WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Renewable energy sources (promotion)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Permission to present a Bill to establish an independent commission directly responsible for the research, development and demonstration of clean, renewable, alternative sources of energy (to nuclear energy) is requested. The paragraphs of the preamble to the Bill are summarized by the Member seeking permission. The main reason for promoting renewable energy sources is opposition to the nuclear industry. One objection was raised. However, permission was granted to present the Bill and it was read for the first time with a second reading ordered for 7 March 1986. The Bill itself is not reprinted but the permission and question are reported verbatim. (U.K.)

1986-03-07

2

Renewable energy sources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report by the Watt Committee concerns the current status of the technology and opportunities for the exploitation of renewable energy sources. Both technical and economic aspects are covered, primarily in relation to the existing pattern of demand and the organisation of energy supply in the United Kingdom. (author).

Laughton, M.A. (Queen Mary and Westfield Coll., London (GB)) (ed.)

1990-01-01

3

Renewable energy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report discusses the present status and future of selected renewable energy sources as solar energy, photovoltaics, hydro energy, wind energy, heat pumps, geothermal energy and biomass. The reasons for their uses as security of supply, regional development and positive environmental impact are stressed. Technological reliability, economic assessment, feasibility and potential development of electricity production are discussed. Comparison is made between the situation in different countries. 10 figs., 3 tabs. (orig.)

1994-06-15

4

Energy (renewable sources)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is clearly right that as a nation we should produce as much of our energy as possible from resources which are renewable and whose use does not deplete the earth's total resources, so long as it is economic to do so and so long as in the process we do not seriously damage the environment. For that reason the UK Government have for a number of years actively encouraged and participated in a very wide range of research programmes into new forms of energy. The effect of these efforts has been that this country maintains a leading position in the development of renewable energy sources, despite the fact that as a nation we are richly endowed with fossil fuels and have one of the world's most advanced nuclear industries. A debate on renewable energy in the House of Commons is presented.

Spicer, M.; Dalyell, T.; Morgan, R.

1987-10-30

5

RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN POLAND  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the paper characteristic of the renewable energy sources in Poland was presented. The sustainable development concept which makes the renewable energy sources necessary and these sources were defined. Polish legislation one a given problem was presented. The basic statistics of the production and consumption of energy from renewable sources in Poland and in the world were shown.

Ingaldi, Manuela; Broz?ova?, Silvie

2013-01-01

6

Renewable Energy Sources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The electricity requirements of the world including India are increasing at alarming rate and the power demand has been running ahead of supply. It is also now widely recognized that the fossil fuels (i.e., coal, petroleum and natural gas and other conventional resources, presently being used for generation of electrical energy, may not be either sufficient or suitable to keep pace with ever increasing demand of the electrical energy of the world. Also generation of electrical power by cold based steam power plant or nuclear power plants causes pollution, which is likely to be more accurate in future due to large generating capacity on one side and greater awareness of the people in this respect.This paper describes about different Renewable Energy Sources such as Hydro power Energy,Wind Energy,Solar Energy,Bio-mass Energy,Geo-thermal Energy,Ocean Energy,Hydrogen Energy.

K. KARTHIKEYAN

2012-11-01

7

Renewable Energy Sources  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The electricity requirements of the world including India are increasing at alarming rate and the power demand has been running ahead of supply. It is also now widely recognized that the fossil fuels (i.e., coal, petroleum and natural gas) and other conventional resources, presently being used for generation of electrical energy, may not be either sufficient or suitable to keep pace with ever increasing demand of the electrical energy of the world. Also generation of electrical power by cold ...

2012-01-01

8

Renewable energy sources and ecology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The share of renewable energy sources (RES) in the world energy balance is estimated from 1-2 to 10% of the total primary energy sources consumption. In EU since 1990 until now the power energy production from these sources is growing continuously by over 3% annually. The features of the updated Environmental Strategy for Bulgaria (ESB) elaborated with the World Bank in 1994 are: increasing the energy efficiency; utilising RES; granting preference to the regional energy concept and establishing regional energy centres based on the EU experience. In ESB the basic priorities are linked with disease factors - pollutants as lead in the air and soils (from leaded petrol, resp. from metallurgical enterprises), dust particles in the air (from household heating, industry and thermo-electric power stations) and sulfur dioxide and other gases (also from energy sector and industry). There is consistent policy for harmonization of the Bulgarian standards with those of the WHO. Among the implemented projects preference is granting to ones concerning new energy saving technologies and RES. Bulgaria got an environmental protection law harmonized with the international legislation and adapted to the economic situation inflicted by the market economy transition. The development of RES needs high investment cost and has low efficiency factor compared to the classical methods of energy production. Implementation of Environmental Action Programme (EAP) in Bulgaria with an international co-operation includes: solid wastes management; water sources management; water pollution problems; soil degradation; transport and environment; nuclear safety and nuclear waste problems and full value utilization of the RES. The Ministry of Environment and local Authorities have to develop their policies and implementing them by a range of activities to identify pollution control strategies, to identify areas where the greatest environmental benefits can be achieved at least cost and to incorporate the projects into national programmes. Possibilities for financing are linked with the expansion of Environmental Fund as well as with Western Donors and relevant international organizations

1998-06-10

9

Renewable Energy Sources- An Application Guide  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article presents a review about the application of various non-conventional & renewable energy sources especially solar energy. Renewable energy sources are indigenous, and can therefore contribute to reducing dependency on energy imports and increasing security of supply. Development of renewable energy sources can actively contribute to job creation, predominantly among the small and medium sized enterprises which are so central to the community economic fabric, and indeed themselves f...

2013-01-01

10

Renewable and sustainable energy source  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In most developing nations especially Nigeria, with or without the Niger/Delta imbroglio the 4,600MW installed power capacity pumped out by all the power stations was grossly inadequate for a population of about 120million coupled with the repeated power failure from the national grid electricity. It becomes natural and vital that solar electrification be developed and utilized both in the urban and rural areas where there is no national grid electricity, and areas with bad topography where it is difficult to install or mount grid electricity poles and diesel generators are too costly to run and maintain. Interestingly, the world's most abundant, non-toxic cheapest source of energy supply available from nature are alternative energy such as solar(photovoltaic and photothermal) which are virtually free and automatically renewable everyday and it can be converted and applied for both domestic and industrial uses

2007-08-15

11

Third party financing of renewable energy sources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

IDAE (Institute of Energy Saving and Diversification) Hosted the Third party on financing renewable energy sources. The meeting was articulated into chapters: 1.- Experiences in the renewable energy field. 2.- Third party financing of small hydro-power projects. 3.- Third party financing of biomass projects. 4.- Third party financing of wind energy projects.

1994-01-01

12

Renewable energy sources for desalination  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Renewable energy sources (RES) coupled to desalination offers a promising prospect for covering the fundamental needs of power and water in remote regions, where connection to the public electrical grid is either not cost effective or not feasible, and where the water scarcity is severe. Stand-alone systems for electricity supply in isolated locations are now proven technologies. Correct matching of stand-alone power supply desalination systems has been recognized as being crucial if the system is to provide a satisfactory supply of power and water at a reasonable cost. The paper covers plants installed since 1990 on the coupling of the two technologies. The main driver promoting the take up of this technology is that water is a limiting factor for many countries in the Mediterranean region. This paper presents the two technologies, RES desalination, and describes the most promising couplings such as PV-reverse osmosis, wind-mechanical-vapor compression, geothermal-multieffect distillation, etc as well as technologies selection guidelines. Also, included applications and lessons learned from specific applications as well as data on the economics. RES for desalination is an important challenge and useful work has been done. However in order to provide practical viable plants, much remains to be done. (author)

Tzen, E. [Centre for Renewable Energy Sources, Pikermi (Greece); Morris, R. [Richard Morris and Associates, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

2003-11-01

13

Renewable energy sources the research strategies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper are reported the strategies of research of renewable energy sources in Europe and in particular in Italy. Several technologies are considered: biomass, photovoltaic solar, wind energy, geothermal and hydroelectric

1998-01-01

14

MODELING OF RENEWABLE HYBRID ENERGY SOURCES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent developments and trends in the electric power consumption indicate an increasing use of renewable energy. Renewable energy technologies offer the promise of clean, abundant energy gathered from self-renewing resources such as the sun, wind, earth and plants. Virtually all regions of the world have renewable resources of one type or another. By this point of view studies on renewable energies focuses more and more attention. The present paper intends to present different mathematical models related to different types of renewable energy sources such as: solar energy and wind energy. It is also presented the validation and adaptation of such models to hybrid systems working in geographical and meteorological conditions specific to central part of Transylvania region. The conclusions based on validation of such models are also shown.

Cristian-Dragos Dumitru

2009-11-01

15

Modeling of renewable hybrid energy sources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent developments and trends in the electric power consumption indicate an increasing use of renewable energy. Renewable energy technologies offer the promise of clean, abundant energy gathered from self-renewing resources such as the sun, wind, earth and plants. Virtually all regions of the world have renewable resources of one type or another. By this point of view studies on renewable energies focuses more and more attention. The present paper intends to present different mathematical models related to different types of renewable energy sources such as: solar energy and wind energy. It is also presented the validation and adaptation of such models to hybrid systems working in geographical and meteorological conditions specific to central part of Transylvania region. The conclusions based on validation of such models are also shown.

Dumitru Cristian Dragos

2009-12-01

16

Optimal Power Allocation for Renewable Energy Source  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Battery powered transmitters face energy constraint, replenishing their energy by a renewable energy source (like solar or wind power) can lead to longer lifetime. We consider here the problem of finding the optimal power allocation under random channel conditions for a wireless transmitter, such that rate of information transfer is maximized. Here a rechargeable battery, which is periodically charged by renewable source, is used to power the transmitter. All of above is for...

Sinha, Abhinav; Chaporkar, Prasanna

2011-01-01

17

Renewable energy sources and Estonian national interests  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is only one national level document, The Long-term National Development Plan for the Fuel and Energy sector, regulating the development of renewable energy for Estonia. It was approved by the Parliament (Riigikogu) in 1998. This document planned a 2/3 (66,7%) increase in the share of renewable (according to the document: peat, biofuels and other renewables) to the year 2010 against 1996. At the same time a decrease of the share of domestic oil shale was planned 1/5 to the year 2010 against 1995. That means the use of domestic energy sources, both renewable and non-renewable, will decrease by 16,8% altogether. In reality the rapid projected growth of renewables in Estonia (+66,7% between 1996 and 2010) was changed with decrease of 20% by 2000. So the security of supply must shift to the first place in Estonia. It is also an issue of national sovereignty. Estonia is rich in renewable energy sources, mainly in wood, peat and wind, to achieve the goals set in the National Development Plan. Forest resources amount 352,7, total felling 6,44, allowed felling 7,81 million cubic meters solid volume in 2000. The future of fuel peat usage in Estonia is uncertain, as most of the EU member states, which have burned up their peat resources and/or drained their mires do not consider peat as a renewable fuel. Obviously Estonia has to explain its opinion about the renewability of its resources. Although progress is needed in all directions of additional use of all renewable energy sources in tactical consideration finance must be directed first to guarantee better use of wastes of woodworking and timber industry

2001-11-01

18

Renewable Energy Sources for Electricity Generation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The use of conventional energy sources for electricity generation, such as fossil fuel combustion and nuclear power, is questioned because of environmental and safety issues and concerns about possible anthropogenic climate change. This has led to rapid developments in the field of renewable energy exploitation. Entire new fast-growing industries are formed to supply equipment for renewable power plants. The contribution from Swedish industry to this development has so far largely been limite...

