is constrained to local societies. Their development should be adjusted to conditions predominating in a given region and that wider consumption of renewable energy sources should develop in conformity with sustainable development, so it is necessary to reach agreement between local societies, institutions dealing with environment protection and representatives of power sector. (auth)

Gawlik, L.; Mokrzycki, E.; Ney, R.

2007-07-01

33

Bioenergy: a growing source of renewable energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This 2001 edition of the guide to UK renewable energy companies explores the bioenergy sector, and examines energy crops including short rotation coppice cultivation, the potential of the hardy perennial Miscanthus grass, and forestry and arboricultural byproducts as well as the production of bioethanol from agricultural wastes. Energy recovery technologies are described covering the thermochemical processes (combustion, pyrolysis, and gasification), and anaerobic digestion. The use of biomass to produce liquefied transportation fuels is discussed, and examples of the use of biomass for heating, combined heat and power production, and for electricity production are given. Export markets for bioenergy are considered

34

Economic feasibility constraints for renewable energy source power production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Suitable analysis criteria for use in economic feasibility studies of renewable energy source power plants are examined for various plant types, e.g., pumped storage hydroelectric, geothermal, wind, solar, refuse-fuelled, etc. The paper focusses on the impacts, on operating cost and rate structure, of the necessity, depending on demand characteristics, to integrate renewable energy source power production with conventional power production in order to effectively and economically meet peak power demand. The influence of commercialization and marketing trends on renewable energy source power plant economic feasibility are also taken into consideration

35

Development of Electricity Generation from Renewable Energy Sources in Turkey  

Science.gov (United States)

Electricity is mainly produced from coal, natural gas and hydropower in Turkey. However, almost all the natural gas and high quality coal are imported. Thus, increasing the shares of both hydro and other renewables in energy supply is necessary to decrease dependency of the country on foreign sources. In 2008, the total installed capacity of Turkey was around 42000 MW and 66 % of this was from thermal sources. The remaining 33 % was from hydro, which leaves only one percent for the other renewable energy sources. The share of renewable energy in the energy budget of Turkey has increased in the last two decades; however, in 2008, only 17 % of the total electricity generation was realized from renewable sources most of which was hydro. According to State Hydraulic Works (SHW) which is the primary executive state agency responsible for the planning, operating and managing of Turkey's water resources, Turkey utilizes only around 35% of its economically viable hydro potential. The current situation clearly demonstrates the need for increasing the share of renewables in the energy budget. New laws, such as the Electricity Market Law, have been enacted and the following items were identified by the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources of Turkey among primary energy policies and priorities: (i) decreasing dependency on foreign resources by prioritizing utilization of natural resources, (ii) increasing the share of renewable energy resources in the energy budget of Turkey; (iii) minimization of adverse environmental impacts of production and utilization of natural resources. The government's energy policy increased investments in renewable energy resources; however lack of a needed legal framework brought various environmental and social problems with this fast development. The development of the share of renewable resources in the energy budget, current government policy, and environmental concerns related with renewables, and ideas to improve the overall benefits of the use of these domestic energy sources are investigated in this study.

Kentel, E.

2011-12-01

36

Development of alternative/renewable sources of energy in Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The depleting Conventional Energy Resources and highly raised prices of fuel oil, coal, firewood and such other fossil fuels, have forced the mankind to think about the utilization of Alternative / Renewable Sources of Energy. Alternative / Renewable Energy is very attractive, reliable and cost competitive energy. Sun is readily available to provide a clean, abundant and virtually infinite energy to meet the significant portion of mankind's energy-needs. The possible use of renewable-energy sources is discussed in this paper, in order to fill the estimated gap between the available energy-sources and energy-needs of our country in the near future. Designing, Fabrication and Installation of different renewable-energy devices by PCSIR are also discussed in this paper. Different renewable-energy devices such as, solar water heaters, solar cookers, solar dehydrators, solar water-desalination plants, solar heating and cooling of buildings, solar operated absorption-type chiller, solar furnace, solar architecture, developed by PCSIR are discussed in some detail so that the role of renewable-energy sources for their direct use (as heat and power) can be determined. Various technical aspects are discussed to reduce the unit cost with improved efficiency. (author)

37

Financial incentives for renewable energy sources: how much?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this article is assessed the costs and effectiveness of financial incentives policies to stimulate the development of renewable energy sources for electricity production in view of the European goals for the year 2020

38

The renewable energies sources in France 1970-2000  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this report is to describe the energy production from renewable sources in France since 1970. In France the rate of using renewable energy sources is unequal. Some of them as hydro energy show a confirmed industrial and commercial interest when other techniques have not still reach the same level of maturity. The renewable energy sources chosen to calculate the electric and thermal production of France are: for electric power, hydro energy, wind energy, solar energy, geothermal energy, the urban wastes, the wood wastes, the harvesting residues, the biogas. For the thermal production, the thermal solar energy, the geothermal energy, the urban wastes, the wood and wood wastes, the harvesting residues, the biogas and bio fuels. The figures are marked in thirty tables. (N.C.)

39

Legislation on renewable energy sources in Central America  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the development of renewable energy in Central America and the cooperation given by the European Comission in the promotion of renewable energy sources. Also discuss the current situation in energy demand in Central America and possible solutions linked to legislation that promotes the inversion of the private sector. The legal framework in each country of Central America is presented and its impact in the increasing of generation of energy through tax reductions, trading and prices

40

Limits and Prospects of Renewable Energy Sources in Italy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Italian energy balance for year 2005 is discussed with particular attention on renewable energy production. The potentials of renewable sources are evaluated in terms of energy density that can be obtained from occupied plant area. About 20000 km2 of sunny barren lands are present in South of Italy, particularly suitable for photovoltaic plants and that corresponds to a potential production of 144 Mtep of primary energy. Therefore, in theory, the photovoltaic energy potential is comparable with energy balance. The grid connection limit due to intermittent power generation of photovoltaic and wind energy systems is considered in relation with the stability of grid power level. Assuming a 25% maximum grid penetration of intermittent power with respect to capacity of active thermoelectric generators, the renewable energy contribution amounts to about 2% of annual energy balance. In front of expectations for a larger contribution, the practical result is the renewable energy production of present systems is marginal, unsuitable for counteracting the global climate crisis. The conclusion is that, for exploiting the large renewable energy potential, is necessary to implement the plants with an energy storage system able to overcome the source intermittency. Without this improvement, the expectations on renewable energy sources could be disappointed.

41

Renewable energy sources '91. Part 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Part 2 of the proceedings is devoted to the use of the energy of wind, biogas and small hydroelectric sources. The publication contains 14 contributions, out of which 3 have been inputted in INIS. They deal with a wind power plant in Sweden and its environmental impacts, economic aspects of the introduction of alternative energy sources in Czechoslovakia, and with the efficiency of application of a Fresnel lens-based solar collector. (M.D.). 5 figs., 1 tab., 2 refs

42

The likely adverse environmental impacts of renewable energy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The global attention has always been focused on the adverse environmental impacts of conventional energy sources. In contrast nonconventional energy sources, particularly the renewable ones, have enjoyed a 'clean' image vis a vis environmental impacts. The only major exception to this general trend has been large hydropower projects; experience has taught us that they can be disastrous for the environment. The belief now is that minihydel and microhydel projects are harmless alternatives. But are renewable energy sources really as benign as is widely believed? The present essay addresses this question in the background of Lovin's classical paradigm, which had postulated the hard (malignant) and soft (benign) energy concepts in the first place. It critically evaluates the environmental impacts of major renewable energy sources. It then comes up with the broad conclusion that renewable energy sources are not the panacea they are popularly perceived to be; indeed in some cases their adverse environmental impacts can be as strongly negative as the impacts of conventional energy sources. The paper also dwells on the steps we need to take so that we can utilise renewable energy sources without facing environmental backlashes of the type we got from hydropower projects. (Author)

43

Marketing of renewable energy sources in the region  

OpenAIRE

European Union has a leading role in the world due to its strong commitment to increase renewable energy sources as forthe energy system change. Success of such long term project requires first of all a stable political framework, well-tailored supportsystem of finances, technical background and administrative, and by this way it can overcome the obstacles existing in distorted energymarkets. Regardless their high potential, renewable energy resources are insufficiently exploited in Europe. T...

Adriana Csikósová; Mária Antošová; Katarína ?ulková

2012-01-01

44

Renewable Energy Sources - Technologies and Development of the Economy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The usage of renewable energy sources is a substitute for usage of fossil fuels, whose quantities are limited, and it represents an essential contribution to the reduction of greenhouse gases; at the same time it has a great economic significance for the development of new industries and creation of new jobs. To speed up gradual transition from fossil to renewable sources, governments of all EU member states harmonise their legislations and subordinate regulations promoting investments in usage of renewable sources and thus creating opportunities for new jobs especially in the production of plants and equipment for utilisation of wind power, solar energy, small hydro power plants, biomass and other kinds of renewable sources. In the last 10 years Croatia has adopted a number of acts and regulations that also stimulate investors to utilise renewable sources, and the source of such subsidies is a higher price of electricity paid by all the consumers. On the other hand, the development of domestic industry and gaining references necessary for gaining new contracts are very difficult because of stiff international competition and foreign sources of finance, which often require purchase of foreign equipment as a condition for contract award. In such conditions the utilisation of renewable sources does not contribute either to economic development or creating new jobs in Croatia, but in the countries in which such equipment is produced.(author).

45

Opportunities for renewable energy sources in Central Asia countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents an overview of the state of conventional energy sources and the potential for development of renewable energy sources in the Central Asia countries of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, and Tajikistan. The region has a population of about 50 million in an area of more than four million square kilometers. The per capita gross internal product is more than $2,500, although the economy has been declining the past five years. The area has substantial coal, oil, uranium, and natural gas reserves, although they are not distributed equally among the five countries. Energy production is such that the countries do not have to rely heavily on imports. One of the problems in Central Asia is that the energy prices are substantially below the world prices. This is a factor in development of renewable energy sources. The primary renewable energy resources available are wind in Kazakhstan, solar in the entire region, biomass in Kyrgyzstan, and micro-hydropower stations in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. All of these have the potential to provide a significant amount of the required energy for the region. However, all of the countries have an abundance of various renewable energy resources. To effectively use these resources, however, a number of barriers to their development and commercialization must be overcome. These include low prices of conventional energy sources, absence of legislative support, lack of financing for new technologies, and lack of awareness of renewable energy sources by the population. A number of specific actions are proposed to overcome these barriers. These include establishment of a Central Asia coordinating council for renewable energy, development of a regional renewable energy program, and setting up a number of large demonstration projects. 16 figs.

Obozov, A.J. [Project KUN (Kyrgyzstan); Loscutoff, W.V. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

1998-07-01

46

Renewable energy sources - the opportunity for a safer future  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The researches have shown that the potential of renewable energy sources is huge as they can in principle meet many times the world's energy demand. Renewable energy sources such as biomass, wind, solar, hydropower and geothermal can provide energy services based on the use of local available resources. Starting from this fact, a transition to renewable-based energy systems is looking increasingly likely as their costs have dropped while the price of oil and gas continue to fluctuate. In the past 30 years, the sales of solar and wind energy systems continued to increase because the capital and electricity production costs decreased simultaneously with the performance enhancement. It is becoming clear that future growth in the energy sector will be primarily in the renewable energy systems and to some extent natural gas-based systems and not in conventional oil and coal sources. It is also important to have governmental assistance and popular support in developing these alternate energy sources, that among others, reduce local and global atmospheric emissions, provide commercially attractive options, particularly in developing countries and rural areas and create the transition to the energy sector of the future. This paper tries to approach the renewable energy sources currently analyzed by the experts, emphasizing their strengths and weaknesses. The conventional energy sources based on oil, coal and natural gas have proven to be highly effective drivers of economic p be highly effective drivers of economic progress but at the same time damaging to the environment and human health. Furthermore they tend to be cyclical in nature, due to the effects of oligopoly in production and distribution. These traditional fossil fuel-based energy sources are facing increasing pressure on environmental issues, among these the future reduction of greenhouse gas specified in the Kyoto Protocol. Renewable energy sources currently supply between 15 - 20% of world's total energy demand. This supply is dominated by biomass (mostly wood used for cooking and heating - especially in developing countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America) as well as large hydropower stations providing nearly 20% of the global electricity supply provided by renewable sources. New renewable sources (solar, wind, modern bioenergy, geothermal energy and small hydropower stations) amount to about 2%. Recent studies of the future development of the energy sector show that in the second half of the 21 century the contribution of the renewable energy sources might range from the present figure of nearly 20% to more than 50% if the right policies will be put in place. Below are presented the most significant renewable energy sources. 1. Biomass Energy Biomass is the term used for all organic material originating from plants (including algae), trees and crops and is essentially the collection and storage of the sun's energy through photosynthesis. Biomass energy, or bioenergy, is the conversion of biomass into useful forms of energy such as heat, electricity and liquid fuels. Biomass was the first energy source harnessed by humans, and for nearly all of human history, wood has been our dominant energy source. Only during the last century, with the development of efficient techniques to extract and burn fossil fuels, have coal, oil, and natural gas, replaced wood as the industrialized world's primary fuel. Today it represents about 10-14 percent, making it the fourth largest source of energy behind oil (33 percent), coal (21 percent), and natural gas (19 percent). The precise amount is uncertain because the majority is used non-commercially in developing countries. Biomass is usually not considered a modern energy source, given the role that it has played, and continues to play, in most developing countries. In developing countries it still accounts for an estimated one third of primary energy use while in the poorest up to 90% of all energy is supplied by biomass. The direct combustion of biomass fuels, as used in developing countries today for domestic cooking and heati

47

Anhydrous ethanol: A renewable source of energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Anhydrous ethanol is one of the biofuels produced today and it is a subset of renewable energy. It is considered to be an excellent alternative clean-burning fuel to gasoline. Anhydrous ethanol is commercially produced by either catalytic hydration of ethylene or fermentation of biomass. Any biological material that has sugar, starch or cellulose can be used as biomass for producing anhydrous ethanol. Since ethanol-water solution forms a minimum-boiling azeotrope of composition of 89.4 mol% ethanol and 10.6 mol% water at 78.2 C and standard atmospheric pressure, the dilute ethanol-water solutions produced by fermentation process can be continuously rectified to give at best solutions containing 89.4 mol% ethanol at standard atmospheric pressure. Therefore, special process for removal of the remaining water is required for manufacture of anhydrous ethanol. Various processes for producing anhydrous ethanol have been used/suggested. These include: (i) chemical dehydration process, (ii) dehydration by vacuum distillation process, (iii) azeotropic distillation process, (iv) extractive distillation processes, (v) membrane processes, (vi) adsorption processes and (vii) diffusion distillation process. These processes of manufacturing anhydrous ethanol have been improved continuously due to the increasingly strict requirements for quantity and quality of this product. The literature available on these processes is reviewed. These processes are also compared on the basis of energy requirements. (author)

Kumar, Santosh; Singh, Neetu; Prasad, Ram [Department of Chemical Engineering, H. B. Technological Institute, Kanpur 208002 (India)

2010-09-15

48

Cyprus energy system and the use of renewable energy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cyprus is an island state whose energy production is almost completely dependent on imported hydrocarbon fuels. Its electricity production sector is more than 90% dependent on oil products while the remaining 9% are covered by imports of coal (4.5%) and by solar energy (4.5%). Because Cyprus will become a full member of the European Union (EU), it becomes essential to follow the EU white paper rules and insert renewable energy sources (RES) as part of its energy production system. Solar, wind energy and biomass are the three available forms of RES. This paper will examine and analyze the energy system of Cyprus. It will examine the RES available and the extent of the energy needs could be satisfied by them. (author)

49

Power Electronics as Efficient Interface of Renewable Energy Sources  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The global electrical energy consumption is steadily rising and consequently there is a demand to increase the power generation capacity. A significant percentage of the required capacity increase can be based on renewable energy sources. Wind turbine technology, as the most cost effective renewable energy conversion system, will play an important part in our future energy supply. But other sources like microturbines, photovoltaics and fuel cell systems may also be serious contributor to the power supply. Characteristically, power electronics will be an efficient and important interface to the grid and this paper will first briefly discuss three different alternative/ renewable energy sources. Next, various configurations of the wind turbine technology are presented, as this technology seems to be most developed and cost-effective. Finally, the developments and requirements from the grid are discussed.

Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe

2004-01-01

50

Strategy on renewable energy sources in Romania  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The key to successful development of renewable energies in Romania requires a combination of political commitment and decision making as well as support mechanism including well defined government targets, technological advances and public acceptance. Overall short, medium and long term targets and required funding are recommended while expected benefits are estimated. Public funds in the form of grants and subsidies to promote and support RES constitute one of the best investments in the national economy. Commercial investments in RES will contribute to the country's balance of payments as well as towards the environmental protection. Therefore these actions may be supported through a special fund, in particular designed for RES and energy conservation investments. As a first step towards the commercialization of RES a short term action plan needs to be implemented for achieving the set forth long term objectives. This plan includes promising projects for the demonstration of technologically and economically viable applications in each RES sector as well as institutional and other soft measures .The RES promotional policy measures have to be translated into concrete legislation providing the necessary framework into which the sector will operate with transparency and open competitiveness. One of the key policies for RES strategy is to organize a flexible and efficient scheme for the implementation of the policy adopted by the government. The total rural population, t government. The total rural population, together with the urban population living in medium sized towns will be considered as the primary market segment for RES applications (about 61 % of total population). (author). 1 fig., 2 tabs., 18 refs

51

Optimal portfolio selection between different kinds of Renewable energy sources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, selection of the optimal energy supply system in an industrial unit is taken into consideration. This study takes environmental, economical and social parameters into consideration in modeling along with technical factors. Several alternatives which include renewable energy sources, micro-CHP systems and conventional system has been compared by means of an integrated model of linear programming and three multi-criteria approaches (AHP, TOPSIS and ELECTRE III). New parameters like availability of sources, fuels' price volatility, besides traditional factors are considered in different scenarios. Results show with environmental preferences, renewable sources and micro-CHP are good alternatives for conventional systems.

Zakerinia, MohammadSaleh; Piltan, Mehdi; Ghaderi, Farid

2010-09-15

52

Energy efficiency and renewable energy sources in Nordic homes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The role of citizens as innovators, adaptors of existing technologies and diffusers of new climate-relevant innovations has been studied extensively in recent years. Since the late 1970s, sociological and demographic research on residential energy use has consistently found great variations in energy use among similar households. It has been suggested that these variations constitute a source of innovative low-carbon practices. Yet, while there are many generic technologies available for end-use efficiency and renewables, their slow rate of diffusion suggests that they are not as such applicable to local conditions. Citizens have a key role in their adoption and adaptation to local conditions, as well in their diffusion to other users. Against this backdrop, the track 4 of NCF called for poster presentations of innovative new products, modifications of existing products, news ways of make use of existing technologies as well as such living practices that reduce energy use or enable the utilization of renewable energy sources in domestic settings in the Nordic countries. (orig.)

Hyysalo, S.; Rinkinen, J. [Aalto Univ. School of Economics, Helsinki (Finland). Dept. of Management and International Business; Heiskanen, E. [National Consumer Research Centre, Helsinki (Finland)

2011-07-01

53

AC Motor Drive Fed by Renewable Energy Sources with PWM  

OpenAIRE

In this fast aproaching nature of technology the ned of Electricity becomes a mandatory in developing technology. The ned of Electricity increases the power demand where the power demand met by the conventional sources of energy has some disadvantage of polution, this disadvantage can be decreased by the use of the Renewable energy sources like Fuel Cel and available solar energy. When a FUEL cel produces AC power, basicaly two stages are required for conversion first a bosting stage an...

Pavalam, J.; Ramesh Kumar, R.; Mohanraj, R.; Umadevi, K.

2014-01-01

54

Promotion of electricity from renewable energy sources in Finland  

OpenAIRE

The main purpose of this case was to study the development of energy projects from renewable energy sources and green energy promotion in Finland. A further aim was to establish whether the development takes purely economic turn and if there is a need for improvement of green energy promotion. The research was based on comparison and analysis of wind energy development in Finland, Germany and the Netherlands. Special attention was given to the development of promotional strategies and pol...

Pozdnyakova, Liudmila

2009-01-01

55

Prospects of renewable-energy sources in Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pakistan, despite the enormous potential of its energy resources, remains energy- deficient and has to rely heavily on imports to satisfy its needs. Moreover, a very large part of the rural areas does not have the electrification facilities, because they are either too remote and/or too expensive to connect to the national grid. Pakistan obtains its energy requirements from a variety of traditional and commercial sources. Share of various primary energy-sources in energy-supply mix remained during last few years as oil: 43.5%, gas: 41.5%, LPG: 0.3%, coal: 4.5%, hydro-electricity: 9.2%, and nuclear electricity: 1.1%. The electric-power generation included 71.9% thermal, 25.2% hydel and 2.9% nuclear. While there is no prospect for Pakistan to reach self-sufficiency in hydrocarbons, a good option is the exploitation and utilization of the huge coal-reserves of Thar and the other renewable energy sources. Pakistan has wide spectrum of high potential renewable energy sources, conventional as well as non-conventional, which have not been adequately explored, exploited and developed. 'Thus, the primary energy supplies today are not enough to meet even the present demand. So, Pakistan, like other developing countries of the region, is facing a serious challenge of energy deficit. The development of the renewable energy sources can play an important role in meeting this challenge. Present observations, based on reviewing the geological setup, geographical position, climatologi setup, geographical position, climatological cycles and the agricultural/industrial/ urbanization activities, reveal that there are bright prospects for the exploitation of various renewable-energy sources, which include mega and macro/micro-hydel, biomass, biogas, wind, solar, co-generation, city and other solid wastes, utilization of low-head canal levels, sea wave and tide and geothermal energies etc. Technologically, all these renewable-energy sources are viable and consequently suited to efforts for poverty alleviation and cleaner environment in Pakistan. The country can be benefited by harnessing these options of energy-generation as substitute energy in areas where sources exist. As Pakistan is an agricultural country and major part of its population lives in the rural areas, the electricity generated by renewable sources will also improve rural life, thereby reducing the urban migration that is taxing the ability of cities to cope with their own environmental problems. (author)

56

Small hydro power - a clean, efficient and renewable energy source  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Small hydro power (SHP) is a clean, sustainable, efficient and secure renewable energy source, combining the advantages of hydro power with those of decentralized power generation, but without the disadvantages of large-scale installations. SHP has a huge untapped potential, offering a very good alternative to conventional generation in Europe and the developing world. The greatest impetus for small hydro development is currently coming from Asia, including China and India. SHP offers one of the most practical and immediately realizable routes to expanding use of renewable energy sources

57

Marketing of renewable energy sources in the region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

European Union has a leading role in the world due to its strong commitment to increase renewable energy sources as for the energy system change. Success of such long term project requires first of all a stable political framework, well-tailored support system of finances, technical background and administrative, and by this way it can overcome the obstacles existing in distorted energy markets. Regardless their high potential, renewable energy resources are insufficiently exploited in Europe. The aim of the contribution is to bring characteristic of particular sources of energy and technologies of exploitation in the geographic area Hnilec valley. We obtained detailed summary of positive and negative aspects and the reason of further survey in this field. Overall result of the thesis is the complex of knowledge of possibility of exploitation of sustainable sources of the energy in the region Hnilec valley and determination of the best possible variant of it. (authors)

58

Connection of the Renewable Energy Sources in a Distribution Network.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Buenos Aires : ADEERA, 2006, s. 1-6. ISBN N. [International Congress on Electricity Distribution - CIDEL. Buenos Aires (AR), 27.11.2006-29.11.2006] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20570509 Keywords : renewable energy sources * distributed generators * wind power plant Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

Procházka, K.; Tlustý, J.; Valouch, Viktor; Vybíralík, F.

59

Report on power consumption from renewable energy sources in France  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents an analysis of the realization of the national objectives of domestic consumption of electricity of renewable origin. Conformably with article 3 of the European directive no 2001/77/CE from September 27, 2001, it takes into account the climatic factors susceptible to interfere with the realization of the objectives and indicates to what extent the actions implemented are conformable with the national commitment of France in the domain of climatic change. Content: national objectives and tools for the sustained development of renewable energy sources (programs, investments, financial incentives, environmental policy), power consumption of renewable origin in 2004 (demand factors, evolution of renewable power generation between 1997 and 2004), 2005 highlights. (J.S.)

60

Environmental benefit from renewable energy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper a comparative environmental analysis on the electricity production between wind energy system and coal power plant has been made. The methodologies used are the LCA and the Impact Patway Analysis (IPA) - a recent tool to assess the externalities of the energy systems. Both methodologies, even if in different amount, show a remarkable convenience in the production of electricity from wind systems

61

Modeling of an autonomous microgrid for renewable energy sources integration  

OpenAIRE

The frequency stability analysis in an autonomous microgrid (MG) with renewable energy sources (RES) is a continuously studied issue. This paper presents an original method for modeling an autonomous MG with a battery energy storage system (BESS) and a wind power plant (WPP), with the purpose of frequency stability analysis. A reduced order model is developed, considering only the dominant elements in the frequency control loop. The model's parameters are identified from experimental results,...

Serban, I.; Teodorescu, Remus; Guerrero, Josep M.; Marinescu, C.

2009-01-01

62

ECONOMICS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN INDIA  

OpenAIRE

Providing access to quality and sufficient energy to all households, individuals, sectors, and institutions at all times is the minimum condition for economic development. The climate change is gradually harming the environment, social and economic development of world economy. The major culprit fuelling the climate change is burning of fossil fuel. Hence, the power generation in India should not only aim at sufficient power generation, but also at generating clean, green and ...

Keshava, S. R.

2014-01-01

63

Marine energies, the new wave of renewable energy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hydro-kinetic power, wave energy, thermal energy of seawater, all these techniques have a low notoriety for the moment but are progressively gaining ground thanks to technological progress, to public support, but first of all to the mobilization of companies and regions in concern. This article shows that France is still within the time to build up its renewable marine energies industry

64

New renewable source of energy from municipal solid waste plastics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Renewable energy plays an important role in the supply of energy. When energy sources are used, the demand for fossil fuels is reduced. Emissions from the evaporation and combustion of these traditional fossil fuels contributing to a range of environmental and health problems, causing poor air quality, and emitting greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming. Alternative fuel created from domestic sources has been proposed as a solution to these problems and many alternative fuels are being developed based on solar, wind and biomass. Natural State Research has developed different alternative hydrocarbon fuel produced from abundant waste plastic materials.

Sarker, Moinuddin; Zaman, Ashiquz; Mamunor Rashid, Mohammad

2010-09-15

65

Employment effects through enhanced use of renewable energy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Bonn-based association Forum fuer Zukunftsenergien e.V., (forum for energies of the future), carried out a study investigating whether and to what extent enhanced use of renewable energy sources may contribute to improving in the future the employment situation in Germany. Taking as a basis the current conditions determining expenses and profits in the energy sector and the related employment situation, the study elaborates several scenarios and analyses their conceivable effects. The objective of the study presented in this issue was to assess the gross and net employment effects possibly to be achieved by programmes fostering power generation from renewable sources, and the financial input required in form of investments by industry and governmental grants. (orig./CB)

66

Potential utilization of renewable energy sources and the related problems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Estonia's most promising resource of renewable energy is the natural biomass. In 1994 the use of wood and waste wood formed about 4.9% of the primary energy supply, the available resource will provide for a much higher share of biomass in the future primary energy supply, reaching 9-14%. Along with the biomass, wind energy can be considered the largest resource. On the western and northern coast of Estonia, in particular, on the islands, over several years, the average wind speed has been 5 m/s. Based on the assumption that the wind speed exceeds 6 m/s in the area that forms ca 1.5% of the Estonian territory (the total area of Estonia is about 45,000 km 2 ) and is 5 - 6 m/s on about 15% of the total area, using 0.5 MW/km2 for the installation density, very approximate estimates permit to state that the maximum hypothetical installed capacity could be 3750 MW. It might be useful to make use of the current maximum 50 MW, which could enable the generation of approximately 70 - 100 GW h of energy per year. Although the solar energy currently has no practical use in Estonia and the resource of hydro power is also insignificant (only ca 1% of the electricity consumption), these two resources of renewable energy hold future promise in view of the use of local resources and that of environmental protection. It is not reasonable to regard renewable energy sources as a substitute for the traditional oil shale-based power engineering in Estonia. But, to some extent, local energy demand can be covered by renewable energy sources. Thus, they can contribute to the reduction of the greenhouse gases emissions in Estonia

67

Renewable Energy  

Science.gov (United States)

Stimulated by recent technological developments and increasing concern over the sustainability and environmental impact of conventional fuel usage, the prospect of producing clean, sustainable power in substantial quantities from renewable energy sources arouses interest around the world. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the principal types of renewable energy--including solar, thermal, photovoltaics, bioenergy, hydro, tidal, wind, wave, and geothermal. In addition, it explains the underlying physical and technological principles of renewable energy and examines the environmental impact and prospects of different energy sources. With more than 350 detailed illustrations, more than 50 tables of data, and a wide range of case studies, Renewable Energy, 2/e is an ideal choice for undergraduate courses in energy, sustainable development, and environmental science. New to the Second Edition ·Full-color design ·Updated to reflect developments in technology, policy, attitides ·Complemented by Energy Systems and Sustainability edited by Godfrey Boyle, Bob Everett and Janet Ramage, all of the Open University, U.K.

Boyle, Godfrey

2004-05-01

68

Impact of Renewable Energy Sources Penetration in a Microgrid  

OpenAIRE

Recently, several types of Distributed Generators (DGs) have been connected together to form a small power system called a microgrid (MG). MG usually operates in normal connecting mode and is connected to the main grid. This paper presents the performance enhancement of microgrid with RES (Renewable Energy Sources) penetration in grid connected and islanded operation, and also shows the effect of wind and solar penetration individually and as well as coupled along with backup ...

N. Ravi,; Sumanth, Y.

2014-01-01

69

Research and development as contribution of the Renewable Energy Sources Centre to the wind energy utilization in Slovakia  

OpenAIRE

The expected development of renewable energy sources utilization was not reached in last years in Slovakia. This is caused by some barriers. These barriers decrease the easiness of investments into the Renewable energy sources utilization. We recognize specific barriers for each of renewable energy sources and general barriers for all renewable energy sources. Activities of the Renewable Energy Sources Centre help to eliminate both specific and general barriers in Slovakia. The main activitie...

Radim Rybár; Dušan Kudelas

2007-01-01

70

Sustainability of hydropower as source of renewable and clean energy  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydroelectric energy has been in recent times placed as an important future source of renewable and clean energy. The advantage of hydropower as a renewable energy is that it produces negligible amounts of greenhouse gases, it stores large amounts of electricity at low cost and it can be adjusted to meet consumer demand. This noble vision however is becoming more challenging due to rapid urbanization development and increasing human activities surrounding the catchment area. Numerous studies have shown that there are several contributing factors that lead towards the loss of live storage in reservoir, namely geology, ground slopes, climate, drainage density and human activities. Sediment deposition in the reservoir particularly for hydroelectric purposes has several major concerns due to the reduced water storage volume which includes increase in the risk of flooding downstream which directly effects the safety of human population and properties, contributes to economic losses not only in revenue for power generation but also large capital and maintenance cost for reservoir restorations works. In the event of functional loss of capabilities of a hydropower reservoir as a result of sedimentation or siltation could lead to both economical and environmental impact. The objective of this paper is aimed present the importance of hydropower as a source of renewable and clean energy in the national energy mix and the increasing challenges of sustainability.

Luis, J.; Sidek, L. M.; Desa, M. N. M.; Julien, P. Y.

2013-06-01

71

Sustainability of hydropower as source of renewable and clean energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hydroelectric energy has been in recent times placed as an important future source of renewable and clean energy. The advantage of hydropower as a renewable energy is that it produces negligible amounts of greenhouse gases, it stores large amounts of electricity at low cost and it can be adjusted to meet consumer demand. This noble vision however is becoming more challenging due to rapid urbanization development and increasing human activities surrounding the catchment area. Numerous studies have shown that there are several contributing factors that lead towards the loss of live storage in reservoir, namely geology, ground slopes, climate, drainage density and human activities. Sediment deposition in the reservoir particularly for hydroelectric purposes has several major concerns due to the reduced water storage volume which includes increase in the risk of flooding downstream which directly effects the safety of human population and properties, contributes to economic losses not only in revenue for power generation but also large capital and maintenance cost for reservoir restorations works. In the event of functional loss of capabilities of a hydropower reservoir as a result of sedimentation or siltation could lead to both economical and environmental impact. The objective of this paper is aimed present the importance of hydropower as a source of renewable and clean energy in the national energy mix and the increasing challenges of sustainability.enges of sustainability.

72

Integrating renewable energy sources in the Portuguese power system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The integration of large amounts of renewable energy is an important challenge for the future management of electric systems, since it affects the operation of the electric power system and the design of the transmission and distribution network infrastructure. This is specially due to the connection requirements of the renewable energy technologies, to the extension and adjustment of the grid infrastructure and to the identification of new solutions for operational reserve, in order to maintain the overall system flexibility and security. In this paper, the impact of high penetration of intermittent energy sources, expected in long term in the Portuguese Power System, is analysed and the operational reserve requirements to accomplish a reliable and reasonable electrical energy supply are identified. It was concluded that pumped storage power plants, special power plants with regulating capabilities, will have an important task to provide the operational reserve requirements of the Portuguese Power System. This technology assumes a fundamental role not only to ensure the adequate levels of security of supply but also to allow the maximum exploitation of the installed capacity in renewable energy sources. (authors)

73

Renewable Energy  

OpenAIRE

This chapter presents an in-depth examination of major renewable energy technologies, including their installed capacity and energy supply in 2009 , the current state of market and technology development, their economic and financial feasibility in 2009 and in the near future, as well as major issues they may face relative to their sustainability or implementation. Renewable energy sources have been important for humankind since the beginning of civilization. For centuries, biomass has ...

Turkenburg, W. C.; Arent, D.; Bertani, R.; Faaij, A. P. C.; Hand, M.; Krewitt, W.; Larson, E. D.; Lund, J.; Mehos, M.; Merrigan, T.; Mitchell, C.; Moreira, J. R.; Sinke, W. C.; Sonntag-o Brien, V.; Thresher, B.

2012-01-01

74

Can renewable energy sources satiate Slovakia's future energy needs?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper examines the options for replacing the current energy mix of non-renewable, conventional energy sources solely with renewable sources in the long term within the context of the Slovak environment, possibly combined with nuclear energy in the 50-year horizon. Vital needs are outlined in household energy consumption and energy consumption for industrial and transportation purposes to fulfil in order for Slovakia to become independent of foreign sources in energy supplies.

Tomis, Igor; Koval, Peter; Janicek, Frantisek; Darula, Ivan

2010-09-15

75

48 CFR 217.175 - Multiyear contracts for electricity from renewable energy sources.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Multiyear contracts for electricity from renewable energy sources. 217.175 Section 217...Multiyear contracts for electricity from renewable energy sources. (a) The head of the...purchase of electricity from sources of renewable energy, as that term is defined in...

2010-10-01

76

Barriers to Investment in Energy from Renewable Sources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper attempts to create an overview of the current situation in the Romanian energy sector, pointing out elements of energy demand, production, investment in the sector and not least the potential of renewable energy sources. As Romania has aligned itself with the European Commission's 20-20-20 program, an important step in achieving the set targets is represented by a significant amount of investments in the development of energy from renewable sources. But there are a number of challenges that investment projects may face, namely, barriers more or less deliberate, more difficult or easier to overcome or remove, some of them real market distortions and others coming from the comparison between green energy and classic sources of energy. So, the last part of the work is dedicated to these barriers. Dividing them into four categories administrative barriers, technical and technological barriers, market barriers and economic barriers allows a better distribution of the identified barriers. It is a comprehensive and equitable approach than their splitting into cost barriers and non-cost barriers, which would have meant a long list for the second category specified.

Corina PÎRLOGEA

2011-06-01

77

A potential of utilizing renewable energy sources and the state support in Slovakia  

OpenAIRE

The renewable energy sources are domestic sources of energy that help to enhance the safety of energy supplies and the diversification of energy sources. The utilization of such sources complies with the environmental acceptability requirement and leads to a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. The renewable energy is proved to be commercially viable for a growing list of consumers and uses. The renewable energy technologies provide many benefits that go well beyond the energy alone. More a...

Lívia Bodonská; Patrícia Repaská

2007-01-01

78

The impacts of renewable energy policies on renewable energy sources for electricity generating capacity  

Science.gov (United States)

Electricity generation from non-hydro renewable sources has increased rapidly in the last decade. For example, Renewable Energy Sources for Electricity (RES-E) generating capacity in the U.S. almost doubled for the last three year from 2009 to 2012. Multiple papers point out that RES-E policies implemented by state governments play a crucial role in increasing RES-E generation or capacity. This study examines the effects of state RES-E policies on state RES-E generating capacity, using a fixed effects model. The research employs panel data from the 50 states and the District of Columbia, for the period 1990 to 2011, and uses a two-stage approach to control endogeneity embedded in the policies adopted by state governments, and a Prais-Winsten estimator to fix any autocorrelation in the panel data. The analysis finds that Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) and Net-metering are significantly and positively associated with RES-E generating capacity, but neither Public Benefit Funds nor the Mandatory Green Power Option has a statistically significant relation to RES-E generating capacity. Results of the two-stage model are quite different from models which do not employ predicted policy variables. Analysis using non-predicted variables finds that RPS and Net-metering policy are statistically insignificant and negatively associated with RES-E generating capacity. On the other hand, Green Energy Purchasing policy is insignificant in the two-stage model, but significant in the model without predicted values.

Koo, Bryan Bonsuk

79

Modeling of an autonomous microgrid for renewable energy sources integration  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The frequency stability analysis in an autonomous microgrid (MG) with renewable energy sources (RES) is a continuously studied issue. This paper presents an original method for modeling an autonomous MG with a battery energy storage system (BESS) and a wind power plant (WPP), with the purpose of frequency stability analysis. A reduced order model is developed, considering only the dominant elements in the frequency control loop. The model's parameters are identified from experimental results, and the presented results are focused on frequency response for variable load and variable wind speed.

Serban, I.; Teodorescu, Remus

2009-01-01

80

A Stochastic Calculus for Network Systems with Renewable Energy Sources  

CERN Document Server

We consider the performance modeling and evaluation of network systems powered with renewable energy sources such as solar and wind energy. Such energy sources largely depend on environmental conditions, which are hard to predict accurately. As such, it may only make sense to require the network systems to support a soft quality of service (QoS) guarantee, i.e., to guarantee a service requirement with a certain high probability. In this paper, we intend to build a solid mathematical foundation to help better understand the stochastic energy constraint and the inherent correlation between QoS and the uncertain energy supply. We utilize a calculus approach to model the cumulative amount of charged energy and the cumulative amount of consumed energy. We derive upper and lower bounds on the remaining energy level based on a stochastic energy charging rate and a stochastic energy discharging rate. By building the bridge between energy consumption and task execution (i.e., service), we study the QoS guarantee under...

