WorldWideScience

Sample records for renewable energy source

  1. New renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication presents a review of the technological, economical and market status in the field of new renewable energy sources. It also deals briefly with the present use of energy, external conditions for new renewable energy sources and prospects for these energy sources in a future energy system. The renewable energy sources treated here are ''new'' in the sense that hydroelectric energy technology is excluded, being fully developed commercially. This publication updates a previous version, which was published in 1996. The main sections are: (1) Introduction, (2) Solar energy, (3) Bio energy, (4) Wind power, (5) Energy from the sea, (6) Hydrogen, (7) Other new renewable energy technologies and (8) New renewable s in the energy system of the future

  2. Nontraditional renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper considers the application possibilities of nontraditional renewable energy sources to generate electricity, estimates the potential of nontraditional sources using energy of Sun, wind, biomass, as well as, geothermal energy and presents the results of economical analysis of cost of electricity generated by solar electrical power plants, geothermal and electrical plants and facilities for power reprocessing of biomass. 1 tab

  3. Renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here are summarized the main results concerning the renewable energy sources in Europe (wind power, geothermal energy, photovoltaic power, biomass). In particular, the installed capacities (current and future) and the production for the years 1998 and 1999 are developed and compared with the European objectives. The future developments for these energy sources are discussed too. (O.M.)

  4. Renewable sources of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author takes a look at causes of the present interest in the renewable, natural sources of energy. These are: the fuel deposits becoming exhausted, hazard to environment (especially carbon dioxide) and accessibility of these sources for under-developed countries. An interrelation is shown between these sources and the energy circulations connected with atmosphere and ocean systems. The chief ones from among them that are being used now are discussed, i.e. solar radiation, wind, water waves energy, tides, geothermal heat, and the like. Problems of conversion of the forms of these kinds of energy are also given a mention. (author)

  5. Renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book analyzes the current and future options of utilizing renewable energy sources, taking into account both the need for economic development of the growing world population and the necessity of reducing climate-relevant gaseous emissions. Subjects: Biomass and technologies for its use; solar energy, including a comparison of technologies (heat storage in solar colelctors, solar thermal electric power generation, photovoltaic energy conversion, solar chemistry for production of solar energy carriers, photochemistry); wind power; geothermal energy and its use for high-temperature and ambient-temperature heat supply

  6. Renewable Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. KARTHIKEYAN

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The electricity requirements of the world including India are increasing at alarming rate and the power demand has been running ahead of supply. It is also now widely recognized that the fossil fuels (i.e., coal, petroleum and natural gas and other conventional resources, presently being used for generation of electrical energy, may not be either sufficient or suitable to keep pace with ever increasing demand of the electrical energy of the world. Also generation of electrical power by cold based steam power plant or nuclear power plants causes pollution, which is likely to be more accurate in future due to large generating capacity on one side and greater awareness of the people in this respect.This paper describes about different Renewable Energy Sources such as Hydro power Energy,Wind Energy,Solar Energy,Bio-mass Energy,Geo-thermal Energy,Ocean Energy,Hydrogen Energy.

  7. Renewable energy sources of Kyrgyzstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article presents the talk on the renewable energy sources of Kyrgyz Republic given at the International Workshop on applied solar energy held in Tashkent(Uzbekistan) in June 1997. It is shown that renewable energy sources may cover 50% of energy demand in Republic and the most economically and ecologically effective is considered solar energy. (A.A.D.)

  8. Harvesting renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article is untroduced with a consideration on the self exhausting energy sources such as the fossil and nuclear fission fuels and then deals with some possibilities of using the non-exhaustive so-called non-nuclear energy sources such as the sun and the geothermal energy, the potential energy of water, the kinetic energy of water waves, the heat stored in the ocean's surface as well as the wind energy. (GG/LH)

  9. Renewable energy source in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With reference to progress being made on a global level in the commercialization of renewable energy sources, in particular, solar, wind and biomass energy, this paper assesses prospects for the further development and use of these energy sources in Italy. Attention is given to government R and D expenditures, the economic feasibility of renewable energies and to the research efforts being made by ENEA (the Italian Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment)

  10. Renewable energy sources: Carbon emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical limitations deriving from the uneven flow of energy from renewable sources may be skirted around by storing it in the form of chemical compounds to be reused as ecological synthetic fuel. This possibility, deemed to be optional to date, will have to be considered as an obligatory solution from now on, in order for renewable energy to become truly significant

  11. Renewable energy sources

    OpenAIRE

    Karthikeyan, K

    2009-01-01

    The electricity requirements of the world including India are increasing at alarming rate and the power demand has been running ahead of supply. It is also now widely recognized that the fossil fuels (i.e., coal, petroleum and natural gas) and other conventional resources, presently being used for generation of electrical energy, may not be either sufficient or suitable to keep pace with ever increasing demand of the electrical energy of the world. Also generation of electrical power by cold ...

  12. Renewable energy sources; Erneuerbare Energien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenz, Volker [Deutsches BiomasseForschungsZentrum (DBFZ) gGmbH, Leipzig (Germany); Kaltschmitt, Martin; Janczik, Sebastian [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Umwelttechnik und Energiewirtschaft

    2013-04-01

    In the year 2012, the development of the utilization of the renewable energy supply in Germany was significantly determined by the discussion on the restriction on the EEG appointment - especially in terms of the further expansion of the photovoltaic power - as well as by the acceleration of the energetic retrofitting and the continuing development of renewable energies in the heating segment. In addition, especially aspects of sustainability inter alia in connection with the further expansion of the utilization of biomass are discussed - especially (but not exclusively) in terms of bio-fuels. Within the general trends, the contribution under consideration reports on the developments of the year 2012 in Germany regarding the supply of heat, electricity and fuel from renewable energy sources. The state of the art of the development as well as the emerging developments are analysed in addition to the actual energy-related background of the specific options for the use of renewable energy resources. Finally, a perspective of the potential utilization of the renewable energy resources is presented.

  13. Renewable energy sources and ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The share of renewable energy sources (RES) in the world energy balance is estimated from 1-2 to 10% of the total primary energy sources consumption. In EU since 1990 until now the power energy production from these sources is growing continuously by over 3% annually. The features of the updated Environmental Strategy for Bulgaria (ESB) elaborated with the World Bank in 1994 are: increasing the energy efficiency; utilising RES; granting preference to the regional energy concept and establishing regional energy centres based on the EU experience. In ESB the basic priorities are linked with disease factors - pollutants as lead in the air and soils (from leaded petrol, resp. from metallurgical enterprises), dust particles in the air (from household heating, industry and thermo-electric power stations) and sulfur dioxide and other gases (also from energy sector and industry). There is consistent policy for harmonization of the Bulgarian standards with those of the WHO. Among the implemented projects preference is granting to ones concerning new energy saving technologies and RES. Bulgaria got an environmental protection law harmonized with the international legislation and adapted to the economic situation inflicted by the market economy transition. The development of RES needs high investment cost and has low efficiency factor compared to the classical methods of energy production. Implementation of Environmental Action Programme (EAP) in Bulgaria with an international co-operation includes: solid wastes management; water sources management; water pollution problems; soil degradation; transport and environment; nuclear safety and nuclear waste problems and full value utilization of the RES. The Ministry of Environment and local Authorities have to develop their policies and implementing them by a range of activities to identify pollution control strategies, to identify areas where the greatest environmental benefits can be achieved at least cost and to incorporate the projects into national programmes. Possibilities for financing are linked with the expansion of Environmental Fund as well as with Western Donors and relevant international organizations

  14. New renewable energy sources; Nye fornybare energikilder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This booklet describes in simple terms the so-called new renewable energy sources: solar energy, biomass, wind power and wave power. In addition, there are brief discussions on hydrogen, ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), tidal power, geothermal energy, small hydropower plants and energy from salt gradients. The concept of new renewable energy sources is used to exclude large hydropower plants as these are considered conventional energy sources. The booklet also discusses the present energy use, the external frames for new renewable energy sources, and prospects for the future energy supply.

  15. Energy from renewable sources - development and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper figures about energy production and consumption in the world as well as in Europe and Bulgaria are given. The main trends in field of renewable energy sources use are discussed. The possibilities for energy production from renewable sources like wind, sun, geothermal energy and biomass in Bulgaria are analysed

  16. Sustaining with efficiency the renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    European energy policy requires actions, in favour of a more widespread diffusion of renewable energy sources. Is essential to have an efficient financial support to reduce costs. Are presented an estimated of electric power from renewable energy sources and some criticism. Is proposed a modification of green certificates market based on bilateral tradable agreements

  17. Potential of renewable and alternative energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalov, V.; Pogharnitskaya, O.; Rostovshchikova, A.; Matveenko, I.

    2015-11-01

    The article deals with application potential of clean alternative renewable energy sources. By means of system analysis the forecast for consumption of electrical energy in Tomsk Oblast as well as main energy sources of existing energy system have been studied up to 2018. Engineering potential of renewable and alternative energy sources is evaluated. Besides, ranking in the order of their efficiency descending is performed. It is concluded that Tomsk Oblast has high potential of alternative and renewable energy sources, among which the most promising development perspective is implementation of gasification stations to save fuel consumed by diesel power stations as well as building wind-power plants.

  18. Energy production from renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This table summarizes the electricity and heat produced in France and in overseas departments from renewable energy sources for 1998 (revised), 1999 (temporary) and 2000 (estimated): hydraulic, wind, solar photovoltaic and thermal, geothermal, solid municipal wastes, wood and wood wastes, biogas, ethanol and ester bio-fuels. (J.S.)

  19. Renewable energy sources - key issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renewable energy technologies exhibit the promises of plenitude and clean energy. The realization of these promises largely involve creating institutions to ensure access of RETs to grids; market infrastructure to facilitate the sale and purchase of these still-evolving technologies; and R,D and D frameworks to promote technological upgradation and adaptation to user needs. The analyses of the key issues indicates that some critical interventions are essential for the commercialisation of RETs

  20. Renewable Energy Sources Brno '93

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings contain 27 contributions dealing with unconventional energy sources. The numbers of contributions in the individual classes of topics indicate that interest has mostly concentrated on the direct utilization of solar energy, whereas wind energy, hydroelectric energy and geothermal energy receive less attention and the use of biomass is at the margin of interest. (J.B.)

  1. Renewable energy sources the research strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper are reported the strategies of research of renewable energy sources in Europe and in particular in Italy. Several technologies are considered: biomass, photovoltaic solar, wind energy, geothermal and hydroelectric

  2. Italian national conference on renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the ambit of national energy conference are reported the interventions of representative of national government, regions, local government, university enterprises and social parts and associations on renewable energy sources in Italy

  3. Renewable energy sources in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhouse crop evolution if from one hand improves the quality of products and productive cycles, from another hand cause negative effects on the natural resources, the environment and the economy of the country. Although renewable energies already feature to some extent in the European Union's regional, the 2007-2013 Structural Funds package could be the occasion to increase the weight given to RES within the energy programmes for less favoured regions (particularly in ex-objective 1 areas). In those areas, greenhouse crop sector is particularly developed as agriculture industrial activity. According to numerous investigations, agricultural greenhouse consumption for greenhouse acclimatization represents approximately between 2% to 6% of the E U's-27 total energy consumption. This report is intended to give a general overview to the potential of renewable energy and technology in Italy, particularly geothermal, wind and solar (thermic and photovoltaic) as energy for greenhouse crop sector. RES have a high potential for developing of indigenous resources, service activities, new job creation and reducing Co2 emissions.

  4. Modeling of renewable hybrid energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru Cristian Dragos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments and trends in the electric power consumption indicate an increasing use of renewable energy. Renewable energy technologies offer the promise of clean, abundant energy gathered from self-renewing resources such as the sun, wind, earth and plants. Virtually all regions of the world have renewable resources of one type or another. By this point of view studies on renewable energies focuses more and more attention. The present paper intends to present different mathematical models related to different types of renewable energy sources such as: solar energy and wind energy. It is also presented the validation and adaptation of such models to hybrid systems working in geographical and meteorological conditions specific to central part of Transylvania region. The conclusions based on validation of such models are also shown.

  5. Optimal Power Allocation for Renewable Energy Source

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Abhinav; Chaporkar, Prasanna

    2011-01-01

    Battery powered transmitters face energy constraint, replenishing their energy by a renewable energy source (like solar or wind power) can lead to longer lifetime. We consider here the problem of finding the optimal power allocation under random channel conditions for a wireless transmitter, such that rate of information transfer is maximized. Here a rechargeable battery, which is periodically charged by renewable source, is used to power the transmitter. All of above is for...

  6. Biogas: A renewable energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biogas refers to a gas produced by the biological breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen. Biogas can be used as a fuel in any country for any heating purpose such as cooking. By means of digesters, the energy in the gas can be converted to electricity and heat. Biogas like natural gas can also be used to power motor vehicle. Biogas is a renewable fuel which qualifies it for a renewable energy subsidy. It is non-toxic, environment-friendly and serve as a means of combating global warming. Biogas is presently being used in U.S.A, U.K, China, Sweden, Brazil, and India amongst others for domestic purposes, transportation and power generation. In this regard, this paper discusses biogas production. It also presents a model design of domestic biogas plant suitable for Nigerian households. The paper recommends that Nigerian Government should intensify efforts in educating the masses on this novel technology for a sustainable global development. A biogas plant designed for Nigerian household discussed in this paper is also recommended.

  7. Energy policy and renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to Shell, by 2050, renewable energy sources may supply over 50% of the energy, worldwide. This concentration on renewable energy sources is primarily due to the intensified environmental demands. The UN climate panel has estimated that to avoid irreversible climate change it is necessary to reduce the global emissions of CO2 by 50 to 60% during the next 100 years. Biomass energy includes a number of biological raw materials from forestry and agriculture. The forests provide wood, wood chips, bark, branches and treetops, and from agriculture, straw. Although biomass energy is not entirely pollution-free, it is renewable and CO2-neutral as long as growth and consumption are in balance. In Norway, the total annual growth of available biomass corresponds to about 80 TWh. The technical potential is estimated to 30 TWh per year, allowing for operationally reasonable ways of producing the biomass. However, there is competition for the biomass since it is used by the wood processing industry. The use of biomass and waste for energy generation varies considerably among the Nordic countries. In Denmark, agriculture dominates and large quantities of straw are burned in cogeneration plants. Sweden and Finland have well-developed forest industries, and the wood processing industry in these countries uses much more biomass fuel (bark, fibre mud, black liquor) than the Norwegian wood processing industry. In Norway, more energy can be obtained by retrofitting old hydroelectric plants such as by installing a flexible liner in existing tunnels. This improves energy flexibility and increases energy production without negative environmental consequences. The potential for wind power is larger in Norway than in Denmark and Germany. The cost of wind power has fallen considerably as a consequence of the technological development of the sector

  8. Life cycle assessment of renewable energy sources

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Anoop; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2013-01-01

    Governments are setting challenging targets to increase the production of energy and transport fuel from sustainable sources. The emphasis is increasingly on renewable sources including wind, solar, geothermal, biomass based biofuel, photovoltaics or energy recovery from waste. What are the environmental consequences of adopting these other sources? How do these various sources compare to each other? Life Cycle Assessment of Renewable Energy Sources tries to answer these questions based on the universally adopted method of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). This book introduces the concept and impor

  9. Can renewable energy sources sustain affluent society?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figures commonly quoted on costs of generating energy from renewable sources can give the impression that it will be possible to switch to renewables as the foundation for the continuation of industrial societies with high material living standards. Although renewable energy must be the sole source in a sustainable society, major difficulties become evident when conversions, storage and supply for high latitudes are considered. It is concluded that renewable energy sources will not be able to sustain present rich world levels of energy use and that a sustainable world order must be based on acceptance of much lower per capita levels of energy use, much lower living standards and a zero growth economy. (Author)

  10. Environmental impacts of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The global attention has always been focused on the adverse environmental impacts of conventional energy sources. In contrast nonconventional energy sources, particularly the renewable ones, have enjoyed a clean image vis a vis environmental impacts. The only major exception to this general trend has been large hydropower projects; experience has taught that they can be disastrous for the environment. The belief now is that mini hydro and microhydro projects are harmless alternatives. But are renewable energy sources really as benign as is widely believed? The present essay addresses this question in the background of Lovin's classical paradigm which had postulated the hard (malignant) and soft (benign) energy concepts in the first place. It then critically evaluates the environmental impacts of major renewable energy sources. It then comes up with the broad conclusion that renewable energy sources are not the panacea they are popularly perceived to be; indeed in some cases their adverse environmental impacts can be as strongly negative as the impacts of conventional energy sources. The paper also dwells on the steps needed to utilize renewable energy sources without facing environmental backlashes of the type experienced from hydropower projects

  11. Renewable energy sources development in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Given the European effort of doubling its renewable sources share by 2010, the main target of this paper is to understand costs and benefits of such an effort and propose some energy scenarios in the contest of the Kyoto Protocol. The research is carried out by means of a system dynamics model which considers four sectors. For each sector the model calculates energy consumptions, CO2 emissions and savings in CO2 emissions deriving from the expansion of renewables

  12. Renewable Energy Sources for Electricity Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Norrga, Staffan; Stridh, Bengt; Meier, Stephan; Nee, Hans-Peter

    2012-01-01

    The use of conventional energy sources for electricity generation, such as fossil fuel combustion and nuclear power, is questioned because of environmental and safety issues and concerns about possible anthropogenic climate change. This has led to rapid developments in the field of renewable energy exploitation. Entire new fast-growing industries are formed to supply equipment for renewable power plants. The contribution from Swedish industry to this development has so far largely been limite...

  13. Renewable energy sources. European Commission papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ''Directive on the Promotion of Electricity from Renewable Sources of Energy in the Internal Electricity Market'' was adopted in September 2001. Its purpose is to promote an increase in the contribution of renewable energy sources to electricity production in the internal market for electricity and to create a basis for a future Community framework. Energie-Cites provides in this document a summary of its opinion on the Green Paper and on Alterner II and gives a proposal for an Action Plan concerning the White Paper. (A.L.B.)

  14. Sustainable biotechnology sources of renewable energy

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    Nature offers abundant renewable resources that can be used to replace fossil fuels but issues of cost, technology readiness levels, and compatibility with existing distribution networks remain. Cellulosic ethanol and biodiesel are the most immediately obvious target fuels, with hydrogen, methane and butanol as other potentially viable products. Sustainable Biotechnology; Sources of Renewable Energy draws on the vast body of knowledge about renewable resources for biofuel research, with the aim to bridge the technology gap and focus on critical aspects of lignocellulosic biomolecules and the r

  15. Renewable energy sources: Energy Efficiency Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the activities of the Energy Efficiency Agency, its main functions, as well as the new legislation stimulating the use of RES, stipulated in the new Energy Law of Bulgaria. The second part of the paper describes the potential of renewable energy in i.e. wind energy; solar energy; biomass energy; hydro energy; geothermal energy; draft of a National Program on RES 2005-2015. The third part describes the main issues of the new ENERGY EFFICIENCY LAW and the established Energy efficiency fund. (Author)

  16. Action plan for renewable energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    In the Finnish Energy Strategy, approved by the Finnish Government in 1997, the emphasis is laid on the importance of bioenergy and other renewable energy sources for the creation of such prerequisites for the Finnish energy economy that the supply of energy can be secured, the price on energy is competitive and the emissions from energy generation are within the limits set by the international commitments made by Finland. In 1998, the European Union Meeting of the Ministers of Energy adopted a resolution taking a positive attitude to the Communication from the Commission 'Energy for the future: Renewable sources of energy' - White Paper for a Community Strategy and Action Plan. National measures play a key role in the achievement of the objectives set in the White Paper. This Action Plan for Renewable Energy Sources is a national programme in line with the EU's White Paper. It comprises all renewable sources of energy available in Finland. It encompasses even peat, which in Finland has traditionally been considered to be a solid biofuel but is internationally classified as one of the non-renewable sources of energy. In the Action Plan, objectives are set for the volume of renewable energy sources used in the year 2010 including a prognosis on the development by the year 2025. The goal is that by the year 2010 the volume of energy generated using renewable energy sources has increased by 50% compared with the year 1995. This would mean an increase by 3 Mtoe, which is about 1 Mtoe more than anticipated in the outlook based on the Finnish Energy Strategy. A further goal is to double the use of renewable energy sources by the year 2025. The aggregate use of renewable energy sources depends to a large extent both on the development of the price on energy produced using other energy sources and on possible changes in the production volume of the Finnish forest industry. The most important objective stated in the Action Plan is to improve the competitiveness of renewable energy sources in relation to other energy sources. The objective in the long term is to make them as competitive as possible in the open energy market. Among those measures of crucial importance included in the Action Plan, we can mention development and commercialisation of new technology as well as several financial measures, of which taxation and investment aid are considered to have the greatest effect. In addition, the Action Plan presents several administrative measures for the promotion of renewable energy sources. A separate assessment of the environmental impact of the Action Plan has been made resulting in an environmental impact statement (EIS) that contains a detailed account of the environmental impacts of the use of renewable energy sources and the use of peat in energy production. The most important environmental impact of the implementation of the Action Plan will be a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. As a result of the intensified measures to be taken in accordance with the Action Plan, carbon dioxide emissions are estimated to be reduced at least by 2 million tons per year compared with the outlook presented in the Energy Strategy. Further, the use of waste, which otherwise would have been transported to tips, in energy production is estimated to reduce methane emissions by 1 million ton per year (C0{sub 2} equivalent). The reduction might be even much bigger in the next few years. To ensure that the objectives of the Action Plan will be achieved, the contribution by the State (tax subsidies, investment aid and other forms of aid) should be approx. FIM 500 million on an average per year in the next ten years. In 1998, the State's contribution exceeded FIM 300 million. Further, financing amounting to approx. FIM 200 million is channelled to the research on and the development of energy production technology, which in the future to a larger extent than now will be channelled to the development of such forms of energy production technology that are using renewable energy sources. (orig.)

  17. Action plan for renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Finnish Energy Strategy, approved by the Finnish Government in 1997, the emphasis is laid on the importance of bioenergy and other renewable energy sources for the creation of such prerequisites for the Finnish energy economy that the supply of energy can be secured, the price on energy is competitive and the emissions from energy generation are within the limits set by the international commitments made by Finland. In 1998, the European Union Meeting of the Ministers of Energy adopted a resolution taking a positive attitude to the Communication from the Commission 'Energy for the future: Renewable sources of energy' - White Paper for a Community Strategy and Action Plan. National measures play a key role in the achievement of the objectives set in the White Paper. This Action Plan for Renewable Energy Sources is a national programme in line with the EU's White Paper. It comprises all renewable sources of energy available in Finland. It encompasses even peat, which in Finland has traditionally been considered to be a solid biofuel but is internationally classified as one of the non-renewable sources of energy. In the Action Plan, objectives are set for the volume of renewable energy sources used in the year 2010 including a prognosis on the development by the year 2025. The goal is that by the year 2010 the volume of energy generated using renewable energy sources has increased by 50% compared with the year 1995. This would mean an increase by 3 Mtoe, which is about 1 Mtoe more than anticipated in the outlook based on the Finnish Energy Strategy. A further goal is to double the use of renewable energy sources by the year 2025. The aggregate use of renewable energy sources depends to a large extent both on the development of the price on energy produced using other energy sources and on possible changes in the production volume of the Finnish forest industry. The most important objective stated in the Action Plan is to improve the competitiveness of renewable energy sources in relation to other energy sources. The objective in the long term is to make them as competitive as possible in the open energy market. Among those measures of crucial importance included in the Action Plan, we can mention development and commercialisation of new technology as well as several financial measures, of which taxation and investment aid are considered to have the greatest effect. In addition, the Action Plan presents several administrative measures for the promotion of renewable energy sources. A separate assessment of the environmental impact of the Action Plan has been made resulting in an environmental impact statement (EIS) that contains a detailed account of the environmental impacts of the use of renewable energy sources and the use of peat in energy production. The most important environmental impact of the implementation of the Action Plan will be a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. As a result of the intensified measures to be taken in accordance with the Action Plan, carbon dioxide emissions are estimated to be reduced at least by 2 million tons per year compared with the outlook presented in the Energy Strategy. Further, the use of waste, which otherwise would have been transported to tips, in energy production is estimated to reduce methane emissions by 1 million ton per year (C02 equivalent). The reduction might be even much bigger in the next few years. To ensure that the objectives of the Action Plan will be achieved, the contribution by the State (tax subsidies, investment aid and other forms of aid) should be approx. FIM 500 million on an average per year in the next ten years. In 1998, the State's contribution exceeded FIM 300 million. Further, financing amounting to approx. FIM 200 million is channelled to the research on and the development of energy production technology, which in the future to a larger extent than now will be channelled to the development of such forms of energy production technology that are using renewable energy sources. (orig.)

  18. Future hope: new and renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy from the sun, wind, biomass and water can reduce the pressure on conventional sources which are depleting very fast. This energy is abundant, renewable and pollution free. It is the energy of the future. No wonder non-conventional energy is fast catching the imagination of the people in our country. Efficient and economical means to harness such new energy sources are being developed. The experience so far has been encouraging. India is poised to assume a leading role among the countries which are rich in such resources

  19. Renewable energy sources; Erneuerbare Energien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Peter [RAG Aktiengesellschaft, Herne (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    Under the umbrella of RAG Aktiengesellschaft (Herne, Federal Republic of Germany) the RAG Deutsche Steinkohle (Herne, Federal Republic of Germany), RAG Anthrazit Ibbenbueren (Ibbenbueren, Federal Republic of Germany), the RAG Montan Immobilien (Essen, Federal Republic of Germany) as well as the RAG Mining Solutions (Herne, Federal Republic of Germany) are unified. With their activities in the German coal mining industry RAG contributes to the national energy security and create employment effects far beyond the mining regions.

  20. Efficient energy use and renewable sources of energy in Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Bojnec, Štefan; Papler, Drago

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents unique survey results with opinions on the competitive supply and efficient energy use, sources of energy and renewable sources of energy. The multivariate factor analysis with three common factors confirms the significance of the price competitive supply of energy, energy costs for the economy, and the sustainable energy supply development and ecological perception in the energy use. Among renewable sources of energy, significance is given to the solar, hydro, biogas, and...

  1. CARDOON, RENEWABLE SOURCE OF ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia NEAGU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardoon (Cynara cardunculus is a herbaceous perennial plant in the vegetable, artichoke, wild or garden, which belongs to the Compositae family (Asteraceae Compositae-and more precisely Cynara species and is grown specifically for the production of biomass (solid bio fuel as a pellet, or solid and liquid bio fuel, bio diesel. In this paper I have tried to highlight the profitability and economic efficiency of growing of this plant. Production capacity exceeding 2 tonnes dry matter/1000mp. The yield depends on climatic conditions, adequate soil moisture, soil nutrients, and range from 1 to 3 t/1000mp, dry. Cardoon seed contains on average 24% oil (category: 19-32%, with the same qualities as the sunflower. Quantity of seed production to 480 kgs/1000mp, while ordinary productivities range 70 to 330 kg/1000mp, always depending on the total biomass production. Growing cardooncan replace traditional crops, partly by ensuring a good profit for the farmer (double the wheat and rapeseed and bio fuel production with high energy content. Solid bio fuels (pellets, briquettes, artichokes, etc. can reach the enduser, at prices up to 30-40% lower than the price of oil. Because cardoon is a perennial plant which grows once every 10-12 years, and preparing the ground and sowing it will be carried out at intervals so large (this plant is harvested annually,it is remarkable cost reduction efficiency of growing this plant.In addition to the obvious environmental advantages by producing green energy, growing artichokes garden preserves the soil covered for the most part of the year, thereby minimizing the risk of soil erosion and limit the pollution of soil and groundwater with agrochemical products, especially in areas with intensive agriculture, because it does not require additional fertilization and/or with the use of chemical fertilizers or pesticides.

  2. MODELING OF RENEWABLE HYBRID ENERGY SOURCES

    OpenAIRE

    Dumitru Cristian Dragos; Gligor Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Recent developments and trends in the electric power consumption indicate an increasing use of renewable energy. Renewable energy technologies offer the promise of clean, abundant energy gathered from self-renewing resources such as the sun, wind, earth and plants. Virtually all regions of the world have renewable resources of one type or another. By this point of view studies on renewable energies focuses more and more attention. The present paper intends to present different mathematical mo...

  3. Optimal Power Allocation for Renewable Energy Source

    CERN Document Server

    Sinha, Abhinav

    2011-01-01

    Battery powered transmitters face energy constraint, replenishing their energy by a renewable energy source (like solar or wind power) can lead to longer lifetime. We consider here the problem of finding the optimal power allocation under random channel conditions for a wireless transmitter, such that rate of information transfer is maximized. Here a rechargeable battery, which is periodically charged by renewable source, is used to power the transmitter. All of above is formulated as a Markov Decision Process. Structural properties like the monotonicity of the optimal value and policy derived in this paper will be of vital importance in understanding the kind of algorithms and approximations needed in real-life scenarios. The effect of curse of dimensionality which is prevalent in Dynamic programming problems can thus be reduced. We show our results under the most general of assumptions.

  4. Can Renewable Energy Sources Satisfy Slovakia Future Energy Needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper examines the options for replacing the current energy mix of non-renewable, conventional energy sources solely with renewable sources in the long term within the context of the Slovak environment, possibly combined with nuclear energy in the 50-year horizon. Vital needs are outlined in household energy consumption and energy consumption for industrial and transportation purposes to fulfil in order for Slovakia to become independent of foreign sources in energy supplies.(author).

  5. Renewable Energy Sources on the Polish Electrical Energy Market

    OpenAIRE

    Paweł Bućko

    2014-01-01

    Production of electricity from renewable energy sources in Poland is presented in the paper. The mechanism of energy origin certificates market and the proposal of mechanism modification are discussed. Perspectives of electricity production from renewable energy sources are indicated and discussed.

  6. Renewable energy sources and nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This comprehensive work report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) made by the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI takes a look at work done in connection with the updating of the office's Energy Perspectives. In particular, the topic of electricity is reviewed in the light of pending important decisions in the area of nuclear energy and the newer renewable sources of energy. The report makes an attempt to estimate the effect on Swiss power production that the new renewables and new nuclear installations could have in the next 30-40 years and to what costs this could be done and which obstacles would have to overcome. The renewable energy sources include small hydro, wind, photovoltaics, solar thermal power plants, biogas, geothermal energy, wave-power and solar chemistry. The methods used include literature study and contacts with internal PSI experts on the various areas involved. The most important system characteristics were noted and learning curves for the various technologies were taken into account. Ecological and social factors were also considered

  7. ECONOMICS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Keshava

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Providing access to quality and sufficient energy to all households, individuals, sectors, and institutions at all times is the minimum condition for economic development. The climate change is gradually harming the environment, social and economic development of world economy. The major culprit fuelling the climate change is burning of fossil fuel. Hence, the power generation in India should not only aim at sufficient power generation, but also at generating clean, green and sustainable energy. The major sources of renewable power in India are 1 Wind power 2 Small Hydro power 3 Biomass 4 Cogeneration biogases and 5 waste to energy. India is having 89,760 MW estimated potential of renewable energy. But less than 2% are harnessed in actual terms.

  8. Environmental and safety aspects of renewable materials and energy sources

    CERN Document Server

    Ladomersk, Juraj; Martinka, Jozef

    2014-01-01

    This special topic volume tends to present leading publications dealing with the Environmental and Safety Aspects of Renewable Materials and Energy Sources. The aims and scope are divided into four main areas: Chapter 1. Environmental aspects of selected renewable sources, Chapter 2. Fire safety aspects of selected renewable sources, Chapter 3.Occupational safety and health aspects of selected renewable sources, Chapter 4. Other safety aspects of selected renewable sources.

  9. Exploitation of Renewable Energy Sources and Its Legal Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Boyu Zhu

    2010-01-01

    There is great potential for exploitation of renewable energy sources in China, but the strength of policy support and stimulation measures is far from enough. Many practices in foreign countries to lead and standardize development of renewable energy sources can be used as sources of reference in China. The People's Republic of China Renewable Energy Law and relevant supporting regulations have stimulated and promoted exploitation of renewable energy sources in China.

  10. RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES AND THIRD GENERATION UNIVERSITY

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlov, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 21st century, entrepreneurs are able to use the innovations at the universities in order to set up their own business. That collaboration is part of the concept of the “Third Generation University”. The aim of this paper is to outline some possibilities for innovative business development in the Ruse region, Bulgaria that are aimed at supporting technostarters who use biomass for energy production. It describes the need of renewable energy sources in EU context, giv...

  11. RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES AND THIRD GENERATION UNIVERSITY

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlov, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 21st century, entrepreneurs are able to use theinnovations at the universities in order to set up their own business. Thatcollaboration is part of the concept of the Third Generation University. Theaim of this paper is to outline some possibilities for innovative businessdevelopment in the Ruse region, Bulgaria that are aimed at supportingtechnostarters who use biomass for energy production. It describes the needof renewable energy sources in EU context, giv...

  12. Positive and Negative Impacts of Renewable Energy Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Vezmar, Stanislav; Spajić, Anton; Topić, Danijel; Šljivac, Damir; Jozsa, Lajos

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, positive and negative impacts of renewable energy sources are presented. Impacts of solar power, biomass power, fuel cells, hydro power, wind power and geothermal power are described. Ecological, social and political impacts of different renewable energy sources are described. Impacts of power plants using different renewable energy sources on the power grid are also described.

  13. Renewable energy sources in Basque Country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Autonomous Basque Energy Authority makes an analysis on the final results obtained during 1980 decade promoting renewable energies: Minihydroelectric power plants, solar thermal, photovoltaics, biomass and Wind Energy. New goals until the year 2000 are outlined

  14. Use of renewable energy sources in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estonia has made success in the implementation of energy conservation programme and bio fuel programmes. The basis for promoting the use of biofuels and peat are identified in the first National Energy Conservation Programme (approved by the government in 1992) and in the National Long Term Energy Development Programme (approved by the parliament in 1998). The first National Energy Conservation Programme has set up the following goals: reduction of the share of imported fuels in national primary energy balance through implementation of energy conservation projects and through conversion from imported fuels to local fuels (peat and wood); solving the ownership problems of heating enterprises; financial support for implementation of energy conservation and fuel conversion projects; to stop the subsidies of energy tariffs; promotion of energy conservation awareness campaign. The National Long Term Energy Development Programme identified the promotion of the use of biofuels and peat as one of the main tasks of national energy policy. According to the development plan, the share of renewable energy sources in national primary energy balance shall reach the percentage of 13 in the year 2010. The government approved the new National Energy Conservation Programme in January 2000. One part of the programme is the analyses of the results of the first programme. The conclusion is that the main tasks of the first energy conservation programme (from 1992) are fulfilled: the total use of primary energy has decreased from 1991 to 1998 from 390,6 PJ to 214 PJ; the total amount of imported fuels has decreased from 173 PJ in 1991 to 80 PJ in 1998; the total share of peat and wood in primary energy balance has increased from 14,8 TJ in 1991 to 24,3 TJ in 1998. This is from 3,6 % to 11,3 % accordingly. Since the annual growth of peat resources is bigger than the annual consumption, in Estonian conditions, peat could be considered as renewable energy source. The increase of the share of peat and wood in primary energy balance has been reached through implementation of a number of fuel conversion (mainly from heavy fuel oil, natural gas and natural coal) programmes. Most of the fuel conversion projects have been financed by international financial institutions (World Bank, EBRD, EIB, SIDA, NUTEK) and from Estonian state budget. In addition to the changes in primary energy balance, the implementation of fuel conversion programmes has improved Estonian trade balance and reduced the emissions. In 1999, the Ministry of Economic Affairs prepared the Programme for Promoting Wind and Small Hydro Energy. According to the programme the potential of wind energy is significant, but the potential of hydro energy is limited. In theory, 10 TWh electricity per annum could be produced from wind power. The maximum limit of hydro potential is estimated 30 MW. In 1998 the article of power purchase obligation for electricity produced from renewable energy resources, was included to the Energy Act. In result of which a number of smaller size hydro power plants have been rehabilitated. (author)

  15. Fuel cells as renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technology level achieved in fuel cell (FC) systems in the last years has significantly increased the interest of various manufacturing industries engaged in energy production and distribution even under the perspectives that this technology could provide. Today, the fuel cells (FCs) can supply both electrical and thermal energy without using moving parts and with a high level of affordability with respect to the conventional systems. FCs can utilise every kind of fuel such as hydrocarbons, hydrogen available from the water through renewable sources (wind, solar energy), alcohol etc. Thus, they may find application in many field ranging from energy production in large or small plants to the cogeneration systems for specific needs such as for residential applications, hospitals, industries, electric vehicles and portable power sources. Low temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC, DMFC) are preferred for application in the field of transportation and portable systems. The CNR-ITAE research activity in this field concerns the development of technologies, materials and components for the entire system: electrocatalysts, conducting supports, electrolytes, manufacturing technologies for the electrodes-electrolyte assemblies and the attainment of fuel cells with high power densities. Furthermore, some activities have been devoted to the design and realisation of PEFC fuel cell prototypes with rated power lower than I kW for stationary and mobile applications

  16. Status of renewable energy sources in the global energy balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An extensive assessment at the World Energy Conference in Montreal in 1989 furnished that renewable energy sources will also in 2020 be dominated by water power. The prospects for solar and wind energy are on the medium term viewed rather pessimistically. Their contribution to global energy supply will also in 2020 still be below 3%. The contribution of renewable energy sources to the supply of the old federal states amounts to 2.6% and is produced by public utilities from water power, waste, landfill gases, wind and solar energy. (DG)

  17. Potentiality of renewable energy sources: the Italian context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renewable energy sources are the subject of strategic interest for their contribution to diversification of energy sources increasing independence from foreign supplies and to improving the environmental standards. Are presented related to technologies, consistency and potential availability of renewable energy sources to generate electric power

  18. White paper for the exploitation of the renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Italian government attributes at the renewable energy sources a remarkable strategy. Therefore supports the progressive integration of this energy sources in energy market and develop the co-operation with Mediterranean area countries

  19. Renewable energy sources in liberalized electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of electricity production from Renewable Energy Sources (RES) creates conditions for a long-term security of electricity supplies, reduction of dependence from imported energy supplies, reduction of emissions from greenhouse gases, climate protection, possibility to avoid conflicts, related to ores and minerals, creation of new jobs, etc. The provision of incentives for development of technologies for electricity production from RES creates conditions to address the commitment for electricity production from RES constituting 11% from the gross domestic consumption of the country up to 2010, according to the Accession Treaty of Republic of Bulgaria to the EU. From 1 April 2002, the State Energy and Water Regulatory Commission (SEWRC) applies incentive policy towards producers of electricity from RES via enforcement of feed-in tariffs of the purchased electricity. Energy Act (EA) from 8 September 2006 regulates the promotion of electricity production from RES. Review of the proposed by the Commission criteria in setting-up feed-in tariffs for electricity, generated by RES is well presented in this report.(author)

  20. Development of renewable energy sources during the years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report briefly characterizes the main types of renewable energy sources aimed at minimizing the negative consequences of the changes in the global climate in the past years and emphasizes the potential and the usage of renewable energy sources in the European Union and Bulgaria respectively in compliance with the normative framework of the European Union. Some of Bulgarian major implemented projects are revealed and special consideration has been given to Bulgarian contribution to development of renewable energy sources. (author)

  1. New renewable energy sources; Nye fornybare energikilder. Revidert utgave 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    This publication presents a review of the technological, economical and market status in the field of new renewable energy sources. It also deals briefly with the present use of energy, external conditions for new renewable energy sources and prospects for these energy sources in a future energy system. The renewable energy sources treated here are ''new'' in the sense that hydroelectric energy technology is excluded, being fully developed commercially. This publication updates a previous version, which was published in 1996. The main sections are: (1) Introduction, (2) Solar energy, (3) Bio energy, (4) Wind power, (5) Energy from the sea, (6) Hydrogen, (7) Other new renewable energy technologies and (8) New renewables in the energy system of the future.

  2. Renewable energy sources in Finnish energy policy and climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilkamo, S. [Ministry of Trade and Industry, Energy Department, Helsinki (Finland)

    2001-07-01

    The Action Plan for Renewable Energy Sources completed autumn 1999. The Action Plan was prepared by the Ministry of Trade and Industry, assisted by a large working group. A researcher team from the Technical Research Centre of Finland served as consultants during the preparation work. The Action Plan has been compiled so as to be comprehensive. It encompasses all renewable energy sources available in Finland. In accordance with the Finnish Energy Strategy, the emphasis is on measures to increase the use of wood for energy and on measures to promote wind power. Similarly, measures have been proposed for promoting the use of recycled fuels as energy sources. The other types of energy discussed are small-scale hydropower, field biomass, solar power and heat pumps. The points of departure for the Action Plan include - besides the Finnish Energy Strategy approved by the Government in 1997 - the Kyoto Protocol on climate change and the White Paper for a Community Strategy and Action Plan, 'Energy for the future: Renewable sources of energy', published by the European Union. National measures play a key role in achievement of the objectives set in the White Paper. The Action Plan for Renewable Energy Sources is a national programme in line with the White Paper of the European Union. The Action Plan also serves the preparation of a national climate programme, for which various bodies - including the Ministry of Trade and Industry - must systematically analyse the aspects that are of importance for curbing greenhouse gas emissions. The Action Plan sets objectives for the volume of renewable energy sources in 2010 and gives a prognosis on developments by 2025. The target set for the year 2010 is to increase the volume of energy generated using renewable sources by 50% when compared to the situation in 1995. This increase would be 3 Mtoe, which is about 1 Mtoe more than the trend based on the outline presented in the Finnish Energy Strategy. The target set for 2025 is to double the use of renewable energy sources. These targets are demanding for a country like Finland, where the use of renewable energy sources is already high. In 1998, renewable energy sources accounted for about 23% of all energy consumption in Finland. Of this figure, 19% was wood energy and the rest mostly hydropower. This is the third highest percentage in the EU, and for bioenergy, the highest. The main objective of the Action Plan is to enhance the competitiveness of renewable energy sources in relation to other energy sources. In the long run, the objective is to make renewables as competitive as possible on the open energy market, without any special supportive action taken by the State. The central measures listed in the Action Plan are development and commercialisation of new technology, and application of economic means, of which taxation and investment subsidies are the principal ones. In addition, measures are needed to abolish administrative barriers and to promote education, information, investigations and instructions.

  3. Support of energy savings and use of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this presentation author reviews structural funds of the European Commission (EC) - Sector operational program Industry and Services. This review is divided on: Priority 1: Competition growth of industry and services by using development of home growth potential; Measure 1.4: Support of energy savings and renewable energy sources utilization; Measure 1.3: Support of enterprise, innovations and applicable research

  4. Renewable energy sources for tenable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planning criteria for feasible tenable development strategies for industrialized and developing countries are discussed. Attention is given to the role to be played by industrial countries in renewable energy source development and technology transfer to curb the onslaught of global greenhouse effects related environmental problems. The paper cautions against the use of the expression 'tenable' in combination with 'growth'. It recommends, instead, the substitution of the expression, 'tenable growth', which implies the indefinite growth of something which is physical, with 'tenable development', a preferred term, since it denotes the realization of an optimum strategy, compatible with environmental ecosystems, for the betterment of living conditions. An assessment is made of the overall social-economic impacts of such a strategy on the proposed European free trade market and on developing countries struggling to survive in a fiercely competitive world. Here, the paper notes that, for the effective implementation of a tenable development strategy, it is of prime importance to make optimum use of the education system to instil a new set of social values and modify individual behaviour relative to the development and use of natural resources

  5. Technology risk assessment to renewable energy sources. Interim report: Utilization of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of this interim report of a BMFT-supported study are preliminary statements about the utilization of plant-derived raw materials for energy supply uses. Some aspects were analyzed by preparing technology risk assessments of the present economic situation (from the point of view of national economy) of about 50 product lines, the medium- term (2005) economic prospects, of threshold prices based on the price of fuel oil, the cost of carbon dioxide reduction, other environmental aspects, and of the acceptance of renewable energy sources among farmers. Arguments are derived from these analyses, and the present R and D deficiencies are discussed. (orig.)

  6. Bioenergy: a growing source of renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This 2001 edition of the guide to UK renewable energy companies explores the bioenergy sector, and examines energy crops including short rotation coppice cultivation, the potential of the hardy perennial Miscanthus grass, and forestry and arboricultural byproducts as well as the production of bioethanol from agricultural wastes. Energy recovery technologies are described covering the thermochemical processes (combustion, pyrolysis, and gasification), and anaerobic digestion. The use of biomass to produce liquefied transportation fuels is discussed, and examples of the use of biomass for heating, combined heat and power production, and for electricity production are given. Export markets for bioenergy are considered

  7. Future hope: new and renewable energy sources: Part-III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New and renewable energies are for all. It is now increasingly realised that the exploitation of renewable energy sources could not only meaningfully supplement the generation of power through conventional energy sources, but also provide a viable option in a wide range of applications. As the new and renewable energy sources are locally available, provide clean energy and help preserve the environment and ecology. Their development and utilization will change the complexion of rural areas improving the quality of life and provide dependable power supply to rural and urban users

  8. Environmental problems connected to the use of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of FER (renewable energy sources) can represent a fundamental answer to the growing energy need and the requirement for a new environmental quality. Also the renewable sources, however, have an environmental cost, whose amount can be considered of little importance at a world balance, but can have a large impact at a local level. Among FER the author has chosen hydroelectric source, biomass and wind energy, since they are most effective according to the aims of this discussion

  9. Renewable energy sources in Italy at 2010 an occupational impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper analyzes the occupational impact attained to the realization of programs of renewable energy sources illustrated in the Green Paper presented at the National Conference Energy and Environment

  10. Present status and potential of renewable energy sources in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hepbasli, A.; Ozdamar, A.; Ozalp, N.

    2001-08-15

    The effects on global and environmental air quality of pollutants released into the atmosphere from fossil fuels in power plants provide strong arguments for the development of renewable energy resources. In this regard, the objective of this study is to investigate the present status. the technical potentials, and the regional distribution of renewable energy resources in Turkey. The following resources were taken into consideration: solar energy, wind energy, hydro energy, geothermal energy, biomass, and wave energy. The present study shows that Turkey has extensive renewable energy resources that can be developed as a significant source of energy. (author)

  11. The White Paper for the enhancement of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The White Paper is a guideline document on the sector which identifies, for each renewable energy source, the objects that must be achieved in order to reducing greenhouse emissions; Cipe resolution ascribes such reductions to renewable sources, pointing out the strategies and tools necessary for this purpose

  12. A Flexible Power Electronics Configuration for Coupling Renewable Energy Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Mattia Filippini; Marta Molinas; Eneko Olea Oregi

    2015-01-01

    A combination of series, parallel and multilevel power electronics has been investigated as a potential interface for two different types of renewable energy sources and in order to reach higher power levels. Renewable energy sources are typically dispersed in a territory, and sources, like wind and solar, allow small to medium-scale generation of electricity. The configuration investigated in this article aims at adapting the coupling solution to the specific generation characteristics of th...

  13. Italian consumers willingness to pay for renewable energy sources

    OpenAIRE

    Bigerna, Simona; Polinori, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    EU Directive 2009/72/CE imposes to the European Countries environmental and energy targets. The Italian goal is to attain a 17% share in electricity production from renewable energy sources (RES) by 2020. To make investment in renewables attractive, market prices must be profitable and the gap between the private and social costs of renewables must be filled using persuasive tools. The acceptance of such a burden may be controversial because it results in an increase in prices. It is intere...

  14. OPPORTUNITIES FOR USING RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN BULGARIA

    OpenAIRE

    Markova, D.; S. Platikanov; M. Konstantinoff; P. Tsankov

    2011-01-01

    Bulgaria has one of Europe’s richest renewable energy resource bases. This paper presents an assessment of Bulgarian renewable sources of energy as a stage for increasing the share of these resources in the country’s total energy balance, to the end of the improvement of the environment, stimulation of industrial development and creation of new jobs. It considers the theoretical (total) resource potential for solar, wind, both large and small hydro, geothermal, and biomass and waste sources. ...

  15. Foreign national programs of nontraditional renewable energy source utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main statements of national energy programs of the USA, Great Britain, France, FRG, Italy, Japan and China in the field of nontraditional renewable energy sources development are briefly summarized. It is noted that utilization of renewable energy sources became the field for wide-range international cooperation at the verge of 80-90-ties. The cooperation was transformed into large-scale scientific, engineering and practical direction in global solution of ripened ecological and power engineering problems

  16. Renewable energy sources '91. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Part 2 of the proceedings is devoted to the use of the energy of wind, biogas and small hydroelectric sources. The publication contains 14 contributions, out of which 3 have been inputted in INIS. They deal with a wind power plant in Sweden and its environmental impacts, economic aspects of the introduction of alternative energy sources in Czechoslovakia, and with the efficiency of application of a Fresnel lens-based solar collector. (M.D.). 5 figs., 1 tab., 2 refs

  17. Development of Electricity Generation from Renewable Energy Sources in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentel, E.

    2011-12-01

    Electricity is mainly produced from coal, natural gas and hydropower in Turkey. However, almost all the natural gas and high quality coal are imported. Thus, increasing the shares of both hydro and other renewables in energy supply is necessary to decrease dependency of the country on foreign sources. In 2008, the total installed capacity of Turkey was around 42000 MW and 66 % of this was from thermal sources. The remaining 33 % was from hydro, which leaves only one percent for the other renewable energy sources. The share of renewable energy in the energy budget of Turkey has increased in the last two decades; however, in 2008, only 17 % of the total electricity generation was realized from renewable sources most of which was hydro. According to State Hydraulic Works (SHW) which is the primary executive state agency responsible for the planning, operating and managing of Turkey's water resources, Turkey utilizes only around 35% of its economically viable hydro potential. The current situation clearly demonstrates the need for increasing the share of renewables in the energy budget. New laws, such as the Electricity Market Law, have been enacted and the following items were identified by the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources of Turkey among primary energy policies and priorities: (i) decreasing dependency on foreign resources by prioritizing utilization of natural resources, (ii) increasing the share of renewable energy resources in the energy budget of Turkey; (iii) minimization of adverse environmental impacts of production and utilization of natural resources. The government's energy policy increased investments in renewable energy resources; however lack of a needed legal framework brought various environmental and social problems with this fast development. The development of the share of renewable resources in the energy budget, current government policy, and environmental concerns related with renewables, and ideas to improve the overall benefits of the use of these domestic energy sources are investigated in this study.