Norrga, Staffan; Stridh, Bengt; Meier, Stephan; Nee, Hans-peter

2012-01-01

19

Alternative and Renewable Energy Sources Course Model  

Science.gov (United States)

The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) has provided this course development model on renewable energy sources including solar energy, wind power, hydropower, fuel cells, biomass, and alternative transportation. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

2011-05-23

20

Renewable energy sources. European Commission papers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ''Directive on the Promotion of Electricity from Renewable Sources of Energy in the Internal Electricity Market'' was adopted in September 2001. Its purpose is to promote an increase in the contribution of renewable energy sources to electricity production in the internal market for electricity and to create a basis for a future Community framework. Energie-Cites provides in this document a summary of its opinion on the Green Paper and on Alterner II and gives a proposal for an Action Plan concerning the White Paper. (A.L.B.)

1997-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Action plan for renewable energy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the Finnish Energy Strategy, approved by the Finnish Government in 1997, the emphasis is laid on the importance of bioenergy and other renewable energy sources for the creation of such prerequisites for the Finnish energy economy that the supply of energy can be secured, the price on energy is competitive and the emissions from energy generation are within the limits set by the international commitments made by Finland. In 1998, the European Union Meeting of the Ministers of Energy adopted a resolution taking a positive attitude to the Communication from the Commission 'Energy for the future: Renewable sources of energy' - White Paper for a Community Strategy and Action Plan. National measures play a key role in the achievement of the objectives set in the White Paper. This Action Plan for Renewable Energy Sources is a national programme in line with the EU's White Paper. It comprises all renewable sources of energy available in Finland. It encompasses even peat, which in Finland has traditionally been considered to be a solid biofuel but is internationally classified as one of the non-renewable sources of energy. In the Action Plan, objectives are set for the volume of renewable energy sources used in the year 2010 including a prognosis on the development by the year 2025. The goal is that by the year 2010 the volume of energy generated using renewable energy sources has increased by 50% compared with the year 1995. This would mean an increase by 3 Mtoe, which is about 1 Mtoe more than anticipated in the outlook based on the Finnish Energy Strategy. A further goal is to double the use of renewable energy sources by the year 2025. The aggregate use of renewable energy sources depends to a large extent both on the development of the price on energy produced using other energy sources and on possible changes in the production volume of the Finnish forest industry. The most important objective stated in the Action Plan is to improve the competitiveness of renewable energy sources in relation to other energy sources. The objective in the long term is to make them as competitive as possible in the open energy market. Among those measures of crucial importance included in the Action Plan, we can mention development and commercialisation of new technology as well as several financial measures, of which taxation and investment aid are considered to have the greatest effect. In addition, the Action Plan presents several administrative measures for the promotion of renewable energy sources. A separate assessment of the environmental impact of the Action Plan has been made resulting in an environmental impact statement (EIS) that contains a detailed account of the environmental impacts of the use of renewable energy sources and the use of peat in energy production. The most important environmental impact of the implementation of the Action Plan will be a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. As a result of the intensified measures to be taken in accordance with the Action Plan, carbon dioxide emissions are estimated to be reduced at least by 2 million tons per year compared with the outlook presented in the Energy Strategy. Further, the use of waste, which otherwise would have been transported to tips, in energy production is estimated to reduce methane emissions by 1 million ton per year (C02 equivalent). The reduction might be even much bigger in the next few years. To ensure that the objectives of the Action Plan will be achieved, the contribution by the State (tax subsidies, investment aid and other forms of aid) should be approx. FIM 500 million on an average per year in the next ten years. In 1998, the State's contribution exceeded FIM 300 million. Further, financing amounting to approx. FIM 200 million is channelled to the research on and the development of energy production technology, which in the future to a larger extent than now will be channelled to the development of such forms of energy production technology that are using renewable energy sources. (orig.)

22

Future hope: new and renewable energy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy from the sun, wind, biomass and water can reduce the pressure on conventional sources which are depleting very fast. This energy is abundant, renewable and pollution free. It is the energy of the future. No wonder non-conventional energy is fast catching the imagination of the people in our country. Efficient and economical means to harness such new energy sources are being developed. The experience so far has been encouraging. India is poised to assume a leading role among the countries which are rich in such resources

1995-06-30

23

Renewable energy sources 1991, part 2  

Science.gov (United States)

The International Conference on Renewable Energy Sources was held in Prague on 1-4 Jul. 1991. Part 2 of the proceedings is devoted to the use of the energy of wind, biogas, and small hydroelectric sources. The publication contains 14 contributions, of which 3 were inputted in INIS. Topics covered include: a wind power plant in Sweden and its environmental impacts, economic aspects of the introduction of alternative energy sources in Czechoslovakia, and the efficiency of application of a Fresnel lens-based solar collector.

Michalicka, L.

1991-12-01

24

Renewable energy sources: Energy Efficiency Agency  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper presents the activities of the Energy Efficiency Agency, its main functions, as well as the new legislation stimulating the use of RES, stipulated in the new Energy Law of Bulgaria. The second part of the paper describes the potential of renewable energy in i.e. wind energy; solar energy; biomass energy; hydro energy; geothermal energy; draft of a National Program on RES 2005-2015. The third part describes the main issues of the new ENERGY EFFICIENCY LAW and the established Energy efficiency fund. (Author)

2004-10-07

25

MODELING OF RENEWABLE HYBRID ENERGY SOURCES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent developments and trends in the electric power consumption indicate an increasing use of renewable energy. Renewable energy technologies offer the promise of clean, abundant energy gathered from self-renewing resources such as the sun, wind, earth and plants. Virtually all regions of the world have renewable resources of one type or another. By this point of view studies on renewable energies focuses more and more attention. The present paper intends to present different mathematical mo...

2009-01-01

26

Modeling of renewable hybrid energy sources  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent developments and trends in the electric power consumption indicate an increasing use of renewable energy. Renewable energy technologies offer the promise of clean, abundant energy gathered from self-renewing resources such as the sun, wind, earth and plants. Virtually all regions of the world have renewable resources of one type or another. By this point of view studies on renewable energies focuses more and more attention. The present paper intends to present different mathematical mo...

2009-01-01

27

CARDOON, RENEWABLE SOURCE OF ENERGY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cardoon (Cynara cardunculus is a herbaceous perennial plant in the vegetable, artichoke, wild or garden, which belongs to the Compositae family (Asteraceae Compositae-and more precisely Cynara species and is grown specifically for the production of biomass (solid bio fuel as a pellet, or solid and liquid bio fuel, bio diesel. In this paper I have tried to highlight the profitability and economic efficiency of growing of this plant. Production capacity exceeding 2 tonnes dry matter/1000mp. The yield depends on climatic conditions, adequate soil moisture, soil nutrients, and range from 1 to 3 t/1000mp, dry. Cardoon seed contains on average 24% oil (category: 19-32%, with the same qualities as the sunflower. Quantity of seed production to 480 kgs/1000mp, while ordinary productivities range 70 to 330 kg/1000mp, always depending on the total biomass production. Growing cardooncan replace traditional crops, partly by ensuring a good profit for the farmer (double the wheat and rapeseed and bio fuel production with high energy content. Solid bio fuels (pellets, briquettes, artichokes, etc. can reach the enduser, at prices up to 30-40% lower than the price of oil. Because cardoon is a perennial plant which grows once every 10-12 years, and preparing the ground and sowing it will be carried out at intervals so large (this plant is harvested annually,it is remarkable cost reduction efficiency of growing this plant.In addition to the obvious environmental advantages by producing green energy, growing artichokes garden preserves the soil covered for the most part of the year, thereby minimizing the risk of soil erosion and limit the pollution of soil and groundwater with agrochemical products, especially in areas with intensive agriculture, because it does not require additional fertilization and/or with the use of chemical fertilizers or pesticides.

Cecilia NEAGU

2013-01-01

28

ECONOMICS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN INDIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Providing access to quality and sufficient energy to all households, individuals, sectors, and institutions at all times is the minimum condition for economic development. The climate change is gradually harming the environment, social and economic development of world economy. The major culprit fuelling the climate change is burning of fossil fuel. Hence, the power generation in India should not only aim at sufficient power generation, but also at generating clean, green and sustainable energy. The major sources of renewable power in India are 1 Wind power 2 Small Hydro power 3 Biomass 4 Cogeneration biogases and 5 waste to energy. India is having 89,760 MW estimated potential of renewable energy. But less than 2% are harnessed in actual terms.

S. R. Keshava

2014-06-01

29

Custom power interfaces for renewable energy sources  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Interface converters for renewable energy sources can be regarded as custom power devices. Thus they can be designed and operated so as to improve power quality at their connecting locations. This paper presents examples of converter designs based on p-q theory for different applications. Modeling, simulations and experimental results are given for converter prototypes operating either as active power filter (APF) or static compensator (STATCOM), while transferring real power to the utility g...

2007-01-01

30

Renewable energy sources 1991, part 3  

Science.gov (United States)

The Fourth International Conference on Renewable Energy Sources was held at Prague Technical University from 1-4 Jul. 1991. Part 3 of the proceedings contains a report on the conference and 10 contributions, of which 2 were inputted in INIS: one deals with the economic problems of wind-, solar- and oil-driven water pumps, the other deals with the decrease in sunshine brought about by the operation of Czechoslovak nuclear power plants.

Michalicka, L.

1991-12-01

31

Urges use of renewable energy sources to generate electric power  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article discusses the following issues of generation of electric power through renewable energy sources like geothermal and wind energy. The author that is the actual Deputy Minister of Energy and Mines explains the needs of Guatemala in the sector of energy in promoting the renewable energy sources such as wind and geothermal energy because Guatemala has a potential generation by this sources

2001-10-01

32

Use of renewable energy sources in Estonia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Estonia has made success in the implementation of energy conservation programme and bio fuel programmes. The basis for promoting the use of biofuels and peat are identified in the first National Energy Conservation Programme (approved by the government in 1992) and in the National Long Term Energy Development Programme (approved by the parliament in 1998). The first National Energy Conservation Programme has set up the following goals: reduction of the share of imported fuels in national primary energy balance through implementation of energy conservation projects and through conversion from imported fuels to local fuels (peat and wood); solving the ownership problems of heating enterprises; financial support for implementation of energy conservation and fuel conversion projects; to stop the subsidies of energy tariffs; promotion of energy conservation awareness campaign. The National Long Term Energy Development Programme identified the promotion of the use of biofuels and peat as one of the main tasks of national energy policy. According to the development plan, the share of renewable energy sources in national primary energy balance shall reach the percentage of 13 in the year 2010. The government approved the new National Energy Conservation Programme in January 2000. One part of the programme is the analyses of the results of the first programme. The conclusion is that the main tasks of the first energy conservation programme (from 1992) are fulfilled: the total use of primary energy has decreased from 1991 to 1998 from 390,6 PJ to 214 PJ; the total amount of imported fuels has decreased from 173 PJ in 1991 to 80 PJ in 1998; the total share of peat and wood in primary energy balance has increased from 14,8 TJ in 1991 to 24,3 TJ in 1998. This is from 3,6 % to 11,3 % accordingly. Since the annual growth of peat resources is bigger than the annual consumption, in Estonian conditions, peat could be considered as renewable energy source. The increase of the share of peat and wood in primary energy balance has been reached through implementation of a number of fuel conversion (mainly from heavy fuel oil, natural gas and natural coal) programmes. Most of the fuel conversion projects have been financed by international financial institutions (World Bank, EBRD, EIB, SIDA, NUTEK) and from Estonian state budget. In addition to the changes in primary energy balance, the implementation of fuel conversion programmes has improved Estonian trade balance and reduced the emissions. In 1999, the Ministry of Economic Affairs prepared the Programme for Promoting Wind and Small Hydro Energy. According to the programme the potential of wind energy is significant, but the potential of hydro energy is limited. In theory, 10 TWh electricity per annum could be produced from wind power. The maximum limit of hydro potential is estimated 30 MW. In 1998 the article of power purchase obligation for electricity produced from renewable energy resources, was included to the Energy Act. In result of which a number of smaller size hydro power plants have been rehabilitated. (author)