Wu, Kui; Marinakis, Dimitri

2011-01-01

81

17% of Renewable Energy Sources at competitive costs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Italian plan of financial incentives for the renewable energy sources (Res) is mainly addressed to the enhancements of technologies for electricity production, shifting onto the users of the electric system a large share of the costs of the stimulation policy. This approach is not efficient however and it will imply very high costs for achieving the 17% Res figure agreed in the European seat. The paper outlines the feasibility of living up to the undertaken commitment at very lower costs promoting the diffusion of Res for heat generation instead of electricity.

82

IRENA Resource [electronic resource] : your source for renewable energy information.  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) is an intergovernmental organisation that supports countries in their transition to a sustainable energy future, and serves as the principal platform for international cooperation, a centre of excellence, and a repository of policy, technology, resource and financial knowledge on renewable energy.

83

Economic aspects and potentials of renewable energy sources in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

While there is a high theoretical potential for renewable energy sources in Germany, assessing theoretical potentials is more or less like playing with numbers; severe technical shortcomings and economic factors prevent then from being fully achieved. Unsuitable azimuth and slope of roofs, shading, absence of central hot water systems limit the application of collectors. The present storage technology is not suitable for a solar share higher than 50%. Individual space heating is not feasible under local climatic conditions. The broad application of biomass fuels fails because of limited resources. Feeding high amounts of fluctuating electricity generated by wind and photovoltaic systems into utility grids causes stability and storage problems. Insufficient training of installation personnel, lack of incentives for multi-family housing owners and high investment costs hinder the market penetration of renewable energy sources. Drastic cost reductions can only be expected from mass production. Therefore, appropriate policy measures - raised energy prices, as well as, subsidies or tax reliefs are necessary for market breakthrough

84

CONCERNING EFICIENCY AND REASONABILITY OF USING RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN THE KRASNODAR REGION ?? ????????????? ? ???????????????? ????????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ? ????????????? ????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the article, we introduce the criteria for the estima-tion of energy and economic efficiency of renewable energy sources as well as of its application and using in the Krasnodar region. Also hereby the main goals are examined and the plan of development of renew-able energy in the region is proposed

Grigorash O. V.

2012-11-01

85

Hybrid Design of Electric Power Generation Systems Including Renewable Sources of Energy  

Science.gov (United States)

With the stricter environmental regulations and diminishing fossil-fuel reserves, there is now higher emphasis on exploiting various renewable sources of energy. These alternative sources of energy are usually environmentally friendly and emit no pollutants. However, the capital investments for those renewable sources of energy are normally high,…

Wang, Lingfeng; Singh, Chanan

2008-01-01

86

Current state and utilization of nontraditional and renewable energy sources in Poland  

OpenAIRE

The aim of the paper is to analyse and assess the use of renewable energy sources in the Polish energy balance for the period 2006-2010. In Poland, in according to the Energy Law (1997), renewable energy sources are sources using the processing power: wind energy, solar radiation, geothermal energy, waves power, energy of currents and tides, energy of river gradient, biogas and biomass. Biomass could be divided into forest biomass, agricultural biomass (mainly energy crops, but also consumer ...

Szyman?ska, Daniela; Chodkowska-miszczuk, Justyna

2012-01-01

87

International Standards to Develop and Promote Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Sources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

International Standards are a powerful tool for disseminating new technologies and good practices, developing global markets and supporting the harmonization of government policies on energy efficiency and renewable sources on a global scale.

NONE

2007-07-01

88

The promotion of renewable energy sources: European experiences and steps forward  

OpenAIRE

This study investigates the instruments used by governments in order to support renewable energy sources in the European Union. The findings of this study reveal that policy goals could be achieved by using a large variety of instruments and renewable energies could be better promoted if policy instruments are harmonized. The study was carried out by combining a wide variety of sources, such as strategies, reports, regulations, and European experiences in promoting renewable energy sources. T...

Zamfir, Andreea

2009-01-01

89

MODELING AND SIMULATION OF RENEWABLE HYBRID ENERGY SOURCES USING MATLAB/SIMULINK ENVIRONMENT  

OpenAIRE

The using on a large scale of renewable energies brought a series of new problems in power energy generation and distribution systems. This represents one of the main reasons for study the impact of renewable energy sources on power systems. The paper proposes an effective study on the impact of renewable energy sources on power systems by using simulation models and the results obtained from these models. In the present paper are conceived Matlab/Simulink simulation models by considering mat...

Cristian-Dragos Dumitru; Adrian Gligor; Adrian-Vasile Duka

2009-01-01

90

AC Motor Drive Fed by Renewable Energy Sources with PWM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this fast aproaching nature of technology the ned of Electricity becomes a mandatory in developing technology. The ned of Electricity increases the power demand where the power demand met by the conventional sources of energy has some disadvantage of polution, this disadvantage can be decreased by the use of the Renewable energy sources like Fuel Cel and available solar energy. When a FUEL cel produces AC power, basicaly two stages are required for conversion first a bosting stage and second is inversion stage. In this paper the Bost inverter topology is achieved where in the conventional methods the normal DC - AC power conversion method is used where as in this paper the PWM based DC - AC inverter has ben used which is useful in reducing the harmonics in the output of the Inverter. The voltage controled output is produced in the bost inverter the curent controled output is taken from dc-dc bidirectional converter. The Fuel cel canot be relied as a whole so a Solar PV module is conected acros the Load so while the Sunlight days the PV arays generate power and in the night time the Fuel cel is used to generate power for the load. Since, the Fuel cel and PV arays can generate power in Partial load they are prefered than any other sources. When the output from the Solar PV aray is low or when the sunlight available is not eficient in generating the power a automatic switch over is provided in the junction betwen the Solar PV aray and Fuel cel so that whenever it hapens the switch automaticaly switch over to another source. The simulation results are presented to confirm the operational feature of the proposed system.

J. Pavalam

2014-01-01

91

The EIB and the financing of renewable energy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a financial institution o the European Union, The European Investment Bank is working and to add substance to the commitments made by the Union and its Member States at Kyoto and subsequently at Johannesburg. Over the last two years, renewable energy sources have attracted funding of more than 1.1 billion from the bank, equivalent to 14% of the total loans granted to the energy sector 7.8 billion), compared to an average o 7.9 % over the previous five years. In order to obviate the detrimental characteristics presented by these investments from a financial viewpoint, in March, 2004 the bank set up a 'CCFF' (Climate Change Financing Facility) of 500 million. Additionally, along with the other financial institutions, the EIB is looking into he possibility of supporting the establishment of European carbon credit trading hubs. Where the economic assessment of these projects is concerned, the bank has decided to take account of external environmental and technological factors when calculating the internal profitability levels for renewable energy projects. Moreover, in order to deal with the problem of who exactly should bear the related risks, the bank is able to offer structured financing. For projects located outside the European Union, venture capital and technical assistance instruments make it possible to promote the emergence of innovative projects. Although we are witnessing the sustained growth of loans from the EIB in this sector, additional efforts still nee this sector, additional efforts still need to be made by the legislature in order to strengthen the framework for such projects including emissions quotas, mechanisms for ensuring the solvency of environmental on-costs and international trading rules adapted to take account of the possible distortion of competition, etc. (author)

92

Renewable and nuclear sources of energy reduce the share of fossil fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper author presents a statistical data use of nuclear energy, renewable sources and fossil fuels in the share of energy production in the Slovak Republic. It is stated that use of nuclear energy and renewable sources reduce the share of fossil fuels.

93

Power Quality Enhancement of Distributed Network fed with Renewable Energy Sources based on Interfacing Inverter  

OpenAIRE

Renewable energy technologies such asphotovoltaics, solar thermal electricity using dish-stirlingsystems, and wind turbine power are environmentallyadvantageous sources of energy that can be considered forelectric power generation. The expenses of renewable energytechnologies have decreased in recent years, so that anever-increasing number of applications can be economicallyjustified by utilities. The integration of generation fromrenewable energy sources into electric power distributionsyste...

Mr.R.Murali,; P.Nagasekhara Reddy,; Mrs. B. Asha Kiran,

2013-01-01

94

Increasing renewable energy sources in island energy supply: case study Porto Santo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

While the energy supply of most islands depends mainly on expensive oil derivatives' importation, the others are linked by usually a weak electricity grid connection to the mainland. Due to high energy costs the islands are proving to be excellent test beds for the introduction of new technologies, and some islands are trying to become so-called renewable islands, to satisfy their energy demand mainly or entirely from indigenous and renewable sources, thus increasing the security of supply, and employment opportunities, without necessarily increasing the costs. Islands that have energy sources, such as hydro or geothermal energy, can easily integrate them into the power system, but those with mainly intermittent renewable energy sources are confronted with the necessity of energy storage. The most promising technologies are reversible hydro where geography allows, and storing hydrogen where it does not. The stored hydrogen can later be used for electricity production, and also for transport. This paper describes the H{sub 2}RES model for optimisation of integration of hydrogen usage with intermittent renewable energy sources on the example of an isolated island in the Madeira archipelago, Porto Santo. It shows that it is possible to significantly increase the penetration of renewable energy sources, albeit at a relatively high cost, with hydrogen storage technology. The H{sub 2}RES model, which includes reversible hydro and batteries as storage technologies, can serve as a valuable tool for island energy planning. (author)

Duic, N. [University of Zagreb (Croatia). Power Engineering Dept.; Carvalho, M. da G. [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

2004-08-01

95

The Examining of Prospective Teachers? Views about Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy Sources: A Case Study of Turkey  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study is to determine prospective teachers? views about renewable and non-renewable energy sources. To collect data, a questionnaire with 5 open-ended questions was conveyed to 463 prospective teachers selected from Agri Ibrahim Cecen University. The results showed that almost three fourths of the prospective teachers tend to…

Hasiloglu, Mehmet Akif

2014-01-01

96

The portfolio of renewable energy sources for achieving the three E policy goals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Renewable energy is considered by many policy-makers to contribute to achieving at least three major policy goals: the energy goal, the environmental goal, and the economic goal (3E goals). As an innovation-oriented island country with scarce natural resources, Taiwan announced the Sustainable Energy Policy Principles in 2008 that stated that Taiwan's renewable energy policy should accomplish the 3E goals. Several studies point out that specific renewable energy policy goals lead to specific renewable energy sources and technologies because each type of renewable energy has different features. In order to achieve the renewable energy policy goals, this research aims to examine how different policy goals lead to corresponding renewable energy sources. The relative importance of each goal is evaluated by using analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The weight of each policy goal is adjusted separately to construct policy scenarios by the sensitivity analysis. According to the results, non-pumped storage hydropower, wind energy, and solar energy are three sources that could meet the three policy goals at the same time. -- Highlights: ?This study aims to propose a portfolio of renewable energy sources to achieve energy, environmental, and economic policy goals for Taiwan. ?Non-pumped storage hydropower performs best to achieve energy and environmental goals. ?Wind energy performs well to accomplish environmental goal. ?Solar energy is the most preferred alternative to achieve economic goal. ?The portfolio of non-pumped storage hydropower, wind energy, and solar energy can accomplish the three E policy goals at the same time.

97

Risk factors influence in renewable energy sources implementation in the country's electricity production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The extension of the share of renewable energy sources in the gross electricity production is determined in significant extent by the influence of the risk factors classified as technological, political and market risks. The risk factors influence analyses concerning future electricity production from renewable energy sources as well as market expectations are presented

98

Renewable energy sources: resistance to change; Energies renouvelables: les resistances au changement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper is the summary of a conference day organised by the students of the 'environment and sustainable development law' Master of Nantes university (France). This interdisciplinary meeting brought together professionals of renewable energy industries who could testify about the resistance of both politicians and the public opinion against the energy transition towards renewable sources. Legal, political, sociological and cultural considerations are put forward to explain this resistance. The French specificity, with an over-representation of nuclear energy, a constraining legal framework for renewable energies, a regional opposition to renewable energy projects (NIMBY syndrome), and a lack of trust in the political class and in its representatives are as many factors that have contributed to build this French 'cultural exception'. (J.S.)

Dubreuil, Th.; Audrain-Demey, G.; Attal, J.Ph.; Lormeteau, B. [Nantes Univ., Droit de l' Environnement et du Developpement Durable, 44 (France)

2011-10-15

99

PROSPECTS OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN PROVINCE OF VOJVODINA  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper presents the outcome of the research in the field of energy efficiency improvement and development of the renewable energy sources in province of Vojvodina (Serbia). The summarized results of the paper are: - Potentials for energy efficiency improvement in Vojvodina, - Potentials for development of renewable energy sources in Vojvodina, - Proposal of measures of the energy policy for the promotion of research and development (R and D) which will use local scientific and technical potentials in the field of renewable energy sources and energy efficiency and improve the sustainability on the long run. - Proposal of measures for the energy policy in the domain of renewable energy sources development and energy efficiency and estimation of potentials for improvements by applying proposed measures in order to accomplish established tasks. - Synthesizing findings and proposals in the Action Plan of the Executive Council of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina for the realization of the medium term program as well as the establishment of the monitoring plan for the assessment of program objectives progress. (auth)

Gvozdenac, D.; Ciric, R.; Tesic, M.

2007-07-01

100

Renewable energy sources - characteristic elements and a view from the regulatory aspect  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present paper outlines the role, specific tasks and the jurisdiction of the Croatian Energy Regulatory Council with specific reference to renewable energy sources. Moreover, the paper outlines the legislative framework, gives an account of the current situation and the characteristics relevant for the implementation of renewable energy sources in the Republic of Croatia. Finally, it provides a review of the future regulatory activities of the Croatian Energy Regulatory Council in the area, and the contents of the Register of the Renewable Energy Sources Projects.(author)

101

Renewable Energy Sources in Romania: A Statistical Approach  

OpenAIRE

Biodiversity is in decline globally and major ecosystems are placed under increasing pressure. Global poverty persists; the Millennium Development Goals would need major efforts to be achieved. This paper will explore the perspective for a new energy sector economy in relation to climate change and the sustainable development objectives. All renewable energy technologies are not appropriate to all applications or locations, however. This paper identifies some of the key environmental and ...

Caragea, Nicoleta; Alexandru, Ciprian Antoniade

2010-01-01

102

Renewable sources of energy in Africa: status of development and future contribution to the energy mix  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Renewable sources of energy in Africa are widely regarded as alternatives to fossil fuels. Being an abundant indigenous reserve, they offer considerable savings of foreign exchange. Also, they are usually regarded as environmentally friendly and thus do not contribute significantly to the greenhouse effect. However, present contributions of renewable energy to the African energy supply remain negligible despite substantial claims often made about the potential scope for renewable energy forms. This paper is based on a comprehensive study undertaken by the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa in 1993-94. The assessment of renewable energy contributions to the energy mix has been made based on data obtained from African countries. A formula reflecting new and renewable sources of energy (NRSE) utilisation was developed and an attempt was made to delineate some zones with identical patterns of utilisation. Some of the difficulties encountered in the dissemination of NRSE and incentives introduced by African countries are also discussed. The conclusion is that African countries acknowledge the role of NRSE technologies in the development of future world energy systems. Yet the probability of NRSE assuming a greater share in energy supplies within the next two decades in Africa is doubtful. (author) 3 tabs., 1 fig., 7 refs

103

Renewable Energy: Capstone  

Science.gov (United States)

This is the culminating activity in the series of lessons on renewable energy. It serves to reinforce the idea that renewable sources of energy are necessary for a sustainable fuure, and to discuss some of the present impacts and potential drawbacks to renewable energy. In the activity, sudents will use online resources to research their present energy consumption and investigate whether it could economically be replaced by renewable sources.

John Pratte

104

Availibility of renewable energy sources in Turkey: Current situation, potential, government policies and the EU perspective  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study aims to explore the availability and potential of renewable energy sources in Turkey as well as assessing related government policies, financial and environmental aspects of renewable energy projects. Turkey is a country which has the highest hydropower, wind and geothermal energy potential among European countries. As a European Union (EU) candidate several incentives were developed in Turkey for electricity generation from renewable energy sources by the enactment of Law No. 5346 in 2005 which was later restructured by Law No. 6094 in 2010. The most important ones are: ease of land acquisition and feed-in-tariffs which promise purchasing of electricity generated and domestic manufacturing of equipment by the private companies with a price of 5.30–9.69 and 0.3–2.55 €c/kWh, respectively, depending on the type of the renewable and the equipment. However, feed-in tariff amounts take reservoir area into account instead of installed capacity for hydroelectric power plants. Moreover, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) report is not mandatory for all renewable energy plants. According to the multi-criteria analysis tool developed in this study to evaluate the renewable energy source (RES) technologies the most appropriate renewable energy alternative for Turkey is biomass, simply because of the highest social benefit among others. - Highlights: ? Availability of renewable energy sources in Turkey is assessed. ? Policies towards renewable energy sourcs towards renewable energy sources are compared to the EU’s policies. ? A multi-criteria analysis tool was developed and biomass is found to be the most appropriate alternative for Turkey. ? Turkey should revise its existing policies towards renewables. ? EIA requirements for power plants should be revised.

105

Superconducting magnetic energy storage in power systems with renewable energy sources  

OpenAIRE

The increasing focus on large scale integration of new renewable energy sources like wind power and wave power introduces the need for energy storage. Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) is a promising alternative for active power compensation. Having high efficiency, very fast response time and high power capability it is ideal for levelling fast fluctuations. This thesis investigates the feasibility of a current source converter as a power conditioning system for SMES appl...

Nielsen, Knut Erik

2010-01-01

106

MODELING AND SIMULATION OF RENEWABLE HYBRID ENERGY SOURCES USING MATLAB/SIMULINK ENVIRONMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The using on a large scale of renewable energies brought a series of new problems in power energy generation and distribution systems. This represents one of the main reasons for study the impact of renewable energy sources on power systems. The paper proposes an effective study on the impact of renewable energy sources on power systems by using simulation models and the results obtained from these models. In the present paper are conceived Matlab/Simulink simulation models by considering mathematical models for hybrid systems based on renewable energy sources applied in the central region of Romania. The models can be implemented in any other Matlab SimPowerSystems simulation and study models and can be used in real simulated systems functioning using Matlab. The experimental results obtained from simulated models and conclusions resulted from the study of the impact of renewable energy hybrid systems on power systems are also presented.

Cristian-Dragos Dumitru

2009-11-01

107

Panorama 2012 - Marine renewable energy sources: their place in energy policy, projects and players  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Marine energy sources are now a reality in the scientific landscape and, from now on, will be an increasingly important feature of the industry. Driven by public policy and renewable energy development targets, projects are multiplying, and industry players are jostling for maximum advantage in the first bidding rounds. (author)

108

National Renewable Energy Laboratory: Learning About Renewable Energy  

Science.gov (United States)

This site describes National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) research into renewable energy technologies and provides information on energy efficiency and various applications of renewable energy. Topics include the major categories of renewable energy (biomass, geothermal, solar, and wind); how renewable energy technologies can be used by consumers and providers; and how renewable energy can be stored and delivered. There is also information on advanced transportation technologies and links to a variety of educational resources for students about renewable energy sources and technologies.

109

Investments in renewable energy sources: the relationship with nuclear power consumptions  

OpenAIRE

The aimof this study is to analyze the driving of investment in renewable energy sources in countries with, or without, nuclear power plants. To address these issues, a dynamic panel analysis of the renewable investment in a sample of 29 countries is proposed. Results demonstrate that investments in renewable sources present an inverse relationship with share of nuclear power generation in countries with nuclear power plants but in the countries with power generation based on fossil fuel, inv...

Antonio Angelo Romano; Giuseppe Scandurra

2014-01-01

110

A potential of utilizing renewable energy sources and the state support in Slovakia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The renewable energy sources are domestic sources of energy that help to enhance the safety of energy supplies and the diversification of energy sources. The utilization of such sources complies with the environmental acceptability requirement and leads to a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. The renewable energy is proved to be commercially viable for a growing list of consumers and uses. The renewable energy technologies provide many benefits that go well beyond the energy alone. More and more, the renewable energies contribute to the three pillars of the sustainable development in the economy, environment and the society.Several renewable energy technologies are established in world markets, building global industries and infrastructures. Other renewables become competitive in growing markets, and some are widely recognised as the lowest cost option for stand-alone and offgrid applications. An increased utilization of renewable energy sources in the heat and electricity generation is one of priority tasks of the Slovak Republic to boost the use of domestic energy potential and thus to decrease the Slovakia’s dependence on imported fossil fuels.

Lívia Bodonská

2007-04-01

111

A potential of utilizing renewable energy sources and the state support in Slovakia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The renewable energy sources are domestic sources of energy that help to enhance the safety of energy supplies and the diversification of energy sources. The utilization of such sources complies with the environmental acceptability requirement and leads to a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. The renewable energy is proved to be commercially viable for a growing list of consumers and uses. The renewable energy technologies provide many benefits that go well beyond the energy alone. More and more, the renewable energies contribute to the three pillars of the sustainable development in the economy, environment and the society. Several renewable energy technologies are established in world markets, building global industries and infrastructures. Other renewables become competitive in growing markets, and some are widely recognised as the lowest cost option for stand-alone and off grid applications. An increased utilization of renewable energy sources in the heat and electricity generation is one of priority tasks of the Slovak Republic to boost the use of domestic energy potential and thus to decrease the Slovakia's dependence on imported fossil fuels. (authors)

112

The Optimal Use of Renewable Energy Sources-The Case of Lemnos Island  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The efficient use of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) is one of the major issues in the modern energy sector. The objective of this work was to examine the potential of wind energy, solar energy (e.g. photovoltaics), biomass energy sources to meet the current energy use in the island of Lemnos in Greece. An optimisation methodology was applied to the energy system of the island, where various Renewable Energy Sources are abundant and could be exploited to satisfy part of the island's energy needs. An optimization model has been developed having as an objective the satisfaction of Lemnos Island energy needs from Renewable Energy Sources taking into consideration a multiplicity of criteria such as environmental impacts, energy demand, energy cost, and resources availability. A series of solutions have resulted, based on deterministic model runs, providing decision makers the flexibility to choose the appropriate solution based on the given situation.

Koroneos, C.; Xydis, George

2012-01-01

113

QUESTIONABLE DEVELOPMENT OF REGULATION OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN THE EUROPEAN UNION  

OpenAIRE

This article focuses on the development and current situation of renewableenergy sources in the European Union in a sphere of Energy law. Energy is a keysector in the European Community which becomes increasingly integrated bothpolitically and economically. Renewable energy sources have nowadays a greatimportance and big volume of legislation highly affects member states of the EuropeanUnion. Article concerns the development of Renewable Energy policy in EuropeanUnion and stress importance of...

PETR FLASAR

2011-01-01

114

Modeling and Implementation of Renewable Energy Sources to Distribution Systems.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Santander : Universidad de Cantabria, 2008, s. 1-6. ISBN 978-84-611-9290-8. [International Conference on Renewable Energies and Power Quality - ICREPQ´08. Santander (ES), 12.03.2008-14.03.2008] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA200760703 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20570509 Keywords : Power Quality Menagement System (POPQMS) * multi-machine dynamics * distribution network Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

Tlustý, J.; Valouch, Viktor

115

Fuel Cells for Balancing Fluctuation Renewable Energy Sources  

OpenAIRE

In the perspective of using fuel cells for integration of fluctuating renewable energy the SOFCs are the most promising. These cells have the advantage of significantly higher electricity efficiency than competing technologies and fuel flexibility. Fuel cells in general also have the advantage of fast regulation abilities combined with excellent part-load efficiencies. Additionally scaling the cells from W to kW to MW is possible and does not influence the efficiencies of the cells. The feasi...

Mathiesen, Brian Vad

2007-01-01

116

The future of renewable energy sources in Romania  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Assuming that RES developments are in line with the indicative targets of the EU Directive for 2010 and that the present support mechanisms applied to EU-15 in the year 2001 remain unchanged at that time, the total RES payments in 2010 for the EU-15 countries using direct support for RES can be estimated at EURO 22 billion, with prices ranging from 2.7 EUROc/kWh in Finland to 9 EUROc/kWh in Germany and Luxembourg, and 11.9 EUROc/kWh in Italy with a weighted average of 6.8 EUROc/kWh. Compared to average wholesale electricity market price, RES support in EU-15 countries in 2010 would amount to 13.3 %, varying between 2.6% in Belgium to about 56% in Denmark. In case of EU-15 countries using only feed-in tariffs to promote RES, the weighted average of RES direct support is 17% If the existing RES direct support schemes continue to 2010 (including feed-in tariffs), this will result in a very substantial level of expenditure, with a significant impact on the average level of European electricity prices, with very significant variability and thus potential market distortions between countries. Romanian Governmental Decision No. 443/2003 aimed to the harmonization of the national legislative framework with EU Directive. The harmonization of Romanian legislative framework with European Union regulation concerning the promotion of renewable resources has to contribute to new renewable resources penetration into the electricity market. The development of the EU green electricityhe development of the EU green electricity market could offer good opportunities for Romania. The harmonization of Romanian legislative framework with European Union regulation concerning the promotion of renewable resources has to contribute to new renewable resources penetration into the electricity market. The important share of large hydroelectricity generated in Romania could represent a good opportunity for Romania to participate in the EU green electricity market, but the key problem in Romania's case is the target of 12.5 % of RES-E in 2010 without large hydroelectricity. The Romania's accession to EU could mean the acceptance to increase the share of renewable in the next years. Such a request, involving the real implementation of schemes for RES support could be very difficult, taking into account the low supportability to increase the electricity price in Romania. Promotion of renewable resources in Romania needs not only legislative support, but financial and economic ones. The essential market and non-market barriers to sustainable renewable energy penetration to the market have to be identified and specific policies and strategies designed to overcome them

117

Fuel Cells for Balancing Fluctuation Renewable Energy Sources  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In the perspective of using fuel cells for integration of fluctuating renewable energy the SOFCs are the most promising. These cells have the advantage of significantly higher electricity efficiency than competing technologies and fuel flexibility. Fuel cells in general also have the advantage of fast regulation abilities combined with excellent part-load efficiencies. Additionally scaling the cells from W to kW to MW is possible and does not influence the efficiencies of the cells. The feasibility of the scaling however depends on the market at hand and the fuel cells characteristics. Wind integration can also be preformed with other types of fuel cells than the SOFCs such as PEMFC in micro-CHP. These however have the disadvantage that the efficiency is lower and require pure hydrogen. PEMFCs have advantages for mobile applications replacing internal combustion engines and batteries were feasible. For mobile applications the PEMFCs have the advantages that they can compete with internal combustion engineswith fast start-up, fast regulation abilities and better efficiencies. In comparison with batteries fuel cells have the advantage that they have higher energy densities and can be refilled instantly, however the storage problems have yet to be solved. As storage and energy carriers methanol and ethanol are the most promising in regards to mass and volume. These can be used directly in SOFCs but have to be reformed for use in PEMFC. New technologies that can provide energy system flexibility, such as SOFCs, heat pumps and heat storage technologies are more important than storing electricity as hydrogen via electrolysis in energy systems with high amounts of wind [12]. Unnecessary energy conversions should be avoided. However in future energy systems with wind providing more than 50% of the electricity and with the best measures for improving flexibility have already been taken, making fuels via electrolysis is one of the alternatives to integrate more renewable energy. Creating the road map to a 100% renewable energy systems require difficult choices between balancing fluctuating renewable with hydrogen production or electric cars, and on the other hand using biomass and bio fuels [11]. Fuel cells can have an important role in these future energy systems.

Mathiesen, Brian Vad

2007-01-01

118

Legislative and policy in energy efficient designing and renewable energy sources: Application in Serbia  

OpenAIRE

This paper analyses political and legislative frames in the field of energy efficient building and renewable energy sources in planning and implementation in Serbia. „Development strategy until 2015.“ is reviewed in concise portrait. This strategy maps a way for the application of energy services of much higher quality than ones offered at a present day. It reviews relevant laws concerning the subject, as well as institutions, programs and their implementation. Basic principles of energy ...

Pucar Mila; Nenkovi?-Rizni? Marina

2007-01-01

119

Power from renewable sources of energy should be promoted  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This short article presents the views of five experts concerning a model for the promotion of the use of solar energy that was developed by the Swiss Association of Electricity Utilities VSE. The model is based on a tendering system for promotion of solar installations. Also, various points of view are presented on the questions concerning the opening of the electricity market in Switzerland, the effect of the introduction of a CO2 levy and the status of the promotion of renewable forms of energy in the future. Opinions on the VSE's model and the competitiveness of Swiss electricity utilities in comparison with those in the European Union are stated

120

Renewable Energy  

Science.gov (United States)

In this lesson, students are introduced to the five types of renewable energy resources by engaging in various activities to help them understand the transformation of energy (solar, water and wind) into electricity. Students explore the different roles engineers who work in renewable energy fields have in creating a sustainable environment – an environment that contributes to greater health, happiness and safety.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

121

Issues, Challenges, Causes, Impacts and Utilization of Renewable Energy Sources - Grid Integration  

OpenAIRE

The renewable energy sources have increased significantly due to environmental issues and fossil fuels elevated cost. Integration of renewable energy sources to utility grid depends on the scale of power generation. Large scale power generations are connected to transmission systems where as small scale distributed power generation is connected to distribution systems. There are certain challenges in the integration of both types of systems directly. Due to this, wind energy h...

Er. Mamatha Sandhu; Dr.Tilak Thakur

2014-01-01

122

An assessment of exploiting renewable energy sources with concerns of policy and technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent years, the Taiwanese government has vigorously promoted the development of renewable energy to engage the challenges of gradual depletion of fossil fuels and oil, as well as the intensification of the greenhouse effect. Since the Sustainable Energy Policy Principles were announced in 2008, Taiwanese government has declared that the development of renewable energy should take into account goals that pertain to energy, the environment, and the economy (3E goals). This study aims to assess the 3E goals and renewable energy sources regulated by the Renewable Energy Development Bill that passed in 2009. The fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) is used to resolve the multi-goal problem for achieving our research purposes. That is, this research attempts to reveal the suitable renewable energy sources for the purposes of meeting the 3E policy goals. The results first show that environmental goal is the most important to the development of various renewable energy technologies in Taiwan, followed by the economic and energy goals. Additionally, hydropower, solar energy, and wind energy would be the renewable energy sources utilized in meeting the 3E policy goals.

123

The duties of public service in relation to cogeneration and renewable energy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In France, the costs of programs for cogeneration and renewable energy are ultimately paid by consumers via mechanisms based on bids, the obligation to purchase at a guaranteed price, and an evaluation made by the energy regulation Commission. The emission permit (or green certificate) guaranties that the amount of electricity delivered by the producer to the distribution network comes from renewable primary energy sources. A special market devoted to emission permits could be set independently from that of electricity, this market would allow electricity producers to reach a minimal ratio of electricity issued from renewable energy sources. The suggestion made is to test in France marketed emission permits before creating a European market

124

Rural population and renewable energy sources: Experiences of the Republic of Serbia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During the last decade of the twentieth century the use of green (renewable energy has become the imperative not only in developed countries worldwide, but also in poorer countries like Asia and Africa. The change from traditional to renewable energy sources carries valuable improvements in environmental protection and economic efficacy. This paper through individual examples, explores the possibility of replacing traditional with renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, geothermal, energy of small hydroelectric power plants, etc. worldwide and in rural Serbian communities.

Pucar Mila

2006-01-01

125

Green Minefield. Renewable sources of energy have both advantages and disadvantages  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Despite being more expensive, renewable energy sources have profound advantages - they are more environment-friendly and help decrease Europe's dependence on foreign energy producers. As a result, the European Union set a target to cover 20% of its energy demand with renewable sources by 2020. Slovakia's target is 14% with the current proportion being barely 7%. Half of this green energy comes from conventional water power plants. The other half is covered by biomass. Other than that, Slovakia is housing some new facilities producing bio fuels from corn and rapeseed. Other energy sources are more expensive. So far, geothermal springs have been used mostly for recreation. Solar and wind energy have hardly shown any development. Some investments have been announced in biogas heating and electricity production. Renewable energy sources are typically subsidized as early as the construction phase. Up to half of the investment costs can be covered by taxpayers' money. Other incentives include tax exemption or guaranteed higher purchase prices. In this area, last year's change in legislation, guaranteeing energy prices for renewable for the next fifteen years, has been crucial. The disadvantage is that higher prices for renewable energy have to be paid by the consumers. In addition, solar and wind energies are highly volatile - depending on weather conditions. This jeopardizes the stability of the national electricity grid and, if left unregulated, could lead to blackouts. Sft unregulated, could lead to blackouts. Slovakia registers applications for up to 3,500 MW worth of new renewable energy sources. (authors)

126

Analyses of the EU renewable energy sources' evolution up to 2020 (FORRES 2020)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Renewable energy sources have the potential to make a large contribution to the sustainable energy future of the European Union. In particular they can help to reach the environmental goals of the EU - especially with regard to the commitments under the Kyoto Protocol - and to increase the security of supply by mitigating the dependence on imported fuels. Finally the development of renewable energy sources can contribute to the goal of the Lisbon process to reach sustainable economic growth and to improve the competitiveness of the European Union on a global scale by creating lead markets for innovative technologies. This study provides an overview of the progress made on the European market for renewable energy sources for the EU-25 Member States. The results and analyses describe the present situation, assess the progress of the Member States with regard to their 2010 targets and show future perspectives of renewable energies until 2020. This report was produced within the scope of the FORRES 2020 study, which was initiated and financed by the European Commission, Directorate-General for Energy and Transport with the aim to: - provide input for monitoring the progress of the targets set in the White Paper 'Energy for the future: Renewable sources of energy', the Directive on the promotion of electricity from renewable energy sources, and the Directive on biofuels - provide insight into future developments of a green energy market in the European Union and Bulgaria and Romania until 2020. (orig.)

Ragwitz, M.; Schleich, J. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Huber, C.; Resch, G.; Faber, T. [Technische Univ., Vienna (AT). Energy Economics Group (EEG); Voogt, M.; Coenraads, R. [Ecofys Cooperatief Advies- en Onderzoeksbureau UA, Utrecht (Netherlands); Cleijne, H. [Keuring van Electrotechnische Materialen NV, Arnhem (Netherlands); Bodo, P. [The Regional Environment Center for Central and Eastern Europe (REC), Szentendre (Hungary)

2005-04-15

127

The Analysis of the Usage And Perspectives of Renewable Energy Sources in Lithuania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents the current situation with the renewable energy sources in Lithuania. An overview of legislation promoting the production and usage of renewable energy in Lithuania is presented. Renewable energy production methods suitable for Lithuanian conditions, their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. It is shown that there is no any promotion from the state for usage of solar energy in private households. The potential of solar energy usage is determined. In order to show the effectiveness of solar thermal energy utilization under similar climatic conditions presented the example of promotion policy model and its results in Poland.Article in Lithuanian

Dominykas Vasarevi?ius

2011-08-01

128

Energy Planning in Selected European Regions - Methods for Evaluating the Potential of Renewable Energy Sources  

OpenAIRE

Given their potentially positive impact on climate protection and the preservation of fossil resources, alternative energy sources have become increasingly important for the energy supply over the past years. However, the questions arises what economic and ecological impacts and potential conflicts over land use resources are associated with the promotion of renewable energy production. Using the examples of three selected European Regions in Poland, France and German, the dissertation discus...

Sliz-szkliniarz, Beata

2013-01-01

129

Algorithm of constructing methods of application of renewable sources of energy at recreational objects ???????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ????????????? ????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article develops an algorithm of assessment of potential of use of renewable sources of energy with the aim to cover needs of recreational objects. The article reveals scientific principles of transformation of the power system and recreational economy of the Crimea on the basis of a wider application of the renewable sources of energy, including the solar one, in the result of which the situation in the region will change: ecological situation will improve, power independence of recreational objects will increase, and probability of man-caused catastrophes will reduce. The article considers results of practical introduction of scientific developments in the sphere of application of renewable sources of energy at recreational objects and offers a logical scheme of the algorithm of construction of methods of application of renewable sources of energy at recreational objects, which include four main stages. Each of the stages and items of the algorithm requires further detalisation and methodical development.????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ??????????????? ????????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ????? ???????? ???? ????????????? ????????. ? ?????? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????? ? ?????????????? ????????? ????? ?? ???? ????? ???????? ????????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ???????, ? ??? ????? ? ?????????, ? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ? ???????: ????????? ????????????? ????????, ????????? ??????????????????? ????????????? ????????, ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????. ?? ?????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ? ????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ????????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ????????????? ????????, ?????????? ? ???? ?????? ???????? ?????. ?????? ?? ?????? ? ??????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ??????????.

Bashta Alexander I.

2013-02-01

130

Guide to funding sources for renewable energy in schools and colleges  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This guide has been designed specifically to identify sources of funding for renewable energy projects in schools, such as a wind generator or a solar water heating system. It is intended for teachers or Friends of associations. (author)

NONE

2000-07-01

131

An extension of compromise ranking method with interval numbers for the evaluation of renewable energy sources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Evaluating and prioritizing appropriate renewable energy sources is inevitably a complex decision process. Various information and conflicting attributes should be taken into account. For this purpose, multi-attribute decision making (MADM methods can assist managers or decision makers in formulating renewable energy sources priorities by considering important objective and attributes. In this paper, a new extension of compromise ranking method with interval numbers is presented for the prioritization of renewable energy sources that is based on the performance similarity of alternatives to ideal solutions. To demonstrate the applicability of the proposed decision method, an application example is provided and the computational results are analyzed. Results illustrate that the presented method is viable in solving the evaluation and prioritization problem of renewable energy sources.

M. Mousavi

2014-06-01

132

Environmental impacts evaluation associated to renewable sources of energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As time goes by, the need for electricity increases and creates several problems to mankind. Health and environmental problems happens wherever a power plant arises. For many people the best option for these problems is to invest in energy alternative sources, such as solar and wind. But unfortunately this sources also generates some environmental and health damages. The objective of this work is to analyze the impacts of these energy sources, to review their utilization all over the world and to discuss its relevance in the global energy market. To make a comparative evaluation, the nuclear option will also be analyzed. (author)

133

Renewable energy sources in European energy supply and interactions with emission trading  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a model-based approach, which allows to determine the optimised structure and operation of the EU-15 electricity supply under different political and economic framework conditions, with a focus on the integration of renewable energy sources for electricity generation (RES-E) in the EU-15 countries. The approach is designed to take into account the characteristics of power production from both renewable and conventional sources, including the technological and economic characteristics of existing plants as well as those of future capacity expansion options. Beyond that, fuel supply structures are modelled, as well as the international markets for power and CO2-certificates with their restrictions. Thus, a profound evaluation of the exploitation of mid-term renewable potentials and an assessment of the market penetration of the various renewable power generation technologies under the (normative) premise of a cost-optimised evolution of the power system becomes possible. Results show that a promotion of renewable energies reduces the scarcity of CO2-emission allowances and thus lowers marginal costs of CO2 reduction up to 30% in 2030. Despite the higher overall costs, a diversification of the energy resource base by RES-E use is observed, as primarily natural gas and nuclear fuels are replaced.