  18. Development of alternative/renewable sources of energy in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The depleting Conventional Energy Resources and highly raised prices of fuel oil, coal, firewood and such other fossil fuels, have forced the mankind to think about the utilization of Alternative / Renewable Sources of Energy. Alternative / Renewable Energy is very attractive, reliable and cost competitive energy. Sun is readily available to provide a clean, abundant and virtually infinite energy to meet the significant portion of mankind's energy-needs. The possible use of renewable-energy sources is discussed in this paper, in order to fill the estimated gap between the available energy-sources and energy-needs of our country in the near future. Designing, Fabrication and Installation of different renewable-energy devices by PCSIR are also discussed in this paper. Different renewable-energy devices such as, solar water heaters, solar cookers, solar dehydrators, solar water-desalination plants, solar heating and cooling of buildings, solar operated absorption-type chiller, solar furnace, solar architecture, developed by PCSIR are discussed in some detail so that the role of renewable-energy sources for their direct use (as heat and power) can be determined. Various technical aspects are discussed to reduce the unit cost with improved efficiency. (author)

  19. Renewable energy sources, finance and sustainability outlook and latest evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environment-related reasons, pressure by public opinion, and above all the strong belief that green technologies will be highly profitable pave the way to higher investments of private finance on renewable energy sources

  20. Financial incentives for renewable energy sources: how much?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article is assessed the costs and effectiveness of financial incentives policies to stimulate the development of renewable energy sources for electricity production in view of the European goals for the year 2020

  1. The renewable energies sources in France 1970-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this report is to describe the energy production from renewable sources in France since 1970. In France the rate of using renewable energy sources is unequal. Some of them as hydro energy show a confirmed industrial and commercial interest when other techniques have not still reach the same level of maturity. The renewable energy sources chosen to calculate the electric and thermal production of France are: for electric power, hydro energy, wind energy, solar energy, geothermal energy, the urban wastes, the wood wastes, the harvesting residues, the biogas. For the thermal production, the thermal solar energy, the geothermal energy, the urban wastes, the wood and wood wastes, the harvesting residues, the biogas and bio fuels. The figures are marked in thirty tables. (N.C.)

  2. Limits and Prospects of Renewable Energy Sources in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Italian energy balance for year 2005 is discussed with particular attention on renewable energy production. The potentials of renewable sources are evaluated in terms of energy density that can be obtained from occupied plant area. About 20000 km2 of sunny barren lands are present in South of Italy, particularly suitable for photovoltaic plants and that corresponds to a potential production of 144 Mtep of primary energy. Therefore, in theory, the photovoltaic energy potential is comparable with energy balance. The grid connection limit due to intermittent power generation of photovoltaic and wind energy systems is considered in relation with the stability of grid power level. Assuming a 25% maximum grid penetration of intermittent power with respect to capacity of active thermoelectric generators, the renewable energy contribution amounts to about 2% of annual energy balance. In front of expectations for a larger contribution, the practical result is the renewable energy production of present systems is marginal, unsuitable for counteracting the global climate crisis. The conclusion is that, for exploiting the large renewable energy potential, is necessary to implement the plants with an energy storage system able to overcome the source intermittency. Without this improvement, the expectations on renewable energy sources could be disappointed.

  3. Legislation on renewable energy sources in Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the development of renewable energy in Central America and the cooperation given by the European Comission in the promotion of renewable energy sources. Also discuss the current situation in energy demand in Central America and possible solutions linked to legislation that promotes the inversion of the private sector. The legal framework in each country of Central America is presented and its impact in the increasing of generation of energy through tax reductions, trading and prices

  4. On the global and regional potential of renewable energy sources

    OpenAIRE

    Hoogwijk, Monique Maria

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis, the central research question is: what can be the contribution of renewable energy sources to the present and future world and regional energy supply system. The focus is on wind, solar PV and biomass energy (energy crops) for electricity generation. For the assessment of the economic potential, we construct cost-supply curves. As the economic potential also depends on the way renewables are integrated in the electricity system, we also explore the overall costs of wind electr...

  5. Do energy efficiency measures promote the use of renewable sources?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyses the factors behind the deployment of renewable energy, focusing particularly on the effect of energy efficiency policies and measures. The impact of these factors is appraised within the context of several phases of the use of renewable sources. We therefore apply the quantile regression technique to a set of 21 European Countries in two time spans: from 1990 to 1998, and from 1999 to 2006. We control variables of policy, environment, socioeconomic characteristics, and electricity generation. For the second period, energy efficiency policies and measures concerning renewable sources effectively promote renewables, namely in the take-off phase. We shed light on the lobbying effect of traditional energy industries, showing that it depends both on the period under analysis, and on the kind of traditional energy source.

  6. New renewable energy sources: Strategies and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An assessment is made of the technological reliability, and environmental and economic benefits of biomass, wind and photovoltaic energy sources in meeting the world's ever increasing demand for electric power. This assessment favours R ampersand D investment for the commercialization of processes involving the production of hydrogen through photovoltaic energy conversion. These plants are especially recommended for oil importing third world countries located in tropical areas

  7. Mechanism for supporting the use of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Member states of European Union (EU) put bigger stress to the using of renewable energy sources (RES). Ambitious goal of EU till 2010 was to achieve 12 % rate of RES on the whole energy consumption. Therefore there were created many institutional and financial tools and schemes for support of RES using and they will be important part of the energy sources structure. One of the basic priorities of energetic policy in Slovakia is increasing of the RES rate on the production of heat and electricity with goal to create adequate additional sources necessary for covering of domestic demand. Presented contribution is orientated to the various mechanisms that are using for support of renewable energy sources. That means state regulation in this area generally and basic types of state donation policy in the frame of European Union and their consequences on the market with renewable energy sources. (authors)

  8. Strategy on renewable energy sources in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The key to successful development of renewable energies in Romania requires a combination of political commitment and decision making as well as support mechanism including well defined government targets, technological advances and public acceptance. Overall short, medium and long term targets and required funding are recommended while expected benefits are estimated. Public funds in the form of grants and subsidies to promote and support RES constitute one of the best investments in the national economy. Commercial investments in RES will contribute to the country's balance of payments as well as towards the environmental protection. Therefore these actions may be supported through a special fund, in particular designed for RES and energy conservation investments. As a first step towards the commercialization of RES a short term action plan needs to be implemented for achieving the set forth long term objectives. This plan includes promising projects for the demonstration of technologically and economically viable applications in each RES sector as well as institutional and other soft measures .The RES promotional policy measures have to be translated into concrete legislation providing the necessary framework into which the sector will operate with transparency and open competitiveness. One of the key policies for RES strategy is to organize a flexible and efficient scheme for the implementation of the policy adopted by the government. The total rural population, together with the urban population living in medium sized towns will be considered as the primary market segment for RES applications (about 61 % of total population). (author). 1 fig., 2 tabs., 18 refs

  9. Interfaces for renewable energy sources with electric power systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Paulo Alves; Trindade, Manuel; Martins, Jlio S.; Afonso, Joo L.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents technological solutions that intend to contribute both for the efficient production of electric energy from renewable non-pollutant sources (namely Wind and Sun) and to the improvement of power quality in the electrical systems. It proposes the development of low-cost and high-efficiency power controllers that optimize energy extraction from hybrid systems, constituted by photovoltaic solar panels and wind power turbines, in small renewable energy power plants. Main innova...

  10. Renewable energy sources - the opportunity for a safer future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The researches have shown that the potential of renewable energy sources is huge as they can in principle meet many times the world's energy demand. Renewable energy sources such as biomass, wind, solar, hydropower and geothermal can provide energy services based on the use of local available resources. Starting from this fact, a transition to renewable-based energy systems is looking increasingly likely as their costs have dropped while the price of oil and gas continue to fluctuate. In the past 30 years, the sales of solar and wind energy systems continued to increase because the capital and electricity production costs decreased simultaneously with the performance enhancement. It is becoming clear that future growth in the energy sector will be primarily in the renewable energy systems and to some extent natural gas-based systems and not in conventional oil and coal sources. It is also important to have governmental assistance and popular support in developing these alternate energy sources, that among others, reduce local and global atmospheric emissions, provide commercially attractive options, particularly in developing countries and rural areas and create the transition to the energy sector of the future. This paper tries to approach the renewable energy sources currently analyzed by the experts, emphasizing their strengths and weaknesses. The conventional energy sources based on oil, coal and natural gas have proven to be highly effective drivers of economic progress but at the same time damaging to the environment and human health. Furthermore they tend to be cyclical in nature, due to the effects of oligopoly in production and distribution. These traditional fossil fuel-based energy sources are facing increasing pressure on environmental issues, among these the future reduction of greenhouse gas specified in the Kyoto Protocol. Renewable energy sources currently supply between 15 - 20% of world's total energy demand. This supply is dominated by biomass (mostly wood used for cooking and heating - especially in developing countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America) as well as large hydropower stations providing nearly 20% of the global electricity supply provided by renewable sources. New renewable sources (solar, wind, modern bioenergy, geothermal energy and small hydropower stations) amount to about 2%. Recent studies of the future development of the energy sector show that in the second half of the 21 century the contribution of the renewable energy sources might range from the present figure of nearly 20% to more than 50% if the right policies will be put in place. Below are presented the most significant renewable energy sources. 1. Biomass Energy Biomass is the term used for all organic material originating from plants (including algae), trees and crops and is essentially the collection and storage of the sun's energy through photosynthesis. Biomass energy, or bioenergy, is the conversion of biomass into useful forms of energy such as heat, electricity and liquid fuels. Biomass was the first energy source harnessed by humans, and for nearly all of human history, wood has been our dominant energy source. Only during the last century, with the development of efficient techniques to extract and burn fossil fuels, have coal, oil, and natural gas, replaced wood as the industrialized world's primary fuel. Today it represents about 10-14 percent, making it the fourth largest source of energy behind oil (33 percent), coal (21 percent), and natural gas (19 percent). The precise amount is uncertain because the majority is used non-commercially in developing countries. Biomass is usually not considered a modern energy source, given the role that it has played, and continues to play, in most developing countries. In developing countries it still accounts for an estimated one third of primary energy use while in the poorest up to 90% of all energy is supplied by biomass. The direct combustion of biomass fuels, as used in developing countries today for domestic cooking and heating, has been called 'the poor man's oil' r

  11. Cyprus energy system and the use of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyprus is an island state whose energy production is almost completely dependent on imported hydrocarbon fuels. Its electricity production sector is more than 90% dependent on oil products while the remaining 9% are covered by imports of coal (4.5%) and by solar energy (4.5%). Because Cyprus will become a full member of the European Union (EU), it becomes essential to follow the EU white paper rules and insert renewable energy sources (RES) as part of its energy production system. Solar, wind energy and biomass are the three available forms of RES. This paper will examine and analyze the energy system of Cyprus. It will examine the RES available and the extent of the energy needs could be satisfied by them. (author)

  12. Nontraditional renewable energy sources: status and prospects of introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The data characterizing resources of renewable energy sources in Russia are analyzed. The results of technical and economical estimation of traditional and nontraditional energy sources are discussed. The information characterizing the rates of construction and commissioning of geothermal, wind and solar electric power plants according to the forecasting plans of nontraditional power engineering development in Russia till 2000 is considered

  13. Renewable Energy Sources - Technologies and Development of the Economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The usage of renewable energy sources is a substitute for usage of fossil fuels, whose quantities are limited, and it represents an essential contribution to the reduction of greenhouse gases; at the same time it has a great economic significance for the development of new industries and creation of new jobs. To speed up gradual transition from fossil to renewable sources, governments of all EU member states harmonise their legislations and subordinate regulations promoting investments in usage of renewable sources and thus creating opportunities for new jobs especially in the production of plants and equipment for utilisation of wind power, solar energy, small hydro power plants, biomass and other kinds of renewable sources. In the last 10 years Croatia has adopted a number of acts and regulations that also stimulate investors to utilise renewable sources, and the source of such subsidies is a higher price of electricity paid by all the consumers. On the other hand, the development of domestic industry and gaining references necessary for gaining new contracts are very difficult because of stiff international competition and foreign sources of finance, which often require purchase of foreign equipment as a condition for contract award. In such conditions the utilisation of renewable sources does not contribute either to economic development or creating new jobs in Croatia, but in the countries in which such equipment is produced.(author).

  14. Resource management tools based on renewable energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannson, Tomasz; Forrester, Thomas; Boghrat, Pedram; Pradhan, Ranjit; Kostrzewski, Andrew

    2012-06-01

    Renewable energy is an important source of power for unattended sensors (ground, sea, air), tagging systems, and other remote platforms for Homeland Security and Homeland Defense. Also, Command, Control, Communication, and Intelligence (C3I) systems and technologies often require renewable energy sources for information assurance (IA), in general, and anti-tampering (AT), in particular. However, various geophysical and environmental conditions determine different types of energy harvesting: solar, thermal, vibration, acoustic, hydraulic, wind, and others. Among them, solar energy is usually preferable, but, both a solar habitat and the necessity for night operation can create a need for other types of renewable energy. In this paper, we introduce figures of merit (FoMs) for evaluating preferences of specific energy sources, as resource management tools, based on geophysical conditions. Also, Battery Systemic Modeling is discussed.

  15. The global crisis and the market of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of indexes for assessment of national markets for alternative energy sources the report points out the dynamics of the general segment index of the market for renewable energy sources including wind index, sun index and index of biomass and other alternative energy sources. On that basis solutions for overcoming the decrease of that segment in the world economy in time of recession have been searched

  16. Power Electronics as Efficient Interface of Renewable Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe; Kjær, Søren Bækhøj

    renewable energy conversion system, will play an important part in our future energy supply. But other sources like microturbines, photovoltaics and fuel cell systems may also be serious contributor to the power supply. Characteristically, power electronics will be an efficient and important interface to......The global electrical energy consumption is steadily rising and consequently there is a demand to increase the power generation capacity. A significant percentage of the required capacity increase can be based on renewable energy sources. Wind turbine technology, as the most cost effective...

  17. Secondary School Teachers' Knowledge and Attitudes Towards Renewable Energy Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liarakou, Georgia; Gavrilakis, Costas; Flouri, Eleni

    2009-04-01

    Investigating knowledge, perceptions as well as attitudes of public that concern various aspects of environmental issues is of high importance for Environmental Education. An integrated understanding of these parameters can properly support the planning of Environmental Education curriculum and relevant educational materials. In this survey we investigated knowledge and attitudes of secondary school teachers in Greece towards renewable energy sources, particularly wind and solar energy systems. A questionnaire with both open and close questions was used as the main methodological instrument. Findings revealed that although teachers were informed about renewable energy sources and well disposed towards these sources, they hardly expressed clear positions regarding several issues about wind and solar energy technologies and farms. Moreover such themes are limited integrated in teaching either as extra curricular educational programs or through the curriculum. These findings cannot confirm that teachers could influence students' opinion towards renewable energy systems. Thus, authorities should invest more in Environmental Education and relevant Teachers' Education.

  18. Energy efficiency and renewable energy sources in Nordic homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyysalo, S.; Rinkinen, J. [Aalto Univ. School of Economics, Helsinki (Finland). Dept. of Management and International Business; Heiskanen, E. [National Consumer Research Centre, Helsinki (Finland)

    2011-07-01

    The role of citizens as innovators, adaptors of existing technologies and diffusers of new climate-relevant innovations has been studied extensively in recent years. Since the late 1970s, sociological and demographic research on residential energy use has consistently found great variations in energy use among similar households. It has been suggested that these variations constitute a source of innovative low-carbon practices. Yet, while there are many generic technologies available for end-use efficiency and renewables, their slow rate of diffusion suggests that they are not as such applicable to local conditions. Citizens have a key role in their adoption and adaptation to local conditions, as well in their diffusion to other users. Against this backdrop, the track 4 of NCF called for poster presentations of innovative new products, modifications of existing products, news ways of make use of existing technologies as well as such living practices that reduce energy use or enable the utilization of renewable energy sources in domestic settings in the Nordic countries. (orig.)

  19. Optimal portfolio selection between different kinds of Renewable energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakerinia, MohammadSaleh; Piltan, Mehdi; Ghaderi, Farid

    2010-09-15

    In this paper, selection of the optimal energy supply system in an industrial unit is taken into consideration. This study takes environmental, economical and social parameters into consideration in modeling along with technical factors. Several alternatives which include renewable energy sources, micro-CHP systems and conventional system has been compared by means of an integrated model of linear programming and three multi-criteria approaches (AHP, TOPSIS and ELECTRE III). New parameters like availability of sources, fuels' price volatility, besides traditional factors are considered in different scenarios. Results show with environmental preferences, renewable sources and micro-CHP are good alternatives for conventional systems.

  20. Economically available resources of renewable energy sources in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is a part of the Project on Renewable Energy Sources jointly developed by the US National Laboratory on Renewable Energy Sources and the Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology, Sofia. The economically accessible resources (EAR) in different geographical regions of Bulgaria are calculated for the following applications: passive and active use of solar energy for heating, photovoltaic batteries and wind energy equipment. A comparison of EAR values for certain renewable technologies in 2010 and 2020 is made. The analysis comprises: passive use of solar energy, domestic water heating, district heating, industrial water heating, photovoltaics, wind energy conversion systems (WECS) with horizontal axis turbines; burning of municipal, forestry and agricultural residues; small hydro installations, balneology, home heating. The percentage share of EAR values for each technology is calculated and compared with those of corresponding reserve estimates. 4 refs., 1 tab

  1. Potential novel, renewable thermal energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, P.M.; Schwabe, U.K.W. [Rowan Univ., Glassboro, NJ (United States). College of Engineering, Electrical and Computer Engineering; Mugweru, A.; Ramanujachary, K.V. [Rowan Univ., Glassboro, NJ (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry

    2010-07-01

    A team of researchers at Rowans University (RU) have conducted calorimetry studies of various solid fuels developed by New-Jersey-based BlackLight Power (BLP) in order to test and validate their claims of lower energy hydrogen. In this study, potassium hydride, sodium hydride, magnesium metal powder, titanium carbide support material and several halide salts were loaded in a cell and heated to initiate a chemical reaction. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry were used to analyze the products of the reaction. An XRD analysis of the solid samples revealed the presence of magnesium hydride, the metal of the metal halide reactant and an alkali halide. A small amount of magnesium halide was also observed, but the starting halide salt was absent in the products. Liquid proton NMR revealed the hydrino hydride ion H-(1/4) upfield at -3.85 ppm and the corresponding molecular hydrino H2(1/4) at 1.23 ppm as predicted. Detailed calorimetric studies were used to determine the heat that was generated in more than 20 thermal energy releasing experiments. While the average energy was 1.95, the energy for the most energetic conventional exothermic chemical reaction was 6.5. The RU researchers assessed the possible reactions occurring along with their enthalpies, and compared the enthalpies of the anticipated reaction with the actual heat observed in small 5X reactors and a large 50X reactor. The presence of water in the starting materials was ruled out by temperature programmed desorption studies. The RU researchers successfully reproduced BLP tests which identified a novel form of hydrogen as a potential explanation of the additional heat evolved. It was concluded that the novel source of thermal heat generated in the chemical reactions cannot be explained in the confines of conventional modern chemistry. 7 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig.

  2. Utilization of renewable energy sources; Nutzung regenerativer Energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, W.

    1997-12-01

    The declaration issued by the German Federal Government confirmed the ambitious goal targeted in earlier statements, to cut back CO{sub 2} emissions by 25% by the year 2005, as compared to the reference level of the year 1990. There is agreement that the renewable energy sources will have to contribute their share for achieving this goal, as there are wind power, hydropower, biomass, solar energy conversion. However, experts are divided over the question of how much power can be drawn from these sources, and what economic framework conditions power generation from renewables will require. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Die Erklaerung der Bundesregierung hat in diesem Sinne das ehrgeizige Vorhaben festgeschrieben, die CO{sub 2}-Emissionen gegenueber dem Bezugsjahr 1990 bis zum Jahre 2005 um 25% zu verringern. Hierbei sollte die regenerative Energie - Wind, Wasser, Biomasse, Sonne - eine Rolle spielen, darueber wird kaum gestritten. Welchen mengenmaessigen Beitrag sie bei der Deckung des allgemeinen Energiebedarfs leisten kann und unter welchen oekonomischen Bedingungen sich dies vollziehen sollte, darueber scheiden sich allerdings die Geister. (orig.)

  3. Evaluation of Energy Use in Public Housing in Lagos, Nigeria: Prospects for Renewable Energy Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Isidore Chukwunweike Ezema; Abiodun O. Olotuah; Olabosipo I. Fagbenle

    2016-01-01

    Even though domestic energy can be from either renewable or non-renewable sources, the former is preferred because of its role in reducing both the operational energy intensity and carbon footprint. Given the positive role renewable energy plays in the energy mix, this paper examined the pattern of operational energy use with particular reference to the renewable and non-renewable energy content in medium and high density public residential buildings in Lagos, Nigeria. A survey research metho...

  4. Modeling of an autonomous microgrid for renewable energy sources integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serban, I.; Teodorescu, Remus; Guerrero, Josep M.; Marinescu, C.

    The frequency stability analysis in an autonomous microgrid (MG) with renewable energy sources (RES) is a continuously studied issue. This paper presents an original method for modeling an autonomous MG with a battery energy storage system (BESS) and a wind power plant (WPP), with the purpose of...

  5. Promotion of electricity from renewable energy sources in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Pozdnyakova, Liudmila

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this case was to study the development of energy projects from renewable energy sources and green energy promotion in Finland. A further aim was to establish whether the development takes purely economic turn and if there is a need for improvement of green energy promotion. The research was based on comparison and analysis of wind energy development in Finland, Germany and the Netherlands. Special attention was given to the development of promotional strategies and pol...

  6. Renewable energy sources. Systems engineering, economic efficiency, environmental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physical fundamentals and basic systems- engineering aspects of the main renewable-energy techniques applied in Germany are presented. The characteristics of renewable energy supplies are discussed. Solar thermal and geothermal techniques, and techniques for the generation of electrical energy from solar radiation (photovoltaics) are described. Parameters for an ecological and economic evaluation and for evaluation of the relevant energy management factors are discussed considering the present state and future development. Comparisons of the different techniques among each other and comparisons with techniques that utilize fossil energy sources allow one to evaluate the present and future chances and risks of renewable energy supplies in Germany considering the respective conventional techniques and the present situation of energy management. (orig./UA). 166 figs., 73 tabs

  7. Prospects of renewable-energy sources in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakistan, despite the enormous potential of its energy resources, remains energy- deficient and has to rely heavily on imports to satisfy its needs. Moreover, a very large part of the rural areas does not have the electrification facilities, because they are either too remote and/or too expensive to connect to the national grid. Pakistan obtains its energy requirements from a variety of traditional and commercial sources. Share of various primary energy-sources in energy-supply mix remained during last few years as oil: 43.5%, gas: 41.5%, LPG: 0.3%, coal: 4.5%, hydro-electricity: 9.2%, and nuclear electricity: 1.1%. The electric-power generation included 71.9% thermal, 25.2% hydel and 2.9% nuclear. While there is no prospect for Pakistan to reach self-sufficiency in hydrocarbons, a good option is the exploitation and utilization of the huge coal-reserves of Thar and the other renewable energy sources. Pakistan has wide spectrum of high potential renewable energy sources, conventional as well as non-conventional, which have not been adequately explored, exploited and developed. 'Thus, the primary energy supplies today are not enough to meet even the present demand. So, Pakistan, like other developing countries of the region, is facing a serious challenge of energy deficit. The development of the renewable energy sources can play an important role in meeting this challenge. Present observations, based on reviewing the geological setup, geographical position, climatological cycles and the agricultural/industrial/ urbanization activities, reveal that there are bright prospects for the exploitation of various renewable-energy sources, which include mega and macro/micro-hydel, biomass, biogas, wind, solar, co-generation, city and other solid wastes, utilization of low-head canal levels, sea wave and tide and geothermal energies etc. Technologically, all these renewable-energy sources are viable and consequently suited to efforts for poverty alleviation and cleaner environment in Pakistan. The country can be benefited by harnessing these options of energy-generation as substitute energy in areas where sources exist. As Pakistan is an agricultural country and major part of its population lives in the rural areas, the electricity generated by renewable sources will also improve rural life, thereby reducing the urban migration that is taxing the ability of cities to cope with their own environmental problems. (author)

  8. Hydropower: An Essential Partner of Renewable Energy Source

    OpenAIRE

    Lejeune, Andr; Hui, Samuel; Pirotton, Michel; Erpicum, Sbastien; Dewals, Benjamin(*)

    2010-01-01

    In 2006, the 17 percent of the worlds electricity that was generated from hydropower represented nearly 90 percent of renewable electricity generation worldwide; Hydropower is an important source of renewable energy and produces extremely small quantities of carbon dioxide. Between 1998 and 2008, renewable electricity production in the world rose from 2,794.9 to 3,762.6 TWh, i.e. an additional 967.6 TWh. As a final conclusion, despite hydropowers high initial costs, its long-term overall co...

  9. Small hydro power - a clean, efficient and renewable energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small hydro power (SHP) is a clean, sustainable, efficient and secure renewable energy source, combining the advantages of hydro power with those of decentralized power generation, but without the disadvantages of large-scale installations. SHP has a huge untapped potential, offering a very good alternative to conventional generation in Europe and the developing world. The greatest impetus for small hydro development is currently coming from Asia, including China and India. SHP offers one of the most practical and immediately realizable routes to expanding use of renewable energy sources

  10. Renewable sources of electric energy: state and prospects (Macedonia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limited reserves of fossil fuels, increased local and global environmental risks and recent technological achievements, have straightened the global importance of renewable sources of electric energy. This is even more relevant fore Macedonia, with the only fossil fuel reserves (lignite) to be nearly exhausted, the environment notably polluted and energy strategy absent. Concerning indigenous renewable sources of electricity, it is necessary to re-estimate their strategic role, to complete the input data for the resources, as well as to establish national programs supported by research and educational activities and international cooperation. (author). 7 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab., 3 ills

  11. Marketing of renewable energy sources in the region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    European Union has a leading role in the world due to its strong commitment to increase renewable energy sources as for the energy system change. Success of such long term project requires first of all a stable political framework, well-tailored support system of finances, technical background and administrative, and by this way it can overcome the obstacles existing in distorted energy markets. Regardless their high potential, renewable energy resources are insufficiently exploited in Europe. The aim of the contribution is to bring characteristic of particular sources of energy and technologies of exploitation in the geographic area Hnilec valley. We obtained detailed summary of positive and negative aspects and the reason of further survey in this field. Overall result of the thesis is the complex of knowledge of possibility of exploitation of sustainable sources of the energy in the region Hnilec valley and determination of the best possible variant of it. (authors)

  12. Electric power generation from renewable energy sources in Saxony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report sums up the potentials for electric energy generation from different renewable energy sources in Saxony. Natural potentials, technical potentials and economic potentials are considered separately. The established technical potential (without biomass) corresponds roughly to an electic power generation of 7400 GW hours annually. About 2/3 of this is wind energy, the rest is divided equally among hydro power and photo-voltaics. The harnessing of these potentials since 1990 is described in detail. Apart from hydro power, which has a long history as an energy source, wind energy, especially, is experiencing a very dynamic development. In 1997 still, wind power will outstrip hydro power as the most important renewable energy source in Saxony. But the further extension of these two energy sources meets increasingly with ecological objections or opposition. In 1996, about 1.3 per cent of the electric power consumed in Saxony came from renewable energy sources. It seems possible to increase this share to 5 per cent by the year 2000. (orig.)

  13. New and renewable sources of energy in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy being essential for almost all activities and fossil fuels depleting fast, it is necessary to generate it from non-conventional sources to meet the ever increasing demand and to replace conventional sources. The present review gives the current ongoing developments in the area of new and renewable energy resources, like solar energy, wind energy, geothermal energy, ocean energy, and biogas in India. An attempt has also been made to assess their potential and to project the future growth pattern through some mathematical models. (author). 11 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  14. Environmental benefit from renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper a comparative environmental analysis on the electricity production between wind energy system and coal power plant has been made. The methodologies used are the LCA and the Impact Patway Analysis (IPA) - a recent tool to assess the externalities of the energy systems. Both methodologies, even if in different amount, show a remarkable convenience in the production of electricity from wind systems

  15. ACCELERATING THE ADOPTION PROCESS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES AMONG SMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam Leloux

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available By 2020, intermittent renewable small scale energy sources (e.g. wind and solar energy are expected to represent about 17% of the EU’s total electricity consumption. All national overriding energy policy objectives are to ensure competitive, secure and sustainable energy for the economy and for society. Renewable energy, allied with energy efficiency, is often found crucial to meet these goals of secure sustainable and competitive energy supplies reducing dependency on expensive fossil imports and underpinning the move towards a low carbon economy while delivering green jobs to the economy. This all contributes to national competitiveness and the jobs and economic growth agenda. However, a straight forward implementation of renewable energy options is not easy, due to various barriers and obstacles. For most SMEs, the concept of generating their own renewable energy is still more of academic than genuine interest. In general, several barriers are experienced, such as high capital investments, slow return on investment, and the lack of knowledge of the benefits. There is a need for education on the benefits and drawbacks of sustainable energy, as well as a greater contribution to costs for this to work. In this paper we describe the intermediate outcomes of a European Partnership under the name of GREAT (Growing Renewable Energy Applications and Technologies, funded under the INTERREG IVB NWE Programme. GREAT aims to encourage communities and small to medium size enterprises (SMEs in Ireland, the United Kingdon, Belgium and The Netherlands to develop technological solutions for Smart Grid, Renewable Energy and Distributive Generation; research and develop policy issues for regulatory authorities and provide structured co-operation opportunities between SMEs and research institutes / technology developers. We developed GREAT spreadsheets to facilitate SMEs in each country to calculate the return-on-investment of renewable energy sources, such as solar panel installation, heat pumps and wind energy, generating electricity. We have a two-track approach: development of a tool to support SMEs in their decision making process about suitable and appropriate technologies and solutions, and research to understand the barriers and obstacles that hinder adoption and implementation of sustainable energy solutions. In this paper we introduce a tool which aims to support SMEs in their decision making process on renewable energy applications in the expectation that this will accelerate that process.

  16. Renewable Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Destouni, Georgia; Frank, Harry

    2010-01-01

    The Energy Committee of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has in a series of projects gathered information and knowledge on renewable energy from various sources, both within and outside the academic world. In this article, we synthesize and summarize some of the main points on renewable energy from the various Energy Committee projects and the Committees Energy 2050 symposium, regarding energy from water and wind, bioenergy, and solar energy. We further summarize the Energy Committees ...

  17. Connection of the Renewable Energy Sources in a Distribution Network.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prochzka, K.; Tlust, J.; Valouch, Viktor; Vybralk, F.

    Buenos Aires : ADEERA, 2006, s. 1-6. ISBN N. [International Congress on Electricity Distribution - CIDEL. Buenos Aires (AR), 27.11.2006-29.11.2006] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20570509 Keywords : renewable energy sources * distributed generators * wind power plant Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  18. Active Power Deficit Estimation in Presence of Renewable Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoseinzadeh, Bakhtyar; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth

    The inertia of the power system is reduced in the presence of Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) due to their low or even no contribution in the inertial response as it is inherently available in the Synchronous Machines (SMs). The total inertia of the grid becomes unknown or at least uncertain...

  19. Correlation between renew able energy source's energy output and load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The common problem to all renew energy sources (RESs) is the mismatch between their energy output and load demand. In remote areas, the solution of this problem is in general employing a small diesel-generator or a storage battery. But, the storage battery is a major cost element of RESs and small diesel-generator is unreliable and costly. Therefore, a proposed technique has been introduced in this work to determine correlation between the energy output of wind energy systems (WES) and isolated loads. solar photovoltaic power system (PVS) and two of energy storage facilities are used here for this correlation. The proposed technique includes also two models for optimizing the generation and costs of WES accompanied with PVS, storage battery and water storage (reservoir) to accommodate an isolated load. The proposed technique is applied with the dynamic programming to coordinate the energy output of a WES with residential and pumping load in remote area of egypt. The results of this application reveal that minimization of both capacity of the storage battery and the whole power system cost are obtained. 4 figs

  20. Promotion of Renewable Energy Sources in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Menges

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the important goals of European energy policy is to increase the share of renewable energy resources in the energy supply. The instruments used in the member states are not fully compatible with the rules of the European internal market. In a theoretical section, this paper analyses possible different instruments for promoting renewable energy. Some countries use feed in tariffs - using fixed prices to increase incentives for producers to invest into renewable energy, other countries use quantity-based systems like quotas that lead to a premium above the market price. In an institutional analysis we show that on the basis of effectiveness and efficiency considerations for the European Union, in the long-term quantity oriented systems of promotion are preferable if combined with elements of a capacity market. The main reason for this conclusion is that price-based systems cannot give enough incentives for backup capacities necessary to cope with intermittent production of renewable sources. In addition price-based systems violate the basic rules of the open internal European market because feed in tariffs are a considerable barrier for trade of renewable energy products.

  1. ECONOMICS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    S. R. Keshava

    2014-01-01

    Providing access to quality and sufficient energy to all households, individuals, sectors, and institutions at all times is the minimum condition for economic development. The climate change is gradually harming the environment, social and economic development of world economy. The major culprit fuelling the climate change is burning of fossil fuel. Hence, the power generation in India should not only aim at sufficient power generation, but also at generating clean, green and ...

  2. Report on power consumption from renewable energy sources in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents an analysis of the realization of the national objectives of domestic consumption of electricity of renewable origin. Conformably with article 3 of the European directive no 2001/77/CE from September 27, 2001, it takes into account the climatic factors susceptible to interfere with the realization of the objectives and indicates to what extent the actions implemented are conformable with the national commitment of France in the domain of climatic change. Content: national objectives and tools for the sustained development of renewable energy sources (programs, investments, financial incentives, environmental policy), power consumption of renewable origin in 2004 (demand factors, evolution of renewable power generation between 1997 and 2004), 2005 highlights. (J.S.)

  3. The role of the renewable energy sources in the Bulgarian fuel energy balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure of the gross energy consumption of primary and renewable energy sources is given. The expected part of the renewable energy sources in the country' fuel-energy balance is discussed. The possibilities for use of biomass, hydro energy, geothermal, solar and wind energy in Bulgaria are briefly presented

  4. On the economic and ecological assessment of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper suggests introducing a quality rating for an assessment of different substitution strategies based on the criteria energy source, conversion technique, climate, and consumption pattern. Various reference quantities (costs, energy requirement for construction and during operation) are discussed. In an ecologically oriented economy the overall costs (installation, operating and recycling costs) turn out to be the most important reference quantity. It can be shown that thermal utilisation of solar and wind energy deserve the highest quality ratings of all renewable energy sources. (orig./HW)

  5. Marine energies, the new wave of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydro-kinetic power, wave energy, thermal energy of seawater, all these techniques have a low notoriety for the moment but are progressively gaining ground thanks to technological progress, to public support, but first of all to the mobilization of companies and regions in concern. This article shows that France is still within the time to build up its renewable marine energies industry

  6. Energy Efficiency and Importance of Renewable Energy Sources in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skapare, I.; Kreslins, A.

    2007-10-01

    The main goal of Latvian energy policy is to ensure safe and environmentally friendly long-term energy supply at cost-effective prices, contributing to enhance competitiveness, and to ensure safe energy transit. The Latvian Parliament approved an Energy Efficiency Strategy in 2000. Its objective is to decrease energy consumption per unit of GDP by 25% by 2010. Awareness raising, implementation of standards and economic incentives for self financing are the main instruments to increase energy efficiency, mentioned in the strategy. Latvia, as many other European Union member states, is dependent on the import of primary energy resources. The Latvian Renewable Energy strategy is still under development. The only recent study on RES was developed in the framework of a PHARE program in year 2000: "Renewable energy resource program", where three main objectives for a future RES strategy were proposed: 1. To increase the use of wood waste and low value wood and forest residues. 2. To improve efficiency of combustion technologies and to replace outdated plants. 3. To increase the use of renewables in Combined Heat and Power plants (CHP). Through the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership, partners will develop a set of new shared activities, and coordinate and strengthen existing efforts in this area.

  7. Renewable Energy Sources in International and EU Legal Regulations

    OpenAIRE

    R?a Miklaszewska

    2013-01-01

    The article presents issues relating to international and EU regulations in the field of renewable energy sources (RES). It discusses in a comprehensive manner the most important acts specific for the both regulatory platforms. Also presented are the most important objectives and premises, which these acts implement. The RES development, at both the international and Community levels, is presented in the context of activities undertaken within the energy policy framework at each of the concer...

  8. Modeling of an autonomous microgrid for renewable energy sources integration

    OpenAIRE

    Serban, I.; TEODORESCU, Remus; Guerrero, Josep M.; C. MARINESCU

    2009-01-01

    The frequency stability analysis in an autonomous microgrid (MG) with renewable energy sources (RES) is a continuously studied issue. This paper presents an original method for modeling an autonomous MG with a battery energy storage system (BESS) and a wind power plant (WPP), with the purpose of frequency stability analysis. A reduced order model is developed, considering only the dominant elements in the frequency control loop. The model's parameters are identified from experimental results,...

  9. Evaluation of Economic, Energy-Environmental and Societal Effects of Non-Renewable Energy Substitution with Renewable Energy Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Joachim Kozio?; Barbara Mendecka

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of effects of non-renewable energy (reference fuel) substitution with renewable energy sources of interest (RES) was conducted with the use of social indicator for each effect arising from production of a given utility product in communal and living power industry. The aforementioned effect may be of energy-environmental, economic or social nature, etc. This means it affects elements of living standard ratios. Reference fuel should be the most common one in the area in terms o...

  10. Electrochemical energy storage for renewable sources and grid balancing

    CERN Document Server

    Moseley, Patrick T

    2014-01-01

    Electricity from renewable sources of energy is plagued by fluctuations (due to variations in wind strength or the intensity of insolation) resulting in a lack of stability if the energy supplied from such sources is used in 'real time'. An important solution to this problem is to store the energy electrochemically (in a secondary battery or in hydrogen and its derivatives) and to make use of it in a controlled fashion at some time after it has been initially gathered and stored. Electrochemical battery storage systems are the major technologies for decentralized storage systems and hydrogen

  11. New renewable source of energy from municipal solid waste plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, Moinuddin; Zaman, Ashiquz; Mamunor Rashid, Mohammad

    2010-09-15

    Renewable energy plays an important role in the supply of energy. When energy sources are used, the demand for fossil fuels is reduced. Emissions from the evaporation and combustion of these traditional fossil fuels contributing to a range of environmental and health problems, causing poor air quality, and emitting greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming. Alternative fuel created from domestic sources has been proposed as a solution to these problems and many alternative fuels are being developed based on solar, wind and biomass. Natural State Research has developed different alternative hydrocarbon fuel produced from abundant waste plastic materials.

  12. Non-renewable and intermittent renewable energy sources: friends and foes?

    OpenAIRE

    Edmond BARANES; Jacqmin, Julien; Poudou, Jean-Christophe

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the links between non-renewable and intermittent renewable energy sources in the production of electricity. We argue that the relationship between the price of natural gas and investments in solar and wind capacity is represented by a bell-shaped curve, as opposed to being linear. Hence, for relatively low natural gas prices, the two modes of production are substitutes. After a price threshold is reached, the two are complementary. A theoretical model explains this as the t...

  13. Potential utilization of renewable energy sources and the related problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estonia's most promising resource of renewable energy is the natural biomass. In 1994 the use of wood and waste wood formed about 4.9% of the primary energy supply, the available resource will provide for a much higher share of biomass in the future primary energy supply, reaching 9-14%. Along with the biomass, wind energy can be considered the largest resource. On the western and northern coast of Estonia, in particular, on the islands, over several years, the average wind speed has been 5 m/s. Based on the assumption that the wind speed exceeds 6 m/s in the area that forms ca 1.5% of the Estonian territory (the total area of Estonia is about 45,000 km 2 ) and is 5 - 6 m/s on about 15% of the total area, using 0.5 MW/km2 for the installation density, very approximate estimates permit to state that the maximum hypothetical installed capacity could be 3750 MW. It might be useful to make use of the current maximum 50 MW, which could enable the generation of approximately 70 - 100 GW h of energy per year. Although the solar energy currently has no practical use in Estonia and the resource of hydro power is also insignificant (only ca 1% of the electricity consumption), these two resources of renewable energy hold future promise in view of the use of local resources and that of environmental protection. It is not reasonable to regard renewable energy sources as a substitute for the traditional oil shale-based power engineering in Estonia. But, to some extent, local energy demand can be covered by renewable energy sources. Thus, they can contribute to the reduction of the greenhouse gases emissions in Estonia

  14. SINGLE - PHASE INVERTER CONTROL TECHNIQUES FOR INTERFACING RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.Nallasivam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel current control technique is proposed to control power flow from a renewable energy source feeding a microgrid system through a three - phase parallel - connected inverter. The parallel - connected inverter ensures that the power flow from the grid with low - current total harmonic distortion even in the presence of nonlinear load. The renewable energy sources ar e paralleled, and the average of this constant supply is given to Booster circuit and is used to improve the power level of renewable energy sources. The current controlled voltage source inverter is used to convert DC supply into AC supply. The CCVSI is c ontrolled by PWM techniques and the current flows are controlled. A p q theory - based approach is used to find the reference current of the parallel - connected converter and the stability of the proposed controller is ensured by direct Lyapunov method. By ap plying this concept, selected harmonic can be eliminated, and the output voltage THD can be improved. The proposed project is to be simulated by using MATLAB and the results are to be compared with experimental setup. The PIC microcontroller is to be used for generating required pulses to the parallel inverter.

  15. A Flexible Power Electronics Configuration for Coupling Renewable Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia Filippini

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A combination of series, parallel and multilevel power electronics has been investigated as a potential interface for two different types of renewable energy sources and in order to reach higher power levels. Renewable energy sources are typically dispersed in a territory, and sources, like wind and solar, allow small to medium-scale generation of electricity. The configuration investigated in this article aims at adapting the coupling solution to the specific generation characteristics of the renewable energy source to make it fit the electrical network. The configuration consists of a combination of three-phase multilevel converters and single-phase inverters, which are designed to provide flexibility, high power quality and high efficiency. A detailed analysis and simulation is performed to identify the properties in conjunction with the electrical grid requirements and the potential challenges encountered during operation. An optimized operation example of wind generation combined with solar PV generation is presented to exemplify the flexibility and benefits of the proposed configuration.

  16. Impact of Renewable Energy Sources Penetration in a Microgrid

    OpenAIRE

    N. Ravi,; Y. Sumanth

    2014-01-01

    Recently, several types of Distributed Generators (DGs) have been connected together to form a small power system called a microgrid (MG). MG usually operates in normal connecting mode and is connected to the main grid. This paper presents the performance enhancement of microgrid with RES (Renewable Energy Sources) penetration in grid connected and islanded operation, and also shows the effect of wind and solar penetration individually and as well as coupled along with backup ...

  17. Sustainability of hydropower as source of renewable and clean energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydroelectric energy has been in recent times placed as an important future source of renewable and clean energy. The advantage of hydropower as a renewable energy is that it produces negligible amounts of greenhouse gases, it stores large amounts of electricity at low cost and it can be adjusted to meet consumer demand. This noble vision however is becoming more challenging due to rapid urbanization development and increasing human activities surrounding the catchment area. Numerous studies have shown that there are several contributing factors that lead towards the loss of live storage in reservoir, namely geology, ground slopes, climate, drainage density and human activities. Sediment deposition in the reservoir particularly for hydroelectric purposes has several major concerns due to the reduced water storage volume which includes increase in the risk of flooding downstream which directly effects the safety of human population and properties, contributes to economic losses not only in revenue for power generation but also large capital and maintenance cost for reservoir restorations works. In the event of functional loss of capabilities of a hydropower reservoir as a result of sedimentation or siltation could lead to both economical and environmental impact. The objective of this paper is aimed present the importance of hydropower as a source of renewable and clean energy in the national energy mix and the increasing challenges of sustainability.

  18. Training on women and renewable sources of energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duenas Loza, M

    1997-01-01

    The training package developed by the International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women in 1989 focuses on women and energy. The Institute conducts training activities using collected, analyzed and disseminated information and documentation, as well as identification of critical research and training activities and promotion of integrated issues on women and energy policies, programs and projects. Previous training experiences identified the inefficient quality of training offered to community members, technical staff and technical agencies, with more emphasis on the technical skills instead on the managerial, socio-organizational and environmental aspects. The creation of a multimedia modular training material provides an association between the issues of women, New and Renewable Sources of Energy (NRSE) and environmental aspects necessary for the strengthening of national institutions, promotion of socioeconomical and technically feasible renewable technologies, and awareness building, information and communication enhancement. The package covers 1) overview of the UN activities on NRSE; 2) Women's Position in the Energy Sector; 3) NRSE Project and Program design and implementation; 4) relevant NRSE characteristics and technology systems; 5) education and training activities in NRSE projects. This training package is designed to contribute a new approach in the organization and management of NRSE through integration of women's needs and increase awareness and capabilities of planners, officials and experts. In addition, several training seminars were conducted during 1989-91, which focused on the relationship between women and renewable energy sources through the application of participatory and self-reliant techniques. PMID:12157793

  19. Economic costs and benefits of the renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work it has been analysed the potential diffusion of renewable energy sources and co-generation in the Italian market on the basis of the level of maturation of the different technologies, predicted market growth and environmental impacts associated to them. A sensitivity analysis on external costs generated by global climate changes has allowed everybody to assess how possible errors in estimating the potential impact of greenhouse gasses can affect the estimate of the economic performances of different scenarios of energetic development. On the basis of these considerations, it can be outlined a potential doubling of energy production by renewable energies in the next 10 years, with specific reference of small hydroelectric, biogass and eolic power plants

  20. Can renewable energy sources satiate Slovakia's future energy needs?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomis, Igor; Koval, Peter; Janicek, Frantisek; Darula, Ivan

    2010-09-15

    The paper examines the options for replacing the current energy mix of non-renewable, conventional energy sources solely with renewable sources in the long term within the context of the Slovak environment, possibly combined with nuclear energy in the 50-year horizon. Vital needs are outlined in household energy consumption and energy consumption for industrial and transportation purposes to fulfil in order for Slovakia to become independent of foreign sources in energy supplies.

  1. The share of renewable energy in the EU. Country Profiles. Overview of Renewable Energy Sources in the Enlarged European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The promotion of renewable energy has an important role to play in addressing the growing dependence on energy imports in Europe and in tackling climate change. Since 1997, the Union has been working towards the ambitious target of a 12% share of renewable energy in gross inland consumption by 2010. In 1997, the share of renewable energy was 5.4%; by 2001 it had reached 6%. This Staff Working Document gives an overview of the different situations of renewable energy sources in the European Union. It includes part of the formal report that the Commission is required to make under Article 3 of Directive 2001/77/EC on electricity from renewable energy sources, and it completes the overall picture with information at a country level on the heat produced from renewable energies and biofuels in the transport sector. This Staff Working Document complements the Communication on 'The share of Renewable Energy sources in the EU'. Data is based on different sources. Firstly, on the reports from Member States on national progress in achieving the targets on electricity from renewable energy sources. Secondly, on a study launched by the Commission on the evolution of renewable energy sources. And thirdly, on a variety of sources like the European Barometer of renewable energies, data from the industry, etc. With the enlargement of the European Union, the new Member States are required to adopt the RES-E Directive (renewable energy sources for electricity) by 1 May 2004. In the accession treaty, national indicative targets are set and the overall renewable electricity target for the enlarged Union will therefore be 21% of gross electricity consumption by 2010. The Commission has the legal obligation to report on the degree of achievement of new Member States' targets by 2006. Although it is too early to assess RES-policy in the new Member States due to very recently adopted regulations, this document also includes national information on the States now joining the European Union. This Staff Working Document aims to give an overall picture of the situation and the potentials of renewable energy sources in the enlarged European Union.

  2. Renewable energy sources cost benefit analysis and prospects for Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In light of Italy's over-dependency on imported oil, and due to this nation's commitment to the pursuit of the strict environmental protection policies of the European Communities, ENEL (the Italian National Electricity Board) has become actively involved in research efforts aimed at the commercialization of renewable energy sources - photovoltaic, wind, biomass, and mini-hydraulic. Through the use of energy production cost estimates based on current and near- future levels of technological advancement, this paper assesses prospects for the different sources. The advantages and disadvantages of each source in its use as a suitable complementary energy supply satisfying specific sets of constraints regarding siting, weather, capital and operating costs, maintenance, etc., are pointed out. In comparing the various alternatives, the paper also considers environmental benefits and commercialization feasibility in terms of time and outlay

  3. Research and development as contribution of the Renewable Energy Sources Centre to the wind energy utilization in Slovakia

    OpenAIRE

    Radim Rybr; Duan Kudelas

    2007-01-01

    The expected development of renewable energy sources utilization was not reached in last years in Slovakia. This is caused by some barriers. These barriers decrease the easiness of investments into the Renewable energy sources utilization. We recognize specific barriers for each of renewable energy sources and general barriers for all renewable energy sources. Activities of the Renewable Energy Sources Centre help to eliminate both specific and general barriers in Slovakia. The main activitie...

  4. Consideration on a Low Power Solar Energy Renewable Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Marusca

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the contribution of theauthors regarding the implementation of a low powersolar energy renewable source. To optimize theconversion efficiency of the solar irradiance intoelectrical energy an embedded system was designed. Theembedded system can accomplish the maximum powerpoint tracking by evaluation the output voltage andcurrent of the photovoltaic panels and calculate a propercommand for the DC-DC converter of the renewablesource. The key device in this system is a midrange 8 bitmicrocontroller that consists of acquisition, commandand control integrated hardware resources.

  5. 48 CFR 217.175 - Multiyear contracts for electricity from renewable energy sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... electricity from renewable energy sources. 217.175 Section 217.175 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... renewable energy sources. (a) The head of the contracting activity may enter into a contract for a period not to exceed 10 years for the purchase of electricity from sources of renewable energy, as that...

  6. New impetus to the economy through renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper shows that the renewable energy sources offer a unique chance: to replace the 'deus ex machina' philosophy by the 'deus ex sole' approach. The reasons why the energy industry refuses to consider exploitation of renewable energy sources are quite obvious. Any deep-cutting change in energy policy priorities would imply likewise deep cuts in the utilities' returns from investments made for existing, conventional power generation systems and transmission infrastructure, which would entail losses in a branch of industry never seen before. It is high time, however, to demand a basic switch in policy and to pave the way for solar energy by appropriate political and economic incentives now, as Germany as one of the highly industrialised countries must not turn a blind eye to its responsability for the global environment. Even if there were not the risk of a global environmental crisis as a consequence of current resource squandering, good economic reasoning and a sense of responsability for the developing economies of the world be reason enough to alter the energy policy approach without hesitation. (orig./CB)

  7. Renewable energy sources for electricity generation in selected developed countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this report are to analyze the present status and to assess the future of selected renewable energy sources (RE) other than hydropower, i.e. wind, solar, biomass, tidal and geothermal, already in use or expected to be used for electricity generation. The report focuses on grid connected technologies leaving stand-alone power plants unconsidered. This report provides recent information on environmental impacts, costs and technical potentials related to the implementation of electricity technologies using these energy sources. The study is limited to six OECD countries, i.e. Australia, the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. The situation in other OECD countries is addressed where appropriate, but no comprehensive information is provided. Nevertheless, efforts are made to determine the technical potential of the renewable energy sources for ''Rest of OECD''. The time horizons in this report are 2010 and 2030. While detailed information is provided for the period until 2010, the technical potential for 2030 is discussed only qualitatively. Scenario analysis and the design of national energy and electric systems assuming different sets of objectives and boundary conditions are outside the scope of this study. Nevertheless, the information given in this report should provide input data for such a systems analysis. All the information given in this report is based on literature surveys. Any figure given is contingent on the fact that it has appeared in a paper or a publicly available technical report. 251 refs, figs and tabs

  8. A potential of utilizing renewable energy sources and the state support in Slovakia

    OpenAIRE

    Lvia Bodonsk; Patrcia Repask

    2007-01-01

    The renewable energy sources are domestic sources of energy that help to enhance the safety of energy supplies and the diversification of energy sources. The utilization of such sources complies with the environmental acceptability requirement and leads to a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. The renewable energy is proved to be commercially viable for a growing list of consumers and uses. The renewable energy technologies provide many benefits that go well beyond the energy alone. More a...