1999-11-04

33

Potentiality of renewable energy sources: the Italian context  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Renewable energy sources are the subject of strategic interest for their contribution to diversification of energy sources increasing independence from foreign supplies and to improving the environmental standards. Are presented related to technologies, consistency and potential availability of renewable energy sources to generate electric power

2008-06-01

34

White paper for the exploitation of the renewable energy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Italian government attributes at the renewable energy sources a remarkable strategy. Therefore supports the progressive integration of this energy sources in energy market and develop the co-operation with Mediterranean area countries

1998-01-01

35

Status of renewable energy sources in the global energy balance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An extensive assessment at the World Energy Conference in Montreal in 1989 furnished that renewable energy sources will also in 2020 be dominated by water power. The prospects for solar and wind energy are on the medium term viewed rather pessimistically. Their contribution to global energy supply will also in 2020 still be below 3%. The contribution of renewable energy sources to the supply of the old federal states amounts to 2.6% and is produced by public utilities from water power, waste, landfill gases, wind and solar energy. (DG)

36

Development of renewable energy sources during the years  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present report briefly characterizes the main types of renewable energy sources aimed at minimizing the negative consequences of the changes in the global climate in the past years and emphasizes the potential and the usage of renewable energy sources in the European Union and Bulgaria respectively in compliance with the normative framework of the European Union. Some of Bulgarian major implemented projects are revealed and special consideration has been given to Bulgarian contribution to development of renewable energy sources. (author)

2007-06-13

37

New renewable energy sources; Nye fornybare energikilder. Revidert utgave 2001  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This publication presents a review of the technological, economical and market status in the field of new renewable energy sources. It also deals briefly with the present use of energy, external conditions for new renewable energy sources and prospects for these energy sources in a future energy system. The renewable energy sources treated here are ''new'' in the sense that hydroelectric energy technology is excluded, being fully developed commercially. This publication updates a previous version, which was published in 1996. The main sections are: (1) Introduction, (2) Solar energy, (3) Bio energy, (4) Wind power, (5) Energy from the sea, (6) Hydrogen, (7) Other new renewable energy technologies and (8) New renewables in the energy system of the future.

NONE

2001-06-01

38

Renewable energy sources (promotion). [And opposition to nuclear energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Permission to present a Bill to establish an independent commission directly responsible for the research, development and demonstration of clean, renewable, alternative sources of energy (to nuclear energy) is requested. The paragraphs of the preamble to the Bill are summarized by the Member seeking permission. The main reason for promoting renewable energy sources is opposition to the nuclear industry. One objection was raised. However, permission was granted to present the Bill and it was read for the first time with a second reading ordered for 7 March 1986. The Bill itself is not reprinted but the permission and question are reported verbatim. (U.K.).

Cook, F.

1986-02-25

39

Perspectives of renewable energy sources in Poland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Utilization of alternative energy sources in Poland such as: hydro power, wind power, solar energy, biomass and geothermal energy is discussed. The basic information about world energy resources is given too. (A.S.)

1988-09-06

40

Renewable Sources of Energy and Development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reviewed are the status of conventional sources of energy, prospects for the development of alternative sources of energy, and the consequences of that development on countries that are in the process of industrialization. (BT)

Diatta, Christian Sina

1979-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Renewable energy sources. Co-operation with the developing countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In many of the developing countries chances of utilizing renewable energy sources are by far better than in the Federal Republic of Germany. Advantages are due to a propitious solar radiation on one hand and the suitability of renewable energy sources for decentralized energy supplies in underdeveloped regions conventional energy sources would not be suited for on the other hand. Cooperation with the developing countries is therefore considered a pillar of German research and development programs in the field of renewable energy sources. Funds amount to about 50 million marks a year.

Raede, H.S.; Stoecker, H.J.

1988-01-01

42

Technology risk assessment to renewable energy sources. Interim report: Utilization of renewable energy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of this interim report of a BMFT-supported study are preliminary statements about the utilization of plant-derived raw materials for energy supply uses. Some aspects were analyzed by preparing technology risk assessments of the present economic situation (from the point of view of national economy) of about 50 product lines, the medium- term (2005) economic prospects, of threshold prices based on the price of fuel oil, the cost of carbon dioxide reduction, other environmental aspects, and of the acceptance of renewable energy sources among farmers. Arguments are derived from these analyses, and the present R and D deficiencies are discussed. (orig.)

1991-01-01

43

Investigation and usage of renewable energy sources. Third conference proceedings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The third conference on investigation and usage of renewable energy sources took place in the Estonian Agricultural University at Tartu on November 1, 2001. There were numerous experts from Estonia, Finland, Germany and the EU Energy and Transportation Directorate General in Brussels. To sum up the discussions of the conference one may state that despite the improving the situation of the renewable energy source use there is still a long way to go. Firstly with amending the legislation, educating new people and financing research works. The widespread use of the renewable energy sources is the only possible way for the Estonian energy sector

2001-11-01

44

Renewable energy sources statistics in the European Union  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Eurostat in collaboration with the European Union Member States has established a methodology for the collection of Renewable Energy Sources statistics, which has been applied every year since 1990 producing detailed information on the evolution of the Renewable Energy contribution in the European Union. Biomass is accounts for about 60% of the total Renewable Energy contribution in the European Union. The main lines of the methodology currently used for biomass statistics collection in the European Union is described. (K.A.)

Roubanis, N. [Statistical Office of the European Communities, Eurostat, (Luxembourg)

1997-12-31

45

RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN POLAND - CONDITIONS AND POSSIBILITES OF DEVELOPMENT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper describes the state of the art in renewable energy sources development. The obligation resulting from the membership of Poland in the European Union as well as from other international agreements in the scope of renewable energy sources development are described. The production of electricity, heat and biofuels in Poland is given and the perspectives of development of particular renewable energy sources in Poland are discussed in the view of potential reserves and other constrains. The economic aspects of renewable energy technologies are shown. The environmental pros and cons of biomass energy development are described. Arguments for development of renewable energy sources use are stated: the decrease of dependence from primary energy sources, the decrease the emission of green house gases and the recovery of agricultural regions of the country. In conclusion it is stated that the significance of renewable energy sources in Polish conditions is constrained to local societies. Their development should be adjusted to conditions predominating in a given region and that wider consumption of renewable energy sources should develop in conformity with sustainable development, so it is necessary to reach agreement between local societies, institutions dealing with environment protection and representatives of power sector. (auth)

Gawlik, L.; Mokrzycki, E.; Ney, R.

2007-07-01

46

Present status and potential of renewable energy sources in Turkey  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effects on global and environmental air quality of pollutants released into the atmosphere from fossil fuels in power plants provide strong arguments for the development of renewable energy resources. In this regard, the objective of this study is to investigate the present status. the technical potentials, and the regional distribution of renewable energy resources in Turkey. The following resources were taken into consideration: solar energy, wind energy, hydro energy, geothermal energy, biomass, and wave energy. The present study shows that Turkey has extensive renewable energy resources that can be developed as a significant source of energy. (author)

Hepbasli, A.; Ozdamar, A.; Ozalp, N.

2001-08-15

47

Energy utilization, environmental pollution and renewable energy sources in Turkey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, energy utilization and its major environmental impacts are discussed from the standpoint of sustainable development, including anticipated patterns of future energy use and subsequent environmental issues in Turkey. Several aspects relating to energy utilization, renewable energy, energy efficiency, environment and sustainable development are examined from both current and future perspectives. Turkey is an energy importing country, more than half of the energy requirement has been supplied by imports. Domestic oil and lignite reserves are limited, and the lignites are characterised by high ash, sulfur and moisture content. Because of increasing energy consumption, environmental pollution is becoming a serious problem in the future for the country. In this regard, renewable energy resources appear to be one of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy development and environmental pollution prevention in Turkey. Turkey's geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of most of these renewable energy sources. Especially hydropower, biomass, geothermal, solar and wind energy should be considered and seriously supported by governments and private sectors

2004-04-01

48

Renewable energy sources '91. Part 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Part 2 of the proceedings is devoted to the use of the energy of wind, biogas and small hydroelectric sources. The publication contains 14 contributions, out of which 3 have been inputted in INIS. They deal with a wind power plant in Sweden and its environmental impacts, economic aspects of the introduction of alternative energy sources in Czechoslovakia, and with the efficiency of application of a Fresnel lens-based solar collector. (M.D.). 5 figs., 1 tab., 2 refs

1991-07-01

49

Limits and Prospects of Renewable Energy Sources in Italy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Italian energy balance for year 2005 is discussed with particular attention on renewable energy production. The potentials of renewable sources are evaluated in terms of energy density that can be obtained from occupied plant area. About 20000 km2 of sunny barren lands are present in South of Italy, particularly suitable for photovoltaic plants and that corresponds to a potential production of 144 Mtep of primary energy. Therefore, in theory, the photovoltaic energy potential is comparable with energy balance. The grid connection limit due to intermittent power generation of photovoltaic and wind energy systems is considered in relation with the stability of grid power level. Assuming a 25% maximum grid penetration of intermittent power with respect to capacity of active thermoelectric generators, the renewable energy contribution amounts to about 2% of annual energy balance. In front of expectations for a larger contribution, the practical result is the renewable energy production of present systems is marginal, unsuitable for counteracting the global climate crisis. The conclusion is that, for exploiting the large renewable energy potential, is necessary to implement the plants with an energy storage system able to overcome the source intermittency. Without this improvement, the expectations on renewable energy sources could be disappointed.

2008-01-01

50

On the global and regional potential of renewable energy sources  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this thesis, the central research question is: what can be the contribution of renewable energy sources to the present and future world and regional energy supply system. The focus is on wind, solar PV and biomass energy (energy crops) for electricity generation. For the assessment of the economic potential, we construct cost-supply curves. As the economic potential also depends on the way renewables are integrated in the electricity system, we also explore the overall costs of wind electr...

Hoogwijk, Monique Maria

2004-01-01

51

Legislation on renewable energy sources in Central America  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the development of renewable energy in Central America and the cooperation given by the European Comission in the promotion of renewable energy sources. Also discuss the current situation in energy demand in Central America and possible solutions linked to legislation that promotes the inversion of the private sector. The legal framework in each country of Central America is presented and its impact in the increasing of generation of energy through tax reductions, trading and prices

2000-04-01

52

Do energy efficiency measures promote the use of renewable sources?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper analyses the factors behind the deployment of renewable energy, focusing particularly on the effect of energy efficiency policies and measures. The impact of these factors is appraised within the context of several phases of the use of renewable sources. We therefore apply the quantile regression technique to a set of 21 European Countries in two time spans: from 1990 to 1998, and from 1999 to 2006. We control variables of policy, environment, socioeconomic characteristics, and electricity generation. For the second period, energy efficiency policies and measures concerning renewable sources effectively promote renewables, namely in the take-off phase. We shed light on the lobbying effect of traditional energy industries, showing that it depends both on the period under analysis, and on the kind of traditional energy source.

2011-06-01

53

Mechanism for supporting the use of renewable energy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Member states of European Union (EU) put bigger stress to the using of renewable energy sources (RES). Ambitious goal of EU till 2010 was to achieve 12 % rate of RES on the whole energy consumption. Therefore there were created many institutional and financial tools and schemes for support of RES using and they will be important part of the energy sources structure. One of the basic priorities of energetic policy in Slovakia is increasing of the RES rate on the production of heat and electricity with goal to create adequate additional sources necessary for covering of domestic demand. Presented contribution is orientated to the various mechanisms that are using for support of renewable energy sources. That means state regulation in this area generally and basic types of state donation policy in the frame of European Union and their consequences on the market with renewable energy sources. (authors)

2010-01-01

54

Bamboo as a Renewable Energy Source.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our complete dependence upon imported fossil fuels forces us to make a conscientious evaluation of the other energy sources the authors have readily available. Some of the approximately 1000 species of bamboo of some 50 genera, which range from plants the...