134

Renewable energy sources in European energy supply and interactions with emission trading  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a model-based approach, which allows to determine the optimised structure and operation of the EU-15 electricity supply under different political and economic framework conditions, with a focus on the integration of renewable energy sources for electricity generation (RES-E) in the EU-15 countries. The approach is designed to take into account the characteristics of power production from both renewable and conventional sources, including the technological and economic characteristics of existing plants as well as those of future capacity expansion options. Beyond that, fuel supply structures are modelled, as well as the international markets for power and CO2-certificates with their restrictions. Thus, a profound evaluation of the exploitation of mid-term renewable potentials and an assessment of the market penetration of the various renewable power generation technologies under the (normative) premise of a cost-optimised evolution of the power system becomes possible. Results show that a promotion of renewable energies reduces the scarcity of CO2-emission allowances and thus lowers marginal costs of CO2 reduction up to 30% in 2030. Despite the higher overall costs, a diversification of the energy resource base by RES-E use is observed, as primarily natural gas and nuclear fuels are replaced. (author)

135

An extension of compromise ranking method with interval numbers for the evaluation of renewable energy sources  

OpenAIRE

Evaluating and prioritizing appropriate renewable energy sources is inevitably a complex decision process. Various information and conflicting attributes should be taken into account. For this purpose, multi-attribute decision making (MADM) methods can assist managers or decision makers in formulating renewable energy sources priorities by considering important objective and attributes. In this paper, a new extension of compromise ranking method with interval numbers is presented for the prio...

Mousavi, M.; Tavakkoli-moghaddam, R.

2014-01-01

136

A support of the renewable source energy utilization and conditions for the biogass station investment  

OpenAIRE

This paper describes possibilities of the renewable energy source projects funding and arises an importance of the analysis whichshould be the first step before investing in the generation of energy from renewable sources.The issue of investing in biogas plants is related to particular conditions of the investor. The extent of the investment is never clearand always depends on the company equipment. Therefore, the quality evaluation of the project in the preparatory phase can protectthe inves...

Roland Weiss; Ladislav Mixtaj; Petr ?ervenka; Erik Weiss; Jana Naš?áková

2009-01-01

137

Future prospects for renewable energy sources in a global frame  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this study has been to evaluate the possibilities of some new energy sources (solar, wind) in the future world energy supply. We intend to prepare future projections accounting for limitations in infrastructure, time and material inputs. One underlying assumption in the analyses is that new technologies will see an early market introduction in the near future which would continue up to year 2020. During these 30 years, there will still be technological developments leading to a much better manufacturability, mass production, and hence reduced costs. In year 2020, the industrial and economic infrastructure of new energy sources would be mature for a major penetration into the world energy market starting to substitute existing energy sources mainly for environmental reasons. This scenario will be suported by more factual information and data in the following chapters. Each new energy technology will be handled separately. (Quittner)

138

Expected Rates of Renewable Energy Sources in Meeting of Energy Demands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Taking the expected growth of the world’s population and the estimated technological development and increase in living standards into account, the paper forecasts energy demands. On the basis of the actual production data of 380-400 EJ.year-1 in 2000 and data in publications, the author assumes the total energy demand to be 750-800 EJ.year-1 for 2030, 600-1,000 EJ.year-1 for 2050 and 900-3,600 EJ.year-1 for 2100. The author analyses the appearance of the different energy types in the history of mankind giving the specific heat content and heating value of the different fuels. The environmental advantages, disadvantages, technical and economic limits of application involved in the use of primary renewable energy sources are also dealt with. The analysis of the data in the different prognoses in publications gives the result that fossil fuels will meet 84-85 % of the total energy demand until 2030 in the foreseeable future. In 2050, the fossil rate may be 50-70 % and the rate of renewables may amount to 20-40 %. In 2100, the maximum fossil rate may be 40-50 % with a 30-60 % maximum rate of renewables. On the basis of the results of investigation, the general conclusion may be that the realistically exploitable amount of renewable energy sources is not so unlimitedly high as many suppose. Therefore, it is an illusion to expect that the replacement or substitution of mineral fuels and nuclear energy can be solved relying solely on renewable energies.

Ferenc Kovács

2007-12-01

139

Green power grids: how energy from renewable sources affects network and markets  

CERN Document Server

The increasing attention to environmental issues is forcing the implementation of novel energy models based on renewable sources, fundamentally changing the configuration of energy management and introducing new criticalities that are only partly understood. In particular, renewable energies introduce fluctuations causing an increased request of conventional energy sources oriented to balance energy requests on short notices. In order to develop an effective usage of low-carbon sources, such fluctuations must be understood and tamed. In this paper we present a microscopic model for the description and the forecast of short time fluctuations related to renewable sources and to their effects on the electricity market. To account for the inter-dependencies among the energy market and the physical power dispatch network, we use a statistical mechanics approach to sample stochastic perturbations on the power system and an agent based approach for the prediction of the market players behavior. Our model is a data-d...

Mureddu, Mario; Chessa, Alessandro; Scala, Antonio; Damiano, Alfonso

2015-01-01

140

Evaluation of Renewable Energy Sources and Sustainable Development Planning of Turkey  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this study is to analyse the possibility of using of the renewable energy sources and to find out the using for solving environmental problems in Turkey. Because at present, the preference of energy systems should be made according environmental conditions for sustainable development. The renewable energy resources, with having an important share in the sustainable development of Turkey constitute this studies` material. In this study also, the native and foreign literatures, relat...

Ruya Yilmaz

2006-01-01

141

On the physics of power, energy and economics of renewable electric energy sources - Part II  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Renewable Energy Technologies (RETs) are often recognized as less competitive than traditional electric energy conversion systems. Obstacles with renewable electric energy conversion systems are often referred to the intermittency of the energy sources and the relatively high maintenance cost. However, due to an intensified discourse on climate change and its effects, it has from a societal point of view, become more desirable to adopt and install CO2 neutral power plants. Even if this has increased the competitiveness of RETs in a political sense, the new goals for RET installations must also be met with economical viability. We propose that the direction of technical development, as well as the chosen technology in new installations, should not primarily be determined by policies, but by the basic physical properties of the energy source and the associated potential for inexpensive energy production. This potential is the basic entity that drives the payback of the investment of a specific RET power plant. With regard to this, we argue that the total electric energy conversion system must be considered if effective power production is to be achieved, with focus on the possible number of full loading hours and the Degree of Utilization. This will increase the cost efficiency and economical competitiveness of RET investments, and could enhance faster diffusion of new innovations and installations without over-optimistic subsidies. This paper elaborates on tstic subsidies. This paper elaborates on the overall problem of the economy of renewable electric energy conversion systems by studying the interface between physics, engineering and economy reported for RET power plants in different scientific publications. The core objective is to show the practical use of the Degree of Utilization and how the concept is crucial for the design and economical optimization disregarding subsidies. The results clearly indicate that the future political regulative frameworks should consider the choice of renewable energy source since this strongly affects the economical output from the RET power plants. (author)

142

Evaluation of Renewable Energy Sources and Sustainable Development Planning of Turkey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyse the possibility of using of the renewable energy sources and to find out the using for solving environmental problems in Turkey. Because at present, the preference of energy systems should be made according environmental conditions for sustainable development. The renewable energy resources, with having an important share in the sustainable development of Turkey constitute this studies` material. In this study also, the native and foreign literatures, related to use of non-renewable sources and landscape planning studies, were used as a materials. The study was carried out in some stages by collecting and analyzing data. Natural and cultural properties were also determined by surveys and data obtaining and on-site observation and measurement. The importance of the primary energy production and consumption of Turkey were emphasised. Throughout the paper several issues relating to renewable energy, environment and sustainable development are examined from both current and future perspectives in Turkey.

Ruya Yilmaz

2006-01-01

143

Covering of heating load of object by using ground heat as a renewable energy source  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rational use of energy, improving energy performance of buildings and use of renewable energy sources are the most important measures for reducing consumption of non-renewable primary energy (solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels, environmental protection and for the future sustainable development of mankind. In the total primary energy consumption great part is related to building industry, for heating spaces in which people stay and live. Renewable energy sources (RES present natural resources and they are one of the alternatives that allow obtaining heat for heating buildings, and by that they provide a significant contribution to the energy balance of a country. This paper analyzes the participation of ground source as RES, when the vertical (the probe in the ground and horizontal (registry in the ground heat exchangers are used for covering heating load of the building.

?enejac Aleksandra R.

2012-01-01

144

Assessment of practices and technologies of energy saving and renewable energy sources in hotels in Crete  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study aims to assess the state of the art of practices and technologies of energy saving and renewable energy sources in hotels. This will contribute to determining the potential of efficient and sustainable energy technologies integration. Hotel managers were interviewed face to face and information sessions were provided. Special energy and environmental awareness campaigns, sectoral tourism programs for climate change mitigation and adaptation, supportive policies and hotel energy investments and renovation programs are some recommendations elicited from the results of this study. (author)

Zografakis, Nikolaos [Regional Energy Agency of Crete, Region of Crete, 71202 Heraklion (Greece); Gillas, Konstantinos; Pollaki, Antrianna; Profylienou, Maroulitsa; Bounialetou, Fanouria [Department of Economics, University of Crete, University Campus, 74100 Rethymno (Greece); Tsagarakis, Konstantinos P. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, 67100 Xanthi (Greece)

2011-05-15

145

Analytical investigation of low temperature lift energy conversion systems with renewable energy source  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The efficiency of the renewable energy powered energy conversion system is typically low due to its moderate heat source temperature. Therefore, improving its energy efficiency is essential. In this study, the performance of the energy conversion system with renewable energy source was theoretically investigated in order to explore its design aspect. For this purpose, a computer model of n-stage low temperature lift energy conversion (LTLEC) system was developed. The results showed that under given operating conditions such as temperatures and mass flow rates of heat source and heat sink fluids the unit power generation of the system increased with the number of stage, and it became saturated when the number of staging reached four. Investigation of several possible working fluids for the optimum stage LTLEC system revealed that ethanol could be an alternative to ammonia. The heat exchanger effectiveness is a critical factor on the system performance. The power generation was increased by 7.83% for the evaporator and 9.94% for the condenser with 10% increase of heat exchanger effectiveness. When these low temperature source fluids are applied to the LTLEC system, the heat exchanger performance would be very critical and it has to be designed accordingly. - Highlights: •Energy conversion system with renewable energy is analytically investigated. •A model of multi-stage low temperature lift energy conversion systems was developed. •The system performance increases as the stage number is increased. •The unit power generation is increased with increase of HX effectiveness. •Ethanol is found to be a good alternative to ammonia

146

Renewable Power Sources  

OpenAIRE

Of all of the sources of renewable energies available one can argue that the most abundant and accessible are solar power, radiation, and the energy of the tides (70 % of the earth surface is covered by water). The tidal wave energy hasn’t seen a widespread distribution yet, mainly due to the lack of interest of the governments, most of the coastal areas of the world are exclusive responsibility of the governments, thus not easily open for private venture. Considering solar power, there exi...

Bonifa?cio, Paulo

2005-01-01

147

PROFIT MAXIMIZATION AND OPTIMAL SIZING OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN A HYBRID SYSTEM  

OpenAIRE

The renewable energy sources wind, solar etc. have become very essential and important in the generation mix as a result of rising energy demand and environmental reasons. In addition tax is being imposed on high carbon emission. But the uncertainty and variability associated with renewable such as wind may result in economical andtechnical problems in the power system. In order to compensate wind intermittency, generation resources such as gas plant, pumped storage unit etc. are employed due...

YAJVENDER PAL VERMA; ASHWANI KUMAR

2010-01-01

148

Renewable energy annual 1995  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Renewable Energy Annual 1995 is the first in an expected series of annual reports the Energy Information Administration (EIA) intends to publish to provide a comprehensive assessment of renewable energy. This report presents the following information on the history, status, and prospects of renewable energy data: estimates of renewable resources; characterizations of renewable energy technologies; descriptions of industry infrastructures for individual technologies; evaluations of current market status; and assessments of near-term prospects for market growth. An international section is included, as well as two feature articles that discuss issues of importance for renewable energy as a whole. The report also contains a number of technical appendices and a glossary. The renewable energy sources included are biomass (wood), municipal solid waste, biomass-derived liquid fuels, geothermal, wind, and solar and photovoltaic.

NONE

1995-12-01

149

Renewable energy annual 1995  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Renewable Energy Annual 1995 is the first in an expected series of annual reports the Energy Information Administration (EIA) intends to publish to provide a comprehensive assessment of renewable energy. This report presents the following information on the history, status, and prospects of renewable energy data: estimates of renewable resources; characterizations of renewable energy technologies; descriptions of industry infrastructures for individual technologies; evaluations of current market status; and assessments of near-term prospects for market growth. An international section is included, as well as two feature articles that discuss issues of importance for renewable energy as a whole. The report also contains a number of technical appendices and a glossary. The renewable energy sources included are biomass (wood), municipal solid waste, biomass-derived liquid fuels, geothermal, wind, and solar and photovoltaic

150

Mechanism for supporting the use of renewable energy sources  

OpenAIRE

Member states of EU put bigger stress to the using of RES. Ambitious goal of EU till 2010 was to achieve 12 % rate of RESon the whole energy consumption. Therefore there were created many institutional and financial tools and schemes for support of RESusing and they will be important part of the energy sources structure. One of the basic prirorites of energetic policy in Slovakiais increasing of the RES rate on the production of heat and electricity with goal to create adequate additional sou...

Roland Weiss; Zuzana Fabiánová; Mária Antošová

2010-01-01

151

Supply of Renewable Energy Sources and the Cost of EU Climate Policy  

OpenAIRE

What are the excess costs of a separate 20% target for renewable energy as a part of the EU climate policy for 2020? We answer this question using a computable general equilibrium model, WorldScan, which has been extended with a bottom-up module of the electricity sector. The model set-up makes it possible to directly use available estimates of costs and capacity potentials for renewable energy sources for calibration. In our base case simulation, the excess costs of the renewables target are...

Boeters, Stefan; Koornneef, Joris

2010-01-01

152

Multi-port power electronic interface for renewable energy sources  

Science.gov (United States)

Energy intensive products and services are penetrating people's daily life as well as different sectors of industry during recent decades. Further effort to improve efficiency, reduce green house gas and hazardous particle emission lead to the emergence of the "more electric" concept in several industries including transportation. This trend, however, burdens the aging power system and existing local power networks. To offer a remedy to the problem and a smooth transition to a more reliable, more diverse, and more efficient power grid of the future, the concept of Multi-port Power Electronic Interface (MPEI) for localized power processing is introduced in this dissertation, which interfaces and manages various sources, loads and storages. Different means of integrating multiple sources and storages into the existing power system are studied and evaluated; the six phase-leg structure is chosen to interface five sources/loads: fuel cell, wind turbine, solar cell, battery and utility grid. Partitioning of source-interface and load-interface on a system level as well as analysis and modeling on small signal level are performed. A novel control structure for source-interface is proposed in the design, which forms Controlled Quasi Current Source (CQCS) during the load sharing operation and offers several salient advantages: • Inherent average current-mode control. • Easy share of steady state current/power. • Share of load dynamics for better source protection. Local control loops for various input ports are designed based on linearized system model; controller performance is tuned to accommodate the characteristics of different sources. To maintain a sustainable operation, different modes of operation are defined for MPEI; detailed state-transition with associated events are also defined in each operation mode. Prototype of MPEI is built and control system is implemented digitally in a digital signal processor; steady state and transient performance of MPEI is tested under variety of meaningful conditions, which proves the feasibility of the proposed design. The concepts, analysis and design of MPEI conducted in this dissertation pave the way for designing of intelligent power electronic infrastructure for future sustainable energy systems.

Jiang, Wei

153

Integration of renewable energy sources for a sustainable energy policy at Djibouti  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Generally, the predictable exhaustion of the fossil fuels, the necessity of fighting against the global warming, the awareness for the protection of the environment and finally the consideration of the sustainable development in energy policies put the renewable energies in the heart of a strategic stake for the future of our planet. But for the Republic of Djibouti which currently knows an annual economic growth of 3,5 %, it is almost vital to exploit its potential in renewable energies to ensure its economic growth, to realize savings of currencies and to initially achieve the Millennium human development goals whose calendar is fixed at 2015. Unfortunately, the country knows the same energy situation of the countries of sub-Saharan Africa where the energy is plentiful but the electricity is rare. Indeed, the current energy balance of the country is strongly overdrawn. The 97 % of the energy needs of the population (mainly urban in more than 85 %) are satisfied by the imports of oil productions and 90 % of the Djiboutians households use the kerosene as domestic fuel. The cover rate for the electricity network is very low, about 30 %. Only 0,2 % of the electric production (with a total capacity installed of 130 MW) is made from a unique source of renewable energy ( the photovoltaic solar energy). Nevertheless, the country has an important potential in renewable energies. At the level of the photovoltaic solar energy (PV), the technically exploitable solar potential is estimated in 1535 GWh/day. At the level of the wind energy, the estimation of the currently exploitable potential is 8 MW and yet no form of wind energy (whether it is the big or the small wind energy) is exploited in the country. At the level of the geothermal energy, the technically exploitable potential is estimated between 350 and 650 MWe. The economically exploitable potential for the only region of Assal-Ghoubbet is higher than 150 MWe, very widely upper to the current needs of the country. At the level of the tidal energy, a not yet estimated potential exists and could be exploited at the level of the pass of Goubbet. The energy planning that we propose for the average length-term bases on the integration of one of the potential renewable energies and more particularly the noblest of them: the geothermal energy. Indeed, the geothermal energy possesses advantages which the other forms of renewable energies do not have: it is a basic energy, independent from the climate, susceptible to be exploited at the same time for the production of the heat and the electric production. The electric plan which we propose is the following one: on the horizon 2015, we consider that the electric request will be situated near 165 MW. Therefore, we recommend 74,5 % of fossil fuels (with a substitutable option in warm period by the electricity imported from Ethiopia to a total value of 30,3 %) and 25,5 % of renewable energies (including 18,2 % of geothermal energy, 6,8 % of wind energy and 0,5 % of solar energy). (author)

154

Renewable Energy Trust  

Science.gov (United States)

The Renewable Energy Trust, which was created by the Massachusetts Legislature in 1998, is administered by the Massachusetts Technology Collaborative, a statewide quasi-public economic development agency. The Collaborative "seeks to maximize environmental and economic benefits for the Commonwealthâ??s citizens by pioneering and promoting clean energy technologies and fostering the emergence of sustainable markets for electricity generated from renewable sources." The website provides information on the Trust's various programs and activities. The Energy Information section of the website provides more information about renewable energy and suggestions for what energy users can do as well as resources for teaching students about renewable energy and global warming.

155

Citizens’ preferences on nuclear and renewable energy sources: Evidence from Turkey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Based on data from a face-to-face survey of 2422 residents from urban Turkey, this paper presents an analysis of citizens’ preferences in Turkey on nuclear and renewable energy sources. Findings indicate that opposition to nuclear power was strong, and only a small number of respondents endorsed it by listing it in their top two choices. Conversely, almost two-thirds of the sample endorsed investment in renewable energy sources (such as wind and solar), and only a small minority was opposed to it. Econometric analyses revealed that knowledge of the climate change problem was a common factor that explained endorsement of both nuclear and renewables. Yet, high levels of concern for the environment and a negative perception regarding its future differentiated the endorsers of renewables from those of nuclear energy. Endorsers of nuclear energy were found to be males who were knowledgeable about climate change and engaged in environmental issues, but less concerned about the environment, and optimistic about its future. Nuclear opponents, on the other hand, were found to be concerned about the environment, pessimistic about its future, and not fully relying on technology. - Highlights: ? We explore determinants of citizens’ preferences for renewable and nuclear energy. ? The analysis is based on a survey conducted in urban Turkey with 2422 respondents. ? Knowledge of climate change is a common factor of renewable and nuclear endorsement. ? Divergences relate tsement. ? Divergences relate to environmental concern and optimism, and reliance on technology. ? Energy conflicts emerge as complex and related to environmental values and attitudes.

156

The Investments in Renewable Energy Sources: Do Low Carbon Economies Better Invest in Green Technologies?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyse the driving of investment in renewable energy sources in low carbon and high carbon economies. To address these issues, a dynamic panel analysis of the renewable investment in a sample of 29 countries was proposed. Results demonstrate that the dynamic of investments in renewable sources is similar in the two panels, and depends by nuclear power generation, GDP and technological efficiency. Results show that countries try to reduce their environmental footprint, decreasing the CO2 intensity. Based on the estimation results, we think that energy sustainability passes through the use of renewable resources that can complement the nuclear technology on condition that both exceed their limits.

Antonio Angelo Romano

2011-01-01

157

Renewable Energy News  

Science.gov (United States)

Renewable Energy News is a comprehensive source which provides world-wide updates on all aspects of renewable energies. The site provides links to organizations and web directories of related products and information. The site is organized in a user-friendly way with issues organized by topic or region. Science, technology, economy energy, and nuclear review are highlighted areas of news.

158

Research and development as contribution of the Renewable Energy Sources Centre to the wind energy utilization in Slovakia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The expected development of renewable energy sources utilization was not reached in last years in Slovakia. This is caused by some barriers. These barriers decrease the easiness of investments into the Renewable energy sources utilization. We recognize specific barriers for each of renewable energy sources and general barriers for all renewable energy sources. Activities of the Renewable Energy Sources Centre help to eliminate both specific and general barriers in Slovakia. The main activities are: a realization of research projects, working out expertise and feasibility studies, information of public about principals and specifics of the wind energy utilization. How the Renewable Energy Sources Centre encourages of the utilization wind energy can be demonstrated on one of the research projects: The designing a stable standpoint with a sufficient storage tank of wind energy, possibly of compressed air. The wind energy serves as a primary resource when it powers the compressor, which fills the pneumatic accumulator (storage tank of compressed air). The compressed air is at a time of peak endurance consumed from pneumatic accumulators for the work of pneumatic engine, which powers the generator and the produced electric energy is being supplied to the public network. (authors)

159

Experimental investigation of jojoba as a renewable energy source  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work examined jojoba (oil and cake) as possible alternative fuel sources. Jojoba is a shrub that grows very well in deserts and its cake is the solid part produced upon processing of the jojoba seeds for oil extraction. In this study, pure jojoba oil and 50/50 blends with diesel fuel were tested as fuels in a single cylinder diesel engine. The diesel fuel was the baseline of comparison throughout the runs. The cake was tested for both direct combustion (pellets) and as a substrate for biogas production. The pellets were formed by compacting the cake in cylindrical dies using a hydraulic press while the biogasification was conducted in an anaerobic digester model Bioflo 110 from Brunswick. The findings indicate that the optimum injection pressure for jojoba oil in the engine is 210 bars at which engine speed was maximum (2700 rpm), NO{sub x} and CO emissions as well as exhaust temperature were minimum. Using jojoba cake for biogasification resulted in a yield of about 600 ml biogas per 400 g of jojoba cake. Burning jojoba compacted cake (pellets) for direct combustion in a stove indicated that jojoba cake sustained a temperature in excess of 300 C for a reasonable amount of time and that the cake was very competitive to wood and has energy content more than most types of wood. Overall, it may be stated that both jojoba oil and cake hold real promise as alternative energy sources. (author)

Al-Widyan, Mohamad I. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Jordan University of Science and Technology, PO Box 3030, Irbid 22110 (Jordan); Al-Muhtaseb, Mu' taz A. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Jordan, PO Box 961060, Amman 11196 (Jordan)

2010-08-15

160

Experimental investigation of jojoba as a renewable energy source  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work examined jojoba (oil and cake) as possible alternative fuel sources. Jojoba is a shrub that grows very well in deserts and its cake is the solid part produced upon processing of the jojoba seeds for oil extraction. In this study, pure jojoba oil and 50/50 blends with diesel fuel were tested as fuels in a single cylinder diesel engine. The diesel fuel was the baseline of comparison throughout the runs. The cake was tested for both direct combustion (pellets) and as a substrate for biogas production. The pellets were formed by compacting the cake in cylindrical dies using a hydraulic press while the biogasification was conducted in an anaerobic digester model Bioflo 110 from Brunswick. The findings indicate that the optimum injection pressure for jojoba oil in the engine is 210 bars at which engine speed was maximum (2700 rpm), NOx and CO emissions as well as exhaust temperature were minimum. Using jojoba cake for biogasification resulted in a yield of about 600 ml biogas per 400 g of jojoba cake. Burning jojoba compacted cake (pellets) for direct combustion in a stove indicated that jojoba cake sustained a temperature in excess of 300 deg. C for a reasonable amount of time and that the cake was very competitive to wood and has energy content more than most types of wood. Overall, it may be stated that both jojoba oil and cake hold real promise as alternative energy sources.

161

Are renewable energy sources the environmentally friendly problem solution? Pt. 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The possibilities and limits of renewable energy sources for energy supply in Germany continue to be a central topic in discussions about energy economy. Against this background the different uses of renewable energy sources are compared with each other, taking regional variations of supply into account. The publication deals with the following energy sources: solar thermal and geothermal low-temperature energy generation, photovoltaic power generation, wind and hydro-electric power generation, harnessing of organic wastes or by-products of farming and forestry (inter alia, straw, wood), as well as other organic wastes and fuel crops yielding solid or liquid fuels. For these options the potentials and costs are analyzed and discussed within the energy-economic boundary conditions of the Federal Republic of Germany. (orig.)

162

The island context in electricity production. Corsica: a land of renewable energy sources?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Corsica's specific characteristics, (in particular the fact that it is not connected to the continental electricity network and its major potential where natural energy sources are concerned) have led to this region diversifying its electrical energy sources. Hydroelectricity represents approximately 25 % of the island's electricity requirements while two fuel fired stations produce 50 % of the demand and a further 20 % is imported from Italy via a DC cable. As a result of its public sector obligations, EDF must apply uniform prices throughout the country, which naturally means that the company generates a large deficit in Corsica. A determined policy in the field of renewable energy sources may help to significantly improve this unusual situation. The objective that the various key players in the energy field have set themselves is to derive 40 % of the total electric production in 2010 from production methods using renewable energy sources. (authors)

163

A support of the renewable source energy utilization and conditions for the biogas station investment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes possibilities of the renewable energy source projects funding and arises an importance of the analysis which should be the first step before investing in the generation of energy from renewable sources. The issue of investing in biogas plants is related to particular conditions of the investor. The extent of the investment is never clear and always depends on the company equipment. Therefore, the quality evaluation of the project in the preparatory phase can protect the investor against a direct damage and disappointment. (authors)

164

Summary for Policy Makers: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report Renewable Energy Sources (SRREN)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Working Group III Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation (SRREN) presents an assessment of the literature on the scientific, technological, environmental, economic and social aspects of the contribution of six renewable energy (RE) sources to the mitigation of climate change. It is intended to provide policy relevant information to governments, intergovernmental processes and other interested parties. This Summary for Policymakers provides an overview of the SRREN, summarizing the essential findings. The SRREN consists of 11 chapters. Chapter 1 sets the context for RE and climate change; Chapters 2 through 7 provide information on six RE technologies, and Chapters 8 through 11 address integrative issues.

Arvizu, Dan; Bruckner, Thomas; Christensen, John; Devernay, Jean-Michel; Faaij , Andre; Fischedick, Manfred; Goldstein, Barry; Hansen, Gerrit; Huckerby , John; Jager-Waldau, Arnulf; Kadner, Susanne; Kammen, Daniel; Krey, Volker; Kumar, Arun; Lewis , Anthony; Lucon, Oswaldo; Matschoss, Patrick; Maurice, Lourdes; Mitchell , Catherine; Moomaw, William; Moreira, Jose; Nadai, Alain; Nilsson, Lars J.; Nyboer, John; Rahman, Atiq; Sathaye, Jayant; Sawin, Janet; Schaeffer, Roberto; Schei, Tormod; Schlomer, Steffen; Sims, Ralph; von Stechow, Christoph; Verbruggen, Aviel; Urama, Kevin; Wiser, Ryan; Yamba, Francis; Zwickel, Timm

2011-05-08

165

POLICIES AND MEASURES FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES AND ACHIEVEMENT OF TARGETS BY 2020 IN CROATIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper is considering set up a longer-term perspective and plan of actions for the development of renewable energy infrastructure in Croatia in accordance with the new Croatian Energy Sector Development Strategy. Overall target till the year 2020 has been calculated in accordance with effort sharing methodology used for Directive 2009/28/EC. The paper presents some main existing policies and measures for achieving this ambitious target, including feed-in tariffs, guarantees of origin, and greenhouse gas emissions taxation. It is addressed the necessity for creating enabling environment for promotion of renewable energy sources and gradually remove barriers for its stronger penetration on the energy market.

Igor Raguzin

2010-01-01

166

Feasibility study of offshore wind farms along the Indian coastline for renewable source of alternate energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The energy crisis in India is continually increasing as conventional and non-renewable energy sources are depleting. India's focus has therefore shifted from non-renewable to renewable energy sources, particularly on wind energy. India ranks fifth in the world in wind power generation. However, none of the wind power generation is through offshore wind farms although they have been proven to be technically and economically feasible. The establishment of offshore wind farms could ease India's power demand by tapping the unlimited potential of wind energy of one of the world's largest coastlines. This presentation discussed a techno-commercial feasibility of setting up offshore wind farms on Indian coastline. The feasibility study was based on some of the parameters such as wind resource availability, foundation conditions at the seabed, logistical commercial feasibility, and assessment of environmental impacts. The purpose of the study was to identify potential sites for setting-up offshore wind farms along the Indian coastline as an alternate and renewable source to conventional energy production. The presentation discussed the world scenario for wind power and an assessment of factors affecting data collection and project feasibility assessment. A wind energy resource map in India was also presented. The presentation also provided cost estimation using the RET-Screen clean energy project analysis software. It was concluded that at most of the sites along the Indian coastline, the wind velocities were in the range that would be profitable over the years. refs., tabs., figs.

Matsagar, V. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Delhi (India). Dept. of Civil Engineering

2010-07-01

167

Stabilization of microgrid with intermittent renewable energy sources by SMES with optimal coil size  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A controller design of a superconducting magnetic energy storage unit is proposed. The structure of a power controller is the practical proportional-integral (PI). The PI parameters and coil size are tuned by a particle swarm optimization. The proposed method is able to effectively alleviate power fluctuations. It is well known that the superconducting coil is the vital part of a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) unit. This paper deals with the power controller design of a SMES unit with an optimal coil size for stabilization of an isolated microgrid. The study microgrid consists of renewable energy sources with intermittent power outputs i.e., wind and photovoltaic. Since power generations from such renewable sources are unpredictable and variable, these result in power fluctuations in a microgrid. To stabilize power fluctuations, a SMES unit with a fast control of active and reactive power can be applied. The structure of a power controller is the practical proportional-integral (PI). Based on the minimization of the variance of power fluctuations from renewable sources as well as the initial stored energy of SMES, the optimal PI parameters and coil size are automatically and simultaneously tuned by a particle swarm optimization. Simulation studies show that the proposed SMES controller with an optimal coil size is able to effectively alleviate power fluctuations under various power patterns from intermittent renewable sources.newable sources.

168

Municipal solid waste (MSW) as a renewable source of energy: current and future practices in China.  

Science.gov (United States)

With rapid economic growth and massive urbanization, China faces the problem of municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal and the pressing need for development of alternative energy. Waste-to-energy (WTE) incineration, which recovers energy from discarded MSW and produces electricity and/or steam for heating, is recognized as a renewable source of energy and is playing an increasingly important role in MSW management in China. This article provides an overview of the WTE industry, discusses the major challenges in expanding WTE incineration in China, namely, high capital and operational costs, equipment corrosion, air pollutant emissions, and fly ash disposal. A perspective on MSW as a renewable energy source in China is also presented. Currently, only approximately 13% of MSW generated in China is disposed in WTE facilities. With the significant benefits of environmental quality, the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and government policies and financial incentives as a renewable energy source, WTE incineration industry is expected to experience significant growth in the coming decade and make greater contribution to supplying renewable energy in China. PMID:20137912

Cheng, Hefa; Hu, Yuanan

2010-06-01

169

Potential contributions of renewable energy sources and economically and ecologically feasible development strategies for Nordrhein-Westfalen. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This final technical report of the study contains the important equations and results of the above mentioned project. The main aim of the study was to show the importance of renewable energy in Nordrhein-Westfalen regarding its possible contribution to the energy supply as well as the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions, caused by the convertion of energy. Considering the energy sources photovoltaic, solar heating, wind and biomass, an economically oriented energy mix of renewable energy systems is developed, which describes the most economical combination of renewable energy sources and its production costs in dependence on the converted energy. In this connection a regional disaggregated estimation of the theoretical possible maximum contribution of the single renewable energy sources to the energy supply in the communities of Nordrhein-Westfalen is investigated. Basing on this estimation and on the technical datas of commerical manufactured systems, converting the energy sources sun, wind and biomass, the technical possibilities for an extension of the renewable energy are determined for every community. The result of the examinations shows, that the energy supply in Nordrhein-Westfalen could by based in future on barely a fourth by using renewable energy sources, on barely a third by using energy more efficient and on nearly the half by using fossil and nuclear energy sources. The costs however, which would be connected with an extension of renewable energy sources according to the suggested energy mix, can economical not be accepted in the further future. (orig./UA)

170

Renewable energy application in Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Pakistan the energy sources are limited while there is huge demand for commercial energy. Therefore to meet the massive demand, an energy transition from limited fossil fuel reserves to abundant renewable energy sources has become inevitable. With a modest programme for renewable energy utilisation, a number of different government and semi government organizations are operating renewable system in different parts of the country. The progress made in renewable energy state has been discussed in this paper. (author)

171

Promotion of electricity produced from renewable energy sources - Strategic objective of the Romania energy policy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper presents different types of support schemes for promoting electricity produced from renewable energy sources in some countries from European Union and details concerning the primary and secondary legislation developed in Romania in the field of promotion of electricity produced from renewable energy sources, making a rehearse of the acts issued. Romania has a clear regulatory framework in the field of promoting E-RES, the green certificates market becoming operational from November 2005, when the first green certificates transaction session organised by SC OPCOM SA took place. With hydro energy being exception from the rule, the Romanian RES potential is almost unused, existing the possibility for promotion some efficient investments in units which produce E-RES, turning to good account to the best emplacements. Although the achievements in using RES are still modest, taking into consideration the attention of numerous investors and the way that the support scheme worked until now, with advantages for the existing E-RES producers, it is expected an acceleration of the rhythm of appearance of new investments. In order to actuate the investors attention, a stronger involvement of the local authorities is necessary, for identifying and promoting the most efficient RES using projects

172

Stabilization of microgrid with intermittent renewable energy sources by SMES with optimal coil size  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A controller design of a superconducting magnetic energy storage unit is proposed. The structure of a power controller is the practical proportional-integral (PI). The PI parameters and coil size are tuned by a particle swarm optimization. The proposed method is able to effectively alleviate power fluctuations. It is well known that the superconducting coil is the vital part of a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) unit. This paper deals with the power controller design of a SMES unit with an optimal coil size for stabilization of an isolated microgrid. The study microgrid consists of renewable energy sources with intermittent power outputs i.e., wind and photovoltaic. Since power generations from such renewable sources are unpredictable and variable, these result in power fluctuations in a microgrid. To stabilize power fluctuations, a SMES unit with a fast control of active and reactive power can be applied. The structure of a power controller is the practical proportional-integral (PI). Based on the minimization of the variance of power fluctuations from renewable sources as well as the initial stored energy of SMES, the optimal PI parameters and coil size are automatically and simultaneously tuned by a particle swarm optimization. Simulation studies show that the proposed SMES controller with an optimal coil size is able to effectively alleviate power fluctuations under various power patterns from intermittent renewable sources.

Saejia, M., E-mail: samongkol@gmail.com [School of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520 (Thailand); Ngamroo, I. [School of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520 (Thailand)

2011-11-15

173

Potential of hydrogen from oil palm biomass as a source of renewable energy worldwide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Various catastrophes related to extreme weather events such as floods, hurricanes, droughts and heat waves occurring on the Earth in the recent times are definitely a clear warning sign from nature questioning our ability to protect the environment and ultimately the Earth itself. Progressive release of greenhouse gases (GHG) such as CO2 and CH4 from development of various energy-intensive industries has ultimately caused human civilization to pay its debt. Realizing the urgency of reducing emissions and yet simultaneously catering to needs of industries, researches and scientists conclude that renewable energy is the perfect candidate to fulfill both parties requirement. Renewable energy provides an effective option for the provision of energy services from the technical point of view. In this context, biomass appears as one important renewable source of energy. Biomass has been a major source of energy in the world until before industrialization when fossil fuels become dominant and researches have proven from time to time its viability for large-scale production. Although there has been some successful industrial-scale production of renewable energy from biomass, generally this industry still faces a lot of challenges including the availability of economically viable technology, sophisticated and sustainable natural resources management, and proper market strategies under competitive energy markets. Amidst these challenges, the development andidst these challenges, the development and implementation of suitable policies by the local policy-makers is still the single and most important factor that can determine a successful utilization of renewable energy in a particular country. Ultimately, the race to the end line must begin with the proof of biomass ability to sustain in a long run as a sustainable and reliable source of renewable energy. Thus, the aim of this paper is to present the potential availability of oil palm biomass that can be converted to hydrogen (leading candidate positioned as the energy of the millennium) through gasification reaction in supercritical water, as a source of renewable energy to policy-makers. Oil palm topped the ranking as number 1 fruit crops in terms of production for the year 2007 with 36.90 million tonnes produced or 35.90% of the total edible oil in the world. Its potentiality is further enhanced by the fact that oil constitutes only about 10% of the palm production, while the rest 90% is biomass. With a world oil palm biomass production annually of about 184.6 million tons, the maximum theoretical yield of hydrogen potentially produced by oil palm biomass via this method is 2.16 x 1010 kg H2 year-1 with an energy content of 2.59 EJ year-1, meeting almost 50% of the current worldwide hydrogen demand. (author)

174

Potential of hydrogen from oil palm biomass as a source of renewable energy worldwide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Various catastrophes related to extreme weather events such as floods, hurricanes, droughts and heat waves occurring on the Earth in the recent times are definitely a clear warning sign from nature questioning our ability to protect the environment and ultimately the Earth itself. Progressive release of greenhouse gases (GHG) such as CO2 and CH4 from development of various energy-intensive industries has ultimately caused human civilization to pay its debt. Realizing the urgency of reducing emissions and yet simultaneously catering to needs of industries, researches and scientists conclude that renewable energy is the perfect candidate to fulfill both parties requirement. Renewable energy provides an effective option for the provision of energy services from the technical point of view. In this context, biomass appears as one important renewable source of energy. Biomass has been a major source of energy in the world until before industrialization when fossil fuels become dominant and researches have proven from time to time its viability for large-scale production. Although there has been some successful industrial-scale production of renewable energy from biomass, generally this industry still faces a lot of challenges including the availability of economically viable technology, sophisticated and sustainable natural resources management, and proper market strategies under competitive energy markets. Amidst these challenges, the development andidst these challenges, the development and implementation of suitable policies by the local policy-makers is still the single and most important factor that can determine a successful utilization of renewable energy in a particular country. Ultimately, the race to the end line must begin with the proof of biomass ability to sustain in a long run as a sustainable and reliable source of renewable energy. Thus, the aim of this paper is to present the potential availability of oil palm biomass that can be converted to hydrogen (leading candidate positioned as the energy of the millennium) through gasification reaction in supercritical water, as a source of renewable energy to policy-makers. Oil palm topped the ranking as number 1 fruit crops in terms of production for the year 2007 with 36.90 million tonnes produced or 35.90% of the total edible oil in the world. Its potentiality is further enhanced by the fact that oil constitutes only about 10% of the palm production, while the rest 90% is biomass. With a world oil palm biomass production annually of about 184.6 million tons, the maximum theoretical yield of hydrogen potentially produced by oil palm biomass via this method is 2.16x1010 kg H2 year-1 with an energy content of 2.59 EJ year-1, meeting almost 50% of the current worldwide hydrogen demand

175

Unified System-Level Modeling of Intermittent Renewable Energy Sources and Energy Storage for Power System Operation  

OpenAIRE

The system-level consideration of inter- mittent renewable energy sources and small-scale en- ergy storage in power systems remains a challenge as either type is incompatible with traditional operation concepts. Non-controllability and energy-constraints are still considered contingent cases in market-based operation. The design of operation strategies for up to 100 % renewable energy systems requires an explicit consideration of non-dispatchable generation and stor- ...