  9. Renewable energy source from pyrolysis of solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaysia is blessed with a significant renewable energy resource base such as solar energy and biomass. To continue with its industrial development, Malaysia must manages energy supply its c prudently in order to avoid becoming an energy importer supply. Most significantly renewable energy from biomass such as rice husks, wood wastes, oil palm wastes, rubber wastes and other agricultural wastes. Beside rice and timber. Malaysia produces a huge amount of palm oil and natural rubber. These generate a significant amount of solid wastes in the forms of oil palm shell and rubber. These wastes are producing pollution and emission problems in Malaysia which is causing an environmental issue. Besides energy is not recovered efficiently from these waste resources. From the elemental composition and thermogravimetric studies of the wastes, it appeared that the wastes could be used as an alternative value-added source of energy. For this purpose a fast pyrolysis of 300 mi-n lone, and 50 mm diameter stainless-steel reactor was designed and fabricated. The grounded, sieved and dried solid feed particles underwent pyrolysis reactor at moderate temperature and were converted into pyrolytic oil, solid char and cas. Oil and char were collected while the cas was flared. The oil was characterised by GC-MS technique. Detailed analysis of the oil showed that there was no concentration of biologically active polycyclic aromatic species in the oil. The fuel properties of the derived oils were also analysed and compared to diesel fuel. (Author)

  10. Plant residues as renewable energy sources in Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aladjadjian, A.G. [Agricultural Univ., Plovdiv (Bulgaria)

    1996-12-31

    The relatively large part of arable (38%) and forest (35%) land in Bulgaria is the reason for searching for ways of processing plant residues for energy. The total sown area in Bulgaria increased in the past 5 years because of changes in Bulgarian economics. The total forest area changed more slowly. The energy equivalent of forestry residues per year in Bulgaria is about 4 PJ or 99,000 tOE (metric tons, hereafter tonnes, of oil equivalent, 1 tOE = 7.3 barrels of OE). The corresponding value of agricultural residues per year is about 81 PJ or 1,900,000 tOE. The utilization of plant residues as a renewable energy source is a good prospect but it requires some investment. The price of energy from biomass is higher than that of nuclear energy. This contradiction must be resolved by some changes in tax policy in Bulgaria.

  11. A Stochastic Calculus for Network Systems with Renewable Energy Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Kui; Marinakis, Dimitri

    2011-01-01

    We consider the performance modeling and evaluation of network systems powered with renewable energy sources such as solar and wind energy. Such energy sources largely depend on environmental conditions, which are hard to predict accurately. As such, it may only make sense to require the network systems to support a soft quality of service (QoS) guarantee, i.e., to guarantee a service requirement with a certain high probability. In this paper, we intend to build a solid mathematical foundation to help better understand the stochastic energy constraint and the inherent correlation between QoS and the uncertain energy supply. We utilize a calculus approach to model the cumulative amount of charged energy and the cumulative amount of consumed energy. We derive upper and lower bounds on the remaining energy level based on a stochastic energy charging rate and a stochastic energy discharging rate. By building the bridge between energy consumption and task execution (i.e., service), we study the QoS guarantee under...

  12. 17% of Renewable Energy Sources at competitive costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Italian plan of financial incentives for the renewable energy sources (Res) is mainly addressed to the enhancements of technologies for electricity production, shifting onto the users of the electric system a large share of the costs of the stimulation policy. This approach is not efficient however and it will imply very high costs for achieving the 17% Res figure agreed in the European seat. The paper outlines the feasibility of living up to the undertaken commitment at very lower costs promoting the diffusion of Res for heat generation instead of electricity.

  13. Measures to remove impediments to better utilization. Renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The utilization of renewable energy sources meets with a number of obstacles created in particular by economic framework conditions, regulatory provisions, lengthy administrative procedures, insufficient information, and to some part also to the reluctance of bankers and utilities. This is why an action programme was put underway by the Forum fuer Zukunftsenergien, together with the Berlin-based DIW (German economic research institute) and the Stuttgart-based DLR (German aerospace research institute), financed from public funds of the Federal Ministry of Economics. Under this programme, almost 900 operators of systems for electricity generation from wind power, hydropower, biomass, ambient heat, solar thermal energy and by photovoltaic conversion have been interviewed. Based on the information obtained, the article reveals the existing impediments and proposed action for overcoming the obstacles. (orig.)

  14. Fuel Cells for Balancing Fluctuation Renewable Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    In the perspective of using fuel cells for integration of fluctuating renewable energy the SOFCs are the most promising. These cells have the advantage of significantly higher electricity efficiency than competing technologies and fuel flexibility. Fuel cells in general also have the advantage of......% of the electricity and with the best measures for improving flexibility have already been taken, making fuels via electrolysis is one of the alternatives to integrate more renewable energy. Creating the road map to a 100% renewable energy systems require difficult choices between balancing...

  15. Perspectives of microalgal biofuels as a renewable source of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Microalgae offer solution of wastewater treatment, CO2 sequestration, and energy crises. • Microalgal biofuel is renewable, nontoxic and environmentally friendly option. • Integration of wastewater treatment with biofuels production has made them more cost effective. • This article details out the potential production process and benefits of microalgal biofuels. - Abstract: Excessive use of fossil fuels to satisfy our rapidly increasing energy demand has created severe environmental problems, such as air pollution, acid rain and global warming. Biofuels are a potential alternative to fossil fuels. First- and second-generation biofuels face criticism due to food security and biodiversity issues. Third-generation biofuels, based on microalgae, seem to be a plausible solution to the current energy crisis, as their oil-producing capability is many times higher than that of various oil crops. Microalgae are the fastest-growing plants and can serve as a sustainable energy source for the production of biodiesel and several other biofuels by conversion of sunlight into chemical energy. Biofuels produced from microalgae are renewable, non-toxic, biodegradable and environment friendly. Microalgae can be grown in open pond systems or closed photobioreactors. Microalgal biofuels are a potential means to keep the development of human activities in synchronization with the environment. The integration of wastewater treatment with biofuel production using microalgae has made microalgal biofuels more attractive and cost effective. A biorefinery approach can also be used to improve the economics of biofuel production, in which all components of microalgal biomass (i.e., proteins, lipids and carbohydrates) are used to produce useful products. The integration of various processes for maximum economic and environmental benefits minimizes the amount of waste produced and the pollution level. This paper presents an overview of various aspects associated with biofuel production from microalgae, including the selection and isolation of microalgal species, various cultivation and harvesting techniques as well as methods for their subsequent conversion into biofuels

  16. Current state and utilization of nontraditional and renewable energy sources in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Szymańska, Daniela; Chodkowska-Miszczuk, Justyna

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to analyse and assess the use of renewable energy sources in the Polish energy balance for the period 2006-2010. In Poland, in according to the Energy Law (1997), renewable energy sources are sources using the processing power: wind energy, solar radiation, geothermal energy, waves power, energy of currents and tides, energy of river gradient, biogas and biomass. Biomass could be divided into forest biomass, agricultural biomass (mainly energy crops, but also consumer ...

  17. Active Power Deficit Estimation in Presence of Renewable Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoseinzadeh, Bakhtyar; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da

    2015-01-01

    The inertia of the power system is reduced in the presence of Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) due to their low or even no contribution in the inertial response as it is inherently available in the Synchronous Machines (SMs). The total inertia of the grid becomes unknown or at least uncertain following outage of SMs during cascading events. Therefore, the active power deficit following the disturbance/s may not be properly estimated by existing conventional System Frequency Response (SFR) methods in which the total inertia of the power system is required to be known. In this paper, the actual active power deficit is estimated independent of grid inertia, type and number of occurred cascading events after each Load Shedding (LS) stage using shed load amount, pre-shed and post-shed Rate of Change of Frequency (ROCOF). Numerical simulations conducted on IEEE 39 bus standard test system in DigSilent PowerFactory software demonstrates the accuracy of the proposed method.

  18. Hybrid Design of Electric Power Generation Systems Including Renewable Sources of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingfeng; Singh, Chanan

    2008-01-01

    With the stricter environmental regulations and diminishing fossil-fuel reserves, there is now higher emphasis on exploiting various renewable sources of energy. These alternative sources of energy are usually environmentally friendly and emit no pollutants. However, the capital investments for those renewable sources of energy are normally high,

  19. International Standards to Develop and Promote Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    International Standards are a powerful tool for disseminating new technologies and good practices, developing global markets and supporting the harmonization of government policies on energy efficiency and renewable sources on a global scale.

  20. AC Motor Drive Fed by Renewable Energy Sources with PWM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pavalam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this fast aproaching nature of technology the ned of Electricity becomes a mandatory in developing technology. The ned of Electricity increases the power demand where the power demand met by the conventional sources of energy has some disadvantage of polution, this disadvantage can be decreased by the use of the Renewable energy sources like Fuel Cel and available solar energy. When a FUEL cel produces AC power, basicaly two stages are required for conversion first a bosting stage and second is inversion stage. In this paper the Bost inverter topology is achieved where in the conventional methods the normal DC - AC power conversion method is used where as in this paper the PWM based DC - AC inverter has ben used which is useful in reducing the harmonics in the output of the Inverter. The voltage controled output is produced in the bost inverter the curent controled output is taken from dc-dc bidirectional converter. The Fuel cel canot be relied as a whole so a Solar PV module is conected acros the Load so while the Sunlight days the PV arays generate power and in the night time the Fuel cel is used to generate power for the load. Since, the Fuel cel and PV arays can generate power in Partial load they are prefered than any other sources. When the output from the Solar PV aray is low or when the sunlight available is not eficient in generating the power a automatic switch over is provided in the junction betwen the Solar PV aray and Fuel cel so that whenever it hapens the switch automaticaly switch over to another source. The simulation results are presented to confirm the operational feature of the proposed system.

  1. The EIB and the financing of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a financial institution o the European Union, The European Investment Bank is working and to add substance to the commitments made by the Union and its Member States at Kyoto and subsequently at Johannesburg. Over the last two years, renewable energy sources have attracted funding of more than 1.1 billion from the bank, equivalent to 14% of the total loans granted to the energy sector 7.8 billion), compared to an average o 7.9 % over the previous five years. In order to obviate the detrimental characteristics presented by these investments from a financial viewpoint, in March, 2004 the bank set up a 'CCFF' (Climate Change Financing Facility) of 500 million. Additionally, along with the other financial institutions, the EIB is looking into he possibility of supporting the establishment of European carbon credit trading hubs. Where the economic assessment of these projects is concerned, the bank has decided to take account of external environmental and technological factors when calculating the internal profitability levels for renewable energy projects. Moreover, in order to deal with the problem of who exactly should bear the related risks, the bank is able to offer structured financing. For projects located outside the European Union, venture capital and technical assistance instruments make it possible to promote the emergence of innovative projects. Although we are witnessing the sustained growth of loans from the EIB in this sector, additional efforts still need to be made by the legislature in order to strengthen the framework for such projects including emissions quotas, mechanisms for ensuring the solvency of environmental on-costs and international trading rules adapted to take account of the possible distortion of competition, etc. (author)

  2. Dynamic energy management employing renewable energy sources in IP over DWDM networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xin; Phillips, Chris; Wang, Jiayuan; Ruepp, Sarah Renée

    management framework employing renewable energy sources in IP over DWDM core networks. The main concept is to combine infrastructure sleeping and virtual router migration to improve the network energy efficiency. By using the energy source information provided by the smart grid, the nodes that are powered by...... a renewable energy source are selected, where possible, for hosting virtual routers during off-peak hours. Therefore, the energy consumption and CO2 emissions are both reduced. A heuristic algorithm based on a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm is proposed to select appropriate physical...

  3. The Role of CHP Plants in the Integration of Fluctuating Renewable Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    The paper is an Expression of Interest to the European Commission about renewable energy sources and their integration in a energy system......The paper is an Expression of Interest to the European Commission about renewable energy sources and their integration in a energy system...

  4. Waste-to-energy: A way from renewable energy sources to sustainable development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kothari, Richa [Babasaheb BhimRao Ambedkar University, Lucknow, U.P. (India); Tyagi, V.V.; Pathak, Ashish [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, 110016 (India)

    2010-12-15

    Nowadays, energy is key consideration in discussions of sustainable development. So, sustainable development requires a sustainable supply of clean and affordable renewable energy sources that do not cause negative societal impacts. Energy sources such as solar radiation, the winds, waves and tides are generally considered renewable and, therefore, sustainable over the relatively long term. Wastes and biomass fuels are usually viewed as sustainable energy sources. Wastes are convertible to useful energy forms like hydrogen (biohydrogen), biogas, bioalcohol, etc., through waste-to-energy technologies. In this article, possible future energy utilization patterns and related environmental impacts, potential solutions to current environmental problems and renewable energy technologies and their relation to sustainable development are discussed with great emphasis on waste-to-energy routes (WTERs). (author)

  5. Renewable energy sources in Germany, 1990 through 2007; Erneuerbare Energien in Deutschland 1990 bis 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehme, Dieter; Duerrschmidt, Wolfhart (comps.)

    2009-11-15

    This brochure presents a picture of the rapid development of renewable energy sources in the years between 1990 and 2007. It shows the rapid growth and informs on the importance of renewable energy sources for climate protection. The new CDU/FDP government headed by Angela Merkel stressed its intention to develop the potential of renewable energy sources. Apart from the effect of higher energy efficiency, this will also help Germany to make an ambitious contribution to climate protection world-wide. Renewable energy sources are to provide the biggest share of power supply in the future. By 2020, the EEG (German Renewables Act) envisages at least a 30 percent share for renewable energy sources as an intermediate goal. In the field of heat supply, at least 14 percent are envisaged fro 2020. (orig./RHM)

  6. Evaluation of Energy Use in Public Housing in Lagos, Nigeria: Prospects for Renewable Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidore Chukwunweike Ezema

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Even though domestic energy can be from either renewable or non-renewable sources, the former is preferred because of its role in reducing both the operational energy intensity and carbon footprint. Given the positive role renewable energy plays in the energy mix, this paper examined the pattern of operational energy use with particular reference to the renewable and non-renewable energy content in medium and high density public residential buildings in Lagos, Nigeria. A survey research method was adopted for primary data collection while data analysis was by descriptive statistics. The study found that renewable energy use in the residential units is very low. In contrast, there was high dependence of the occupants on non-renewable direct fuel combustion through the use of fossil fuel-driven privately-owned electricity generators for electricity supply as a result of the inadequate supply from the national grid. In addition to the relatively high operational energy intensity observed in the studied buildings, the findings have implications for the safety, health and wellbeing of the building occupants as well as for carbon emissions from the buildings and for overall environmental sustainability. Recommendations to increase renewable energy use in new buildings and as retrofits in existing buildings were made.

  7. Comparison study between a Renewable Energy Supply System and a supergrid for achieving 100% from renewable energy sources in Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xydis, George

    2013-01-01

    Numerous efforts have been done for achieving the maximum penetration of renewable energy sources (RESs) in the autonomous grids of Greek islands, which never exceeded 10%, despite the exceptional wind and solar potential. Large fluctuations on demand during summer, winter, and 24-h period in...... the stochastic behavior of wind energy to the demand, to provide the system with guaranteed power. This Wind–Hydro Plants in combination with the most adequate RES forming an Renewable Energy Supply System (RESS), increase further the economical penetration of RES into autonomous grids up to 90% or...

  8. New and renewable energy sources and the ecological problem. Developments from the Republic of Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper focuses the renewable energy sources developments in Argentina. Every one of sources are described in details, including environmental aspects. The problems with energy demand, mainly in rural areas, are also presented. 9 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Power Quality Enhancement of Distributed Network fed with Renewable Energy Sources based on Interfacing Inverter

    OpenAIRE

    Mr.R.Murali,; Mr. P.Nagasekhara Reddy,; Mrs. B. Asha Kiran,

    2013-01-01

    Renewable energy technologies such asphotovoltaics, solar thermal electricity using dish-stirlingsystems, and wind turbine power are environmentallyadvantageous sources of energy that can be considered forelectric power generation. The expenses of renewable energytechnologies have decreased in recent years, so that anever-increasing number of applications can be economicallyjustified by utilities. The integration of generation fromrenewable energy sources into electric power distributionsyste...

  10. Renewable and nuclear sources of energy reduce the share of fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper author presents a statistical data use of nuclear energy, renewable sources and fossil fuels in the share of energy production in the Slovak Republic. It is stated that use of nuclear energy and renewable sources reduce the share of fossil fuels.

  11. Renewable and nuclear sources of energy decreases of share of fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper author presents a statistical data use of nuclear energy, renewable sources and fossil fuels in the share of energy production in the Slovak Republic. It is stated that use of nuclear energy and renewable sources decreases of share of fossil fuels.

  12. Valuation of environmental and societal trade-offs of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Use of renewable energy sources is one solution to decrease green house gas emissions and the use of polluting fossil fuels. Renewables differ in their environmental and societal impacts, and to design sound renewable energy policy, societies need to assess the trade-offs between alternative sources. To enable the evaluation and comparison of renewable energy production alternatives in Finland, this paper applies the choice experiment to elicit the monetary information on people's preferences for four renewable energy sources: wind power, hydro power and energy from crops and wood, and considers four impacts of energy production: effects on biodiversity, local jobs, carbon emissions and household's electricity bill. The nested logit analysis reveals that higher income, male gender, young age, and pro-environmental attitude increase the probability to choose renewable energy instead of the current energy mix. Wind power is, on average, the most popular renewable energy technology, but regional differences exist. Biodiversity deterioration should be avoided. The national aggregate willingness to pay, based on stated preferences rather than preferences revealed by actual market behavior, for a combination of renewable energy technologies that corresponds to Finland's climate change and energy policy is over 500 million Euros. - Highlights: • Preferences for renewable energy sources are elicited with choice experiment. • Wind power is the most popular source in general. • Regional differences exist: energy from wood is favored in rural areas. • Biodiversity deterioration should be avoided

  13. Web based system for renewable energy sources assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The RESAssess software is developed to assist in the preliminary assessment of potential renewable energy projects. The first release includes water pumping solar systems, passive solar systems, wind, and geothermal energy and biomass. The program guides the users in the design of their systems, by providing initial estimates. By changing the system’s parameters, users are able to quickly screen an effective technology and system size depending on load, climatic conditions, and season of use. This paper describes scope of models (radiation, wind, geothermal, heat transfer) used to predict energy production from energy resource systems, climatic variables and system parameters and software technology for realising the project. Keywords: Energy projects, Renewable energy, Web system

  14. Rural population and renewable energy sources: Experiences of the Republic of Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Pucar Mila; Nenković Marina

    2006-01-01

    During the last decade of the twentieth century the use of green (renewable) energy has become the imperative not only in developed countries worldwide, but also in poorer countries like Asia and Africa. The change from traditional to renewable energy sources carries valuable improvements in environmental protection and economic efficacy. This paper through individual examples, explores the possibility of replacing traditional with renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, geothermal, ene...

  15. The portfolio of renewable energy sources for achieving the three E policy goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renewable energy is considered by many policy-makers to contribute to achieving at least three major policy goals: the energy goal, the environmental goal, and the economic goal (3E goals). As an innovation-oriented island country with scarce natural resources, Taiwan announced the Sustainable Energy Policy Principles in 2008 that stated that Taiwan's renewable energy policy should accomplish the 3E goals. Several studies point out that specific renewable energy policy goals lead to specific renewable energy sources and technologies because each type of renewable energy has different features. In order to achieve the renewable energy policy goals, this research aims to examine how different policy goals lead to corresponding renewable energy sources. The relative importance of each goal is evaluated by using analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The weight of each policy goal is adjusted separately to construct policy scenarios by the sensitivity analysis. According to the results, non-pumped storage hydropower, wind energy, and solar energy are three sources that could meet the three policy goals at the same time. -- Highlights: ?This study aims to propose a portfolio of renewable energy sources to achieve energy, environmental, and economic policy goals for Taiwan. ?Non-pumped storage hydropower performs best to achieve energy and environmental goals. ?Wind energy performs well to accomplish environmental goal. ?Solar energy is the most preferred alternative to achieve economic goal. ?The portfolio of non-pumped storage hydropower, wind energy, and solar energy can accomplish the three E policy goals at the same time.

  16. The Examining of Prospective Teachers? Views about Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy Sources: A Case Study of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasiloglu, Mehmet Akif

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine prospective teachers? views about renewable and non-renewable energy sources. To collect data, a questionnaire with 5 open-ended questions was conveyed to 463 prospective teachers selected from Agri Ibrahim Cecen University. The results showed that almost three fourths of the prospective teachers tend to…

  17. The Examining of Prospective Teachers? Views about Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy Sources: A Case Study of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasiloglu, Mehmet Akif

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine prospective teachers? views about renewable and non-renewable energy sources. To collect data, a questionnaire with 5 open-ended questions was conveyed to 463 prospective teachers selected from Agri Ibrahim Cecen University. The results showed that almost three fourths of the prospective teachers tend to

  18. Green power grids: how energy from renewable sources affects network and markets

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The increasing attention to environmental issues is forcing the implementation of novel energy models based on renewable sources, fundamentally changing the configuration of energy management and introducing new criticalities that are only partly understood. In particular, renewable energies introduce fluctuations causing an increased request of conventional energy sources oriented to balance energy requests on short notices. In order to develop an effective usage of low-carbon sources, such ...

  19. ENERGY ECONOMICS AND POLICY OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadim Strielkowski

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available European Union adapted the policy of reducing its carbon footprint and embarked on the journey to shift to renewable energy sources in the early 1990s. The whole process started with implementations of binding rules that set up indicative targets for the EU Member States. However, this process had to go hand in hand with high energy costs charged to the consumers. This paper defines various types of renewable sources in the EU and analyses European legislation on renewable energy sources. In addition, it deals with the current situation regarding the energy policies in the European Union and outlines its main criticisms and prospects. The results and conclusions might be of some value for EU main energy providers as well as for the EU partners in the world.

  20. Identifying barriers in the diffusion of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapid diffusion of renewable energy sources (RES) in the electricity power sector is crucial if the EU wants to fulfill its 2050 CO2 reduction commitments. For this reason, identifying and alleviating all barriers that hinder the development of RES is necessary to the successful deployment of these technologies. This paper discusses the main barriers in the diffusion of wind and photovoltaic (PV) solar power in the Greek electricity sector by drawing on the literature of technological innovation systems and system functions. Furthermore, we provide an explanation of the different diffusion rates between the two technologies. Inadequate financial resources, low grid capacity, delays in the issuance of building permits, opposition from local communities to the construction of wind farms and the lack of a stable institutional framework are among the most important barriers that inhibit the diffusion of the wind and PV solar power. The nature of the barriers identified in this study calls for policy intervention. - Highlights: • Firms in the Greek wind and solar power sectors assess RES barriers. • Lack of financial resources is the most important RES barrier. • Lack of a stable institutional framework negatively affects RES deployment. • The support of the public sector is crucial to the diffusion of RES. •Wind power faces strong legitimization barriers

  1. Renewable energy sources: resistance to change; Energies renouvelables: les resistances au changement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubreuil, Th.; Audrain-Demey, G.; Attal, J.Ph.; Lormeteau, B. [Nantes Univ., Droit de l' Environnement et du Developpement Durable, 44 (France)

    2011-10-15

    This paper is the summary of a conference day organised by the students of the 'environment and sustainable development law' Master of Nantes university (France). This interdisciplinary meeting brought together professionals of renewable energy industries who could testify about the resistance of both politicians and the public opinion against the energy transition towards renewable sources. Legal, political, sociological and cultural considerations are put forward to explain this resistance. The French specificity, with an over-representation of nuclear energy, a constraining legal framework for renewable energies, a regional opposition to renewable energy projects (NIMBY syndrome), and a lack of trust in the political class and in its representatives are as many factors that have contributed to build this French 'cultural exception'. (J.S.)

  2. Renewable Energy Sources in Romania: A Statistical Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoleta CARAGEA; Alexandru, Ciprian Antoniade

    2010-01-01

    Biodiversity is in decline globally and major ecosystems are placed under increasing pressure. Global poverty persists; the Millennium Development Goals would need major efforts to be achieved. This paper will explore the perspective for a new energy sector economy in relation to climate change and the sustainable development objectives. All renewable energy technologies are not appropriate to all applications or locations, however. This paper identifies some of the key environmental and ...

  3. PROSPECTS OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN PROVINCE OF VOJVODINA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gvozdenac, D.; Ciric, R.; Tesic, M.

    2007-07-01

    The paper presents the outcome of the research in the field of energy efficiency improvement and development of the renewable energy sources in province of Vojvodina (Serbia). The summarized results of the paper are: - Potentials for energy efficiency improvement in Vojvodina, - Potentials for development of renewable energy sources in Vojvodina, - Proposal of measures of the energy policy for the promotion of research and development (R and D) which will use local scientific and technical potentials in the field of renewable energy sources and energy efficiency and improve the sustainability on the long run. - Proposal of measures for the energy policy in the domain of renewable energy sources development and energy efficiency and estimation of potentials for improvements by applying proposed measures in order to accomplish established tasks. - Synthesizing findings and proposals in the Action Plan of the Executive Council of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina for the realization of the medium term program as well as the establishment of the monitoring plan for the assessment of program objectives progress. (auth)

  4. Renewable sources of energy in Africa: status of development and future contribution to the energy mix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renewable sources of energy in Africa are widely regarded as alternatives to fossil fuels. Being an abundant indigenous reserve, they offer considerable savings of foreign exchange. Also, they are usually regarded as environmentally friendly and thus do not contribute significantly to the greenhouse effect. However, present contributions of renewable energy to the African energy supply remain negligible despite substantial claims often made about the potential scope for renewable energy forms. This paper is based on a comprehensive study undertaken by the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa in 1993-94. The assessment of renewable energy contributions to the energy mix has been made based on data obtained from African countries. A formula reflecting new and renewable sources of energy (NRSE) utilisation was developed and an attempt was made to delineate some zones with identical patterns of utilisation. Some of the difficulties encountered in the dissemination of NRSE and incentives introduced by African countries are also discussed. The conclusion is that African countries acknowledge the role of NRSE technologies in the development of future world energy systems. Yet the probability of NRSE assuming a greater share in energy supplies within the next two decades in Africa is doubtful. (author) 3 tabs., 1 fig., 7 refs

  5. Renewable energy sources - characteristic elements and a view from the regulatory aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper outlines the role, specific tasks and the jurisdiction of the Croatian Energy Regulatory Council with specific reference to renewable energy sources. Moreover, the paper outlines the legislative framework, gives an account of the current situation and the characteristics relevant for the implementation of renewable energy sources in the Republic of Croatia. Finally, it provides a review of the future regulatory activities of the Croatian Energy Regulatory Council in the area, and the contents of the Register of the Renewable Energy Sources Projects.(author)

  6. Panorama 2012 - Marine renewable energy sources: their place in energy policy, projects and players

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marine energy sources are now a reality in the scientific landscape and, from now on, will be an increasingly important feature of the industry. Driven by public policy and renewable energy development targets, projects are multiplying, and industry players are jostling for maximum advantage in the first bidding rounds. (author)

  7. Dynamic energy management employing renewable energy sources in IP over DWDM networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xin; Phillips, Chris

    2013-01-01

    The continued growth of energy consumption has been one of the main constraints for the development of the Internet. The increasing emissions of greenhouse gases associated with electricity generation also raise public concern for the environment. In this paper, we propose a dynamic energy management framework employing renewable energy sources in IP over DWDM core networks. The main concept is to combine infrastructure sleeping and virtual router migration to improve the network energy efficiency. By using the energy source information provided by the smart grid, the nodes that are powered by a renewable energy source are selected, where possible, for hosting virtual routers during off-peak hours. Therefore, the energy consumption and CO2 emissions are both reduced. A heuristic algorithm based on a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm is proposed to select appropriate physical platforms to host the virtual routers.

  8. Modeling and Implementation of Renewable Energy Sources to Distribution Systems.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tlust, J.; Valouch, Viktor

    Santander : Universidad de Cantabria, 2008, s. 1-6. ISBN 978-84-611-9290-8. [International Conference on Renewable Energies and Power Quality - ICREPQ08. Santander (ES), 12.03.2008-14.03.2008] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA200760703 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20570509 Keywords : Power Quality Menagement System (POPQMS) * multi-machine dynamics * distribution network Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  9. Fuel Cells for Balancing Fluctuation Renewable Energy Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2007-01-01

    In the perspective of using fuel cells for integration of fluctuating renewable energy the SOFCs are the most promising. These cells have the advantage of significantly higher electricity efficiency than competing technologies and fuel flexibility. Fuel cells in general also have the advantage of fast regulation abilities combined with excellent part-load efficiencies. Additionally scaling the cells from W to kW to MW is possible and does not influence the efficiencies of the cells. The feasi...

  10. The Optimal Use of Renewable Energy Sources-The Case of Lemnos Island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koroneos, C.; Xydis, George; Polyzakis, A.

    2012-01-01

    The efficient use of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) is one of the major issues in the modern energy sector. The objective of this work was to examine the potential of wind energy, solar energy (e.g. photovoltaics), biomass energy sources to meet the current energy use in the island of Lemnos in...... energy needs from Renewable Energy Sources taking into consideration a multiplicity of criteria such as environmental impacts, energy demand, energy cost, and resources availability. A series of solutions have resulted, based on deterministic model runs, providing decision makers the flexibility to...

  11. The future of renewable energy sources in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assuming that RES developments are in line with the indicative targets of the EU Directive for 2010 and that the present support mechanisms applied to EU-15 in the year 2001 remain unchanged at that time, the total RES payments in 2010 for the EU-15 countries using direct support for RES can be estimated at EURO 22 billion, with prices ranging from 2.7 EUROc/kWh in Finland to 9 EUROc/kWh in Germany and Luxembourg, and 11.9 EUROc/kWh in Italy with a weighted average of 6.8 EUROc/kWh. Compared to average wholesale electricity market price, RES support in EU-15 countries in 2010 would amount to 13.3 %, varying between 2.6% in Belgium to about 56% in Denmark. In case of EU-15 countries using only feed-in tariffs to promote RES, the weighted average of RES direct support is 17% If the existing RES direct support schemes continue to 2010 (including feed-in tariffs), this will result in a very substantial level of expenditure, with a significant impact on the average level of European electricity prices, with very significant variability and thus potential market distortions between countries. Romanian Governmental Decision No. 443/2003 aimed to the harmonization of the national legislative framework with EU Directive. The harmonization of Romanian legislative framework with European Union regulation concerning the promotion of renewable resources has to contribute to new renewable resources penetration into the electricity market. The development of the EU green electricity market could offer good opportunities for Romania. The harmonization of Romanian legislative framework with European Union regulation concerning the promotion of renewable resources has to contribute to new renewable resources penetration into the electricity market. The important share of large hydroelectricity generated in Romania could represent a good opportunity for Romania to participate in the EU green electricity market, but the key problem in Romania's case is the target of 12.5 % of RES-E in 2010 without large hydroelectricity. The Romania's accession to EU could mean the acceptance to increase the share of renewable in the next years. Such a request, involving the real implementation of schemes for RES support could be very difficult, taking into account the low supportability to increase the electricity price in Romania. Promotion of renewable resources in Romania needs not only legislative support, but financial and economic ones. The essential market and non-market barriers to sustainable renewable energy penetration to the market have to be identified and specific policies and strategies designed to overcome them

  12. Renewable energy source use in Brazil; Utilizacao de energia renovavel no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Joseph; Rosa, Fabio, e-mails: jnewman@winrock.org.br, e-mail: fabrosa@terra.com.br

    2003-08-15

    This article evaluates the programs (PROINFA and CCC) developed by the State to deploy a policy of using renewable energy sources in Brazil, highlighting the biodiesel, which should be inserted in its energy matrix.

  13. MODELING AND SIMULATION OF RENEWABLE HYBRID ENERGY SOURCES USING MATLAB/SIMULINK ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian-Dragos Dumitru

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The using on a large scale of renewable energies brought a series of new problems in power energy generation and distribution systems. This represents one of the main reasons for study the impact of renewable energy sources on power systems. The paper proposes an effective study on the impact of renewable energy sources on power systems by using simulation models and the results obtained from these models. In the present paper are conceived Matlab/Simulink simulation models by considering mathematical models for hybrid systems based on renewable energy sources applied in the central region of Romania. The models can be implemented in any other Matlab SimPowerSystems simulation and study models and can be used in real simulated systems functioning using Matlab. The experimental results obtained from simulated models and conclusions resulted from the study of the impact of renewable energy hybrid systems on power systems are also presented.

  14. Power from renewable sources of energy should be promoted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This short article presents the views of five experts concerning a model for the promotion of the use of solar energy that was developed by the Swiss Association of Electricity Utilities VSE. The model is based on a tendering system for promotion of solar installations. Also, various points of view are presented on the questions concerning the opening of the electricity market in Switzerland, the effect of the introduction of a CO2 levy and the status of the promotion of renewable forms of energy in the future. Opinions on the VSE's model and the competitiveness of Swiss electricity utilities in comparison with those in the European Union are stated

  15. The Optimal Use of Renewable Energy Sources-The Case of Lemnos Island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koroneos, C.; Xydis, George; Polyzakis, A.

    2012-01-01

    The efficient use of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) is one of the major issues in the modern energy sector. The objective of this work was to examine the potential of wind energy, solar energy (e.g. photovoltaics), biomass energy sources to meet the current energy use in the island of Lemnos in...... Greece. An optimisation methodology was applied to the energy system of the island, where various Renewable Energy Sources are abundant and could be exploited to satisfy part of the island's energy needs. An optimization model has been developed having as an objective the satisfaction of Lemnos Island...... energy needs from Renewable Energy Sources taking into consideration a multiplicity of criteria such as environmental impacts, energy demand, energy cost, and resources availability. A series of solutions have resulted, based on deterministic model runs, providing decision makers the flexibility to...

  16. The Optimal Use of Renewable Energy Sources-The Case of Lemnos Island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koroneos, C.; Xydis, George

    2012-01-01

    The efficient use of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) is one of the major issues in the modern energy sector. The objective of this work was to examine the potential of wind energy, solar energy (e.g. photovoltaics), biomass energy sources to meet the current energy use in the island of Lemnos in Greece. An optimisation methodology was applied to the energy system of the island, where various Renewable Energy Sources are abundant and could be exploited to satisfy part of the island's energy needs. An optimization model has been developed having as an objective the satisfaction of Lemnos Island energy needs from Renewable Energy Sources taking into consideration a multiplicity of criteria such as environmental impacts, energy demand, energy cost, and resources availability. A series of solutions have resulted, based on deterministic model runs, providing decision makers the flexibility to choose the appropriate solution based on the given situation.

  17. Comparison study between a Renewable Energy Supply System and a supergrid for achieving 100% from renewable energy sources in Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xydis, George

    2013-01-01

    Numerous efforts have been done for achieving the maximum penetration of renewable energy sources (RESs) in the autonomous grids of Greek islands, which never exceeded 10%, despite the exceptional wind and solar potential. Large fluctuations on demand during summer, winter, and 24-h period in combination with the technical restrictions of diesel generators of the existing conventional power stations are a major concern of power supply system. Reversing the roles of diesel generators and wind far...

  18. A potential of utilizing renewable energy sources and the state support in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The renewable energy sources are domestic sources of energy that help to enhance the safety of energy supplies and the diversification of energy sources. The utilization of such sources complies with the environmental acceptability requirement and leads to a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. The renewable energy is proved to be commercially viable for a growing list of consumers and uses. The renewable energy technologies provide many benefits that go well beyond the energy alone. More and more, the renewable energies contribute to the three pillars of the sustainable development in the economy, environment and the society. Several renewable energy technologies are established in world markets, building global industries and infrastructures. Other renewables become competitive in growing markets, and some are widely recognised as the lowest cost option for stand-alone and off grid applications. An increased utilization of renewable energy sources in the heat and electricity generation is one of priority tasks of the Slovak Republic to boost the use of domestic energy potential and thus to decrease the Slovakia's dependence on imported fossil fuels. (authors)

  19. A potential of utilizing renewable energy sources and the state support in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lvia Bodonsk

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The renewable energy sources are domestic sources of energy that help to enhance the safety of energy supplies and the diversification of energy sources. The utilization of such sources complies with the environmental acceptability requirement and leads to a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. The renewable energy is proved to be commercially viable for a growing list of consumers and uses. The renewable energy technologies provide many benefits that go well beyond the energy alone. More and more, the renewable energies contribute to the three pillars of the sustainable development in the economy, environment and the society.Several renewable energy technologies are established in world markets, building global industries and infrastructures. Other renewables become competitive in growing markets, and some are widely recognised as the lowest cost option for stand-alone and offgrid applications. An increased utilization of renewable energy sources in the heat and electricity generation is one of priority tasks of the Slovak Republic to boost the use of domestic energy potential and thus to decrease the Slovakias dependence on imported fossil fuels.

  20. QUESTIONABLE DEVELOPMENT OF REGULATION OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    OpenAIRE

    PETR FLASAR

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the development and current situation of renewableenergy sources in the European Union in a sphere of Energy law. Energy is a keysector in the European Community which becomes increasingly integrated bothpolitically and economically. Renewable energy sources have nowadays a greatimportance and big volume of legislation highly affects member states of the EuropeanUnion. Article concerns the development of Renewable Energy policy in EuropeanUnion and stress importance of...

  1. European Union's renewable energy sources and energy efficiency policy review. The Spanish perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Alegria Mancisidor, Itziar Martinez; Diaz de Basurto Uraga, Pablo; Ruiz de Arbulo Lopez, Patxi [Departamento de Organizacion de Empresas, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (Spain); Martinez de Alegria Mancisidor, Inigo [Departamento de Electronica y Telecomunicaciones, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    The European Union's (EU) energy objectives, legislation and programmes are determinant for the current strategy for the promotion of renewable energy sources (RES) and energy efficiency (EE) in Spain, which is becoming a key element for its international competitiveness. Firstly, this article explores the evolution of the EU's energy strategy, focusing on the adopted legislations and programmes to promote RES and EE. It concludes with an analysis of the impact of those measures in Spain. (author)

  2. European Union's renewable energy sources and energy efficiency policy review. The Spanish perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Union's (EU) energy objectives, legislation and programmes are determinant for the current strategy for the promotion of renewable energy sources (RES) and energy efficiency (EE) in Spain, which is becoming a key element for its international competitiveness. Firstly, this article explores the evolution of the EU's energy strategy, focusing on the adopted legislations and programmes to promote RES and EE. It concludes with an analysis of the impact of those measures in Spain. (author)

  3. The investments in renewable energy sources: do low carbon economies better invest in green technologies?

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Angelo Romano; Giuseppe Scandurra (eds.)

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse the driving of investment in renewable energy sources in low carbon and high carbon economies. To address these issues, a dynamic panel analysis of the renewable investment in a sample of 29 countries was proposed. Results demonstrate that the dynamic of investments in renewable sources is similar in the two panels, and depends by nuclear power generation, GDP and technological efficiency. Results show that countries try to reduce their environmental footpr...

  4. Investments in renewable energy sources: the relationship with nuclear power consumptions

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Angelo Romano; Giuseppe Scandurra (eds.)

    2014-01-01

    The aimof this study is to analyze the driving of investment in renewable energy sources in countries with, or without, nuclear power plants. To address these issues, a dynamic panel analysis of the renewable investment in a sample of 29 countries is proposed. Results demonstrate that investments in renewable sources present an inverse relationship with share of nuclear power generation in countries with nuclear power plants but in the countries with power generation based on fossil fuel, inv...

  5. Renewable energy made easy free energy from solar, wind, hydropower, and other alternative energy sources

    CERN Document Server

    Craddock, David

    2008-01-01

    Studies have shown that the average North American family will spend more than a quarter of a million dollars on energy in a lifetime. What many other countries, including Germany, Spain, France, Denmark, China, Brazil, and even Iceland, have realized is that there is a better way to power our homes, businesses, and cars by using renewable energy sources. Recently, the United States has begun to understand the importance of reducing its reliance on coal, natural gas, nuclear power, and hydropower plants, which comprise the majority of the nation's electricity, due to increasing oil prices.

  6. Environmental impacts evaluation associated to renewable sources of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As time goes by, the need for electricity increases and creates several problems to mankind. Health and environmental problems happens wherever a power plant arises. For many people the best option for these problems is to invest in energy alternative sources, such as solar and wind. But unfortunately this sources also generates some environmental and health damages. The objective of this work is to analyze the impacts of these energy sources, to review their utilization all over the world and to discuss its relevance in the global energy market. To make a comparative evaluation, the nuclear option will also be analyzed. (author)

  7. Future prospects for renewable energy sources in a global frame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study has been to evaluate the possibilities of some new energy sources (solar, wind) in the future world energy supply. We intend to prepare future projections accounting for limitations in infrastructure, time and material inputs. One underlying assumption in the analyses is that new technologies will see an early market introduction in the near future which would continue up to year 2020. During these 30 years, there will still be technological developments leading to a much better manufacturability, mass production, and hence reduced costs. In year 2020, the industrial and economic infrastructure of new energy sources would be mature for a major penetration into the world energy market starting to substitute existing energy sources mainly for environmental reasons. This scenario will be suported by more factual information and data in the following chapters. Each new energy technology will be handled separately. (Quittner)

  8. Fuel-efficiency of hydrogen and heat storage technologies for integration of fluctuating renewable energy sources

    OpenAIRE

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology and results of analysing the use of different energy storage technologies in the task of integration of fluctuating renewable energy sources (RES) into the electricity supply. The analysis is done on the complete electricity system including renewable energy sources as well as power plants and CHP (Combined heat and power production). Emphasis is put on the need for ancillary services. Devices to store electricity as well as devices to store heat can be use...

  9. Issues, Challenges, Causes, Impacts and Utilization of Renewable Energy Sources - Grid Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Er. Mamatha Sandhu; Dr.Tilak Thakur

    2014-01-01

    The renewable energy sources have increased significantly due to environmental issues and fossil fuels elevated cost. Integration of renewable energy sources to utility grid depends on the scale of power generation. Large scale power generations are connected to transmission systems where as small scale distributed power generation is connected to distribution systems. There are certain challenges in the integration of both types of systems directly. Due to this, wind energy h...

  10. Analysis of the Types of Subsidies for Renewable Energy Sources in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    DVO?KOV, Kristna

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with renewable energy sources (RES) in the Czech Republic. The theoretical part of the work describes the most widely used renewable energy sources in the Czech Republic, especially their history technology, advantages and disadvantages. It also deals with the legislation of the European Union and the Czech Republic, describes the laws and mentions the State Energy Policy of the CR and the National Action Plan of the CR, which are essential to the operation and d...

  11. Perspectives of renewable energy sources application and their role in prevention of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems connecting with climate change are discussed. It is known, that fossil energy sources are the main reason of 'greenhouse' effect. Possibilities of solving this problem and problem of energy security in the world and the Republic of Belarus due to widely application of renewable energy sources, also the contribution of International Sakharov Environmental University in development of renewable energetic in the Republic of Belarus are shown. (authors)

  12. An assessment of exploiting renewable energy sources with concerns of policy and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, the Taiwanese government has vigorously promoted the development of renewable energy to engage the challenges of gradual depletion of fossil fuels and oil, as well as the intensification of the greenhouse effect. Since the Sustainable Energy Policy Principles were announced in 2008, Taiwanese government has declared that the development of renewable energy should take into account goals that pertain to energy, the environment, and the economy (3E goals). This study aims to assess the 3E goals and renewable energy sources regulated by the Renewable Energy Development Bill that passed in 2009. The fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) is used to resolve the multi-goal problem for achieving our research purposes. That is, this research attempts to reveal the suitable renewable energy sources for the purposes of meeting the 3E policy goals. The results first show that environmental goal is the most important to the development of various renewable energy technologies in Taiwan, followed by the economic and energy goals. Additionally, hydropower, solar energy, and wind energy would be the renewable energy sources utilized in meeting the 3E policy goals.

  13. Energy Planning in Selected European Regions - Methods for Evaluating the Potential of Renewable Energy Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Sliz-Szkliniarz, Beata

    2013-01-01

    Given their potentially positive impact on climate protection and the preservation of fossil resources, alternative energy sources have become increasingly important for the energy supply over the past years. However, the questions arises what economic and ecological impacts and potential conflicts over land use resources are associated with the promotion of renewable energy production. Using the examples of three selected European Regions in Poland, France and German, the dissertation discus...

  14. Comparison study between a Renewable Energy Supply System and a supergrid for achieving 100% from renewable energy sources in Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xydis, George

    2013-01-01

    Numerous efforts have been done for achieving the maximum penetration of renewable energy sources (RESs) in the autonomous grids of Greek islands, which never exceeded 10%, despite the exceptional wind and solar potential. Large fluctuations on demand during summer, winter, and 24-h period in combination with the technical restrictions of diesel generators of the existing conventional power stations are a major concern of power supply system. Reversing the roles of diesel generators and wind farms (WFs), to use WF as the basic energy source and diesel generators as stand-by system changed in fact the whole philosophy of energy supply systems in islands and created perspectives for the fundamental reformation of the conventional energy supply systems in autonomous grids. In fact, methods of contemporary interim medium term energy storage are investigated for hybrid systems in order to adjust the stochastic behavior of wind energy to the demand, to provide the system with guaranteed power. This WindHydro Plants in combination with the most adequate RES forming an Renewable Energy Supply System (RESS), increase further the economical penetration of RES into autonomous grids up to 90% or even 100% and simultaneously reduce drastically the fuel costs. Furthermore, a supergrid is examined and compared with RESS as another efficient way for achieving higher penetration of RES.

  15. Green Minefield. Renewable sources of energy have both advantages and disadvantages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite being more expensive, renewable energy sources have profound advantages - they are more environment-friendly and help decrease Europe's dependence on foreign energy producers. As a result, the European Union set a target to cover 20% of its energy demand with renewable sources by 2020. Slovakia's target is 14% with the current proportion being barely 7%. Half of this green energy comes from conventional water power plants. The other half is covered by biomass. Other than that, Slovakia is housing some new facilities producing bio fuels from corn and rapeseed. Other energy sources are more expensive. So far, geothermal springs have been used mostly for recreation. Solar and wind energy have hardly shown any development. Some investments have been announced in biogas heating and electricity production. Renewable energy sources are typically subsidized as early as the construction phase. Up to half of the investment costs can be covered by taxpayers' money. Other incentives include tax exemption or guaranteed higher purchase prices. In this area, last year's change in legislation, guaranteeing energy prices for renewable for the next fifteen years, has been crucial. The disadvantage is that higher prices for renewable energy have to be paid by the consumers. In addition, solar and wind energies are highly volatile - depending on weather conditions. This jeopardizes the stability of the national electricity grid and, if left unregulated, could lead to blackouts. Slovakia registers applications for up to 3,500 MW worth of new renewable energy sources. (authors)

  16. Rural population and renewable energy sources: Experiences of the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pucar Mila

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade of the twentieth century the use of green (renewable energy has become the imperative not only in developed countries worldwide, but also in poorer countries like Asia and Africa. The change from traditional to renewable energy sources carries valuable improvements in environmental protection and economic efficacy. This paper through individual examples, explores the possibility of replacing traditional with renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, geothermal, energy of small hydroelectric power plants, etc. worldwide and in rural Serbian communities.

  17. The duties of public service in relation to cogeneration and renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In France, the costs of programs for cogeneration and renewable energy are ultimately paid by consumers via mechanisms based on bids, the obligation to purchase at a guaranteed price, and an evaluation made by the energy regulation Commission. The emission permit (or green certificate) guaranties that the amount of electricity delivered by the producer to the distribution network comes from renewable primary energy sources. A special market devoted to emission permits could be set independently from that of electricity, this market would allow electricity producers to reach a minimal ratio of electricity issued from renewable energy sources. The suggestion made is to test in France marketed emission permits before creating a European market

  18. Renewable energy sources in European energy supply and interactions with emission trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a model-based approach, which allows to determine the optimised structure and operation of the EU-15 electricity supply under different political and economic framework conditions, with a focus on the integration of renewable energy sources for electricity generation (RES-E) in the EU-15 countries. The approach is designed to take into account the characteristics of power production from both renewable and conventional sources, including the technological and economic characteristics of existing plants as well as those of future capacity expansion options. Beyond that, fuel supply structures are modelled, as well as the international markets for power and CO2-certificates with their restrictions. Thus, a profound evaluation of the exploitation of mid-term renewable potentials and an assessment of the market penetration of the various renewable power generation technologies under the (normative) premise of a cost-optimised evolution of the power system becomes possible. Results show that a promotion of renewable energies reduces the scarcity of CO2-emission allowances and thus lowers marginal costs of CO2 reduction up to 30% in 2030. Despite the higher overall costs, a diversification of the energy resource base by RES-E use is observed, as primarily natural gas and nuclear fuels are replaced. (author)

  19. Renewable energy sources in European energy supply and interactions with emission trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a model-based approach, which allows to determine the optimised structure and operation of the EU-15 electricity supply under different political and economic framework conditions, with a focus on the integration of renewable energy sources for electricity generation (RES-E) in the EU-15 countries. The approach is designed to take into account the characteristics of power production from both renewable and conventional sources, including the technological and economic characteristics of existing plants as well as those of future capacity expansion options. Beyond that, fuel supply structures are modelled, as well as the international markets for power and CO2-certificates with their restrictions. Thus, a profound evaluation of the exploitation of mid-term renewable potentials and an assessment of the market penetration of the various renewable power generation technologies under the (normative) premise of a cost-optimised evolution of the power system becomes possible. Results show that a promotion of renewable energies reduces the scarcity of CO2-emission allowances and thus lowers marginal costs of CO2 reduction up to 30% in 2030. Despite the higher overall costs, a diversification of the energy resource base by RES-E use is observed, as primarily natural gas and nuclear fuels are replaced.

  20. Algorithm of constructing methods of application of renewable sources of energy at recreational objects ???????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ????????????? ????????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashta Alexander I.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article develops an algorithm of assessment of potential of use of renewable sources of energy with the aim to cover needs of recreational objects. The article reveals scientific principles of transformation of the power system and recreational economy of the Crimea on the basis of a wider application of the renewable sources of energy, including the solar one, in the result of which the situation in the region will change: ecological situation will improve, power independence of recreational objects will increase, and probability of man-caused catastrophes will reduce. The article considers results of practical introduction of scientific developments in the sphere of application of renewable sources of energy at recreational objects and offers a logical scheme of the algorithm of construction of methods of application of renewable sources of energy at recreational objects, which include four main stages. Each of the stages and items of the algorithm requires further detalisation and methodical development.????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ??????????????? ????????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ????? ???????? ???? ????????????? ????????. ? ?????? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????? ? ?????????????? ????????? ????? ?? ???? ????? ???????? ????????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ???????, ? ??? ????? ? ?????????, ? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ? ???????: ????????? ????????????? ????????, ????????? ??????????????????? ????????????? ????????, ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????. ?? ?????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ? ????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ????????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ????????????? ????????, ?????????? ? ???? ?????? ???????? ?????. ?????? ?? ?????? ? ??????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ??????????.