A. E. Molini J. G. Irizarry

1982-01-01

55

Anhydrous ethanol: A renewable source of energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Anhydrous ethanol is one of the biofuels produced today and it is a subset of renewable energy. It is considered to be an excellent alternative clean-burning fuel to gasoline. Anhydrous ethanol is commercially produced by either catalytic hydration of ethylene or fermentation of biomass. Any biological material that has sugar, starch or cellulose can be used as biomass for producing anhydrous ethanol. Since ethanol-water solution forms a minimum-boiling azeotrope of composition of 89.4 mol% ethanol and 10.6 mol% water at 78.2 C and standard atmospheric pressure, the dilute ethanol-water solutions produced by fermentation process can be continuously rectified to give at best solutions containing 89.4 mol% ethanol at standard atmospheric pressure. Therefore, special process for removal of the remaining water is required for manufacture of anhydrous ethanol. Various processes for producing anhydrous ethanol have been used/suggested. These include: (i) chemical dehydration process, (ii) dehydration by vacuum distillation process, (iii) azeotropic distillation process, (iv) extractive distillation processes, (v) membrane processes, (vi) adsorption processes and (vii) diffusion distillation process. These processes of manufacturing anhydrous ethanol have been improved continuously due to the increasingly strict requirements for quantity and quality of this product. The literature available on these processes is reviewed. These processes are also compared on the basis of energy requirements. (author)

Kumar, Santosh; Singh, Neetu; Prasad, Ram [Department of Chemical Engineering, H. B. Technological Institute, Kanpur 208002 (India)

2010-09-15

56

Strategy on renewable energy sources in Romania  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The key to successful development of renewable energies in Romania requires a combination of political commitment and decision making as well as support mechanism including well defined government targets, technological advances and public acceptance. Overall short, medium and long term targets and required funding are recommended while expected benefits are estimated. Public funds in the form of grants and subsidies to promote and support RES constitute one of the best investments in the national economy. Commercial investments in RES will contribute to the country's balance of payments as well as towards the environmental protection. Therefore these actions may be supported through a special fund, in particular designed for RES and energy conservation investments. As a first step towards the commercialization of RES a short term action plan needs to be implemented for achieving the set forth long term objectives. This plan includes promising projects for the demonstration of technologically and economically viable applications in each RES sector as well as institutional and other soft measures .The RES promotional policy measures have to be translated into concrete legislation providing the necessary framework into which the sector will operate with transparency and open competitiveness. One of the key policies for RES strategy is to organize a flexible and efficient scheme for the implementation of the policy adopted by the government. The total rural population, together with the urban population living in medium sized towns will be considered as the primary market segment for RES applications (about 61 % of total population). (author). 1 fig., 2 tabs., 18 refs

1996-09-01

57

Renewable energy sources - the opportunity for a safer future  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The researches have shown that the potential of renewable energy sources is huge as they can in principle meet many times the world's energy demand. Renewable energy sources such as biomass, wind, solar, hydropower and geothermal can provide energy services based on the use of local available resources. Starting from this fact, a transition to renewable-based energy systems is looking increasingly likely as their costs have dropped while the price of oil and gas continue to fluctuate. In the past 30 years, the sales of solar and wind energy systems continued to increase because the capital and electricity production costs decreased simultaneously with the performance enhancement. It is becoming clear that future growth in the energy sector will be primarily in the renewable energy systems and to some extent natural gas-based systems and not in conventional oil and coal sources. It is also important to have governmental assistance and popular support in developing these alternate energy sources, that among others, reduce local and global atmospheric emissions, provide commercially attractive options, particularly in developing countries and rural areas and create the transition to the energy sector of the future. This paper tries to approach the renewable energy sources currently analyzed by the experts, emphasizing their strengths and weaknesses. The conventional energy sources based on oil, coal and natural gas have proven to be highly effective drivers of economic progress but at the same time damaging to the environment and human health. Furthermore they tend to be cyclical in nature, due to the effects of oligopoly in production and distribution. These traditional fossil fuel-based energy sources are facing increasing pressure on environmental issues, among these the future reduction of greenhouse gas specified in the Kyoto Protocol. Renewable energy sources currently supply between 15 - 20% of world's total energy demand. This supply is dominated by biomass (mostly wood used for cooking and heating - especially in developing countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America) as well as large hydropower stations providing nearly 20% of the global electricity supply provided by renewable sources. New renewable sources (solar, wind, modern bioenergy, geothermal energy and small hydropower stations) amount to about 2%. Recent studies of the future development of the energy sector show that in the second half of the 21 century the contribution of the renewable energy sources might range from the present figure of nearly 20% to more than 50% if the right policies will be put in place. Below are presented the most significant renewable energy sources. 1. Biomass Energy Biomass is the term used for all organic material originating from plants (including algae), trees and crops and is essentially the collection and storage of the sun's energy through photosynthesis. Biomass energy, or bioenergy, is the conversion of biomass into useful forms of energy such as heat, electricity and liquid fuels. Biomass was the first energy source harnessed by humans, and for nearly all of human history, wood has been our dominant energy source. Only during the last century, with the development of efficient techniques to extract and burn fossil fuels, have coal, oil, and natural gas, replaced wood as the industrialized world's primary fuel. Today it represents about 10-14 percent, making it the fourth largest source of energy behind oil (33 percent), coal (21 percent), and natural gas (19 percent). The precise amount is uncertain because the majority is used non-commercially in developing countries. Biomass is usually not considered a modern energy source, given the role that it has played, and continues to play, in most developing countries. In developing countries it still accounts for an estimated one third of primary energy use while in the poorest up to 90% of all energy is supplied by biomass. The direct combustion of biomass fuels, as used in developing countries today for domestic cooking and heating, has been called 'the poor man's oil' r

2004-06-13

58

Renewable Energy Sources - Technologies and Development of the Economy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The usage of renewable energy sources is a substitute for usage of fossil fuels, whose quantities are limited, and it represents an essential contribution to the reduction of greenhouse gases; at the same time it has a great economic significance for the development of new industries and creation of new jobs. To speed up gradual transition from fossil to renewable sources, governments of all EU member states harmonise their legislations and subordinate regulations promoting investments in usage of renewable sources and thus creating opportunities for new jobs especially in the production of plants and equipment for utilisation of wind power, solar energy, small hydro power plants, biomass and other kinds of renewable sources. In the last 10 years Croatia has adopted a number of acts and regulations that also stimulate investors to utilise renewable sources, and the source of such subsidies is a higher price of electricity paid by all the consumers. On the other hand, the development of domestic industry and gaining references necessary for gaining new contracts are very difficult because of stiff international competition and foreign sources of finance, which often require purchase of foreign equipment as a condition for contract award. In such conditions the utilisation of renewable sources does not contribute either to economic development or creating new jobs in Croatia, but in the countries in which such equipment is produced.(author).

2010-11-19

59

Cyprus energy system and the use of renewable energy sources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cyprus is an island state whose energy production is almost completely dependent on imported hydrocarbon fuels. Its electricity production sector is more than 90% dependent on oil products while the remaining 9% are covered by imports of coal (4.5%) and by solar energy (4.5%). Because Cyprus will become a full member of the European Union (EU), it becomes essential to follow the EU white paper rules and insert renewable energy sources (RES) as part of its energy production system. Solar, wind energy and biomass are the three available forms of RES. This paper will examine and analyze the energy system of Cyprus. It will examine the RES available and the extent of the energy needs could be satisfied by them. (author)

Koroneos, C.; Fokaidis, P.; Moussiopoulos, N. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece). Department of Mechanical Engineering, Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Environmental Engineering

2005-07-01

60

Power Electronics as Efficient Interface of Renewable Energy Sources  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The global electrical energy consumption is steadily rising and consequently there is a demand to increase the power generation capacity. A significant percentage of the required capacity increase can be based on renewable energy sources. Wind turbine technology, as the most cost effective renewable energy conversion system, will play an important part in our future energy supply. But other sources like microturbines, photovoltaics and fuel cell systems may also be serious contributor to the power supply. Characteristically, power electronics will be an efficient and important interface to the grid and this paper will first briefly discuss three different alternative/ renewable energy sources. Next, various configurations of the wind turbine technology are presented, as this technology seems to be most developed and cost-effective. Finally, the developments and requirements from the grid are discussed.

Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Exploitation of Renewable Energy Sources and Its Legal Regulation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is great potential for exploitation of renewable energy sources in China, but the strength of policy support and stimulation measures is far from enough. Many practices in foreign countries to lead and standardize development of renewable energy sources can be used as sources of refer...

Boyu Zhu

2010-01-01

62

Optimal portfolio selection between different kinds of Renewable energy sources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, selection of the optimal energy supply system in an industrial unit is taken into consideration. This study takes environmental, economical and social parameters into consideration in modeling along with technical factors. Several alternatives which include renewable energy sources, micro-CHP systems and conventional system has been compared by means of an integrated model of linear programming and three multi-criteria approaches (AHP, TOPSIS and ELECTRE III). New parameters like availability of sources, fuels' price volatility, besides traditional factors are considered in different scenarios. Results show with environmental preferences, renewable sources and micro-CHP are good alternatives for conventional systems.

Zakerinia, MohammadSaleh; Piltan, Mehdi; Ghaderi, Farid

2010-09-15

63

Which available capacity of the grid for renewable energy sources?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of renewable energy sources for the generation of electricity, particularly wind energy and solar electricity, implicates to take into account the necessary developments of the electric power transmission network to be able to receive and guarantee the trans-mission of electricity produced from renewable sources which must represent more than 20 % of energy consumption in France in 2020. A transmission grid correctly sized is necessary to reach such targets. The ambitious development of renewable energy sources implicates therefore that the grid problematic is entirely taken into account and that the transmission grid operator has means allowing to locate favor-able zones to this development and to link to these zones an amount of power. Besides, the regulation frame must allow the building of the new electrical lines necessary for the connection of wind farms to the grid, respecting criteria of sustainable development. (authors)

2009-10-01

64

Hydropower and biomass as renewable energy sources in Turkey  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

When talking about renewable energy sources today, the most important and economical energy sources for Turkey are hydropower and biomass.The present study gives a review of production, consumption, and economics of hydropower and biomass as renewable energy sources in Turkey. Turkey has a total gross hydropower potential of 433 GW, but only 125 GW of the total hydroelectric potential of Turkey can be economically used. By the commissioning of new hydropower plants, which are under construction, 36% of the economically usable potential of the country could be tapped. On the other hand, biomass (wood and wastes) energy is the second most important renewable energy source for Turkey. However, the biomass energy sources of Turkey are limited. In 1998, the biomass share of the total energy consumption of the country is 10%. In this study, the potential of important biomass energy sources and animal solid wastes of the country were determined. The effects of hydropower and biomass usage on the environment were also discussed. Considering total cereal products and fatty seed plants, approximately 50-60 million tons per year of biomass and 8-10 million tons of solid matter animal waste are produced, and 70% of total biomass is seen as being usable for energy. Some useful suggestions and recommendations are also presented. The present study shows that there is an important potential for hydropower and biomass energy sources in Turkey. (author)

Kaygusuz, K.