Heussen, Kai; Koch, Stephan; Ulbig, Andreas; Andersson, Goran

2010-01-01

176

An assessement of on-site renewable energy source consideration with original building construction procurement efforts  

Science.gov (United States)

As energy resources are needed in abundance to sustain the ever evolving global economy, the world's energy dependency for good reason, is beginning to shift. Various studies have shown that although fossil fuels are still the primary source of energy for the world, the utilization of more sustainable energy resources is on the rise. However due to current competitive bidding strategies and underlying practices that typically consider sustainable features such as renewable energy sources as costly additions rather than effective options to program requirements, building construction procurement strategies have been slow to embrace this change. In this thesis, a methodology is derived for assessing the overall benefits of utilizing a renewable energy source as a program option from the original building construction procurement effort. This methodology was developed by utilizing project procurement methods and techniques, in addition to certain life cycle costing concepts. Data from the original procurement of The Basic School in Quantico, Virginia was used to apply this methodology. The results of this application and supplemental research show that the incorporation of a renewable energy source into the original building construction procurement effort as opposed to additions that are incorporated later in the project procurement effort produced cost and schedule benefits. Furthermore, a contractor could apply this methodology to similar projects that incorporate sustainable features into its original design and cost estimates, and utilize the findings of the application in the technical components of future projects.

Sneed, Troy Lenard, Jr.

177

Stabilization of microgrid with intermittent renewable energy sources by SMES with optimal coil size  

Science.gov (United States)

It is well known that the superconducting coil is the vital part of a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) unit. This paper deals with the power controller design of a SMES unit with an optimal coil size for stabilization of an isolated microgrid. The study microgrid consists of renewable energy sources with intermittent power outputs i.e., wind and photovoltaic. Since power generations from such renewable sources are unpredictable and variable, these result in power fluctuations in a microgrid. To stabilize power fluctuations, a SMES unit with a fast control of active and reactive power can be applied. The structure of a power controller is the practical proportional-integral (PI). Based on the minimization of the variance of power fluctuations from renewable sources as well as the initial stored energy of SMES, the optimal PI parameters and coil size are automatically and simultaneously tuned by a particle swarm optimization. Simulation studies show that the proposed SMES controller with an optimal coil size is able to effectively alleviate power fluctuations under various power patterns from intermittent renewable sources.

Saejia, M.; Ngamroo, I.

2011-11-01

178

Electricity generation from renewable energy sources in Italy: the costs of the System Inefficiencies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The promotion of electricity from renewable energy sources (RES) is a high European Union (E U) priority for several reasons, including the security and diversification of energy supply, environmental protection and social and economic cohesion. The Eu Council's decision of 9 March 2007 points towards increasing renewable penetration to 20% of total primary energy supply by 2020 (binding target). There are both costs and benefits associated with the achievement of such an ambitious target. For renewable technologies, the industrial cost is often higher compared to other energy sources. however, due to learning curve effects and market diffusion, technology related costs are coming down considerably. In some cases, when the external costs are taken into account by the price system, renewable can now be close to competitive with fossil fuels. With particular reference to renewable electricity in Italy, its development is often hampered by burdensome and time consuming authorisation procedures with the consequence of a high mortality rate for the investments in the sector, leading to increased costs for the project management. Therefore, in these projects an important cost factor is the high cost of capital due to risk. The analysis of the various renewables' support mechanisms currently in place in the E U shows that some types of incentive have proven to be more efficient than others in reducing the risk perception of investors and financing institutions, therefore mak and financing institutions, therefore making projects less expensive by reducing the cost of capital (both debt and equity). Therefore the focus here is on the electricity generation costs of some renewable technologies and on the costs related to the additional risk perceived by investors/lenders in the sector. The authors estimate the additional cost of capital which investors pay when operating in a risky environment. Some policy indications are finally given to reduce the non-technology related costs for a faster and more efficient growth of the sector.

179

Renewable energy sources and their contribution to the domestic energy production and consumption in Italy in the year 1995  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The overall electricity demand reached 261 TWh from 253.6 TWh, reflecting the 3.0 % growth of the gross domestic product recorded over the same period. The contribution of renewable energy sources (hydroelectricity, geothermal energy, biomass, solar, wind) to the national energy consumption in 1995 has been 12.8 Mtoe. It represented 7.4 % of the gross energy consumption

180

Some successful financing mechanisms for energy efficiency projects (EE) and projects using renewable energy sources (RES) - the experience of Bulgaria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper analysis some of the most promising financial mechanisms for energy efficiency (EE) and renewable energy sources (RES) projects in Bulgaria - the TPF mechanism, the KIDS Fund, delivered by the EBRD fund the EE fund of the WB, established on the floor of the EE act, as well as a number of some of the pre accession and European energy programs used for financing this area. All data its rich intensive international and in -home work in the are of energy efficiency and renewable energy sources. (Author)

181

Renewable energy sources and climate change mitigation. Special report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Climate change is one of the great challenges of the 21st century. Its most severe impacts may still be avoided if efforts are made to transform current energy systems. Renewable energy sources have a large potential to displace emissions of greenhouse gases from the combustion of fossil fuels and thereby to mitigate climate change. If implemented properly, renewable energy sources can contribute to social and economic development, to energy access, to a secure and sustainable energy supply, and to a reduction of negative impacts of energy provision on the environment and human health. This Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation (SRREN) impartially assesses the scientific literature on the potential role of renewable energy in the mitigation of climate change for policymakers, the private sector, academic researchers and civil society. It covers six renewable energy sources - bioenergy, direct solar energy, geothermal energy, hydropower, ocean energy and wind energy - as well as their integration into present and future energy systems. It considers the environmental and social consequences associated with the deployment of these technologies, and presents strategies to overcome technical as well as non-technical obstacles to their application and diffusion. The authors also compare the levelized cost of energy from renewable energy sources to recent non-renewable energy costs. (Author)

Edenhofer, O. (Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK), Potsdam (Germany)); Pichs Madruga, R. (Centro de Investigaciones de la Economia Mundial (CIEM), Hanoi (Viet Nam)); Sokona, Y. (African Climate Policy Centre, United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)) (and others)

2012-07-01

182

The integration of renewable energy sources into electric power distribution systems. Volume 1: National assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Renewable energy technologies such as photovoltaic, solar thermal electricity, and wind turbine power are environmentally beneficial sources of electric power generation. The integration of renewable energy sources into electric power distribution systems can provide additional economic benefits because of a reduction in the losses associated with transmission and distribution lines. Benefits associated with the deferment of transmission and distribution investment may also be possible for cases where there is a high correlation between peak circuit load and renewable energy electric generation, such as photovoltaic systems in the Southwest. Case studies were conducted with actual power distribution system data for seven electric utilities with the participation of those utilities. Integrating renewable energy systems into electric power distribution systems increased the value of the benefits by about 20 to 55% above central station benefits in the national regional assessment. In the case studies presented in Vol. II, the range was larger: from a few percent to near 80% for a case where costly investments were deferred. In general, additional savings of at least 10 to 20% can be expected by integrating at the distribution level. Wind energy systems were found to be economical in good wind resource regions, whereas photovoltaic systems costs are presently a factor of 2.5 too expensive under the most favorable conditions.

Barnes, P.R.; Van Dyke, J.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Tesche, F.M. [6714 Norway Road, Dallas, TX (United States); Zaininger, H.W. [Zaininger Engineering Co., San Jose, CA (United States)

1994-06-01

183

An investigation of energy harvesting from renewable sources with PVDF and PZT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Piezoelectric materials have been in use for many years; however, with an increasing concern about global warming, piezoelectricity has gained significant importance in research and development for extracting energy from the environment. In this work the voltage responses of ceramic based piezoelectric fibre composite structures (PFCs) and polymer based piezoelectric strips, PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride), were evaluated when subjected to various wind speeds and water droplets in order to investigate the possibility of energy generation from these two natural renewable energy sources for utilization in low power electronic devices. The effects of material dimensions, drop mass, releasing height of the drops and wind speed on the voltage output were studied and the power was calculated. This work showed that piezoelectric polymer materials can generate higher voltage/power than ceramic based piezoelectric materials and it was proved that producing energy from renewable sources such as rain drops and wind is possible by using piezoelectric polymer materials

184

A credit line appropriated for energy efficiency and renewable energy sources in Bulgaria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The credit line was developed by the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) in co-operation with the Bulgarian government. In this financial project several bulgarian banks are involved. The purpose of this project is to support mainly the private enterprises in the sector of energy efficiency and renewable energy sources. The main steps of the applying process are discussed and useful practical information is given. In Bulgaria till now 125 projects are successful financed with total amount about 72 million Euro. The projects will generate annually more than 457 000 MWh electric power and 615 285 MWh thermal power, as well as an annual reduction of about 494 200 t CO2 emissions is expected

185

Wind Power: A Renewable Energy Source for Mars Transit Vehicle  

Science.gov (United States)

The Martian environment presents significant design challenges for the development of power generation systems. Nuclear-based systems may not be available due to political and safety concerns. The output of photovoltaics are limited by a solar intensity of 580 W/sqm as compared to 1353 W/sqm on Earth. The presence of dust particles in the Mars atmosphere will further reduce the photovoltaic output. Also, energy storage for a 12-hour night period must be provided. In this challenging environment, wind power generation capabilities may provide a viable option as a Martian power generation system. This paper provides an analysis of the feasibility of such a system.

Flynn, Michael; Kohout, Lisa; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

1998-01-01

186

Tennessee plant species screened for renewable energy sources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The USDA Northern Regional Research Center (NRRC) has previously studied chemical and botanical characteristics of about 1000 plant species in efforts to identify potential new plant sources for industrial raw materials. For this report, an additional 51 species were collected from Tennessee and studied. Above-ground plant samples were analyzed for yields of oils, polyphenols, hydrocarbons, protein, and ash. Oils were examined for the presence of seven classes of lipids and analyzed for yields of fatty acids and unsaponifiable matter. Hydrocarbons were examined for the presence of rubber, gutta, and waxes. Rubber and gutta were analyzed for average molecular weight (MW) and MW distribution. Chemical and botanical data are presented for eight of the 51 species. A checklist of the 43 other species is given; data on these are available from NRRC. Lapsana communis yielded the most oil (6.1%; dry, ash-free, plant sample basis). Ilex montana yielded the most polyphenol (21.5%) plus 4.5% oil. Agrimonia parviflora and Catalpa bignonioides gave substantial yields of polyphenol (20.0% and 17.9%, respectively), and Passiflora incarnata contained the most apparent protein (19.8%). Chrysopsis graminifolia, Solidago erecta, and Verbesina alternifolia were identified as rubber-producing species with 0.4-0.7% hydrocarbon.

Carr, M.E.; Bagby, M.O.

187

Solar, wind and waves: Natural limits to renewable sources of energy within the Earth system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Renewable sources of energy, such as solar, wind, wave, or hydropower, utilize energy that is continuously generated by natural processes within the Earth system from the planetary forcing. Here we estimate the limits of these natural energy conversions and the extent to which these can be used as renewable energy sources using the laws of thermodynamics. At most, wind power in the order of 1 000 TW (1 TW = 1E12 W) can be derived from the total flux of incoming solar radiation of 175 000 TW, which is consistent with estimates based on observations. Other generation rates that are derived from the kinetic energy of wind are in the order of 10-100 TW. In comparison, the human primary energy demand of about 17 TW constitutes a considerable fraction of these rates. We provide some further analysis on the limits of wind power using a combination of conceptual models, observational data, and numerical simulation models. We find that many current estimates of wind power substantially overestimate the potential of wind power because the effect of kinetic energy extraction on the air flow is neglected. We conclude that the only form of renewable energy that is available in substantial amounts and that is associated with minor climatic impacts is solar power.

Kleidon, Axel [Max-Planck-Institute for Biogeochemistry, Jena (Germany)

2013-07-01

188

Solar, wind and waves: Natural limits to renewable sources of energy within the Earth system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Renewable sources of energy, such as solar, wind, wave, or hydropower, utilize energy that is continuously generated by natural processes within the Earth system from the planetary forcing. Here we estimate the limits of these natural energy conversions and the extent to which these can be used as renewable energy sources using the laws of thermodynamics. At most, wind power in the order of 1 000 TW (1 TW = 1E12 W) can be derived from the total flux of incoming solar radiation of 175 000 TW, which is consistent with estimates based on observations. Other generation rates that are derived from the kinetic energy of wind are in the order of 10-100 TW. In comparison, the human primary energy demand of about 17 TW constitutes a considerable fraction of these rates. We provide some further analysis on the limits of wind power using a combination of conceptual models, observational data, and numerical simulation models. We find that many current estimates of wind power substantially overestimate the potential of wind power because the effect of kinetic energy extraction on the air flow is neglected. We conclude that the only form of renewable energy that is available in substantial amounts and that is associated with minor climatic impacts is solar power.

189

Renewable energy sources for the world's poor: a review of current international development assistance programs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Foreign assistance funding of the creation, testing, and use of renewable energy sources concerning worldwide efforts to provide energy for Third World development is examined. Donor agencies and developing nations give serious attention to technologies that have been considered exotic and marginal: small-scale hydroelectric generation, solar water heating and distillation, biomass conversion to methane gas and alcohol, wind power, photovoltaic-powered small-scale irrigation, and village-level solar-powered absorption refrigeration. An initial effort to assist in the international coordination of donor activity and in the sharing of information generated by foreign-assistance projects that use renewable energy sources is reported. The report mainly provides information about specific development projects. It contains only a few of the projects that have been approved and funded by 1 June 1979. (MCW)

Ashworth, J. H.

1979-10-01

190

A practical algorithm for distribution state estimation including renewable energy sources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Renewable energy is energy that is in continuous supply over time. These kinds of energy sources are divided into five principal renewable sources of energy: the sun, the wind, flowing water, biomass and heat from within the earth. According to some studies carried out by the research institutes, about 25% of the new generation will be generated by Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) in the near future. Therefore, it is necessary to study the impact of RESs on the power systems, especially on the distribution networks. This paper presents a practical Distribution State Estimation (DSE) including RESs and some practical consideration. The proposed algorithm is based on the combination of Nelder-Mead simplex search and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithms, called PSO-NM. The proposed algorithm can estimate load and RES output values by Weighted Least-Square (WLS) approach. Some practical considerations are var compensators, Voltage Regulators (VRs), Under Load Tap Changer (ULTC) transformer modeling, which usually have nonlinear and discrete characteristics, and unbalanced three-phase power flow equations. The comparison results with other evolutionary optimization algorithms such as original PSO, Honey Bee Mating Optimization (HBMO), Neural Networks (NNs), Ant Colony Optimization (ACO), and Genetic Algorithm (GA) for a test system demonstrate that PSO-NM is extremely effective and efficient for the DSE problems. (author)

Niknam, Taher [Electronic and Electrical Department, Shiraz University of Technology, Modares Blvd., P.O. 71555-313, Shiraz (Iran); Firouzi, Bahman Bahmani [Islamic Azad University Marvdasht Branch, Marvdasht (Iran)

2009-11-15

191

BPS, energy efficiency and renewable energy sources for buildings greening and zero energy cities planning harmony and ethics of sustainability  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Traditional village houses now use renewable materials and energy sources and this paper presents the intrinsic harmony of these buildings' greening and their sustainability. The paper covers building technical systems, sustainable energy supply, and the importance of renewable raw materials (RMS) for sustainable development. This study investigated the role of building dynamic behavior and optimized energy efficiency in reducing thermal loads significantly. A preliminary design for sustainable energy efficient settlements with net zero energy buildings is proposed and a comprehensive multidisciplinary engineering study was done which identified the technical feasibility of sustainable village energy and water supplies using solar or wind technologies. Overall, through analysis of sustainability definitions and possible ways to achieve sustainability, the study demonstrated that this can only be brought about by interdisciplinary interaction and finding the right balance between materiality and spirituality, science and art, and between technological development and concern for cultural and other human values.

Todorovic, Marija S. [University of Belgrade, Serbia and Southeast University (China)

2011-07-01

192

Renewable Energy Sources in the New Member States of the EU. Germany and Italy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The EU-Japan Centre aims to stimulate industrial cooperation between the EU and Japan, including in the field of energy. It has therefore set up a New Energy Programme, which is in operation since 1987. Within the context of this programme, exchanges of European and Japanese specialists on renewable energy are organised, and studies on specific topics initiated. Previous studies of the EU Japan Centre were carried out on liberalization of the EU electricity market, EU support policies, waste as an energy source, wind energy and hydrogen. The study in this report, which CE Environmental Solutions carried out for the Centre, is directed at the development of renewable energy sources (RES) in the new member states of the European Union. This topic is of particular interest to the Centre, as such RES projects can be also carried out by Japanese firms under the Joint Implementation provisions of the Kyoto-protocol. The link of Joint Implementation projects to the European Emission Trading System, which is due to start on 1 January 2005, offers new business opportunities to Japanese firms. This study describes the status of renewable energy in the new member states of the European Union, Germany and Italy. The study also focuses on the European Emission Trading System (ETS), and analyses business opportunities for Japan that arise through RES projects in relation to the emissions trading system. This report starts with an discussion of EU climate change policies and in part of EU climate change policies and in particular the EU emissions trade system, which is due to start on January 1st, 2005 (Chapter 2). In Chapter 3 we give an overview of policies and developments in renewable energy in the EU in which we focus on the policy framework, recent developments and expectations. This Chapter is based on more detailed overviews for each individual country, which are given in the annexes. Each country study also contains one typical case study of development of a renewable energy source in that country. Finally, in Chapter 4 overall conclusions of renewable energy developments in the new member states, Germany and Italy is given, focusing on future prospects and chances for investors

193

Hyperactivation of lignin peroxidase for utilization of lignocellulosic biomass as renewable energy source  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The most abundant renewable energy source is lignocellulosic biomass. Next to cellulose, lignin is the second most abundant resource, accounting for about 40 per cent of the solar energy stored in plants. In lignocellulosic material, the polysaccharide components form microfibres and are densely packed in layers of lignin, protecting them against the activity of hydrolytic enzymes and other external factors. Therefore, the cellulose fibers in lignincellulosic material are extremely resistant to biodegradation. Because lignin physically protects most of the world cellulose and hemicellulose from enzymatic hydrolysis, lignin biodegradation is central to the carbon cycle. However, lignin is extremely recalcitrant and is mineralized in an obligatory aerobic oxidative process, carried out appreciably only by the white-rot fungi. The purification and immobilization of lignin peroxidase (LiP) produced by phanerochaete chrysosporium for utilization of lignocellulosic biomass as renewable energy source is studied. It was concluded that immobilization in hydrophobic xerogels resulted in hyperactivation of the phanerochaete chrysosporium LiP. Immobilization also enhanced pH and temperature stability properties of the enzyme. This suggests its potential applications for LiP immobilization that may be used in lignocellulosic biomass utilization as a renewable source of energy. 32 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

Asghar, M.; Bhatti, H.N.; Asad, M.J.; Legge, R.L. [Univ. of Agriculture, Faisalabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Chemistry

2006-07-01

194

Renewable energy sources and nuclear installations; Erneuerbare Energien und neue Nuklearanlagen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This comprehensive work report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) made by the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI takes a look at work done in connection with the updating of the office's Energy Perspectives. In particular, the topic of electricity is reviewed in the light of pending important decisions in the area of nuclear energy and the newer renewable sources of energy. The report makes an attempt to estimate the effect on Swiss power production that the new renewables and new nuclear installations could have in the next 30-40 years and to what costs this could be done and which obstacles would have to overcome. The renewable energy sources include small hydro, wind, photovoltaics, solar thermal power plants, biogas, geothermal energy, wave-power and solar chemistry. The methods used include literature study and contacts with internal PSI experts on the various areas involved. The most important system characteristics were noted and learning curves for the various technologies were taken into account. Ecological and social factors were also considered

Hirschberg, S.; Bauer, Ch.; Burgherr, P.; Stucki, S.; Vogel, F.; Biollaz, S.; Schulz, T.; Durisch, W.; Hardegger, P.; Foskolos, K.; Meier, A.; Schenler, W.

2005-02-15

195

Prioritization of renewable energy sources for Turkey by using a hybrid MCDM methodology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • The paper proposes a hybrid model to prioritize RE sources for Turkey. • The hybrid model based on BOCR and ANP is proposed under linguistic values. • Strategic criteria are economy, security, wellbeing, technology and global effects. • Nineteen criteria are used to evaluate hydro, geothermal, solar, wind and biomass. - Abstract: Developing countries such as Turkey, with their fast growing population and economy, are facing an increasing demand for energy. Turkey does not possess a sufficient quantity of domestic oil and natural gas resources to support this growing demand. On the other hand, the country does have abundant reserves of renewable energy that can be a major component in providing part of the overall energy supply. The country plans to explore its renewable energy (RE) sources and increase the renewable energy share in near future. With this in mind, this paper proposes a hybrid model based on BOCR (Benefits, Opportunities, Costs and Risks) and ANP (Analytic Network Process) to determine Turkey’s energy status and prioritize alternative RE sources. BOCR analysis provides a strategic analysis and detailed overview of the country’s energy issues. ANP is a practical multi criteria decision making (MCDM) method and offers the advantages of decision making models, based on tangible and intangible factors. 19 criteria are used to evaluate five alternative RE sources (Hydro, Geothermal, Solar, Wind and Biomass). The subsequent results show that the most important strategic criterion is economy; other criteria include security, human wellbeing, technology and global effects. Their weights are 0.485, 0.235, 0.130, 0.097 and 0.053, respectively. In the conclusion of this paper, the authors propose hydro power as the optimal RE source for the country

196

Electricity from renewable energy sources in The Netherlands. Current status and prospects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An overview is given of the latest regulatory developments for electricity from renewable energy sources in the Netherlands. In the current confusion regarding the development of the REB (Dutch Energy Tax), the eligibility of sources and imports for the tax rebate, the changes brought to the green certificate system in the Dutch electricity system, this report attempts to provide you with the answers to your questions. Included are a detailed explanation of both article 36o) and 36i) of the Dutch Law on Environmental Taxes, supported by among other things diagrams, an overview of current suppliers and their pricing strategy, and tables on the expected changes to the present situation

197

Synchronization of grid-connected renewable energy sources under highly distorted voltages and unbalanced grid faults  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Renewable energy sources require accurate and appropriate performance not only under normal grid operation but also under abnormal and faulty grid conditions according to the modern grid codes. This paper proposes a novel phase-locked loop algorithm (MSHDC-PLL), which can enable the fast and dynamic synchronization of the interconnected renewable energy system under unbalanced grid faults and under highly harmonic distorted voltage. The outstanding performance of the suggested PLL is achieved by implementing an innovative multi-sequence/harmonic decoupling cell in order to dynamically cancel out the oscillation of the positive sequence voltage vector, produced by the existence of unbalanced and harmonic distorted voltage. The fast and accurate response of the proposed PLL under abnormal grid conditions is very important for the appropriate synchronization and control of the interconnected renewable energy systems. Therefore, the performance of the new PLL can increase the quality of the injected power under abnormal conditions and in addition enable the renewable energy systems to provide the appropriate support to the grid under balanced and unbalanced grid faults.

Hadjidemetriou, Lenos; Kyriakides, Elias

2013-01-01

198

A review of net metering mechanism for electricity renewable energy sources  

OpenAIRE

In this work, an overview of the net metering mechanism for renewable energy sources for power generation (RES-E) systems is carried out. In particular, the net metering concept is examined with its benefits and misconceptions. Furthermore, a survey of the current operational net metering schemes in different countries in the world, such as, in Europe, USA, Canada, Thailand and Australia, is carried out. The survey indicated that there are different net metering mechanisms depending on the pa...

Andreas Poullikkas, George Kourtis

2013-01-01

199

Dynamic pricing based on a cloud computing framework to support the integration of renewable energy sources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Integration of renewable energy sources into the electric grid in the domestic sector results in bidirectional energy flow from the supply side of the consumer to the grid. Traditional pricing methods are difficult to implement in such a situation of bidirectional energy flow and they face operational challenges on the application of price-based demand side management programme because of the intermittent characteristics of renewable energy sources. In this study, a dynamic pricing method using real-time data based on a cloud computing framework is proposed to address the aforementioned issues. The case study indicates that the dynamic pricing captures the variation of energy flow in the household. The dynamic renewable factor introduced in the model supports consumer oriented pricing. A new method is presented in this study to determine the appropriate level of photovoltaic (PV penetration in the distribution system based on voltage stability aspect. The load flow study result for the electric grid in Kerala, India, indicates that the overvoltage caused by various PV penetration levels up to 33% is within the voltage limits defined for distribution feeders. The result justifies the selected level of penetration.

Rajeev Thankappan Nair

2014-12-01

200

Public utilities with renewable energy sources. Proceedings; Stadtwerke mit Erneuerbaren Energien. Konferenzband  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Within the 3rd EUROSOLAR Conference at 25th to 26th May, 2009, in Ludwigshafen (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (a) Municipal power supply - Renewable energies (Hermann Scheer); (b) The significance of municipal regulations for the development of renewable energies by the example of Rheinland-Pfalz (Gerhard Weissmueller); (c) The solar regulation of the city Marburg (Franz Kahle); (d) Large-area solar-potential register SUN-AREA, the example Osnabrueck (Martina Klaerle); (e) Energy autonomy by means of methods at municipal and state level (Stephan Grueger); (f) Concession process according to paragraph 46 EnWG as a start for a locally regenerative strategic reorientation (Christian Theobald); (g) Municipal utilities and regenerative power generation (Johannes van Bergen); (h) The hybrid power plant Enertrag (Michael Wenske); (i) Eco-power with ecological added value (Uwe Leprich); (j) Increase of added value at biogas by means of grid connection (Leonhard Thien); (k) Biogas products for private customers (Oliver Hummel); (l) Marketing of biogas as a fuel - WEGAS Wendlaender BioGas (Hans-Volker Marklewitz); (m) Geothermal heat in the Upper Rhine Graben by the example of the geothermal power plant Landau (Peter Hauffe); (n) The Act on Heating with Renewable Energy Sources - A chance for new fields of business for municipal utilities (Klara Siraki); (o) Direct marketing of electricity from renewable energies as a chance for municipal utilities (Martin Altrock, Matthias Stark); (p) The significance of EEG and EEWaermeG 2009 in the further enlargement of renewable energies (Fabio Longo); (q) Taking over of the gas grid by the municipal utility Waldkirch GmbH (Dieter Nagel); (r) Municipal added value - municipal economical effects of decentral power generation (Michael Wuebbels).

NONE

2009-09-25

201

Energy from Waste: Reuse of Compost Heat as a Source of Renewable Energy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An in-vessel tunnel composting facility in Scotland was used to investigate the potential for collection and reuse of compost heat as a source of renewable energy. The amount of energy offered by the compost was calculated and seasonal variations analysed. A heat exchanger was designed in order to collect and transfer the heat. This allowed heated water of 47.3?C to be obtained. The temperature could be further increased to above 60?C by passing it through multiple tunnels in series. Estimated costs for installing and running the system were calculated. In order to analyse these costs alternative solar thermal and ground source heat pump systems were also designed. The levels of supply and economic performance were then compared. A capital cost of £11,662 and operating cost of £1,039 per year were estimated, resulting in a cost of £0.50 per kWh for domestic water and £0.10 per kWh for spatial heat. Using the heat of the compost was found to provide the most reliable level of supply at a similar price to its rivals.

B. Antizar-Ladislao

2010-01-01

202

A method for allocating renewable energy source subsidies among final energy consumers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a new context of growing need for renewable energy sources (RES), tariff design has become a critical component of energy system regulation. A methodology for allocating the cost of RES subsidies that ensures an optimal balance between compliance with the main regulatory principles of tariff design and each state's specific policy is of cardinal importance in the current context. This paper presents and discusses a novel methodology to allocate the RES subsidy costs, which consists of distributing them among final energy consumers, in proportion to their consumption, regardless of the type of final energy consumed (liquid fuels, gas, electricity or coal). First, the different designs of RES subsidies are categorized and a review of a good number of the RES burden sharing mechanisms implemented in the EU is presented. Then, the proposed methodology is developed on the basis of the basic regulatory principles underlying the tariff design and the current regulatory context in force in the EU. Finally, to illustrate its actual impact in a real case example, the proposed methodology is applied to the Spanish system, in which the burden of extra costs incurred for RES amounts to a very large proportion of the overall energy system costs. - Research highlights: ? This paper develops a novel methodology to allocate RES subsidy costs among final energy consumers. ? The methodology is built upon the basic tariff design principles and the 3rd package regulations. ? It c the 3rd package regulations. ? It consists of distributing them in proportion to liquid fuels, gas, electricity or coal consumption. ? The 20% RES target affects all energy sectors and justifies allocating the extra costs accordingly. ? The methodology is applied to the Spanish energy system, where the RES burden is a very significant.

203

Utilization of oil palm as a source of renewable energy in Malaysia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Malaysia is currently the world's largest producer and exporter of palm oil. Malaysia produces about 47% of the world's supply of palm oil. Malaysia also accounts the highest percentage of global vegetable oils and fats trade in year 2005. Besides producing oils and fats, at present there is a continuous increasing interest concerning oil palm renewable energy. One of the major attentions is bio-diesel from palm oil. Bio-diesel implementation in Malaysia is important because of environmental protection and energy supply security reasons. This palm oil bio-diesel is biodegradable, non-toxic, and has significantly fewer emissions than petroleum-based diesel (petro-diesel) when burned. In addition to this oil, palm is also a well-known plant for its other sources of renewable energy, for example huge quantities of biomass by-products are developed to produce value added products such as methane gas, bio-plastic, organic acids, bio-compost, ply-wood, activated carbon, and animal feedstock. Even waste effluent; palm oil mill effluent (POME) has been converted to produce energy. Oil palm has created many opportunities and social benefits for the locals. In the above perspective, the objective of the present work is to give a concise and up-to-date picture of the present status of oil palm industry enhancing sustainable and renewable energy. This work also aims to identify the prospects of Malaysian oil palm industry towards utilization of oil palm as a source of renewable energy. (author)

Sumathi, S.; Chai, S.P.; Mohamed, A.R. [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

2008-12-15

204

Emissions balancing of renewable energy sources. Avoided emissions due to the use of renewable energies in 2007; Emissionsbilanz erneuerbarer Energietraeger. Durch Einsatz erneuerbarer Energien vermiedene Emissionen im Jahr 2007  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report on the emissions accounting with respect to renewable energy covers the following issues: 1. Introduction and purpose. 2. Methodology concerning the balancing for electricity, heat and traffic, uncertainties due to lack of data. 3. Energy supply from renewable energy sources in 2007. 4. Fossil energy substitution by renewable energy sources: electricity, heat and traffic. 5. Emissions from different energy supply lines: electricity, heat, traffic. 6. Results of the emissions accounting for renewable energy sources: electricity, heat, traffic and comprehensive review. 7. Retroacting accounting and forward projection.

Memmler, Michael; Mohrbach, Elke; Schneider, Sven; Dreher, Marion; Herbener, Reinhard

2009-10-15

205

Renewable Energy Policy Project  

Science.gov (United States)

Established in 1995 with funding from the Energy Foundation and the Department of Energy, the Renewable Energy Policy Project (REPP) has spent the past decade educating the general public about renewable energies. This is accomplished by providing competent and rigorous policy analysis about the myriad of issues surrounding the viability and sustainability of such energy sources. Visitors to the siteâ??s homepage will find clickable icons (such as those depicting wind, solar, and hydrogen), and they can discover the variety of resources associated with each type of renewable energy source. These resources generally include a brief description of the REPPâ??s work in each field, along with links to some of their more recent working papers and policy briefs. For persons who hope to join the discussion about some of these timely topics, the site also maintains a number of relevant listservs, such as those dealing with bioconversion and strawbale conversion.

206

Electric power supply and the influence of changes on renewable sources' utilisation and energy efficiency  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Changes expected to occur at the electricity market min the Republic of Croatia will have a considerable influence on the development of renewable sources and on the interest in the rationalisation of electricity consumption. If this area and its significance within the total, not only energy-related but also social relations, is stimulated by the law, the influence will be a positive one. Post-liberalisation experience of developed European countries presented in this paper implies arising problems, which can be partly avoided by means of anticipated legislative alternations. Special attention is paid to the possibility of introducing additional work places through a new market approachz, renewable sources' utilisation and consumption rationalisation. (author)

207

Combined heat and power (cogeneration) plant based on renewable energy sources and electrochemical hydrogen systems  

Science.gov (United States)

The layout of a combined heat and power (cogeneration) plant based on renewable energy sources (RESs) and hydrogen electrochemical systems for the accumulation of energy via the direct and inverse conversion of the electrical energy from RESs into the chemical energy of hydrogen with the storage of the latter is described. Some efficient technical solutions on the use of electrochemical hydrogen systems in power engineering for the storage of energy with a cyclic energy conversion efficiency of more than 40% are proposed. It is shown that the storage of energy in the form of hydrogen is environmentally safe and considerably surpasses traditional accumulator batteries by its capacitance characteristics, being especially topical in the prolonged absence of energy supply from RESs, e.g., under the conditions of polar night and breathless weather. To provide the required heat consumption of an object during the peak period, it is proposed to burn some hydrogen in a boiler house.

Grigor'ev, S. A.; Grigor'ev, A. S.; Kuleshov, N. V.; Fateev, V. N.; Kuleshov, V. N.

2015-02-01

208

System approach to the analysis of power complexes with renewable energy sources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The method of structuring and optimization of autonomous power com-plexes and its individual elements in the simultaneous use of renewable energy sources, energy resources and secondary energy resources is presented. Power complexes are presented as a set of power supply systems of lower hierarchical level, units, subsystems, components, united by a common purpose – to ensure energy saving up of objects. For comparative assessment of energy, thermody-namic and technical-economic efficiency it is suggested to submit energy com-plexes in the form of graphs of structural and functional models that reflect the overall structure of the energy complexes and the processes of transformation, transportation, storage and energy use.

Shishkin Nikolay Dmitrievich

2009-11-01

209

Renewable Energy Monitoring Protocol. Update 2010. Methodology for the calculation and recording of the amounts of energy produced from renewable sources in the Netherlands  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is the fifth, updated edition of the Dutch Renewable Energy Monitoring Protocol. The protocol, compiled on behalf of the Ministry of Economic Affairs, can be considered as a policy document that provides a uniform calculation method for determining the amount of energy produced in the Netherlands in a renewable manner. Because all governments and organisations use the calculation methods described in this protocol, this makes it possible to monitor developments in this field well and consistently. The introduction of this protocol outlines the history and describes its set-up, validity and relationship with other similar documents and agreements. The Dutch Renewable Energy Monitoring Protocol is compiled by NL Agency, and all relevant parties were given the chance to provide input. This has been incorporated as far as is possible. Statistics Netherlands (CBS) uses this protocol to calculate the amount of renewable energy produced in the Netherlands. These data are then used by the Ministry of Economic Affairs to gauge the realisation of policy objectives. In June 2009 the European Directive for energy from renewable sources was published with renewable energy targets for the Netherlands. This directive used a different calculation method - the gross energy end-use method - whilst the Dutch definition is based on the so-called substitution method. NL Agency was asked to add the calculation according to the gross end use method, although this is not clearly defined on a number of points. In describing the method, the unanswered questions become clear, as do, for example, the points the Netherlands should bring up in international discussions.

Te Buck, S.; Van Keulen, B.; Bosselaar, L.; Gerlagh, T.; Skelton, T.

2010-07-15

210

Selecting sustainable renewable energy source for energy assistance to North Korea  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Renewable energy (RE) is the best sustainable energy solution South Korea can provide to assist North Korea in overcoming its chronic energy shortage. Designed as a follow-on research to Sin et al., a survey was conducted with a panel of experts consisting of various disciplines and affiliations using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) with benefit, opportunity, cost, and risk (BOCR). The results showed the panel viewed security as the most important factor among the strategic criteria. For the level 1 attributes, the panel showed no significant differences of opinion among the different alternatives; however, cost showed to be the most important factor for the panel. The panel chose wind power as the best alternative source of energy for North Korea; however, there were some differences in opinion among the sub-groups of the panel depending on the composition and the expertise of the sub-group. Compared to other studies on the similar topic, this research stands out in that the research results were derived using AHP and BOCR and that the panel was composed of both Korean and foreign experts on North Korea affiliated with state-run research organizations, armed forces, non-governmental organizations, academic research organizations, private consulting firms, and journalism. The research arrived at the conclusion that the following factors must be considered as South Korea designs its future North Korean energy assistance policy: (1) RE assistance for North Korea can take on various forms; hence, experts consulted during the design, writing, and implementation phases of the policy in question must possess knowledge and expertise in the appropriate technology and methodology being considered; (2) possibility of a sudden destabilization of the Northeast Asian security paradigm due to the collapse of North Korea; and (3) continued nuclearization of North Korea. (author)

Yi, Sul-Ki [Korea Electrical Engineering and Science Research Institute, Bldg 130, Seoul National University, 599 Gwanangno, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Sin, Hwa-Young; Heo, Eunnyeong [Department of Energy Systems Engineering, Seoul National University, 599, Gwanang-no, Gwanak-Gu, Seoul 157-742 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-01-15

211

Electricity produced from renewable energy sources - What target are we aiming for?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 2001, the European Commission (hereafter ''EC'') formulated an ambitious target of 21% of total community electricity consumption to be generated with renewable energy sources by 2010. Moreover, national indicative targets per Member State were specified. In practice, the latter are implemented in all Member States as national production targets, achievable exclusively through an increase of the domestic production of electricity produced from renewable energy sources (hereafter ''RES-E''). However, in this article it will be shown that this is not in line with the EC's intent. Looking at the legislative process resulting in the Directive on the promotion of RES-E, it is demonstrated that instead the EC aimed for European trade in renewable electricity through national consumption targets. It is shown that the legislative process has resulted in confusion on both the nature (absolute or proportional figures) and the subject (consumption or production) of the RES-E targets that are being aimed for. Despite the EC's attempt to clarify this confusion, the reality of national production targets remains, hindering the attainment of the European RES-E target in the most cost-efficient manner. (author)

212

Bonus payments for electricity production from renewable energy sources and the impact on the market participants' capacity choice  

OpenAIRE

Promoting the use of renewable energy sources is a central goal of most industrialized countries. Up to today, fixed feed in tariffs are a commonly used support scheme. However, these have major disadvantages concerning market integration. Thus, more market-conforming solutions come into focus. One of these are bonus payments. Their fundamental characteristic is an augmented market price for the production of electricity from renewable energy sources. This paper takes a closer look at the mec...