  1. Renewable energy sources. Non-traditional actors on the international market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five of Sweden's technical attaches have investigated the non-traditional actors activity within the field of renewable energy sources. Countries studied are USA, Japan, France, Germany and Great Britain

  2. Guide to funding sources for renewable energy in schools and colleges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This guide has been designed specifically to identify sources of funding for renewable energy projects in schools, such as a wind generator or a solar water heating system. It is intended for teachers or Friends of associations. (author)

  3. On the optimal timing of switching from non-renewable to renewable resources: dirty vs clean energy sources and the relative efficiency of generators

    OpenAIRE

    Agliardi, Elettra; Sereno, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    We develop a model on the optimal timing of switching from non-renewable to renewable energy sources with endogenous extraction choices under emission taxes and abatement costs. We assume that non-renewable resources are "dirty" inputs and create environmental degradation, while renewable resources are more environmentally friendly, although they may be more or less productive than the exhaustible resources. The value of the switching option from non-renewable to renewable resources is charac...

  4. The integration of renewable energy sources into electric power transmission systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, P.R.; Dykas, W.P.; Kirby, B.J.; Purucker, S.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Lawler, J.S. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-07-01

    Renewable energy technologies such as photovoltaics, solar thermal power plants, and wind turbines are nonconventional, environmentally attractive sources of energy that can be considered for electric power generation. Many of the areas with abundant renewable energy resources (very sunny or windy areas) are far removed from major load centers. Although electrical power can be transmitted over long distances of many hundreds of miles through high-voltage transmission lines, power transmission systems often operate near their limits with little excess capacity for new generation sources. This study assesses the available capacity of transmission systems in designated abundant renewable energy resource regions and identifies the requirements for high-capacity plant integration in selected cases. In general, about 50 MW of power from renewable sources can be integrated into existing transmission systems to supply local loads without transmission upgrades beyond the construction of a substation to connect to the grid. Except in the Southwest, significant investment to strengthen transmission systems will be required to support the development of high-capacity renewable sources of 1000 MW or greater in areas remote from major load centers. Cost estimates for new transmission facilities to integrate and dispatch some of these high-capacity renewable sources ranged from several million dollars to approximately one billion dollars, with the latter figure an increase in total investment of 35%, assuming that the renewable source is the only user of the transmission facility.

  5. Use a renewable energy sources and latest power-saving technologies in the the Republic Kazakstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject of alternative power in Kazakstan is brought up. Wind-, hydro-, solar power, biogas installation can improve the Republic power base. The main directions of activity of A. Einstein International Power engineering Academy on involving renewable energy sources and latest power-saving technologies to Republic of Kazakstan's fuel-power balance is given. It should be noted that renewable power engineering usually handles reversible energy sources and reserved power cycles. (author)

  6. Nuclear power plants and renewable energy sources. The false assumption of conflicting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The German government intends to develop the share of renewable energy sources in electric power supply and to get the funds for this from longer operating periods of German nuclear power stations. Against this background, opponents have revived the false story of a conflict between renewable energy sources and nuclear power. Contrary to this opinion, the authors show that nuclear power plants, with their built-in load variation options, can help to balance the fluctuating supply of solar and wind power. (orig.)

  7. Map of decentralised energy potential based on renewable energy sources in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the Republic of Croatia is almost completely electrified there are still regions where electricity network is not in place or network capacity is insufficient. These regions usually include areas of special state care (underdeveloped, war-affected or depopulated areas), islands, and mountainous areas. However, they often have good renewable energy potential. Decentralised energy generation based on renewable energy sources (wind power, hydropower, solar energy, biomass) has potential to ensure energy supply to users in remote and often isolated rural areas (off-grid applications). Such applications will primarily be related to tourism business in mountainous, rural and island/coastal regions. Also, agriculture, wood-processing and food-processing industries will potentially be interested in application of decentralised energy generation systems, most likely those using biomass as fuel (for example cogeneration facilities, connected on-grid).(author)

  8. Expected rates of renewable energy sources in meeting of energy demands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taking the expected growth of the world's population and the estimated technological development and increase in living standards into account, the paper forecasts energy demands. On the basis of the actual production data of 380-400 EJyear-1 in 2000 and data in publications, the author assumes the total energy demand to be 750-800 EJyear-1 for 2030, 600-1,000 EJyear-1 for 2050 and 900-3,600 EJyear-1 for 2100. The author analyses the appearance of the different energy types in the history of mankind giving the specific heat content and heating value of the different fuels. The environmental advantages, disadvantages, technical and economic limits of application involved in the use of primary renewable energy sources are also dealt with. The analysis of the data in the different prognoses in publications gives the result that fossil fuels will meet 84-85 % of the total energy demand until 2030 in the foreseeable future. In 2050, the fossil rate may be 50-70 % and the rate of renewable may amount to 20-40 %. In 2100, the maximum fossil rate may be 40-50 % with a 30-60 % maximum rate of renewable. On the basis of the results of investigation, the general conclusion may be that the realistically exploitable amount of renewable energy sources is not so unlimitedly high as many suppose. Therefore, it is an illusion to expect that the replacement or substitution of mineral fuels and nuclear energy can be solved relying solely on renewable energies. (authors)

  9. Expected Rates of Renewable Energy Sources in Meeting of Energy Demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferenc Kovcs

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking the expected growth of the worlds population and the estimated technological development and increase in living standards into account, the paper forecasts energy demands. On the basis of the actual production data of 380-400 EJ.year-1 in 2000 and data in publications, the author assumes the total energy demand to be 750-800 EJ.year-1 for 2030, 600-1,000 EJ.year-1 for 2050 and 900-3,600 EJ.year-1 for 2100. The author analyses the appearance of the different energy types in the history of mankind giving the specific heat content and heating value of the different fuels. The environmental advantages, disadvantages, technical and economic limits of application involved in the use of primary renewable energy sources are also dealt with. The analysis of the data in the different prognoses in publications gives the result that fossil fuels will meet 84-85 % of the total energy demand until 2030 in the foreseeable future. In 2050, the fossil rate may be 50-70 % and the rate of renewables may amount to 20-40 %. In 2100, the maximum fossil rate may be 40-50 % with a 30-60 % maximum rate of renewables. On the basis of the results of investigation, the general conclusion may be that the realistically exploitable amount of renewable energy sources is not so unlimitedly high as many suppose. Therefore, it is an illusion to expect that the replacement or substitution of mineral fuels and nuclear energy can be solved relying solely on renewable energies.

  10. Assessment of practices and technologies of energy saving and renewable energy sources in hotels in Crete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zografakis, Nikolaos [Regional Energy Agency of Crete, Region of Crete, 71202 Heraklion (Greece); Gillas, Konstantinos; Pollaki, Antrianna; Profylienou, Maroulitsa; Bounialetou, Fanouria [Department of Economics, University of Crete, University Campus, 74100 Rethymno (Greece); Tsagarakis, Konstantinos P. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, 67100 Xanthi (Greece)

    2011-05-15

    This study aims to assess the state of the art of practices and technologies of energy saving and renewable energy sources in hotels. This will contribute to determining the potential of efficient and sustainable energy technologies integration. Hotel managers were interviewed face to face and information sessions were provided. Special energy and environmental awareness campaigns, sectoral tourism programs for climate change mitigation and adaptation, supportive policies and hotel energy investments and renovation programs are some recommendations elicited from the results of this study. (author)

  11. Attention to be focused on Efficient Energy Use and Renewable Energy Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Energy Efficiency Programme approved by the Government has been under way in Lithuania since 1992. Estimates show that within the next 15-20 years, after primary energy resources and power saving measures have been implemented, as much as 25-30% of currently consumed power resources can be saved. Furthermore, 12-14% of currently imported energy resources can be replaced without any detriment to the country's environment by using as fuel wood and peat, domestic waste, biogas and by utilising water power resources, geothermal energy and other renewable energy sources. (author)

  12. Green power grids: how energy from renewable sources affects network and markets

    CERN Document Server

    Mureddu, Mario; Chessa, Alessandro; Scala, Antonio; Damiano, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    The increasing attention to environmental issues is forcing the implementation of novel energy models based on renewable sources, fundamentally changing the configuration of energy management and introducing new criticalities that are only partly understood. In particular, renewable energies introduce fluctuations causing an increased request of conventional energy sources oriented to balance energy requests on short notices. In order to develop an effective usage of low-carbon sources, such fluctuations must be understood and tamed. In this paper we present a microscopic model for the description and the forecast of short time fluctuations related to renewable sources and to their effects on the electricity market. To account for the inter-dependencies among the energy market and the physical power dispatch network, we use a statistical mechanics approach to sample stochastic perturbations on the power system and an agent based approach for the prediction of the market players behavior. Our model is a data-d...

  13. Evaluation of Renewable Energy Sources and Sustainable Development Planning of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Ruya Yilmaz

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse the possibility of using of the renewable energy sources and to find out the using for solving environmental problems in Turkey. Because at present, the preference of energy systems should be made according environmental conditions for sustainable development. The renewable energy resources, with having an important share in the sustainable development of Turkey constitute this studies` material. In this study also, the native and foreign literatures, relat...

  14. Evaluation of Renewable Energy Sources and Sustainable Development Planning of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruya Yilmaz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyse the possibility of using of the renewable energy sources and to find out the using for solving environmental problems in Turkey. Because at present, the preference of energy systems should be made according environmental conditions for sustainable development. The renewable energy resources, with having an important share in the sustainable development of Turkey constitute this studies` material. In this study also, the native and foreign literatures, related to use of non-renewable sources and landscape planning studies, were used as a materials. The study was carried out in some stages by collecting and analyzing data. Natural and cultural properties were also determined by surveys and data obtaining and on-site observation and measurement. The importance of the primary energy production and consumption of Turkey were emphasised. Throughout the paper several issues relating to renewable energy, environment and sustainable development are examined from both current and future perspectives in Turkey.

  15. Power Quality Enhancement of Distributed Network fed with Renewable Energy Sources based on Interfacing Inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr.R.Murali,

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy technologies such asphotovoltaics, solar thermal electricity using dish-stirlingsystems, and wind turbine power are environmentallyadvantageous sources of energy that can be considered forelectric power generation. The expenses of renewable energytechnologies have decreased in recent years, so that anever-increasing number of applications can be economicallyjustified by utilities. The integration of generation fromrenewable energy sources into electric power distributionsystems is a reasonable way for electric utilities to applyrenewable energy resources, since it places the sources nearthe load w i t h more efficient operation. The interfacing inverteris controlled to perform as a multi-function device byincorporating active power filter functionality and this inverter isused to inject power generated from Renewable Energy Sources tothe grid. The objectives of this paper is to develop an assessmentmethodology for renewable energy electric generation andenergy storage facilities integrated into electric powerdistribution systems which addresses the distributed benefits ofelectricity generation from renewable sources and their true valueto the system, and to apply the methodology in case studies. Therenewable energy sources which are interconnected todistributed network with interfacing power electronic inverter isanalyzed for power quality enhancement by usingMATLAB/SIMULINK software.

  16. Analytical investigation of low temperature lift energy conversion systems with renewable energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficiency of the renewable energy powered energy conversion system is typically low due to its moderate heat source temperature. Therefore, improving its energy efficiency is essential. In this study, the performance of the energy conversion system with renewable energy source was theoretically investigated in order to explore its design aspect. For this purpose, a computer model of n-stage low temperature lift energy conversion (LTLEC) system was developed. The results showed that under given operating conditions such as temperatures and mass flow rates of heat source and heat sink fluids the unit power generation of the system increased with the number of stage, and it became saturated when the number of staging reached four. Investigation of several possible working fluids for the optimum stage LTLEC system revealed that ethanol could be an alternative to ammonia. The heat exchanger effectiveness is a critical factor on the system performance. The power generation was increased by 7.83% for the evaporator and 9.94% for the condenser with 10% increase of heat exchanger effectiveness. When these low temperature source fluids are applied to the LTLEC system, the heat exchanger performance would be very critical and it has to be designed accordingly. - Highlights: Energy conversion system with renewable energy is analytically investigated. A model of multi-stage low temperature lift energy conversion systems was developed. The system performance increases as the stage number is increased. The unit power generation is increased with increase of HX effectiveness. Ethanol is found to be a good alternative to ammonia

  17. Peoples Perceptions on Renewable Energy Sources Penetration Prospects in the Khorezm Province, Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahtiyor R. ESHCHANOV

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The energy sectors of fossil fuel-rich Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan are heavily dependent on non-renewable resources. The abundance of these resources acts as a retardant the process of energy diversification in the above mentioned Central Asian states. Nevertheless, the future diversification of energy sources is an inevitable process due to many reasons; man-made climate change, the need for transition to reliable and secure energy sources and availability of a vast potential for renewable energy generation being the most important ones.

  18. Nuclear energy, its social impact to the environment. The renewable energy sources, a viable alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present arguments against nuclear energy and pro renewable energy sources. Thus, the water used in Uranium mining and primary ore processing becomes contaminated in long lived radioisotopes and so a threat for local ecosystems and communities. Then, during the fabrication, enrichment, and handling of nuclear fuel the workers are exposed to radiations and dangerous accidental radioactive leaks can occur. But, by far, the most menacing aspect of nuclear power exploitation remains the human errors in operating the nuclear plants which can result in major accidents like that from Chernobyl which spread radioactivity all over the Europe. The equipment used in nuclear facilities which is highly contaminated as well as the burned fuel implies transportation and long term storage which also present high risks. The major advantage of the nuclear energy consists in its very low environment impact and its null contribution to the greenhouse effect. In contrast, the renewable energy sources appear to be both increasingly cheaper and more safe for man and environment. The authors present a list of twelve major advantages pleading in favour of development of renewable energy technology

  19. Methods and tools to evaluate the availability of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent statements of both the European Union and the US Presidency pushed in the direction of using renewable forms of energy, in order to act against climate changes induced by the growing concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. In this paper, a survey regarding methods and tools presently available to determine potential and exploitable energy in the most important renewable sectors (i.e., solar, wind, wave, biomass and geothermal energy) is presented. Moreover, challenges for each renewable resource are highlighted as well as the available tools that can help in evaluating the use of a mix of different sources. (author)

  20. Space Solar Power and Other Renewable Energy Sources: Understanding the Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAuley, Molly K.

    2002-01-01

    fossil fuels. In addition, a ground-based electricity generation system is now increasingly realized as also vulnerable to disruption. What advantages does space solar power (SSP) offer over other renewable energy sources (wind, terrestrial photovoltaics, biopower, and geothermal) in addressing these concerns? What are disadvantages? This paper discusses the economics of renewable energy in the United States' market in two geographic regions (the west coast and the north central regions) where renewable energy resources are abundant and relatively low cost (thus, aggressively competitive with SSP), but where the security and reliability advantages of SSP may indeed outweigh any generation cost advantage of the terrestrial technologies.

  1. Feasibility and impact analysis of a renewable energy source (RES)-based energy system in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we analyze the feasibility and impacts of a renewable energy source (RES)-based electricity supply system of future Korea. To achieve this goal, we first developed different scenarios for increasing the contribution of RES by lowering the rate of i) nuclear power, ii) thermal power, iii) both nuclear and thermal power, and iv) these scenarios with real-world constraints. Based on the generated scenarios, we then specified the established systems with practical strategies which encourage different renewable sources (wind, solar photovoltaic, biomass, and waste). Finally, we analyzed the impacts of the established RES-based systems according to various criteria: the total required cost, the dependence on imported energy, CO2 emissions, and land use. The results show that the RES-based system that utilizes wind energy as its main source by steadily decreasing the rate of thermal power for electricity generation is the most affordable for future Korean electricity system. We also identify the merits and drawbacks of the analyzed systems and provide relevant recommendations for the establishment of a sustainable energy system for Korea. These findings will support policy makers in integrating quantitative assessments into energy-related policy design and implementation. - Highlights: • We model and analyze RES-based electricity supply system in Korea. • Impact analysis includes: economic, energy security, environmental protection aspects. • We also evaluate different strategies to establish RES-based system. • We show that wind energy-based system is the most affordable for Korea

  2. Evaluation of water mills as a source of renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S.P.; Goel, A.K.; Vatsa, D.K.

    2001-04-01

    The hydropower in Himachal Pradesh at micro level can be harnessed by tapping the water energy at the various sites, where sufficient quantity of water and a drop of 2-4 m is available in a tributary, which save the commercial energy used for agro industries. Presently, a number of water mills in the Kangra valley are in operation for running various agro-based machines by utilizing the source of water as energy. Keeping this in view, the vertical and horizontal water mills installed in the Palampur area of district Kangra have been studied to compare their advantages, energy saving, functioning, constraints, and problems faced by the beneficiaries. It is observed that a number of operations can be performed by the horizontal water mill with the help of various machines, such as flour mill, rice huller, oil expeller, etc., while only one machine, i.e., flour mill, can be successfully run by the vertical water mill. Though the installation cost of the horizontal water mill is high in comparison to the vertical water mill, it can be suitable for installing domestic agro-based industries which will provide employment to unemployed rural educated youth. The savings in the form of electrical energy will be as much as 1.3 MW and 2.6 MW per month with the adoption of vertical and horizontal water mills, respectively. (author)

  3. Impact of renewable energy sources on greenhouse gas emissions in comparison to conventional energies - Simplified examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses definition problem of the full energy chain greenhouse gas (FENCH-GHG) emission analysis. The importance of good definition of the problem is essential: for what purpose this analysis is done, what shall be included and what can be excluded from the analysis. This is done by giving simplified examples of FENCH-GHG emission analysis. The example is use of small solar heating systems in an oil heated single family house in Finland and another renewable energy source: liquid biofuel combustion. The paper gives rough data for those options. Paper concludes with this example, to recommendations how definition of FENCH-GHG analysis should be done for intermittent renewable energies. (author)

  4. PROFIT MAXIMIZATION AND OPTIMAL SIZING OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN A HYBRID SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    YAJVENDER PAL VERMA; ASHWANI KUMAR

    2010-01-01

    The renewable energy sources wind, solar etc. have become very essential and important in the generation mix as a result of rising energy demand and environmental reasons. In addition tax is being imposed on high carbon emission. But the uncertainty and variability associated with renewable such as wind may result in economical andtechnical problems in the power system. In order to compensate wind intermittency, generation resources such as gas plant, pumped storage unit etc. are employed due...

  5. Energy research and energy technologies. Renewable energy sources -rational use of energy. Report of the year 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At first introductory explanations of the main focus of the programme and an overview of the supported projects are given. The main part contains the project descriptions of the main focuses of support: Renewable energy sources and rational use of energy are described. Several registers have been prepared in order to access the extensive material: Register of project numbers; register of joint projects; register of companies. Finally the organisational plan of the project carrier Biology, Energy, Ecology (BC BEE) is explained. (UA)

  6. Designing and Testing Energy Harvesters Suitable for Renewable Power Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synkiewicz, B.; Guzdek, P.; Piekarski, J.; Zaraska, K.

    2016-01-01

    Energy harvesters convert waste power (heat, light and vibration) directly to electric power . Fast progress in their technology, design and areas of application (e.g. Internet of Things) has been observed recently. Their effectiveness is steadily growing which makes their application to powering sensor networks with wireless data transfer reasonable. The main advantage is the independence from wired power sources, which is especially important for monitoring state of environmental parameters. In this paper we describe the design and realization of a gas sensor monitoring CO level (powered by TEG) and two, designed an constructed in ITE, autonomous power supply modules powered by modern photovoltaic cells.

  7. Use of renewable energy sources is one of up-to-date ecological problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Description of renewable energy sources use as single ecologically clean technology for electric power generation is given. It is marked, that Kazakhstan total wind energy potential consists in 32 trillions k Wh, that is comparable with energy consumption of all countries in 2500

  8. Comparative analyses of seven technologies to facilitate the integration of fluctuating renewable energy sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    An analysis of seven different technologies is presented. The technologies integrate fluctuating renewable energy sources (RES) such as wind power production into the electricity supply, and the Danish energy system is used as a case. Comprehensive hour-by-hour energy system analyses are conducted...

  9. Integration of renewable energy sources for a sustainable energy policy at Djibouti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generally, the predictable exhaustion of the fossil fuels, the necessity of fighting against the global warming, the awareness for the protection of the environment and finally the consideration of the sustainable development in energy policies put the renewable energies in the heart of a strategic stake for the future of our planet. But for the Republic of Djibouti which currently knows an annual economic growth of 3,5 %, it is almost vital to exploit its potential in renewable energies to ensure its economic growth, to realize savings of currencies and to initially achieve the Millennium human development goals whose calendar is fixed at 2015. Unfortunately, the country knows the same energy situation of the countries of sub-Saharan Africa where the energy is plentiful but the electricity is rare. Indeed, the current energy balance of the country is strongly overdrawn. The 97 % of the energy needs of the population (mainly urban in more than 85 %) are satisfied by the imports of oil productions and 90 % of the Djiboutians households use the kerosene as domestic fuel. The cover rate for the electricity network is very low, about 30 %. Only 0,2 % of the electric production (with a total capacity installed of 130 MW) is made from a unique source of renewable energy ( the photovoltaic solar energy). Nevertheless, the country has an important potential in renewable energies. At the level of the photovoltaic solar energy (PV), the technically exploitable solar potential is estimated in 1535 GWh/day. At the level of the wind energy, the estimation of the currently exploitable potential is 8 MW and yet no form of wind energy (whether it is the big or the small wind energy) is exploited in the country. At the level of the geothermal energy, the technically exploitable potential is estimated between 350 and 650 MWe. The economically exploitable potential for the only region of Assal-Ghoubbet is higher than 150 MWe, very widely upper to the current needs of the country. At the level of the tidal energy, a not yet estimated potential exists and could be exploited at the level of the pass of Goubbet. The energy planning that we propose for the average length-term bases on the integration of one of the potential renewable energies and more particularly the noblest of them: the geothermal energy. Indeed, the geothermal energy possesses advantages which the other forms of renewable energies do not have: it is a basic energy, independent from the climate, susceptible to be exploited at the same time for the production of the heat and the electric production. The electric plan which we propose is the following one: on the horizon 2015, we consider that the electric request will be situated near 165 MW. Therefore, we recommend 74,5 % of fossil fuels (with a substitutable option in warm period by the electricity imported from Ethiopia to a total value of 30,3 %) and 25,5 % of renewable energies (including 18,2 % of geothermal energy, 6,8 % of wind energy and 0,5 % of solar energy). (author)

  10. Peoples Perceptions on Renewable Energy Sources Penetration Prospects in the Khorezm Province, Uzbekistan

    OpenAIRE

    Grinwis Plaat Stultjes, Mona; Eshchanov, Ruzumboy A.; Sanaatbek K. SALAEV

    2011-01-01

    The energy sectors of fossil fuel-rich Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan are heavily dependent on non-renewable resources. The abundance of these resources acts as a retardant the process of energy diversification in the above mentioned Central Asian states. Nevertheless, the future diversification of energy sources is an inevitable process due to many reasons; man-made climate change, the need for transition to reliable and secure energy sources and availability of a vast potential for...

  11. Control and design of full-bridge three-level converter for renewable energy sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Zhilei; Xu, Jing; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2015-01-01

    Output voltage of renewable energy sources, such as fuel cell and PV cell, is often low and varies widely with load and environmental conditions. Therefore, the high step-up DC-DC converter is needed between renewable energy sources and the grid-connected inverter. However, voltage stress of rectifier diodes is high and filter is large in traditional voltage-source converters in a wide input-voltage range. In order to solve the aforementioned problems, a full-bridge (FB) three-level (TL) convert...

  12. Control and design of full-bridge three-level converter for renewable energy sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Zhilei; Xu, Jing; Guerrero, Josep M.

    Output voltage of renewable energy sources, such as fuel cell and PV cell, is often low and varies widely with load and environmental conditions. Therefore, the high step-up DC-DC converter is needed between renewable energy sources and the grid-connected inverter. However, voltage stress of...... rectifier diodes is high and filter is large in traditional voltage-source converters in a wide input-voltage range. In order to solve the aforementioned problems, a full-bridge (FB) three-level (TL) converter is proposed. It can operate at both two-level and three-level modes, so it is suitable for wide...

  13. Public utilities with renewable energy sources. Proceedings; Stadtwerke mit Erneuerbaren Energien. Konferenzband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Decentral power supply from renewable energy sources opens up new perspectives for communities and their utilities. It provides added value and new jobs and ensures sustainable power supply and climate protection. Increasingly, municipal utilities are changing from power providers to modern providers of energy services. This was the background of the 5th conference of EUROSOLAR e.V. and HSE AG. Among others, the following subjects were discussed: Life-span extension of nuclear power plants: Will this political decision have negative effects on competition? How do power grids get smart? What is the role of municipal utilities in the development of electromobility? How can communities achieve sustainable power supply - hints for founding municipal utilities. What chances are opened up by recommunalisation of power supply? What is the contribution of renewable energy sources to communal added value? What strategies for the development of renewable energy sources are employed by municipal utilities?.

  14. Regulatory actions to expand the offer of distributed generation from renewable energy sources in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The composition of the Brazilian electric energy matrix has undergone transformations in recent years. However, it has still maintained significant participation of renewable energy sources, in particular hydropower plants of various magnitudes. Reasons for the growth of other renewable sources of energy, such as wind and solar, include the fact that the remaining hydropower capacity is mainly located in the Amazon, which is far from centers of consumption, the necessity of diversifying the energy mix and reducing dependence on hydrologic regimes, the increase in environmental restrictions, the increase of civil construction and land costs.Wind power generation has grown most significantly in Brazil. Positive results in the latest energy auctions show that wind power generation has reached competitive pricing. Solar energy is still incipient in Brazil, despite its high potential for conversion into electric energy. This energy source in the Brazilian electric energy matrix mainly involves solar centrals and distributed generation. Biomass thermal plants, mainly the ones that use bagasse of sugar cane, also have an important role in renewable generation in Brazil.This paper aims to present an overview of the present situation and discuss the actions and the regulations to expand the offer of renewable distributed generation in Brazil, mainly from wind power, solar and biomass energy sources. (full text)

  15. Financial mechanisms for renewable energy sources; Mecanismos financeiros para fontes de energia renovaveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moya Chaves, Francisco David [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    This work presents three different financial mechanisms in the world as choices in the electricity generation investment from alternative energy sources. It shows a description of the following methods developed in the world: payment capacity, social costs of energy, and markets that trade renewable energies certificates. Finally, a recommendation about the best choice that could be implemented in Brazil is suggested. Given the importance in the use of the renewable energy of electric energy generation, most of the electric systems in the world have developed mechanisms to encourage the use of alternative energies. With the capacity payment the power plants that employ alternative sources, can receive extra payment as benefits for their initial investment. A possibility could be fixing taxes for the generation of electricity with fossil fuel that could finance the renewable energy sources. A renewable energy market dealing with trade able certificates, forces the electricity purchasers to have a percentage from alternative energies of the totally energy acquired. In this way the forced purchasing of energy from power plants which use energy certificates allows the expansion of these technologies. (author)

  16. Renewable energy annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The Renewable Energy Annual 1995 is the first in an expected series of annual reports the Energy Information Administration (EIA) intends to publish to provide a comprehensive assessment of renewable energy. This report presents the following information on the history, status, and prospects of renewable energy data: estimates of renewable resources; characterizations of renewable energy technologies; descriptions of industry infrastructures for individual technologies; evaluations of current market status; and assessments of near-term prospects for market growth. An international section is included, as well as two feature articles that discuss issues of importance for renewable energy as a whole. The report also contains a number of technical appendices and a glossary. The renewable energy sources included are biomass (wood), municipal solid waste, biomass-derived liquid fuels, geothermal, wind, and solar and photovoltaic.

  17. Renewable energy annual 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Renewable Energy Annual 1995 is the first in an expected series of annual reports the Energy Information Administration (EIA) intends to publish to provide a comprehensive assessment of renewable energy. This report presents the following information on the history, status, and prospects of renewable energy data: estimates of renewable resources; characterizations of renewable energy technologies; descriptions of industry infrastructures for individual technologies; evaluations of current market status; and assessments of near-term prospects for market growth. An international section is included, as well as two feature articles that discuss issues of importance for renewable energy as a whole. The report also contains a number of technical appendices and a glossary. The renewable energy sources included are biomass (wood), municipal solid waste, biomass-derived liquid fuels, geothermal, wind, and solar and photovoltaic

  18. Analysis of models for assessment of the energy potential of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the paper is presented comparative analysis of different models for assessment of energy potential of renewable energy sources (wind, solar, hydro, geothermal, biomass, biogas). The analysis is based on preliminary selected/identified criterions for assessment of the models as: scope of the model, structure of the model, sensitive of the model, functionality of the model, sphere of implementation of the model. In the paper is presented 8 models, implemented in the practice in Bulgaria and other European countries, including 2 models developed in Bulgaria

  19. Citizens preferences on nuclear and renewable energy sources: Evidence from Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on data from a face-to-face survey of 2422 residents from urban Turkey, this paper presents an analysis of citizens preferences in Turkey on nuclear and renewable energy sources. Findings indicate that opposition to nuclear power was strong, and only a small number of respondents endorsed it by listing it in their top two choices. Conversely, almost two-thirds of the sample endorsed investment in renewable energy sources (such as wind and solar), and only a small minority was opposed to it. Econometric analyses revealed that knowledge of the climate change problem was a common factor that explained endorsement of both nuclear and renewables. Yet, high levels of concern for the environment and a negative perception regarding its future differentiated the endorsers of renewables from those of nuclear energy. Endorsers of nuclear energy were found to be males who were knowledgeable about climate change and engaged in environmental issues, but less concerned about the environment, and optimistic about its future. Nuclear opponents, on the other hand, were found to be concerned about the environment, pessimistic about its future, and not fully relying on technology. - Highlights: ? We explore determinants of citizens preferences for renewable and nuclear energy. ? The analysis is based on a survey conducted in urban Turkey with 2422 respondents. ? Knowledge of climate change is a common factor of renewable and nuclear endorsement. ? Divergences relate to environmental concern and optimism, and reliance on technology. ? Energy conflicts emerge as complex and related to environmental values and attitudes.

  20. Research and development as contribution of the Renewable Energy Sources Centre to the wind energy utilization in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The expected development of renewable energy sources utilization was not reached in last years in Slovakia. This is caused by some barriers. These barriers decrease the easiness of investments into the Renewable energy sources utilization. We recognize specific barriers for each of renewable energy sources and general barriers for all renewable energy sources. Activities of the Renewable Energy Sources Centre help to eliminate both specific and general barriers in Slovakia. The main activities are: a realization of research projects, working out expertise and feasibility studies, information of public about principals and specifics of the wind energy utilization. How the Renewable Energy Sources Centre encourages of the utilization wind energy can be demonstrated on one of the research projects: The designing a stable standpoint with a sufficient storage tank of wind energy, possibly of compressed air. The wind energy serves as a primary resource when it powers the compressor, which fills the pneumatic accumulator (storage tank of compressed air). The compressed air is at a time of peak endurance consumed from pneumatic accumulators for the work of pneumatic engine, which powers the generator and the produced electric energy is being supplied to the public network. (authors)

  1. Synchronization of grid-connected renewable energy sources under highly distorted voltages and unbalanced grid faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadjidemetriou, Lenos; Kyriakides, Elias; Blaabjerg, Frede

    Renewable energy sources require accurate and appropriate performance not only under normal grid operation but also under abnormal and faulty grid conditions according to the modern grid codes. This paper proposes a novel phase-locked loop algorithm (MSHDC-PLL), which can enable the fast and...... dynamic synchronization of the interconnected renewable energy system under unbalanced grid faults and under highly harmonic distorted voltage. The outstanding performance of the suggested PLL is achieved by implementing an innovative multi-sequence/harmonic decoupling cell in order to dynamically cancel...... renewable energy systems. Therefore, the performance of the new PLL can increase the quality of the injected power under abnormal conditions and in addition enable the renewable energy systems to provide the appropriate support to the grid under balanced and unbalanced grid faults....

  2. Renewable Energy Sources in the Frame of New Croatian Energy Laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foreseen changes in the market of network energy systems in the Republic of Croatia, that include restructuring, privatisation and changes in the whole energy sector are going to have significant influence on the possibilities of introduction and use of renewable energy sources (RES). After recognition of Energy Law and three laws on markets (electric energy, gas, oil and oil derivatives) and Energy Activities Regulation Law, there is still a demanding job to be undertaken regarding numerous sub law acts, that are to define precisely all instruments of the state policy considering RES. The application of new laws and sub laws on RES projects in Croatia will create stabile and complete framework through incentive measures that are going to evaluate environmental and all other positive outcomes from RES. In accordance with other European countries Croatia will create a transparent platform to accommodate expected increase in the RES sector.(author)

  3. Power quality enhancement of renewable energy source power network using SMES system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, H. R.; Kim, A. R.; Park, M.; Yu, I. K.

    2011-11-01

    This paper deals with power quality enhancement of renewable energy source power network using SMES system and describes the operation characteristics of HTS SMES system using real-toroidal-type SMES coil for smoothening the fluctuation of large-scale renewable energy source such as photovoltaic (PV) power generation system. It generates maximum power of PV array under various weather conditions. SMES unit charges and discharges the HTS coil to mitigate the fluctuation of PV system output power. The SMES unit is controlled according to the PV array output and the utility power quality conditions. The grid connected PV and SMES system has been modeled and simulated using power-hard-in-the-loop simulation (PHILS). The PHILS results demonstrated the effectiveness of the SMES system for enhancing power quality in power network including large-scale renewable energy source, especially PV power generation system.

  4. Renewable energy sources. Systems engineering, economic efficiency, environmental aspects. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physical fundamentals and basic systems- engineering aspects of the main renewable-energy techniques applied in Germany are presented. The characteristics of renewable energy supplies are discussed. Solar thermal and geothermal techniques, and techniques for the generation of electrical energy from solar radiation (photovoltaics) are described. Parameters for an ecological and economic evaluation and for evaluation of the relevant energy management factors are discussed considering the present state and future development. Comparisons of the different techniques among each other and comparisons with techniques that utilize fossil energy sources allow one to evaluate the present and future chances and risks of renewable energy supplies in Germany considering the respective conventional techniques and the present situation of energy management. (orig./UA)

  5. Feasibility study of renewable energy source, explosion in India with regard to regional environmental factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the context of global warming and growing energy needs, there is a need for exploration of alternative source of energy. The main renewable energy sources are: (1) solar (2) wind (3) biomass (4) geothermal. By far the largest energy resource is the sun. Using one ten-thousandth part of the incoming sunlight would cover the whole energy demand of mankind. Based on the raw energy source, power plants convert any source of energy (thermal, solar, wind, nuclear etc.) into electrical energy. Kinetic energy of wind can be used to run turbines. Wind can reach much higher densities than solar irradiance. Forms of energy such as wind are considered short term energy storage, whereas energy in biomass is accumulated over a period of months or years. Solid biomass such as combustible field crops or firewood is burnt to heat water or turbines. A literature survey is carried out to estimate the potential of each renewable energy resource in various parts of country. The economic factors involved and the policies and regulations in place are also considered in the present study. Parameters like exploration costs, capital expenditure, legal procedures involved, licences needed are considered in order to judge the viability of an investment. The objective of the study is to come up with a possible plan of region-wise exploitation of these alternative renewable resources in India

  6. Renewable energy resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellabban, Omar S.; Abu-Rub, Haitham A.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    Electric energy security is essential, yet the high cost and limited sources of fossil fuels, in addition to the need to reduce greenhouse gasses emission, have made renewable resources attractive in world energy-based economies. The potential for renewable energy resources is enormous because th...

  7. A support of the renewable source energy utilization and conditions for the biogas station investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes possibilities of the renewable energy source projects funding and arises an importance of the analysis which should be the first step before investing in the generation of energy from renewable sources. The issue of investing in biogas plants is related to particular conditions of the investor. The extent of the investment is never clear and always depends on the company equipment. Therefore, the quality evaluation of the project in the preparatory phase can protect the investor against a direct damage and disappointment. (authors)

  8. Summary for Policy Makers: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report Renewable Energy Sources (SRREN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvizu, Dan; Bruckner, Thomas; Christensen, John; Devernay, Jean-Michel; Faaij , Andre; Fischedick, Manfred; Goldstein, Barry; Hansen, Gerrit; Huckerby , John; Jager-Waldau, Arnulf; Kadner, Susanne; Kammen, Daniel; Krey, Volker; Kumar, Arun; Lewis , Anthony; Lucon, Oswaldo; Matschoss, Patrick; Maurice, Lourdes; Mitchell , Catherine; Moomaw, William; Moreira, Jose; Nadai, Alain; Nilsson, Lars J.; Nyboer, John; Rahman, Atiq; Sathaye, Jayant; Sawin, Janet; Schaeffer, Roberto; Schei, Tormod; Schlomer, Steffen; Sims, Ralph; von Stechow, Christoph; Verbruggen, Aviel; Urama, Kevin; Wiser, Ryan; Yamba, Francis; Zwickel, Timm

    2011-05-08

    The Working Group III Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation (SRREN) presents an assessment of the literature on the scientific, technological, environmental, economic and social aspects of the contribution of six renewable energy (RE) sources to the mitigation of climate change. It is intended to provide policy relevant information to governments, intergovernmental processes and other interested parties. This Summary for Policymakers provides an overview of the SRREN, summarizing the essential findings. The SRREN consists of 11 chapters. Chapter 1 sets the context for RE and climate change; Chapters 2 through 7 provide information on six RE technologies, and Chapters 8 through 11 address integrative issues.

  9. Potentials and costs of renewable sources of energy in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this article is to analyze the technical potentials, the regional distribution, and the corresponding costs of all renewable energy sources that could be used in the Federal Republic of Germany. Therefore the authors distinguish among options for producing electricity (hydropower, wind energy, photovoltaic usage of solar energy), options for producing solid and liquid energy carriers (energy plantations), options for using residual products (residual wood, straw, biogas from animal wastes, other organic waste), and options for the direct covering of heat demand (solar and geothermal heating). For these different possibilities the technical energy potentials and the corresponding costs are presented and discussed on the background of the current energy system. Finally, conclusions are drawn about the current changes and the given restrictions of these renewable energy sources in the Federal Republic of Germany

  10. GIS to support cost-effective decisions on renewable sources applications for low temperature geothermal energy

    CERN Document Server

    Gemelli, Alberto; Diamantini, Claudia; Longhi, Sauro

    2013-01-01

    Through the results of a developed case study of information system for low temperature geothermal energy, GIS to Support Cost-effective Decisions on Renewable Sources addresses the issue of the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in evaluating cost-effectiveness of renewable resource exploitation regional scale. Focusing on the design of a Decision Support System, a process is presented aimed to transform geographic data into knowledge useful for analysis and decision-making on the economic exploitation of geothermal energy. This detailed description includes a literature review and technical issues related to data collection, data mining, decision analysis for the informative system developed for the case study. A multi-disciplinary approach to GIS design is presented which is also an innovative example of fusion of georeferenced data acquired from multiple sources including remote sensing, networks of sensors and socio-economic censuses. GIS to Support Cost-effective Decisions on Renewable Sources ...

  11. Global warming and renewable energy sources for sustainable development: A case study in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renewable energy sources have been important for humans since the beginning of civilization. For centuries and in many ways, biomass has been used for heating and cooking. Many centuries ago mankind was already utilizing the clearly visible power of water for mechanical drive purposes, as was also the case with wind. On the other hand, Turkey, with its young population and growing energy demand per person, its fast growing urbanization, and its economic development, has been one of the fast growing power markets of the world for the last two decades. It is expected that the demand for electric energy in Turkey will be 300 billion kWh by the year 2010 and 580 billion kWh by the year 2020. Turkey is heavily dependent on expensive imported energy resources that place a big burden on the economy and air pollution is becoming a great environmental concern in the country. In this regard, renewable energy resources appear to be the one of the most efficient and effective solutions for clean and sustainable energy development in Turkey. Turkey's geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of most of these renewable energy sources. This article presents a review of the potential and utilization of the renewable energy sources in Turkey. (author)

  12. The renewable energies sources in France 1970-2000; Les energies renouvelables en France 1970-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this report is to describe the energy production from renewable sources in France since 1970. In France the rate of using renewable energy sources is unequal. Some of them as hydro energy show a confirmed industrial and commercial interest when other techniques have not still reach the same level of maturity. The renewable energy sources chosen to calculate the electric and thermal production of France are: for electric power, hydro energy, wind energy, solar energy, geothermal energy, the urban wastes, the wood wastes, the harvesting residues, the biogas. For the thermal production, the thermal solar energy, the geothermal energy, the urban wastes, the wood and wood wastes, the harvesting residues, the biogas and bio fuels. The figures are marked in thirty tables. (N.C.)

  13. Use of renewable energy sources. A lecture manuscript. 8. new enl. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This eighth edition of the lecture manuscript makes a comprehensive survey of all important methods for renewable energy utilization. It contains many details on theoretical fundamentals, energy-relevant and operating characteristics, experience with practical operation and, finally, cost assessments of energy generation using the new techniques. The chapter on the potential of new energy sources including biomass has been distinctly extended in this edition. (orig./RHM)

  14. The use of renewable energy sources in the Kaliningrad region: Current state and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teterina N.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the current condition and development prospects of the fuel and energy industry of the Kaliningrad region specified in regional programmes. The authors compare the potentials of different renewable energy sources and provide information on the exploitation of different renewable energy objects in the region. The article presents a preliminary assessment of the thermal capacity necessary for the residential area of an ecovillage with a population of 50,000 and suggests ensuring heat supply with the help of heat pumps.

  15. Promotion of electricity produced from renewable energy sources - Strategic objective of the Romania energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents different types of support schemes for promoting electricity produced from renewable energy sources in some countries from European Union and details concerning the primary and secondary legislation developed in Romania in the field of promotion of electricity produced from renewable energy sources, making a rehearse of the acts issued. Romania has a clear regulatory framework in the field of promoting E-RES, the green certificates market becoming operational from November 2005, when the first green certificates transaction session organised by SC OPCOM SA took place. With hydro energy being exception from the rule, the Romanian RES potential is almost unused, existing the possibility for promotion some efficient investments in units which produce E-RES, turning to good account to the best emplacements. Although the achievements in using RES are still modest, taking into consideration the attention of numerous investors and the way that the support scheme worked until now, with advantages for the existing E-RES producers, it is expected an acceleration of the rhythm of appearance of new investments. In order to actuate the investors attention, a stronger involvement of the local authorities is necessary, for identifying and promoting the most efficient RES using projects

  16. Opportunities of energy supply of farm holdings on the basis of small-scale renewable energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efendiev, A. M.; Nikolaev, Yu. E.; Evstaf'ev, D. P.

    2016-02-01

    One of the major national economic problems of Russia is raising of agricultural production, which will provide strategic security and sustainable supply of the population with provisions. Creation of subsidiary small holdings, farm holdings, and peasant farm holdings will require addressing issues of energy supply. At considerable distance of small farms from centralized energy systems (by fuel, electricity and thermal energy) it is proposed to create a system of local energy networks on the basis of low-powered power plants using renewable energy sources (RES). There is economic unreasonableness of use of imported components of small power plants. Creation of new combined small power plants on renewable energy sources produced by domestic manufacturers is recommended. Schemes of arrangements of small power plants based on renewable energy sources are proposed, variants and characteristics of a basic source are provided—biogas plants developed by the authors. Calculations revealed that heat and power supply of self-contained farms distant from small power plants based on renewable energy sources is 2.5-2.6 times cheaper than from centralized networks. Production of biogas through anaerobic fermentation of organic waste of cattle complexes is considered as the basis. The analysis of biowaste output in various cattle farms is carried out, and the volume of biogas is determined to meet the requirements of these farms in electrical and thermal energy. The objective of the present article is to study the possibility of creating small combined power plants in Russia based on renewable sources of energy for independent consumers.

  17. Green Power Grids: How Energy from Renewable Sources Affects Networks and Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mureddu, Mario; Caldarelli, Guido; Chessa, Alessandro; Scala, Antonio; Damiano, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    The increasing attention to environmental issues is forcing the implementation of novel energy models based on renewable sources. This is fundamentally changing the configuration of energy management and is introducing new problems that are only partly understood. In particular, renewable energies introduce fluctuations which cause an increased request for conventional energy sources to balance energy requests at short notice. In order to develop an effective usage of low-carbon sources, such fluctuations must be understood and tamed. In this paper we present a microscopic model for the description and for the forecast of short time fluctuations related to renewable sources in order to estimate their effects on the electricity market. To account for the inter-dependencies in the energy market and the physical power dispatch network, we use a statistical mechanics approach to sample stochastic perturbations in the power system and an agent based approach for the prediction of the market players’ behavior. Our model is data-driven; it builds on one-day-ahead real market transactions in order to train agents’ behaviour and allows us to deduce the market share of different energy sources. We benchmarked our approach on the Italian market, finding a good accordance with real data. PMID:26335705

  18. Green Power Grids: How Energy from Renewable Sources Affects Networks and Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mureddu, Mario; Caldarelli, Guido; Chessa, Alessandro; Scala, Antonio; Damiano, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    The increasing attention to environmental issues is forcing the implementation of novel energy models based on renewable sources. This is fundamentally changing the configuration of energy management and is introducing new problems that are only partly understood. In particular, renewable energies introduce fluctuations which cause an increased request for conventional energy sources to balance energy requests at short notice. In order to develop an effective usage of low-carbon sources, such fluctuations must be understood and tamed. In this paper we present a microscopic model for the description and for the forecast of short time fluctuations related to renewable sources in order to estimate their effects on the electricity market. To account for the inter-dependencies in the energy market and the physical power dispatch network, we use a statistical mechanics approach to sample stochastic perturbations in the power system and an agent based approach for the prediction of the market players' behavior. Our model is data-driven; it builds on one-day-ahead real market transactions in order to train agents' behaviour and allows us to deduce the market share of different energy sources. We benchmarked our approach on the Italian market, finding a good accordance with real data. PMID:26335705

  19. The integration of renewable energy sources into electric power distribution systems. Volume 2, Utility case assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaininger, H.W.; Ellis, P.R.; Schaefer, J.C. [Zaininger Engineering Co., San Jose, CA (United States)

    1994-06-01

    Electric utility distribution system impacts associated with the integration of renewable energy sources such as photovoltaics (PV) and wind turbines (WT) are considered in this project. The impacts are expected to vary from site to site according to the following characteristics: (1) The local solar insolation and/or wind characteristics; (2) renewable energy source penetration level; (3) whether battery or other energy storage systems are applied; and (4) local utility distribution design standards and planning practices. Small, distributed renewable energy sources are connected to the utility distribution system like other, similar kW- and MW-scale equipment and loads. Residential applications are expected to be connected to single-phase 120/240-V secondaries. Larger kw-scale applications may be connected to three-phase secondaries, and larger hundred-kW and MW-scale applications, such as MW-scale windfarms or PV plants, may be connected to electric utility primary systems via customer-owned primary and secondary collection systems. Small, distributed renewable energy sources installed on utility distribution systems will also produce nonsite-specific utility generation system benefits such as energy and capacity displacement benefits, in addition to the local site-specific distribution system benefits. Although generation system benefits are not site-specific, they are utility-specific, and they vary significantly among utilities in different regions. In addition, transmission system benefits, environmental benefits and other benefits may apply. These benefits also vary significantly among utilities and regions. Seven utility case studies considering PV, WT, and battery storage were conducted to identify a range of potential renewable energy source distribution system applications.

  20. Energy policy. Technical developments, political strategies, and concepts of action regarding renewable energy sources and rational energy use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This interdisciplinary study book deals with problems from the history of energy, energy sytems, energy engineering, and the potential of renewable energy sources: hydro and wind power, biomass, geothermal energy, photovoltaics and solar thermal conversion; the improvement of boundary conditions for their transfer to market; concepts of action and project funding preferences of the EU, USA and Japan in this sector; relevant activities of the federal German government and proposals by non-governmental players in the field as well as strategies for rational energy use; methods for building an energy consensus and criteria for valuating energy systems; concepts of action and proposals for extending solar energy use in the Mediterranean and Afrika, as well as political factors governing the market introduction and export promotion of renewable energy technologies in this triad: the USA, Japan, and the European Union. Seven of the papers contained in the book are individually recorded. (orig./RHM). 76 figs., 100 tabs

  1. Potential contributions of renewable energy sources and economically and ecologically feasible development strategies for Nordrhein-Westfalen. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This final technical report of the study contains the important equations and results of the above mentioned project. The main aim of the study was to show the importance of renewable energy in Nordrhein-Westfalen regarding its possible contribution to the energy supply as well as the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions, caused by the convertion of energy. Considering the energy sources photovoltaic, solar heating, wind and biomass, an economically oriented energy mix of renewable energy systems is developed, which describes the most economical combination of renewable energy sources and its production costs in dependence on the converted energy. In this connection a regional disaggregated estimation of the theoretical possible maximum contribution of the single renewable energy sources to the energy supply in the communities of Nordrhein-Westfalen is investigated. Basing on this estimation and on the technical datas of commerical manufactured systems, converting the energy sources sun, wind and biomass, the technical possibilities for an extension of the renewable energy are determined for every community. The result of the examinations shows, that the energy supply in Nordrhein-Westfalen could by based in future on barely a fourth by using renewable energy sources, on barely a third by using energy more efficient and on nearly the half by using fossil and nuclear energy sources. The costs however, which would be connected with an extension of renewable energy sources according to the suggested energy mix, can economical not be accepted in the further future. (orig./UA)

  2. Renewable energy sources role in the energy sources diversification process in Slovak Republic focused on east Slovakia region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Actually frequently discussed question is the problem of the human energy demand supply. Especially discussed is a problem of alternative energy devices integration into the existing fuel and energy supply system. For good interpretation of information's it is necessary to know specification of energy demand condition in particular branches of industry and energy sector. The subject of this article is to show variability, causality and complex character of the energetics as industry part, which directly determine human society progress tempo and direction. The accent was given to the problem of definition of basic requirement of electro-energetics, heat supply industry for communal and municipal applications and transport in narrow relation with environmental and social aspect. Renewable energy sources application is a one of the pillars of strategy for sustainable development. (authors)

  3. Stabilization of microgrid with intermittent renewable energy sources by SMES with optimal coil size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A controller design of a superconducting magnetic energy storage unit is proposed. The structure of a power controller is the practical proportional-integral (PI). The PI parameters and coil size are tuned by a particle swarm optimization. The proposed method is able to effectively alleviate power fluctuations. It is well known that the superconducting coil is the vital part of a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) unit. This paper deals with the power controller design of a SMES unit with an optimal coil size for stabilization of an isolated microgrid. The study microgrid consists of renewable energy sources with intermittent power outputs i.e., wind and photovoltaic. Since power generations from such renewable sources are unpredictable and variable, these result in power fluctuations in a microgrid. To stabilize power fluctuations, a SMES unit with a fast control of active and reactive power can be applied. The structure of a power controller is the practical proportional-integral (PI). Based on the minimization of the variance of power fluctuations from renewable sources as well as the initial stored energy of SMES, the optimal PI parameters and coil size are automatically and simultaneously tuned by a particle swarm optimization. Simulation studies show that the proposed SMES controller with an optimal coil size is able to effectively alleviate power fluctuations under various power patterns from intermittent renewable sources.