2001-10-15

65

Claiming minimum payments for electric power from renewable energy sources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The drafted Federal Electric Power Tariff Agreement fails to fix minimum payments for power supplies coming from renewable energy sources. The fact that neither the energy economics law nor the executive orders exclude the fixing of minimum payments suggests to amend the draft. The amendment proposed obliges the electric utilities to utilize electric power from renewable energy sources and fixes a minimum of 85% of the average proceeds of the preceding financial year of an electric utility to be paid for such supplies. (BWI).

Carstensen, U.

1988-01-01

66

Energy efficiency and renewable energy sources in Nordic homes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The role of citizens as innovators, adaptors of existing technologies and diffusers of new climate-relevant innovations has been studied extensively in recent years. Since the late 1970s, sociological and demographic research on residential energy use has consistently found great variations in energy use among similar households. It has been suggested that these variations constitute a source of innovative low-carbon practices. Yet, while there are many generic technologies available for end-use efficiency and renewables, their slow rate of diffusion suggests that they are not as such applicable to local conditions. Citizens have a key role in their adoption and adaptation to local conditions, as well in their diffusion to other users. Against this backdrop, the track 4 of NCF called for poster presentations of innovative new products, modifications of existing products, news ways of make use of existing technologies as well as such living practices that reduce energy use or enable the utilization of renewable energy sources in domestic settings in the Nordic countries. (orig.)

Hyysalo, S.; Rinkinen, J. [Aalto Univ. School of Economics, Helsinki (Finland). Dept. of Management and International Business; Heiskanen, E. [National Consumer Research Centre, Helsinki (Finland)

2011-07-01

67

Potential novel, renewable thermal energy source  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A team of researchers at Rowans University (RU) have conducted calorimetry studies of various solid fuels developed by New-Jersey-based BlackLight Power (BLP) in order to test and validate their claims of lower energy hydrogen. In this study, potassium hydride, sodium hydride, magnesium metal powder, titanium carbide support material and several halide salts were loaded in a cell and heated to initiate a chemical reaction. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry were used to analyze the products of the reaction. An XRD analysis of the solid samples revealed the presence of magnesium hydride, the metal of the metal halide reactant and an alkali halide. A small amount of magnesium halide was also observed, but the starting halide salt was absent in the products. Liquid proton NMR revealed the hydrino hydride ion H-(1/4) upfield at -3.85 ppm and the corresponding molecular hydrino H2(1/4) at 1.23 ppm as predicted. Detailed calorimetric studies were used to determine the heat that was generated in more than 20 thermal energy releasing experiments. While the average energy was 1.95, the energy for the most energetic conventional exothermic chemical reaction was 6.5. The RU researchers assessed the possible reactions occurring along with their enthalpies, and compared the enthalpies of the anticipated reaction with the actual heat observed in small 5X reactors and a large 50X reactor. The presence of water in the starting materials was ruled out by temperature programmed desorption studies. The RU researchers successfully reproduced BLP tests which identified a novel form of hydrogen as a potential explanation of the additional heat evolved. It was concluded that the novel source of thermal heat generated in the chemical reactions cannot be explained in the confines of conventional modern chemistry. 7 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig.

Jansson, P.M.; Schwabe, U.K.W. [Rowan Univ., Glassboro, NJ (United States). College of Engineering, Electrical and Computer Engineering; Mugweru, A.; Ramanujachary, K.V. [Rowan Univ., Glassboro, NJ (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry

2010-07-01

68

A Stochastic Calculus for Network Systems with Renewable Energy Sources  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We consider the performance modeling and evaluation of network systems powered with renewable energy sources such as solar and wind energy. Such energy sources largely depend on environmental conditions, which are hard to predict accurately. As such, it may only make sense to require the network systems to support a soft quality of service (QoS) guarantee, i.e., to guarantee a service requirement with a certain high probability. In this paper, we intend to build a solid math...

Wu, Kui; Jiang, Yuming; Marinakis, Dimitri

2011-01-01

69

Renewable energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Renewable energy sources have a small environmental impact and can be easily integrated within existing structures. Moreover, the use of renewable energy sources can contribute to achieve a zero emission of carbon dioxide by 2100, provided an efficient environmental policy during the next 40 years. This includes a correct pricing policy of renewable energy sources with respect to nuclear energy and fossil fuel. The latter energy sources have been favoured in the past. In addition, an open market policy, the restructuring or conversion of existing international energy institutes, and international treaties for the protection of the natural environment are needed in view of achieving the zero carbon dioxide emission objective. (A.S.)

1994-05-19

70

Prospects of renewable-energy sources in Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pakistan, despite the enormous potential of its energy resources, remains energy- deficient and has to rely heavily on imports to satisfy its needs. Moreover, a very large part of the rural areas does not have the electrification facilities, because they are either too remote and/or too expensive to connect to the national grid. Pakistan obtains its energy requirements from a variety of traditional and commercial sources. Share of various primary energy-sources in energy-supply mix remained during last few years as oil: 43.5%, gas: 41.5%, LPG: 0.3%, coal: 4.5%, hydro-electricity: 9.2%, and nuclear electricity: 1.1%. The electric-power generation included 71.9% thermal, 25.2% hydel and 2.9% nuclear. While there is no prospect for Pakistan to reach self-sufficiency in hydrocarbons, a good option is the exploitation and utilization of the huge coal-reserves of Thar and the other renewable energy sources. Pakistan has wide spectrum of high potential renewable energy sources, conventional as well as non-conventional, which have not been adequately explored, exploited and developed. 'Thus, the primary energy supplies today are not enough to meet even the present demand. So, Pakistan, like other developing countries of the region, is facing a serious challenge of energy deficit. The development of the renewable energy sources can play an important role in meeting this challenge. Present observations, based on reviewing the geological setup, geographical position, climatological cycles and the agricultural/industrial/ urbanization activities, reveal that there are bright prospects for the exploitation of various renewable-energy sources, which include mega and macro/micro-hydel, biomass, biogas, wind, solar, co-generation, city and other solid wastes, utilization of low-head canal levels, sea wave and tide and geothermal energies etc. Technologically, all these renewable-energy sources are viable and consequently suited to efforts for poverty alleviation and cleaner environment in Pakistan. The country can be benefited by harnessing these options of energy-generation as substitute energy in areas where sources exist. As Pakistan is an agricultural country and major part of its population lives in the rural areas, the electricity generated by renewable sources will also improve rural life, thereby reducing the urban migration that is taxing the ability of cities to cope with their own environmental problems. (author)

2005-01-01

71

Marketing of renewable energy sources in the region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

European Union has a leading role in the world due to its strong commitment to increase renewable energy sources as for the energy system change. Success of such long term project requires first of all a stable political framework, well-tailored support system of finances, technical background and administrative, and by this way it can overcome the obstacles existing in distorted energy markets. Regardless their high potential, renewable energy resources are insufficiently exploited in Europe. The aim of the contribution is to bring characteristic of particular sources of energy and technologies of exploitation in the geographic area Hnilec valley. We obtained detailed summary of positive and negative aspects and the reason of further survey in this field. Overall result of the thesis is the complex of knowledge of possibility of exploitation of sustainable sources of the energy in the region Hnilec valley and determination of the best possible variant of it. (authors)

2012-01-01

72

Potential for Renewable Energy Sources (RES) in Grenoble, Delft & Växjö  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sustainable cities is an area that has grown in size over the last couple of years. The SESAC (Sustainable Energy Systems in Advanced Cities) is a EU-project looking at the potential to increase the share of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) and promote energy efficiency measures in different EU cities. This master thesis is a part of that project. Specifically, the thesis examines the cities of Grenoble, Delft and Växjö and looks at what measures regarding RES and energy efficiency have been ...

2011-01-01

73

Electric power generation from renewable energy sources in Saxony  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report sums up the potentials for electric energy generation from different renewable energy sources in Saxony. Natural potentials, technical potentials and economic potentials are considered separately. The established technical potential (without biomass) corresponds roughly to an electic power generation of 7400 GW hours annually. About 2/3 of this is wind energy, the rest is divided equally among hydro power and photo-voltaics. The harnessing of these potentials since 1990 is described in detail. Apart from hydro power, which has a long history as an energy source, wind energy, especially, is experiencing a very dynamic development. In 1997 still, wind power will outstrip hydro power as the most important renewable energy source in Saxony. But the further extension of these two energy sources meets increasingly with ecological objections or opposition. In 1996, about 1.3 per cent of the electric power consumed in Saxony came from renewable energy sources. It seems possible to increase this share to 5 per cent by the year 2000. (orig.)

1997-01-01

74

Autonomous hydrogen power plants with renewable energy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One studies the principles to design independent hydrogen power plants (IHPP) operating on renewable energy sources and the approaches to design a pilot IHP plant. One worded tasks of mathematical simulation and of calculations to substantiate the optimal configuration of the mentioned plants depending on the ambient conditions of operation and on peculiar features of a consumer

2006-03-01

75

Emergence of competitive sources of renewable energy in France  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Renewal energy sources have come in for renewed interest in France since 1995, firstly in the overseas departments and then more recently in metropolitan France itself. This renaissance follows a marked lack of interest between 1985 and 1995. This lack of interest is a result of the uncommon behaviour of France compared to other OECD COUNTRIES EXPLAINED BY THE SCALE OF THE French nuclear power program. Despite this difficult period for the French renewable energy source industry, the latter is able to face up to this new demand. The elements that explain this performance constitute the key theme of the present article. The strategy adopted bu the majority of key players and especially by the Ademe has involved promoting an export-centred industrial activity faced with the lack of investment support measures on a domestic level up until 1995. (authors)

76

Renewable Energy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Energy Committee of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has in a series of projects gathered information and knowledge on renewable energy from various sources, both within and outside the academic world. In this article, we synthesize and summarize some of the main points on renewable energy from the various Energy Committee projects and the Committee’s Energy 2050 symposium, regarding energy from water and wind, bioenergy, and solar energy. We further summarize the Energy Committee?...

Destouni, Georgia; Frank, Harry

2010-01-01

77

Breeder reactors: A renewable energy source  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Based on a cost analysis of uranium extracted from seawater, it is concluded that the world's energy requirements for the next 5 billion years can be met by breeder reactors with no price increase due to fuel costs

1983-01-01

78

Correlation between renew able energy source's energy output and load  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The common problem to all renew energy sources (RESs) is the mismatch between their energy output and load demand. In remote areas, the solution of this problem is in general employing a small diesel-generator or a storage battery. But, the storage battery is a major cost element of RESs and small diesel-generator is unreliable and costly. Therefore, a proposed technique has been introduced in this work to determine correlation between the energy output of wind energy systems (WES) and isolated loads. solar photovoltaic power system (PVS) and two of energy storage facilities are used here for this correlation. The proposed technique includes also two models for optimizing the generation and costs of WES accompanied with PVS, storage battery and water storage (reservoir) to accommodate an isolated load. The proposed technique is applied with the dynamic programming to coordinate the energy output of a WES with residential and pumping load in remote area of egypt. The results of this application reveal that minimization of both capacity of the storage battery and the whole power system cost are obtained. 4 figs

1996-06-03

79

On the economic and ecological assessment of renewable energy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper suggests introducing a quality rating for an assessment of different substitution strategies based on the criteria energy source, conversion technique, climate, and consumption pattern. Various reference quantities (costs, energy requirement for construction and during operation) are discussed. In an ecologically oriented economy the overall costs (installation, operating and recycling costs) turn out to be the most important reference quantity. It can be shown that thermal utilisation of solar and wind energy deserve the highest quality ratings of all renewable energy sources. (orig./HW)

1994-07-01

80

REGENSIM ??? MATLAB TOOLBOX FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES MODELING AND SIMULATION  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper deals with the implementation and development of a Matlab Simulink library named RegenSim designed for modeling, simulations and analysis of real hybrid solarwind- hydro electricity production systems connected to local energy distribution grids. Such hybrid power systems allow employing renewable and variable in time energy sources while providing a continuous electricity supply. Different types of simulation models and blocks such as permanent magnet wind and hydro generators, so...