Flinkerbusch, Kai

2010-01-01

213

Funding of renewable energy sources in the deregulated German electricity market; Foerderung erneuerbarer Energien im liberalisierten deutschen Strommarkt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study intends to develop an efficient market design for the German electricity market, with particular regard to renewable energy sources. The German electricity market is disintegrated, i.e. market sectors are not coordinated by a central agency but by their own interactions. The first part of the investigation analyzes the interdependences of market sectors, while the second part will analyze funding instruments for renewable energy sources on this basis. (orig.)

Wawer, T.

2007-12-14

214

Utilizing hydropower for load balancing non-storable renewable energy sources - technical and environmental challenges  

Science.gov (United States)

About 99% of the total energy production in Norway comes from hydropower, and the total production of about 120 TWh makes Norway Europe's largest hydropower producer. Most hydropower systems in Norway are based on high-head plants with mountain storage reservoirs and tunnels transporting water from the reservoirs to the power plants. In total, Norwegian reservoirs contributes around 50% of the total energy storage capacity in Europe. Current strategies to reduce emission of greenhouse gases from energy production involve increased focus on renewable energy sources, e.g. the European Union's 202020 goal in which renewable energy sources should be 20% of the total energy production by 2020. To meet this goal new renewable energy installations must be developed on a large scale in the coming years, and wind power is the main focus for new developments. Hydropower can contribute directly to increase renewable energy through new development or extensions to existing systems, but maybe even more important is the potential to use hydropower systems with storage for load balancing in a system with increased amount of non-storable renewable energies. Even if new storage technologies are under development, hydro storage is the only technology available on a large scale and the most economical feasible alternative. In this respect the Norwegian system has a high potential both through direct use of existing reservoirs and through an increased development of pump storage plants utilizing surplus wind energy to pump water and then producing during periods with low wind input. Through cables to Europe, Norwegian hydropower could also provide balance power for the North European market. Increased peaking and more variable operation of the current hydropower system will present a number of technical and environmental challenges that needs to be identified and mitigated. A more variable production will lead to fluctuating flow in receiving rivers and reservoirs, and it will also lead to more dynamic water temperatures and alter the interaction with the adjacent hyporheic zone. Frequent drying and wetting may impact the aquatic ecosystem e.g. through stranding of fish, and it may increase erosion and sediment transport in receiving reservoirs and rivers. During winter, most Norwegian systems currently adapt releases to prevent unstable ice conditions and ice runs and a more intermittent production schedule may lead to more unstable ice conditions. More transient flow may also have implications in the transfer tunnels and new methods are needed to monitor conditions to avoid turbine damage and loss of production. As a part of the Norwegian governments focus on developing renewable energy, a number of research centers for environmentally friendly energy production were created in 2009. For one of these centers, Center for environmentally design of renewable energy (CEDREN), one of the main objectives is to study the use of the Norwegian hydropower system for large scale peaking and load balancing, and to provide means of mitigating possible unwanted impacts. We will present data on how increased load balancing will influence the Norwegian hydropower system and an overview of challenges and possible solutions that the new operational strategy may incur.

Alfredsen, K. T.; Killingtveit, A.

2011-12-01

215

Energy Sources  

Science.gov (United States)

This short video surveys the different current and potential sources of energy - both non-renewable and renewable. It provides some discussion of the pros and cons of the different sources and explains how they are used to produce energy that people can use.

WGBH Educational Foundation

216

Renewable Energy Sources Act and Trading of Emission Certificates: A national and a supranational tool direct energy turnover to renewable electricity-supply in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aim: After the nuclear disaster at Fukushima in 2011, Germany decided to phase out atomic energy, without producing new CO2 emissions. The article discusses the promotion systems that are used. Scope: The percentage of renewable energies in Germany's electricity consumption increased from 3 in 1990 to 23 in 2012. This development was introduced and guided by a law called Renewable Energy Sources Act. It guarantees a privileged acceptance of electricity and a fixed gratification for 20 years to the operators of regenerative power plants. It allows the operators to install regenerative power plants at a reduced risk. By contrast, the international means for CO2 reduction is the trading of emission certificates, which is also valid for Germany. The article discusses how the promotion of the Erneuerbar-Energien-Gesetz (EEG) and other plant-based promotion systems fit into this condition. It also elucidates the actual decline of promotion, its problems to the country’s environmental economy and the approach of decentralized photovoltaic (PV) energy plants towards economical efficiency. Conclusions: Germany’s energy turnaround to a regenerative energy supply is characterized by a strong and differentiated promotion system. Substantial efforts have to be made as the percentage of the renewable energy sources has significantly increased but is still under 25%

217

An energy self-sufficient public building using integrated renewable sources and hydrogen storage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The control of the use of fossil fuels, major cause of greenhouse gas emissions and climate changes, in present days represents one of Governments' main challenges; particularly, a significant energy consumption is observed in buildings and might be significantly reduced through sustainable design, increased energy efficiency and use of renewable sources. At the moment, the widespread use of renewable energy in buildings is limited by its intrinsic discontinuity: consequently integration of plants with energy storage systems could represent an efficient solution to the problem. Within this frame, hydrogen has shown to be particularly fit in order to be used as an energetic carrier. In this aim, in the paper an energetic, economic and environmental analysis of two different configurations of a self-sufficient system for energy production from renewable sources in buildings is presented. In particular, in the first configuration energy production is carried out by means of photovoltaic systems, whereas in the second one a combination of photovoltaic panels and wind generators is used. In both configurations, hydrogen is used as an energy carrier, in order to store energy, and fuel cells guarantee its energetic reconversion. The analysis carried out shows that, although dimensioned as a stand-alone configuration, the system can today be realized only taking advantage from the incentivizing fares applied to grid-connected systems, that are likely to be suspended in the next future. In such case, it represents an interesting investment, with capital returns in about 15 years. As concerns economic sustainability, in fact, the analysis shows that the cost of the energy unit stored in hydrogen volumes, due to the not very high efficiency of the process, presently results greater than that of directly used one. Moreover, also the starting fund of the system proves to be very high, showing an additional cost with respect to systems lacking of energy storage equal to about 50%. From the above, it can be deduced that, in the aim to obtain a quick, effective penetration of hydrogen into the market, it is at the moment indispensable to enact incentivizing policies, attributing to hydrogen production fares able to cover the additional costs due to its production, storage and reconversion. - Highlights: ? We present a self-sufficient system for renewable energy production in buildings. ? PV and eolic plants are integrated with electrolyzer, storage system and fuel cells. ? We analyze two configurations of the system: only PV panels or with wind generators. ? We compare wind generators with PV panels in relation to Italian Government fares. ? We carry out the energetic, economic and environmental analysis of the systems

218

Use of renewable energy sources in light of the “New Energy Strategy for Europe 2011–2020”  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Theoretical and methodological achievements required for an analysis of energy strategy. ? Developments for an energy policy ensuring the appropriate utilization of renewable energy sources. ? EU should set up grants for research supporting the implementation of the strategy. ? Developments for the knowledge management support of the use of backcasting method. ? Principles for the development of the network of energy security centres. -- Abstract: The paper analyses the issues for consideration listed in the stock taking document “New Energy Strategy for Europe 2011–2020” and explores the impact of their implementation on the use of renewable energy sources. The main objective of the paper is to introduce and provide a summary of the theoretical and methodological achievements required for an analysis of the implications of such an EU level strategy. It also provides a summary of the results of the analysis of the impacts of the Strategy on a specific field; namely, on the use of renewable energy sources. Contradictions inherent in the Strategy are discussed as well, and a proposal is put forward to aid the resolution of these contradictions. The paper also points out that the further development of the theoretical and methodological achievements may result in the creation of a simulation model, the application of which could effectively aid the process of strategic planning and the testing of strategies prior to approval. Finally, the paper discusses how an EU level and/or a global network of energy security centres could promote the development and implementation of an energy policy ensuring the appropriate utilization of renewable energy sources.

219

Generation of Electricity by Renewable Energy Sources & Transmission of Energy Production Units using PLC & SCADA  

OpenAIRE

ABSTRACTAutomationmeans Delegation of human controlto machine. A PLC (Programmable LogicController) is a device that was invented toreplace the necessary sequential relay circuits formachine control. A SCADA (Supervisory Control& Data Acquisition System) is used to control theprocess where person cannot go or stay for longerperiod. The aim of tis paper is to provideinformation about hoelectricity can be generatedfrom Renewable sources & how its transmissiondone usin automation system. Renewab...

Rahul N Deshmukh, P. H. Zope

2012-01-01

220

Environmental and economic effects of renewable energy sources use on a local case study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Renewable sources represent an effective alternative to fossil fuels for preventing resources depletion and for reducing air pollution. However, their diffusion requires huge capital investment and major infrastructure changes, which have to be assessed to verify their effectiveness. The article present an application of the R-MARKAL model to investigate the feasibility of renewable use on a local case study for electricity and thermal energy production. A comprehensive modelling approach is used to emphasise the relationships and feedback between conversion and demand sectors (residential, services and commercial), taking into account contemporaneously legal issues and physical limits of the system. The model's solutions represent the minimum cost choice and the results show that even in absence of erogenous environmental constraints, many renewable technologies are profitable demand device and their investment costs are paid off in a medium term by lower operating and maintenance expenditures. In this context the use of thermal energy from incinerator allows one to achieve a consistent reduction of atmospheric pollutant emissions and, particularly, of greenhouse gases emissions due to waste degradation. (author)

Cosmi, C.; Salvia, M. [Istituto di Metodologie Avanzate di Analisi Ambientali, Tito Scalo (Italy); Unita di Napoli (Italy). Istituto Nazionale di Fisica della Materia; Macchiato, M. [Universita Federico II, Napoli (Italy). Dpto. di Scienze Fisiche; Mangiamele, L.; Marmo, G. [Universita degli Studi della Basilicata, Potenza (Italy); Pietrapertosa, F. [Istituto di Metodologie Avanzate di Analisi Ambientali, Tito Scalo (Italy); Universita degli Studi della Basilicata, Potenza (Italy)

2003-04-01

221

Price control for electricity supplied to the grid from renewable energy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The law governing the supply of electricity generated by renewable energy sources to the public grid regulates the purchase and payment by public utilities of electricity exclusively generated from such sources as hydropower, wind power, solar energy, landfill gas or sewage gas, or from biomass produced in agriculture and forestry or derived and processed in waste treatment systems. The author discusses aspects and issues hitherto left unconsidered by publications or by the jurisdiction and puts them into the context of a review of recent legislation, addressing in particular the following aspects: (1) The place of the Act on Supply of Electricity from Renewable Sources to the Public Grid within the legal framework of price controls. (2) Limits to be set by price control activities in accordance with Para. 12, sub-section 2 BTO Elt and with Para. 11, sub-section 1, sentence 3 BTO Elt. (3) Limits set to price controls due to Para. 12, sub-section 2 BTO Elt. (4) The conflict of purposes arising from price controls. (orig./HP)

222

A Review of Nipa Palm as a Renewable Energy Source in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the renewable energy potential of Nipa Palm, a bio-energy crop widely available yet underutilized in Nigeria. The combustion of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas has increased the concentration of carbon dioxide in the earth's atmosphere. The carbon dioxide and other socalled greenhouse gases allow solar energy to enter the Earth's atmosphere, but reduce the amount of energy that can re-radiate back into space, trapping energy and causing global warming. Nipa Palm which has been regarded as an environmental menace is now regarded as one of the candidates for renewable energy to fulfill the requirement of clean carbon emission. Abundant quantity of Nipa Palm provides an impetus for the sustainable generation of bio-ethanol. This sugar based bio-ethanol source development in Nigeria provides not only profitable use to a problem plant but also provides an opportunity and incentive to generate some Carbon Emission Reduction (CERs credits.

O.T. Okugbo

2012-08-01

223

Rural Electrification through Renewable Energy Sources- An Overview of Challenges and Prospects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Energy security and sustainable development are prime issues these days in developed as well as in developing countries. Decentralized Renewable Energy (DCRE generation of electricity is expected to become more important in the future electricity generation system. This paper explores the various challenges faced in the process of rural electrification in India. It also highlights the alternatives available including usage of renewable energy towards decentralized electrification and policy recommendations for the use of renewable energy technologies. There are complex socio-economic issues that are hindering the growth of renewables in rural India, especially in off-grid villages. What should be the approach for maximum penetration of renewables in remote villages in India? How can renewable devices be made affordable for active use? How can local participation in such initiatives be increased? How can private participation be encouraged? These are the key issues that the Indian government is trying to address.

Sanjeev H. Kulkarni, T. R. Anil

2014-06-01

224

Grid Interfacing Inverter of Renewable Energy Sources to Improve the Power Quality in Distribution System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the increase in load demand, the Renewable Energy Sources (RES are increasingly connected in the distribution systems which utilizes power electronic Converters/Inverters. In this thesis, Photo Voltaic (PV system is integrated to a three phase four wire distribution system. The Photo Voltaic (PV Panel is modeled based on associated equations. The use of non-linear loads in the power system will lead to the generation of current harmonics which in turn deteriorates the power quality. Active Power Filters (APF are extensively used to compensate the current harmonics and load unbalance. In this work, the existing PV inverter acts as Shunt Active Power Filter (SAPF that is capable of simultaneously compensating problems like current unbalance, current harmonics and also of injecting the energy generated by renewable energy source. The inverter is controlled on the basis of hysteresis control and thus it can be utilized as a power converter injecting power generated from RES to the grid and as a shunt APF to compensate the Load disturbances. It is proposed to investigate in this paper, the performance of PV inverter for various loads. This work is carried out using MATLAB/SIMULINK 7.8 software.

M.ARCHANA

2013-05-01

225

Design optimization of a polygeneration plant fuelled by natural gas and renewable energy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new and systematic procedure to select and size a polygeneration plant fuelled by natural gas, solar energy and gasified biomass is presented in this paper. The proposed procedure is based on the superstructure definition, containing a long list of possible configurations for a polygeneration plant simultaneously producing electricity, heat, cold and fresh water. Based on that superstructure, a mathematical programming model was developed and applied to a Spanish tourist resort. Three key aspects were optimized in the mathematical programming problem: energy savings, greenhouse gases (GHG) emission reduction and economic feasibility. The results show, firstly, that the simultaneous production of electricity, heat, cold and fresh water is reliable upon the established assumptions. Secondly, that today higher economic profitability is yet achieved with only natural gas-based technologies, although higher energy savings and GHG reduction are obtained through the gradual increase of renewable energy sources.

226

Renewable energy and energy transportation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As an alternative for the energy policy to deal with global environmental issues, a preliminary feasibility study was conducted on a so-called 'clean energy transportation scheme'. The energy transportation scheme consists of a highly efficient water electrolysis process utilizing renewable energy sources, the conversion of hydrogen to a transportable chemical medium, transportation system to a bulk energy consuming area, and utilization of the energy contained in the medium. (author). 2 figs., 6 tabs., 1 ref

227

Subsidies for renewable energy?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ambitious Danish and European energy and environment objectives make a point of using renewable energy sources in the electricity supply. Denmark has been leading country in successful development and commercialization of wind turbines and is as yet one of the leading manufacturers of the world. Danish governments have successfully invested a lot in this development. Other countries have spent more money without achieving a similar success. The questions are why things have gone so well in Denmark and if the Danish success can be repeated for other renewable energy technologies. The starting point of this book is that a political decision on subsidizing the developmental process of a specific technology not in itself guarantees that the technology will turn out reliable and efficient enough to compete successfully in a liberalized electricity market. An understanding of this development is necessary in order to affect a technological development. This book goes through the development of different renewable energy technologies and two theories used for discussing the technological development: experience curves and innovation theory. Based on the discussions and a description of causal relations, an analytical model for different phases of renewable energy technologies' developmental progress and technological life cycle is made. The model is used for evaluating the subsidies for chosen renewable technologies in Denmark. With wind energy as example an analysis of whatwind energy as example an analysis of what went well or badly, what might be done and which actions might be efficient is made. (BA)

228

An Indian scenario on renewable and sustainable energy sources with emphasis on algae  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

India is the fifth largest primary energy consumer and fourth largest petroleum consumer after USA, China, and Japan. Despite the global economic crisis, India's economy is expected to grow at 6 to 8 %/year. There is an extreme dependence on petroleum products with considerable risks and environmental issues. Petroleum-derived transport fuels are of limited availability and contribute to global warming, making renewable biofuel as the best alternative. The focus on biogas and biomass-based energy, such as bioethanol and biohydrogen, will enhance cost-effectiveness and provide an opportunity for the rural community. Among all energy sources, microalgae have received, so far, more attention due to their facile adaptability to grow in the photobioreactors or open ponds, high yields, and multiple applications. Microalgae can produce a substantial amount of triacylglycerols as a storage lipid under photooxidative stress or other adverse environmental conditions. In addition to renewable biofuels, they can provide different types of high-value bioproducts added to their advantages, such as higher photosynthetic efficiency, higher biomass production, and faster growth compared to any other energy crops. The viability of first-generation biofuels production is, however, questionable because of the conflict with food supply. In the future, biofuels should ideally create the environmental, economic, and social benefits to the communities and reflect energy efficiency so as to plan a road map for the industry to produce third-generation biofuels. (orig.)

Hemaiswarya, S.; Carvalho, Isabel S. [Algarve Univ., Faro (Portugal). Food Science Lab.; Raja, Rathinam [Algarve Univ., Faro (Portugal). Food Science Lab.; Institute of Integrative Omics and Applied Biotechnology (IIOAB), Purba Medinipur (India). Centre for Bioprocess, Biotechnology and Renewable Energy; Ravikumar, R. [Aquatic Energy LLC, Lake Charles, LA (United States); Zambare, Vasudeo [Institute of Integrative Omics and Applied Biotechnology (IIOAB), Purba Medinipur (India). Centre for Bioprocess, Biotechnology and Renewable Energy; Barh, Debmalya [Institute of Integrative Omics and Applied Biotechnology (IIOAB), Purba Medinipur (India). Centre for Genomics and Applied Gene Technology

2012-12-15

229

An Indian scenario on renewable and sustainable energy sources with emphasis on algae.  

Science.gov (United States)

India is the fifth largest primary energy consumer and fourth largest petroleum consumer after USA, China, and Japan. Despite the global economic crisis, India's economy is expected to grow at 6 to 8 %/year. There is an extreme dependence on petroleum products with considerable risks and environmental issues. Petroleum-derived transport fuels are of limited availability and contribute to global warming, making renewable biofuel as the best alternative. The focus on biogas and biomass-based energy, such as bioethanol and biohydrogen, will enhance cost-effectiveness and provide an opportunity for the rural community. Among all energy sources, microalgae have received, so far, more attention due to their facile adaptability to grow in the photobioreactors or open ponds, high yields, and multiple applications. Microalgae can produce a substantial amount of triacylglycerols as a storage lipid under photooxidative stress or other adverse environmental conditions. In addition to renewable biofuels, they can provide different types of high-value bioproducts added to their advantages, such as higher photosynthetic efficiency, higher biomass production, and faster growth compared to any other energy crops. The viability of first-generation biofuels production is, however, questionable because of the conflict with food supply. In the future, biofuels should ideally create the environmental, economic, and social benefits to the communities and reflect energy efficiency so as to plan a road map for the industry to produce third-generation biofuels. PMID:23070650

Hemaiswarya, S; Raja, Rathinam; Carvalho, Isabel S; Ravikumar, R; Zambare, Vasudeo; Barh, Debmalya

2012-12-01

230

Special purpose fund for the promotion of energy efficiency, the use of renewable energy sources and environmental protection (NEP fund)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The legislation of the Republic of Croatia encourages energy efficiency, the use of renewable energy sources and environmental protection through many of its acts and regulations. The establishment of a system for the efficient use of energy and the utilisation of renewable energy sources largely depends on investments in relevant projects, programmes and initiatives. It is, therefore, necessary to establish special purpose financial mechanisms which would encourage investments in, as well as the realisation of such projects, programmes and initiatives. The article elaborates the model for the development of an extra-budgetary, special purpose fund (NEP fund) for financing energy efficiency, renewable energy and environmental protection programmes, projects and measures. Its organisation, operation, project cycle, revenues and expenditures are elaborated. The proposed organisational model for the fund would not include an institutional framework for its operation. Instead, the fund would be an organisational scheme within the existing structure of commercial banks. It would be an organised system consisting of three basic elements: the Supervisory Board, the Financial Operator and the Professional Operator. The fund's area of operation would include the provision of loans under favourable conditions (interest rate, payback, grace period) for the production of equipment, the construction of energy facilities, the installation of equipment and the realisation of energy efficiency, renewable energy and environmental protection projects. Financing would be available for project implementation, the finalization of initiated projects, project preparation and development, and the reconstruction or adaptation of existing infrastructure, facilities, etc. The elaborated model envisages commercial bank financing (funds earmarked for special purpose financing) and special product charges on fuel and electricity to be the fund's principal sources of income. (author)

231

A historical review of promotion strategies for electricity from renewable energy sources in EU countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The core objective of this paper is to elaborate on historically implemented promotion strategies of renewable energy sources and the associated deployment within the European electricity market. Hence, at a first glance, the historic development of renewable energy sources in the electricity (RES-E) sector is addressed on Member State and on sectoral level as well as consequently discussed according to available RES-E potentials and costs. The specific focus of this paper, are promotion strategies for RES-E options as they are the key driver of an efficient and effective RES-E deployment. Therefore, the paper depicts the main types of different promotion schemes and their properties. Additionally, several cases studies of different European Member States show an in-depth analysis of the different RES-E promotion schemes. In this context, special emphasises are put on the question of effective and efficient promotion scheme designs of different RES-E technologies. Generally, conducted research led to the conclusion, that technology specific financial support measures of RES-E performed much more effective and efficient than others did. Hence, it is not all about the common question of feed-in tariffs vs. quota systems based on tradable green certificates, but more about the design criteria of implemented RES-E support schemes. (author)

232

Promoting renewable energy sources for heating and cooling in EU-27 countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In addition to public policies aimed at improving the energy efficiency of buildings, EU authorities have also promoted the use of Renewable Energy Sources for heating and cooling uses (RES H and C). This paper analyses the main policy measures implemented in EU-27 countries up to 2009: i.e. subsidies, tax incentives, financial support and feed-in tariffs. Twenty-three Member States (MSs) have developed some of these policy measures. The most widespread measure is the subsidy (22 MSs have implemented these) because from a political point of view, subsidies provide a straightforward approach to promote the use of RES H and C. Secondly, tax incentives have been used for reducing investment costs and making renewable energy profitable. Thirdly, financial incentives and feed-in tariffs have been used sparingly. While financial incentives might be used more extensively for promoting RES H and C if they are accompanied by other policy measures, feed-in tariffs are not likely to be implemented significantly in the future because this measure is not designed for household heat producers. - Highlights: ? Main EU policies to reduce energy consumption are focused on buildings' efficiency. ? Alternative incentives to promote the use of RES H and C in EU-27 are now studied. ? Subsidies are the most widespread measure. ? Tax incentives are used for reducing investment costs and making RES profitable. ? Financial incentives and feed-in tariffs have been used sparingly.fs have been used sparingly.

233

Grid-connected renewable energy source systems: Challenges and proposed management schemes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a result of the world's rapid socioeconomic growth and environmental concerns, exploring diverse energy resources besides fossil fuel has become a necessity and not an optional mission. Even for the oil wealthy nations, adopting energy-mix policy has become a strategic goal that is profoundly sought. As preliminary outcome, investments in renewable energy source (RES) systems in arid region nations have taken tangible steps in planning and policy making. RES has several appealing factors; however, most countries where regulated or vertically integrated electric power systems are the principal methods for supplying the demand are cautious. Most of the electric utilities in these countries are putting reservations on RES due to the lack of monitoring and control of these grid-connected RES systems that might contribute to the instability of the electric grid. This paper identified the challenges and concerns of grid-connected RES. Moreover, it presented possible RES interconnection management schemes for the vertically integrated electric power systems.

234

Solid waste as renewable source of energy. Current and future possibility in Algeria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Algeria has created a green momentum by launching an ambitious program to develop renewable energies and promote energy efficiency. Solid waste is one of most important sources of biomass potential in Algeria, which can be used as renewable energy sources. With economic development and the evolution of population, the quantity of solid waste is increasing rapidly in Algeria; according to the National Cadastre for Solid Waste Generation, the overall generation of municipal solid waste was more than 10.3 million tons per year, and the amount of industrial solid waste, including non-hazardous and inert industrial waste was 2,547,000 tons per year, with a stock quantity of 4,483,500 tons. The hazardous waste generated amounts to 325,100 tons per year; the quantities of waste in stock and awaiting a disposal solution amount to 2,008,500 tons. Healthcare waste reaches to 125,000 tons per year. The management of solid waste and its valorization is based on the understanding of solid waste composition by its categories and physicochemical characteristics. Elimination is the solution applied to 97% of waste produced in Algeria. Wastes are disposed in the following ways: open dumps (57%), burned in the open air in public dumps or municipal uncontrolled ones (30%), and controlled dumps and landfill (10%). On the other side, the quantities destined for recovery are too low: only 2% for recycling and 1% for composting. Waste to energy is very attractive option for elimination solid waste with energy recovery. In this paper, we give an overview for this technology, including its conversion options and its useful products (such as electricity, heat and transportation fuel), and waste to energy-related environmental issues and its challenges. (orig.)

Taqiy Eddine, Boukelia; Salah, Mecibah Med [Mentouri Univ., Constantine (Algeria). Mechanical Dept.

2012-11-01

235

The current status of the development of renewable energy sources worldwide and in Russia  

Science.gov (United States)

Resorting to renewable energy sources (RESs) as one of the bases of the promising world energy industry has become a logical result of the historical development and the recognition that is necessary to diversify primary energy sources being used, with the aim of enhancing both energy and ecological security of countries, regions, and concrete energy consumers. The review of the development of new technologies used for conversion of RESs, the progress of which can be characterized by the fact that by the year 2013 the total generating capacity of RES-based power plants now in operation has amounted to 500 GW—by a factor of 1.5 more than the total generating capacity of all nuclear power stations in the world. The paper presents an analysis of the current status of RESs and problems that restrain their development in Russia. It is noted that the peculiarities of the energy situation in Russia impose the specific requirements upon drawing up the programs of the development of RESs. Along with the use of RESs as part of systems of centralized energy supply, which is a priority for most industrially developed countries and promises the most large-scale introduction of RESs in Russia, it is necessary, first of all, to give attention to the development and creation of systems for independent supply of consumers with power and heat and the development of distributed powergenerating systems using RESs.

Fortov, V. E.; Popel', O. S.

2014-06-01

236

Current Harmonics Compensation in Microgrids Exploiting the Power Electronics Interfaces of Renewable Energy Sources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work presents a method of current harmonic reduction in a distorted distribution system. In order to evaluate the proposed method a grid with high-order current harmonics is assumed. The reduction of current distortion is feasible due to the pulse modulation of an active filter, which consists of a buck-boost converter connected back-to-back to a polarity swapping inverter. For a practical application, this system would be the power electronic interface of a Renewable Energy Source (RES and therefore it changes a source of harmonics to a damping harmonics system. Using the proposed method, the current Total Harmonic Distortion (THD of the grid is reduced below the acceptable limits and thus the general power quality of the system is improved. Simulations in the MATLAB/SIMULINK platform and experiments have been performed in order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Ioannis Bouloumpasis

2015-03-01

237

Solid waste as renewable source of energy: current and future possibility in Libya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Solid waste holds the greatest potential as biomass source in Libya. The rapid expansion of industry has led to increased urbanization and growing population. These factors have dramatically increased the amount of MSW (municipal solid waste generated in Libya. However, issues related to environmentally sound MSW management—including waste decrease and clearance—have not been addressed sufficiently. This study presents an overview on solid waste that can be used as a source of bioenergy in Libya including MSW, ISW (industrial solid waste, and HSW (health care wastes as biomass sources. The management of solid waste and valorization is based on an understanding of MSW?s composition and physicochemical characteristics. The results show that organic matter represents 59% of waste, followed by paper–cardboard 12%, plastic 8%, miscellaneous 8%, metals 7%, glass 4%, and wood 2%. The technology of WTE (waste-to-energy incineration, which recovers energy from discarded MSW and produces electricity and/or steam for heating, is recognized as a renewable source of energy and is playing an increasingly important role in MSW management in Libya. This paper provides an overview of this technology, including both its conversion options and its useful products (e.g., electricity, heat, greenhouse gas emissions. The WTE benefits and the major challenges in expanding WTE incineration in Libya are discussed. It also demonstrates that Libya could become an exporter of hydrogen in lieu of oil and natural gas.

Tarek A. Hamad

2014-11-01

238

Consumption of forest chips as an energy source as part of the national action plan for renewable energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A specific Action Plan for Renewable Energy was introduced in 1999 in order to increase the utilisation of renewable energy sources in Finland. The Plan was renewed in 2002, taking into account a revision of the goals defined in the statements given by the Parliament in the de-bate on national Climate Strategy and the decision on building a new nuclear power plant. The main reason for increasing the consumption of renewable energy is the aim of decreasing emissions of greenhouse gases caused by fossil fuels. The renewed Action Plan includes aims and means of how to increase the consumption of renewable energy in practice in the future. Specific goals for separate renewable energy sources were set for the years 2005, 2010 and 2025. Proportional targets were set for the consumption of forest chips: in 2010 consumption is expected to be four times larger than in 2001 and in 2025 seven times larger. In Finland, the most important source for renewable energy is wood and wood waste, which currently makes up approximately 20 per cent of total energy consumption. Wood waste (incl. waste liquor and solid wood waste) produced by the forest industries can be considered as being fully utilized at the moment. Therefore, the most important means of increasing the consumption of wood energy in the future is in the utilisation of forest chips resources. Since 2000, the Finnish Forest Re-search Institute has compiled statistics on the consumption of forest chips and forest industry byion of forest chips and forest industry by-products used in energy generation. One aim of these statistics is to monitor the fruition of the Action Plan mentioned. In 2003, the volume of forest chips consumed in energy generation was 2.1 mill. m3, i.e. approximately five per cent of all energy sources consumed. According to the statistics, the consumption of forest chips has doubled during the period 2000-2003 with an annual average increase of 0.4 mill. m3. The goals set in the Action Plan can be considered to be high. In order to achieve them, the annual average increase in forest chips consumption should further increase to at least approximately 0.5 mill. m3 per year. The current estimated raw material supply for forest chips (10-16 mill. m3/a) will evidently fulfil demand. To achieve the goals, existing energy plants should in-crease their forest chips consumption be-cause at the moment there are no significant investments for new large-sized energy plants. This increase will probably quicken due to the emission trade starting within the EU-region in 2005: some of the energy plants will probably change from fossil fuels to wood-based fuels to avoid costs caused by the trade. There are also activities steered by government officials towards promoting the implementation of forest chips in energy generation, such as to support the development of harvesting and transport technology, to change energy taxation to promote forest chips utilisation, assistance for investments in new energy plants and assistance to harvesting and chipping activities for forest chips. (orig.)

239

Barriers on the propagation of renewable energy sources and sustainable solid waste management practices in Greece.  

Science.gov (United States)

Renewable energy sources (RES), excluding large hydroelectric plants, currently produce 4.21% of total electricity production in Greece. Even when considering the additional production from large hydroelectric plants, which accounts for some 7.8%, the distance to be covered towards the objective of 20% electricity produced from RES by 2010 and respectively towards 20% of total energy production by 2020 is discouraging. The potential, however, does exist; unfortunately so do serious barriers. On the other hand, solid waste management (SWM) is an issue that generates continuously increasing interest due to the extra amounts of solid waste generated; the lack of existing disposal facilities with adequate infrastructure and integrated management plans, also often accompanied by legislative and institutional gaps. However, socio-economic and public awareness problems are still met in the planning and implementation of RES and SWM projects, together with the lack of a complete national cadastre and a spatial development master plan, specifying areas eligible for RES and SWM development. Specific barriers occur for individual RES and the on-going inclusion of waste-derived renewable energy in the examined palette further increases the complexity of the entire issue. The consolidated study of this broad set of barriers was a main task of the present study which was carried out within the frame of a Hellenic-Canadian research project; the main results will be discussed herein. PMID:20630941

Boemi, Sn; Papadopoulos, Am; Karagiannidis, A; Kontogianni, S

2010-11-01

240

Renewable energies for power generation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Power generation from renewable energy sources is different from power generation from classical energies (nuclear, thermal..). Therefore, the integration into the grid of the electricity supplied by renewable sources requires a deep thinking. The reason is that these power sources are controlled by variable elements, like wind, water and sun, which condition production. This book deals with the following aspects in detail: characteristics of classical and intermittent generators; grid balancing between supply and demand; conversion methods of renewable energies into electricity; power systems; privatizing of power generation and birth of new markets, in particular the 'green' power market; development of renewable energies thanks to technical advances. It gives a comprehensive overview of the present day available renewable energy sources for power generation. (J.S.)

241

Renewable energy annual 1996  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents summary data on renewable energy consumption, the status of each of the primary renewable technologies, a profile of each of the associated industries, an analysis of topical issues related to renewable energy, and information on renewable energy projects worldwide. It is the second in a series of annual reports on renewable energy. The renewable energy resources included in the report are biomass (wood and ethanol); municipal solid waste, including waste-to-energy and landfill gas; geothermal; wind; and solar energy, including solar thermal and photovoltaic. The report also includes various appendices and a glossary.

NONE

1997-03-01

242

Resolution of the Conference of Ministers of Economics of the German Laender, relating to the act obliging electric utilities to purchase electricity generated from renewable energy sources (Stromeinspeisungsgesetz)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Conference of Ministers welcomes the minimum payment for electricity generated from renewable energy sources as defined in the planned act as a suitable incentive to exploit renewable energy sources, but at the same time regrets that the Federal Government still does not give appropriate support in general to enhanced use of these energy sources. The resolution comprises seven statements. (orig./CB)

243

Financing and regulation for the new and renewable energy sources: the geothermal case  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development and rational utilization of energy sources promotes economic growth and alleviates the environmental worries. Within the first frame, the use of new and renewable energy sources - wind, solar, photovoltaic, biomass, small hydroelectrical and geothermal - progressively reaches the highest priority in the context of the energy reforms that have been undertaken in the countries of the region. Among renewable energies, besides those of the hydraulic origin, geothermal is the one with the highest grade of safety as was demonstrated by its technical and economical reliability. If the estimation that the geothermal electricity potential of the Latin American region will reach more than 6000 MWe is correct, this is only indicative of its nature. The enormous financial resources of the Andean geothermal systems have to this date been ignored, while in Central America there exits a large number of financial resources still untouched. The rationale and the problems connected with this that remain - in all of Latin America, with the exception of Mexico - are of different natures. Most importantly, in first place, the economical difficulties; in effect, the fault of the ad-hoc economic initiatives have very much obstructed the sustained geothermal development and support. Other relevant obstacles for the use of this type of resource have been the lacking of specific and reliable legal aspects. Last but not least, the financial obstacles of the projects, under private or mixed schemes, should be emphasized. Because of the crucial role that these problems are asked to play in the implementation and development of geothermal projects in Latin America, it has been decided to prepare this document which is a part of the global view about the subject (making comparisons with experiences of other countries), and tries to identify possible solutions for the future

244

World Renewable Energy Network Homepage  

Science.gov (United States)

Through its worldwide network, WREN advocates the utilization of renewable energy sources by promoting the technical education of scientists, engineers, and technicians in addressing the energy needs of both developing and developed countries.

245

Sustainable application of renewable sources in water pumping systems: Optimized energy system configuration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Eighteen years ago, in Portugal, the expenses in a water supply system associated with energy consumption were quite low. However, with the successive crises of energy fuel and the increase of the energy tariff as well as the water demand, the energy consumption is becoming a larger and a more important part of the total budget of water supply pumping systems. Also, new governmental policies, essentially in developed countries, are trying to implement renewable energies. For these reasons, a case-study in Portugal of a water pumping system was analysed to operate connected to solar and wind energy sources. A stand-alone and a grid-connected systems were tested. The stand alone was compared with the cost of extending the national electric grid. In the grid-connected system two solutions were analysed, one with a water turbine and another without. To be able to implement a water turbine, a larger water pump was needed to pump the necessary water as for consumption as for energy production. For the case analysed the system without a water turbine proved to be more cost-effective because the energy tariff is not yet so competitive as well as the cost of water turbines

246

PROFIT MAXIMIZATION AND OPTIMAL SIZING OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN A HYBRID SYSTEM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The renewable energy sources wind, solar etc. have become very essential and important in the generation mix as a result of rising energy demand and environmental reasons. In addition tax is being imposed on high carbon emission. But the uncertainty and variability associated with renewable such as wind may result in economical andtechnical problems in the power system. In order to compensate wind intermittency, generation resources such as gas plant, pumped storage unit etc. are employed due to their lesser start up time, lower operating cost and good ramping capabilities. This paper proposes a model which investigates the combined operation of thermal, wind andpumped storage units for the profit maximization in varying wind, load, and price scenarios. The optimal size of the pumped storage unit to be used has been obtained after putting the system to different operating conditions such as varying wind power and load demand, imposing tax on carbon emission and varying ramping limits etc. The model has been applied on IEEE-30 bus test data and satisfactory results have been obtained for optimal hybrid systemoperation.

YAJVENDER PAL VERMA

2010-09-01

247

On quantifying uncertainty for project selection: the case of renewable energy sources' investment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The selection of a project among different alternatives, considering the limited resources of a company (organisation), is an added value process that determines the prosperity of an undertaken project (investment). This applies also to the 'boming' Renewable Energy Sector, especially under the circumstances established by the recent activation of the Kyoto protocal and by the plethora of available choices for renewable energy sources (RES) projjects. The need for a reliable project selection method among the various alternatives is, therefore, highlighted and, in this context, the paper proposes the NPV function as one of possible criteria for the selection of a RES project. Furthermore, it differentiates from the typical NPV calculation process by adding the concept of a probabilistic NPV approach through Monte Carlo simulation. Reality is non-deterministic, so any attempt of modelling it by using a deterministic approach is by definition erroneous. The paper ultimately proposes a process of substituting the point with a range estimation, capable of quantifying the various uncertainty factors and in this way elucidate the accomplishment possibilities of eligible scenarious. The paper is enhanced by case study showing how the proposed method can be practically applied to support the investment decision, thus enabling the decision makers to judge its effectiveness and usefulness.(Author)

248

CONSIDERATIONS ON RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES AND THEIR RELATED PERSPECTIVES OFAGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING  

OpenAIRE

This paper discusses some considerations and advances a number of proposals about the potential of Agricultural Engineering to contribute to the field of renewable energy, with an emphasis on biomass. Several areas for action are identified. First, general education and teaching of students who will go on to become technicians and professionals in the sector of renewable energies, even though the characteristics of the sectors are still fuzzy. Diffusion of the energy culture, a too often negl...