  4. Capacity Optimization of Renewable Energy Sources and Battery Storage in an Autonomous Telecommunication Facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragicevic, Tomislav; Pandžić, Hrvoje; Škrlec, Davor; Kuzle, Igor; Guerrero, Josep M.; Kirschen, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a robust optimization approach to minimize the total cost of supplying a remote telecommunication station exclusively by renewable energy sources (RES). Due to the intermittent nature of RES, such as photovoltaic (PV) panels and small wind turbines, they are normally supported...

  5. Power quality enhancement of renewable energy source power network using SMES system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power quality enhancement of a renewable energy source power network is performed by a real-toroidal-type SMES coil. SMES unit charges and discharges the HTS coil to mitigate the fluctuation of PV system output power. The grid connected PV and SMES system has been modeled and simulated using power-hard-in-the-loop simulation. The PHILS results demonstrated the effectiveness of the SMES system for enhancing power quality. This paper deals with power quality enhancement of renewable energy source power network using SMES system and describes the operation characteristics of HTS SMES system using real-toroidal-type SMES coil for smoothening the fluctuation of large-scale renewable energy source such as photovoltaic (PV) power generation system. It generates maximum power of PV array under various weather conditions. SMES unit charges and discharges the HTS coil to mitigate the fluctuation of PV system output power. The SMES unit is controlled according to the PV array output and the utility power quality conditions. The grid connected PV and SMES system has been modeled and simulated using power-hard-in-the-loop simulation (PHILS). The PHILS results demonstrated the effectiveness of the SMES system for enhancing power quality in power network including large-scale renewable energy source, especially PV power generation system.

  6. Stabilization of microgrid with intermittent renewable energy sources by SMES with optimal coil size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saejia, M., E-mail: samongkol@gmail.com [School of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520 (Thailand); Ngamroo, I. [School of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520 (Thailand)

    2011-11-15

    A controller design of a superconducting magnetic energy storage unit is proposed. The structure of a power controller is the practical proportional-integral (PI). The PI parameters and coil size are tuned by a particle swarm optimization. The proposed method is able to effectively alleviate power fluctuations. It is well known that the superconducting coil is the vital part of a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) unit. This paper deals with the power controller design of a SMES unit with an optimal coil size for stabilization of an isolated microgrid. The study microgrid consists of renewable energy sources with intermittent power outputs i.e., wind and photovoltaic. Since power generations from such renewable sources are unpredictable and variable, these result in power fluctuations in a microgrid. To stabilize power fluctuations, a SMES unit with a fast control of active and reactive power can be applied. The structure of a power controller is the practical proportional-integral (PI). Based on the minimization of the variance of power fluctuations from renewable sources as well as the initial stored energy of SMES, the optimal PI parameters and coil size are automatically and simultaneously tuned by a particle swarm optimization. Simulation studies show that the proposed SMES controller with an optimal coil size is able to effectively alleviate power fluctuations under various power patterns from intermittent renewable sources.

  7. Potential of hydrogen from oil palm biomass as a source of renewable energy worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly Yong, Tau Len; Lee, Keat Teong; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman; Bhatia, Subhash (School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia))

    2007-07-01

    Various catastrophes related to extreme weather events such as floods, hurricanes, droughts and heat waves occurring on earth in the recent times are definitely a clear warning sign from nature questioning our ability to protect the environment and ultimately earth itself. Progressive release of greenhouse gases (GHG) such as CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} from development of various energy intensive industries has ultimately cause earth to pay its debt. Realizing the urgency of reducing the emissions and yet simultaneously catering to needs of industries, researches and scientist conclude that renewable energy is the perfect candidate to fulfill both parties requirement. Renewable energy is capable of providing an effective option for the provision of energy services from the technical point of view. One of the best sources of renewable energy identified is from biomass. Biomass has been a major source of energy in the world since the beginning of civilization and researches have proven from time to time its viability for large scale production. However, till now, the laboratory scale outcome has not been successfully translated into real industries realization. It is found that renewable energy faces a lot of challenges including the availability of economical viable technology, sophisticated and sustainable natural resources management and proper market strategies under competitive energy markets. Amidst these challenges, the development and implementation of suitable policies by the local policy-makers is still the single and most important factor that can determine a successful utilization of renewable energy in a particular country. Ultimately, the race to the end line must begin with the proof of biomass ability to sustain in a long run as a continuous and reliable source of renewable energy. Thus, the aim of this paper is to present the potential availability of oil palm biomass that can be converted to hydrogen (leading candidate positioned as the energy of the millennium) through gasification reaction in supercritical water, as a source of renewable energy to policy makers. Oil palm topped the ranking as number 1 fruit crops in terms of production for the past 20 decades worldwide and is a potential candidate as 90% of the overall constituent of oil palm tree is biomass. With a world oil palm biomass production annually of about 184 6 million tons, the maximum theoretical yield of hydrogen potentially produced by oil palm biomass via this method is 2.16 x1010 kg H2 year-1 with energy content of 2.59 EJ year-1, meeting almost 50% of the current worldwide hydrogen demand. (orig.)

  8. Potential of hydrogen from oil palm biomass as a source of renewable energy worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various catastrophes related to extreme weather events such as floods, hurricanes, droughts and heat waves occurring on the Earth in the recent times are definitely a clear warning sign from nature questioning our ability to protect the environment and ultimately the Earth itself. Progressive release of greenhouse gases (GHG) such as CO2 and CH4 from development of various energy-intensive industries has ultimately caused human civilization to pay its debt. Realizing the urgency of reducing emissions and yet simultaneously catering to needs of industries, researches and scientists conclude that renewable energy is the perfect candidate to fulfill both parties requirement. Renewable energy provides an effective option for the provision of energy services from the technical point of view. In this context, biomass appears as one important renewable source of energy. Biomass has been a major source of energy in the world until before industrialization when fossil fuels become dominant and researches have proven from time to time its viability for large-scale production. Although there has been some successful industrial-scale production of renewable energy from biomass, generally this industry still faces a lot of challenges including the availability of economically viable technology, sophisticated and sustainable natural resources management, and proper market strategies under competitive energy markets. Amidst these challenges, the development and implementation of suitable policies by the local policy-makers is still the single and most important factor that can determine a successful utilization of renewable energy in a particular country. Ultimately, the race to the end line must begin with the proof of biomass ability to sustain in a long run as a sustainable and reliable source of renewable energy. Thus, the aim of this paper is to present the potential availability of oil palm biomass that can be converted to hydrogen (leading candidate positioned as the energy of the millennium) through gasification reaction in supercritical water, as a source of renewable energy to policy-makers. Oil palm topped the ranking as number 1 fruit crops in terms of production for the year 2007 with 36.90 million tonnes produced or 35.90% of the total edible oil in the world. Its potentiality is further enhanced by the fact that oil constitutes only about 10% of the palm production, while the rest 90% is biomass. With a world oil palm biomass production annually of about 184.6 million tons, the maximum theoretical yield of hydrogen potentially produced by oil palm biomass via this method is 2.16 x 1010 kg H2 year-1 with an energy content of 2.59 EJ year-1, meeting almost 50% of the current worldwide hydrogen demand. (author)

  9. Potential of hydrogen from oil palm biomass as a source of renewable energy worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various catastrophes related to extreme weather events such as floods, hurricanes, droughts and heat waves occurring on the Earth in the recent times are definitely a clear warning sign from nature questioning our ability to protect the environment and ultimately the Earth itself. Progressive release of greenhouse gases (GHG) such as CO2 and CH4 from development of various energy-intensive industries has ultimately caused human civilization to pay its debt. Realizing the urgency of reducing emissions and yet simultaneously catering to needs of industries, researches and scientists conclude that renewable energy is the perfect candidate to fulfill both parties requirement. Renewable energy provides an effective option for the provision of energy services from the technical point of view. In this context, biomass appears as one important renewable source of energy. Biomass has been a major source of energy in the world until before industrialization when fossil fuels become dominant and researches have proven from time to time its viability for large-scale production. Although there has been some successful industrial-scale production of renewable energy from biomass, generally this industry still faces a lot of challenges including the availability of economically viable technology, sophisticated and sustainable natural resources management, and proper market strategies under competitive energy markets. Amidst these challenges, the development and implementation of suitable policies by the local policy-makers is still the single and most important factor that can determine a successful utilization of renewable energy in a particular country. Ultimately, the race to the end line must begin with the proof of biomass ability to sustain in a long run as a sustainable and reliable source of renewable energy. Thus, the aim of this paper is to present the potential availability of oil palm biomass that can be converted to hydrogen (leading candidate positioned as the energy of the millennium) through gasification reaction in supercritical water, as a source of renewable energy to policy-makers. Oil palm topped the ranking as number 1 fruit crops in terms of production for the year 2007 with 36.90 million tonnes produced or 35.90% of the total edible oil in the world. Its potentiality is further enhanced by the fact that oil constitutes only about 10% of the palm production, while the rest 90% is biomass. With a world oil palm biomass production annually of about 184.6 million tons, the maximum theoretical yield of hydrogen potentially produced by oil palm biomass via this method is 2.16x1010 kg H2 year-1 with an energy content of 2.59 EJ year-1, meeting almost 50% of the current worldwide hydrogen demand

  10. Comparative analyses of seven technologies to facilitate the integration of fluctuating renewable energy sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    An analysis of seven different technologies is presented. The technologies integrate fluctuating renewable energy sources (RES) such as wind power production into the electricity supply, and the Danish energy system is used as a case. Comprehensive hour-by-hour energy system analyses are conducted of a complete system meeting electricity, heat and transport demands, and including RES, power plants, and combined heat and power production (CHP) for district heating and transport technologies. In c...

  11. Access of RONI to the renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this presentation author deals with the following problems: (1) European Union preferences in the energy policy; (2) Fundamental EU documents; (3) Principal requirements of the Directive No. 2001/77/EC; (4) Basics and presumptions for support of electricity production from RER's; (5) Legislation in force in the Slovak Republic (SR); (6) Current support situation in SR

  12. Evaluating the sustainability of an energy supply system using renewable energy sources: An energy demand assessment of South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Cedric Fitzgerald

    Sustainable energy is defined as a dynamic harmony between the equitable availability of energy-intensive goods and services to all people and the preservation of the earth for future generations. Sustainable energy development continues to be a major focus within the government and regulatory governing bodies in the electric utility industry. This is as a result of continued demand for electricity and the impact of greenhouse gas emissions from electricity generating plants on the environment by way of the greenhouse effect. A culmination of increasing concerns about climate change, the nuclear incident in Fukushima four years ago, and discussions on energy security in a world with growing energy demand have led to a movement for increasing the share of power generation from renewable energy sources. This work studies demand for electricity from primarily residential, commercial, agricultural, and industrial customers in South Carolina (SC) and its effect on the environment from coal-fired electricity generating plants. Moreover, this work studies sustainable renewable energy source-options based on the renewable resources available in the state of SC, as viable options to supplement generation from coal-fired electricity generating plants. In addition, greenhouse gas emissions and other pollutants from primarily coal-fired plants will be defined and quantified. Fundamental renewable energy source options will be defined and quantified based on availability and sustainability of SC's natural resources. This work studies the environmental, economic, and technical aspects of each renewable energy source as a sustainable energy option to replace power generation from coal-fired plants. Additionally, social aspect implications will be incorporated into each of the three aspects listed above, as these aspects are explored during the research and analysis. Electricity demand data and alternative energy source-supply data in SC are carried out and are used to develop and run the Sustainable Systems Analysis Algorithm (SSAA) and the multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) decision models. The following alternative energy sources for electricity (kilo- and megawatt output) will be assessed in this paper: solar, biomass and biofuels, hydro, geothermal, onshore wind, offshore wind, tidal, and natural gas. The SSAA methodology, in conjunction with the MCDA model techniques, will be used to obtain sustainable, alternative energy source system options; the system will attempt to balance its three linked aspects (environmental, economic, and technical). The results, based on the Sustainability Directive three-dimensional vector calculations from each alternative energy source option, are presented in this paper. Moving towards sustainability is a dynamically changing process, and the SSAA methodology is a synergist for system modifications that strives for continuous improvement toward the Ideal Sustainability Directive.

  13. Promoting electricity from renewable energy sources -- lessons learned from the EU, U.S. and Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, Reinhard; Meyer, Niels I.; Held, Anne; Finon, Dominique; Lorenzoni, Arturo; Wiser, Ryan; Nishio, Ken-ichiro

    2007-06-01

    The promotion of electricity generated from Renewable Energy Sources (RES) has recently gained high priority in the energy policy strategies of many countries in response to concerns about global climate change, energy security and other reasons. This chapter compares and contrasts the experience of a number of countries in Europe, states in the US as well as Japan in promoting RES, identifying what appear to be the most successful policy measures. Clearly, a wide range of policy instruments have been tried and are in place in different parts of the world to promote renewable energy technologies. The design and performance of these schemes varies from place to place, requiring further research to determine their effectiveness in delivering the desired results. The main conclusions that can be drawn from the present analysis are: (1) Generally speaking, promotional schemes that are properly designed within a stable framework and offer long-term investment continuity produce better results. Credibility and continuity reduce risks thus leading to lower profit requirements by investors. (2) Despite their significant growth in absolute terms in a number of key markets, the near-term prognosis for renewables is one of modest success if measured in terms of the percentage of the total energy provided by renewables on a world-wide basis. This is a significant challenge, suggesting that renewables have to grow at an even faster pace if we expect them to contribute on a significant scale to the world's energy mix.

  14. Supply of Renewable Energy Sources and the Cost of EU Climate Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Boeters, Stefan; Koornneef, Joris

    2010-01-01

    What are the excess costs of a separate 20% target for renewable energy as a part of the EU climate policy for 2020? We answer this question using a computable general equilibrium model, WorldScan, which has been extended with a bottom-up module of the electricity sector. The model set-up makes it possible to directly use available estimates of costs and capacity potentials for renewable energy sources for calibration. In our base case simulation, the costs of EU climate policy with the ...

  15. Nine Level Inverter with Boost Converter from Renewable Energy Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruthu Pandiyan.R

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new single phase nine level multilevel inverter is proposed. The input to the proposed nine level multilevel inverter is obtained from solar panel . The solar energy obtained from the solar panel is not constant and it varies with times. In order to maintain the constant voltage obtained from the solar panel the boost converter is used to maintain the constant output voltage using MPPT ( Perturb and observe algorithm algorithm. Then the buck boost converter output voltage is stored in the battery bank. Finally the battery energy is connected to the 9 level inverter circuits. The harmonics in the inverter is eliminated by using the fuzzy logic controller. The gate pulse for the multilevel inverter is given by the fuzzy logic controller which in turn reduces the harmonics in the inverter. Then the inverter output is connected to the grid are some application.

  16. Renewable energy resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellabban, Omar S.; Abu-Rub, Haitham A.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    Electric energy security is essential, yet the high cost and limited sources of fossil fuels, in addition to the need to reduce greenhouse gasses emission, have made renewable resources attractive in world energy-based economies. The potential for renewable energy resources is enormous because they can, in principle, exponentially exceed the world's energy demand; therefore, these types of resources will have a significant share in the future global energy portfolio, much of which is now concent...

  17. Nine Level Inverter with Boost Converter from Renewable Energy Source

    OpenAIRE

    Maruthu Pandiyan.R; Prabakaran. B

    2015-01-01

    A new single phase nine level multilevel inverter is proposed. The input to the proposed nine level multilevel inverter is obtained from solar panel . The solar energy obtained from the solar panel is not constant and it varies with times. In order to maintain the constant voltage obtained from the solar panel the boost converter is used to maintain the constant output voltage using MPPT ( Perturb and observe algorithm) algorithm. Then the buck boost converter output voltage is st...

  18. Renewable energy sources and their contribution to the domestic energy production and consumption in Italy in the year 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall electricity demand reached 261 TWh from 253.6 TWh, reflecting the 3.0 % growth of the gross domestic product recorded over the same period. The contribution of renewable energy sources (hydroelectricity, geothermal energy, biomass, solar, wind) to the national energy consumption in 1995 has been 12.8 Mtoe. It represented 7.4 % of the gross energy consumption

  19. Renewable energy sources and their contribution to the domestic energy production and consumption in Italy in the year 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall electricity demand reached 261 TWh from 253.6 TWh, reflecting the 3.0% growth of the gross domestic product recorded over the same period. The contribution of renewable energy sources (hydroelectricity, geothermal energy, biomasses, solar, wind) to the national energy consumption in 1995 has been 12.8 Mtoe. It represented 7.4% of the gross energy consumption

  20. Stabilization of microgrid with intermittent renewable energy sources by SMES with optimal coil size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saejia, M.; Ngamroo, I.

    2011-11-01

    It is well known that the superconducting coil is the vital part of a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) unit. This paper deals with the power controller design of a SMES unit with an optimal coil size for stabilization of an isolated microgrid. The study microgrid consists of renewable energy sources with intermittent power outputs i.e., wind and photovoltaic. Since power generations from such renewable sources are unpredictable and variable, these result in power fluctuations in a microgrid. To stabilize power fluctuations, a SMES unit with a fast control of active and reactive power can be applied. The structure of a power controller is the practical proportional-integral (PI). Based on the minimization of the variance of power fluctuations from renewable sources as well as the initial stored energy of SMES, the optimal PI parameters and coil size are automatically and simultaneously tuned by a particle swarm optimization. Simulation studies show that the proposed SMES controller with an optimal coil size is able to effectively alleviate power fluctuations under various power patterns from intermittent renewable sources.

  1. Wind Power: A Renewable Energy Source for Mars Transit Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Michael; Kohout, Lisa; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The Martian environment presents significant design challenges for the development of power generation systems. Nuclear-based systems may not be available due to political and safety concerns. The output of photovoltaics are limited by a solar intensity of 580 W/sqm as compared to 1353 W/sqm on Earth. The presence of dust particles in the Mars atmosphere will further reduce the photovoltaic output. Also, energy storage for a 12-hour night period must be provided. In this challenging environment, wind power generation capabilities may provide a viable option as a Martian power generation system. This paper provides an analysis of the feasibility of such a system.

  2. Electricity generation from renewable energy sources in Italy: the costs of the System Inefficiencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The promotion of electricity from renewable energy sources (RES) is a high European Union (E U) priority for several reasons, including the security and diversification of energy supply, environmental protection and social and economic cohesion. The Eu Council's decision of 9 March 2007 points towards increasing renewable penetration to 20% of total primary energy supply by 2020 (binding target). There are both costs and benefits associated with the achievement of such an ambitious target. For renewable technologies, the industrial cost is often higher compared to other energy sources. however, due to learning curve effects and market diffusion, technology related costs are coming down considerably. In some cases, when the external costs are taken into account by the price system, renewable can now be close to competitive with fossil fuels. With particular reference to renewable electricity in Italy, its development is often hampered by burdensome and time consuming authorisation procedures with the consequence of a high mortality rate for the investments in the sector, leading to increased costs for the project management. Therefore, in these projects an important cost factor is the high cost of capital due to risk. The analysis of the various renewables' support mechanisms currently in place in the E U shows that some types of incentive have proven to be more efficient than others in reducing the risk perception of investors and financing institutions, therefore making projects less expensive by reducing the cost of capital (both debt and equity). Therefore the focus here is on the electricity generation costs of some renewable technologies and on the costs related to the additional risk perceived by investors/lenders in the sector. The authors estimate the additional cost of capital which investors pay when operating in a risky environment. Some policy indications are finally given to reduce the non-technology related costs for a faster and more efficient growth of the sector.

  3. Renewable energy application in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Pakistan the energy sources are limited while there is huge demand for commercial energy. Therefore to meet the massive demand, an energy transition from limited fossil fuel reserves to abundant renewable energy sources has become inevitable. With a modest programme for renewable energy utilisation, a number of different government and semi government organizations are operating renewable system in different parts of the country. The progress made in renewable energy state has been discussed in this paper. (author)

  4. Electricity from renewable energy sources in the United Kingdom. Current status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the prospect of the introduction of the Renewables Obligation and given the increasing level of interest of both customers and electricity suppliers in green energy offers, in one concise document the current status and the prospects of the market for electricity from renewable energy sources in the United Kingdom (UK) is explored. After an overview of the electricity market balance, the report investigates in turn the possibilities and incentives for entering the UK production and retail green energy business. The Renewable Obligation Certificates and the status of the regulation concerning imports and trades of certificates are also tackled. This report aims to provide foreign investors and/or new entrants on the challenging UK market for green power with the information they need

  5. Tennessee plant species screened for renewable energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, M.E.; Bagby, M.O.

    The USDA Northern Regional Research Center (NRRC) has previously studied chemical and botanical characteristics of about 1000 plant species in efforts to identify potential new plant sources for industrial raw materials. For this report, an additional 51 species were collected from Tennessee and studied. Above-ground plant samples were analyzed for yields of oils, polyphenols, hydrocarbons, protein, and ash. Oils were examined for the presence of seven classes of lipids and analyzed for yields of fatty acids and unsaponifiable matter. Hydrocarbons were examined for the presence of rubber, gutta, and waxes. Rubber and gutta were analyzed for average molecular weight (MW) and MW distribution. Chemical and botanical data are presented for eight of the 51 species. A checklist of the 43 other species is given; data on these are available from NRRC. Lapsana communis yielded the most oil (6.1%; dry, ash-free, plant sample basis). Ilex montana yielded the most polyphenol (21.5%) plus 4.5% oil. Agrimonia parviflora and Catalpa bignonioides gave substantial yields of polyphenol (20.0% and 17.9%, respectively), and Passiflora incarnata contained the most apparent protein (19.8%). Chrysopsis graminifolia, Solidago erecta, and Verbesina alternifolia were identified as rubber-producing species with 0.4-0.7% hydrocarbon.

  6. Evaluation of 107 legumes for renewable sources of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, W.B.; Carr, M.E.; Cull, I.M.; Phillips, B.S.; Bagby, M.O.

    One hundred and seven species of randomly-collected Leguminosae were evaluated for their potential as energy-producing crops. Whole plants, excluding roots, were chemically analyzed, and 11 species were identified as the more promising for future considerations based on a numerical rating system developed at this Center. Of the 11 species, one contained principally rubber (polyisoprene) in the hydrocarbon fraction and 7 contained principally wax. Hydrocarbon fractions of 3 species with less than 0.4% were not examined. The oils of species with at least 3.0% oil were examined by thin layer chromatography (TLC) to determine classes of components and were given a saponification treatment to determine yields of unsaponifiable matter and fatty acids. The oil of one species was quantitatively analyzed for classes of compounds by TLC-flame ionization detection. Selected species with ratings greater than 10 are briefly discussed. 16 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  7. Some successful financing mechanisms for energy efficiency projects (EE) and projects using renewable energy sources (RES) - the experience of Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper analysis some of the most promising financial mechanisms for energy efficiency (EE) and renewable energy sources (RES) projects in Bulgaria - the TPF mechanism, the KIDS Fund, delivered by the EBRD fund the EE fund of the WB, established on the floor of the EE act, as well as a number of some of the pre accession and European energy programs used for financing this area. All data its rich intensive international and in -home work in the are of energy efficiency and renewable energy sources. (Author)

  8. A credit line appropriated for energy efficiency and renewable energy sources in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The credit line was developed by the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) in co-operation with the Bulgarian government. In this financial project several bulgarian banks are involved. The purpose of this project is to support mainly the private enterprises in the sector of energy efficiency and renewable energy sources. The main steps of the applying process are discussed and useful practical information is given. In Bulgaria till now 125 projects are successful financed with total amount about 72 million Euro. The projects will generate annually more than 457 000 MWh electric power and 615 285 MWh thermal power, as well as an annual reduction of about 494 200 t CO2 emissions is expected

  9. Promoting renewable energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technologies using renewable energy sources are receiving increasing interest from both public authorities and power producing companies, mainly because of the environmental advantages they procure in comparison with conventional energy sources. These technologies can be substitution for conventional energy sources and limit damage to the environment. Furthermore, several of the renewable energy technologies satisfy an increasing political goal of self-sufficiency within energy production. The subject of this thesis is promotion of renewable technologies. The primary goal is to increase understanding on how technological development takes place, and establish a theoretical framework that can assist in the construction of policy strategies including instruments for promotion of renewable energy technologies. Technological development is analysed by through quantitative and qualitative methods. (BA)

  10. An investigation of energy harvesting from renewable sources with PVDF and PZT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piezoelectric materials have been in use for many years; however, with an increasing concern about global warming, piezoelectricity has gained significant importance in research and development for extracting energy from the environment. In this work the voltage responses of ceramic based piezoelectric fibre composite structures (PFCs) and polymer based piezoelectric strips, PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride), were evaluated when subjected to various wind speeds and water droplets in order to investigate the possibility of energy generation from these two natural renewable energy sources for utilization in low power electronic devices. The effects of material dimensions, drop mass, releasing height of the drops and wind speed on the voltage output were studied and the power was calculated. This work showed that piezoelectric polymer materials can generate higher voltage/power than ceramic based piezoelectric materials and it was proved that producing energy from renewable sources such as rain drops and wind is possible by using piezoelectric polymer materials

  11. An iterative approach for symmetrical and asymmetrical Short-circuit calculations with converter-based connected renewable energy sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Göksu, Ömer; Teodorescu, Remus; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Iov, Florin; Kjar, Philip Carne

    As more renewable energy sources, especially more wind turbines are installed in the power system, analysis of the power system with the renewable energy sources becomes more important. Short-circuit calculation is a well known fault analysis method which is widely used for early stage analysis and...

  12. Renewable energy sources and climate change mitigation. Special report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edenhofer, O. (Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK), Potsdam (Germany)); Pichs Madruga, R. (Centro de Investigaciones de la Economia Mundial (CIEM), Hanoi (Viet Nam)); Sokona, Y. (African Climate Policy Centre, United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)) (and others)

    2012-07-01

    Climate change is one of the great challenges of the 21st century. Its most severe impacts may still be avoided if efforts are made to transform current energy systems. Renewable energy sources have a large potential to displace emissions of greenhouse gases from the combustion of fossil fuels and thereby to mitigate climate change. If implemented properly, renewable energy sources can contribute to social and economic development, to energy access, to a secure and sustainable energy supply, and to a reduction of negative impacts of energy provision on the environment and human health. This Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation (SRREN) impartially assesses the scientific literature on the potential role of renewable energy in the mitigation of climate change for policymakers, the private sector, academic researchers and civil society. It covers six renewable energy sources - bioenergy, direct solar energy, geothermal energy, hydropower, ocean energy and wind energy - as well as their integration into present and future energy systems. It considers the environmental and social consequences associated with the deployment of these technologies, and presents strategies to overcome technical as well as non-technical obstacles to their application and diffusion. The authors also compare the levelized cost of energy from renewable energy sources to recent non-renewable energy costs. (Author)

  13. Integration of Renewable Energy Sources in Future Power Systems: The Role of Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Weitemeyer, Stefan; Kleinhans, David; Vogt, Thomas; Agert, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Integrating a high share of electricity from non-dispatchable Renewable Energy Sources in a power supply system is a challenging task. One option considered in many studies dealing with prospective power systems is the installation of storage devices to balance the fluctuations in power production. However, it is not yet clear how soon storage devices will be needed and how the integration process depends on different storage parameters. Using long-term solar and wind energy...

  14. TESES rules as a tool of analysis for chosen renewable energy sources projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inevitability or in other words the need of energies extraction by other means than the present ones, leads us to further alternatives. The article is trying to show the importance of legislative by implementation of new technological solutions in using renewable energy sources. The impact of these limitations will be shown on two examples, which are limited by the mentioned legislative politics of the Slovak Republic. (authors)

  15. The promotion in Romania of electricity from renewable energy sources - present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with the present situation and prospects of electricity generation from renewable energy sources in Romania. The following subject matters are addressed: Legal framework; - Regulatory framework; - Ministry of Economy and Commerce - competence and responsibilities; - ANRE - competence and responsibilities; - Targets by 2010; - Benefits of Electricity from RES; - Costs, by technology, for E-RES; - Renewable support mechanisms; - RES, technical and economical potential for Romania; - Sensitivity Analysis. In conclusion, one stresses that the existing legal and regulatory framework which sets up responsibilities and dead lines regarding the promotion of E-RES and it's access on the market: - ensures a transparent, nondiscriminatory and objective treatment for the E-RES producers; - gives some facilities concerning the authorization process and ensures the take over of the electricity produced from renewable sources to the national grid; -sets up state aids granting conditions for investments and operation of the renewable energy sources; - requires some improvements regarding the financial support for promoting E-RES, guarantee of origin and trade. Depending on the chosen support scheme, the institutional framework will be developed in order to comply with the legal requirements and dead-lines. The technologies for E-RES generation will be implemented depending on: - the RES potential; - the commercial maturity of the technology, i.e. the technologies implied in hydro, wind, biomass, solar, waves and tide energy generation

  16. SPATIOTEMPORAL MODELING FOR ASSESSING COMPLEMENTARITY OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN DISTRIBUTED ENERGY SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ramirez Camargo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Spatial assessments of the potential of renewable energy sources (RES have become a valuable information basis for policy and decision-making. These studies, however, do not explicitly consider the variability in time of RES such as solar energy or wind. Until now, the focus is usually given to economic profitability based on yearly balances, which do not allow a comprehensive examination of RES-technologies complementarity. Incrementing temporal resolution of energy output estimation will permit to plan the aggregation of a diverse pool of RES plants i.e., to conceive a system as a virtual power plant (VPP. This paper presents a spatiotemporal analysis methodology to estimate RES potential of municipalities. The methodology relies on a combination of open source geographic information systems (GIS processing tools and the in-memory array processing environment of Python and NumPy. Beyond the typical identification of suitable locations to build power plants, it is possible to define which of them are the best for a balanced local energy supply. A case study of a municipality, using spatial data with one square meter resolution and one hour temporal resolution, shows strong complementarity of photovoltaic and wind power. Furthermore, it is shown that a detailed deployment strategy of potential suitable locations for RES, calculated with modest computational requirements, can support municipalities to develop VPPs and improve security of supply.

  17. Spatiotemporal Modeling for Assessing Complementarity of Renewable Energy Sources in Distributed Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez Camargo, L.; Zink, R.; Dorner, W.

    2015-07-01

    Spatial assessments of the potential of renewable energy sources (RES) have become a valuable information basis for policy and decision-making. These studies, however, do not explicitly consider the variability in time of RES such as solar energy or wind. Until now, the focus is usually given to economic profitability based on yearly balances, which do not allow a comprehensive examination of RES-technologies complementarity. Incrementing temporal resolution of energy output estimation will permit to plan the aggregation of a diverse pool of RES plants i.e., to conceive a system as a virtual power plant (VPP). This paper presents a spatiotemporal analysis methodology to estimate RES potential of municipalities. The methodology relies on a combination of open source geographic information systems (GIS) processing tools and the in-memory array processing environment of Python and NumPy. Beyond the typical identification of suitable locations to build power plants, it is possible to define which of them are the best for a balanced local energy supply. A case study of a municipality, using spatial data with one square meter resolution and one hour temporal resolution, shows strong complementarity of photovoltaic and wind power. Furthermore, it is shown that a detailed deployment strategy of potential suitable locations for RES, calculated with modest computational requirements, can support municipalities to develop VPPs and improve security of supply.

  18. The role of local renewable energy sources in regional energy production: The case of South-East Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Laihanen, A. Karhunen, T. Ranta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the paper was on discussing the challenges and possibilities of promoting and utilising various renewable energy sources at the regional level. National obligations and the rising prices of fossil fuels have put pressure on energy producers and end users to start utilising renewable energy sources. South-East Finland has one of Europe’s highest forest industry concentrations, and renewable energy sources such as wood fuels are utilised widely. The study utilises earlier regional studies and statistics as well as new results from this study. These results are combined into regional potentials which are presented by regional energy balance. The analyses provide important background information for decision making. The various regions of Finland have different operational environments and local participants need motivation and activation regarding these local possibilities.

  19. Solar, wind and waves: Natural limits to renewable sources of energy within the Earth system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renewable sources of energy, such as solar, wind, wave, or hydropower, utilize energy that is continuously generated by natural processes within the Earth system from the planetary forcing. Here we estimate the limits of these natural energy conversions and the extent to which these can be used as renewable energy sources using the laws of thermodynamics. At most, wind power in the order of 1 000 TW (1 TW = 1E12 W) can be derived from the total flux of incoming solar radiation of 175 000 TW, which is consistent with estimates based on observations. Other generation rates that are derived from the kinetic energy of wind are in the order of 10-100 TW. In comparison, the human primary energy demand of about 17 TW constitutes a considerable fraction of these rates. We provide some further analysis on the limits of wind power using a combination of conceptual models, observational data, and numerical simulation models. We find that many current estimates of wind power substantially overestimate the potential of wind power because the effect of kinetic energy extraction on the air flow is neglected. We conclude that the only form of renewable energy that is available in substantial amounts and that is associated with minor climatic impacts is solar power.

  20. Solar, wind and waves: Natural limits to renewable sources of energy within the Earth system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleidon, Axel [Max-Planck-Institute for Biogeochemistry, Jena (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Renewable sources of energy, such as solar, wind, wave, or hydropower, utilize energy that is continuously generated by natural processes within the Earth system from the planetary forcing. Here we estimate the limits of these natural energy conversions and the extent to which these can be used as renewable energy sources using the laws of thermodynamics. At most, wind power in the order of 1 000 TW (1 TW = 1E12 W) can be derived from the total flux of incoming solar radiation of 175 000 TW, which is consistent with estimates based on observations. Other generation rates that are derived from the kinetic energy of wind are in the order of 10-100 TW. In comparison, the human primary energy demand of about 17 TW constitutes a considerable fraction of these rates. We provide some further analysis on the limits of wind power using a combination of conceptual models, observational data, and numerical simulation models. We find that many current estimates of wind power substantially overestimate the potential of wind power because the effect of kinetic energy extraction on the air flow is neglected. We conclude that the only form of renewable energy that is available in substantial amounts and that is associated with minor climatic impacts is solar power.

  1. Renewable energy sources for the world's poor: a review of current international development assistance programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashworth, J. H.

    1979-10-01

    Foreign assistance funding of the creation, testing, and use of renewable energy sources concerning worldwide efforts to provide energy for Third World development is examined. Donor agencies and developing nations give serious attention to technologies that have been considered exotic and marginal: small-scale hydroelectric generation, solar water heating and distillation, biomass conversion to methane gas and alcohol, wind power, photovoltaic-powered small-scale irrigation, and village-level solar-powered absorption refrigeration. An initial effort to assist in the international coordination of donor activity and in the sharing of information generated by foreign-assistance projects that use renewable energy sources is reported. The report mainly provides information about specific development projects. It contains only a few of the projects that have been approved and funded by 1 June 1979. (MCW)

  2. Renewable energy sources monitoring systems; Sistema de monitoramento de fontes de energias renovaveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Teofilo Miguel de; Canto, Mario Afonso Ribeiro do [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Centro de Energias Renovaveis], e-mail: teofilo@feg.unesp.br

    2004-07-01

    The development of techniques and products for use of sources of energy renewed it depends on economic and technical parameters that result of revenue analyses and acting for its improvement. With the objective of to provide and to facilitate the access the information on the future acting of products and techniques of generation of energy of alternative sources and you renewed of energy, it was developed a collection project and storage of data of reduced cost and of facilitated visualization. The system developed in platform of software LabView controls a system of acquisition of data through interface RS-232 and it stores the data in files Excel or Files text, depending on the application type. The system of acquisition of data consists of a circuit of conditioning of analogic signs for digital signs, a control circuit and a circuit of communication type interface serial asynchronous RS-232. (author)

  3. Renewable sources of energy. Principles, social acceptance, and state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of power in contemporary society is characterized by being dominated by fossil combustion. Because of this there has been a global warming which has led to the climate change that is experienced today and will continue in the coming years. The combustion of fossil is primarily used for power generation and automotive transport. However the ground constantly becomes an amount of energy from the Sun millions of times greater than any society which needs. This energy is transformed in different ways and can be exploited in a different way without fear until. This is the primary basis of the renewable sources of energy. Most used renewable energy sources are solar energy (thermal, luminous, photovoltaic, photochemistry), wind energy, hydraulic energy, the energy of the Sea (tides, currents, waves, ocean thermal gradient), bioenergy (biogas, biomass, biofuels). Renewable energy sources are characterized by having its origin in the Sun, be inexhaustible and does not contribute to the warming of the planet, but on the other hand being distributed and accessible to all are more difficult to convert into business. For the popular masses are a solution, for the transnational power are a challenge. Traditionally though these sources of energy are available and are inexhaustible have been disregarded by the energy market in favour of lines called hard which include oil, coal and nuclear power. The form of generation and use of energy in the contemporary civilization is dominated by the consumer society that obliges the excessive generation of heat, the emission of pollutants and the destruction of the environment and biodiversity. To the global energy crisis some pathways are presented as response that can trigger solutions, or an escalation of the crisis. Among the proposals for change and with varied approaches are the energy revolution in Cuba, development in the path of the Sun, the possession of technologies, control of resources, carbon credits and the wars to name a few. There are contradictions about the use of energy in terms of carbon credits, agrofuels and the subsidy of the generation with oil. The followers of the ER promote energy efficiency, bioclimatic architecture, respect for nature, the conservation and protection of biodiversity. Today has been the ethical problems of the use of power and the exploitation of the FRE depending on the market which brings concentration, centralized generation, use of food to produce energy, class exploitation of sources which adds to the crisis. On the other hand new technologies and materials have been developed to make more efficient and cost-effective avenues of exploitation of renewables which include the development of new selective materials, the use of hydrogen cells and wind power by induction

  4. Electric power generation from renewable energy sources in Saxony; Elektroenergieerzeugung aus erneuerbaren Energiequellen in Sachsen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackstein, G. [Westsaechsische Energie AG, Markkleeberg (Germany); Riedel, J. [Energieversorgung Sachsen Ost AG, Dresden (Germany); Rindelhardt, U. [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V. (FZR), Dresden (Germany); Schwanitz, M. [Energieversorgung Suedsachsen AG, Chemnitz (Germany)

    1997-08-01

    The report sums up the potentials for electric energy generation from different renewable energy sources in Saxony. Natural potentials, technical potentials and economic potentials are considered separately. The established technical potential (without biomass) corresponds roughly to an electic power generation of 7400 GW hours annually. About 2/3 of this is wind energy, the rest is divided equally among hydro power and photo-voltaics. The harnessing of these potentials since 1990 is described in detail. Apart from hydro power, which has a long history as an energy source, wind energy, especially, is experiencing a very dynamic development. In 1997 still, wind power will outstrip hydro power as the most important renewable energy source in Saxony. But the further extension of these two energy sources meets increasingly with ecological objections or opposition. In 1996, about 1.3 per cent of the electric power consumed in Saxony came from renewable energy sources. It seems possible to increase this share to 5 per cent by the year 2000. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Bericht werden die Potentiale zur Elektroenergieerzeugung aus verschiedenen erneuerbaren Energiequellen in Sachsen zusammengestellt. Dabei werden natuerliche Potentiale und - wo moeglich - technische Potentiale sowie wirtschaftliche Potentiale unterschieden. Das ermittelte technische Potential (ohne Biomasse) entspricht etwa einer Elektroenergieproduktion von 7400 GWh jaehrlich. Davon entfallen etwa 2/3 auf die Windenergie und der Rest zu gleichen Teilen auf die Wasserkraft und die Photovoltaik. Die Erschliessung der Potentiale seit 1990 wird im Einzelnen dargestellt. Neben der seit langem genutzten Wasserkraft entwickelt sich insbesondere die Windenergie sehr dynamisch. Die Windenergie wird noch 1997 die Wasserkraft als bedeutendste erneuerbare Energie in Sachsen abloesen. Die weitere Nutzung dieser beiden Energiequellen stoesst allerdings auf zunehmende oekologische Bedenken bzw. Widerstaende. Der Anteil der erneuerbaren Energiequellen am Elektroenergieverbrauch in Sachsen erreichte 1996 etwa 1,3%. Bis zum Jahr 2000 erscheint eine Vergroesserung dieses Anteils auf ca. 5% moeglich. (orig.)

  5. PROGRESS Renewable Energy Country Profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Final Report presents the main findings of the project PROGRESS, Promotion and Growth of Renewable Energy Sources and Systems. For each EU-country an overview is given of activities with regard to renewable energy

  6. A practical algorithm for distribution state estimation including renewable energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niknam, Taher [Electronic and Electrical Department, Shiraz University of Technology, Modares Blvd., P.O. 71555-313, Shiraz (Iran); Firouzi, Bahman Bahmani [Islamic Azad University Marvdasht Branch, Marvdasht (Iran)

    2009-11-15

    Renewable energy is energy that is in continuous supply over time. These kinds of energy sources are divided into five principal renewable sources of energy: the sun, the wind, flowing water, biomass and heat from within the earth. According to some studies carried out by the research institutes, about 25% of the new generation will be generated by Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) in the near future. Therefore, it is necessary to study the impact of RESs on the power systems, especially on the distribution networks. This paper presents a practical Distribution State Estimation (DSE) including RESs and some practical consideration. The proposed algorithm is based on the combination of Nelder-Mead simplex search and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithms, called PSO-NM. The proposed algorithm can estimate load and RES output values by Weighted Least-Square (WLS) approach. Some practical considerations are var compensators, Voltage Regulators (VRs), Under Load Tap Changer (ULTC) transformer modeling, which usually have nonlinear and discrete characteristics, and unbalanced three-phase power flow equations. The comparison results with other evolutionary optimization algorithms such as original PSO, Honey Bee Mating Optimization (HBMO), Neural Networks (NNs), Ant Colony Optimization (ACO), and Genetic Algorithm (GA) for a test system demonstrate that PSO-NM is extremely effective and efficient for the DSE problems. (author)

  7. Providing renewable energy solutions in Ghana : Overview of the business environment in Ghana regarding some selected renewable energy sources

    OpenAIRE

    Dramani, Iliyasu

    2012-01-01

    This thesis was prepared as part of the CONNECT project embarked on by Laurea University of Applied sciences, other Universities of Applied Sciences and other stakeholders in partial fulfillment of a bachelors degree in business management. The main purpose of the CONNECT project is to enhance growth and speed up the internationalization within developing country markets of Finnish Small and Medium scale Enterprises (SMEs) renewable energy companies. The main research question addressed ...

  8. Renewable Energy Sources in the New Member States of the EU. Germany and Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EU-Japan Centre aims to stimulate industrial cooperation between the EU and Japan, including in the field of energy. It has therefore set up a New Energy Programme, which is in operation since 1987. Within the context of this programme, exchanges of European and Japanese specialists on renewable energy are organised, and studies on specific topics initiated. Previous studies of the EU Japan Centre were carried out on liberalization of the EU electricity market, EU support policies, waste as an energy source, wind energy and hydrogen. The study in this report, which CE Environmental Solutions carried out for the Centre, is directed at the development of renewable energy sources (RES) in the new member states of the European Union. This topic is of particular interest to the Centre, as such RES projects can be also carried out by Japanese firms under the Joint Implementation provisions of the Kyoto-protocol. The link of Joint Implementation projects to the European Emission Trading System, which is due to start on 1 January 2005, offers new business opportunities to Japanese firms. This study describes the status of renewable energy in the new member states of the European Union, Germany and Italy. The study also focuses on the European Emission Trading System (ETS), and analyses business opportunities for Japan that arise through RES projects in relation to the emissions trading system. This report starts with an discussion of EU climate change policies and in particular the EU emissions trade system, which is due to start on January 1st, 2005 (Chapter 2). In Chapter 3 we give an overview of policies and developments in renewable energy in the EU in which we focus on the policy framework, recent developments and expectations. This Chapter is based on more detailed overviews for each individual country, which are given in the annexes. Each country study also contains one typical case study of development of a renewable energy source in that country. Finally, in Chapter 4 overall conclusions of renewable energy developments in the new member states, Germany and Italy is given, focusing on future prospects and chances for investors

  9. Renewable energy sources and nuclear installations; Erneuerbare Energien und neue Nuklearanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirschberg, S.; Bauer, Ch.; Burgherr, P.; Stucki, S.; Vogel, F.; Biollaz, S.; Schulz, T.; Durisch, W.; Hardegger, P.; Foskolos, K.; Meier, A.; Schenler, W.

    2005-02-15

    This comprehensive work report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) made by the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI takes a look at work done in connection with the updating of the office's Energy Perspectives. In particular, the topic of electricity is reviewed in the light of pending important decisions in the area of nuclear energy and the newer renewable sources of energy. The report makes an attempt to estimate the effect on Swiss power production that the new renewables and new nuclear installations could have in the next 30-40 years and to what costs this could be done and which obstacles would have to overcome. The renewable energy sources include small hydro, wind, photovoltaics, solar thermal power plants, biogas, geothermal energy, wave-power and solar chemistry. The methods used include literature study and contacts with internal PSI experts on the various areas involved. The most important system characteristics were noted and learning curves for the various technologies were taken into account. Ecological and social factors were also considered

  10. Integration of renew able energy sources in smart grid: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing complexity of the existing power grid due to rapid population growth, development in technology, infrastructure and computational tools are the factors that contribute to the need of deployment of smart grid for secure and efficient use of electrical energy. The modernization of electric grids toward a smart grid is being carried out to improve reliability, facilitate integration of renewable energies, and improve power consumption management. Due to continuous depletion of primary fuel resources and global concern about the environmental pollution, the development of smart grids based on renewable energy resources has gained huge strategic significance now a days to resolve the energy crisis. However the intermittent and fluctuating nature of these sources makes the integration a difficult task that needs to be effectively addressed. Firstly this paper briefly discuss the emerging renewable energy resources (RERs) and Energy storage systems (EES). Secondly this work comprehensively reviews the potential challenges in integration of these sources in smart grid along with the applied control strategies for their facilitation and some practical case studies. (author)

  11. Issues, Challenges, Causes, Impacts and Utilization of Renewable Energy Sources - Grid Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Er. Mamatha Sandhu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The renewable energy sources have increased significantly due to environmental issues and fossil fuels elevated cost. Integration of renewable energy sources to utility grid depends on the scale of power generation. Large scale power generations are connected to transmission systems where as small scale distributed power generation is connected to distribution systems. There are certain challenges in the integration of both types of systems directly. Due to this, wind energy has gained a lot of investments from all over the world. However, due to the wind speeds uncertain behavior it is difficult to obtain good quality power, since wind speed fluctuations reflect on the voltage and active power output of the electric machine connected to the wind turbine. Solar penetration also changes the voltage profile and frequency response of the system and affects the transmission and distribution systems of utility grid. This paper presents a review in the issues, challenges, causes, impacts and utilization of renewable energy sources (RES - Grid Integration.

  12. Current status of research into the exploitation of renewable energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low power density and non-permanent availability are the factors making techniques for tapping renewable energy sources more costly than conventional energy technology, as they require higher primary investment. Thus activities for improving the competitiveness of renewable energy technology will have to concentrate on enhancing the efficiencies and the technical availability, and minimizing maintenance and operating expenses. These thus are the general, leading goals of current R+D and demonstration activities. As it is not possible for the purpose of this journal article to explain all techniques currently applicable in Germany, the following three major fields of application will be presented in greater detail: photovoltaic energy conversion, wind power systems, and solar thermal engineering. (orig.)

  13. Prioritization of renewable energy sources for Turkey by using a hybrid MCDM methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The paper proposes a hybrid model to prioritize RE sources for Turkey. • The hybrid model based on BOCR and ANP is proposed under linguistic values. • Strategic criteria are economy, security, wellbeing, technology and global effects. • Nineteen criteria are used to evaluate hydro, geothermal, solar, wind and biomass. - Abstract: Developing countries such as Turkey, with their fast growing population and economy, are facing an increasing demand for energy. Turkey does not possess a sufficient quantity of domestic oil and natural gas resources to support this growing demand. On the other hand, the country does have abundant reserves of renewable energy that can be a major component in providing part of the overall energy supply. The country plans to explore its renewable energy (RE) sources and increase the renewable energy share in near future. With this in mind, this paper proposes a hybrid model based on BOCR (Benefits, Opportunities, Costs and Risks) and ANP (Analytic Network Process) to determine Turkey’s energy status and prioritize alternative RE sources. BOCR analysis provides a strategic analysis and detailed overview of the country’s energy issues. ANP is a practical multi criteria decision making (MCDM) method and offers the advantages of decision making models, based on tangible and intangible factors. 19 criteria are used to evaluate five alternative RE sources (Hydro, Geothermal, Solar, Wind and Biomass). The subsequent results show that the most important strategic criterion is economy; other criteria include security, human wellbeing, technology and global effects. Their weights are 0.485, 0.235, 0.130, 0.097 and 0.053, respectively. In the conclusion of this paper, the authors propose hydro power as the optimal RE source for the country

  14. The daily hour forecasting of the electrical energy production from renewable energy sources – a required condition for the operation of the new energy market model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presented the new energy market model in Bulgaria and the main attention is directed to a daily hour forecasting of the electrical energy production from renewable energy sources. The need of development of a methodology and the development of the most precise methods for predicting is reviewed and some of the used methods at the moment are presented. An analysis of the problems related to the daily hour forecasting is done using data from the producers of electrical energy from renewable energy sources in the territory of western Bulgaria. Keywords: Renewable energy sources, daily hour forecasting, electrical energy

  15. Analysis of Possible Challenges in Implementation of EU Goals in Relation to Renewable Energy Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy is in all European countries traditionally treated as an activity of special national interest. By entering the EU, the member states have retained the earlier method of energy planning, making in this way the EU energy policy only a sum of energy policies of the member states. The sum of energy policies has in no way been the best policy if the EU is observed as a whole. In addition, some new challenges that the EU is faced with in the field of energy cannot be solved without a comprehensive European energy strategy. Increased use of renewable energy sources is one of the key assumptions of sustainable development in the EU energy sector and in fulfilling the request for decreasing greenhouse gases emissions. In its energy strategy the Republic of Croatia has also accepted the basic EU guidelines in this area and declared its readiness to contribute to that European initiative. There are still some unanswered and challenging details related to technical, economic and environmental parameters in connection with the future development that may question the feasibility and reliability of certain goals. This article presents EU goals related to the use of renewable sources of energy and elaborates the possible challenges in the realization of the whole project. The commitments of the Republic of Croatia and its possibilities and perspectives in realization of the set goals are also presented.(author).