Cristian Drago?? Dumitru; Adrian Gligor; Hora??iu Grif

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Energy Efficiency and Importance of Renewable Energy Sources in Latvia  

Science.gov (United States)

The main goal of Latvian energy policy is to ensure safe and environmentally friendly long-term energy supply at cost-effective prices, contributing to enhance competitiveness, and to ensure safe energy transit. The Latvian Parliament approved an Energy Efficiency Strategy in 2000. Its objective is to decrease energy consumption per unit of GDP by 25% by 2010. Awareness raising, implementation of standards and economic incentives for self financing are the main instruments to increase energy efficiency, mentioned in the strategy. Latvia, as many other European Union member states, is dependent on the import of primary energy resources. The Latvian Renewable Energy strategy is still under development. The only recent study on RES was developed in the framework of a PHARE program in year 2000: ``Renewable energy resource program'', where three main objectives for a future RES strategy were proposed: 1. To increase the use of wood waste and low value wood and forest residues. 2. To improve efficiency of combustion technologies and to replace outdated plants. 3. To increase the use of renewables in Combined Heat and Power plants (CHP). Through the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership, partners will develop a set of new shared activities, and coordinate and strengthen existing efforts in this area.

Skapare, I.; Kreslins, A.

2007-10-01

82

Sustainability of hydropower as source of renewable and clean energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hydroelectric energy has been in recent times placed as an important future source of renewable and clean energy. The advantage of hydropower as a renewable energy is that it produces negligible amounts of greenhouse gases, it stores large amounts of electricity at low cost and it can be adjusted to meet consumer demand. This noble vision however is becoming more challenging due to rapid urbanization development and increasing human activities surrounding the catchment area. Numerous studies have shown that there are several contributing factors that lead towards the loss of live storage in reservoir, namely geology, ground slopes, climate, drainage density and human activities. Sediment deposition in the reservoir particularly for hydroelectric purposes has several major concerns due to the reduced water storage volume which includes increase in the risk of flooding downstream which directly effects the safety of human population and properties, contributes to economic losses not only in revenue for power generation but also large capital and maintenance cost for reservoir restorations works. In the event of functional loss of capabilities of a hydropower reservoir as a result of sedimentation or siltation could lead to both economical and environmental impact. The objective of this paper is aimed present the importance of hydropower as a source of renewable and clean energy in the national energy mix and the increasing challenges of sustainability.

2013-06-17

83

Mechanism for supporting the use of renewable energy sources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Member states of EU put bigger stress to the using of RES. Ambitious goal of EU till 2010 was to achieve 12 % rate of RESon the whole energy consumption. Therefore there were created many institutional and financial tools and schemes for support of RESusing and they will be important part of the energy sources structure. One of the basic prirorites of energetic policy in Slovakiais increasing of the RES rate on the production of heat and electricity with goal to create adequate additional sources necessary forcovering of domestic demand. Presented contribution is orientated to the various mechanisms that are using for support of renewableenergy sources. That means state regulation in this area generally and basic types of state donation policy in the frame of EuropeanUnion and their consequences on the market with renewable energy sources.

Roland Weiss

2010-07-01

84

Barriers to Investment in Energy from Renewable Sources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper attempts to create an overview of the current situation in the Romanian energy sector, pointing out elements of energy demand, production, investment in the sector and not least the potential of renewable energy sources. As Romania has aligned itself with the European Commission's 20-20-20 program, an important step in achieving the set targets is represented by a significant amount of investments in the development of energy from renewable sources. But there are a number of challenges that investment projects may face, namely, barriers more or less deliberate, more difficult or easier to overcome or remove, some of them real market distortions and others coming from the comparison between green energy and classic sources of energy. So, the last part of the work is dedicated to these barriers. Dividing them into four categories administrative barriers, technical and technological barriers, market barriers and economic barriers allows a better distribution of the identified barriers. It is a comprehensive and equitable approach than their splitting into cost barriers and non-cost barriers, which would have meant a long list for the second category specified.

Corina PÎRLOGEA

2011-06-01

85

The share of renewable energy in the EU. Country Profiles. Overview of Renewable Energy Sources in the Enlarged European Union  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The promotion of renewable energy has an important role to play in addressing the growing dependence on energy imports in Europe and in tackling climate change. Since 1997, the Union has been working towards the ambitious target of a 12% share of renewable energy in gross inland consumption by 2010. In 1997, the share of renewable energy was 5.4%; by 2001 it had reached 6%. This Staff Working Document gives an overview of the different situations of renewable energy sources in the European Union. It includes part of the formal report that the Commission is required to make under Article 3 of Directive 2001/77/EC on electricity from renewable energy sources, and it completes the overall picture with information at a country level on the heat produced from renewable energies and biofuels in the transport sector. This Staff Working Document complements the Communication on 'The share of Renewable Energy sources in the EU'. Data is based on different sources. Firstly, on the reports from Member States on national progress in achieving the targets on electricity from renewable energy sources. Secondly, on a study launched by the Commission on the evolution of renewable energy sources. And thirdly, on a variety of sources like the European Barometer of renewable energies, data from the industry, etc. With the enlargement of the European Union, the new Member States are required to adopt the RES-E Directive (renewable energy sources for electricity) by 1 May 2004. In the accession treaty, national indicative targets are set and the overall renewable electricity target for the enlarged Union will therefore be 21% of gross electricity consumption by 2010. The Commission has the legal obligation to report on the degree of achievement of new Member States' targets by 2006. Although it is too early to assess RES-policy in the new Member States due to very recently adopted regulations, this document also includes national information on the States now joining the European Union. This Staff Working Document aims to give an overall picture of the situation and the potentials of renewable energy sources in the enlarged European Union.

2004-05-01

86

The impacts of renewable energy policies on renewable energy sources for electricity generating capacity  

Science.gov (United States)

Electricity generation from non-hydro renewable sources has increased rapidly in the last decade. For example, Renewable Energy Sources for Electricity (RES-E) generating capacity in the U.S. almost doubled for the last three year from 2009 to 2012. Multiple papers point out that RES-E policies implemented by state governments play a crucial role in increasing RES-E generation or capacity. This study examines the effects of state RES-E policies on state RES-E generating capacity, using a fixed effects model. The research employs panel data from the 50 states and the District of Columbia, for the period 1990 to 2011, and uses a two-stage approach to control endogeneity embedded in the policies adopted by state governments, and a Prais-Winsten estimator to fix any autocorrelation in the panel data. The analysis finds that Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) and Net-metering are significantly and positively associated with RES-E generating capacity, but neither Public Benefit Funds nor the Mandatory Green Power Option has a statistically significant relation to RES-E generating capacity. Results of the two-stage model are quite different from models which do not employ predicted policy variables. Analysis using non-predicted variables finds that RPS and Net-metering policy are statistically insignificant and negatively associated with RES-E generating capacity. On the other hand, Green Energy Purchasing policy is insignificant in the two-stage model, but significant in the model without predicted values.

Koo, Bryan Bonsuk

87

Investigation and usage of renewable energy sources. First conference proceedings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The conference was devoted to sustainable development promotion in Estonia. Modern lifestyle and outstanding technical achievements are strongly based on usage of fossil energy sources, especially oil products. Development demands an increasing amount of energy, but the supplies of non-renewable natural resources are limited. Moreover, their usage pollutes the environment and conveys vital oxygen out of the atmosphere. Due to supplies run out the production of fossil fuels will inevitably decrease already after 20 years. The same is likely to happen with Estonian oil shale resources, which is not only a fuel for electric power stations, but also an important staple of chemical industry. And after the rise of oil prices and its fall in market share, oil shale will have even greater value. To satisfy mankind's energy demand we have to take solar energy and processes started by solar (wind, flowing water, synthesis of plants biomass) more into use. The spread of their usage is determined by natural and social situation of the region, and economic expediency. Although rapid growth in using renewable energy sources has started, it will take decades to raise their share over half of total energy use. Estonia has chosen the path of sustainable development, which should guarantee development and healthy environment also in the farther future. There are great solar and wind energy resources plus good assumptions for producing biomass in Estonia. However, for efficient use of national natural resources we need more knowledge and skills, people with environment friendly attitude and extensive scientific, technical and applied investigations. In addition we have to advance sensible international cooperation as well as national industry of this field. The technical progress concerning renewable energy usage has a long way to go, which could apply also Estonians

1999-11-04

88

Consideration on a Low Power Solar Energy Renewable Source  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents the contribution of theauthors regarding the implementation of a low powersolar energy renewable source. To optimize theconversion efficiency of the solar irradiance intoelectrical energy an embedded system was designed. Theembedded system can accomplish the maximum powerpoint tracking by evaluation the output voltage andcurrent of the photovoltaic panels and calculate a propercommand for the DC-DC converter of the renewablesource. The key device in this system is a midrange 8 bitmicrocontroller that consists of acquisition, commandand control integrated hardware resources.

Andrei Marusca

2008-05-01

89

Modeling of an autonomous microgrid for renewable energy sources integration  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The frequency stability analysis in an autonomous microgrid (MG) with renewable energy sources (RES) is a continuously studied issue. This paper presents an original method for modeling an autonomous MG with a battery energy storage system (BESS) and a wind power plant (WPP), with the purpose of frequency stability analysis. A reduced order model is developed, considering only the dominant elements in the frequency control loop. The model's parameters are identified from experimental results, and the presented results are focused on frequency response for variable load and variable wind speed.

Serban, I.; Teodorescu, Remus

2009-01-01

90

Renewable energy sources for electricity generation in selected developed countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objectives of this report are to analyze the present status and to assess the future of selected renewable energy sources (RE) other than hydropower, i.e. wind, solar, biomass, tidal and geothermal, already in use or expected to be used for electricity generation. The report focuses on grid connected technologies leaving stand-alone power plants unconsidered. This report provides recent information on environmental impacts, costs and technical potentials related to the implementation of electricity technologies using these energy sources. The study is limited to six OECD countries, i.e. Australia, the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. The situation in other OECD countries is addressed where appropriate, but no comprehensive information is provided. Nevertheless, efforts are made to determine the technical potential of the renewable energy sources for ''Rest of OECD''. The time horizons in this report are 2010 and 2030. While detailed information is provided for the period until 2010, the technical potential for 2030 is discussed only qualitatively. Scenario analysis and the design of national energy and electric systems assuming different sets of objectives and boundary conditions are outside the scope of this study. Nevertheless, the information given in this report should provide input data for such a systems analysis. All the information given in this report is based on literature surveys. Any figure given is contingent on the fact that it has appeared in a paper or a publicly available technical report. 251 refs, figs and tabs

1992-01-01

91

Renewable energy source from pyrolysis of solid wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Malaysia is blessed with a significant renewable energy resource base such as solar energy and biomass. To continue with its industrial development, Malaysia must manages energy supply its c prudently in order to avoid becoming an energy importer supply. Most significantly renewable energy from biomass such as rice husks, wood wastes, oil palm wastes, rubber wastes and other agricultural wastes. Beside rice and timber. Malaysia produces a huge amount of palm oil and natural rubber. These generate a significant amount of solid wastes in the forms of oil palm shell and rubber. These wastes are producing pollution and emission problems in Malaysia which is causing an environmental issue. Besides energy is not recovered efficiently from these waste resources. From the elemental composition and thermogravimetric studies of the wastes, it appeared that the wastes could be used as an alternative value-added source of energy. For this purpose a fast pyrolysis of 300 mi-n lone, and 50 mm diameter stainless-steel reactor was designed and fabricated. The grounded, sieved and dried solid feed particles underwent pyrolysis reactor at moderate temperature and were converted into pyrolytic oil, solid char and cas. Oil and char were collected while the cas was flared. The oil was characterised by GC-MS technique. Detailed analysis of the oil showed that there was no concentration of biologically active polycyclic aromatic species in the oil. The fuel properties of the derived oils were also analysed and compared to diesel fuel. (Author)

1999-11-08

92

A Stochastic Calculus for Network Systems with Renewable Energy Sources  

CERN Multimedia

We consider the performance modeling and evaluation of network systems powered with renewable energy sources such as solar and wind energy. Such energy sources largely depend on environmental conditions, which are hard to predict accurately. As such, it may only make sense to require the network systems to support a soft quality of service (QoS) guarantee, i.e., to guarantee a service requirement with a certain high probability. In this paper, we intend to build a solid mathematical foundation to help better understand the stochastic energy constraint and the inherent correlation between QoS and the uncertain energy supply. We utilize a calculus approach to model the cumulative amount of charged energy and the cumulative amount of consumed energy. We derive upper and lower bounds on the remaining energy level based on a stochastic energy charging rate and a stochastic energy discharging rate. By building the bridge between energy consumption and task execution (i.e., service), we study the QoS guarantee under...