Daniele Duca; Giuseppe Toscano; Giovanni Riva; Ester Foppa-Pedretti

2010-01-01

249

Presence of renewable sources of energy, cogeneration, energy efficiency and distributed generation in the International Nuclear Information System (INIS)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The International Nuclear Information System (INIS) it was created in 1970 by the International Atomic Energy Agency (OIEA) with the objective of propitiating the exchange of scientific information and technique on the peaceful uses of the energy atomic. INIS processes most of scientific literature and technique in engineering matters nuclear, safeguard and non proliferation and applications in agriculture and health that it generates in the world and it contributes to create a repository of nuclear information for present and future generations. Additionally it includes economic aspects and environmental of other energy sources that facilitate comparative studies for the taking of decisions. The database INIS, is its main informative product and it counts with more than 3 million registrations. One of the services that lends the Center of Administration of the Information and Development of the Energy (CUBAENERGIA), like center INIS in Cuba, is the search of information on the peaceful use of the science and nuclear technology in the Countries Members and the registration of information on their applications in Cuba. More recently, it extends this service to the Renewable Sources application of Energy in the country; as part of the works of administration of the information that it carries out for the National Group of Renewable Energy, Cogeneration, Saving and Energy Efficiency, created in the 2007 and coordinated by the MINBAS with the participation of institutions belonging to Organisms of the Administration Central of the State. In this work the results of a preliminary study are presented on the witnesses in the INIS of the Renewable Sources of Energy, the Cogeneration, Energy Efficiency, and the Distributed Generation. As well as of the application of metric tools to the opposing registrations for the case of the Distributed generation, that which allowed to characterize their historical evolution, the participation for countries in their development and main impact publications in the thematic. (author)

250

Optimization of electrical distribution networks fed by conventional and renewable energy sources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper provides a methodology for the optimization of an existing electrical distribution network when upgraded by renewable energies. The contribution of renewable energy in electricity generation is decided upon through both network design optimization and proper load management whereby applications that can be satisfied by non-electrical means are separated from the main load. The remaining load will then be satisfied by an optimal mix of renewable energy which will be injected to the existing grid. The proposed problem will be formulated using multiobjective linear programming in conjunction with fuzzy logic. It will be shown that optimization using fuzzy logic can provide decision makers with more flexibility that would assist them in the allocation of various energy resources to optimally meet the various end uses and solve the problem of renewable energy connection to existing networks. (author)

Chedid, R.; Salameh, S.; Karaki, S.; Yehia, M. [American University of Beirut, Mew York, NY (United States). Faculty of Engineering and Architecture; Al-Ali, R. [Lebanese Electric Utility, Beirut (Lebanon)

1999-07-01

251

Governmental interventions in the energy market. Study of the Dutch level playing field for fossil fuels, renewable sources, nuclear energy and energy conservation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study has made an inventory of 53 governmental interventions in the Dutch energy market. Moreover, the consequences for the playing field for fossil fuels, renewable sources, nuclear energy and energy saving have been quantified. It shows that the government still stimulates the use of energy and fossil fuels more than it stimulates use of renewable energy sources. Policy that focuses on decreasing the price differences between sustainable and fossil should therefore focus on the phase-out of this support and subsequently on bridging the remaining financial gap.

252

Hydrogen rich gas from oil palm biomass as a potential source of renewable energy in Malaysia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oil palm is one of the major economic crops in many countries. Malaysia alone produces about 47% of the world's palm oil supply and can be considered as the world's largest producer and exporter of palm oil. Malaysia also generates huge quantity of oil palm biomass including oil palm trunks, oil palm fronds, empty fruit bunches (EFB), shells and fibers as waste from palm oil fruit harvest and oil extraction processing. At present there is a continuously increasing interest in the utilization of oil palm biomass as a source of clean energy. One of the major interests is hydrogen from oil palm biomass. Hydrogen from biomass is a clean and efficient energy source and is expected to take a significant role in future energy demand due to the raw material availability. This paper presents a review which focuses on different types of thermo-chemical processes for conversion of oil palm biomass to hydrogen rich gas. This paper offers a concise and up-to-date scenario of the present status of oil palm industry in contributing towards sustainable and renewable energy. (author)

Mohammed, M.A.A.; Salmiaton, A.; Wan Azlina, W.A.K.G.; Mohammad Amran, M.S.; Fakhru' l-Razi, A. [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Taufiq-Yap, Y.H. [Centre of Excellence for Catalysis Science and Technology and Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

2011-02-15

253

Memoranda. Renewable energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The document contains 32 memoranda from UK companies, associations, non-governmental organizations and the Ministry of Defence submitted as contributions to the UK House of Commons Environmental Audit Committee's inquiry into renewable energy policy. It includes contributions from Powergen, Innogy plc, the Electricity Association, The Energy Saving Trust. The Energy from Waste Association, Scottish and Southern TXU Europe, Energy plc, Yorkshire Electricity Supply, the Combined Heat and Power Association, the Association of Electricity Producers, Centrica plc, the National Grid Company plc and Aquatic Energy Ltd. Other contributors are the Royal Society, the Royal Society for the Protection of Brids, The Countryside Agency, English Nature and Greenpeace. Memoranda were also submitted from the Confederation of UK Coal Producers (COALPRO) and the Association of Coal Mine Methane Operators (ACMMO). COALPRO calls for investment in clean coal technology and also for gas from abandoned coal mines to be defined as a renewable source and advocates support for energy from waste schemes. ACMMO explains the potential of coal mine methane (CMM) as an energy source and recommends CMM be accorded green certificate status and be allowed to contribute to the electricity suppliers' Renewables Obligation.

NONE

2001-05-03

254

Renewable energy and jobs  

OpenAIRE

Over 5.7 million people are employed directly or indirectly in renewable energy - a figure that could triple by 2030 with the scale-up needed to ensure global energy sustainability. As policy makers look beyond energy security and environmental aspects, the comprehensive Renewable Energy and Jobs report from the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) examines wider socio-economic benefits, and specifically job creation. The report was released ahead of the first International Renewable...

Ferroukhi, Rabia; Lucas, Hugo; Renner, Michael; Lehr, Ulrike; Breitschopf, Barbara; Lallement, Dominique; Petrick, Kristian

2013-01-01

255

Local challenges in the promotion of renewable energy sources: The case of Crete  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Crete, the largest Greek island, attracts about 20% of the total Greek tourist activity and hosts more than 50% of all renewable energy projects situated in the Hellenic island territories. In this article, we probe the comparatively successful promotion of renewable energy applications among Cretan municipalities by identification of key components and drivers of local dynamics which facilitate the development of such innovative and collective projects. We then refer to a theoretical economic grid highlighting the strength of local factors (i.e. social and institutional forces) in co-ordination mechanisms. We conclude that for the case of Crete, both internal factors (such as local acceptance) and external elements (such as macrostructure) play a core role in successful implementation of renewable energy, and from this we propose a number of facilitating conditions which could help promote renewable energy production on other islands.

256

The vulnerabilities of the power-grid system: renewable microgrids as an alternative source of energy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this paper is to analyse the vulnerabilities of current power-grid systems and to propose alternatives to using fossil fuel power generation and infrastructure solutions in the form of microgrids, particularly those from renewable energy sources. One of the key potential benefits of microgrids, apart from their inherent sustainability and ecological advantages, is increased resilience. The analysis is targeted towards the context of business process outsourcing in India. However, much of the research on vulnerabilities has been derived from the USA and as such many of the examples cite vulnerabilities in the USA and other developed economies. Nevertheless, the vulnerabilities noted are to a degree common to all grid systems, and so the analysis may be more broadly applicable. PMID:20494879

Meyer, Victor; Myres, Charles; Bakshi, Nitin

2010-03-01

257

Renewable energy sources as an alternative to the new usage of brownfields.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Brno : MU Brno, 2012 - (Svobodová, H.), s. 82-88 ISBN 978-80-210-5799-9. [19th International Conference on Geography and Geoinformatics: Challenge for Practise and Education. Brno (CZ), 08.09.2011-09.09.2011] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7E11035; GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0025 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : brownfields * renewable energy sources * alternative usage * world * the Czech Republic Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography http:// apps .webofknowledge.com/full_record.do?product=UA&search_mode=GeneralSearch&qid=9&SID=U2kgIHPCYiiFNdvKq7l&page=1&doc=6

Kunc, Josef; Klusá?ek, Petr; Martinát, Stanislav; Tonev, P.

258

Modeling a drip irrigation system powered by a renewable energy source  

Science.gov (United States)

Food production is a problem in many of the regions in the world. Today, the process of producing food is very dependent on energy. The dependency on fossil fuels causes the cost of producing crops to increase as the prices of fuel increases. Using a renewable energy sources to power an irrigation system is a mean of decreasing the dependency of food products on the prices of fuel and minimize the impact of the irrigation system on the environment. A model was developed to simulate and predict the performance of an irrigation system powered by a renewable energy source. Both solar energy and wind energy were considered for the modeling of the system. The solar energy was simulated using the difference between the maximum and the minimum daily temperatures as an indicator of the amount of clouds in the atmosphere. The model is a modification of earlier models and has the advantage of not needing to be calibrated for each new site. Results showed that a model that calibrates it self for the upper and the lower expected values of the solar radiation can be developed using metrological data such as the location of the site, the daily temperatures, and the minimum relative humidity. The wind energy was predicted using the power coefficient of the turbine and statistical representation of the daily wind speeds. The average hourly values of the wind speed were used for finding the distribution constants for the Weibull distribution and Rayleigh distribution. The results showed that the Weibull distribution is more accurate in predicting the expected power output of the turbine when the daily wind speed coefficient of variation (Cv) was less than 0.5. When the Cv is greater than 0.5 the Rayleigh distribution gives better results. A computer model was developed using Visual Basic to model the system and the resulting model was tested and used in comparing the economics of a traditional irrigation system and an irrigation system powered by solar panels. The system powered by the solar panel had a greater total annual cost than the traditional system but the sensitivity analysis performed showed that if the trends in energy prices continue and the prices of the solar panels continue to decrease, the cost for operating the traditional systems will be close to the cost of operating the systems powered by the solar panels in less than a 10 years.

Al-Zoheiry, Ahmed M.

259

The green brewery concept - Energy efficiency and the use of renewable energy sources in breweries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of the Green Brewery Concept is to demonstrate the potential for reducing thermal energy consumption in breweries, to substantially lower fossil CO2 emissions and to develop an expert tool in order to provide a strategic approach to reach this reduction. Within the project 'Green Brewery' three detailed case studies have been performed and a Green Brewery Concept has been developed. The project outcomes show that it is preferable to develop a tool instead of a simple guideline where a pathway to a CO2 neutral thermal energy supply is shown for different circumstances. The methodology of the Green Brewery Concept includes detailed energy balancing, calculation of minimal thermal energy demand, process optimization, heat integration and finally the integration of renewable energy based on exergetic considerations. For the studied breweries, one brewery with optimized heat recovery can potentially supply its thermal energy demand over own resources (excluding space heating). The energy produced from biogas from biogenic residues of breweries and waste water exceeds the remaining thermal process energy demand of 37 MJ/hl produced beer. - Highlights: ? A 'Green Brewery Concept' tool as guideline for breweries to reach minimal CO2 emissions in thermal energy supply. ? tool as guideline for breweries to reach minimal CO2 emissions in thermal energy supply. ? Reached thermal energy savings of higher than 20% with heat avings of higher than 20% with heat integration via pinch analysis. ? Potential of solar process heat integration for thermal energy supply in packaging and mashing processes. ? In one brewery with optimized heat integration the thermal energy demand can be covered by biogas production from its own resources.

260

Stand-alone PEM water electrolysis system for fail safe operation with a renewable energy source  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A complete stand-alone electrolyser system has been constructed as a transportable unit for demonstration of a sustainable energy facility based on hydrogen and a renewable energy source. The stand-alone unit is designed to support a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) stack operating at up to {proportional_to}4 kW input power with a stack efficiency of about 80% based on HHV of hydrogen. It is self-pressurizing and intended for operation initially at a differential pressure of less than 6 bar across the membrane electrode assembly with the hydrogen generation side being at a higher pressure. With a slightly smaller stack, the system has been operated at an off-site facility where it was directly coupled to a 2.4 kW photovoltaic (PV) solar array. Because of its potential use in remote areas, the balance-of-plant operates entirely on 12 V DC power for all monitoring, control and safety requirements. It utilises a separate high-current supply as the main electrolyser input, typically 30-40 V at 100 A from a renewable source such as solar PV or wind. The system has multiple levels of built-in operator and stack safety redundancy. Control and safety systems monitor all flows, levels and temperatures of significance. All fault conditions are failsafe and are duplicated, triggering latching relays which shut the system down. Process indicators monitor several key variables and allow operating limits to be easily adjusted in response to experience of system performance gained in the field. (author)

Clarke, R.E.; Giddey, S.; Badwal, S.P.S. [CSIRO Energy Technology, CSIRO Energy Transformed Flagship, Private Bag 33, Clayton South, VIC 3169 (Australia)

2010-02-15

261

CONSIDERATIONS ON RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES AND THEIR RELATED PERSPECTIVES OFAGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper discusses some considerations and advances a number of proposals about the potential of Agricultural Engineering to contribute to the field of renewable energy, with an emphasis on biomass. Several areas for action are identified. First, general education and teaching of students who will go on to become technicians and professionals in the sector of renewable energies, even though the characteristics of the sectors are still fuzzy. Diffusion of the energy culture, a too often neglected aspect that is however indispensable to sustain the overdue penetration of renewable energies in Italy, is an additional area for action. Another critical area, energy planning, is currently viewed mainly as involving the assessment on more or less wide areas of energy consumption and for the scope of replacing fossil resources with renewables to meet some energy requirements. A more complex, overarching issue is energy efficiency, especially of buildings, which should be a mainstay of the planning process but is in fact not so clearly addressed in development plans for renewables. At this same level, all interactions among production sectors should be assessed, to enhance the role of agriculture, one of the new potential energy-producing sectors and one of the possible prospective suppliers of renewable energy for different final users, from households to the service sector and industry. Agricultural Engineering has the skills needed to implement all these different actions. A role for it in advanced research, i.e. biotechnologies, can and should also be envisaged. Its work in the renewable energy sector should closely involve microbiological, genetic, chemical, agronomic, and animal research to define the goals to be pursued and to implement intuitions. In this way, Agricultural Engineering would increasingly be characterized as Biosystems Engineering.

Daniele Duca

2010-06-01

262

Decision support system for exploiting local renewable energy sources: A case study of the Chigu area of southwestern Taiwan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The topic of climate and energy policy has drawn new attention since the Kyoto Protocol has now come into force. It is hoped that strengthened use of renewable energy sources can meet new international environmental requirements and provide self-sufficient domestic energy supplies. The decision support system established in this study integrates potential evaluations, cost analyses, legal incentives, and analysis of returns on investments with the aid of a geographic information system (GIS). This system can provide insights for policymakers into where and the extent of the potentials, for lawmakers into whether the current legal incentives are sufficient to encourage private investment, and for investors into whether investments in exploiting local renewable energy sources are economically feasible. Under the current incentive framework in Taiwan, the amortization periods of investment on renewable energy are generally longer than the period over which the investment is to be recovered. This presents an unfavorable condition for attracting investments to and for developing renewable energy. An increase in remuneration through legal revisions is needed before domestic investment in renewable energy will actively expand

263

Renewable energy sources evolution connected with Romania's accession to the EU process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The RES direct support in 2010 for the EU-15 countries varies from 0.08 Euro cents/kWh of total electricity in Finland, to 1.32 Euro cents/kWh of total electricity in Denmark, with a weighted average of 0-39 Euro cents/kWh of total electricity. In case of EU-15 countries using only feed-in tariffs to promote RES, the weighted average of RES direct support is 0.44 Euro cents/kWh. EURELECTRIC's position on RES support is in favor of market-based mechanisms to support renewable sources, which do not lead to market distortions. EURELECTRIC supports the Commission's intention to create a regulatory framework for the promotion of renewable sources in the internal market. Romanian Governmental Decision No. 443/2003 is aiming at the harmonization of the national legislative framework with EU Directive. The important share of large hydroelectricity generated in Romania could represent a good opportunity for Romania to participate in the EU green electricity market, but the key problem in Romania's case is the target of 12.5 % of RES-E in 2010 without large hydroelectricity. On the other hand, the development of the future European green market will influence Romania's energy policy concerning RES development. The development of some national schemes presenting an obstacle to a European certificate trading system, which do not recognize foreign certificates, could cut down the Romania's opportunities to sell into an European green electricity market the electricity generated at low price in the existing large hydropower plants. Some member states accepted electricity generated in large HPP as 'green', the others consider only small HPP in this category. The Romania's accession to EU could mean the acceptance to increase the share of new renewable sources in the next years. Such a request, involving the real implementation of schemes for RES support could be very difficult, taking into account the low support ability to increase the electricity price in Romania. (author)

264

The development of the renewable energy sector - Source for more and better jobs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a global world, isolation becomes impossible. An important set of values are unanimously recognized, and 'like peace, the prosperity is indivisible and for being sustainable must be shared'. The problems of the global environment and their consequences have essentially contributed to 'the crystallization' of the necessity to pass to the Sustainable Development, meaning the incorporation of two important dimensions: the social one and the environmental one along with the economic objectives. The paper has the following contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Environment problems and their consequences; 3. Energetic security - transition to regenerative sources of energy; 4. Renewable energy sector and its impact on employment; 5. Conclusions. The following special conclusions concerning the renewable energy sector are highlighted: 1) it is a knowledge-based-sector which use intensively the labour force; 2) it includes a higher potential of high-skill job creation, characterized by higher productivity per capita, above the average of the national economy, by promoting friendly environment technologies; 3) it is a friendly environment sector with perspectives for modelling the structural changes on medium and long term; 4) it is likely to have an positive impact on workers' health and safety (workplace quality, pollution, hazardous substances and physical demanding work) and on the entire population; 5) it ensures that the potential for environmentally related innovations is ex environmentally related innovations is exploited overall and that the emerging eco-jobs opportunities (in all skill range) can be met; 6) it supports the shift towards technologies that incorporate all the costs (technologies compatible with life cycles)

265

Large scale integration of intermittent renewable energy sources in the Greek power sector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a member of the European Union, Greece has committed to achieve ambitious targets for the penetration of renewable energy sources (RES) in gross electricity consumption by 2020. Large scale integration of RES requires a suitable mixture of compatible generation units, in order to deal with the intermittency of wind velocity and solar irradiation. The scope of this paper is to examine the impact of large scale integration of intermittent energy sources, required to meet the 2020 RES target, on the generation expansion plan, the fuel mix and the spinning reserve requirements of the Greek electricity system. We perform hourly simulation of the intermittent RES generation to estimate residual load curves on a monthly basis, which are then inputted in a WASP-IV model of the Greek power system. We find that the decarbonisation effort, with the rapid entry of RES and the abolishment of the grandfathering of CO2 allowances, will radically transform the Greek electricity sector over the next 10 years, which has wide-reaching policy implications. - Highlights: ? Greece needs 8.8 to 9.3 GW additional RES installations by 2020. ? RES capacity credit varies between 12.2% and 15.3%, depending on interconnections. ? Without institutional changes, the reserve requirements will be more than double. ? New CCGT installed capacity will probably exceed the cost-efficient level. ? Competitive pressures should be introduced in segments other than day-ahead market. other than day-ahead market.

266

Comparative analyses of seven technologies to facilitate the integration of fluctuating renewable energy sources  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

An analysis of seven different technologies is presented. The technologies integrate fluctuating renewable energy sources (RES) such as wind power production into the electricity supply, and the Danish energy system is used as a case. Comprehensive hour-by-hour energy system analyses are conducted of a complete system meeting electricity, heat and transport demands, and including RES, power plants, and combined heat and power production (CHP) for district heating and transport technologies. In conclusion, the most fuel-efficient and least-cost technologies are identified through energy system and feasibility analyses. Large-scale heat pumps prove to be especially promising as they efficiently reduce the production of excess electricity. Flexible electricity demand and electric boilers are low-cost solutions, but their improvement of fuel efficiency is rather limited. Battery electric vehicles constitute the most promising transport integration technology compared with hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCVs). The costs of integrating RES with electrolysers for HFCVs, CHP and micro fuel cell CHP are reduced significantly with more than 50% of RES.

Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik

2009-01-01

267

Power generation from biomass gasification - a renewable energy source based technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy is essential for sustenance of life in the biosphere. This article covers biomass gasification and highlights the need of bioenergy for electricity generation covering its potential in India and power scenario in the world. Finite energy resources will get consumed in the near future. And bioenergy is essentially renewable or carbon neutral. For electricity generation, the biomass is required to be upgraded in terms of more easily handled fuels, namely gases, liquids, and charcoal using various technologies such as pyrolysis, gasification, carbonization, digestion, fermentation, etc. Biomass gasification is the renewable energy options of future energy and has potential in electricity generation from biomass. (author)

268

Tighter reins for renewable energies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new law regulating the use of renewable energies is currently a source of both uncertainty and protest in Bulgaria. The restrictive course adopted by the government could soon weaken an expanding branch and scare off new investors. (orig.)

Stier, Frank

2011-07-01

269

Special report on renewable energy sources and climate change mitigation, (SRREN). Summary for policy makers; FNs klimapanel: Spesialrapport om fornybar energi, sammendrag for beslutningstakere  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In May 2011 the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change published a report on six renewable energy sources and their role in climate change mitigation. This is a Norwegian, unofficial translation of the Summary for Policy makers. (Author)

2011-06-15

270

Panorama 2011: Ocean renewable energies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Our society is looking increasingly to renewable energy sources in the face of the energy and environmental challenges with which it is grappling. As far as ocean renewable energies are concerned, a wide range of technologies is currently being experimented with, including wind power and energy derived from waves and tidal currents. They are all at varying levels of maturity, and bring with them very different technical and economic challenges. (author)

271

Renewable energy markets: Ukrainian perspective  

OpenAIRE

Energy from renewable energy sources is the most dynamic and one of the most promising sectors of European and global energy, while renewable energy is seen not only as an emergency replacement of fossil organic fuels, especially oil and gas as well as economically and environmentally sound replacement of traditional fossil fuels, where even now there are all conditions for their use. When you are citing the document, use the following link http://essuir.sumdu.edu.ua/handle/123456789/31662

Melnik, K.

2013-01-01

272

Potential applications of renewable energy sources, biomass combustion problems in boiler power systems and combustion related environmental issues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the potential applications of renewable energy sources to replace fossil fuel combustion as the prime energy sources in various countries, and discusses problems associated with biomass combustion in boiler power systems. Here, the term biomass includes organic matter produced as a result of photosynthesis as well as municipal, industrial and animal waste material. Brief summaries of the basic concepts involved in the combustion of biomass fuels are presented. Renewable energy sources (RES) supply 14% of the total world energy demand. RES are biomass, hydropower, geothermal, solar, wind and marine energies. The renewables are the primary, domestic and clean or inexhaustible energy resources. The percentage share of biomass was 62.1% of total renewable energy sources in 1995. Experimental results for a large variety of biomass fuels and conditions are presented. Numerical studies are also discussed. Biomass is an attractive renewable fuel in utility boilers. The compositions of biomass among fuel types are variable. Ash composition for the biomass is fundamentally different from ash composition for the coal. Especially inorganic constituents cause to critical problems of toxic emissions, fouling and slagging. Metals in ash, in combination with other fuel elements such as silica and sulfur, and facilitated by the presence of chlorine, are responsible for many undesirable reactions in combustion furnaces and power boilers. Elements including K, Na, Spower boilers. Elements including K, Na, S, Cl, P, Ca, Mg, Fe, Si are involved in reactions leading to ash fouling and slagging in biomass combustors. Chlorine in the biomass may affect operation by corrosion. Ash deposits reduce heat transfer and may also result in severe corrosion at high temperatures. Other influences of biomass composition are observed for the rates of combustion and pollutant emissions. Biomass combustion systems are non-polluting and offer significant protection of the environment. The reduction of greenhouse gases pollution is the main advantage of utilizing biomass energy. (Author)

273

National Renewable Energy Laboratory  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Renewable Energy Lab is the U.S. Department of Energy's premier laboratory for renewable energy research and development and a leading laboratory for energy efficiency research and development. The web site provides access to a large array of information that targets many different audiences. There are educational links and classroom activities and projects suited for audiences from primary education through college-level. Other features include information about different forms of energy, databases on renewable energy production, an extensive photo gallery, and information on current research and applications in energy efficiency and renewable energy.

2002-04-01

274

Recent incentives for renewable energy in Turkey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recently, the importance of renewable energy sources has increased significantly as climate change has become an important long term threat to global ecosystems and the world economy. In the face of increased concern about climate change and high fossil fuel costs together with a reduction in the primary energy sources such as oil, natural gas and coal, alternative energy sources (renewables) are increasingly needed to respond to the threat of climate change and growing energy demand in the world. Recent developments in Turkey, such as the liberalization of the electricity market and improvements in the renewable legislations, have accelerated the growth process and investment opportunities in the field of renewable energy. Turkey?s naturally endowed potential for renewables, such as solar, geothermal and wind, also accompanied these developments and attracted world attention to this market. In Turkey, renewable energy sources have gained great importance in the last decades due to growing energy demand and incentive policies which foster the utilization of renewable energy sources. This study aims to explore the availability and potential of renewable energy sources in Turkey and discuss the government policies and economic aspects. - highlights: • Turkey?s potential for renewable energy has attracted world attention. • Turkey has specific energy objectives in promoting renewable energy. • This paper evaluates recent incentives for renewable energy in Turkey. • Incentives in Turkey have led to more investment in renewable energy generation

275

Optimal operation of conventional power plants in power system with integrated renewable energy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Approach for solving the generation scheduling problem of a complex system. ? WPPs integration into the system in order to minimize the total system fuel costs. ? Application on specific system consisted of TPPs, HPPs, PSHPP and WPP. - Abstract: This paper presents an approach for solving the generation scheduling problem of a complex system consisted of conventional and renewable energy sources (RES). Wind power plants are integrated into the system in order to minimize the total thermal unit fuel costs. The gained results for wind farm power production are used as input in the system to determine the optimal amounts of generated power for the thermal generating units and hydro generating units over the study period. The optimization problem consists of minimizing the total production costs, respecting power balance equations for each time interval and all operational system constraints. The proposed approach is applied on a specific system consisted of thermal power plants (TPPs), storage hydro power plants (HPPs), pumped-storage hydro power plant (PSHPP) and wind power plant (WPP). The benefits of energy production from WPP, in terms of reducing the production costs of conventional thermal power plants are also investigated. In the proposed paper two cases are analyzed. In the two analyzed cases power unit’s generation, thermal unit’s fuel costs and stream flows of hydro units are calculated over the study period.iod.

276

Renewables | Energies renouvelables  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available World Energy Generated for Commercial Use by Type*Production mondiale d’énergie destinée à des applications commerciales, par type*­Main ProducersPrincipaux producteurs* Renewables also include biomass, yet most of it is used for energy generation for non-commercial purposes. | Les énergies renouvelables incluent la biomasse, mais celle-ci sert essentiellement à générer de l’énergie qui ne rentre pas dans les circuits commerciaux.Source: British Petroleum, BP Statistical Review of World Energ...

2012-05-01

277

A review of net metering mechanism for electricity renewable energy sources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this work, an overview of the net metering mechanism for renewable energy sources for power generation (RES-E systems is carried out. In particular, the net metering concept is examined with its benefits and misconceptions. Furthermore, a survey of the current operational net metering schemes in different countries in the world, such as, in Europe, USA, Canada, Thailand and Australia, is carried out. The survey indicated that there are different net metering mechanisms depending on the particularities of each country (or state in the case of USA. Especially, in Europe, only five countries are using net metering in a very simple form, such as, any amount of energy produced by the eligible RES-E technology is compensated from the energy consumed by the RES-E producer, which results to either a less overall electricity bill or to an exception in payment energy taxes. In the USA and the USA territories, any customer’s net excess generation is credited to the customer’s next electricity bill for a 12-month billing cycle at various rates or via a combination between rates. The actual type of net excess generation (NEG credit is decided by a number of set criteria, such as the type of RES-E technology, the RES-E capacity limit, the type of customer and the type of utility. Regarding any excess credit at the end of the 12-month billing cycle, this is either granted to the utilities, or carries over indefinitely to the customer’s next electricity bill, or is reconciled annually at any rate, or provides an option to the customer to choose between the last two options.

Andreas Poullikkas, George Kourtis, Ioannis Hadjipaschalis

2013-01-01

278

STUDY OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF COMPLEX USE OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN THE REGIONAL POWER SECTOR OF THE REPUBLIC OF THE UNION OF MYANMAR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article aims to study the prospects of energy complexes on the basis of renewable energy sources to supply electricity to the stand-alone consumers in different regions of Myanmar. In order to do that territory of Myanmar is divided into some regions according to their amount of renewable energy sources, methods for determining the optimum parameters and operation of energy complex on the basis of renewable energy sources are developed and the cost-effectiveness of those energy complexes in the regional power sector of Myanmar is analyzed

Malinin N. K.

2014-06-01

279

Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Pacific  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles take stock of the latest development of renewable energy in two regions where renewable energy can make a significant contribution to combat climate change and bring modern energy services to everyone: Africa and the Pacific. These two regions are presented separately in this volume and its sister publication. The country profiles combine elements of IRENA analysis with the latest information available from a vast array of sources in order to give a brief yet comprehensive and up-to-date picture of the situation of renewable energy that includes energy supply, electrical capacity, energy access, policies, targets, investment climate, projects and endowment in renewable energy resources. Because of the different timelines of these sources, data presented here refer to years between 2008 and 2012. Data availability also differs from country to country, which makes comparison with a wider regional group possible only for the year for which figures are available for all the members of the group; while this may not be the most recent year, the differences between countries, regions and the world remain striking. The current country profiles are just a starting point; they will be extended upon with new indicators to make them more informative, and maintained as a live product on the IRENA website as a key source of information on renewable energy.

NONE

2012-09-15

280

Bolivia renewable energy development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author summarizes changes which have occurred in Bolivia in the past year which have had an impact on renewable energy source development. Political changes have included the privatization of power generation and power distribution, and resulted in a new role for state level government and participation by the individual. A National Rural Electrification Plan was adopted in 1996, which stresses the use of GIS analysis and emphasizes factors such as off grid, economic index, population density, maintenance risk, and local organizational structure. The USAID program has chosen to stress economic development, environmental programs, and health over village power programs. The national renewables program has adopted a new development direction, with state projects, geothermal projects, and private sector involvement stressed.

Smith, P.

1997-12-01

281

The potential of the Slovakian ground-water as sources of renewable energy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the most favourable energetic sources of heat is represented by ground-water, which can be found in the Earth crust in twoforms as common water and as geothermal water. It is well-known, that Slovakia disposes by great potential of this kind of renewable energysource. For the evaluation, it is necessary to take into account also the regional demands of the ground-water utilisation as renewableenergy source. This paper evaluate the occurence, quality and possibilities of explotiation of these sources.

Dušan Dugá?ek

2010-07-01

282

State of renewable energy sources use for electricity production in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article sets the position of renewable energy and its political framework requirements in Germany together with its market position at the start of the twenty first century. In its first section, it concentrates on electricity production. Here the requirements have been considerably changed through the liberation of the electricity market. (author)

283

Grid Interconnection of Renewable Energy Sources with Power-Quality Improvement Features  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A Power quality problem is an occurrence of nonstandard voltage, current or frequency that results in a failure or a misoperation of end user equipments. Utility distribution networks, sensitive industrial loads and critical commercial operations suffer from various types of outages and service interruptions which can cost significant financial losses. With the increase in load demand, the Renewable Energy Sources (RES are increasingly connected in the distribution systems which utilizes power electronic Converters/Inverters. This paper presents a novel control strategy for achieving maximum benefits from these grid-interfacing inverters using the closed loop fuzzy logic control, when installed in 3-phase 4-wire distribution systems. The inverter is controlled to perform as a multi-function device by incorporating active power filter functionality. The inverter can thus be utilized as: 1 power converter to inject power generated from RES to the grid, and 2 shunt APF to compensate current unbalance, load current harmonics, load reactive power demand and load neutral current. All of these functions may be accomplished either individually or simultaneously. This new control concept is demonstrated with extensive MATLAB/Simulink.

Mohin Ahamed Syed*

2014-10-01

284

The effects of the German renewable energy sources Act (EEG) on market, technical and industrial development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since 1999, the German photovoltaic market has been growing rapidly. In 2003, more than 130 MWp PV systems were installed in Germany; in 2004, more than 200 MWp are expected to be installed additionally. The main reason for this impressive market success has been the market stimulation policy of the German government. In January 1999, the 100.000 Roofs Programme for photovoltaic systems had started, offering interest-reduced loans for PV systems. In April 2000, it was backed by the Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG), which considerably increased the feed-in tariff to 99 Pfennig (0.51 euros) per kWh. Since then, the PV market has boomed. In 2003, the 100,000 Roofs Programme (HTRP) ended successfully, after loans for more than 300 MWp PV systems had been granted. In order to fill the gap created by the termination of the programme, the government decided to increase the feed-in tariff provided by the EEG. Since January 2004, grid-connected PV systems on roofs and facades receive a tariff between 0,540 euros and 0,624 euros per kWh over 20 years. This improvement of the EEG further increased the interest in photovoltaics. The growth rate of the photovoltaic market, exceeding 50% in 2004, has led to the demand being higher than the available supply of PV systems. (author)

285

Proceedings of the 8. Brazilian congress on energy: energy policy, regulation and sustainable development. v. 3: technological innovation, renewable sources and rural energization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

These proceedings cover the papers presented in the 8. Brazilian congress on energy held at Rio de Janeiro from November, 30 to December, 02, 1999, focusing energy policy, regulation and sustainable development, specifically the contribution of energy to a satisfactory quality of life for everyone. Within such a context, the congress technical programme has been structured around six different divisions: energy, environment and development; energy sector regulation; energy policy and planning; technology innovation; energy conservation; renewable energy sources and rural areas energy supply

286

Rural electrification program with renewable energy sources: An analysis of China’s Township Electrification Program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Given the fact that 1.4 billion people, over 20% of the world’s population, lack access to electricity, rural electrification remains a common challenge for many developing countries. The ‘Township Electrification Program’ launched by the Chinese government in 2002 is known as the world’s largest renewable energy-based rural electrification program in terms of investment volume ever carried out by a country. This study gives an in-depth examination of the program implemented in two selected townships in remote of rural areas of western China. The results showed that the implementation of the program possessed a technical orientation (e.g., construction of stations, installation of systems), and underestimated the financial implications (e.g., electricity tariff, households’ ability to pay electricity fees, financial management) as well as human resources available (e.g., training for operators, household participation) and institutional capacity building (e.g., good governance, regulatory framework) at the local level. Even though electricity was provided by the solar PV power stations, households still relied on traditional energy sources, such as candles and dry cell batteries, due to the fact that electricity service was unreliable and electricity supply was not sufficient for households’ needs. - Highlights: ? China’s electrification rate has reached the level of OECD countries. ? Township Electrification Program is the world’s largest electrifrld’s largest electrification program. ? The program possessed a technical orientation and underestimated other aspects. ? Households still relied on traditional energy, such as candles and batteries. ? Having electricity access did not mean that electricity was actually used.

287

Renewable energy strategies for sustainable development  

OpenAIRE

This paper discusses the perspective of renewable energy (wind, solar, wave and biomass) in the making of strategies for a sustainable development. Such strategies typically involve three major technological changes: energy savings on the demand side, efficiency improvements in the energy production, and replacement of fossil fuels by various sources of renewable energy. Consequently, large-scale renewable energy implementation plans must include strategies of how to integrate the renewable s...

Lund, Henrik

2005-01-01

288

A Review of Nipa Palm as a Renewable Energy Source in Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this study is to evaluate the renewable energy potential of Nipa Palm, a bio-energy crop widely available yet underutilized in Nigeria. The combustion of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas has increased the concentration of carbon dioxide in the earth's atmosphere. The carbon dioxide and other socalled greenhouse gases allow solar energy to enter the Earth's atmosphere, but reduce the amount of energy that can re-radiate back into space, trapping energy and causing glo...

Okugbo, O. T.; Usunobun, U.; Adegbegi, J. A.; Okiemien, C. O.

2012-01-01

289

Regional income effects and renewable fuels. Increased usage of renewable energy sources in Danish rural areas and its impact on regional incomes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

CO2-emission is a world wide problem and in the attempt to reduce these emissions, renewable energy sources may be considered serious alternatives to the present usage of fossil fuels. As part of a research programme financed by The Danish Energy Agency, data concerning the different heating technologies based on oil and wood fuels have been collected. Private and social costs are estimated and these economic data are used when analysing regional income effects of increased consumption of fuels (e.g. wood) locally produced. The impacts on income and tax revenues are calculated from multiplier expressions, constructed with rights to the measurement of local effects. (au) 10 refs

290

Regional income effects and renewable fuels. Increased usage of renewable energy sources in Danish rural areas and its impact on regional incomes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

CO{sub 2}-emission is a world wide problem and in the attempt to reduce these emissions, renewable energy sources may be considered serious alternatives to the present usage of fossil fuels. As part of a research programme financed by The Danish Energy Agency, data concerning the different heating technologies based on oil and wood fuels have been collected. Private and social costs are estimated and these economic data are used when analysing regional income effects of increased consumption of fuels (e.g. wood) locally produced. The impacts on income and tax revenues are calculated from multiplier expressions, constructed with rights to the measurement of local effects. (au) 10 refs.

Bentzen, J.; Smith, V. [Aarhus School of Business, Dept. of Economics (Denmark); Dilling-Hansen, M. [Univ. of Aarhus, Dept. of Management (Denmark)

1996-12-31

291

Renewable Energy Technology  

Science.gov (United States)

In many ways the field of renewable energy technology is being introduced to a society that has little knowledge or background with anything beyond traditional exhaustible forms of energy and power. Dotson (2009) noted that the real challenge is to inform and educate the citizenry of the renewable energy potential through the development of…

Daugherty, Michael K.; Carter, Vinson R.

2010-01-01

292

Current Renewable Energy Technologies and Future Projections  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The generally acknowledged sources of renewable energy are wind, geothermal, biomass, solar, hydropower, and hydrogen. Renewable energy technologies are crucial to the production and utilization of energy from these regenerative and virtually inexhaustible sources. Furthermore, renewable energy technologies provide benefits beyond the establishment of sustainable energy resources. For example, these technologies produce negligible amounts of greenhouse gases and other pollutants in providing energy, and they exploit domestically available energy sources, thereby reducing our dependence on both the importation of fossil fuels and the use of nuclear fuels. The market price of renewable energy technologies does not reflect the economic value of these added benefits.

Allison, Stephen W [ORNL; Lapsa, Melissa Voss [ORNL; Ward, Christina D [ORNL; Smith, Barton [ORNL; Grubb, Kimberly R [ORNL; Lee, Russell [ORNL

2007-05-01

293

Current Renewable Energy Technologies and Future Projections  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The generally acknowledged sources of renewable energy are wind, geothermal, biomass, solar, hydropower, and hydrogen. Renewable energy technologies are crucial to the production and utilization of energy from these regenerative and virtually inexhaustible sources. Furthermore, renewable energy technologies provide benefits beyond the establishment of sustainable energy resources. For example, these technologies produce negligible amounts of greenhouse gases and other pollutants in providing energy, and they exploit domestically available energy sources, thereby reducing our dependence on both the importation of fossil fuels and the use of nuclear fuels. The market price of renewable energy technologies does not reflect the economic value of these added benefits

294

Renewable energies in France 1970-2002  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The energy observatory presents in this 2004 edition today data concerning the thermal renewable energies and the new energetic accounting method for the electric renewable energies. The following energy sources are concerned: hydroelectric power, wind power, photovoltaic, geothermal energy, biomass, wood fuels, domestic wastes, heat pumps, biogas, the thermal solar and biofuels. The energy production by renewable sources from 1970 to 2002, is also provided. (A.L.B.)