  16. Energy from Waste: Reuse of Compost Heat as a Source of Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Antizar-Ladislao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An in-vessel tunnel composting facility in Scotland was used to investigate the potential for collection and reuse of compost heat as a source of renewable energy. The amount of energy offered by the compost was calculated and seasonal variations analysed. A heat exchanger was designed in order to collect and transfer the heat. This allowed heated water of 47.3?C to be obtained. The temperature could be further increased to above 60?C by passing it through multiple tunnels in series. Estimated costs for installing and running the system were calculated. In order to analyse these costs alternative solar thermal and ground source heat pump systems were also designed. The levels of supply and economic performance were then compared. A capital cost of 11,662 and operating cost of 1,039 per year were estimated, resulting in a cost of 0.50 per kWh for domestic water and 0.10 per kWh for spatial heat. Using the heat of the compost was found to provide the most reliable level of supply at a similar price to its rivals.

  17. A method for allocating renewable energy source subsidies among final energy consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a new context of growing need for renewable energy sources (RES), tariff design has become a critical component of energy system regulation. A methodology for allocating the cost of RES subsidies that ensures an optimal balance between compliance with the main regulatory principles of tariff design and each state's specific policy is of cardinal importance in the current context. This paper presents and discusses a novel methodology to allocate the RES subsidy costs, which consists of distributing them among final energy consumers, in proportion to their consumption, regardless of the type of final energy consumed (liquid fuels, gas, electricity or coal). First, the different designs of RES subsidies are categorized and a review of a good number of the RES burden sharing mechanisms implemented in the EU is presented. Then, the proposed methodology is developed on the basis of the basic regulatory principles underlying the tariff design and the current regulatory context in force in the EU. Finally, to illustrate its actual impact in a real case example, the proposed methodology is applied to the Spanish system, in which the burden of extra costs incurred for RES amounts to a very large proportion of the overall energy system costs. - Research highlights: ? This paper develops a novel methodology to allocate RES subsidy costs among final energy consumers. ? The methodology is built upon the basic tariff design principles and the 3rd package regulations. ? It consists of distributing them in proportion to liquid fuels, gas, electricity or coal consumption. ? The 20% RES target affects all energy sectors and justifies allocating the extra costs accordingly. ? The methodology is applied to the Spanish energy system, where the RES burden is a very significant.

  18. A method for allocating renewable energy source subsidies among final energy consumers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batlle, Carlos, E-mail: Carlos.Batlle@iit.upcomillas.e [Institute for Research in Technology, Comillas Pontifical University, Sta. Cruz de Marcenado 26, 28015 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-05-15

    In a new context of growing need for renewable energy sources (RES), tariff design has become a critical component of energy system regulation. A methodology for allocating the cost of RES subsidies that ensures an optimal balance between compliance with the main regulatory principles of tariff design and each state's specific policy is of cardinal importance in the current context. This paper presents and discusses a novel methodology to allocate the RES subsidy costs, which consists of distributing them among final energy consumers, in proportion to their consumption, regardless of the type of final energy consumed (liquid fuels, gas, electricity or coal). First, the different designs of RES subsidies are categorized and a review of a good number of the RES burden sharing mechanisms implemented in the EU is presented. Then, the proposed methodology is developed on the basis of the basic regulatory principles underlying the tariff design and the current regulatory context in force in the EU. Finally, to illustrate its actual impact in a real case example, the proposed methodology is applied to the Spanish system, in which the burden of extra costs incurred for RES amounts to a very large proportion of the overall energy system costs. - Research highlights: {yields} This paper develops a novel methodology to allocate RES subsidy costs among final energy consumers. {yields} The methodology is built upon the basic tariff design principles and the 3rd package regulations. {yields} It consists of distributing them in proportion to liquid fuels, gas, electricity or coal consumption. {yields} The 20% RES target affects all energy sectors and justifies allocating the extra costs accordingly. {yields} The methodology is applied to the Spanish energy system, where the RES burden is a very significant.

  19. An economic assessment of biogas production and land use under the German renewable energy source act

    OpenAIRE

    Delzeit, Ruth; Britz, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    The Renewable Energy Source Act (EEG) promotes German biogas production in order to substitute fossil fuels, protect the environment, and prevent climate change. As a consequence, green maize production has increased significantly over the last years, causing negative environmental effects on soil, water and biodiversity. In this paper we quantitatively analyse the EEG-reform in 2012 by applying the simulation tool ReSI-M (Regionalised Location Information System - Maize). Comparing the EEG 2...

  20. Grid integration of intermittent renewable energy sources using price-responsive plug-in electric vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Dallinger, David; Wietschel, Martin [Hrsg.

    2011-01-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are expected to balance the fluctuation of re-newable energy sources (RES). To investigate the contribution of PEVs, the availability of mobile battery storage and the control mechanism for load man-agement are crucial. This study therefore combined the following: a stochastic model to determine mobility behavior, an optimization model to minimize vehicle charging costs and an agent-based electricity market equilibrium model to esti-mate variable electricity p...

  1. Grid Interfacing Inverter of Renewable Energy Sources to Improve the Power Quality in Distribution System

    OpenAIRE

    M.ARCHANA; Y.C.V.KONDAIAH

    2013-01-01

    With the increase in load demand, the Renewable Energy Sources (RES) are increasingly connected in the distribution systems which utilizes power electronic Converters/Inverters. In this thesis, Photo Voltaic (PV) system is integrated to a three phase four wire distribution system. The Photo Voltaic (PV) Panel is modeled based on associated equations. The use of non-linear loads in the power system will lead to the generation of current harmonics which in turn deteriorates the power quality. A...

  2. An overview of the EU Member States support schemes for the promotion of renewable energy sources

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Poullikkas, George Kourtis, Ioannis Hadjipaschalis

    2012-01-01

    In this work, an overview of the European Union (EU) Member States support schemes for the promotion of renewable energy sources (RES) is provided. In particular, the status of the electricity generation capacity as well as the RES mixture in the Member States is described. Moreover, the different support schemes such as, investment support, feed-in tariffs (FiTs), tradable green certificates, and fiscal and financial measures which the Member States have adopted for the promotion of RES tech...

  3. “Team Play” between Renewable Energy Sources and Vehicle Fleet to Decrease Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Longo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of air pollutants for the purpose of maintaining or improving air quality across the globe is a fundamental concern to which all modern governments are allocating varying amounts of attention and resources. The successful amelioration of air pollution requires strategic investments in the commercialization and adoption of “clean energy technologies” by both private and public entities, the conversion of contemporary houses to “smart houses”, the diffusion of Renewable Energy Sources (RES including photovoltaic systems (PV, wind farms, and different forms of bioenergy, and the integration of electric-powered vehicles. In concert with these ideas, this paper aims to discuss the possibility of undertaking a feasibility study in two countries Canada and Italy concerning the integration of electric vehicles (EVs and electric motorcycles (EMs. The proposed feasibility study would seek to assess the prospect of replacing the current vehicle fleets in these two countries with EVs in a manner that utilizes renewable energy sources and, thus, does not generate new toxic emissions. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that a pronounced introduction and distribution of RES, EVs, and EMs can operate as a great opportunity for both the environment and the capacities and needs of energy production. Today, the EV is not widespread. With this contribution, it is shown how EVs can be well integrated with renewable energy. Therefore, it is the duty of governments to implement policy strategies, in order to spread them across more territory.

  4. Dynamic pricing based on a cloud computing framework to support the integration of renewable energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Thankappan Nair

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Integration of renewable energy sources into the electric grid in the domestic sector results in bidirectional energy flow from the supply side of the consumer to the grid. Traditional pricing methods are difficult to implement in such a situation of bidirectional energy flow and they face operational challenges on the application of price-based demand side management programme because of the intermittent characteristics of renewable energy sources. In this study, a dynamic pricing method using real-time data based on a cloud computing framework is proposed to address the aforementioned issues. The case study indicates that the dynamic pricing captures the variation of energy flow in the household. The dynamic renewable factor introduced in the model supports consumer oriented pricing. A new method is presented in this study to determine the appropriate level of photovoltaic (PV penetration in the distribution system based on voltage stability aspect. The load flow study result for the electric grid in Kerala, India, indicates that the overvoltage caused by various PV penetration levels up to 33% is within the voltage limits defined for distribution feeders. The result justifies the selected level of penetration.

  5. Challenges and prospects of electricity production from renewable energy sources in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of the utilisation of renewable energy sources and energy efficiency represents the main policy for sustainable development. The overall target of the European Union Directive on the promotion of the use of energy from renewables (RES) is to achieve at least a 20% share of energy from renewables in the gross final energy consumption in 2020. The mandatory national target for Slovenia is a 25% share of energy from RES in the gross final consumption. The share of RES in the gross final energy consumption in Slovenia was 18.8% in 2011 and the share of electricity production from RES was 30.8% in the gross electricity consumption. Electricity production from photovoltaics (PV) and biogas plants in agriculture has been growing fast after the adoption of the new supportive decree for electricity from RES in 2009. The very fast growth of PV plants has caused a problem for financing electricity from RES. Similar effects have been also recorded in the biogas sector, which represents a threat to food production. The state of the art, targets and challenges of electricity production from RES in Slovenia are described in the paper. - Highlights: • Slovenia's RES policy, regulatory frameworks and incentives are described. • The most important development challenges of the RES-E sector are discussed. • RES-E policy priorities need to be reassessed in view of recent global trends. • Responsible policy making and implementation follow-up are necessary

  6. Unified System-Level Modeling of Intermittent Renewable Energy Sources and Energy Storage for Power System Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heussen, Kai; Koch, Stephan; Ulbig, Andreas; Andersson, Goran

    2011-01-01

    The system-level consideration of inter- mittent renewable energy sources and small-scale en- ergy storage in power systems remains a challenge as either type is incompatible with traditional operation concepts. Non-controllability and energy-constraints are still considered contingent cases in...... market-based operation. The design of operation strategies for up to 100 % renewable energy systems requires an explicit consideration of non-dispatchable generation and stor- age capacities, as well as the evaluation of operational performance in terms of energy eciency, reliability, environmental...

  7. Renewable hot dry rock geothermal energy source and its potential in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaigham, Nayyer Alam [Department of Geology, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270 (Pakistan); Nayyar, Zeeshan Alam [Department of Applied Physics, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270 (Pakistan)

    2010-04-15

    Geothermal energy source, one of the viable renewable energy sources, has encouraging potential to generate full base-load electricity, which has not been explored so far in Pakistan. Though the country can be benefited by harnessing the hydro-geothermal options of energy generation in areas where sources exist, but most of these sources lie in extreme remote and inaccessible rugged mountainous ranges away from the urban-industrial centers. On the other hand, the present study shows that the HDR geothermal option is one of the most viable renewable sources considering the tectonic setup of Pakistan. Results of the study highlight the HDR geothermal energy prospects at relatively deeper depths than hydro-geothermal resources in water-free condition. The basement tectonic analyses reveal that the HDR prospects could be found even just below the urban-industrial centers of Pakistan where there are no hot springs and/or geysers like southern Indus basin in Sindh province or the Kharan trough in the western Balochistan province. Presence of high earth-skin temperature gradient trends derived from satellite temperature data and the high geothermal gradient anomalous zone derived from scanty data of bottom-hole temperatures of some of the oil and gas exploratory wells, indicates encouraging prospects for HDR energy sources in southern Indus and Thar Desert regions inclusive of Karachi synclinorium area. These high geothermal gradients have been inferred to be the result of the deep-seated southern Indus and the Thar fossil-rift structures. Moreover, the prospects of the HDR geothermal energy sources have also been inferred in the Chagai Arc region and the Kharan-Panjgur tectonic depression in the western part of Pakistan based on the analysis of integrated geophysical data. If HDR prospects are developed, they can offer the sustainable, CO{sub 2}-free and independent of time, of day, of weather or season, and the base-load energy-generation resource. (author)

  8. Education and training in renewable energy sources in Serbia and Montenegro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milorad Bojic [Kragujevac University (Yugoslavia). Mechanical Engineering Faculty

    2004-08-01

    This paper reports the status of Education and Training in Renewable Energy Sources (RFS) in Serbia and Montenegro (SAM) at the end of May 2003. It was found that universities in SAM do not give diplomas in RES. RES subjects primarily solar and wind energy are taught at graduate levels. RES units are taught as a part of some classical engineering disciplines at undergraduate level especially in solar and biomass energy. Teaching is mainly at encyclopaedic level and staff is mainly trained in general fields. This education may be regarded as unsatisfactory and should be expanded and intensified in future. (author)

  9. Investors Perspectives on Barriers to the Deployment of Renewable Energy Sources in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriyar Nasirov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, the importance of exploiting Chiles Renewable Energy Sources (RESs has increased significantly, as fossil fuel prices have risen and concerns regarding climate change issues grown, posing an important threat to its economy. However, to date, the advancement of Renewable Energy Technologies (RETs in the country has been very limited due to various barriers. For this reason, identifying and mitigating the main barriers that hamper the advancement of RETs is necessary to allow the successful deployment of these technologies. Based on data collected from a questionnaire survey and interviews conducted among the major renewable project developers, the authors identify and rank the major barriers to the adoption of renewable energy technologies in Chile. Our findings show that the most significant barriers include grid connection constraints and lack of grid capacity, longer processing times for a large number of permits, land and/or water lease securement and limited access to financing. Furthermore, we discuss the most critical barriers in detail together with policy recommendations to overcome them.

  10. Utilization of oil palm as a source of renewable energy in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumathi, S.; Chai, S.P.; Mohamed, A.R. [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2008-12-15

    Malaysia is currently the world's largest producer and exporter of palm oil. Malaysia produces about 47% of the world's supply of palm oil. Malaysia also accounts the highest percentage of global vegetable oils and fats trade in year 2005. Besides producing oils and fats, at present there is a continuous increasing interest concerning oil palm renewable energy. One of the major attentions is bio-diesel from palm oil. Bio-diesel implementation in Malaysia is important because of environmental protection and energy supply security reasons. This palm oil bio-diesel is biodegradable, non-toxic, and has significantly fewer emissions than petroleum-based diesel (petro-diesel) when burned. In addition to this oil, palm is also a well-known plant for its other sources of renewable energy, for example huge quantities of biomass by-products are developed to produce value added products such as methane gas, bio-plastic, organic acids, bio-compost, ply-wood, activated carbon, and animal feedstock. Even waste effluent; palm oil mill effluent (POME) has been converted to produce energy. Oil palm has created many opportunities and social benefits for the locals. In the above perspective, the objective of the present work is to give a concise and up-to-date picture of the present status of oil palm industry enhancing sustainable and renewable energy. This work also aims to identify the prospects of Malaysian oil palm industry towards utilization of oil palm as a source of renewable energy. (author)

  11. Renewable energy sources. Future task for regional planning; Erneuerbare Energien. Zukunftsaufgabe der Regionalplanung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-05-15

    The expansion of renewable energy sources is linked to demands for space. Therefore, planning at the regional level plays a key role. In order to systematize this field of activity for regional planners, with this publication the federal Ministry of Transport, Building and urban Development (BMVBs) as well as the federal Institute for Research on Building, urban affairs and spatial Development (BBsR) publish a manual concerning the integration of renewable energy into regional energy concepts. The studies demonstrate that for the drawing up of regional energy concepts there cannot be a standardized concept. The structural, spatial and economic conditions that determine the potential for the expansion of renewal energy in the regions vary considerably. Moreover, due to germany's federalist structure, the process of regional planning is handled differently in each state. further factors that have a decisive effect on the overall strategy are the number of participants who are involved in these changes and their economic influence. Thus, the manual concentrates on suggestions as to what the content of regional energy concepts can be and how they can be drawn up. The essential transferable elements are shown, as well as typical processes and milestones. The manual is divided into six sections: 1. Preperatory phase, 2. communication, 3. analysis and goal definition, 4. funding, 5. strategies for realization and the planning of measures, 6. Monitoring.

  12. Again about electricity production from renewable sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the foreign up-to-date experience, it is analysed the possibilities for effective electricity production from renewable sources in Bulgaria. An example for developing and using of renewable energy resources in Portugal is presented

  13. Combined heat and power (cogeneration) plant based on renewable energy sources and electrochemical hydrogen systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigor'ev, S. A.; Grigor'ev, A. S.; Kuleshov, N. V.; Fateev, V. N.; Kuleshov, V. N.

    2015-02-01

    The layout of a combined heat and power (cogeneration) plant based on renewable energy sources (RESs) and hydrogen electrochemical systems for the accumulation of energy via the direct and inverse conversion of the electrical energy from RESs into the chemical energy of hydrogen with the storage of the latter is described. Some efficient technical solutions on the use of electrochemical hydrogen systems in power engineering for the storage of energy with a cyclic energy conversion efficiency of more than 40% are proposed. It is shown that the storage of energy in the form of hydrogen is environmentally safe and considerably surpasses traditional accumulator batteries by its capacitance characteristics, being especially topical in the prolonged absence of energy supply from RESs, e.g., under the conditions of polar night and breathless weather. To provide the required heat consumption of an object during the peak period, it is proposed to burn some hydrogen in a boiler house.

  14. System approach to the analysis of power complexes with renewable energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shishkin Nikolay Dmitrievich

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The method of structuring and optimization of autonomous power com-plexes and its individual elements in the simultaneous use of renewable energy sources, energy resources and secondary energy resources is presented. Power complexes are presented as a set of power supply systems of lower hierarchical level, units, subsystems, components, united by a common purpose to ensure energy saving up of objects. For comparative assessment of energy, thermody-namic and technical-economic efficiency it is suggested to submit energy com-plexes in the form of graphs of structural and functional models that reflect the overall structure of the energy complexes and the processes of transformation, transportation, storage and energy use.

  15. Electric power supply and the influence of changes on renewable sources' utilisation and energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes expected to occur at the electricity market min the Republic of Croatia will have a considerable influence on the development of renewable sources and on the interest in the rationalisation of electricity consumption. If this area and its significance within the total, not only energy-related but also social relations, is stimulated by the law, the influence will be a positive one. Post-liberalisation experience of developed European countries presented in this paper implies arising problems, which can be partly avoided by means of anticipated legislative alternations. Special attention is paid to the possibility of introducing additional work places through a new market approachz, renewable sources' utilisation and consumption rationalisation. (author)

  16. Potential of hydrogen from oil palm biomass as a source of renewable energy worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly-Yong, Tau Len; Lee, Keat Teong; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman; Bhatia, Subhash [Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia). Engineering Campus, School of Chemical Engineering

    2007-11-15

    Various catastrophes related to extreme weather events such as floods, hurricanes, droughts and heat waves occurring on the Earth in the recent times are definitely a clear warning sign from nature questioning our ability to protect the environment and ultimately the Earth itself. Progressive release of greenhouse gases (GHG) such as CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} from development of various energy-intensive industries has ultimately caused human civilization to pay its debt. Realizing the urgency of reducing emissions and yet simultaneously catering to needs of industries, researches and scientists conclude that renewable energy is the perfect candidate to fulfill both parties requirement. Renewable energy provides an effective option for the provision of energy services from the technical point of view. In this context, biomass appears as one important renewable source of energy. Biomass has been a major source of energy in the world until before industrialization when fossil fuels become dominant and researches have proven from time to time its viability for large-scale production. Although there has been some successful industrial-scale production of renewable energy from biomass, generally this industry still faces a lot of challenges including the availability of economically viable technology, sophisticated and sustainable natural resources management, and proper market strategies under competitive energy markets. Amidst these challenges, the development and implementation of suitable policies by the local policy-makers is still the single and most important factor that can determine a successful utilization of renewable energy in a particular country. Ultimately, the race to the end line must begin with the proof of biomass ability to sustain in a long run as a sustainable and reliable source of renewable energy. Thus, the aim of this paper is to present the potential availability of oil palm biomass that can be converted to hydrogen (leading candidate positioned as the energy of the millennium) through gasification reaction in supercritical water, as a source of renewable energy to policy-makers. Oil palm topped the ranking as number 1 fruit crops in terms of production for the year 2007 with 36.90 million tonnes produced or 35.90% of the total edible oil in the world. Its potentiality is further enhanced by the fact that oil constitutes only about 10% of the palm production, while the rest 90% is biomass. With a world oil palm biomass production annually of about 184.6 million tons, the maximum theoretical yield of hydrogen potentially produced by oil palm biomass via this method is 2.16 x 10{sup 10} kg H{sub 2} year{sup -1} with an energy content of 2.59 EJ year{sup -1}, meeting almost 50% of the current worldwide hydrogen demand. (author)

  17. Analysis of renewable energy sources and electric vehicle penetration into energy systems predominantly based on lignite

    CERN Document Server

    Dedinec, Aleksandar; Gajduk, Andrej; Markovska, Natasa; Kocarev, Ljupco

    2016-01-01

    We consider an integration of renewable energy into transport and electricity sectors through vehicle to grid (V2G) technologies for an energy system that is predominantly based on lignite. The national energy system of Macedonia is modeled using EnergyPLAN which integrates energy for electricity, transport and heat, and includes hourly fluctuations in human needs and the environment. We show that electric-vehicles can provide the necessary storage enabling a fully renewable energy profile for Macedonia that can match the country's growing demand for energy. Furthermore, a large penetration of electric vehicles leads to a dramatic reduction of 47% of small particles and other air pollutants generated by car traffic in 2050.

  18. Selecting sustainable renewable energy source for energy assistance to North Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Sul-Ki [Korea Electrical Engineering and Science Research Institute, Bldg 130, Seoul National University, 599 Gwanangno, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Sin, Hwa-Young; Heo, Eunnyeong [Department of Energy Systems Engineering, Seoul National University, 599, Gwanang-no, Gwanak-Gu, Seoul 157-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    Renewable energy (RE) is the best sustainable energy solution South Korea can provide to assist North Korea in overcoming its chronic energy shortage. Designed as a follow-on research to Sin et al., a survey was conducted with a panel of experts consisting of various disciplines and affiliations using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) with benefit, opportunity, cost, and risk (BOCR). The results showed the panel viewed security as the most important factor among the strategic criteria. For the level 1 attributes, the panel showed no significant differences of opinion among the different alternatives; however, cost showed to be the most important factor for the panel. The panel chose wind power as the best alternative source of energy for North Korea; however, there were some differences in opinion among the sub-groups of the panel depending on the composition and the expertise of the sub-group. Compared to other studies on the similar topic, this research stands out in that the research results were derived using AHP and BOCR and that the panel was composed of both Korean and foreign experts on North Korea affiliated with state-run research organizations, armed forces, non-governmental organizations, academic research organizations, private consulting firms, and journalism. The research arrived at the conclusion that the following factors must be considered as South Korea designs its future North Korean energy assistance policy: (1) RE assistance for North Korea can take on various forms; hence, experts consulted during the design, writing, and implementation phases of the policy in question must possess knowledge and expertise in the appropriate technology and methodology being considered; (2) possibility of a sudden destabilization of the Northeast Asian security paradigm due to the collapse of North Korea; and (3) continued nuclearization of North Korea. (author)

  19. Promotion of energy conservation and renewable energy sources in Bavaria; Foerderung von Energiesparen und Erneuerbaren Energien in Bayern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schirm, D. [Bayerisches Staatsministerium fuer Wirtschaft, Verkehr und Technologie, Muenchen (Germany)

    1995-09-01

    The present article gives an overview of the measures taken in Bavaria (Federal German Republic) for promoting energy conservation. There include: Efficient energy utilisation; communal energy saving concepts; utilisation of renewable energy sources; small-scale hydropower plants; modernisation measures; and cultivable raw materials. (HW) [Deutsch] Der Artikel liefert einen Ueberblick ueber die Foerdermassnahmen zur Energieeinsparung im Freistaat Bayern (Bundesrepublik Deutschland): - Rationelle Energieverwendung - kommunale Energieeinsparkonzepte - Nutzung erneuerbarer Energien - Kleinwasserkraftanlagen - Modernisierungsmassnahmen - nachwachsende Rohstoffe. (HW)

  20. Non-CO{sub 2} emitting renewable energy sources in Nepal: problems and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrestha, J.N. [Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu (Nepal); Kojima, Toshinori [Seikei University, Tokyo (Japan) Dept. of Industrial Chemistry

    1997-12-31

    The renewable energy sources of Nepal is highlighted. The huge hydro-power potential of Nepal is explained. The problems associated with its wide exploitation are given. Nepal`s contribution to the global greenhouse effect through the emission of CO2, CH4 and CFSs from industrial emissions (cement, brick, and other factories), automotive vehicles, indoor biomass combustion, outdoor biomass combustion, petroleum products consumption and fuel based thermal plant generating 85 GWh is estimated. Equivalent CO2 saved by hydro and PV power is analyzed. Per capita consumption of CO2 is mentioned. Early precaution needed to be taken in reducing CO2 emissions from different sources is highlighted. (Author)

  1. An economic assessment of micro-scale use of renewable energy sources : two case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Palomino Ramirez, Horacio

    2015-01-01

    During recent times, renewable energy technologies have shown a relative fast growth in the global energy investment, global energy capacity and their integration within multiple sectors, particularly in the electricity sector. Renewable energy technologies have also experienced notorious declining costs on their manufacturing production. Nevertheless, while this growth is widely acknowledged, the share of renewables with respect total energy production has been moderate. Technological advanc...

  2. Renewable Energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditterich, Barbara

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this project was to expose middle school students to a variety of alternative energy sources with a variety of practical applications. It was part of an Austria-wide IMST-project (IMST stands for innovation makes students strong). As part of this exposure, several classes of about 80 students visited a number of locations for alternative energy resources, including a hydroelectric site, a biological energy plant, a wind turbine manufacturing plant, a water purification station as well as others others. A short film was made to document the project in order that non-participants in the class could also gain knowledge on alternative energy. The three minute film will be shown at the poster.

  3. Sustainable renewable energy seawater desalination using combined-cycle solar and geothermal heat sources

    KAUST Repository

    Missimer, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Key goals in the improvement of desalination technology are to reduce overall energy consumption, make the process "greener," and reduce the cost of the delivered water. Adsorption desalination (AD) is a promising new technology that has great potential to reduce the need for conventional power, to use solely renewable energy sources, and to reduce the overall cost of water treatment. This technology can desalt seawater or water of even higher salinity using waste heat, solar heat, or geothermal heat. An AD system can operate effectively at temperatures ranging from 55 to 80 °C with perhaps an optimal temperature of 80 °C. The generally low temperature requirement for the feedwater allows the system to operate quite efficiently using an alternative energy source, such as solar power. Solar power, particularly in warm dry regions, can generate a consistent water temperature of about 90 °C. Although this temperature is more than adequate to run the system, solar energy collection only can occur during daylight hours, thereby necessitating the use of heat storage during nighttime or very cloudy days. With increasing capacity, the need for extensive thermal storage may be problematic and could add substantial cost to the development of an AD system. However, in many parts of the world, there are subsurface geothermal energy sources that have not been extensively used. Combining a low to moderate geothermal energy recovery system to an AD system would provide a solution to the thermal storage issue. However, geothermal energy development from particularly Hot Dry Rock is limited by the magnitude of the heat flow required for the process and the thermal conductivity of the rock material forming the heat reservoir. Combining solar and geothermal energy using an alternating 12-h cycle would reduce the probability of depleting the heat source within the geothermal reservoir and provide the most effective use of renewable energy. © 2013 Desalination Publications.

  4. Emissions balancing of renewable energy sources. Avoided emissions due to the use of renewable energies in 2007; Emissionsbilanz erneuerbarer Energietraeger. Durch Einsatz erneuerbarer Energien vermiedene Emissionen im Jahr 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Memmler, Michael; Mohrbach, Elke; Schneider, Sven; Dreher, Marion; Herbener, Reinhard

    2009-10-15

    The report on the emissions accounting with respect to renewable energy covers the following issues: 1. Introduction and purpose. 2. Methodology concerning the balancing for electricity, heat and traffic, uncertainties due to lack of data. 3. Energy supply from renewable energy sources in 2007. 4. Fossil energy substitution by renewable energy sources: electricity, heat and traffic. 5. Emissions from different energy supply lines: electricity, heat, traffic. 6. Results of the emissions accounting for renewable energy sources: electricity, heat, traffic and comprehensive review. 7. Retroacting accounting and forward projection.

  5. Development of Mixed Autonomous Power System on the Basis of Renewable Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Laoshvili

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A principal circuit diagram has been developed for an autonomous power system on the basis of renewable energy sources solar and accumulator batteries.Due to the usage of a dc pulse converter, a dc converter (interrupter, an IGBT module inverter and a single-phase matching power transformer it is possible to achieve an effective sectioning of constant voltage and their inversion with minimal energy losses.Efficiency factor of the proposed converter installation exceeds 90 % and power factor is close to unity.

  6. Guidelines for the promotion of enhanced use of renewable energy sources. As of 1 August 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the purpose of promoting enhanced use of renewable energy sources in the period from 1995 until 1998, the German Federal Government in compliance with the guidelines set forth herunder, and the preliminary administrative directives relating to para. 44, 44a of the federal budget regulations, has set up a fund for public grants for solar collectors, heat pump systems including systems exploiting the subsurface geothermal energy, hydropower plants, wind power plants, photovoltaic conversion systems, and systems for biomass combustion and biogas utilization. (orig./HP)

  7. Proposal for a directive for the promotion of electricity based on renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amended ''Directives concerning common rules for the internal markets in electricity and natural gas'', adopted in June 2003, organizes the future framework of electricity and gas, making all European consumers eligible, from 2004 onwards and at the latest by 2007 for the domestic sector, as well as integrating some components related to general interest services. Energie-Cites gives in this document its opinion and its expectations concerning this proposal for a directive for the promotion of electricity based on renewable energy sources. (A.L.B.)

  8. Prospects for biomass as a of renewable energy source in rural areas in Uzbekistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Due to world-wide increasing energy demand during the last decades energy source stocks (petroleum, gas, the coal) becomes much less. Besides the use of specified sources of energy, the results in deterioration of ecological conditions. In connection with these the using of renewed sources of energy is very essential. Now in the world the wide experience on using of such renewed sources of energy as: a wind power, hydro power, tidal energy, energy of waves, energy of solar light, geothermal energy, biomass energy is developed. Opportunities for using of renewable energy sources depend on geographical and climatic conditions of an environment. It is obvious, that for Uzbekistan most effective from this viewpoint, are wind, solar, hydro power, and biomass energies. However, correct choice of the proper renewable energy source depending on the area is needed. In this context solar energy and energy of biomass are effective for any region of Uzbekistan. At the same time for using of geothermal energy, hydro power and wind power it is required selection of geographical places adequate to the special requirements. According to Ref. [1] there are enough natural potential of a solar energy, in Uzbekistan , since the average density of solar power flow is 4.5 kWh/m2 per day or 16 MG/m2 per day. For comparison, it is possible to estimate, that every kilogram of biomass on the average can produce energy the same order 12.5 MG/kg [2]. It is obvious, that use of a solar energy for transformation to electrical with using of solar cells based modules requires the rather large financial expenses for purchase of the appropriate equipment, which is not accessible to each farm and requires large time for recouping of the charges. At the same time equipment for producing of biogas is accessible almost to each farm engaged as by animal industries, poultry and cultivation of vegetative cultures. In addition, the construction of biogas devices does not require high technologies and almost all materials for its construction are accessible in Uzbekistan. It should be noted that besides the above advantages, biogas devices are much safer from the environmental viewpoint. Moreover, the waste from the biogas device can be used at cultivation of various cultures in a farm. For research of opportunities, advantages and lacks during generation of energy from biomass in a plant of Urganch State University biogas installation with reactor volume 10 m3 is constructed and installed in a farm. Biogas generator was designed and constructed for working in continuous mode of operations and allows regularly adding of the biomass. The biogas generator is equipped with heating system for start of the generation in the winter.(authors) References: [1.] Internet site: www.bpsolar.com/ContentDocuments/17/PV System Sizing Tools.zip [2.] Vedenev A.G, Maslov A.N. Stroitel'stvo biogazovykh ustanovok. Kratkoe rukovodstvo. -B.:Evro . 2006

  9. Renewable Energy Monitoring Protocol. Update 2010. Methodology for the calculation and recording of the amounts of energy produced from renewable sources in the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Te Buck, S.; Van Keulen, B.; Bosselaar, L.; Gerlagh, T.; Skelton, T.

    2010-07-15

    This is the fifth, updated edition of the Dutch Renewable Energy Monitoring Protocol. The protocol, compiled on behalf of the Ministry of Economic Affairs, can be considered as a policy document that provides a uniform calculation method for determining the amount of energy produced in the Netherlands in a renewable manner. Because all governments and organisations use the calculation methods described in this protocol, this makes it possible to monitor developments in this field well and consistently. The introduction of this protocol outlines the history and describes its set-up, validity and relationship with other similar documents and agreements. The Dutch Renewable Energy Monitoring Protocol is compiled by NL Agency, and all relevant parties were given the chance to provide input. This has been incorporated as far as is possible. Statistics Netherlands (CBS) uses this protocol to calculate the amount of renewable energy produced in the Netherlands. These data are then used by the Ministry of Economic Affairs to gauge the realisation of policy objectives. In June 2009 the European Directive for energy from renewable sources was published with renewable energy targets for the Netherlands. This directive used a different calculation method - the gross energy end-use method - whilst the Dutch definition is based on the so-called substitution method. NL Agency was asked to add the calculation according to the gross end use method, although this is not clearly defined on a number of points. In describing the method, the unanswered questions become clear, as do, for example, the points the Netherlands should bring up in international discussions.

  10. Different Predictive Control Strategies for Active Load Management in Distributed Power Systems with High Penetration of Renewable Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zong, Yi; Bindner, Henrik W.; Gehrke, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    In order to achieve a Danish energy supply based on 100% renewable energy from combinations of wind, biomass, wave and solar power in 2050 and to cover 50% of the Danish electricity consumption by wind power in 2020, it requires more renewable energy in buildings and industries (e.g. cold stores,...... renewable energy sources, which could lead to reducing reinforcements in the future power systems.......In order to achieve a Danish energy supply based on 100% renewable energy from combinations of wind, biomass, wave and solar power in 2050 and to cover 50% of the Danish electricity consumption by wind power in 2020, it requires more renewable energy in buildings and industries (e.g. cold stores...

  11. An energy self-sufficient public building using integrated renewable sources and hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The control of the use of fossil fuels, major cause of greenhouse gas emissions and climate changes, in present days represents one of Governments' main challenges; particularly, a significant energy consumption is observed in buildings and might be significantly reduced through sustainable design, increased energy efficiency and use of renewable sources. At the moment, the widespread use of renewable energy in buildings is limited by its intrinsic discontinuity: consequently integration of plants with energy storage systems could represent an efficient solution to the problem. Within this frame, hydrogen has shown to be particularly fit in order to be used as an energetic carrier. In this aim, in the paper an energetic, economic and environmental analysis of two different configurations of a self-sufficient system for energy production from renewable sources in buildings is presented. In particular, in the first configuration energy production is carried out by means of photovoltaic systems, whereas in the second one a combination of photovoltaic panels and wind generators is used. In both configurations, hydrogen is used as an energy carrier, in order to store energy, and fuel cells guarantee its energetic reconversion. The analysis carried out shows that, although dimensioned as a stand-alone configuration, the system can today be realized only taking advantage from the incentivizing fares applied to grid-connected systems, that are likely to be suspended in the next future. In such case, it represents an interesting investment, with capital returns in about 15 years. As concerns economic sustainability, in fact, the analysis shows that the cost of the energy unit stored in hydrogen volumes, due to the not very high efficiency of the process, presently results greater than that of directly used one. Moreover, also the starting fund of the system proves to be very high, showing an additional cost with respect to systems lacking of energy storage equal to about 50%. From the above, it can be deduced that, in the aim to obtain a quick, effective penetration of hydrogen into the market, it is at the moment indispensable to enact incentivizing policies, attributing to hydrogen production fares able to cover the additional costs due to its production, storage and reconversion. - Highlights: ► We present a self-sufficient system for renewable energy production in buildings. ► PV and eolic plants are integrated with electrolyzer, storage system and fuel cells. ► We analyze two configurations of the system: only PV panels or with wind generators. ► We compare wind generators with PV panels in relation to Italian Government fares. ► We carry out the energetic, economic and environmental analysis of the systems

  12. Utilizing hydropower for load balancing non-storable renewable energy sources - technical and environmental challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfredsen, K. T.; Killingtveit, A.

    2011-12-01

    About 99% of the total energy production in Norway comes from hydropower, and the total production of about 120 TWh makes Norway Europe's largest hydropower producer. Most hydropower systems in Norway are based on high-head plants with mountain storage reservoirs and tunnels transporting water from the reservoirs to the power plants. In total, Norwegian reservoirs contributes around 50% of the total energy storage capacity in Europe. Current strategies to reduce emission of greenhouse gases from energy production involve increased focus on renewable energy sources, e.g. the European Union's 202020 goal in which renewable energy sources should be 20% of the total energy production by 2020. To meet this goal new renewable energy installations must be developed on a large scale in the coming years, and wind power is the main focus for new developments. Hydropower can contribute directly to increase renewable energy through new development or extensions to existing systems, but maybe even more important is the potential to use hydropower systems with storage for load balancing in a system with increased amount of non-storable renewable energies. Even if new storage technologies are under development, hydro storage is the only technology available on a large scale and the most economical feasible alternative. In this respect the Norwegian system has a high potential both through direct use of existing reservoirs and through an increased development of pump storage plants utilizing surplus wind energy to pump water and then producing during periods with low wind input. Through cables to Europe, Norwegian hydropower could also provide balance power for the North European market. Increased peaking and more variable operation of the current hydropower system will present a number of technical and environmental challenges that needs to be identified and mitigated. A more variable production will lead to fluctuating flow in receiving rivers and reservoirs, and it will also lead to more dynamic water temperatures and alter the interaction with the adjacent hyporheic zone. Frequent drying and wetting may impact the aquatic ecosystem e.g. through stranding of fish, and it may increase erosion and sediment transport in receiving reservoirs and rivers. During winter, most Norwegian systems currently adapt releases to prevent unstable ice conditions and ice runs and a more intermittent production schedule may lead to more unstable ice conditions. More transient flow may also have implications in the transfer tunnels and new methods are needed to monitor conditions to avoid turbine damage and loss of production. As a part of the Norwegian governments focus on developing renewable energy, a number of research centers for environmentally friendly energy production were created in 2009. For one of these centers, Center for environmentally design of renewable energy (CEDREN), one of the main objectives is to study the use of the Norwegian hydropower system for large scale peaking and load balancing, and to provide means of mitigating possible unwanted impacts. We will present data on how increased load balancing will influence the Norwegian hydropower system and an overview of challenges and possible solutions that the new operational strategy may incur.

  13. Renewable Energy Sources Act and Trading of Emission Certificates: A national and a supranational tool direct energy turnover to renewable electricity-supply in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: After the nuclear disaster at Fukushima in 2011, Germany decided to phase out atomic energy, without producing new CO2 emissions. The article discusses the promotion systems that are used. Scope: The percentage of renewable energies in Germany's electricity consumption increased from 3 in 1990 to 23 in 2012. This development was introduced and guided by a law called Renewable Energy Sources Act. It guarantees a privileged acceptance of electricity and a fixed gratification for 20 years to the operators of regenerative power plants. It allows the operators to install regenerative power plants at a reduced risk. By contrast, the international means for CO2 reduction is the trading of emission certificates, which is also valid for Germany. The article discusses how the promotion of the Erneuerbar-Energien-Gesetz (EEG) and other plant-based promotion systems fit into this condition. It also elucidates the actual decline of promotion, its problems to the countrys environmental economy and the approach of decentralized photovoltaic (PV) energy plants towards economical efficiency. Conclusions: Germanys energy turnaround to a regenerative energy supply is characterized by a strong and differentiated promotion system. Substantial efforts have to be made as the percentage of the renewable energy sources has significantly increased but is still under 25%

  14. Energy diversity through renewable energy source (RES) – a case study of biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Ekpeni, Leonard E.N.; Benyounis, Khaled; Nkem-Ekpeni, Fehintola F.; Stokes, Joseph; Olabi, Abdul-Ghani

    2014-01-01

    Biomass has played a dominant role in the energy need of the continued world growing population. Its conversion from biomass to biogas in its production, have been a very promising means of producing an energy carrier from renewable resources and of achieving environmental benefits in multiples. As the population continue to grow coupled with the devastating effects of climate, efforts are being made by all and sundry at all level such as; scientists, researchers and policy makers in finding ...

  15. An iterative approach for symmetrical and asymmetrical Short-circuit calculations with converter-based connected renewable energy sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gksu, mer; Teodorescu, Remus; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Iov, Florin; Kjar, Philip Carne

    2012-01-01

    As more renewable energy sources, especially more wind turbines are installed in the power system, analysis of the power system with the renewable energy sources becomes more important. Short-circuit calculation is a well known fault analysis method which is widely used for early stage analysis and design purposes and tuning of the network protection equipments. However, due to current controlled power converter-based grid connection of the wind turbines, short-circuit calculation cannot be perf...

  16. Funding of renewable energy sources in the deregulated German electricity market; Foerderung erneuerbarer Energien im liberalisierten deutschen Strommarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wawer, T.

    2007-12-14

    This study intends to develop an efficient market design for the German electricity market, with particular regard to renewable energy sources. The German electricity market is disintegrated, i.e. market sectors are not coordinated by a central agency but by their own interactions. The first part of the investigation analyzes the interdependences of market sectors, while the second part will analyze funding instruments for renewable energy sources on this basis. (orig.)

  17. Economics of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration and Mitigation versus a Suite of Alternative Renewable Energy Sources for Electricity Generation in U.S.

    OpenAIRE

    Zheming Zhang; Lee Chusak; Ramesh Agarwal

    2011-01-01

    An equilibrium economic model for policy evaluation related to electricity generation in U.S has been developed; the model takes into account the non-renewable and renewable energy sources, demand and supply factors and environmental constraints. The non-renewable energy sources include three types of fossil fuels: coal, natural gas and petroleum, and renewable energy sources include nuclear, hydraulic, wind, solar photovoltaic, biomass wood, biomass waste and geothermal. Energy demand sector...

  18. Use of renewable energy sources in light of the New Energy Strategy for Europe 20112020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Theoretical and methodological achievements required for an analysis of energy strategy. ? Developments for an energy policy ensuring the appropriate utilization of renewable energy sources. ? EU should set up grants for research supporting the implementation of the strategy. ? Developments for the knowledge management support of the use of backcasting method. ? Principles for the development of the network of energy security centres. -- Abstract: The paper analyses the issues for consideration listed in the stock taking document New Energy Strategy for Europe 20112020 and explores the impact of their implementation on the use of renewable energy sources. The main objective of the paper is to introduce and provide a summary of the theoretical and methodological achievements required for an analysis of the implications of such an EU level strategy. It also provides a summary of the results of the analysis of the impacts of the Strategy on a specific field; namely, on the use of renewable energy sources. Contradictions inherent in the Strategy are discussed as well, and a proposal is put forward to aid the resolution of these contradictions. The paper also points out that the further development of the theoretical and methodological achievements may result in the creation of a simulation model, the application of which could effectively aid the process of strategic planning and the testing of strategies prior to approval. Finally, the paper discusses how an EU level and/or a global network of energy security centres could promote the development and implementation of an energy policy ensuring the appropriate utilization of renewable energy sources.

  19. A Review of Nipa Palm as a Renewable Energy Source in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.T. Okugbo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the renewable energy potential of Nipa Palm, a bio-energy crop widely available yet underutilized in Nigeria. The combustion of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas has increased the concentration of carbon dioxide in the earth's atmosphere. The carbon dioxide and other socalled greenhouse gases allow solar energy to enter the Earth's atmosphere, but reduce the amount of energy that can re-radiate back into space, trapping energy and causing global warming. Nipa Palm which has been regarded as an environmental menace is now regarded as one of the candidates for renewable energy to fulfill the requirement of clean carbon emission. Abundant quantity of Nipa Palm provides an impetus for the sustainable generation of bio-ethanol. This sugar based bio-ethanol source development in Nigeria provides not only profitable use to a problem plant but also provides an opportunity and incentive to generate some Carbon Emission Reduction (CERs credits.

  20. Renewable Energy Resources in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Michael J.; Thomas, M. Pugh

    1990-01-01

    This paper defines renewable energy and outlines possible sources of this energy. Supplies, and ethics are considered. The position of renewable energy sources in the energy policy of Great Britain are discussed. (CW)

  1. Price control for electricity supplied to the grid from renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The law governing the supply of electricity generated by renewable energy sources to the public grid regulates the purchase and payment by public utilities of electricity exclusively generated from such sources as hydropower, wind power, solar energy, landfill gas or sewage gas, or from biomass produced in agriculture and forestry or derived and processed in waste treatment systems. The author discusses aspects and issues hitherto left unconsidered by publications or by the jurisdiction and puts them into the context of a review of recent legislation, addressing in particular the following aspects: (1) The place of the Act on Supply of Electricity from Renewable Sources to the Public Grid within the legal framework of price controls. (2) Limits to be set by price control activities in accordance with Para. 12, sub-section 2 BTO Elt and with Para. 11, sub-section 1, sentence 3 BTO Elt. (3) Limits set to price controls due to Para. 12, sub-section 2 BTO Elt. (4) The conflict of purposes arising from price controls. (orig./HP)

  2. Environmental and economic effects of renewable energy sources use on a local case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renewable sources represent an effective alternative to fossil fuels for preventing resources depletion and for reducing air pollution. However, their diffusion requires huge capital investment and major infrastructure changes, which have to be assessed to verify their effectiveness. The article present an application of the R-MARKAL model to investigate the feasibility of renewable use on a local case study for electricity and thermal energy production. A comprehensive modelling approach is used to emphasise the relationships and feedback between conversion and demand sectors (residential, services and commercial), taking into account contemporaneously legal issues and physical limits of the system. The model's solutions represent the minimum cost choice and the results show that even in absence of erogenous environmental constraints, many renewable technologies are profitable demand device and their investment costs are paid off in a medium term by lower operating and maintenance expenditures. In this context the use of thermal energy from incinerator allows one to achieve a consistent reduction of atmospheric pollutant emissions and, particularly, of greenhouse gases emissions due to waste degradation. (author)

  3. Design optimization of a polygeneration plant fuelled by natural gas and renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new and systematic procedure to select and size a polygeneration plant fuelled by natural gas, solar energy and gasified biomass is presented in this paper. The proposed procedure is based on the superstructure definition, containing a long list of possible configurations for a polygeneration plant simultaneously producing electricity, heat, cold and fresh water. Based on that superstructure, a mathematical programming model was developed and applied to a Spanish tourist resort. Three key aspects were optimized in the mathematical programming problem: energy savings, greenhouse gases (GHG) emission reduction and economic feasibility. The results show, firstly, that the simultaneous production of electricity, heat, cold and fresh water is reliable upon the established assumptions. Secondly, that today higher economic profitability is yet achieved with only natural gas-based technologies, although higher energy savings and GHG reduction are obtained through the gradual increase of renewable energy sources.

  4. Grid Interfacing Inverter of Renewable Energy Sources to Improve the Power Quality in Distribution System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.ARCHANA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available With the increase in load demand, the Renewable Energy Sources (RES are increasingly connected in the distribution systems which utilizes power electronic Converters/Inverters. In this thesis, Photo Voltaic (PV system is integrated to a three phase four wire distribution system. The Photo Voltaic (PV Panel is modeled based on associated equations. The use of non-linear loads in the power system will lead to the generation of current harmonics which in turn deteriorates the power quality. Active Power Filters (APF are extensively used to compensate the current harmonics and load unbalance. In this work, the existing PV inverter acts as Shunt Active Power Filter (SAPF that is capable of simultaneously compensating problems like current unbalance, current harmonics and also of injecting the energy generated by renewable energy source. The inverter is controlled on the basis of hysteresis control and thus it can be utilized as a power converter injecting power generated from RES to the grid and as a shunt APF to compensate the Load disturbances. It is proposed to investigate in this paper, the performance of PV inverter for various loads. This work is carried out using MATLAB/SIMULINK 7.8 software.

  5. Multifunctional voltage source inverter for renewable energy integration and power quality conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, NingYi; Lam, Chi-Seng; Zhang, WenChen

    2014-01-01

    In order to utilize the energy from the renewable energy sources, power conversion system is necessary, in which the voltage source inverter (VSI) is usually the last stage for injecting power to the grid. It is an economical solution to add the function of power quality conditioning to the grid-connected VSI in the low-voltage distribution system. Two multifunctional VSIs are studied in this paper, that is, inductive-coupling VSI and capacitive-coupling VSI, which are named after the fundamental frequency impedance of their coupling branch. The operation voltages of the two VSIs are compared when they are used for renewable energy integration and power quality conditioning simultaneously. The operation voltage of the capacitive-coupling VSI can be set much lower than that of the inductive-coupling VSI when reactive power is for compensating inductive loads. Since a large portion of the loads in the distribution system are inductive, the capacitive-coupling VSI is further studied. The design and control method of the multifunctional capacitive-coupling VSI are proposed in this paper. Simulation and experimental results are provided to show its validity. PMID:25177725

  6. Renewable energy sources in providing services to the system; Fontes renovaveis no fornecimento de servicos ao sistema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehner, Volker [EUS GmbH/Kisters Group (Germany); Buchholz, Bernd Michael [NTB Technoservice (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Today the participation of renewable energy sources in the energy and power reserve are vital to the stability of the electrical system. This article presents a study by the German Society for Energy Engineering, which proposes a model to increase the participation of renewable in the supply of ancillary services. In this model, the so-called 'virtual power plants' are identified as the key to a profitable market access.

  7. Rural Electrification through Renewable Energy Sources- An Overview of Challenges and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev H. Kulkarni, T. R. Anil

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Energy security and sustainable development are prime issues these days in developed as well as in developing countries. Decentralized Renewable Energy (DCRE generation of electricity is expected to become more important in the future electricity generation system. This paper explores the various challenges faced in the process of rural electrification in India. It also highlights the alternatives available including usage of renewable energy towards decentralized electrification and policy recommendations for the use of renewable energy technologies. There are complex socio-economic issues that are hindering the growth of renewables in rural India, especially in off-grid villages. What should be the approach for maximum penetration of renewables in remote villages in India? How can renewable devices be made affordable for active use? How can local participation in such initiatives be increased? How can private participation be encouraged? These are the key issues that the Indian government is trying to address.