Wu, Kui; Marinakis, Dimitri

2011-01-01

93

Economic aspects and potentials of renewable energy sources in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

While there is a high theoretical potential for renewable energy sources in Germany, assessing theoretical potentials is more or less like playing with numbers; severe technical shortcomings and economic factors prevent then from being fully achieved. Unsuitable azimuth and slope of roofs, shading, absence of central hot water systems limit the application of collectors. The present storage technology is not suitable for a solar share higher than 50%. Individual space heating is not feasible under local climatic conditions. The broad application of biomass fuels fails because of limited resources. Feeding high amounts of fluctuating electricity generated by wind and photovoltaic systems into utility grids causes stability and storage problems. Insufficient training of installation personnel, lack of incentives for multi-family housing owners and high investment costs hinder the market penetration of renewable energy sources. Drastic cost reductions can only be expected from mass production. Therefore, appropriate policy measures - raised energy prices, as well as, subsidies or tax reliefs are necessary for market breakthrough

1992-01-01

94

ANALYSIS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES PONTENTIALS IN POMURJE AND THE VALLEY OF ŠALEŠKA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Considering the fact that there is the increasing trend in finding alternative energy sources, in my diploma paper I analyzed the potentials of renewable energy sources in Slovenia. The aim of the diploma paper was to collect accurate data and to analyze the potentials of renewable energy sources in Slovenia. In the diploma paper the existing projects and analyses of particular renewable energy sources for the separate regions are summarized and grouped as a whole. On the basis of collected d...

2012-01-01

95

Renewable sources of energy and technologies in Austria: present situation, goals and prospects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main goal of the energy policy of the Austrian government is, besides a more efficient use of energy, an increase of renewable sources of energy. The technical, economical and ecological aspects of renewable sources of energy and their technologies are analysed and the present situation of renewable sources of energy in Austria and its prospects are described. Of the renewable energy carriers the following resources are of importance in Austria: hydropower, firewood, biogenic energy carriers, including fuels, solar energy and ambient heat and geothermic energy. (author)

1994-08-01

96

Measures to remove impediments to better utilization. Renewable energy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The utilization of renewable energy sources meets with a number of obstacles created in particular by economic framework conditions, regulatory provisions, lengthy administrative procedures, insufficient information, and to some part also to the reluctance of bankers and utilities. This is why an action programme was put underway by the Forum fuer Zukunftsenergien, together with the Berlin-based DIW (German economic research institute) and the Stuttgart-based DLR (German aerospace research institute), financed from public funds of the Federal Ministry of Economics. Under this programme, almost 900 operators of systems for electricity generation from wind power, hydropower, biomass, ambient heat, solar thermal energy and by photovoltaic conversion have been interviewed. Based on the information obtained, the article reveals the existing impediments and proposed action for overcoming the obstacles. (orig.)

1997-10-01

97

Hybrid system of renewable energy sources with hydro accumulation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of renewable energy sources is being promoted in Russia's reformed electricity sector. However, energy storage is one of the primary issues that must be solved. Energy storage systems that are currently used are based on the retention of the end product, notably electricity. Primary energy storage is more economical and efficient because there are no energy losses for transformation and overflow. An example of this type of storage is the hydroelectric power station (HEPS) with reservoir. This paper addressed the issue of hydraulic energy storage of wind power based on HEPS and combining them into a hybrid system. Calculations revealed that the efficiency of hydraulic energy storage based on HEPS is one of the best among the other storage systems and can reach 90 per cent, including operation losses of 1-2 per cent. The use of hybrid HEPS and wind power stations (WPS) with hydraulic energy storage provides reliable and qualitative power supply for consumers at both individual and grid-connected systems. The integration of HEPS and WPS was shown to be effective for new projects. 3 refs., 11 figs.

Elistratov, V.V. [Saint-Petersburg Polytechnical Univ., Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation). Dept. of Renewable Energy Sources and Hydro Power Engineering

2008-07-01

98

Energy models for commercial energy prediction and substitution of renewable energy sources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, three models have been projected namely Modified Econometric Mathematical (MEM) model, Mathematical Programming Energy-Economy-Environment (MPEEE) model, and Optimal Renewable Energy Mathematical (OREM) model. The actual demand for coal, oil and electricity is predicted using the MEM model based on economic, technological and environmental factors. The results were used in the MPEEE model, which determines the optimum allocation of commercial energy sources based on environmental limitations. The gap between the actual energy demand from the MEM model and optimal energy use from the MPEEE model, has to be met by the renewable energy sources. The study develops an OREM model that would facilitate effective utilization of renewable energy sources in India, based on cost, efficiency, social acceptance, reliability, potential and demand. The economic variations in solar energy systems and inclusion of environmental constraint are also analyzed with OREM model. The OREM model will help policy makers in the formulation and implementation of strategies concerning renewable energy sources in India for the next two decades.

Iniyan, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India)]. E-mail: iniyan777@hotmail.com; Suganthi, L. [School of Management, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India); Samuel, Anand A. [Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore 632 014 (India)

2006-11-15

99

Energy models for commercial energy prediction and substitution of renewable energy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, three models have been projected namely Modified Econometric Mathematical (MEM) model, Mathematical Programming Energy-Economy-Environment (MPEEE) model, and Optimal Renewable Energy Mathematical (OREM) model. The actual demand for coal, oil and electricity is predicted using the MEM model based on economic, technological and environmental factors. The results were used in the MPEEE model, which determines the optimum allocation of commercial energy sources based on environmental limitations. The gap between the actual energy demand from the MEM model and optimal energy use from the MPEEE model, has to be met by the renewable energy sources. The study develops an OREM model that would facilitate effective utilization of renewable energy sources in India, based on cost, efficiency, social acceptance, reliability, potential and demand. The economic variations in solar energy systems and inclusion of environmental constraint are also analyzed with OREM model. The OREM model will help policy makers in the formulation and implementation of strategies concerning renewable energy sources in India for the next two decades

2006-11-01

100

Current state and utilization of nontraditional and renewable energy sources in Poland  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of the paper is to analyse and assess the use of renewable energy sources in the Polish energy balance for the period 2006-2010. In Poland, in according to the Energy Law (1997), renewable energy sources are sources using the processing power: wind energy, solar radiation, geothermal energy, waves power, energy of currents and tides, energy of river gradient, biogas and biomass. Biomass could be divided into forest biomass, agricultural biomass (mainly energy crops, but also consumer ...

Szyman?ska, Daniela; Chodkowska-miszczuk, Justyna

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Hybrid Design of Electric Power Generation Systems Including Renewable Sources of Energy  

Science.gov (United States)

With the stricter environmental regulations and diminishing fossil-fuel reserves, there is now higher emphasis on exploiting various renewable sources of energy. These alternative sources of energy are usually environmentally friendly and emit no pollutants. However, the capital investments for those renewable sources of energy are normally high,…

Wang, Lingfeng; Singh, Chanan

2008-01-01

102

Capitalization of renewable energy sources: Romanian case studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the major challenges of the recent integration of Romania in the European Union is the extension of use, at national scale, of Renewable Energy Sources (RES). Targeting private operators and municipalities, authors have as objective to deliver an investigation on the interesting 'Acquis' in financing and implementing RES projects in Romania. Using as method of investigation the accurate screening of their experience as well as the extended international experience in the field, authors have reviewed in the present paper different possibilities in RES investment financing, frequent obstacles and barriers, and ways for overcoming them. Recent results are motivating authors to consider the national experience of an encouraging success and to act towards the capitalization of such investments replication potential to a national and regional scale. (authors)

2007-11-22

103

Issues in new and renewable sources of energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The energy sector is crucial to development and has to be planned carefully and in a comprehensive manner in order to diversify energy resources and reduce dependence on woodfuel and imported oil. Energy Policy and development programmes must therefore put emphasis on NRSE development and utilization. The policy should also emphasize the need to increase the use of other indigenous non-renewable energy sources as coal and natural gas. Woodfuel issues should be given a higher priority by policy makers and planners. Increased supplies through investment in forestry, agro-forestry and other biomass resources by the Government, NGOs and private sector should be encouraged. The on-going Government and NGO efforts to promote woodfuels conservation and utilization should be expanded and disseminated country-wide through provision of extra resources. Additional efforts should be made to develop and improve data and analysis skills. NRSE and environmental education should be incorporated into all levels of education. Energy conversion and utilization efficiency should also be given more emphasis in training. Institutions related with NRSE development issues should be strengthened. Government should recognize and assist NGOs, private and informal micro-enterprises involved in NRSE technologies development. The assistance should be in the form of appropriate policies, allowing them to have better access to bank loans, technologies, materials, equipments and other facilities.

Sawe, E.N. (Ministry of Water, Energy and Minerals, Dar es Salaam (TZ))

1991-01-01

104

Waste-to-energy: A way from renewable energy sources to sustainable development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nowadays, energy is key consideration in discussions of sustainable development. So, sustainable development requires a sustainable supply of clean and affordable renewable energy sources that do not cause negative societal impacts. Energy sources such as solar radiation, the winds, waves and tides are generally considered renewable and, therefore, sustainable over the relatively long term. Wastes and biomass fuels are usually viewed as sustainable energy sources. Wastes are convertible to useful energy forms like hydrogen (biohydrogen), biogas, bioalcohol, etc., through waste-to-energy technologies. In this article, possible future energy utilization patterns and related environmental impacts, potential solutions to current environmental problems and renewable energy technologies and their relation to sustainable development are discussed with great emphasis on waste-to-energy routes (WTERs). (author)

Kothari, Richa [Babasaheb BhimRao Ambedkar University, Lucknow, U.P. (India); Tyagi, V.V.; Pathak, Ashish [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, 110016 (India)

2010-12-15

105

MODELING AND SIMULATION OF RENEWABLE HYBRID ENERGY SOURCES USING MATLAB/SIMULINK ENVIRONMENT  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The using on a large scale of renewable energies brought a series of new problems in power energy generation and distribution systems. This represents one of the main reasons for study the impact of renewable energy sources on power systems. The paper proposes an effective study on the impact of renewable energy sources on power systems by using simulation models and the results obtained from these models. In the present paper are conceived Matlab/Simulink simulation models by considering mat...

Cristian-Dragos Dumitru; Adrian Gligor; Adrian-Vasile Duka

2009-01-01

106

Renewable and nuclear sources of energy decreases of share of fossil fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper author presents a statistical data use of nuclear energy, renewable sources and fossil fuels in the share of energy production in the Slovak Republic. It is stated that use of nuclear energy and renewable sources decreases of share of fossil fuels.