295

Boosting renewable energies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Public policy and funding are basically different, but both are needed to develop the renewable energy market. Public policy creates incentives, but also obligations. The setting up of a 'repurchase rate' also called a 'feed-in tariff' or 'clean energy cash back scheme' obliges electric power companies to buy back energy of renewable origin at a fixed, guaranteed rate. The extra-cost generated, although usually low, is passed on to all customers and does not cost the State anything. Funding is characterized by its source, the manner in which it is obtained and who supplies it, whether it be banks, mutual funds, development agencies, electric power companies, local governments or the consumers themselves. Repurchasing yields regular cash flows over a given period at a lower risk and allows banks to provide funding. This is one of the reasons for its success. This solution is also very popular with political leaders because it does not weigh down public funding. Both these reasons explain why repurchasing is so appreciated in Europe and in a growing number of countries, more than seventy having adopted it in 2010. In addition, it is regularly discounted in relation to technological breakthroughs and lower costs. As is the case in Europe, the problem lies in maintaining an acceptable rate while avoiding excessive project profitability. In Europe, for instance, the number of renewable energy projects is such that consumers are starting to complain about seeing their electrting to complain about seeing their electricity rates rise because of the famous feed-in tariff, even though the cost of renewable energies continues to drop on a regular basis. The United States and a few other countries, including China, prefer the quota system, or RPS (Renewable Portfolio Standards), which requires electric power companies to generate a minimal share of electric power by a renewable energy source. These companies consequently invest in renewable energy projects or purchase this energy from other suppliers. Like the repurchase rate, this system costs the State nothing. In contrast to Europe, where solar and wind power benefit from repurchasing systems, solar power in the US is subsidized in various ways at state level. Subsidies generally range from 30 to 50% of the total cost of the installation. Three quite distinct approaches to biofuel funding are found in the United States, Brazil and Europe. In the United States, the government directly subsidizes biofuel producers at a rate, in 2010, of around 13 cents on the dollar per liter of ethanol and 28 cents on the dollar per liter of bio-diesel fuel (2009). In Brazil the State partially subsidizes sugar cane plantations and refineries, despite the fact that ethanol production is competitive in relation to oil-based fuels. Europe and a few countries elsewhere have only gone so far as to lighten or remove the tax on hydrocarbons when they are associated with biofuels; still others impose specific mixes of biofuels with gasoline or diesel fuel

296

Local investment in renewable energies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although the vast majority of renewable energies projects are established by commercial developers, some of them are financed by ''ordinary citizens'' pooling together through different schemes. This is particularly frequent in Denmark and Germany, possibly a key reason for the continuous and so successful growth of various renewable energies sources in these countries. This guideline aims to define the term of local investment and provides examples of development and recommendations. (A.L.B.)

297

Electricity sector in Mexico. Current status. Contribution of renewable energy sources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The challenge facing the world electricity sector is the cost incurred in maintaining the system and seeing to the environmental effects it causes. In Mexico the grid is supplied by thermal plants fed by oil products. Its great potential of renewable energies clearly shown in studies by national and international scholars has led the government to become more committed to take advantage of these energies. The goal is to reduce dependence on fossil fuels to generate electricity and to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases. In this article we analyse the current state of renewable energies, the conditions needed to foster them and the legislative changes already introduced to promote their greater part in the national electricity grid. (author)

Cancino-Solorzano, Yoreley [Departamento de Ing. Electrica-Electronica, Instituto Tecnologico de Veracruz, Calzada Miguel A. de Quevedo 2779, 91860 Veracruz (Mexico); Villicana-Ortiz, Eunice; Gutierrez-Trashorras, Antonio J.; Xiberta-Bernat, Jorge [Departamento de Energia, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros de Minas, Universidad de Oviedo, C/Independencia, 13, 2a Planta, 33004 Oviedo (Spain)

2010-01-15

298

Electricity sector in Mexico. Current status. Contribution of renewable energy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The challenge facing the world electricity sector is the cost incurred in maintaining the system and seeing to the environmental effects it causes. In Mexico the grid is supplied by thermal plants fed by oil products. Its great potential of renewable energies clearly shown in studies by national and international scholars has led the government to become more committed to take advantage of these energies. The goal is to reduce dependence on fossil fuels to generate electricity and to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases. In this article we analyse the current state of renewable energies, the conditions needed to foster them and the legislative changes already introduced to promote their greater part in the national electricity grid. (author)

299

Renewable energies - Situation and perspectives  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The world has to face increasing energy needs while it is today dependent of fossil fuels at 80%. Getting out of the fossil fuels dependence model requires an important effort to promote the energy saving and the carbon-free energies as well, and in particular the renewable energy sources. Taking all this information into account, the authors evaluate the global share that renewable energies could represent in the energy mix, in France and in the entire world. This share represents today only 10% of the energy consumed, but will it remain marginal or will it become important and eventually prominent? (J.S.)

300

BASIC APPROACHES TO THE RESEARCH OF RENEWABLE SOURCES OF ENERGY AS THE ENERGY POTENTIAL OF TERRITORIES AND BUILT-UP AREAS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

renewable sources of energy include water, sun, and wind. Wind power engineering best fits the conditions of the Russian territories. However, experts believe that the wind power is to be backed by other sources due to the irregularity of its generation. This approach to the power generation and planning of territories coupled with the integration of renewable energy technologies into architectural designs of buildings and structures will make it possible to identify the prerequisites for the energy generation specialization of the subjects of the Russian Federation on the basis of their climatic conditions and urban development patterns. Private investments into renewable sources of energy will assure sustainable population settlement patterns and optimal energy generation and consumption.

Poddaeva Olga Igorevna

2012-10-01

301

Renewable Energy Association  

Science.gov (United States)

As the trade association for the UK bioenergy industry, British Biogen's mission is to promote and coordinate the commercial development of biomass as a renewable fuel resource for energy production. British Biogen has merged with the Renewable Power Association. By clicking on the Renewable Energy tab, users will find information on the different subject areas. REA adds new information based upon what we discover and updates these subject fields.

302

Using the Potential of Alternative and Renewable Energy Sources in Energy Efficiency through the Introduction of Modern Organizational and Economic Forms ????????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ???????? ???????????????? ?? ???? ????????? ??????????? ??????????????-????????????? ????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article explored the possibility of using alternative and renewable energy sources in the country's energy balance. Tools of motivation and union of energy saving process participants, including clusters, G2B-platform performance-contracting are developed.? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????????????? ? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ?????????????? ??????? ??????. ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????????????, ????? ??????? ????????, G2B-?????????, ?????????-???????????.

Yudin Mikhail A.

2012-08-01

303

The renewable energies in France: the main results in 2004  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This note takes stock on the renewable energies in France. It provides data and analyses the electric power production for the different renewable energy sources and the consumption of thermal renewable energies. (A.L.B.)

304

Renewable energy strategies for sustainable development  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper discusses the perspective of renewable energy (wind, solar, wave and biomass) in the making of strategies for a sustainable development. Such strategies typically involve three major technological changes: energy savings on the demand side, efficiency improvements in the energy production, and replacement of fossil fuels by various sources of renewable energy. Consequently, large-scale renewable energy implementation plans must include strategies of how to integrate the renewable sources in coherent energy systems influenced by energy savings and efficiency measures. Based on the case of Denmark, this paper discusses the problems and perspectives of converting present energy systems into a 100 percent renewable energy system. The conclusion is that such development will be possible. The necessary renewable energy sources are present, if further technological improvements of the energy system are achieved. Especially technologies of converting the transportation and the introduction of flexible energy system technologies are crucial.

Lund, Henrik

2005-01-01

305

Renewable energy export network  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Renewable Energy Exporters Network (REEN) has recently been established, following a meeting of renewable energy exporters and government agencies on 30 October 2000. REEN will assist the Australian renewable energy industry to take advantage of the opportunities offered by the burgeoning global market for renewable energy goods and services. Recent estimates of the significant potential global growth is renewable energy demand have reinforced the industry and Government's view that, in the medium to long-term, growth in the Australian renewable energy industry will largely depend on capturing export market share. Expanding the export market was identified as a crucial component in the Renewable Energy Action Agenda, developed jointly by industry and Government and released in June 2000. It was estimated that, for the industry to achieve its vision of sales of $4 billion per year by 2010, exports would need to comprise approximately 50% of the forecast growth in sales. As such, the need for a specific export strategy for the Australian renewable energy industry was recognised in the Action Agenda, and the establishment of the REEN is one of the first initiatives undertaken as part of the Renewable Energy Export Strategy. The REEN comprises approximately 50 export-ready renewable energy companies, the Department of Industry, Science and Resources, Austrade, and Stage Government agencies such as NSW's Sustainable Energy Development Authority. The Export Network will opment Authority. The Export Network will operate electronically, with face-to-face meetings held as appropriate. The Department of Industry, Science and Resources will facilitate the Export Network and has published a website at www.isr.gov.au/industry/reen. The site includes: a members directory; a discussion forum; information on opportunities to showcase Australian renewable; energy products and services; and Iinks to sites containing information that may be useful to renewable energy exporters. Other actions that are being undertaken as part of the Renewable Energy Export Strategy include: identifying the size, location and accessibility of potential export markets; identifying Australian export capabilities including successful exporters and export-ready companies; implementing a mechanism to disseminate information to industry on export markets and opportunities; showcasing Australian export capabilities; identifying export barriers and developing a mechanism for addressing these; and strengthening and broadening the focus of the Electric Energy Industry Export Council on renewable energy exports

306

Renewable energy delivery systems and methods  

Science.gov (United States)

A system, method and/or apparatus for the delivery of energy at a site, at least a portion of the energy being delivered by at least one or more of a plurality of renewable energy technologies, the system and method including calculating the load required by the site for the period; calculating the amount of renewable energy for the period, including obtaining a capacity and a percentage of the period for the renewable energy to be delivered; comparing the total load to the renewable energy available; and, implementing one or both of additional and alternative renewable energy sources for delivery of energy to the site.

Walker, Howard Andrew

2013-12-10

307

Enhancement in Power Quality With Grid Interconnection of Renewable Energy Sources at Distribution Level  

OpenAIRE

At present the Renewable energy resources (RES) are being increasingly connected in distribution systems utilizing power electronic converters. This paper presents a novel control strategy for achieving maximum benefits from these grid-interfacing inverters when installed in 3-phase 4-wire distribution systems. The inverter is controlled to perform as a multi-function device by incorporating active power filter functionality. The inverter can thus be utilized as power converte...

Yella Reddy, B.; Pratap Naik, M.

2014-01-01

308

Finite Action-Set Learning Automata for Economic Dispatch Considering Electric Vehicles and Renewable Energy Sources  

OpenAIRE

The coming interaction between a growing electrified vehicle fleet and the desired growth in renewable energy provides new insights into the economic dispatch (ED) problem. This paper presents an economic dispatch model that considers electric vehicle charging, battery exchange stations, and wind farms. This ED model is a high-dimensional, non-linear, and stochastic problem and its solution requires powerful methods. A new finite action-set learning automata (FALA)-based approach that has t...

Junpeng Zhu; Ping Jiang; Wei Gu(The Interdisciplinary Center for Theoretical Study, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230026, China); Wanxing Sheng; Xiaoli Meng; Jun Gao

2014-01-01

309

New energy making money. Vaillant for the installation of renewable sources of current business  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The government, individuals and companies should consider the lowering of energy consumption and moving into renewable resources. This is a phrase which a person would expect from an environmental activist or a rock singer with a Messianic tendency. If the managers of an industry concern say it - known mainly as a producer of gas boilers and air conditioning units - with a slight cynicism we could think of this as the company's social responsibility side. But it came out from the mouths of the Vaillant managers in connection with business. On one side they admit that the crisis affecting the construction industry damaged their sales. But they add right away that this is the era when it is possible to support technological development, and government support of effective energy devices including the usage of renewable resources are helping them to maintain business without further damage. 'Because we specialize in innovative energy devices and we continue with development,' Dieter Mueller, the executive director of the group, describes Vaillant's expansion of their business model. The company which he leads settled in Slovakia with two factories. For Vaillant business, energy devices using renewable resources are not the future. In June last year the concern started producing solar collectors in the German Gelsenkirchene's factory. Solar panels with a 370,000 square meter area come from a line with a capacity to produce 150,000 collectors every year. Groups interested collectors every year. Groups interested in solar devices and technology for all renewable resources don't have to wonder. The firm noted its historically highest numbers: above 2.4 billion euros. At the slowing down of sales of traditional boilers, so-called 'green' devices were growing, and little by little they are climbing up to a 200 million euro mark. The numbers for the installation of solar heat devices alone added to the group's numbers 60% more than the previous year. (authors)

310

The role of cool thermal energy storage (CTES) in the integration of renewable energy sources (RES) and peak load reduction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The building sector is one of the largest energy consumers. Even though cooling needs do not contribute a large share to the overall energy demand in temperate climates, recent trends show a tendency of large growth. This growth is related to two main drivers: cheap and affordable air-conditioning units that have overrun the market and the more frequent occurrence of hot and extremely hot weather conditions. In combination with inadequate insulation and sealing in most old buildings, both drivers contributed to new cooling installations that are significantly increasing electricity demand and peak load, even at the national level. Consequently, the use of fossil fuels in power plants and electricity import has increased. The development of sustainable buildings and the use of renewable energy sources (RES) seem to be promising solutions. However, the problem of the integration of RES in the current energy system is related to their intermittent nature and uncontrollable occurrence. Cool Thermal Energy Storage (CTES) may play an important role in the management of peak loads and solve the intermittency problem of RES, especially when cooling storage is integrated into district cooling systems. A simple mathematical model of a system with integrated RES and CTES has been developed. Hourly system analyses have been conducted for one building, a group of buildings connected to the district cooling system and a region represented by a mixture of different demands for cool thermal energy. This paper also includes the results for the overall energy efficiency, cost effectiveness and environmental impact of the systems analysed.

311

Determination of biogas generation potential as a renewable energy source from supermarket wastes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: • Disposal of supermarket wastes in landfills may contribute to environmental pollution. • High methane yields can be obtained from supermarket wastes by anaerobic co-digestion. • Fruit and vegetable wastes or dairy products wastes could individually be handled by a two-stage anaerobic process. • Buffering capacity, trace metal and C/N ratio are essential for digestion of supermarket wastes. - Abstract: Fruit, vegetable, flower waste (FVFW), dairy products waste (DPW), meat waste (MW) and sugar waste (SW) obtained from a supermarket chain were anaerobically digested, in order to recover methane as a source of renewable energy. Batch mesophilic anaerobic reactors were run at total solids (TS) ratios of 5%, 8% and 10%. The highest methane yield of 0.44 L CH{sub 4}/g VS{sub added} was obtained from anaerobic digestion of wastes (FVFW + DPW + MW + SW) at 10% TS, with 66.4% of methane (CH{sub 4}) composition in biogas. Anaerobic digestion of mixed wastes at 5% and 8% TS provided slightly lower methane yields of 0.41 and 0.40 L CH{sub 4}/g VS{sub added}, respectively. When the wastes were digested alone without co-substrate addition, the highest methane yield of 0.40 L CH{sub 4}/g VS{sub added} was obtained from FVFW at 5% TS. Generally, although the volatile solids (VS) conversion percentages seemed low during the experiments, higher methane yields could be obtained from anaerobic digestion of supermarket wastes. A suitable carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio, proper adjustment of the buffering capacity and the addition of essential trace nutrients (such as Ni) could improve VS conversion and biogas production yields significantly.

Alkanok, Gizem; Demirel, Burak, E-mail: burak.demirel@boun.edu.tr; Onay, Turgut T.

2014-01-15

312

Determination of biogas generation potential as a renewable energy source from supermarket wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • Disposal of supermarket wastes in landfills may contribute to environmental pollution. • High methane yields can be obtained from supermarket wastes by anaerobic co-digestion. • Fruit and vegetable wastes or dairy products wastes could individually be handled by a two-stage anaerobic process. • Buffering capacity, trace metal and C/N ratio are essential for digestion of supermarket wastes. - Abstract: Fruit, vegetable, flower waste (FVFW), dairy products waste (DPW), meat waste (MW) and sugar waste (SW) obtained from a supermarket chain were anaerobically digested, in order to recover methane as a source of renewable energy. Batch mesophilic anaerobic reactors were run at total solids (TS) ratios of 5%, 8% and 10%. The highest methane yield of 0.44 L CH4/g VSadded was obtained from anaerobic digestion of wastes (FVFW + DPW + MW + SW) at 10% TS, with 66.4% of methane (CH4) composition in biogas. Anaerobic digestion of mixed wastes at 5% and 8% TS provided slightly lower methane yields of 0.41 and 0.40 L CH4/g VSadded, respectively. When the wastes were digested alone without co-substrate addition, the highest methane yield of 0.40 L CH4/g VSadded was obtained from FVFW at 5% TS. Generally, although the volatile solids (VS) conversion percentages seemed low during the experiments, higher methane yields could be obtained from anaerobic digestion of supermarket wastes. A suitable carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio, proper adjustment of the buffering capacity and the addition of essential trace nutrients (such as Ni) could improve VS conversion and biogas production yields significantly

313

Quota regime for renewable energy sources and Green Labels trading in the electricity market of the Netherlands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The renewables quota regime combined with a ''green electricity'' labelling and trading system, implemented by the Dutch association of distribution undertakings, is the first of its kind in Europe. The distribution undertakings are bound by a commitment to take and distribute ''green label'' electricity from renewables amounting to approx. 3% of their total sales to contractual customers. This is a modest percentage, but the quota regime already proved to be a promoter of close-to-the-market generation technologies. It would be too early now to make a final statement on the quota regime's influence on enhanced use of renewable energy sources. Practice so far also revealed the need for some modifications in the design of the pricing system for''green electricity''. Current debates consider integration of renewable energy sources abroad. The first accounting date for giving evidence of compliance with the commitment to green label quotas is late in the year 2000. This will be the test for the system and the efficiency of sanctions provided for in case of non-compliance. It will be a task of the future to examine whether it might be appropriate to establish a similar system for the heat market. (RHM/CB)

314

Renewable energies - Alain Chardon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In an interview, the chairman of Cleantechs and Decarbonate, Capgemini Consulting, comments the challenge of the struggle against global warming, discusses the role of gas on the way towards a de-carbonated economy, the cost of renewable energies compared to that of fossil and nuclear energies. He outlines other brakes upon the development of renewable energies, discusses the political issues and the challenge of meeting European objectives with respect with the share of renewable energies in the energy mix and the electricity mix by 2020

315

Renewable Energy Living Lab: Energy Experts  

Science.gov (United States)

Students use real-world data to evaluate various renewable energy sources and the feasibility of implementing these sources. Working in small groups, students use data from the Renewable Energy Living Lab to describe and understand the way the world works. The data is obtained through observation and experimentation. Using the living lab gives students and teachers the opportunity to practice analyzing data to solve problems or answer questions, in much the same way that scientists and engineers do every day.

Civil and Environmental Engineering Department,

316

The alternative and renewable energy sources in Mexico; Fuentes alternativas y renovables de energia en Mexico  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents an overview of the efforts that have been made in our Mexico in the area of Alternative and Renewable Sources of Energy, effort performed by different institutions, government agencies and private companies along the last 25 years. Older periods are not contemplated, although significant advances have existed, specifically in the area of small micro-hydraulic power plants, since the end of the past century and in solar collectors, more than 60 years ago, as the most relevant advances have been contemplated in these last two decades. The entire world energy demand is analyzed, making emphasis in our country, the efforts on the installed geothermal power plants, the flat collectors for domestic use, the solar power plants installed by some government agencies are also mentioned, as well as the strong growth in the photo-voltaic field at worldwide level as well as at domestic level (a graph is presented of the multiple applications of the photo-voltaic conversion of the solar energy at world level of which some of these are already operational in our country), including the hybrid systems (wind power photo-voltaic Diesel, the pilot biogas plants, the solar ponds efforts and the recently inaugurated wind-power plant of 1.575 MW installed at La Venta, in the Oaxaca State. [Espanol] El presente articulo, presenta una revision de los esfuerzos que se han desarrollado en nuestro Mexico, en el campo de las Fuentes Alternas y Renovables de Energia, esfuerzos realizados por diferentes instituciones, dependencias y companias a lo largo de los ultimos 25 anos. No se contemplan periodos mas antiguos, aunque han existido adelantos significativos, especificamente, en el campo de pequenas centrales microhidraulicas desde fines del siglo, y de colectores solares desde hace mas de 60 anos, ya que los mas relevantes se contemplan en estas ultimas dos decadas de recopilacion. Se analiza la demanda de energia mundial, haciendo enfasis a nuestro pais, se mencionan los esfuerzos de las plantas geotermicas instaladas, los colectores planos para uso domestico y las plantas solares instaladas por algunas dependencias; tambien el fuerte crecimiento del campo fotovoltaico, tanto a nivel mundial como nacional (se presenta un cuadro de las multiples aplicaciones de la conversion fotovoltaica de la energia solar a nivel mundial, de las cuales algunas de estas ya estan siendo operativas en nuestro pais), incluyendo los sistemas hibridos (viento-fotovoltaico-diesel), las plantas pilotos de biogas, los esfuerzos en estanques solares y la recientemente inaugurada planta eolica de 1.575 Megawatt instalada en La Venta, Edo. de Oaxaca.

Urbano C, J. Antonio [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Matsumoto K, Yasuhiro; Asomoza P, Rene [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

1996-12-31

317

Renewable Energy Technology Certificate  

Science.gov (United States)

The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) has provided this framework for a renewable energy certificate. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

318

Renewable energy sources and rationale use of energy development in the countries of GCC: Myth or reality?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The large oil and natural gas resource base and the greater competitiveness of conventional energy supply technologies based on oil and gas is a key energy characteristic in the countries of the GCC. Until today, mostly pilot and research Renewable Energy Sources (RES) and Rational Use of Energy (RUE) activities were conducted. However, these countries seem to be ready to take a more active part in the development of environmental friendly energy technologies. RES are expected to play a greater role in the future based on the rich natural potential of the region. In addition, appropriate efforts to formulate strategic RUE policies are initiated for assuring buildings sustainability and providing guidelines for future architecture. In this context, GCC countries are realizing the inevitability of putting climate change issues on the top of the list of priorities in the process of economic and social development. This paper includes an analytical review of the current RES and RUE development status in the GCC region, giving special emphasis to the business opportunities that the region offers for regional and international companies involved in this market. (author)

Doukas, Haris; Patlitzianas, Konstantinos D.; Kagiannas, Argyris G.; Psarras, John [Decision Support Systems Lab (EPU-NTUA), School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 9, Iroon Polytechniou street, 15773 Athens (Greece)

2006-05-15

319

GIS-based evaluation of multifarious local renewable energy sources: a case study of the Chigu area of southwestern Taiwan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The issue of regulating greenhouse gas emissions of developing countries is one of the main reasons for the US's retreat from ratifying the Kyoto Protocal, and this deserves particular attention in order to ensure that a robust international climate policy exists in the future. Enabling developing countries to move toward low-carbon energy systems would enhance the feasibility for their participation in mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. This study evaluates wind, solar, and biomass energy sources in a rural area of Chigu in southwestern Taiwan by means of analyzing technical, economic, environmental, and political implications in order to establish an evaluation model for developing local renewable energy sources. The adopted approach evaluates local potentials of renewable energy sources with the aid of a geographic information system according to actual local conditions, and allows the assessment to consider local potentials and restrictions such as climate conditions, land uses, and ecological environments, thus enabling a more-accurate assessment than is possible with evaluations on an approximate basis. These results may help build a developmental vision for sustainable energy systems based on locally available natural resources, and facilitate a transition of national energy and environmental policies towards sustainability

320

Creating prospective value chains for renewable road transport energy sources up to 2050 in Nordic Countries  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

If the Nordic energy and transport sectors are to meet the 2050 energy and climate policy targets, major systemic changes are necessary. Along with new technologies, changes are required also in other societal functions such as business models and consumer habits. The transition requires cooperation between public and private actors. This paper discusses the paradigm change towards 2050 Nordic road transport system based on renewable energy. More precisely, it proposes an approach for creation and analysis of prospective value networks up to the year 2050. The value networks arise from three alternative, but partly overlapping technology platforms, namely electricity, biofuels and hydrogen. The approach outlined in the paper combines elements from the fields of system level changes (transitions), value chain analysis and forward looking policy design. It presents a novel, policy relevant application with a set of practical tools to support development of implementation strategies and policy programmes in the fields of energy and transport.

Wessberg, Nina; Leinonen, Anna

2013-01-01

321

Renewable energy islands in Europe  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This publication includes a compiled presentation of various aspects concerning the possible transformation of some European islands into renewable energy communities and these projects were presented by a selection of pioneer islands at the first European Seminar on Renewable Energy Islands, held on the Danish island of Samsoee, 29-30 June 1998. This issue has increased in importance with the presentation of the ambitious EU-White Paper: `Energy for the future: Renewable Sources of Energy` which was adopted in 1998. One of the key elements of the strategy for an accelerated implementation of renewable energy is to transform 100 localities within Europe into communities which are to be 100% self-sufficient with renewable energy before 2010. In line with this strategy, the Danish Government appointed the island of Samsoe towards the end of 1997 to be the first `official` Danish, renewable energy island. This is to serve as a demonstration project for other local communities, both in Denmark as well as in the rest Europe. Gothland, Madeira, Canary Islands, Cape Verde, Arki, Crete, Minorca and Orkney Islands were represented. Environmental advantages of wind, solar and wave power for distant island communities were indicated. Serious savings would be achieved by limitation of fossil fuel import and utilization of local resources. (EG)

Oestergaard, Iben [ed.

1998-12-31

322

Commonwealth renewable energy initiatives  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Australian Government believes that a fair, open and competitive renewable energy industry market is the best approach in the long term. This paper describes the Australian Government`s role in putting renewable energy programs in place to address market failures and barriers. The programs consist of several components, addressing research, development and demonstration, promotion, trialing of innovative financing schemes and facilitation of international marketing links. Over the past two years, the Government has announced a series of new initiatives designed to take renewable energy technology out of the laboratory and into the market place. These initiatives which form part of the Greenhouse Response Strategy, are designed to address a range of market failures which are preventing renewable energy and energy efficient technologies from reaching their economic potential.

Fisher, W.L. [Department of Primary Industries and Energy, Canberra, ACT (Australia)

1994-12-31

323

Sistemas Integrados de energías con fuentes renovables, requisitos y opciones / Integrated systems of energy with renewable sources, requirements and options  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available En el presente reporte se consideró una instalación conectada a la red eléctrica en la isla de Cuba. Se tenía el interés de introducir un determinado % de energía a partir de fuentes renovables, y se poseía un determinado potencial de energía eólica y fotovoltaica. Se analizaron los requisitos y opc [...] iones energéticas, se realizaron simulaciones de alternativas con el programa HOMER y se concluyó con la determinación de las condiciones o potenciales de las fuentes renovables para la recomendación de cada opción energética, y se presentaron los resultados de forma gráfica y fácil comprensión. Se ofreció un análisis de las posibilidades reales que en el ámbito de una localidad, pueden aprovecharse en función de diversificar de manera sostenible, el esquema energético comunitario con la utilización de las fuentes renovables de energía, utilizando la variante que desde el punto económico y ambiental resulte de más conveniencia. Abstract in english In this report was considered an electric net connected installation in the island of Cuba. It had the interest of introducing a certain % of energy starting from renewable sources, and a certain potential of wind and photovoltaic energy was possessed. The requirements and energy options were analyz [...] ed, and it were carried out simulations of alternative with the HOMER program and it was concluded with the determination of the conditions or potentials of the renewable sources for the recommendation of each energy option, and the results were presented in graphic way and easy understanding. It was offered an analysis of the real possibilities in the environment of a town. It can take advantage in function of diversifying from a sustainable way, with the community energy outline using the renewable sources of energy, and taking the variant of more convenience from the economic and environmental point of view.

Antonio, Sarmiento Sera; María, Rodríguez Gámez; Orestes, Castillo Castillo; Antonio, Vázquez Pérez.

2014-04-01

324

Sistemas Integrados de energías con fuentes renovables, requisitos y opciones. Integrated systems of energy with renewable sources, requirements and options  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En el presente reporte se consideró una instalación conectada a la red eléctrica en la isla de Cuba. Se tenía el interés de introducir un determinado % de energía a partir de fuentes renovables, y se poseía un determinado potencial de energía eólica y fotovoltaica. Se analizaron los requisitos y opciones energéticas, se realizaron simulaciones de alternativas con el programa HOMER y se concluyó con la determinación de las condiciones o potenciales de las fuentes renovables para la recomendación de cada opción energética, y se presentaron los resultados de forma gráfica y fácil comprensión. Se ofreció un análisis de las posibilidades reales que en el ámbito de una localidad, pueden aprovecharse en función de diversificar de manera sostenible, el esquema energético comunitario  con la utilización de las fuentes renovables de energía, utilizando la variante que desde el punto económico y ambiental resulte de más conveniencia.  In this report was considered an electric net connected installation in the island of Cuba. It had the interest of introducing a certain % of energy starting from renewable sources, and a certain potential of wind and photovoltaic energy was possessed. The requirements and energy options were analyzed, and it were carried out simulations of alternative with the HOMER program and it was concluded with the determination of the conditions or potentials of the renewable sources for the recommendation of each energy option, and the results were presented in graphic way and easy understanding. It was offered an analysis of the real possibilities in the environment of a town. It can take advantage in function of diversifying from a sustainable way, with the community energy outline using the renewable sources of energy, and taking the variant of more convenience from the economic and environmental point of view.

Antonio Sarmiento Sera

2014-01-01

325

Renewable Energy Sources, Energy Efficiency and Reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions as Main Sources Development of 'Green Economy' in Croatia until 2050  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Most countries will need a shift in their energy strategies in order to limit the increase in global warming and to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases. It is worrying that while technologies with little or no greenhouse gas emissions exist, and are used for a couple of decades now, the increase of their market share is extremely low and the investments and subsidies in fossil fuels are substantially larger on a world wide scale. For changes to accrue it is necessary to carefully plan both the energy consumption and supply. A correct and rational prediction of future energy consumption is the basic assumption for the advanced analysis and modelling of energy systems and it will, as an input, have a profound influence on them. In this paper a bottom up approach was selected because it is the most suitable methodology to describe the legal, economic or purely technical mechanisms. Scenarios for the energy supply in 100% renewable systems in 2050 and the possibility to create a low-carbon society were simulated using the EnergyPLAN model for energy system analysis. Comparison of the necessary useful energy for space heating in 2050 shows a difference greater than 16% for different rates of renovation of the existing buildings in the residential sector of 1% and 3% annually. The electrification of road transport for passenger cars in combination with increased requirements for energy efficiency of internal combustion engines can reduce the energy consumption in the transport sector by 30% in comparison to the reference scenario for 2050. It is possible to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases by 82% in the period 2030-2050 and the use of renewable energy sources and the production of synthetic fuels can enable a transition to a 100% renewable energy system in Croatia in 2050. Doing so would create 192000 jobs in plant maintenance and fuel production alone, increase the security of energy supply and reduce the expenditure for the purchase of fossil fuels by 4-5 billion EUR according to the results of the simulation.(author)

326

Energy conservation in ethanol production from renewable resources and non-petroleum energy sources  

Science.gov (United States)

The dry milling process for the conversion of grain to fuel ethanol is reviewed for the application of energy conservation technology, which will reduce the energy consumption to 70,000 Btu per gallon, a reduction of 42 percent from a distilled spirits process. Specific energy conservation technology applications are outlined and guidelines for the owner/engineer for fuel ethanol plants to consider in the selection on the basis of energy conservation economics of processing steps and equipment are provided. Steps discussed are mash preparation and cooking, fermentation, distillation, and distillers dried grains processing. The economics of cogeneration of fuel ethanol plants is also studied.

1981-03-01

327

Project financing renewable energy schemes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The viability of many Renewable Energy projects is critically dependent upon the ability of these projects to secure the necessary financing on acceptable terms. The principal objective of the study was to provide an overview to project developers of project financing techniques and the conditions under which project finance for Renewable Energy schemes could be raised, focussing on the potential sources of finance, the typical project financing structures that could be utilised for Renewable Energy schemes and the risk/return and security requirements of lenders, investors and other potential sources of financing. A second objective is to describe the appropriate strategy and tactics for developers to adopt in approaching the financing markets for such projects. (author)

328

2008 Renewable Energy Data Book  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2008 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar energy, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investments.

2009-07-01

329

Implementing Renewable Energy  

OpenAIRE

The project has a focus on the implementation of the Renewable Energy Directive from 2009 in the European Member States. It studies the formal transposition and the practical implementation of the directive until 2012 and projects expected target fulfillment in 2020. The project aims at assessing the effect of European legislation within the field of renewable energy, whether formal transposition correlates with practical implementation and could therefor be said to be a valuable indicator ac...

Damsø, Clara Baad Berkkan

2012-01-01

330

The wood, renewable energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document evaluates the french forest situation and its future. Indeed, the wood energy constitutes in France the first renewable energy after the hydraulic. It presents the today situation of the french forest providing statistical data, evaluation of the energy estimation, the carbon fixation, the resources, the perspectives wood energy for 2050, the biofuels and an economic analysis. (A.L.B.)

331

Renewable energy projects in small island countries funded under the United Nation trust found for new and renewable source of energy (NRSE)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The NRSE trust fund established with financial support from the Italian Government has succeeded in catalyzing a number of energy projects in small island developing countries. These projects have elicited a great deal of interest by local communities and opened up prospects for further utilization of locally available energy resources. The projects have created a positive impact on the quality of life of people in dispersed locations in small island developing countries by focusing on provision of renewable energy based electricity services such as solar PV lighting for homes, schools, and hospitals; radio, TV, VCR as well as medicine refrigerators. Thus it has become evident that renewable energy technologies such as solar and wind systems can have an important role to play in improving the quality of life of people in these small island countries. Market potential for these technologies is indeed substantial. However constraints and barriers still exist. One of the principal barriers is still the high initial cost of solar devices. Innovative financing including microcredit facilities needs to be explored. Efforts are also needed to strengthen local capacity to undertake assembly of components and systems, and also in the installation, maintenance, and service of renewable energy devices. Entrepreneurial activities need to be fostered through further strengthening of skills in this area. (EHS)

332

Reassessing renewable energy  

OpenAIRE

This policy brief presents a long term assessment of low-carbon energies including renewables, nuclear and fossil energy with CCS. It targets the electricity sector from a global to a regional perspective and from centralized to decentralized energy systems. The policy brief aims at finding answers to the following questions: What role can and should renewable energy play in the next decades on the way to a low-carbon energy future? What is the optimal electricity mix (now and in the future)?...

Weitzel, Matthias; Calzadilla, Alvaro

2012-01-01

333

Photon Science for Renewable Energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Our current fossil-fuel-based system is causing potentially catastrophic changes to our planet. The quest for renewable, nonpolluting sources of energy requires us to understand, predict, and ultimately control matter and energy at the electronic, atomic, and molecular levels. Light-source facilities - the synchrotrons of today and the next-generation light sources of tomorrow - are the scientific tools of choice for exploring the electronic and atomic structure of matter. As such, these photon-science facilities are uniquely positioned to jump-start a global revolution in renewable and carbonneutral energy technologies. In these pages, we outline and illustrate through examples from our nation's light sources possible scientific directions for addressing these profound yet urgent challenges.

334

Renewable energies in France: main 2003 results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document makes a synthesis of the power and thermal productions linked with renewable energy sources (of primary or secondary origin) for 2003. It details the uses (electrical or thermal) of the different renewable energy sources and their contribution to the different users' needs (residential, industry, agriculture..). A comparison with the previous years (2001 and 2002) is presented in tables. (J.S.)

335

The renewable energies in Uruguay  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report is about the energetic politc and its strong commitment with the incorporation of autochthonous sources and renewable energy. The objective and the main lines of action in Uruguay are: provide electric power, wind, biomass, bioethanol, biodiesel, solar and hydroelectric power

336

RENEWABLE ENERGY BETWEEN AGRICULTURE AND INDUSTRY  

OpenAIRE

The paper aims to present the evolution of renewable energy in the entire world, including Moldova and Romania as states that tend to reach their micro- and macro-economic objectives. One of the most important goal remains thedevelopment of renewable energy from agricultural waste and so the energy coming from natural sources such assolar, wind or water without air pollution. As a conclusion, the solution to obtain this renewable energy is to attractfinancial resources from EU or USA investors.

Grosu, Diana

2013-01-01

337

Comprehensive thermodynamic analysis of a renewable energy sourced hybrid heating system combined with latent heat storage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • An experimental thermal investigation of hybrid renewable heating system is presented. • Analyses were done by using real data obtained from a prototype structure. • Exergy efficiency of system components investigated during discharging period are close to each other as 32%. • The average input energy and exergy rates to the LHS were 0.770 and 0.027 kW. • Overall total energy and exergy efficiencies of LHS calculated as 72% and 28.4%. - Abstract: In this study an experimental thermal investigation of hybrid renewable heating system is presented. Latent heat storage stores energy, gained by solar collectors and supplies medium temperature heat to heat pump both day time also night time while solar energy is unavailable. In addition to this an accumulation tank exists in the system as sensible heat storage. It provides supply–demand balance with storing excess high temperature heat. Analyses were done according to thermodynamic’s first and second laws by using real data obtained from a prototype structure, built as part of a project. Results show that high percent of heat loses took place in heat pump with 1.83 kW where accumulator-wall heating cycle followed it with 0.42 kW. Contrarily highest break-down of exergy loses occur accumulator-wall heating cycle with 0.28 kW. Averagely 2.42 kW exergy destruction took place in whole system during the experiment. Solar collectors and heat pump are the promising components in terms of exergy destruction with 1.15 kW and 1.09 kW respectively. Exergy efficiency of system components, investigated during discharging period are in a close approximately of 32%. However, efficiency of solar collectors and charging of latent heat storage are 2.3% and 7% which are relatively low. Average overall total energy and exergy efficiencies of latent heat storage calculated as 72% and 28.4% respectively. Discharging energy efficiency of latent heat storage is the highest through all system components. Also heat pump has a significant efficiency which is 78%

338

Promotion of renewable energy supply in Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper discusses the utilization of the various non-renewable energy resources and the associated environmental problems deriving from the different stages and uses of these resources. Some of the most important of these problems are loss of vegetation and environmental pollution. The need for a conscious shift to the exploitation of renewable energy sources are highlighted and a presentation of renewable energy resources of Nigeria is made. A review of national efforts in the development and utilization of renewable energy sources in Nigeria and the achievements so far are presented

339

Energy Sources and Use  

Science.gov (United States)

This lesson will help students to distinguish between renewable and nonrenewable sources of energy, investigate a variety of renewable energy resources and compare the benefits and drawbacks of each. Students will use internet resources to investigate and compare alternative sources of energy. It is presumed that students have some basic prior understanding of the concept of energy.