  8. Assessment of public acceptance and willingness to pay for renewable energy sources in Crete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zografakis, Nikolaos [Regional Energy Agency of Crete, Region of Crete, 71202 Heraklion (Greece); Sifaki, Elli; Pagalou, Maria; Nikitaki, Georgia; Psarakis, Vasilios [Department of Economics, University of Crete, University Campus, 74100 Rethymnon (Greece); Tsagarakis, Konstantinos P. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, 67100 Xanthi (Greece)

    2010-04-15

    The aim of this study is to analyse and to evaluate the citizens' public acceptance and willingness to pay (WTP), for Renewable Energy Sources (RES) in Crete. For this purpose a contingent valuation study was conducted, using a double bound dichotomous choice format to elicit people's WTP and factors affecting it. Residents of 1440 households all over Crete were interviewed face-to-face. Major conclusions can be used as a basis for sustainable energy planning, for policies and the formulation of awareness campaigns and for RES investment programs and projects in order to prepare implementation conditions and enhance public acceptance of renewable energy investments and programmes. Mean WTP per household was found to be 16.33EUR to be paid quarterly as an additional charge on the electricity bill. Larger willingness to pay was reported by those with high family income and residence size, those having a higher level of energy information and awareness concerning climatic change, those who have invested in some energy saving measures, and those who suffer from more electricity shortages than others. (author)

  9. Assessment of public acceptance and willingness to pay for renewable energy sources in Crete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to analyse and to evaluate the citizens' public acceptance and willingness to pay (WTP), for Renewable Energy Sources (RES) in Crete. For this purpose a contingent valuation study was conducted, using a double bound dichotomous choice format to elicit people's WTP and factors affecting it. Residents of 1440 households all over Crete were interviewed face-to-face. Major conclusions can be used as a basis for sustainable energy planning, for policies and the formulation of awareness campaigns and for RES investment programs and projects in order to prepare implementation conditions and enhance public acceptance of renewable energy investments and programmes. Mean WTP per household was found to be 16.33EUR to be paid quarterly as an additional charge on the electricity bill. Larger willingness to pay was reported by those with high family income and residence size, those having a higher level of energy information and awareness concerning climatic change, those who have invested in some energy saving measures, and those who suffer from more electricity shortages than others. (author)

  10. An Indian scenario on renewable and sustainable energy sources with emphasis on algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemaiswarya, S.; Carvalho, Isabel S. [Algarve Univ., Faro (Portugal). Food Science Lab.; Raja, Rathinam [Algarve Univ., Faro (Portugal). Food Science Lab.; Institute of Integrative Omics and Applied Biotechnology (IIOAB), Purba Medinipur (India). Centre for Bioprocess, Biotechnology and Renewable Energy; Ravikumar, R. [Aquatic Energy LLC, Lake Charles, LA (United States); Zambare, Vasudeo [Institute of Integrative Omics and Applied Biotechnology (IIOAB), Purba Medinipur (India). Centre for Bioprocess, Biotechnology and Renewable Energy; Barh, Debmalya [Institute of Integrative Omics and Applied Biotechnology (IIOAB), Purba Medinipur (India). Centre for Genomics and Applied Gene Technology

    2012-12-15

    India is the fifth largest primary energy consumer and fourth largest petroleum consumer after USA, China, and Japan. Despite the global economic crisis, India's economy is expected to grow at 6 to 8 %/year. There is an extreme dependence on petroleum products with considerable risks and environmental issues. Petroleum-derived transport fuels are of limited availability and contribute to global warming, making renewable biofuel as the best alternative. The focus on biogas and biomass-based energy, such as bioethanol and biohydrogen, will enhance cost-effectiveness and provide an opportunity for the rural community. Among all energy sources, microalgae have received, so far, more attention due to their facile adaptability to grow in the photobioreactors or open ponds, high yields, and multiple applications. Microalgae can produce a substantial amount of triacylglycerols as a storage lipid under photooxidative stress or other adverse environmental conditions. In addition to renewable biofuels, they can provide different types of high-value bioproducts added to their advantages, such as higher photosynthetic efficiency, higher biomass production, and faster growth compared to any other energy crops. The viability of first-generation biofuels production is, however, questionable because of the conflict with food supply. In the future, biofuels should ideally create the environmental, economic, and social benefits to the communities and reflect energy efficiency so as to plan a road map for the industry to produce third-generation biofuels. (orig.)

  11. Renewable energy for rural development to protect environmental pollution from energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy is the key input for technological industrial, social and economical development of a nation. The present energy scenario is heavily biased towards the conventional energy sources, such as petroleum products, coal, atomic energy, etc., which are finite in nature and causes environmental pollution. The energy utilization pattern is also meant for the energy requirement in urban areas. To meet the growing energy requirement of rural areas through the conventional energy sources will cause serious harmful effect on the environmental pollution. The man's thurst to use more energy after about 150 thousand years ago, invention of wheel, use of petroleum products for power generation and invention of steam and coal has brought him to use the energy sources for his comfort irrespective of the environmental consideration. The extensive use of energy operated devices in domestic, industrial, transport and for agriculture sectors in urban and rural areas have resulted in economical development of the society

  12. Special purpose fund for the promotion of energy efficiency, the use of renewable energy sources and environmental protection (NEP fund)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The legislation of the Republic of Croatia encourages energy efficiency, the use of renewable energy sources and environmental protection through many of its acts and regulations. The establishment of a system for the efficient use of energy and the utilisation of renewable energy sources largely depends on investments in relevant projects, programmes and initiatives. It is, therefore, necessary to establish special purpose financial mechanisms which would encourage investments in, as well as the realisation of such projects, programmes and initiatives. The article elaborates the model for the development of an extra-budgetary, special purpose fund (NEP fund) for financing energy efficiency, renewable energy and environmental protection programmes, projects and measures. Its organisation, operation, project cycle, revenues and expenditures are elaborated. The proposed organisational model for the fund would not include an institutional framework for its operation. Instead, the fund would be an organisational scheme within the existing structure of commercial banks. It would be an organised system consisting of three basic elements: the Supervisory Board, the Financial Operator and the Professional Operator. The fund's area of operation would include the provision of loans under favourable conditions (interest rate, payback, grace period) for the production of equipment, the construction of energy facilities, the installation of equipment and the realisation of energy efficiency, renewable energy and environmental protection projects. Financing would be available for project implementation, the finalization of initiated projects, project preparation and development, and the reconstruction or adaptation of existing infrastructure, facilities, etc. The elaborated model envisages commercial bank financing (funds earmarked for special purpose financing) and special product charges on fuel and electricity to be the fund's principal sources of income. (author)

  13. Fuelwood: The ''other'' renewable energy source for Africa?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiemstra-van der Horst, Greg; Hovorka, Alice J. [Department of Geography, Hutt Building, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1 (Canada)

    2009-11-15

    In recent years, increasing concerns over rising oil prices, supply shortfalls and the environmental impacts of fossil fuel use have fed growing interest in renewable energy sources for Sub-Saharan Africa. Although traditional biofuels already enjoy widespread popularity, their use has often been actively discouraged due to the lingering influence of ''fuelwood crisis'' era narratives. In particular, urban fuelwood consumption is frequently portrayed as a cause of environmental degradation leading to energy insecurity among low-income households, especially where the resource is commercialized. Such views have had significant influence among policy makers, often resulting in repressive forestry legislation. In contrast, however, a number of researchers have demonstrated that wood energy dependence is often not a significant cause of deforestation and can provide important livelihood opportunities. This article reassesses urban fuelwood sourcing and its impacts using a recent case study conducted by the authors in Maun, Botswana and results previously reported in the literature. Findings indicate that although harvesting is unregulated, its impacts are significantly mitigated by collectors' strong preferences for source sites with abundant dead wood, low competition and recognized access rights. As well, fuelwood vending is found to provide critical support to rural incomes and a key source of low-cost urban energy. As such, the benefits of fuelwood use and avoidance of negative effects will most effectively be achieved by decentralised management approaches that build on local institutions and understandings of the resource. (author)

  14. Promoting renewable energy sources for heating and cooling in EU-27 countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In addition to public policies aimed at improving the energy efficiency of buildings, EU authorities have also promoted the use of Renewable Energy Sources for heating and cooling uses (RES H and C). This paper analyses the main policy measures implemented in EU-27 countries up to 2009: i.e. subsidies, tax incentives, financial support and feed-in tariffs. Twenty-three Member States (MSs) have developed some of these policy measures. The most widespread measure is the subsidy (22 MSs have implemented these) because from a political point of view, subsidies provide a straightforward approach to promote the use of RES H and C. Secondly, tax incentives have been used for reducing investment costs and making renewable energy profitable. Thirdly, financial incentives and feed-in tariffs have been used sparingly. While financial incentives might be used more extensively for promoting RES H and C if they are accompanied by other policy measures, feed-in tariffs are not likely to be implemented significantly in the future because this measure is not designed for household heat producers. - Highlights: ? Main EU policies to reduce energy consumption are focused on buildings' efficiency. ? Alternative incentives to promote the use of RES H and C in EU-27 are now studied. ? Subsidies are the most widespread measure. ? Tax incentives are used for reducing investment costs and making RES profitable. ? Financial incentives and feed-in tariffs have been used sparingly.

  15. Certificate trading as a motivation for development of new renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sustainable development is one of the main priorities of EU energy policy. Directive 2001/77/EC states 'there is a need to promote renewable energy sources (RES) as a priority measure' and Cited several reasons, including the security of supply and diversification of energy supply, environmental protection and social and economic cohesion. Article 4 of Directive 2001/77/EC, refers to support schemes of RES in the internal electricity market. A market mechanism for support of RES, called tradable RES certificates system, which is suggested as unified European system and completely supported by EURELECTRIC and which introduces the principles of deregulated electricity market is presented in this paper. Concept of application of tradable RES certificates system in R. Macedonia is also presented. (Author)

  16. Grid-connected renewable energy source systems: Challenges and proposed management schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of the world's rapid socioeconomic growth and environmental concerns, exploring diverse energy resources besides fossil fuel has become a necessity and not an optional mission. Even for the oil wealthy nations, adopting energy-mix policy has become a strategic goal that is profoundly sought. As preliminary outcome, investments in renewable energy source (RES) systems in arid region nations have taken tangible steps in planning and policy making. RES has several appealing factors; however, most countries where regulated or vertically integrated electric power systems are the principal methods for supplying the demand are cautious. Most of the electric utilities in these countries are putting reservations on RES due to the lack of monitoring and control of these grid-connected RES systems that might contribute to the instability of the electric grid. This paper identified the challenges and concerns of grid-connected RES. Moreover, it presented possible RES interconnection management schemes for the vertically integrated electric power systems.

  17. The latest Greek statute laws and its consequences to the Greek renewable energy source market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the summer of 2006, the legislation governing the installation of Renewable Energy Sources electric energy production facilities in Greece has been updated by the law 3468/2006. The aim of the current study is to present a synopsis of the recently introduced statute with emphasis on the main changes imported. The objective of the law 3468/2006 is to provide favorable conditions for the infiltration of RES investors into the electric energy market, leading to benefit of the consumers and also to decreasing CO2 emissions, providing a more favorable framework for compliance to the frames of the Kyoto Protocol. The authors wish to thank Dr. George Mariatos and Mr. George Spyrou for providing support for the work reported in this paper. The research for this study was financed by the European Union (75%) and the Greek Government (25%). [PENED 2003, code number 03ED158

  18. A historical review of promotion strategies for electricity from renewable energy sources in EU countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The core objective of this paper is to elaborate on historically implemented promotion strategies of renewable energy sources and the associated deployment within the European electricity market. Hence, at a first glance, the historic development of renewable energy sources in the electricity (RES-E) sector is addressed on Member State and on sectoral level as well as consequently discussed according to available RES-E potentials and costs. The specific focus of this paper, are promotion strategies for RES-E options as they are the key driver of an efficient and effective RES-E deployment. Therefore, the paper depicts the main types of different promotion schemes and their properties. Additionally, several cases studies of different European Member States show an in-depth analysis of the different RES-E promotion schemes. In this context, special emphasises are put on the question of effective and efficient promotion scheme designs of different RES-E technologies. Generally, conducted research led to the conclusion, that technology specific financial support measures of RES-E performed much more effective and efficient than others did. Hence, it is not all about the common question of feed-in tariffs vs. quota systems based on tradable green certificates, but more about the design criteria of implemented RES-E support schemes. (author)

  19. Unified System-Level Modeling of Intermittent Renewable Energy Sources and Energy Storage for Power System Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heussen, Kai; Koch, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    The system-level consideration of inter- mittent renewable energy sources and small-scale en- ergy storage in power systems remains a challenge as either type is incompatible with traditional operation concepts. Non-controllability and energy-constraints are still considered contingent cases in market-based operation. The design of operation strategies for up to 100 % renewable energy systems requires an explicit consideration of non-dispatchable generation and stor- age capacities, as well as the evaluation of operational performance in terms of energy eciency, reliability, environmental impact and cost. By abstracting from technology-dependent and physical unit properties, the modeling framework presented and extended in this pa- per allows the modeling of a technologically diverse unit portfolio with a unied approach, whilst establishing the feasibility of energy-storage consideration in power system operation. After introducing the modeling ap- proach, a case study is presented for illustration.

  20. Solid waste as renewable source of energy. Current and future possibility in Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taqiy Eddine, Boukelia; Salah, Mecibah Med [Mentouri Univ., Constantine (Algeria). Mechanical Dept.

    2012-11-01

    Algeria has created a green momentum by launching an ambitious program to develop renewable energies and promote energy efficiency. Solid waste is one of most important sources of biomass potential in Algeria, which can be used as renewable energy sources. With economic development and the evolution of population, the quantity of solid waste is increasing rapidly in Algeria; according to the National Cadastre for Solid Waste Generation, the overall generation of municipal solid waste was more than 10.3 million tons per year, and the amount of industrial solid waste, including non-hazardous and inert industrial waste was 2,547,000 tons per year, with a stock quantity of 4,483,500 tons. The hazardous waste generated amounts to 325,100 tons per year; the quantities of waste in stock and awaiting a disposal solution amount to 2,008,500 tons. Healthcare waste reaches to 125,000 tons per year. The management of solid waste and its valorization is based on the understanding of solid waste composition by its categories and physicochemical characteristics. Elimination is the solution applied to 97% of waste produced in Algeria. Wastes are disposed in the following ways: open dumps (57%), burned in the open air in public dumps or municipal uncontrolled ones (30%), and controlled dumps and landfill (10%). On the other side, the quantities destined for recovery are too low: only 2% for recycling and 1% for composting. Waste to energy is very attractive option for elimination solid waste with energy recovery. In this paper, we give an overview for this technology, including its conversion options and its useful products (such as electricity, heat and transportation fuel), and waste to energy-related environmental issues and its challenges. (orig.)

  1. Renewable energy certification system-RECS project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electric power from renewable energy sources is generally not economically competitive. Environmental protection, in energy supply, safety and independence have introduced financial incentives in electric power generation from renewable energy sources

  2. Current Harmonics Compensation in Microgrids Exploiting the Power Electronics Interfaces of Renewable Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Bouloumpasis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a method of current harmonic reduction in a distorted distribution system. In order to evaluate the proposed method a grid with high-order current harmonics is assumed. The reduction of current distortion is feasible due to the pulse modulation of an active filter, which consists of a buck-boost converter connected back-to-back to a polarity swapping inverter. For a practical application, this system would be the power electronic interface of a Renewable Energy Source (RES and therefore it changes a source of harmonics to a damping harmonics system. Using the proposed method, the current Total Harmonic Distortion (THD of the grid is reduced below the acceptable limits and thus the general power quality of the system is improved. Simulations in the MATLAB/SIMULINK platform and experiments have been performed in order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  3. Economic costs and benefits of the renewable energy sources; Costi e benefici economici delle fonti rinnovabili

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Leo, G. A. [Parma Univ., Parma (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Ambientali; Rizzi, L. [Milan Politecnico, Milan (Italy). Dipt. di Elettronica; Caizzi, A. [Cesi Spa, Business Unit Ambiente, Milan (Italy)

    2001-08-01

    In this work it has been analysed the potential diffusion of renewable energy sources and co-generation in the Italian market on the basis of the level of maturation of the different technologies, predicted market growth and environmental impacts associated to them. A sensitivity analysis on external costs generated by global climate changes has allowed everybody to assess how possible errors in estimating the potential impact of greenhouse gasses can affect the estimate of the economic performances of different scenarios of energetic development. On the basis of these considerations, it can be outlined a potential doubling of energy production by renewable energies in the next 10 years, with specific reference of small hydroelectric, biogass and eolic power plants. [Italian] Viene analizzata la capacita' di penetrazione delle fonti di energia rinnovabile e della cogenerazione nel mercato italiano sulla base dello stato di maturazione delle varie tecnologie e gli impatti ambientali ad esse associate. L'articolo mostra che il rispetto del vincolo di Kyoto comporterebbe in ultima analisi non un aggravio dei costi per la collettivita', ma addirittura un risparmio di 11 lire per ogni kWh prodotto, ovvero oltre il 10% rispetto ai costi totali.

  4. The development of the renewable energy sector - Source for more and better jobs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a global world, isolation becomes impossible. An important set of values are unanimously recognized, and 'like peace, the prosperity is indivisible and for being sustainable must be shared'. The problems of the global environment and their consequences have essentially contributed to 'the crystallization' of the necessity to pass to the Sustainable Development, meaning the incorporation of two important dimensions: the social one and the environmental one along with the economic objectives. The paper has the following contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Environment problems and their consequences; 3. Energetic security - transition to regenerative sources of energy; 4. Renewable energy sector and its impact on employment; 5. Conclusions. The following special conclusions concerning the renewable energy sector are highlighted: 1) it is a knowledge-based-sector which use intensively the labour force; 2) it includes a higher potential of high-skill job creation, characterized by higher productivity per capita, above the average of the national economy, by promoting friendly environment technologies; 3) it is a friendly environment sector with perspectives for modelling the structural changes on medium and long term; 4) it is likely to have an positive impact on workers' health and safety (workplace quality, pollution, hazardous substances and physical demanding work) and on the entire population; 5) it ensures that the potential for environmentally related innovations is exploited overall and that the emerging eco-jobs opportunities (in all skill range) can be met; 6) it supports the shift towards technologies that incorporate all the costs (technologies compatible with life cycles)

  5. Management of Renewable Sources of Energy: A Case on Rice Bran oil and Vegetable oils of Bangladesh Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Mamunur Rashid

    2011-01-01

    Renewable energy is a now burning issue for sustainable development. Moreover, it is also environmentally compatible. Bangladesh produces huge amount rice every year. From this, a significant amount of wastes are generated from rice. Rice bran is one of them. On the other hand oil seeds such as coconut, soybean, pulm and mustard are available in Bangladesh. In this view, rice bran oil and vegetable oils are considered for a case study for renewable sources of energy and alternative f...

  6. Renewable Sources of Energy - Economic Analysis of Biomass Utilization in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    NOVÁKOVÁ, JANA

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of the diploma thesis is to evaluate the renewable energy mix, especially renewable resource biomass and its utilization in the Czech Republic. The second objective is to evaluate the production of biomass and the production of a selected producer in a case study. Company Benko spol. s.r.o. provided the internal data for the case study. The thesis is divided into two main parts. Theoretical part characterizes terms nonrenewable resources, renewable resources, and bio...

  7. Sustainability index approach as a selection criteria for energy storage system of an intermittent renewable energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: Three renewable energy storage options considered: lead acid and lithium polymer batteries and fuel cell. Hydrogen fuel cell system is the most feasible energy storage option for the long term energy storage. Sustainability index approach is a novel method used to quantify the qualitative properties of the system. - Abstract: The sustainability index is an adaptive, multicriteria and novel technique that is used to compare different energy storage systems for their sustainability. This innovative concept utilizes both qualitative and quantitative results to measure sustainability through an index based approach. This report aims to compare three different energy storage options for an intermittent renewable energy source. The three energy storage options are lead acid batteries, lithium polymer batteries and fuel cell systems, that are selected due to their availability and the geographical constrain of using other energy storage options. The renewable energy source used is solar photovoltaic (PV). Several technical, economic and environmental factors have been discussed elaborately which would help us to evaluate the merits of the energy storage system for long term storage. Finally, a novel sustainability index has been proposed which quantifies the qualitative and quantitative aspects of the factors discussed, and thus helps us choose the ideal energy storage system for our scenario. A weighted sum approach is used to quantify each factor according to their importance. After a detailed analysis of the three energy storage systems through the sustainability index approach, the most feasible energy storage option was found to be fuel cell systems which can provide a long term energy storage option and also environmental friendly

  8. An integrated system for the energy production and accumulation from renewable sources: a rural tower prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Francesco, Silvia; Petrozzi, Alessandro; Montesarchio, Valeria

    2014-05-01

    This research work presents the implementation of an architectural prototype aiming at the complete energy self-sufficiency through an integrated system based on renewable energy. It is suitable for historical buildings in rural areas, isolated but important from natural and architectonical point of view. In addition to the energy aspects, it is important to protect the impact in terms of land-use and environment. This idea is also especially powerful because in the rural countries there are many little building centers abandoned because they are devoid of a connection to the electric energy grid and methane piping. Thus, taking inspiration from dove towers, architectural typology widespread in central Italy, a virtual model has been developed as an integrated system for renewable energy production, storage and supply. While recovering the ancient tower, it is possible to design and assembly an integrated intelligent system, able to combine energy supply and demand: a new tower that should be flexible, efficient and replicable in other contexts as manufacturing, commercial and residential ones. The prototype has been applied to a real case of study, an ancient complex located in Umbria Region. The sources for electric production installed on the tower are photovoltaics, on the head and shaft of the tower, hydropower and a biomass gasifier providing thermal too. A tank at the head of the tower allows an available hydraulic potential energy, for the turbine at any time, to cover photovoltaic lacks, caused by sudden loss of production, for environmental causes. Conversely, photovoltaic peaks, otherwise unusable, can be used to reload the water from the receiving tank at the foot of the tower, up to the tank in the head. The same underground tank acts as a thermal flywheel to optimize the geothermal heat pumps for the heat and cold production. Keywords: hydropower, photovoltaics, dove tower.

  9. A polyvalent heating system for a passive house based on renewable energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.I. Basok

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the concept of creating a polyvalent heating system for a passive house situated on the premises of the Institute of Technical Thermal Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. A brief analysis of common heating systems used in the residential sector, and public and industrial buildings is conducted. The authors describe the main stages of developing the principal hydraulic circuit of a polyvalent heating system for a passive house from renewable energy sources. The basic modes of operation depending on the period of year, the ambient temperature and technological features are listed. The advisability of using the heat pump technology in supplying heat to energy-efficient and passive houses is demonstrated.

  10. Sustainable application of renewable sources in water pumping systems: Optimized energy system configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, J.S. [CEHIDRO researcher, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon (Portugal)], E-mail: jsampayoramos@gmail.com; Ramos, H.M. [Civil Engineering Department, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Avenue Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)], E-mail: hr@civil.ist.utl.pt

    2009-02-15

    Eighteen years ago, in Portugal, the expenses in a water supply system associated with energy consumption were quite low. However, with the successive crises of energy fuel and the increase of the energy tariff as well as the water demand, the energy consumption is becoming a larger and a more important part of the total budget of water supply pumping systems. Also, new governmental policies, essentially in developed countries, are trying to implement renewable energies. For these reasons, a case-study in Portugal of a water pumping system was analysed to operate connected to solar and wind energy sources. A stand-alone and a grid-connected systems were tested. The stand alone was compared with the cost of extending the national electric grid. In the grid-connected system two solutions were analysed, one with a water turbine and another without. To be able to implement a water turbine, a larger water pump was needed to pump the necessary water as for consumption as for energy production. For the case analysed the system without a water turbine proved to be more cost-effective because the energy tariff is not yet so competitive as well as the cost of water turbines.

  11. Sustainable application of renewable sources in water pumping systems: Optimized energy system configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eighteen years ago, in Portugal, the expenses in a water supply system associated with energy consumption were quite low. However, with the successive crises of energy fuel and the increase of the energy tariff as well as the water demand, the energy consumption is becoming a larger and a more important part of the total budget of water supply pumping systems. Also, new governmental policies, essentially in developed countries, are trying to implement renewable energies. For these reasons, a case-study in Portugal of a water pumping system was analysed to operate connected to solar and wind energy sources. A stand-alone and a grid-connected systems were tested. The stand alone was compared with the cost of extending the national electric grid. In the grid-connected system two solutions were analysed, one with a water turbine and another without. To be able to implement a water turbine, a larger water pump was needed to pump the necessary water as for consumption as for energy production. For the case analysed the system without a water turbine proved to be more cost-effective because the energy tariff is not yet so competitive as well as the cost of water turbines

  12. Sustainable application of renewable sources in water pumping systems. Optimized energy system configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, J.S. [CEHIDRO researcher, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon (Portugal); Ramos, H.M. [Civil Engineering Department, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Avenue Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2009-02-15

    Eighteen years ago, in Portugal, the expenses in a water supply system associated with energy consumption were quite low. However, with the successive crises of energy fuel and the increase of the energy tariff as well as the water demand, the energy consumption is becoming a larger and a more important part of the total budget of water supply pumping systems. Also, new governmental policies, essentially in developed countries, are trying to implement renewable energies. For these reasons, a case-study in Portugal of a water pumping system was analysed to operate connected to solar and wind energy sources. A stand-alone and a grid-connected systems were tested. The stand alone was compared with the cost of extending the national electric grid. In the grid-connected system two solutions were analysed, one with a water turbine and another without. To be able to implement a water turbine, a larger water pump was needed to pump the necessary water as for consumption as for energy production. For the case analysed the system without a water turbine proved to be more cost-effective because the energy tariff is not yet so competitive as well as the cost of water turbines. (author)

  13. Financing and regulation for the new and renewable energy sources: the geothermal case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development and rational utilization of energy sources promotes economic growth and alleviates the environmental worries. Within the first frame, the use of new and renewable energy sources - wind, solar, photovoltaic, biomass, small hydroelectrical and geothermal - progressively reaches the highest priority in the context of the energy reforms that have been undertaken in the countries of the region. Among renewable energies, besides those of the hydraulic origin, geothermal is the one with the highest grade of safety as was demonstrated by its technical and economical reliability. If the estimation that the geothermal electricity potential of the Latin American region will reach more than 6000 MWe is correct, this is only indicative of its nature. The enormous financial resources of the Andean geothermal systems have to this date been ignored, while in Central America there exits a large number of financial resources still untouched. The rationale and the problems connected with this that remain - in all of Latin America, with the exception of Mexico - are of different natures. Most importantly, in first place, the economical difficulties; in effect, the fault of the ad-hoc economic initiatives have very much obstructed the sustained geothermal development and support. Other relevant obstacles for the use of this type of resource have been the lacking of specific and reliable legal aspects. Last but not least, the financial obstacles of the projects, under private or mixed schemes, should be emphasized. Because of the crucial role that these problems are asked to play in the implementation and development of geothermal projects in Latin America, it has been decided to prepare this document which is a part of the global view about the subject (making comparisons with experiences of other countries), and tries to identify possible solutions for the future

  14. Renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogen is seen by many as a key energetic vector for the 21st century. Its utilization in fuel cells enables a clean and efficient production of electricity. The possibility to obtain hydrogen from various sources, along with several types of potential applications of fuel cells, have called the attention and investment of developed countries. European Union, United States, Canada and Japan have important programs that establish tied goals for the utilization of fuel cells in transport and distributed energy generation. Aware of the importance of this technology for the energetic future of Brazil, IPEN started 13 years ago the development of fuel cells for stationary and distributed energy applications. Preliminary studies were carried out at the Materials Research Center due to IPEN expertise on nuclear materials development. Based on both, the good initial results and the proposition of the Brazilian Fuel Cell Program (ProH2 ) by the Ministry of 2 Science, Technology and Innovation (MCTI), IPEN decided to organize an institutional program on the subject, conducted at the Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Center - CCCH. The objectives of the IPEN/CCCH program are based on the MCTI national program, contributing significantly to the national development in this area. The R and D Program was structured in a cross-cutting way involving human and infrastructure resources from many IPEN technical departments. The Center comprises three main areas of interests: PEMFC (Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell); SOFC (Solid Oxide Fuel Cell); and H2-Production, mainly from ethanol reforming. More than 50 professionals were engaged at this development, although some in part time, including PhDs, MSc and graduate students and undergraduate students. Important scientific and technological results have been obtained and the main achievements can be evaluated by patents, published papers, graduate courses given and the graduate student's thesis concluded. Since 2004, the PEMFC Laboratory was transferred to a new site, improving its research capabilities, which includes catalyst and MEA preparations and fuel cell stack test up to 5 kW electric power. In the period of 2005-2007 new laboratories of SOFC, Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Systems have been implemented. In the period of 2011-2013 our attention turned also to scaling up, reliabilities studies and small demonstration projects. A new building for housing additional personal was built during this period. The financial resources were based on scientific funds from federal and state government agencies (FINEP-MCTI-ProH2 , FAPESP, CNPq, and CAPES). Today, IPEN is considered an important partner within the R and D networks established by the MCTI-ProH2 Program. Partnerships with emerging enterprises from CIETEC (Incubator Center) and others led to advances and autonomous technological domain in some areas. (author)

  15. Renewable energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    Hydrogen is seen by many as a key energetic vector for the 21{sup st} century. Its utilization in fuel cells enables a clean and efficient production of electricity. The possibility to obtain hydrogen from various sources, along with several types of potential applications of fuel cells, have called the attention and investment of developed countries. European Union, United States, Canada and Japan have important programs that establish tied goals for the utilization of fuel cells in transport and distributed energy generation. Aware of the importance of this technology for the energetic future of Brazil, IPEN started 13 years ago the development of fuel cells for stationary and distributed energy applications. Preliminary studies were carried out at the Materials Research Center due to IPEN expertise on nuclear materials development. Based on both, the good initial results and the proposition of the Brazilian Fuel Cell Program (ProH{sub 2} ) by the Ministry of 2 Science, Technology and Innovation (MCTI), IPEN decided to organize an institutional program on the subject, conducted at the Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Center - CCCH. The objectives of the IPEN/CCCH program are based on the MCTI national program, contributing significantly to the national development in this area. The R and D Program was structured in a cross-cutting way involving human and infrastructure resources from many IPEN technical departments. The Center comprises three main areas of interests: PEMFC (Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell); SOFC (Solid Oxide Fuel Cell); and H{sup 2}-Production, mainly from ethanol reforming. More than 50 professionals were engaged at this development, although some in part time, including PhDs, MSc and graduate students and undergraduate students. Important scientific and technological results have been obtained and the main achievements can be evaluated by patents, published papers, graduate courses given and the graduate student's thesis concluded. Since 2004, the PEMFC Laboratory was transferred to a new site, improving its research capabilities, which includes catalyst and MEA preparations and fuel cell stack test up to 5 kW electric power. In the period of 2005-2007 new laboratories of SOFC, Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Systems have been implemented. In the period of 2011-2013 our attention turned also to scaling up, reliabilities studies and small demonstration projects. A new building for housing additional personal was built during this period. The financial resources were based on scientific funds from federal and state government agencies (FINEP-MCTI-ProH{sub 2} , FAPESP, CNPq, and CAPES). Today, IPEN is considered an important partner within the R and D networks established by the MCTI-ProH{sub 2} Program. Partnerships with emerging enterprises from CIETEC (Incubator Center) and others led to advances and autonomous technological domain in some areas. (author)

  16. PROFIT MAXIMIZATION AND OPTIMAL SIZING OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN A HYBRID SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAJVENDER PAL VERMA

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The renewable energy sources wind, solar etc. have become very essential and important in the generation mix as a result of rising energy demand and environmental reasons. In addition tax is being imposed on high carbon emission. But the uncertainty and variability associated with renewable such as wind may result in economical andtechnical problems in the power system. In order to compensate wind intermittency, generation resources such as gas plant, pumped storage unit etc. are employed due to their lesser start up time, lower operating cost and good ramping capabilities. This paper proposes a model which investigates the combined operation of thermal, wind andpumped storage units for the profit maximization in varying wind, load, and price scenarios. The optimal size of the pumped storage unit to be used has been obtained after putting the system to different operating conditions such as varying wind power and load demand, imposing tax on carbon emission and varying ramping limits etc. The model has been applied on IEEE-30 bus test data and satisfactory results have been obtained for optimal hybrid systemoperation.

  17. Renewable energy sources development in Europe; Alcuni esercizi sullo sviluppo delle fonti rinnovabili in Europa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Giulio, E. [Ente Nazionale Idrocarburi S.p.A., Milan (Italy). Scuola Superiore E. Mattei; Gostinelli, F. [Electric Power Production Company, Milan (Italy)

    2000-12-01

    Given the European effort of doubling its renewable sources share by 2010, the main target of this paper is to understand costs and benefits of such an effort and propose some energy scenarios in the contest of the Kyoto Protocol. The research is carried out by means of a system dynamics model which considers four sectors. For each sector the model calculates energy consumptions, CO{sub 2} emissions and savings in CO{sub 2} emissions deriving from the expansion of renewable. [Italian] Dato l'obiettivo europeo di raddoppiare la quota delle fonti rinnovabili al 2010, lo scopo principale dell'articolo e' di misurare i costi e i benefici di tale sforzo e di proporre alcuni scenari energetici nel contesto del Protocollo di Kyoto. L'indagine utilizza un modello di system dynamics a quattro settori che calcola i consumi energetici e le emission di CO{sub 2} di settore, nonche' i costi e i risparmi, in temini di emissioni di CO{sub 2} evitate, legati allo sviluppo delle fonti rinnovabili.

  18. On quantifying uncertainty for project selection: the case of renewable energy sources' investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The selection of a project among different alternatives, considering the limited resources of a company (organisation), is an added value process that determines the prosperity of an undertaken project (investment). This applies also to the 'boming' Renewable Energy Sector, especially under the circumstances established by the recent activation of the Kyoto protocal and by the plethora of available choices for renewable energy sources (RES) projjects. The need for a reliable project selection method among the various alternatives is, therefore, highlighted and, in this context, the paper proposes the NPV function as one of possible criteria for the selection of a RES project. Furthermore, it differentiates from the typical NPV calculation process by adding the concept of a probabilistic NPV approach through Monte Carlo simulation. Reality is non-deterministic, so any attempt of modelling it by using a deterministic approach is by definition erroneous. The paper ultimately proposes a process of substituting the point with a range estimation, capable of quantifying the various uncertainty factors and in this way elucidate the accomplishment possibilities of eligible scenarious. The paper is enhanced by case study showing how the proposed method can be practically applied to support the investment decision, thus enabling the decision makers to judge its effectiveness and usefulness.(Author)

  19. CONSIDERATIONS ON RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES AND THEIR RELATED PERSPECTIVES OFAGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

    OpenAIRE

    Daniele Duca; Giuseppe Toscano; Giovanni Riva; Ester Foppa-Pedretti

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses some considerations and advances a number of proposals about the potential of Agricultural Engineering to contribute to the field of renewable energy, with an emphasis on biomass. Several areas for action are identified. First, general education and teaching of students who will go on to become technicians and professionals in the sector of renewable energies, even though the characteristics of the sectors are still fuzzy. Diffusion of the energy culture, a too often negl...

  20. The green brewery concept - Energy efficiency and the use of renewable energy sources in breweries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the Green Brewery Concept is to demonstrate the potential for reducing thermal energy consumption in breweries, to substantially lower fossil CO2 emissions and to develop an expert tool in order to provide a strategic approach to reach this reduction. Within the project 'Green Brewery' three detailed case studies have been performed and a Green Brewery Concept has been developed. The project outcomes show that it is preferable to develop a tool instead of a simple guideline where a pathway to a CO2 neutral thermal energy supply is shown for different circumstances. The methodology of the Green Brewery Concept includes detailed energy balancing, calculation of minimal thermal energy demand, process optimization, heat integration and finally the integration of renewable energy based on exergetic considerations. For the studied breweries, one brewery with optimized heat recovery can potentially supply its thermal energy demand over own resources (excluding space heating). The energy produced from biogas from biogenic residues of breweries and waste water exceeds the remaining thermal process energy demand of 37 MJ/hl produced beer. - Highlights: ? A 'Green Brewery Concept' tool as guideline for breweries to reach minimal CO2 emissions in thermal energy supply. ? tool as guideline for breweries to reach minimal CO2 emissions in thermal energy supply. ? Reached thermal energy savings of higher than 20% with heat integration via pinch analysis. ? Potential of solar process heat integration for thermal energy supply in packaging and mashing processes. ? In one brewery with optimized heat integration the thermal energy demand can be covered by biogas production from its own resources.

  1. Presence of renewable sources of energy, cogeneration, energy efficiency and distributed generation in the International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Nuclear Information System (INIS) it was created in 1970 by the International Atomic Energy Agency (OIEA) with the objective of propitiating the exchange of scientific information and technique on the peaceful uses of the energy atomic. INIS processes most of scientific literature and technique in engineering matters nuclear, safeguard and non proliferation and applications in agriculture and health that it generates in the world and it contributes to create a repository of nuclear information for present and future generations. Additionally it includes economic aspects and environmental of other energy sources that facilitate comparative studies for the taking of decisions. The database INIS, is its main informative product and it counts with more than 3 million registrations. One of the services that lends the Center of Administration of the Information and Development of the Energy (CUBAENERGIA), like center INIS in Cuba, is the search of information on the peaceful use of the science and nuclear technology in the Countries Members and the registration of information on their applications in Cuba. More recently, it extends this service to the Renewable Sources application of Energy in the country; as part of the works of administration of the information that it carries out for the National Group of Renewable Energy, Cogeneration, Saving and Energy Efficiency, created in the 2007 and coordinated by the MINBAS with the participation of institutions belonging to Organisms of the Administration Central of the State. In this work the results of a preliminary study are presented on the witnesses in the INIS of the Renewable Sources of Energy, the Cogeneration, Energy Efficiency, and the Distributed Generation. As well as of the application of metric tools to the opposing registrations for the case of the Distributed generation, that which allowed to characterize their historical evolution, the participation for countries in their development and main impact publications in the thematic. (author)

  2. Are renewable resources an energy source for Brandenburg?. A discussion paper on possible alternative employment opportunities in the renewable resources sector in rural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study contributes to clarifying the following: What short-, medium- and long-term measures are required in selected sectors for the cultivation, conditioning and use of renewable energy sources and, especially, what effects are, thereby, to be obtained on the labour market of the Land Brandenburg especially at the regional level. (orig.)

  3. Power flow modelling in electric networks with renewable energy sources in large areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In many worlds regions there is a great potential for utilizing home grid connected renewable power generating systems, with capacities of MW thousands. The optimal utilization of these sources is connected with power flow possibilities trough the power network in which they have to be connected. There is necessary to respect the long distances among the electric power sources with great outputs and power consumption and non even distribution of the power sources as well. The article gives the solution possibilities for Libya region under utilization of wind renewable sources in north in shore regions. (Authors)

  4. Hydrogen rich gas from oil palm biomass as a potential source of renewable energy in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed, M.A.A.; Salmiaton, A.; Wan Azlina, W.A.K.G.; Mohammad Amran, M.S.; Fakhru' l-Razi, A. [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Taufiq-Yap, Y.H. [Centre of Excellence for Catalysis Science and Technology and Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2011-02-15

    Oil palm is one of the major economic crops in many countries. Malaysia alone produces about 47% of the world's palm oil supply and can be considered as the world's largest producer and exporter of palm oil. Malaysia also generates huge quantity of oil palm biomass including oil palm trunks, oil palm fronds, empty fruit bunches (EFB), shells and fibers as waste from palm oil fruit harvest and oil extraction processing. At present there is a continuously increasing interest in the utilization of oil palm biomass as a source of clean energy. One of the major interests is hydrogen from oil palm biomass. Hydrogen from biomass is a clean and efficient energy source and is expected to take a significant role in future energy demand due to the raw material availability. This paper presents a review which focuses on different types of thermo-chemical processes for conversion of oil palm biomass to hydrogen rich gas. This paper offers a concise and up-to-date scenario of the present status of oil palm industry in contributing towards sustainable and renewable energy. (author)

  5. Borregaard Fabrikker cut their oil consumption by 50 per cent by means of energy conservation measures and renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borregaard Fabrikker in Sarpsborg, Norway, are concentrating strongly on energy conservation and renewable energy sources. 20 000 tonnes of fuel oil will be substituted with 70 000 tonnes of residual waste in a bio fuel plant that will generate steam for the processes. The energy production is 190 to 240 GWh. The environmental and climatic gain is considerable, and the economic saving is great. More measures are under way. A new bio fuel plant for liquid fuel will be ready in 2004, based on residual products from the production of cellulose. The emission of carbon dioxide from Borregaard Fabrikker will then be cut by more than 100 000 tonnes

  6. Renewable energy annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report presents summary data on renewable energy consumption, the status of each of the primary renewable technologies, a profile of each of the associated industries, an analysis of topical issues related to renewable energy, and information on renewable energy projects worldwide. It is the second in a series of annual reports on renewable energy. The renewable energy resources included in the report are biomass (wood and ethanol); municipal solid waste, including waste-to-energy and landfill gas; geothermal; wind; and solar energy, including solar thermal and photovoltaic. The report also includes various appendices and a glossary.

  7. Renewable energy annual 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents summary data on renewable energy consumption, the status of each of the primary renewable technologies, a profile of each of the associated industries, an analysis of topical issues related to renewable energy, and information on renewable energy projects worldwide. It is the second in a series of annual reports on renewable energy. The renewable energy resources included in the report are biomass (wood and ethanol); municipal solid waste, including waste-to-energy and landfill gas; geothermal; wind; and solar energy, including solar thermal and photovoltaic. The report also includes various appendices and a glossary

  8. Renewable energies for power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power generation from renewable energy sources is different from power generation from classical energies (nuclear, thermal..). Therefore, the integration into the grid of the electricity supplied by renewable sources requires a deep thinking. The reason is that these power sources are controlled by variable elements, like wind, water and sun, which condition production. This book deals with the following aspects in detail: characteristics of classical and intermittent generators; grid balancing between supply and demand; conversion methods of renewable energies into electricity; power systems; privatizing of power generation and birth of new markets, in particular the 'green' power market; development of renewable energies thanks to technical advances. It gives a comprehensive overview of the present day available renewable energy sources for power generation. (J.S.)

  9. Governmental interventions in the energy market. Study of the Dutch level playing field for fossil fuels, renewable sources, nuclear energy and energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study has made an inventory of 53 governmental interventions in the Dutch energy market. Moreover, the consequences for the playing field for fossil fuels, renewable sources, nuclear energy and energy saving have been quantified. It shows that the government still stimulates the use of energy and fossil fuels more than it stimulates use of renewable energy sources. Policy that focuses on decreasing the price differences between sustainable and fossil should therefore focus on the phase-out of this support and subsequently on bridging the remaining financial gap.

  10. Does the use of renewable energy sources mitigate CO2 emissions? A reassessment of the US evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous research on the determinants of CO2 emissions has concluded that, although increasing nuclear energy consumption can help to mitigate emissions, increasing use of renewable energy sources is not effective in this regard. These studies, however, do not consider energy prices as a possible driver of energy demand (and hence of emissions) and we find that this omission and the choice of functional form materially alters the outcome in the US case. Specifically, our cointegration and Granger-causality test results indicate that CO2 emission levels are negatively related to the use of renewable energy, but are unrelated to nuclear energy consumption. - Highlights: • We model CO2 emissions for the US within a VECM framework. • We find that increasing renewable energy consumption is effective at mitigating emissions. • However, increasing nuclear energy consumption is ineffective in this respect. • Both results contradict the findings of previous studies

  11. Improved market and system integration of renewable energy sources in the electricity sector; Verbesserte Markt- und Systemintegration von Erneuerbaren Energien im Strombereich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huettner, Sabine

    2010-07-01

    The book investigates approaches for system optimization with a greater share of renewable energy sources from an engineering and an economic point of view and outlines options for activities for improved system and market integration. The author's focus is on analyzing the technical possibilities for levelling the load and supply fluctuations connected with renewable energy sources and on finding ways to bring renewable energy sources under the control of the energy market. (orig.)

  12. The long-term relationships among China's energy consumption sources and adjustments to its renewable energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To reduce its consumption of coal and oil in its primary energy consumption, China promotes the development of renewable energy resources. I have analysed the long-term relationship among China's primary energy consumption sources. Changes in coal consumption lead those in the consumption of other energy sources in the long term. Coal and oil fuels substitute for each other equally. The long-term elasticities of China's coal consumption relative to its hydroelectricity consumption were greater than one and nearly equal during the two sample periods. Therefore, increased hydroelectricity consumption did not imply a reduction in coal consumption. China holds abundant hydroelectricity, wind and, solar energy potential. China must prevent an excessive escalation of its economy and resultant energy demand to realise a meaningful substitution of coal with hydroelectricity. Moreover, China must develop and use wind and solar energy sources. Natural gas can be a good substitute for coal, given its moderate price growth and affordable price levels. - Highlights: ? Coal consumption changes lead those of other energy sources in the long term. ? Coal and oil fuels substitute for each other equally. ? Increased hydroelectricity consumption has not meant lower coal consumption. ? Wind, solar and natural gas are China's promising energy sources.

  13. Modeling a drip irrigation system powered by a renewable energy source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zoheiry, Ahmed M.

    Food production is a problem in many of the regions in the world. Today, the process of producing food is very dependent on energy. The dependency on fossil fuels causes the cost of producing crops to increase as the prices of fuel increases. Using a renewable energy sources to power an irrigation system is a mean of decreasing the dependency of food products on the prices of fuel and minimize the impact of the irrigation system on the environment. A model was developed to simulate and predict the performance of an irrigation system powered by a renewable energy source. Both solar energy and wind energy were considered for the modeling of the system. The solar energy was simulated using the difference between the maximum and the minimum daily temperatures as an indicator of the amount of clouds in the atmosphere. The model is a modification of earlier models and has the advantage of not needing to be calibrated for each new site. Results showed that a model that calibrates it self for the upper and the lower expected values of the solar radiation can be developed using metrological data such as the location of the site, the daily temperatures, and the minimum relative humidity. The wind energy was predicted using the power coefficient of the turbine and statistical representation of the daily wind speeds. The average hourly values of the wind speed were used for finding the distribution constants for the Weibull distribution and Rayleigh distribution. The results showed that the Weibull distribution is more accurate in predicting the expected power output of the turbine when the daily wind speed coefficient of variation (Cv) was less than 0.5. When the Cv is greater than 0.5 the Rayleigh distribution gives better results. A computer model was developed using Visual Basic to model the system and the resulting model was tested and used in comparing the economics of a traditional irrigation system and an irrigation system powered by solar panels. The system powered by the solar panel had a greater total annual cost than the traditional system but the sensitivity analysis performed showed that if the trends in energy prices continue and the prices of the solar panels continue to decrease, the cost for operating the traditional systems will be close to the cost of operating the systems powered by the solar panels in less than a 10 years.

  14. Diversification of the energy mix and renewable energy sources in Slovenia for ensuring sustainable, competitive and secure energy in the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podlogar, Sasa; Raner, Damjana; Zebeljan, Djordje

    2007-07-01

    The European Union is facing major challenges in the energy field - growing import dependency, the need for substantial investment and lack of competitive energy market. It has adopted binding legislation and non-binding recommendations, but they do not suffice. The latest Green paper identifies diversification of energy mix as one of the key areas, where further action is needed, if Europe is to overcome this crisis. Renewable energy is recognised as a relevant factor in improving security of energy supply, since it increases the share of indigenous energy and thus provides a more balanced and diversified energy mix. Slovenia's energy mix includes 11 % of renewables. In our electricity mix the share of renewables is higher, 27,6 %.The estimations show that by 2015 13,3 % of primary energy use will come from renewable sources. Our current strategy in the field of renewable energy sources is to increase their share in overall energy balance sheet to 12 % in 2010 and to increase their share in electricity production to 33,6 % in 2010. But Slovenia will have to take into account new ambitious targets the European Commission recommended recently, while trying to determine the optimally balanced diversification of energy sources in the future. (auth)

  15. Local challenges in the promotion of renewable energy sources: The case of Crete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crete, the largest Greek island, attracts about 20% of the total Greek tourist activity and hosts more than 50% of all renewable energy projects situated in the Hellenic island territories. In this article, we probe the comparatively successful promotion of renewable energy applications among Cretan municipalities by identification of key components and drivers of local dynamics which facilitate the development of such innovative and collective projects. We then refer to a theoretical economic grid highlighting the strength of local factors (i.e. social and institutional forces) in co-ordination mechanisms. We conclude that for the case of Crete, both internal factors (such as local acceptance) and external elements (such as macrostructure) play a core role in successful implementation of renewable energy, and from this we propose a number of facilitating conditions which could help promote renewable energy production on other islands.

  16. Cost and prices of electricity. Fossil fuels, nuclear power and renewable energy sources in comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consumers of electricity pay for production, transport and distribution as well as for taxes and dues. Electricity rates depend on various influencing factors, e.g. different fuel and capital cost of the power plants and the ratio of supply and demand in the electricity stock markets. End user electricity rats also include taxes and dues as well as the cost of power transmission. The publication presents background information on the formation of electricity rates in Germany. In a second step, the different cost factors of fossil fuels, nuclear power and renewable energy sources are compared. In particular, the external cost is gone into which often tends to be neglected in the electricity markets.

  17. The cost and potentials involved in enhanced use of renewable energy sources in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possible uses and potentials of renewable energy sources are an issue of debate, sometimes of controversy, with debates frequently showing that the discussion partners from both sides fall short of properly assessing the potentials as well as the constraints of the green power generation technologies. This is not due to lack of reliable information but rather to the complex conditions and diversity of information material. Taking this fact as a starting point, the contribution here is intended to elaborate a clear picture of the current situation, referring to and systematically putting in relation recent information material. The survey presented provides quick access to major information, permitting comparative assessment of potentials as well as margins. (orig./CB)

  18. Renewable energy sources as an alternative to the new usage of brownfields.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kunc, Josef; Klus?ek, Petr; Martint, Stanislav; Tonev, P.

    Brno : MU Brno, 2012 - (Svobodov, H.), s. 82-88 ISBN 978-80-210-5799-9. [19th International Conference on Geography and Geoinformatics: Challenge for Practise and Education. Brno (CZ), 08.09.2011-09.09.2011] R&D Projects: GA Mk(CZ) 7E11035; GA Mk EE2.3.20.0025 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : brownfields * renewable energy sources * alternative usage * world * the Czech Republic Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography http://apps.webofknowledge.com/full_record.do?product=UA&search_mode=GeneralSearch&qid=9&SID=U2kgIHPCYiiFNdvKq7l&page=1&doc=6

  19. Resolution of the Conference of Ministers of Economics of the German Laender, relating to the act obliging electric utilities to purchase electricity generated from renewable energy sources (Stromeinspeisungsgesetz)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Conference of Ministers welcomes the minimum payment for electricity generated from renewable energy sources as defined in the planned act as a suitable incentive to exploit renewable energy sources, but at the same time regrets that the Federal Government still does not give appropriate support in general to enhanced use of these energy sources. The resolution comprises seven statements. (orig./CB)

  20. Social Inequity and Risks Associated With Renewable and Conventional Energy Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trancik, J. E.; Krishnan, N.; Franco, G.; Kim, H.; Fthenakis, V.