340

Energy and durable development: the place of the renewable energies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 29 may 2000, took place at the UNESCO, a colloquium on the place of the renewable energies facing the economic development. This document presents the opening presentation of A. Antolini and L. Jospin and the colloquium papers and debates in the following four domains: the energy challenges of the durable development, the renewable energies sources facing the european directive, the thermal renewable energies (solar, geothermics and biomass) and the greenhouse effect, the world market of the renewable energies. (A.L.B.)

341

Renewable energy sources role in the energy sources diversification process in Slovak republic focused on east Slovakia region  

OpenAIRE

Actually frequently discussed question is the problem of the human energy demand supply. Especially discussed is a problem ofalternative energy devices integration into the existing fuel and energy supply system. For good interpretation of information’s it isnecessary to know specification of energy demand condition in particular branches of industry and energy sector.The subject of this article is to show variability, causality and complex character of the energetics as industry part, whic...

Radim Rybár; Dušan Kudelas; Slavomír Perunko

2008-01-01

342

RENEWABLE ENERGY IN TOURISM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent reports published by the International Energy Agency and U.S. Department of Energy, regarding the global energy outlook for the first three decades of the XXI century, warns of global trends on energy demand, increasing dependence on energy imports, coal use and volume emissions of greenhouse gases, torism industry being one of the biggest energy consumption industry. Uncertainties on different models of regional development and access of the world to traditional energy resources require a change of orientation towards long-term scenarios for assessing energy domain, increasing the share of energy from renewable resources beeing one of the solutions. Intourism the renewable energy is a solution for a positive impact on enviroment , reduced operational costs and even won an extra-profit.

M?D?LINA MIH?IL?

2012-06-01

343

Potential of renewable energy systems in China  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Along with high-speed economic development and increasing energy consumption, the Chinese Government faces a growing pressure to maintain the balance between energy supply and demand. In 2009, China has become both the largest energy consumer and CO2 emitting country in the world. In this case, the inappropriate energy consumption structure should be changed. As an alternative, a suitable infrastructure for the implementation of renewable energy may serve as a long-term sustainable solution. The perspective of a 100% renewable energy system has been analyzed and discussed in some countries previously. In this process, assessment of domestic renewable energy sources is the first step. Then appropriate methodologies are needed to perform energy system analyses involving the integration of more sustainable strategies. Denmark may serve as an example of how sustainable strategies can be implemented. The Danish system has demonstrated the possibility of converting into a 100% renewable energy system. This paper discusses the perspective of renewable energy in China firstly, and then analyses whether it is suitable to adopt similar methodologies applied in other countries as China approaches a renewable energy system. The conclusion is that China’s domestic renewable energy sources are abundant and show the possibility to cover future energy demand; the methodologies used to analyse a 100% renewable energy system are applicable in China. Therefore, proposing an analysis of a 100% renewable energy system in China is not unreasonable.

Liu, Wen; Lund, Henrik

2011-01-01

344

Evaluation of conventional and renewable energy sources for space heating in the household sector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Residential, space and water heating is dependent particularly upon the combustion of fossil fuels, which thereby contribute significantly to air pollution and build-up of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. In Jordan, residential space heating accounts for about two thirds of the total residential energy consumption; with kerosene being the most popular fuel used, followed by LPG, for heating purposes. This paper is intended to evaluate space heating systems used in Jordan based on a multi-criteria analysis, using two different methods: the fuzzy sets and analytical hierarchy process (AHP). The benefits and costs of each system are considered, and the overall benefit-to-cost ratios are determined. Analyses using both methods showed that heating systems based on renewable energy, i.e., wind and solar energy, are most favorable, followed by traditional stoves burning petroleum products and finally the worst heating system is the electric heater. On percentage basis, the cost-to-benefit ratio of wind-based heating system is 4.3% and 3.9% as obtained by fuzzy sets and by AHP methods, respectively, compared to 28.5% and 18.6% for electric heating devices, under identical operating conditions. (author)

Jaber, J.O.; Jaber, Q.M.; Sawalha, S.A. [Faculty of Engineering Technology, Al-Balqa Applied University, Amman (Jordan); Mohsen, M.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hashemite University, Zarqa (Jordan)

2008-01-15

345

Development of Innovative Heating and Cooling Systems Using Renewable Energy Sources for Non-Residential Buildings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Industrial and commercial areas are synonymous with high energy consumption, both for heating/cooling and electric power requirements, which are in general associated to a massive use of fossil fuels producing consequent greenhouse gas emissions. Two pilot systems, co-funded by the Italian Ministry for the Environment, have been created to upgrade the heating/cooling systems of two existing buildings on the largest industrial estate in Umbria, Italy. The upgrade was specifically designed to improve the system efficiency and to cover the overall energy which needs with renewable energy resources. In both cases a solar photovoltaic plant provides the required electric power. The first system features a geothermal heat pump with an innovative layout: a heat-storage water tank, buried just below ground level, allows a significant reduction of the geothermal unit size, hence requiring fewer and/or shorter boreholes (up to 60%–70%. In the other system a biomass boiler is coupled with an absorption chiller machine, controlling the indoor air temperature in both summer and winter. In this case, lower electricity consumption, if compared to an electric compression chiller, is obtained. The first results of the monitoring of summer cooling are presented and an evaluation of the performance of the two pilot systems is given.

Cinzia Buratti

2013-10-01

346

Pigs, peas, and...power? Farmers soon may grow a renewable energy source  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Biomass, grown in an economically and environmentally sustainable manner, realistically could be used to supply 50,000 MW (5 Quads) of electric capacity by 2010 and probably twice that amount by 2030. During the past year, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the US Department of Energy each have been evaluating the potential for biomass to become a major renewable energy resource over the next four decades, able to offset some of the US dependency on imported fossil fuels while offering environmental and economic benefits. EPRI's conclusion that biomass could become a truly important feedstock for electric generation in the near term grew out of a series of workshops attended by experts from government, academia, and industry. These experts did not conclude that significant biomass resource development would take place, but rather that it could take place in an economically profitable and environmentally acceptable manner. They identified two major barriers to biomass resource development: a lack of assurance that a reliable market exists for a dedicated biomass energy crop (significantly influenced by the current costs of both coal and natural gas); and current federal agricultural policies, particularly those dealing with price supports for some types of crops and the present constraints on the use of the more than 54 million acres of agricultural reserve program lands. Moreover, the very limited federal budget and program support for biomass energy witand program support for biomass energy within both the US Departments of Energy and Agriculture over the past 12 years has exacerbated the risks facing farmers making biomass/biofuels resource decisions and electric utilities considering using biomass resources. A third barrier is the general lack of consensus as to what criteria should be used for the environmentally sound development of biomass

347

Selecting Sites for Renewable Energy Projects  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, students use Google Earth to investigate a variety of renewable energy sources and select sites within the United States that would be appropriate for projects based on those sources.

Glenn A. Richard

348

The renewable energies: a topical issue  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document analyzes the situation of the renewable energies in the french energy sector. The first part presents the part of the renewable energies in the energy production and consumption, their interest in the fight against the climatic change and in the employment creation. The second part details for each renewable energy source the government policy in favor their development and the legislative framework. The third part provides data on cost, CO2 emissions, life cycle and employments to illustrate the analysis. The last part presents the government objectives of the renewable energies development for 2010. (A.L.B.)

349

Use of Oil Palm Waste as a Renewable Energy Source and Its Impact on Reduction of Air Pollution in Context of Malaysia  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy supply to supplement the increasing energy demand and reducing environment pollution is renewable energy resources. Malaysia is currently the world's second largest producer and exporter of palm oil and 47% of the world's supply of palm oil is produced by this country. Nearly 80 million tonnes of Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB) are processed annually in 406 palm oil mills and are generating approximately 54 million tonnes of palm oil mill effluent (POME), known to generate biogas consisting of methane - a Green House Gas (GHG) identifiable to cause global warming. This is 21 times more potent GHG than CO2. These two major oil palm wastes are a viable renewable energy (RE) source for production of electricity. If the two sources are used in harnessing the renewable energy potential the pollution intensity from usage of non-renewable sources can also be reduced significantly. This study focused on the pollution mitigation potential of biogas as biogas is a renewable energy. Utilization of this renewable source for the production of electricity is believed to reduce GHG emissions to the atmosphere.

Begum, Shahida; P, Kumaran; M, Jayakumar

2013-06-01

350

Use of Oil Palm Waste as a Renewable Energy Source and Its Impact on Reduction of Air Pollution in Context of Malaysia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy supply to supplement the increasing energy demand and reducing environment pollution is renewable energy resources. Malaysia is currently the world's second largest producer and exporter of palm oil and 47% of the world's supply of palm oil is produced by this country. Nearly 80 million tonnes of Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB) are processed annually in 406 palm oil mills and are generating approximately 54 million tonnes of palm oil mill effluent (POME), known to generate biogas consisting of methane – a Green House Gas (GHG) identifiable to cause global warming. This is 21 times more potent GHG than CO2. These two major oil palm wastes are a viable renewable energy (RE) source for production of electricity. If the two sources are used in harnessing the renewable energy potential the pollution intensity from usage of non-renewable sources can also be reduced significantly. This study focused on the pollution mitigation potential of biogas as biogas is a renewable energy. Utilization of this renewable source for the production of electricity is believed to reduce GHG emissions to the atmosphere.

351

Funding for Renewable Energy  

Science.gov (United States)

On May 25, 1999, the House and Senate appropriation committees cut funding for renewable energy and energy efficiency programs, while at the same time increasing funding for nuclear and fossil fuel programs. This move runs counter to the opinions of most Americans, according to a recent survey commissioned by the Sustainable Energy Coalition. According to the survey, Americans believe renewable energy and energy efficiency funding should be prioritized, while nuclear power and fossil fuel spending should be reduced. Following the budget changes, President Clinton issued an executive order for federal agencies to cut energy consumption by 35 percent of 1985 levels by 2010, as the federal government is the largest consumer of energy. Clinton also urged Congress to reevaluate and approve the 2000 budget funding requests for research to help American businesses use energy-saving technology. This week's In The News examines the recent federal decisions regarding energy use and technology; the eight resources listed provide background information on this important issue.

Schultz, Jennifer J.

352

A review of the potential of renewable energy sources for the State of Jammu and Kashmir (India)  

OpenAIRE

The future economic development trajectory for India is likely to result in rapid and accelerated growth in energy demand, with expected shortages. Many of its current policies and strategies are aimed at the improvement and possible maximization of energy production from the renewable sector. It is also clear that while energy-conservation and energy-efficiency can make an important contribution in the national energy strategy, renewable energies will be essential to the solution and are lik...

Nisar, Arsalan; Rodri?guez Monroy, Carlos

2011-01-01

353

Use of Hydrogen from Renewable Energy Source for Powering Hot-Mix Asphalt Plant  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A significant portion of paved roads and highways are surfaced with Hot-Mix Asphalt. Environmental Life-Cycle Assessment studies have shown that, in the production of Hot-Mix Asphalt pavements, major consumption of energy takes place during asphalt mixing and drying of aggregates, more than what is consumed during the extraction of crude oil and the distillation of bitumen. Currently, natural gas is the primarily source of fossil fuel used to produce 70 to 90 percent of the Hot-Mix Asphalt in the USA, while the remainder of the Hot-Mix Asphalt is produced using oil, propane, waste oil, or other fuels. Energy-related CO2 emissions resulting from the use of fossil fuels in various industry and transportation sectors represent a significant portion of human-made greenhouse gas emissions. This study investigates the technical feasibility of using a hybrid wind energy system as a clean source of energy for operating an entire Hot-Mix Asphalt production facility. Since wind blows intermittently, the extracted wind energy will be stored in the form of hydrogen which is considered a lightweight, compact energy carrier, for later use, thus creating a ready source of electricity for the Hot-Mix Asphalt plant when wind is not present or when electricity demand is high.

Kasthurirangan Gopalakrishnan

2012-03-01

354

Projection of the possible use of renewable energy sources including energy saving in North-Rhine Westphalia. 11. technical report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Eleventh Technical Report prepared within the framework of the investigation 'Analysis of Possibilities of Solar Power Supply and its Development in Nordrhein-Westfalen' includes the projection of important results describing the present and possible future Power Supply for the state Nordrhein-Westfalen. In the first part of this report the structure of the conventional Power Supply and the CO2 emissions are described and discussed. As a consequence of the strong coupling of the use of renewable energy supply systems in combination with energy saving, a possible contribution of energy saving is quantified. In the second part of this report the combined installation of different renewable energy supply systems maximizing the energy output under technical and economical conditions are analyzed reflecting on the 'area rivalry'. Furthermore, strategies for least cost renewable energy supply systems for maximum CO2 reduction or maximum energy output are developed. Summarizing, a comparative assessment of both strategies is given at the end of this report. (orig.)

355

The renewable energies in France: the main results in 2006  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main results presented in the renewable energies annual evaluation are discussed: the production of electricity from renewable energy sources, the thermal production from renewable energy sources, the consumption of thermal renewable energies and statistical data from 2004 to 2006 on the total primary energy, the hydroelectricity, the solar energy, the geothermal energy, the heat pump, the wood energy, the cogeneration, the biogas the wind energy and the biofuels. (A.L.B.)

356

Wind energy renewable energy and the environment  

CERN Document Server

As the demand for energy increases, and fossil fuels continue to decrease, Wind Energy: Renewable Energy and the Environment, Second Edition considers the viability of wind as an alternative renewable energy source. This book examines the wind industry from its start in the 1970s until now, and introduces all aspects of wind energy. The phenomenal growth of wind power for utilities is covered along with applications such as wind-diesel, village power, telecommunications, and street lighting.. It covers the characteristics of wind, such as shear, power potential, turbulence, wind resource, wind

Nelson, Vaughn

2013-01-01

357

Design of Power Converters for Renewable Energy Sources and Electric Vehicles Charging  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes the design and construction of new series of power converters equipped with liquid cooling system. This power series is created for project ENET – Energy Units for Utilization of non Traditional Energy Sources. First power converter is determined for stationary battery system use, the second one is used as an inverter/rectifier for a small solar plant system and the last power inverter is used as a fast charger for electric vehicles. Energy balance is performed for the fast charger converter, which is solved using numerical simulations of the system.

Martin Tvrdon

2013-01-01

358

Large renewables - Hydrogen energy systems: pipelines for gathering and transmission from windpower and other diffuse, dispersed energy sources, as hydrogen gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We need many large new transmission systems for gathering and delivering Earth's vast, diverse, dispersed, renewable energy resources. Both high voltage direct current electricity (HVDC) and gaseous hydrogen (GH2) pipeline are attractive, complementary, and competitive. New natural gas (NG) transmission pipeline systems may be built with line pipe capable of 100% GH2, for future conversion to 'renewables-hydrogen service' (RHS) at up to 100% GH2, to bring energy from windpower, biomass and other renewable sources to market as, and after, the NG is depleted. Sour-service X65 or composite reinforced line pipe (CRLP) may be well-suited. Since well-constructed and well-maintained pipelines have very long service lives, the increased investment required for construction with RHS-capable line pipe may be justified. These pipeline systems may be retrofitted with compressors, meters, valves and other fittings necessary for future RHS, for the nascent 'renewables-hydrogen economy'. Although industry has been safely pipelining GH2 for decades, these systems are not designed for frequently-varying pressure and for large-scale, long-distance, cross-country collection, from many dispersed nodes from diverse sources, as required by RHS. No pipelines for such service exist. The public is unfamiliar with hydrogen and anxious about its safety. Thus, a new pilot-scale R and D and demonstration pipeline system, an International Renewable Hydrogen Transmission Demonstration Facility (IRHn Transmission Demonstration Facility (IRHTDF), is needed. (author)

359

An adaptive Phase-Locked Loop algorithm for faster fault ride through performance of interconnected renewable energy sources  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Interconnected renewable energy sources require fast and accurate fault ride through operation in order to support the power grid when faults occur. This paper proposes an adaptive Phase-Locked Loop (adaptive d??PLL) algorithm, which can be used for a faster and more accurate response of the grid side converter control of a renewable energy source, especially under fault ride through operation. The adaptive d??PLL is based on modifying the control parameters of the d??PLL according to the type and voltage characteristic of the grid fault with the purpose of accelerating the performance of the phase-locked loop algorithm. The adaptive parameters are adjusted in real time according to the proposed fault classification unit, which permits a fast estimation of the type of the grid fault. The outstanding performance of the proposed adaptive PLL is verified through simulation and experimental results. Furthermore, the benefits of using the proposed adaptive PLL on the control of the GSC of RES are also demonstratedin this paper.

Hadjidemetriou, Lenos; Kyriakides, Elias

2013-01-01

360

Renewal of the Advanced Photon Source.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To ensure that state-of-the-art hard x-ray tools are available for US scientists and engineers who are solving key problems in energy, environment, technology development and human health, the nation's unique high-energy x-ray source needs a major renewal of its capabilities. The Advanced Photon Source renewal program responds to key scientific needs driven by our user community. The renewal encompasses many innovations in beamlines and accelerator capabilities, each of which will transform our tools and allow new problems to be solved. In particular the APS renewal dramatically expands two compelling avenues for research. Through x-ray imaging, we can illuminate complex hierarchical structures from the molecular level to the macroscopic level, and study how they change in time and in response to stimuli. Images will facilitate understanding how proteins fit together to make living organisms, contribute to development of lighter, higher-strength alloys for fuel-efficient transportation and advance the use of biomass for alternative fuels. Hard x-rays are also especially suited to the study of real materials, under realistic conditions and in real-time. The advances proposed in this area would help develop more efficient catalysts, enhance green manufacturing, point the way to artificial light-harvesting inspired by biology and help us develop more efficient lighting. The scope of the renewal of our {approx}$1.5B facility is estimated to be {approx}$350M over five years. It is vital that the investment begin as soon as possible. The renewed APS would complement other national investments such as the National Synchrotron Light Source-II and would keep the U.S. internationally competitive.

Gibson, J. M.

2008-12-31

361

Renewable energies. France wakes up  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Boosted by incentive measures and by the collective awareness about climatic change, the renewable energy sources are developing over the French territory. This segment, in deficit in the past is finally becoming profitable thanks to important subsidies. Wind power and solar energy represent the main potentialities in France, in particular the photovoltaic projects in the residential sector. However, todays the offer cannot follow the demand. (J.S.)

362

Biogas as a potential renewable energy source: A Ghanaian case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The associated harmful environmental, health and social effects with the use of traditional biomass and fossil fuel has enhanced the growing interest in the search for alternate cleaner source of energy globally. Ghana, a developing country depends heavy on woodfuel as a source of fuel contributing about 72% of the primary energy supply with crude oil and hydro making up the rest. Biogas generation has simply been seen as a by-product of anaerobic digestion of organic waste. Having proven to be a practicable and promising technology, it has been very successful and a very reliable and clean source of energy when proper management programmes are followed. There are vast biomass resources including organic waste in Ghana that have the potential for use as feedstock for biogas production to reduce the over reliance of woodfuel and fossil fuel, and to help reduce the it would reduce greenhouse gas emissions which may be affecting climate change. Ghana having the technical potential of constructing about 278,000 biogas plants, only a little over 100 biogas plants has so far been established. This paper presents the energy situation and the status of the biogas technology and utilization in Ghana. It also presents the potential benefits, prospects and challenges of the biogas technology. (author)

363

A probabilistic multi-objective daily Volt/Var control at distribution networks including renewable energy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the moment, due to technology improvements and governmental incentives for the use of green energies, Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) appears to be a promising approach for electricity generation. This motivates the implementation of Wind Farms (WFs) and Fuel Cell Power Plants (FCPPs) over a mass scale by Distribution Companies (DisCos). As RESs become a larger and larger portion of the generation mix, many aspects of the distribution systems operation and planning has changed. In the context of Volt/Var control problem, proliferation of RESs becomes a challenging issue for DisCos. Since wind power acts as a variable energy source, probabilistic load flow techniques are going to be necessary to analyze the utility system. This paper presents a multi-objective probabilistic method to solve the Volt/Var control problem in distribution system with high wind power penetration. A probabilistic load flow approach using Point Estimate Method (PEM) is employed to model the uncertainty in load demands and electrical power generation of WFs. To regard the operational and economic assessment of system containing WFs and FCPPs, different objective functions have been taken into account. Cost of electrical power generated by WFs, FCPPs, and DisCos, electrical energy losses, emissions produced by WFs, FCPPs and DisCos for the next day are selected as objective functions. A new powerful optimization technique based on a Modified shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithm (MSFLA) is proposed to achieve the optimal values for active and reactive power of WFs and FCPPs, reactive power of capacitors and transformers tap positions for the next day ahead. In order to tackle the optimization problem with non-commensurable objectives, the objectives are fuzzified and max-min operator is employed. The results are compared with other evolutionary methods on a 69-bus distribution feeder in terms of efficiency and accuracy. -- Highlights: ? DFR problem and Clean Air Act Amendments in November 1990. ? Use of renewable energy. ? Save energy and environmental pollution.

364

PEI's perspective on renewable energy development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Approximately 7 per cent of Prince Edward Island's (PEI) energy supply is from renewable sources, acquired mainly from biomass. Wind power accounts for 0.5 per cent of electricity production. This paper discussed issues concerning renewable energy developments in PEI, with particular reference to the PEI Renewable Energy Act as well as the PEI energy framework and renewable energy strategy, which was the result of public consultation sessions held in 2003. The results of these sessions indicated that greater development of indigenous renewable energy resources was desired, particularly in wind power. It was also stated that the government should help to advance renewable energy development in the province. Several development opportunities were highlighted, including: wind; biodiesel; ethanol; biomass; bio-gas; and small-scale hydro. The advantages of wind power were reviewed and wind data was presented. The economic and community benefits of renewable energy include local price stability, development opportunities, diversity of fuel type and security of supply. It was noted that renewable energy fully complemented the energy goals of the PEI government. Several strategies were discussed towards the development of renewable energy, including feasibility studies in biogas and biomass generation. The PEI government's commitment towards developing a regulatory framework acknowledging environmental sustainability was re-stated. Objectives include the promotion of renewabljectives include the promotion of renewable energy sources through the establishment of a Renewable Portfolio Standard for electricity; improvements in the economics of small-scale electricity production from renewable resources through the introduction of net metering; decreases in peak demand; enablement of green credits; the designation of areas for large-scale wind developments; and provision of guaranteed prices paid to producers for medium and large-scale renewable energy generators through feed-in tariffs. tabs, figs

365

Finite Action-Set Learning Automata for Economic Dispatch Considering Electric Vehicles and Renewable Energy Sources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The coming interaction between a growing electrified vehicle fleet and the desired growth in renewable energy provides new insights into the economic dispatch (ED problem. This paper presents an economic dispatch model that considers electric vehicle charging, battery exchange stations, and wind farms. This ED model is a high-dimensional, non-linear, and stochastic problem and its solution requires powerful methods. A new finite action-set learning automata (FALA-based approach that has the ability to adapt to a stochastic environment is proposed. The feasibility of the proposed approach is demonstrated in a modified IEEE 30 bus system. It is compared with continuous action-set learning automata and particle swarm optimization-based approaches in terms of convergence characteristics, computational efficiency, and solution quality. Simulation results show that the proposed FALA-based approach was indeed capable of more efficiently obtaining the approximately optimal solution. In addition, by using an optimal dispatch schedule for the interaction between electric vehicle stations and power systems, it is possible to reduce the gap between demand and power generation at different times of the day.

Junpeng Zhu

2014-07-01

366

road-map for smart grids and electricity systems integrating renewable energy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The vision of smart grids and electricity systems elaborated in this road-map was drawn up on the basis of consultation and talks with a group of experts from industry (EDF, AREVA, GDF-Suez), public research bodies (SUPELEC, Ecole des Mines, INES, universities), grid operators (ERDF, RTE), local authorities' groups (FNCCR) and ADEME. In the course of these working sessions the experts expressed their opinions intuitu personae. The views outlined in this road-map are not to be assimilated with the official positions of the corporations or research organisations to which the members of the group belong. The visions of smart electricity grids and systems integrating renewable energies in 2020 and in 2050 are in sharp contrast. This contrast was deliberately sought out, for two reasons: - to offer the most exhaustive panorama possible of imaginable futures; - to avoid neglecting a critical technological, organisational or socioeconomic bottleneck that might be associated with a possible scenario left out of the discussion. Accordingly, in seeking contrasting visions the group arrived at extreme representations and even caricatures of the future, which nonetheless help define the outer limit of possibilities, and the scope within which the actual situation will most likely be situated in 2020 and in 2050

367

Geothermal Energy : An Alternative Source of Energy  

OpenAIRE

Nowadays renewable sources are preferred over the non renewable source to generate the energy. The rapid rates of exhausting non-renewable resources have completed us to look out for new avenues in energy generation. According to global energy scenario, developed countries are adopting renewable resources as major source of energy. Geothermal energy originates from the original formation of the planet, from radioactive decay of minerals, and from solar energy absorbed at the s...

Shah, R. R.; Bala Dutt

2014-01-01

368

Integration of renewable energy with provincial utility  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In response to societal demands and business opportunities, progress is advancing at a rapid pace in the devices used for converting renewable energy to electricity. Many governments have mandated renewable energy to be 25 percent of their total energy portfolio which has led to the development of strategies for integrating renewable energy sources into the operation of large utilities. This presentation discussed independent system operators (ISO) and how they function. An ISO is an agency that schedules the purchase of energy from vendors on a competitive basis for its customers and delivers it through an open access transmission system. An ISO is guided by strict regulatory policies on reliability as set by the prevailing regulatory authority. The ISO resorts to scheduling this energy purchase and delivery for the next day through a complex day-ahead energy commitment process. The integration of renewable energy resources of a magnitude equalling 25 percent of total daily energy is particularly challenging because of the nature of renewable energy sources, such as forecasting errors; large ramp rates; unavailable reserve energy capacity; and intermittent characteristics such as large variability. The purpose of this study was to examine scheduling algorithms; develop methods to accommodate and integrate renewable energy sources in the day-ahead scheduling process; and mitigate the negative effects of renewable energy sources.

Venkatesh, B. [Ryerson Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

2010-07-01

369

Large growth of electricity from renewable sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 2009 the production of Electricity from renewable sources in the Netherlands rose to almost 9 percent of the domestic electricity use. The target of the Dutch government envisages 9 percent renewable electricity before 2010.

370

Renewable energy resources in Pakistan: status, potential and information systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper provides some details regarding the characteristic properties, potential and assessment of renewable energy compared with other forms of energy sources. It gives status of renewable energy sources in Pakistan. It also lights about the agencies providing technical information regarding renewable energy in Pakistan as well as suggestions and recommendations for the development of these resources, and over view the present status of renewable energy sources. (author)

371

Renewable Energy Essentials: Hydropower  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydropower is currently the most common form of renewable energy and plays an important part in global power generation. Worldwide hydropower produced 3 288 TWh, just over 16% of global electricity production in 2008, and the overall technical potential for hydropower is estimated to be more than 16 400 TWh/yr.

NONE

2010-07-01

372

Local investment in renewable energies - European experiences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This booklet is realized within the framework of the european commission called PREDAC. This document have been conceived by a working group specialized on the local investment into renewable energies thematic. The objectives of this project are: to promote citizen participation in the financing of renewable energies projects in Europe; to make organizations, investor clubs and local government to be aware of this way of implication into renewable energies development; to examine more especially three renewable energy sources: biomass, photovoltaic and wind in Denmark, France, Germany, Greece and United Kingdom. (author)

373

Renewable energy sources in the European Union countries and their contribution to the italian domestic energy productions and consumption in the year 1996  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1995, in the fifteen EU countries renewable energy sources reached almost 72.9 Mtoe in terms of primary energy (65.2 Mtoe in 1990) representing 9.9% of the total production and 5.3% of the demand. In 1995 the share of the energy production covered by renewable has been 18.5% in Spain, 13.8% in France, 0.6% in UK and 4.5% in Germany. In Italy, in 1996, the gross domestic energy consumption (including bunkers) increased to 172.8 Mtoe from the 1995 figure of 172.6 Mtoe, with a minor increase. At the same time the overall electricity demand reached 262.9 TWh (261 TWh in 1995) following the 0.7% growth of the gross domestic product recorded over the same period. The contribution of renewable energy sources /hydroelectricity, geothermal energy, biomasses, solar, wind) to the national energy consumption in 1996 has been 13.8 Mtoe (12.7 Mtoe in 1995). The strong decrease of the hydroelectricity production recorded in 1995 has been recovered in 1996, an average year for the rain precipitations

374

Planning for renewable energy in Devon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of the Study was to examine the technical, planning and environmental factors, and the resource availability, which may affect the development of renewable energy schemes in Devon, with particular reference to West Devon. The study was undertaken to draw up a specimen planning policy framework for the development of renewable energy in Devon, looking at each major renewable energy source and at the relevant environmental and planning constraints; using this framework, to amplify the draft Structure Plan policy for renewable energy; to draw up draft guidance and specimen policies for a Local Plan covering renewable energy for a District Council, in this case, West Devon Borough; and to provide a pilot study for implementing the draft Planning Policy Guidance (PPG) on renewable energy. (author)

375

Renewable Energy Development in India  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

India has done a significant progress in the power generation in the country. The installed generation capacity was 1300 megawatt (MW) at the time of Independence i.e. about 60 years back. The total generating capacity anticipated at the end of the Tenth Plan on 31-03-2007, is 1, 44,520 MW which includes the generation through various sectors like Hydro, Thermal and Nuclear. Emphasis is given to the renewable energy programme towards gradual commercialization. This programme is looked after by the Ministry of Non-Conventional Sources of energy. Since the availability of fossil fuel is on the decline therefore, in this backdrop the norms for conventional or renewable sources of energy (RSE) is given importance not only in India but has attracted the global attention. The main items under RSE are as follows: (i) Hydro Power (ii) Solar Power (iii) Wind Power (iv) Bio-mass Power (v) Energy from waste (vi) Ocean energy, and (vii) Alternative fuel for surface transportation. Evolution of power transformer technology in the country during the past five decades is quite impressive. There are manufacturers in the country with full access to the latest technology at the global level. Some of the manufacturers have impressive R&D set up to support the technology. Renewable energy is very much promoted by the Chinese Government. At the same time as the law was passed, the Chinese Government set a target for renewable energy to contribute 10% of the country's gross energy consumption by 2020, a huge increase from the current 1%. It has been felt that there is rising demand for energy, food and raw materials by a population of 2.5 billion Chinese and Indians. Both these countries have large coal dominated energy systems in the world and the use of fossil fuels such as coal and oil releases carbon dioxide (CO2) into the air which adds to the greenhouse gases which lead to global warming. (auth)

Gupta, K.M.

2007-07-01

376

Future Scenario of Renewable Energy in India  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents a review about future scenario of renewable energy in India.Energy is a vital input for economic and social development of any country. With increasing industrialand agricultural activities in the country, the demand for energy is also rising. Solar, wind and biomassare accepted as dependable and widely available renewable sources of energy. To meet the energy requirement for such a fast growingeconomy, India will require an assured supply of 3–5 times more energy than t...

Sandeep Kumar; Mohit Rathi; Aloy Palit; Puneet Nandrajog

2012-01-01

377

Feasibility of anaerobic digestion of flotation skim and its potential as renewable energy source  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The high portions of organic and Greasy constituents of the Induced Air Flotation (IAF unit skim that is typically land disposed or rendered have made it environmentally problematic for the receiving bodies due to its poor natural solubility and degradability. One solution for that was the use of anaerobic digestion. Five laboratory scale batch reactors (each of 10 L working volume were used in this study to test the effect of different IAF skim to working volume ratios; namely 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 4.0, 5.0:10 (R1-R5, with the rest of working volume to be filled with livestock manure (as inoculums. These five reactors were operated at two different temperatures (25C and 45C, to determine the temperature effects on digestion performance. COD removal efficiencies of 72.6%, 68.6%, 60.1%, 52.1%, and 43.25% were achieved for R1-R5 respectively, at temperature of 25C. These removal efficiencies were significantly improved when operating these reactors at temperature of 45C, where efficiencies of 91.2%, 81.5%, 72.1%, 60.7% and about 50% were achieved for these reactors. In addition to the achievement of good removal efficiencies regarding the COD and TSS, very promising biogas production rates were determined to have average values of 4.5- 5.8 l/day at operation temperatures of 45C (compared with 3- 4 l/day at 25C for the majority reactor life times. This achievement may compensate the treatment costs in addition to the supply of cheap renewable energy. Author would like to acknowledge the logistic and technical support of the Institute of International Education IIE, Scholars Rescue Fund SRF and Russ College of Engineering/ Ohio University. 

Salam J Bash AlMaliky

2010-08-01

378

Use of Hydrogen from Renewable Energy Source for Powering Hot-Mix Asphalt Plant  

OpenAIRE

A significant portion of paved roads and highways are surfaced with Hot-Mix Asphalt. Environmental Life-Cycle Assessment studies have shown that, in the production of Hot-Mix Asphalt pavements, major consumption of energy takes place during asphalt mixing and drying of aggregates, more than what is consumed during the extraction of crude oil and the distillation of bitumen. Currently, natural gas is the primarily source of fossil fuel used to produce 70 to 90 percent of the Hot-Mix Asphalt in...

Kasthurirangan Gopalakrishnan; Siddhartha Kumar Khaitan

2012-01-01

379

Development and Indicators of Multifunctional Autonomous Plants Using Renewable Energy Sources  

OpenAIRE

The autonomous plants using the solar and geothermal energy were developed and designed in ENIN. The plants are intended for solving the concrete regional problems and allow to lift the water from the sources or wells of different depth (up to 20 m and more), including the pure water and the water with particles or the brine, and supply also the steam and heated water to consumers in the places, which are remote from water supply and district heating system. The other purposes were: a removal...

Kabakov, Vladimir I.

2014-01-01

380

Renewable energy development in China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the resources availability, technologies development and their costs of renewable energies in China and introduces the programs of renewable energies technologies development and their adaptation for rural economic development in China. As the conclusion of this paper, renewable energies technologies are suitable for some rural areas, especially in the remote areas for both household energy and business activities energy demand. The paper looks at issues involving hydropower, wind energy, biomass combustion, geothermal energy, and solar energy.

Junfeng, Li

1996-12-31

381

Renewable energy perspectives  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This short article describes the strategies taken into consideration by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy for the promotion of renewable forms of energy in Switzerland. Two basic models are considered and the parts to be played by the Swiss Confederation, the Swiss Cantons, Energy Agencies and professional organisations are discussed. The importance of the activities of partner organisations and actor-networks in various areas such as solar, small hydro, geothermal and wind energy are discussed, as are models for financing the necessary promotion and marketing efforts

382

Renewable and alternative energy  

CERN Document Server

With growing populations across the world consuming Earth's limited oil and natural gas reserves, the environmental and economic toll of energy dependence becomes an increasingly global concern. The development of renewable forms of energy-solar, wind, water, and geothermal, to name a few-offers alternatives to fossil fuels. Consumers are embracing these new modes of energy delivery and use. This extensive volume examines the possibility of a cleaner and more energy efficient future by detailing the historic and emerging technologies behind some the most promising alternative resources.

Curley, Robert

2011-01-01

383

Economics of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration versus a Suite of Alternative Renewable Energy Sources for Electricity Generation in U.S., California and Illinois  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An equilibrium economic model for policy evaluation related to electricity generation at national and individual state level in U.S has been developed. The model takes into account the non-renewable and renewable energy sources, demand and supply factors and environmental constraints (CO2 emissions. Economic policy analysis experiments are carried out to determine the consequences of switching the sources of electricity generation under two scenarios: in first scenario, a switch from coal to renewable sources is made for 10% of electricity generation; in the second scenario, the switch is made for 10% of electricity generation from coal to coal with clean coal technology by employing CO2 capture and sequestration (CCS. The cost of electricity generation from various non-renewable and renewable sources is different and is taken into account in the model. The consequences of this switch on supply and demand, employment, wages, and emissions are obtained from the economic model under three scenarios: (1 energy prices are fully regulated, (2 energy prices are fully adjusted with electricity supply fixed, and (3 energy prices and electricity supply both are fully adjusted. The model is applied to the states of California and Illinois, and at national level.

Ramesh Agarwal

2012-07-01

384

Economics of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration and Mitigation versus a Suite of Alternative Renewable Energy Sources for Electricity Generation in U.S.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An equilibrium economic model for policy evaluation related to electricity generation in U.S has been developed; the model takes into account the non-renewable and renewable energy sources, demand and supply factors and environmental constraints. The non-renewable energy sources include three types of fossil fuels: coal, natural gas and petroleum, and renewable energy sources include nuclear, hydraulic, wind, solar photovoltaic, biomass wood, biomass waste and geothermal. Energy demand sectors include households, industrial manufacturing and non-manufacturing commercial enterprises. Energy supply takes into account the electricity delivered to the consumer by the utility companies at a certain price which maybe different for retail and wholesale customers. Environmental risks primarily take into account the CO2 generation from fossil fuels. The model takes into account the employment in various sectors and labor supply and demand. Detailed electricity supply and demand data, electricity cost data, employment data in various sectors and CO2 generation data are collected for a period of nineteen years from 1990 to 2009 in U.S. The model is employed for policy analysis experiments if a switch is made in sources of electricity generation, namely from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources. As an example, we consider a switch of 10% of electricity generation from coal to 5% from wind, 3% from solar photovoltaic, 1% from biomass wood and 1% from biomass waste. The model is also applied to a switch from 10% coal to 10% from clean coal technologies. It should be noted that the cost of electricity generation from different sources is different and is taken into account. The consequences of this switch on supply and demand, employment, wages, and emissions are obtained from the economic model under three scenarios: (1 energy prices are fully regulated, (2 energy prices are fully adjusted with electricity supply fixed, and (3 energy prices and electricity supply both are fully adjusted.

Zheming Zhang

2011-01-01

385

Financial incentives schemes of renewable sources plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Is presented a study for cost estimation for generating renewable energy plants. We start from the international context and from the Italian target for the production of electricity from renewables, the incentives schemes and their efficiency

386

Development and Indicators of Multifunctional Autonomous Plants Using Renewable Energy Sources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The autonomous plants using the solar and geothermal energy were developed and designed in ENIN. The plants are intended for solving the concrete regional problems and allow to lift the water from the sources or wells of different depth (up to 20 m and more, including the pure water and the water with particles or the brine, and supply also the steam and heated water to consumers in the places, which are remote from water supply and district heating system. The other purposes were: a removal of heat and chemical environmental impact, decreasing mineralization or desalination of mineralized water etc. The common feature of plants under consideration was the application of jet pumps (condensing injectors, which have the different constructions but combine simultaneously the vacuum and delivery pump as well as the condenser and heat exchanger. It was shown that in the conditions under consideration the use of such plants is economically profitable.

Vladimir I. Kabakov

2014-08-01

387

Issues - II. Renewable energies and environment law: the exploitation of renewable energies or when the implementation of a measure aimed at the protection of the environment impacts the environment; water as a renewable energy source: to which price?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A first article discusses the different impacts that renewable energies may have on the environment, i.e. on the human environment (risks associated with dams, aesthetic impacts, impacts on landscapes, neighbouring nuisances) or on the natural environment (natural media, wildlife and flora). A second article outlines that the legal framework of hydroelectricity is rather old and therefore ignored (willingly or not?) environmental concerns whereas environmental impacts actually exist. Therefore, a new legal context must be defined, notably by taking into account objectives defined in the international and European Union law, in particularly the requirements related to ecological continuity

388