    2005-12-01

    The various environmental, health and social burdens of conventional electricity generation have long been recognized. However, the social inequity that stems from conventional electricity generation is less well documented. This ranges from the vulnerability of indigenous populations to adverse impacts resulting from routine operation and accidents in the extraction of energy sources such as natural gas and oil; to the vastly disproportionate - based on levels of energy consumption - vulnerability of the poor to climate change. There are also feedback loops that need to be considered in assessing risks and social inequity associated with conventional energy production, particularly in the category of accidents which could increase in frequency due to the effects of climate change. Renewable technologies offer the possibility to reduce many of these burdens, but are not themselves without impact. The quantification and comparison of burdens from electricity generation options is extremely difficult. Challenges stem from (i) the wide range of consequences and resulting metrics used for evaluation; and (ii) uncertainties in estimating the likelihood of events. Some of the most important risks from electricity generation technologies resist robust quantification. Nevertheless, there has been a vast and sometimes conflicting body of literature analyzing the risks and impacts of different technologies for electricity generation. The goal of this work is to compare the risks of photovoltaics (PV), a promising renewable technology, with other options (coal, oil, gas and nuclear) for electricity generation - with a particular emphasis on social inequity questions. We achieve this through an analysis that proceeds in two steps. First, we develop a framework for mapping the risk landscapes associated with different life cycle stages for PV and conventional electricity generation technologies, by grouping risks into three categories: routine, accidents, and perception-influenced. Second, we review and compare these qualitative estimates of risks within and across energy technologies through ordinal rankings.

  1. Equilibrium Transitions from Non Renewable Energy to Renewable Energy under Capacity Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Amigues, Jean-Pierre; Ayong Le Kama, Alain; Moreaux, Michel

    2013-01-01

    We study the transition between non renewable and renewable energy sources with adjustment costs over the production capacity of renewable energy. Assuming constant variable marginal costs for both energy sources, convex adjustment costs and a more expensive renewable energy, we show the following. With sufficiently abundant non renewable energy endowments, the dynamic equilibrium path is composed of a first time phase of only non renewable energy use followed by a transition phase substituti...

  2. Equilibrium transitions from non-renewable energy to renewable energy under capacity constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Amigues, Jean-Pierre; Ayong Le Kama, Alain; Moreaux, Michel

    2015-01-01

    We study the transition between non-renewable and renewable energy sources with adjustment costs over the production capacity of renewable energy. Assuming constant variable marginal costs for both energy sources, convex adjustment costs and a more expensive renewable energy, we show the following. With sufficiently abundant non-renewable energy endowments, the dynamic equilibrium path is composed of a first time phase of only non-renewable energy use followed by a transition phase substituti...

  3. A computational framework for uncertainty integration in stochastic unit commitment with intermittent renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A computational framework is proposed for uncertainty integration. • A new scenario generation method is proposed for renewable energy. • Prediction intervals are used to capture uncertainties of wind and solar power. • Load, wind, solar and generator outage uncertainties are integrated together. • Different generation costs and reserves are discussed for decision making. - Abstract: The penetration of intermittent renewable energy sources (IRESs) into power grids has increased in the last decade. Integration of wind farms and solar systems as the major IRESs have significantly boosted the level of uncertainty in operation of power systems. This paper proposes a comprehensive computational framework for quantification and integration of uncertainties in distributed power systems (DPSs) with IRESs. Different sources of uncertainties in DPSs such as electrical load, wind and solar power forecasts and generator outages are covered by the proposed framework. Load forecast uncertainty is assumed to follow a normal distribution. Wind and solar forecast are implemented by a list of prediction intervals (PIs) ranging from 5% to 95%. Their uncertainties are further represented as scenarios using a scenario generation method. Generator outage uncertainty is modeled as discrete scenarios. The integrated uncertainties are further incorporated into a stochastic security-constrained unit commitment (SCUC) problem and a heuristic genetic algorithm is utilized to solve this stochastic SCUC problem. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, five deterministic and four stochastic case studies are implemented. Generation costs as well as different reserve strategies are discussed from the perspectives of system economics and reliability. Comparative results indicate that the planned generation costs and reserves are different from the realized ones. The stochastic models show better robustness than deterministic ones. Power systems run a higher level of risk during peak load hours

  4. Stand-alone PEM water electrolysis system for fail safe operation with a renewable energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, R.E.; Giddey, S.; Badwal, S.P.S. [CSIRO Energy Technology, CSIRO Energy Transformed Flagship, Private Bag 33, Clayton South, VIC 3169 (Australia)

    2010-02-15

    A complete stand-alone electrolyser system has been constructed as a transportable unit for demonstration of a sustainable energy facility based on hydrogen and a renewable energy source. The stand-alone unit is designed to support a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) stack operating at up to {proportional_to}4 kW input power with a stack efficiency of about 80% based on HHV of hydrogen. It is self-pressurizing and intended for operation initially at a differential pressure of less than 6 bar across the membrane electrode assembly with the hydrogen generation side being at a higher pressure. With a slightly smaller stack, the system has been operated at an off-site facility where it was directly coupled to a 2.4 kW photovoltaic (PV) solar array. Because of its potential use in remote areas, the balance-of-plant operates entirely on 12 V DC power for all monitoring, control and safety requirements. It utilises a separate high-current supply as the main electrolyser input, typically 30-40 V at 100 A from a renewable source such as solar PV or wind. The system has multiple levels of built-in operator and stack safety redundancy. Control and safety systems monitor all flows, levels and temperatures of significance. All fault conditions are failsafe and are duplicated, triggering latching relays which shut the system down. Process indicators monitor several key variables and allow operating limits to be easily adjusted in response to experience of system performance gained in the field. (author)

  5. CONSIDERATIONS ON RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES AND THEIR RELATED PERSPECTIVES OFAGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Foppa-Pedretti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses some considerations and advances a number of proposals about the potential of Agricultural Engineering to contribute to the field of renewable energy, with an emphasis on biomass. Several areas for action are identified. First, general education and teaching of students who will go on to become technicians and professionals in the sector of renewable energies, even though the characteristics of the sectors are still fuzzy. Diffusion of the energy culture, a too often neglected aspect that is however indispensable to sustain the overdue penetration of renewable energies in Italy, is an additional area for action. Another critical area, energy planning, is currently viewed mainly as involving the assessment on more or less wide areas of energy consumption and for the scope of replacing fossil resources with renewables to meet some energy requirements. A more complex, overarching issue is energy efficiency, especially of buildings, which should be a mainstay of the planning process but is in fact not so clearly addressed in development plans for renewables. At this same level, all interactions among production sectors should be assessed, to enhance the role of agriculture, one of the new potential energy-producing sectors and one of the possible prospective suppliers of renewable energy for different final users, from households to the service sector and industry. Agricultural Engineering has the skills needed to implement all these different actions. A role for it in advanced research, i.e. biotechnologies, can and should also be envisaged. Its work in the renewable energy sector should closely involve microbiological, genetic, chemical, agronomic, and animal research to define the goals to be pursued and to implement intuitions. In this way, Agricultural Engineering would increasingly be characterized as Biosystems Engineering.

  6. Renewable energy and jobs

    OpenAIRE

    Ferroukhi, Rabia; Lucas, Hugo; Renner, Michael; Lehr, Ulrike; Breitschopf, Barbara; Lallement, Dominique; Petrick, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Over 5.7 million people are employed directly or indirectly in renewable energy - a figure that could triple by 2030 with the scale-up needed to ensure global energy sustainability. As policy makers look beyond energy security and environmental aspects, the comprehensive Renewable Energy and Jobs report from the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) examines wider socio-economic benefits, and specifically job creation. The report was released ahead of the first International Renewable...

  7. Electrical energy generation in Europe the current situation and perspectives in the use of renewable energy sources and nuclear power for regional electricity generation

    CERN Document Server

    Morales Pedraza, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    The present book maximizesreader insights into the current and future roles to be played by different types of renewable energy sources and nuclear energy for the purpose of electricity generation in the European region as a whole and in a select group of European countries specifically. This book includes detailed analysis of the different types of renewable energy sources available in different European countries; the pros and cons of the use of the different types of renewables and nuclear energy for electricity generation; which energy options are available in the different European coun

  8. Electrical energy generation in Europe the current situation and perspectives in the use of renewable energy sources and nuclear power for regional electricity generation

    CERN Document Server

    Morales Pedraza, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    The present book maximizes reader insights into the current and future roles to be played by different types of renewable energy sources and nuclear energy for the purpose of electricity generation in the European region as a whole and in a select group of European countries specifically. This book includes detailed analysis of the different types of renewable energy sources available in different European countries; the pros and cons of the use of the different types of renewables and nuclear energy for electricity generation; which energy options are available in the different European coun

  9. Renewable energy sources evolution connected with Romania's accession to the EU process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The RES direct support in 2010 for the EU-15 countries varies from 0.08 Euro cents/kWh of total electricity in Finland, to 1.32 Euro cents/kWh of total electricity in Denmark, with a weighted average of 0-39 Euro cents/kWh of total electricity. In case of EU-15 countries using only feed-in tariffs to promote RES, the weighted average of RES direct support is 0.44 Euro cents/kWh. EURELECTRIC's position on RES support is in favor of market-based mechanisms to support renewable sources, which do not lead to market distortions. EURELECTRIC supports the Commission's intention to create a regulatory framework for the promotion of renewable sources in the internal market. Romanian Governmental Decision No. 443/2003 is aiming at the harmonization of the national legislative framework with EU Directive. The important share of large hydroelectricity generated in Romania could represent a good opportunity for Romania to participate in the EU green electricity market, but the key problem in Romania's case is the target of 12.5 % of RES-E in 2010 without large hydroelectricity. On the other hand, the development of the future European green market will influence Romania's energy policy concerning RES development. The development of some national schemes presenting an obstacle to a European certificate trading system, which do not recognize foreign certificates, could cut down the Romania's opportunities to sell into an European green electricity market the electricity generated at low price in the existing large hydropower plants. Some member states accepted electricity generated in large HPP as 'green', the others consider only small HPP in this category. The Romania's accession to EU could mean the acceptance to increase the share of new renewable sources in the next years. Such a request, involving the real implementation of schemes for RES support could be very difficult, taking into account the low support ability to increase the electricity price in Romania. (author)

  10. An adaptive Phase-Locked Loop algorithm for faster fault ride through performance of interconnected renewable energy sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadjidemetriou, Lenos; Kyriakides, Elias; Blaabjerg, Frede

    Interconnected renewable energy sources require fast and accurate fault ride through operation in order to support the power grid when faults occur. This paper proposes an adaptive Phase-Locked Loop (adaptive dαβPLL) algorithm, which can be used for a faster and more accurate response of the grid...... side converter control of a renewable energy source, especially under fault ride through operation. The adaptive dαβPLL is based on modifying the control parameters of the dαβPLL according to the type and voltage characteristic of the grid fault with the purpose of accelerating the performance of the...

  11. Proceedings of the 28th intersociety energy conversion engineering conference. Volume 2--Environmental impact, energy systems, new technology for energy utilization, policy issues, renewable energy sources, stirling cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The section on environmental impacts covers global environmental concerns and air pollution. Energy systems includes the following: alternative fuels; co-generation; fossil fuels; mechanical thermal storage; fission/fusion; thermal management; electric and hybrid vehicles. The section on renewable energy sources includes biomass, hydrogen, and solar. This volume also contains separate sections for stirling cycles, policy issues, and new technologies for energy utilization. Separate abstracts were prepared for 150 papers of this volume

  12. Comparative analyses of seven technologies to facilitate the integration of fluctuating renewable energy sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    An analysis of seven different technologies is presented. The technologies integrate fluctuating renewable energy sources (RES) such as wind power production into the electricity supply, and the Danish energy system is used as a case. Comprehensive hour-by-hour energy system analyses are conducted of a complete system meeting electricity, heat and transport demands, and including RES, power plants, and combined heat and power production (CHP) for district heating and transport technologies. In conclusion, the most fuel-efficient and least-cost technologies are identified through energy system and feasibility analyses. Large-scale heat pumps prove to be especially promising as they efficiently reduce the production of excess electricity. Flexible electricity demand and electric boilers are low-cost solutions, but their improvement of fuel efficiency is rather limited. Battery electric vehicles constitute the most promising transport integration technology compared with hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCVs). The costs of integrating RES with electrolysers for HFCVs, CHP and micro fuel cell CHP are reduced significantly with more than 50% of RES.

  13. Large scale integration of intermittent renewable energy sources in the Greek power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a member of the European Union, Greece has committed to achieve ambitious targets for the penetration of renewable energy sources (RES) in gross electricity consumption by 2020. Large scale integration of RES requires a suitable mixture of compatible generation units, in order to deal with the intermittency of wind velocity and solar irradiation. The scope of this paper is to examine the impact of large scale integration of intermittent energy sources, required to meet the 2020 RES target, on the generation expansion plan, the fuel mix and the spinning reserve requirements of the Greek electricity system. We perform hourly simulation of the intermittent RES generation to estimate residual load curves on a monthly basis, which are then inputted in a WASP-IV model of the Greek power system. We find that the decarbonisation effort, with the rapid entry of RES and the abolishment of the grandfathering of CO2 allowances, will radically transform the Greek electricity sector over the next 10 years, which has wide-reaching policy implications. - Highlights: ► Greece needs 8.8 to 9.3 GW additional RES installations by 2020. ► RES capacity credit varies between 12.2% and 15.3%, depending on interconnections. ► Without institutional changes, the reserve requirements will be more than double. ► New CCGT installed capacity will probably exceed the cost-efficient level. ► Competitive pressures should be introduced in segments other than day-ahead market.

  14. Efficient energy control strategies for a Standalone Renewable/Fuel Cell Hybrid Power Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A load – following control that operates the battery in charge – sustained mode. • A real-time Maximum Efficiency Point Tracking control that saves hydrogen fuel. • A comparative study of four strategies to control the fueling rates of the fuel cell stack. • Four control strategy for the HPS under unknown RES and load power profile are analyzed. • An increase of 3–5% of fuel efficiency was observed for the best strategy proposed. - Abstract: In this paper, four energy control strategies are proposed and analyzed for the standalone Renewable/Fuel Cell Hybrid Power Source (RES/FC HPS). The concept of the load following (LF) and Maximum Efficiency Point Tracking (MEPT) is used to control the fueling rates. A standalone RES/FC HPS uses at least one Renewable Energy Sources (RES) and a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell (FC) as backup source. Photovoltaic (PV) array and wind turbines (WT) farm are used as RES and the surplus of energy during light load stages is stored in hydrogen tank via water electrolysis to fuel the PEMFC. Small-scale RESs and commercially available PEMFCs are interfaced to the common DC bus via power converters and then to the single-phase distribution grid through a voltage source inverter. RES/FC HPS seem to be an efficient alternative for supplying smart houses and isolated sites. This paper proposes a new supervision strategy of the Energy Management Unit (EMU) based on the LF control approach that assures a charge-sustaining (CS) mode for the Energy Storage System (ESS). So, the capacity of the batteries stack can be reduced at minimum if it is directly connected to the DC bus. The ultracapacitors stack compensates dynamically the power flow balance on the DC bus, regulating the DC voltage via a bidirectional buck-boost power converter. Thus, a semi-active hybrid topology is adopted for the ESS having the batteries stack. The MEPT loops ensure an optimized energy management of the RES/FC HPS. The LF strategy designed based on the power flow balance guarantees the load demand through the efficient management of the power flow from RES, FC and ESS, adapting FC energy production to load profile. The FC energy production is controlled via the fueling rates (one is controlled in the LF loop and the other is controlled in the MEPT loop) to maximize the energy consumption indicator: the ratio of the produced energy and the fuel consumed by the FC system during a load cycle. Thus, this paper evaluates the control performances of the four control topologies to fuel the FC stack during an variable RES and load profile. The MATLAB-Simulink® software package is used to model the RES/FC HPS and develop the four EMU strategies. Simulation results shown comparatively the performance of the EMU strategies proposed under different scenarios of RES power generation and load demand

  15. Power generation from biomass gasification - a renewable energy source based technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy is essential for sustenance of life in the biosphere. This article covers biomass gasification and highlights the need of bioenergy for electricity generation covering its potential in India and power scenario in the world. Finite energy resources will get consumed in the near future. And bioenergy is essentially renewable or carbon neutral. For electricity generation, the biomass is required to be upgraded in terms of more easily handled fuels, namely gases, liquids, and charcoal using various technologies such as pyrolysis, gasification, carbonization, digestion, fermentation, etc. Biomass gasification is the renewable energy options of future energy and has potential in electricity generation from biomass. (author)

  16. Public utilities with renewable energy sources. Proceedings; Stadtwerke mit Erneuerbaren Energien. Konferenzbeitraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Within the Second EUROSOLAR Conference of EUROSOLAR, the European Association for Renewable Energy (Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany) between 15th and 16th May, 2008, at the Waterworks Braunschweig (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) The municipal public utility: The paradigm shift from power distribution companies to municipal infrastructure provider (C. Jaenig); (2) Public utilities and their concepts (Z. Meszaros); (3) The BS Energy Group (U.Lehmann-Grube); (4) New ways with energy (T. Westerheide); (5) Public utilities and their concepts (R. Edzards); (6) Public utilities with renewable energy (P. Asmuth); (7) Total concept of the public utility Wolfhagen (M. Ruehl); (8) Municipal energy concepts for the expansion of the combined heat and power generation and renewable energies (J. van Bergen); (9) Storage of renewable energy (T. Blank); (10) Public utility as a confident partner of a renewable regional economy (R. Hemmers); (11) The regenerative combined cycle power plant (M. Meyr); (12) The solar power system of systaic (O. Achilles); (13) The concession contract as an instrument for restructuring (J. Schwarz); (14) EEG 2009, GasNZV and EEWaermeG: The changed legal framework as a chance for a restructured power generation (M. Altrock).

  17. Renewable Energy Alternatives in Maryland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Greg E.; McClellan, Deborah A. S.

    This handbook discusses the renewable energy resources suitable for use in Maryland. It follows a question and answer format with sections about the following alternative renewable energy sources; solar, wind, wood, water, bio-gas/methane, and geothermal. Each section includes a list of recommended readings, appropriate agencies or organizations,…

  18. Renewable Energy Alternatives in Maryland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Greg E.; McClellan, Deborah A. S.

    This handbook discusses the renewable energy resources suitable for use in Maryland. It follows a question and answer format with sections about the following alternative renewable energy sources; solar, wind, wood, water, bio-gas/methane, and geothermal. Each section includes a list of recommended readings, appropriate agencies or organizations,

  19. Factors of impact on the evolution of electricity markets from renewable energy sources: a comparison between Romania and Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clodni?chi Roxana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available When talking about the future of Europe we also think about alternative energy sources. It is up to national governments to decide how to encourage investments in this field in order to contribute to the 20-20-20 EU-objective. Until the network delivery cost for electricity produced from renewable sources will be comparable to the cost for energy from traditional sources ("grid parity", the development of businesses and markets for electricity from renewable sources is going to be driven by support schemes. The state of the grids and the facility of grid-access constitute another two key factors influencing the development of this sector. Last but not least, the question of policy consistency is raised within the business community. Over the past years some support schemes have proved to be more effective than others, and grid conditions have also evolved. Policies supporting the development of renewables also changed at EU-level and at national levels. Based on statistics, scientific literature and the feedback of the business community, this study aims to analyse the development of renewable energy sectors in the European Union by comparing Germanys and Romanias experience. Also this study describes the current and expected future market situation in these countries relying on data gained from questionnaires and interviews with specialists in the renewable field.

  20. Renewable energy sources from the agriculture; Erneuerbare Energien aus der Landwirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaul, Thomas

    2013-06-01

    The sustainable and efficient production of renewable energy from agricultural resources is an active contribution to the climate protection. This is a serious issue for farmers, particularly as the climatic change affects the production of the farmers. The brochure under consideration shows how farmers can not only produce energy efficiently, but also use energy at their own farms. With this, not only an independence from the energy suppliers is achieved, but also the energy supply is supplied.

  1. The renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author discusses the renewable energies in order to evaluate the scientific constraints, the economical and environmental challenges. Facing the generally accepted idea against the renewable energies, the author shows that the renewable energies have real solutions to the climatic change. (A.L.B.)

  2. Strategies for the integration of intermittent renewable energy sources in the electrical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanelli, Francesco

    2016-03-01

    Europe is pursuing an aggressive programme to increase its share of renewable energy source (RES). However, the integration of intermittent RES (wind and photovoltaic) in the electrical system requires either maintaining in operation thermal backup systems or providing a substantial amount of electricity storage. We analyze the Italian electricity data for the year 2013 provided by the transmission system operator TERNA. The present level of intermittent RES power is scaled-up to a level at which it generates an amount of electricity equal to the annual demand. While a substantial reduction of the energy annually produced by fossil backup systems (and the associated CO2 emission) with respect to the no-RES case is possible in many scenarios considered here, the backup power is generally only marginally reduced below the value in the absence of RES. The strategy proposed is based on the combination of a modest amount of storage (0.5-5TWh) and base-load power (6-15GW, to be used during the seasons of low RES production). In this way the non-RES installed power can be reduced from ˜ 50 GW to less than 15GW and could be covered by a combination of biomass and nuclear energy without any CO2 emission.

  3. Integration of Renewable Energy Sources in Future Power Systems: The Role of Storage

    CERN Document Server

    Weitemeyer, Stefan; Vogt, Thomas; Agert, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Integrating a high share of electricity from non-dispatchable Renewable Energy Sources in a power supply system is a challenging task. One option considered in many studies dealing with prospective power systems is the installation of storage devices to balance the fluctuations in power production. However, it is not yet clear how soon storage devices will be needed and how the integration process depends on different storage parameters. Using long-term solar and wind energy power production data series, we present a modelling approach to investigate the influence of storage size and efficiency on the pathway towards a 100% RES scenario. Applying our approach to data for Germany, we found that up to 50% of the overall electricity demand can be met by an optimum combination of wind and solar resources without both curtailment and storage devices if the remaining energy is provided by sufficiently flexible power plants. Our findings show further that the installation of small, but highly efficient storage devic...

  4. The diverging paths of German and United States policies for renewable energy. Sources of difference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States and Germany started out with very similar policies for renewable energy after the energy crisis of the 1970s. By the year 2000 they were on very different policy paths and, as a result, the German renewable energy industry has moved well ahead of that in the United States, both in terms of installed capacity in the country and in terms of creating a highly successful export market. In this paper, we reject some of the conventional explanations for this difference. Instead, these differences arise from the intersection of contingent historical events with the distinctive institutional and social structures that affect policy making in each country. Our analysis of the historical path-dependent dynamics of each country suggests that those who wish to further renewable energy policy in the United States need to take into account these institutional and social factors so that they will better be able to exploit the next set of favorable historical circumstances. (author)

  5. Opportunities for the compensation of the fluctuation feed-in from renewable energy sources. Study commissioned by the German Renewable Energy Federation; Moeglichkeiten zum Ausgleich Fluktuierender Einspeisungen aus Erneuerbaren Energien. Studie im Auftrag des Bundesverbandes Erneuerbare Energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krzikalla, Norbert; Achner, Siggi; Bruehl, Stefan [BET Buero fuer Energiewirtschaft und technische Planung GmbH, Aachen (Germany)

    2013-05-01

    The platform 'system transformation' of the German Renewable Energy Federation (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) accompanies the forthcoming restructuring of the energy supply towards 100 percent renewable energy. The previous discussions of this platform provided two results: the fluctuating renewable energies must be placed at the center of considerations in order to enable a sustainable system design and market design. Furthermore, the question of how the fluctuating feed-in from renewable energy sources can be compensated has to be answered. Under this aspect, the contribution under consideration reports on these compensation options. There are different flexibility options available in order to create a safe, environmentally sustainable and affordable energy system.

  6. Renewable energy integration challenges and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Hossain, Jahangir

    2014-01-01

    This book presents different aspects of renewable energy integration, from the latest developments in renewable energy technologies to the currently growing smart grids. The importance of different renewable energy sources is discussed, in order to identify the advantages and challenges for each technology. The rules of connecting the renewable energy sources have also been covered along with practical examples. Since solar and wind energy are the most popular forms of renewable energy sources, this book provides the challenges of integrating these renewable generators along with some innovati

  7. Special report on renewable energy sources and climate change mitigation, (SRREN). Summary for policy makers; FNs klimapanel: Spesialrapport om fornybar energi, sammendrag for beslutningstakere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-06-15

    In May 2011 the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change published a report on six renewable energy sources and their role in climate change mitigation. This is a Norwegian, unofficial translation of the Summary for Policy makers. (Author)

  8. Capacity Optimization of Renewable Energy Sources and Battery Storage in an Autonomous Telecommunication Facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragicevic, Tomislav; Pandi?, Hrvoje

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a robust optimization approach to minimize the total cost of supplying a remote telecommunication station exclusively by renewable energy sources (RES). Due to the intermittent nature of RES, such as photovoltaic (PV) panels and small wind turbines, they are normally supported by a central energy storage system (ESS), consisting of a battery and a fuel cell. The optimization is carried out as a robust mixed-integer linear program (RMILP), and results in different optimal solutions, depending on budgets of uncertainty, each of which yields different RES and storage capacities. These solutions are then tested against a set of possible outcomes, thus simulating the future operation of the system. Since battery cycling is inevitable in this application, an algorithm that counts the number of cycles and associated depths of discharges (DoD) is applied to the optimization results. The annual capacity reduction that results from these cycles is calculated for two types of battery technologies, i.e., valve-regulated leadacid (VRLA) and lithiumion (Liion), and treated as an additional cost. Finally, all associated costs are added up and the ideal con?guration is proposed.

  9. Marginal share of renewable energy sources of variable electricity generation: A contribution to the concept definition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grkovi? Vojin R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Technology development is a keystone within the efforts toward enabling longer duration of the world fossil energy resources. The past development and the technologies applied, cause huge emissions of ??2 that must be significantly reduced. Increased usage of renewable energy sources for electricity generation (RES-e contributes essentially to the reduction of CO2, but on the other hand, under current conditions of feed-in priority reduces also the market for the electricity from fossil fuelled power plants (FFPP. The other possibility for reduction of CO2 emissions is to apply carbon capture and storage technologies as a part of overall FFPP technologies. A hypothesis presented in this paper is that there is a marginal share of RES variable electricity in overall annual electricity supply after which further increase of RES-e participation produces higher average electricity generated cost, than in the case of CO2 emission reduction by applying CCS technologies. The presented work confirms this hypothesis. Value of the marginal share depends to the price of RES-e feed-in. With the price span from 13.5 to 7.5c/kWh, the marginal share is under 50%.

  10. Integrated solutions for power and desalination, using fossil and renewable energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachary, Justin; Nawaz, Arshad; Layman, Colleen [Bechtel Power Corporation (United States)

    2010-07-01

    The mining industry in Chile has grown in recent years and this requires adequate energy and water supplies. This paper discusses integrated solutions for power and desalination using fossil and renewable energy sources. Among the various methods of desalination are: multi-stage flash evaporation (MSF); multiple-effect distillation (MED); and seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO). Technologies for solar thermal power include linear Fresnel, parabolic trough and others. These techniques can be integrated, for example, in a power plant with MED/MSF desalination or a power plant with SWRO but there are associated costs as well as benefits. Some of the benefits are financial, in the form of lower DNI at sites near the coast, for instance. An integrated solution suitable for Chile would be a fossil power plant with desalination that can de done at a site near the ocean. The economics of the two integration options are compared and a pie chart shows the operating costs. In summary, desalination and CSP are continuously evolving and integration in conventional fossil power plants is effective.

  11. Potential applications of renewable energy sources, biomass combustion problems in boiler power systems and combustion related environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the potential applications of renewable energy sources to replace fossil fuel combustion as the prime energy sources in various countries, and discusses problems associated with biomass combustion in boiler power systems. Here, the term biomass includes organic matter produced as a result of photosynthesis as well as municipal, industrial and animal waste material. Brief summaries of the basic concepts involved in the combustion of biomass fuels are presented. Renewable energy sources (RES) supply 14% of the total world energy demand. RES are biomass, hydropower, geothermal, solar, wind and marine energies. The renewables are the primary, domestic and clean or inexhaustible energy resources. The percentage share of biomass was 62.1% of total renewable energy sources in 1995. Experimental results for a large variety of biomass fuels and conditions are presented. Numerical studies are also discussed. Biomass is an attractive renewable fuel in utility boilers. The compositions of biomass among fuel types are variable. Ash composition for the biomass is fundamentally different from ash composition for the coal. Especially inorganic constituents cause to critical problems of toxic emissions, fouling and slagging. Metals in ash, in combination with other fuel elements such as silica and sulfur, and facilitated by the presence of chlorine, are responsible for many undesirable reactions in combustion furnaces and power boilers. Elements including K, Na, S, Cl, P, Ca, Mg, Fe, Si are involved in reactions leading to ash fouling and slagging in biomass combustors. Chlorine in the biomass may affect operation by corrosion. Ash deposits reduce heat transfer and may also result in severe corrosion at high temperatures. Other influences of biomass composition are observed for the rates of combustion and pollutant emissions. Biomass combustion systems are non-polluting and offer significant protection of the environment. The reduction of greenhouse gases pollution is the main advantage of utilizing biomass energy. (Author)

  12. report on the french objectives of electricity consumption, produced from renewable energies sources and on the analysis of their realization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the french objectives of electricity, from renewable energies sources, internal consumption for the next ten years, as the analysis of their realization taking into account the climatic factors likely to change the realization of these objectives. It also discusses the adequacy of the actions to the national engagement in matter of climatic change. (A.L.B.)

  13. An Adaptive Tuning Mechanism for Phase-Locked Loop Algorithms for Faster Time Performance of Interconnected Renewable Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadjidemetriou, Lenos; Kyriakides, Elias; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    Interconnected renewable energy sources (RES) require fast and accurate fault ride through (FRT) operation, in order to support the power grid, when faults occur. This paper proposes an adaptive phase-locked loop (adaptive dαβPLL) algorithm, which can be used for a faster and more accurate response...

  14. The British remuneration model for the feeding of electricity from renewable energy sources into the public network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author deals with the renumeration system for electricity from renewable energy sources in England and Wales. He reports on the renumeration principles provided by the Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation and on experiences made with their practice in an internal competition system. (orig.)

  15. The potential of the Slovakian ground-water as sources of renewable energy

    OpenAIRE

    Duan Dug?ek; Ladislav Tometz

    2010-01-01

    One of the most favourable energetic sources of heat is represented by ground-water, which can be found in the Earth crust in twoforms as common water and as geothermal water. It is well-known, that Slovakia disposes by great potential of this kind of renewable energysource. For the evaluation, it is necessary to take into account also the regional demands of the ground-water utilisation as renewableenergy source. This paper evaluate the occurence, quality and possibilities of explotiation of...

  16. Multifunctional converter to interface renewable energy sources and electric vehicles with the power grid in smart grids context

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, Vítor Duarte Fernandes; Pinto, J.G.; Exposto, Bruno Fernandes; Pedrosa, Delfim Duarte Rolo; João L Afonso

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a multifunctional converter to interface renewable energy sources (e.g., solar photovoltaic panels) and electric vehicles (EVs) with the power grid in smart grids context. This multifunctional converter allows deliver energy from the solar photovoltaic panels to an EV or to the power grid, and exchange energy in bidirectional mode between the EV and the power grid. Using this multifunctional converter are not required multiple conversion stages, as occurs with ...

  17. A multi-criteria methodology for energy planning and developing renewable energy sources at a regional level: A case study Thassos, Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rational energy planning under the pressure of environmental and economic problems is imperative to humanity. An evaluational framework is proposed in order to support energy planning for promoting the use of renewable energy sources. A multi-criteria decision analysis is adopted, detailing exploitation of renewable energy sources (including Wind, Solar, Biomass, Geothermal, and small Hydro) for power and heat generation. The aim of this paper is the analysis and development of a multilevel decision-making structure, utilizing multiple criteria for energy planning and exploitation of Renewable Energy Sources of at the regional level. The proposed evaluation framework focuses on the use of a multi-criteria approach as a tool for supporting energy planning in the area of concern, based on a pool of qualitative and quantitative evaluation criteria. The final aim of this study is to discover the optimal amount of each Renewable Energy Source that can be produced in the region and to contribute to an optimal energy mix. In this paper, a case study for the island of Thassos, Greece is analyzed. The results prove that Renewable Energy Sources exploitation at a regional level can satisfy increasing power demands through environmental-friendly energy systems that combine wind power, biomass and PV systems. - Highlights: ? An evaluational framework is proposed in order to support energy planning. ? A multi-criteria decision analysis is adopted, detailing exploitation of RES for power and heat generation. ? The aim is to discover the optimal amount of each RES that can be produced in each region.

  18. Renewable Energy in Latvia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shipkovs, P.; Kashkarova, G. [Latvian Energy Agency, Riga (Latvia); Shipkovs, M. [Energy-R Ltd., Riga (Latvia)

    1997-12-31

    Latvia is among those countries that do not have gas, coal and, for the time being, also oil resources of its own. The amount of power produced in Latvia does not meet the demand, consequently a part of the power has to be purchased from neighbouring countries. Firewood, peat and hydro resources are the only significant domestic energy resources. Massive decrease of energy consumption has been observed since Latvia regained independence. Domestic and renewable energy resources have been examined and estimated. There are already 13 modern boiler houses operating in Latvia with total installed capacity 45 MW that are fired with wood chips. Latvian companies are involved in the production of equipment. 7 small HPPs have been renewed with the installed capacity 1.85 MW. Wind plant in Ainazi has started its operation, where two modern wind turbines with the capacity of 0.6 MW each have been installed. Mechanism of tariff setting is aligned. Favourable power energy purchasing prices are set for renewable energy sources and small cogeneration plants

  19. A review of net metering mechanism for electricity renewable energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Poullikkas, George Kourtis, Ioannis Hadjipaschalis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, an overview of the net metering mechanism for renewable energy sources for power generation (RES-E systems is carried out. In particular, the net metering concept is examined with its benefits and misconceptions. Furthermore, a survey of the current operational net metering schemes in different countries in the world, such as, in Europe, USA, Canada, Thailand and Australia, is carried out. The survey indicated that there are different net metering mechanisms depending on the particularities of each country (or state in the case of USA. Especially, in Europe, only five countries are using net metering in a very simple form, such as, any amount of energy produced by the eligible RES-E technology is compensated from the energy consumed by the RES-E producer, which results to either a less overall electricity bill or to an exception in payment energy taxes. In the USA and the USA territories, any customers net excess generation is credited to the customers next electricity bill for a 12-month billing cycle at various rates or via a combination between rates. The actual type of net excess generation (NEG credit is decided by a number of set criteria, such as the type of RES-E technology, the RES-E capacity limit, the type of customer and the type of utility. Regarding any excess credit at the end of the 12-month billing cycle, this is either granted to the utilities, or carries over indefinitely to the customers next electricity bill, or is reconciled annually at any rate, or provides an option to the customer to choose between the last two options.

  20. A review of net metering mechanism for electricity renewable energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poullikkas, Andreas; Kourtis, George; Hadjipaschalis, Ioannis [Electricity Authority of Cyprus, P.O. Box 24506, 1399 Nicosia (Cyprus)

    2013-07-01

    In this work, an overview of the net metering mechanism for renewable energy sources for power generation (RES-E) systems is carried out. In particular, the net metering concept is examined with its benefits and misconceptions. Furthermore, a survey of the current operational net metering schemes in different countries in the world, such as, in Europe, USA, Canada, Thailand and Australia, is carried out. The survey indicated that there are different net metering mechanisms depending on the particularities of each country (or state in the case of USA). Especially, in Europe, only five countries are using net metering in a very simple form, such as, any amount of energy produced by the eligible RES-E technology is compensated from the energy consumed by the RES-E producer, which results to either a less overall electricity bill or to an exception in payment energy taxes. In the USA and the USA territories, any customer’s net excess generation is credited to the customer’s next electricity bill for a 12-month billing cycle at various rates or via a combination between rates. The actual type of net excess generation (NEG) credit is decided by a number of set criteria, such as the type of RES-E technology, the RES-E capacity limit, the type of customer and the type of utility. Regarding any excess credit at the end of the 12-month billing cycle, this is either granted to the utilities, or carries over indefinitely to the customer’s next electricity bill, or is reconciled annually at any rate, or provides an option to the customer to choose between the last two options.

  1. Renewable energy markets: Ukrainian perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Melnik, K.

    2013-01-01

    Energy from renewable energy sources is the most dynamic and one of the most promising sectors of European and global energy, while renewable energy is seen not only as an emergency replacement of fossil organic fuels, especially oil and gas as well as economically and environmentally sound replacement of traditional fossil fuels, where even now there are all conditions for their use. When you are citing the document, use the following link http://essuir.sumdu.edu.ua/handle/123456789/31662

  2. Panorama 2011: Ocean renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our society is looking increasingly to renewable energy sources in the face of the energy and environmental challenges with which it is grappling. As far as ocean renewable energies are concerned, a wide range of technologies is currently being experimented with, including wind power and energy derived from waves and tidal currents. They are all at varying levels of maturity, and bring with them very different technical and economic challenges. (author)

  3. POTENTIAL AND PROPERTIES OF THE GRANULAR SEWAGE SLUDGE AS A RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Werle

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The predominant method of the sewage sludge management in Poland is land disposal. However, since 01/01/2013, this method will be prohibited. Therefore, there is a strong need for development of thermal methods of sludge disposal. In the Polish legal system sewage sludge may be named as a biomass or waste. For purposes of determining the obligations of environmental regulations definition of the Minister of Environment should be used. When disposing of sewage sludge in an amount up to 1% by weight of fuel, emission standards for fuel do not change. At the disposal of sewage in quantities of more than 1%, should be conducted continuous measurement of emissions, including HCl, HF, and continuous measurements of flue gas parameters (as for the installation of waste disposal. For purposes of settlement of the share of energy from renewable sources we use the definition of Minister of Economy. In this case, in accordance with applicable law sewage sludge shall be considered as pure biomass is CO2 neutral. The use of sewage sludge as a fuel requires the determination of fundamental combustible properties. These properties should be in accordance with the requirements put fuels as an energy source. The paper presents results of a detailed physico-chemical analysis of dried sewage sludge produced in the two Polish wastewater treatment plants. The results were compared with five representatives of biomass fuels: straw of wheat, straw of rape, willow, pine and oak sawdust. Ultimate and proximate analysis includes a detailed analysis of fuel and ash. The results clearly indicate that the sludge is a very valuable fuel similar to traditional biomass.

  4. POTENTIAL AND PROPERTIES OF THE GRANULAR SEWAGE SLUDGE AS A RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Werle

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The predominant method of the sewage sludge management in Poland is land dis-posal. However, since 01/01/2013, this method will be prohibited. Therefore, there is a strong need for the development of thermal methods of sludge disposal. In Polish legal system sewage sludge may be named as biomass or waste. For the purposes of determining the obligations of environmental regulations the definitionof the Minister of Environment should be used. When disposing of sewage sludge in an amount up to 1% by weight of fuel, emission standards for fuel do not change. At the disposal of sewage in quantities of more than 1%, should be conducted continuous measurement of emissions, including HCl, HF, and continuous measurements of fluegas param-eters (as for the installation of waste disposal. In order to meet the requirement to porduce energy from renewable sources we use the definitionof Minister of Economy. In this case, in accordance with applicable law, sewage sludge shall be considered as pure biomass, thus it is CO2 neutral. The use of sewage sludge as a fuel requires the determination of fundamental combustible properties. These properties should be in accordance with the requirements put fuels as an energy source. The paper presents the results of a detailed physico-chemical analysis of dried sewage sludge produced in the two Polish wastewater treatment plants. The results were compared with fiverepresentatives of biomass fuels: straw of wheat, straw of rape, willow, pine and oak sawdust. Ultimate and proximate analyses include a detailed analysis of fuel and ash. The results clearly indicate that sludge is a very valuable fuel similar to traditional biomass.

  5. Renewable energy in North Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Kost, Christoph Philipp

    2015-01-01

    The transition of the North African electricity system towards renewable energy technologies is analyzed in this thesis. Large potentials of photovoltaics (PV), concentrating solar power (CSP) and onshore wind power provide the opportunity to achieve a long-term shift from conventional power sources to a highly interconnected and sustainable electricity system based on renewable energy sources (RES). A multi-dimensional analysis evaluates the economic and technical effects on the electricity ...

  6. Renewables | Energies renouvelables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available World Energy Generated for Commercial Use by Type*Production mondiale dnergie destine des applications commerciales, par type*Main ProducersPrincipaux producteurs* Renewables also include biomass, yet most of it is used for energy generation for non-commercial purposes. | Les nergies renouvelables incluent la biomasse, mais celle-ci sert essentiellement gnrer de lnergie qui ne rentre pas dans les circuits commerciaux.Source: British Petroleum, BP Statistical Review of World Energ...

  7. The sustainable management of renewable energy sources installations: legal aspects of their environmental impact in small Greek islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays, an attractive legislative and financing framework has been established in Greece for the development of renewable energy sources. This has resulted in a strong increase of investors' interest, especially in the islands, mainly due to their high renewable energy potential all year round. However, the typical characteristics of the small Greek island, which constitute sensitive ecosystems with unique attributes of a natural and cultural heritage, impose a limitation on the development of energy generation plants using renewables. In order to adopt the principles of sustainable development of these island regions, the application of the proportionality principle in relation to other general principles of environmental law is proposed as a suitable legislative tool for resolution of the foreseeable conflicts

  8. State of renewable energy sources use for electricity production in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article sets the position of renewable energy and its political framework requirements in Germany together with its market position at the start of the twenty first century. In its first section, it concentrates on electricity production. Here the requirements have been considerably changed through the liberation of the electricity market. (author)

  9. Hydrogen Generation Through Renewable Energy Sources at the NASA Glenn Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colozza, Anthony; Prokopius, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    An evaluation of the potential for generating high pressure, high purity hydrogen at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) was performed. This evaluation was based on producing hydrogen utilizing a prototype Hamilton Standard electrolyzer that is capable of producing hydrogen at 3000 psi. The present state of the electrolyzer system was determined to identify the refurbishment requirements. The power for operating the electrolyzer would be produced through renewable power sources. Both wind and solar were considered in the analysis. The solar power production capability was based on the existing solar array field located at NASA GRC. The refurbishment and upgrade potential of the array field was determined and the array output was analyzed with various levels of upgrades throughout the year. The total available monthly and yearly energy from the array was determined. A wind turbine was also sized for operation. This sizing evaluated the wind potential at the site and produced an operational design point for the wind turbine. Commercially available wind turbines were evaluated to determine their applicability to this site. The system installation and power integration were also addressed. This included items such as housing the electrolyzer, power management, water supply, gas storage, cooling and hydrogen dispensing.

  10. The effects of the German renewable energy sources Act (EEG) on market, technical and industrial development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1999, the German photovoltaic market has been growing rapidly. In 2003, more than 130 MWp PV systems were installed in Germany; in 2004, more than 200 MWp are expected to be installed additionally. The main reason for this impressive market success has been the market stimulation policy of the German government. In January 1999, the 100.000 Roofs Programme for photovoltaic systems had started, offering interest-reduced loans for PV systems. In April 2000, it was backed by the Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG), which considerably increased the feed-in tariff to 99 Pfennig (0.51 euros) per kWh. Since then, the PV market has boomed. In 2003, the 100,000 Roofs Programme (HTRP) ended successfully, after loans for more than 300 MWp PV systems had been granted. In order to fill the gap created by the termination of the programme, the government decided to increase the feed-in tariff provided by the EEG. Since January 2004, grid-connected PV systems on roofs and facades receive a tariff between 0,540 euros and 0,624 euros per kWh over 20 years. This improvement of the EEG further increased the interest in photovoltaics. The growth rate of the photovoltaic market, exceeding 50% in 2004, has led to the demand being higher than the available supply of PV systems. (author)

  11. Determination of biogas generation potential as a renewable energy source from supermarket wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkanok, Gizem; Demirel, Burak; Onay, Turgut T

    2014-01-01

    Fruit, vegetable, flower waste (FVFW), dairy products waste (DPW), meat waste (MW) and sugar waste (SW) obtained from a supermarket chain were anaerobically digested, in order to recover methane as a source of renewable energy. Batch mesophilic anaerobic reactors were run at total solids (TS) ratios of 5%, 8% and 10%. The highest methane yield of 0.44 L CH4/g VS(added) was obtained from anaerobic digestion of wastes (FVFW+DPW+MW+SW) at 10% TS, with 66.4% of methane (CH4) composition in biogas. Anaerobic digestion of mixed wastes at 5% and 8% TS provided slightly lower methane yields of 0.41 and 0.40 L CH4/g VS(added), respectively. When the wastes were digested alone without co-substrate addition, the highest methane yield of 0.40 L CH4/g VS(added) was obtained from FVFW at 5% TS. Generally, although the volatile solids (VS) conversion percentages seemed low during the experiments, higher methane yields could be obtained from anaerobic digestion of supermarket wastes. A suitable carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio, proper adjustment of the buffering capacity and the addition of essential trace nutrients (such as Ni) could improve VS conversion and biogas production yields significantly. PMID:24120116

  12. Main types of technical facilities used in poland agricultural sector for obtaining energy from renewable sources of various nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonina Kalinichenko

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the main ways of heat and electric energy supply of farms in Poland, using energy from renewable sources. Particular attention is paid to the relevant requirements for technical support of energy supply processes. It is assumed that in agriculture production and rural areas in Poland soon the number of used conventional fuels, including natural gas and coal, will change significantly, for the use of biomass, solar, geothermal and wind energy. Devices that are designed for use almost unlimited supply of renewable energy are: heat pumps, solar panels, photo-electric elements, wind and hydrostations. The main effect is as traditional energy saving and reduction of technogenic impact on the environment, and increasing of energy security level, creating new workplaces and promote regional development

  13. Transmitting Renewable Energy to the Grid

    OpenAIRE

    Madrigal, Marcelino; Jordan, Rhonda Lenai

    2014-01-01

    Many countries are scaling up their investments in renewable energy. In 2010, electricity production from renewable sources - wind, solar, biomass, biofuels, geothermal, hydropower, and ocean energy accounted for 18 percent of global electricity supply. By early 2011, renewables made up a quarter of all installed power capacity. One of the main obstacles to the scale-up of renewable energy is connecting generating sites to the grid in an efficient manner. Renewable energy places greater deman...

  14. Rural electrification program with renewable energy sources: An analysis of Chinas Township Electrification Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Given the fact that 1.4 billion people, over 20% of the worlds population, lack access to electricity, rural electrification remains a common challenge for many developing countries. The Township Electrification Program launched by the Chinese government in 2002 is known as the worlds largest renewable energy-based rural electrification program in terms of investment volume ever carried out by a country. This study gives an in-depth examination of the program implemented in two selected townships in remote of rural areas of western China. The results showed that the implementation of the program possessed a technical orientation (e.g., construction of stations, installation of systems), and underestimated the financial implications (e.g., electricity tariff, households ability to pay electricity fees, financial management) as well as human resources available (e.g., training for operators, household participation) and institutional capacity building (e.g., good governance, regulatory framework) at the local level. Even though electricity was provided by the solar PV power stations, households still relied on traditional energy sources, such as candles and dry cell batteries, due to the fact that electricity service was unreliable and electricity supply was not sufficient for households needs. - Highlights: ? Chinas electrification rate has reached the level of OECD countries. ? Township Electrification Program is the worlds largest electrification program. ? The program possessed a technical orientation and underestimated other aspects. ? Households still relied on traditional energy, such as candles and batteries. ? Having electricity access did not mean that electricity was actually used.

  15. Renewable energy beyond 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All presentations have been indexed separately for the database, (the posters are not indexed). The conference consisted of both plenary sessions and parallel sessions. The headline of the plenary sessions was: P1: Renewable energy beyond 2020; P2: Research update on renewable energy; P3: Industrialization and framework conditions.The parallel sessions consisted of in-debt presentations on research related to the different renewable energy technologies: Bioenergy; Hydropower; Ocean energy; Photovoltaic solar cells; Social studies of renewable energy; Transport; Wind energy; Zero emission buildings. (AG)

  16. Renewable energy resources

    CERN Document Server

    Twidell, John

    2015-01-01

    Renewable Energy Resources is a numerate and quantitative text covering the full range of renewable energy technologies and their implementation worldwide. Energy supplies from renewables (such as from biofuels, solar heat, photovoltaics, wind, hydro, wave, tidal, geothermal, and ocean-thermal) are essential components of every nation's energy strategy, not least because of concerns for the local and global environment, for energy security and for sustainability. Thus in the years between the first and this third edition, most renewable energy technologies have grown from fledgling impact to s

  17. German legislation for promotion of renewable energies 2014. Act on feed-in and guaranteed pricing of electricity from renewable energy sources (EEG). Commentary. 7. new rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EEG is continuously subjected to changes and the permanent center of political discussions. Therefore now already the 7th edition of the EEG comment of the science and practice well recognized and highly recognized author Prof. Dr. Dr. Peter Salje appear. The revision includes, inter alia, further evaluation of the law of electric power produced from renewable energy sources from the EEG of 2012 and the regulations made there under (including Biomass and AusglMechV). The changes associated with the so-called Photovoltaic amendment dated August 2012 and the recent case law since the publication of the previous edition handed down are considered. In particular, the incorporation of the full basic EEG reform in 2014 guarantees the highest topicality.

  18. A Review of Nipa Palm as a Renewable Energy Source in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    O.T. Okugbo; U. Usunobun; J.A. Adegbegi; C.O. Okiemien

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the renewable energy potential of Nipa Palm, a bio-energy crop widely available yet underutilized in Nigeria. The combustion of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas has increased the concentration of carbon dioxide in the earth's atmosphere. The carbon dioxide and other socalled greenhouse gases allow solar energy to enter the Earth's atmosphere, but reduce the amount of energy that can re-radiate back into space, trapping energy and causing glo...

  19. Latin American electricity markets and renewable energy sources: The Argentinean and Chilean cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzowski, C. [Department of Economy, Universidad Nacional del Sur, 12 de Octubre y San Juan, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Recalde, M. [CONICET - Department of Economy, Universidad Nacional del Sur, 12 de Octubre y San Juan, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina)

    2010-06-15

    From the mid eighties on, most of Latin American Countries reformed their energy systems. The impact of these reforms over electricity markets was different in each case. However, in the majority of these cases there was a shift to private participation, instead of State, and a convergence of electricity systems to hydro and thermal technologies. This is the case of Argentina and Chile. In this context, the aim of this paper is to discuss the current situation of renewable energies in Chilean and Argentinean electric markets and the potential to increase their share in total energy supply. To this purpose, we firstly study electricity deregulation process and its current situation. Secondly, we analyze renewable energy share in these electricity systems comparatively to worldwide situation. Finally, we briefly present the policy instruments used in each country. (author)

  20. Latin American electricity markets and renewable energy sources: The Argentinean and Chilean cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the mid eighties on, most of Latin American Countries reformed their energy systems. The impact of these reforms over electricity markets was different in each case. However, in the majority of these cases there was a shift to private participation, instead of State, and a convergence of electricity systems to hydro and thermal technologies. This is the case of Argentina and Chile. In this context, the aim of this paper is to discuss the current situation of renewable energies in Chilean and Argentinean electric markets and the potential to increase their share in total energy supply. To this purpose, we firstly study electricity deregulation process and its current situation. Secondly, we analyze renewable energy share in these electricity systems comparatively to worldwide situation. Finally, we briefly present the policy instruments used in each country. (author)