2009-10-01

107

Renewable and nuclear sources of energy reduce the share of fossil fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper author presents a statistical data use of nuclear energy, renewable sources and fossil fuels in the share of energy production in the Slovak Republic. It is stated that use of nuclear energy and renewable sources reduce the share of fossil fuels.

2009-10-01

108

Rural population and renewable energy sources: Experiences of the Republic of Serbia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

During the last decade of the twentieth century the use of green (renewable) energy has become the imperative not only in developed countries worldwide, but also in poorer countries like Asia and Africa. The change from traditional to renewable energy sources carries valuable improvements in environmental protection and economic efficacy. This paper through individual examples, explores the possibility of replacing traditional with renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, geothermal, ene...

Pucar Mila; Nenkovi? Marina

2006-01-01

109

The portfolio of renewable energy sources for achieving the three E policy goals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Renewable energy is considered by many policy-makers to contribute to achieving at least three major policy goals: the energy goal, the environmental goal, and the economic goal (3E goals). As an innovation-oriented island country with scarce natural resources, Taiwan announced the Sustainable Energy Policy Principles in 2008 that stated that Taiwan's renewable energy policy should accomplish the 3E goals. Several studies point out that specific renewable energy policy goals lead to specific renewable energy sources and technologies because each type of renewable energy has different features. In order to achieve the renewable energy policy goals, this research aims to examine how different policy goals lead to corresponding renewable energy sources. The relative importance of each goal is evaluated by using analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The weight of each policy goal is adjusted separately to construct policy scenarios by the sensitivity analysis. According to the results, non-pumped storage hydropower, wind energy, and solar energy are three sources that could meet the three policy goals at the same time. -- Highlights: ?This study aims to propose a portfolio of renewable energy sources to achieve energy, environmental, and economic policy goals for Taiwan. ?Non-pumped storage hydropower performs best to achieve energy and environmental goals. ?Wind energy performs well to accomplish environmental goal. ?Solar energy is the most preferred alternative to achieve economic goal. ?The portfolio of non-pumped storage hydropower, wind energy, and solar energy can accomplish the three E policy goals at the same time.

2011-05-01

110

Evaluating the energy utilization efficiency of Turkey's renewable energy sources during 2001  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study evaluates the energy utilization efficiency of Turkey's renewable energy sources (RESs) during 2001 by using energy and exergy analyses, giving a brief outlook on the utilization of RESs. Total energy and exergy inputs are calculated to be 3203.22 PJ and 3139.07 PJ, while renewable energy and exergy production values are determined to be 428.62 PJ and 395.68 PJ, respectively. Renewable energy is used in the Turkish conversion, residential-commercial and industrial subsectors. The energy and exergy efficiency values for the RESs of Turkey are found to be 49.86% and 24.14% in 2001, respectively. Besides this, total energy and exergy utilization efficiency values for those are obtained to be 45.02% and 24.96% in the same year, respectively. The present study has clearly indicated the necessity of the planned studies towards increasing renewable energy utilization efficiency in the subsectors studied and especially the critical role of policymakers in establishing effective energy-efficiency delivery mechanisms throughout the country. It is also expected that this study will fill a considerably large gap since it is the first attempt towards analysing Turkey's renewable energy sources in terms of energy and exergy utilization efficiencies. (author)

Hepbasli, A. [Ege University, Izmir (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering; Utlu, Z. [NCO Vocational College, Balikesir (Turkey). Turkish Land Forces

2004-06-01

111

Renewable energy sources: resistance to change; Energies renouvelables: les resistances au changement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper is the summary of a conference day organised by the students of the 'environment and sustainable development law' Master of Nantes university (France). This interdisciplinary meeting brought together professionals of renewable energy industries who could testify about the resistance of both politicians and the public opinion against the energy transition towards renewable sources. Legal, political, sociological and cultural considerations are put forward to explain this resistance. The French specificity, with an over-representation of nuclear energy, a constraining legal framework for renewable energies, a regional opposition to renewable energy projects (NIMBY syndrome), and a lack of trust in the political class and in its representatives are as many factors that have contributed to build this French 'cultural exception'. (J.S.)

Dubreuil, Th.; Audrain-Demey, G.; Attal, J.Ph.; Lormeteau, B. [Nantes Univ., Droit de l' Environnement et du Developpement Durable, 44 (France)

2011-10-15

112

Renewable energy sources. European Commission papers; Energies renouvelables. Documents de la Commission Europeenne  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ''Directive on the Promotion of Electricity from Renewable Sources of Energy in the Internal Electricity Market'' was adopted in September 2001. Its purpose is to promote an increase in the contribution of renewable energy sources to electricity production in the internal market for electricity and to create a basis for a future Community framework. Energie-Cites provides in this document a summary of its opinion on the Green Paper and on Alterner II and gives a proposal for an Action Plan concerning the White Paper. (A.L.B.)

NONE

1997-05-01

113

Learning About Renewable Energy  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is the nation's primary laboratory for renewable energy and energy efficiency research and development and their mission is focused on advancing the U.S. Department of Energy's energy goals. As part of their mission, NREL provides educational and informational tools on their website and it is a great source of information on renewable energy basics. Topics available here include: using renewable energy, energy delivery and storage basics, advanced vehicles, fuels basics, and student resources.

2010-03-31

114

Renewable sources of energy in Africa: status of development and future contribution to the energy mix  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Renewable sources of energy in Africa are widely regarded as alternatives to fossil fuels. Being an abundant indigenous reserve, they offer considerable savings of foreign exchange. Also, they are usually regarded as environmentally friendly and thus do not contribute significantly to the greenhouse effect. However, present contributions of renewable energy to the African energy supply remain negligible despite substantial claims often made about the potential scope for renewable energy forms. This paper is based on a comprehensive study undertaken by the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa in 1993-94. The assessment of renewable energy contributions to the energy mix has been made based on data obtained from African countries. A formula reflecting new and renewable sources of energy (NRSE) utilisation was developed and an attempt was made to delineate some zones with identical patterns of utilisation. Some of the difficulties encountered in the dissemination of NRSE and incentives introduced by African countries are also discussed. The conclusion is that African countries acknowledge the role of NRSE technologies in the development of future world energy systems. Yet the probability of NRSE assuming a greater share in energy supplies within the next two decades in Africa is doubtful. (author) 3 tabs., 1 fig., 7 refs

1995-08-01

115

Social support of renewable energy sources : [elektronikus dokumentum] : an often neglected aspect  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

From the terms of large scale spread of utilization of renewable energy sources present paper focuses on the examination of social background. Judgement of society on renewable energies can help, or hinder realization of renewable energy projects. The Survey of social attitude in the chosen study area was carried out using questionnaires, in a way that provided representative sampling. It can be stated on the base of the results that knowledge of the society on rene...

Tóth Tamás (1982-) (klimatológus); Tar Károly (1947-) (klimatológus)

2008-01-01

116

Wind of change in renewable energy policy; Alternative energy sources no. 21  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An unexpectedly large number of renewable energy projects have benefitted under a scheme to subsidise electricity generation from non-fossil fuel sources, although uncertainties about planning decisions and waste disposal contracts may mean that some never reach fruition. Meanwhile, the Government is raising expectations that its current target for renewables capacity will be increased significantly after an official review is completed early next year. (author).

Anon.

1991-11-01

117

Superconducting magnetic energy storage in power systems with renewable energy sources  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The increasing focus on large scale integration of new renewable energy sources like wind power and wave power introduces the need for energy storage. Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) is a promising alternative for active power compensation. Having high efficiency, very fast response time and high power capability it is ideal for levelling fast fluctuations. This thesis investigates the feasibility of a current source converter as a power conditioning system for SMES applicatio...

Nielsen, Knut Erik

2010-01-01

118

Superconducting magnetic energy storage in power systems with renewable energy sources  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The increasing focus on large scale integration of new renewable energy sources like wind power and wave power introduces the need for energy storage. Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) is a promising alternative for active power compensation. Having high efficiency, very fast response time and high power capability it is ideal for levelling fast fluctuations. This thesis investigates the feasibility of a current source converter as a power conditioning system for SMES appl...

Nielsen, Knut Erik

2010-01-01

119

Renewable energy source use in Brazil; Utilizacao de energia renovavel no Brasil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article evaluates the programs (PROINFA and CCC) developed by the State to deploy a policy of using renewable energy sources in Brazil, highlighting the biodiesel, which should be inserted in its energy matrix.

Newman, Joseph; Rosa, Fabio, e-mails: jnewman@winrock.org.br, e-mail: fabrosa@terra.com.br

2003-08-15

120

Fuel Cells for Balancing Fluctuation Renewable Energy Sources  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In the perspective of using fuel cells for integration of fluctuating renewable energy the SOFCs are the most promising. These cells have the advantage of significantly higher electricity efficiency than competing technologies and fuel flexibility. Fuel cells in general also have the advantage of fast regulation abilities combined with excellent part-load efficiencies. Additionally scaling the cells from W to kW to MW is possible and does not influence the efficiencies of the cells. The feasibility of the scaling however depends on the market at hand and the fuel cells characteristics. Wind integration can also be preformed with other types of fuel cells than the SOFCs such as PEMFC in micro-CHP. These however have the disadvantage that the efficiency is lower and require pure hydrogen. PEMFCs have advantages for mobile applications replacing internal combustion engines and batteries were feasible. For mobile applications the PEMFCs have the advantages that they can compete with internal combustion engineswith fast start-up, fast regulation abilities and better efficiencies. In comparison with batteries fuel cells have the advantage that they have higher energy densities and can be refilled instantly, however the storage problems have yet to be solved. As storage and energy carriers methanol and ethanol are the most promising in regards to mass and volume. These can be used directly in SOFCs but have to be reformed for use in PEMFC. New technologies that can provide energy system flexibility, such as SOFCs, heat pumps and heat storage technologies are more important than storing electricity as hydrogen via electrolysis in energy systems with high amounts of wind [12]. Unnecessary energy conversions should be avoided. However in future energy systems with wind providing more than 50% of the electricity and with the best measures for improving flexibility have already been taken, making fuels via electrolysis is one of the alternatives to integrate more renewable energy. Creating the road map to a 100% renewable energy systems require difficult choices between balancing fluctuating renewable with hydrogen production or electric cars, and on the other hand using biomass and bio fuels [11]. Fuel cells can have an important role in these future energy systems.

Mathiesen, Brian Vad

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Implications on the non-fossil fuel obligation for suppliers of electricity from renewable energy sources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This series of Bulletins provides information and advice to generators of electricity from renewable energy sources in relation to the provisions of the Non-fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO) under the Electricity Act 1989. Non-fossil fuel sources include nuclear and renewables.

1990-05-01

122

The Optimal Use of Renewable Energy Sources-The Case of Lemnos Island  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The efficient use of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) is one of the major issues in the modern energy sector. The objective of this work was to examine the potential of wind energy, solar energy (e.g. photovoltaics), biomass energy sources to meet the current energy use in the island of Lemnos in Greece. An optimisation methodology was applied to the energy system of the island, where various Renewable Energy Sources are abundant and could be exploited to satisfy part of the island's energy needs. An optimization model has been developed having as an objective the satisfaction of Lemnos Island energy needs from Renewable Energy Sources taking into consideration a multiplicity of criteria such as environmental impacts, energy demand, energy cost, and resources availability. A series of solutions have resulted, based on deterministic model runs, providing decision makers the flexibility to choose the appropriate solution based on the given situation.

Koroneos, C.; Xydis, George

2012-01-01

123

Renewable energy sources in the French national plan for improved energy efficiency  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The PNAEE (Programme National d'Amelioration de L'Efficacite Energetique) is the French National Plan for Improved Energy Efficiency. The French authorities have established four main tools within the framework of the PNAEE: ADEME's renewable energy programmes; the renewable electricity purchase obligation which places an obligation on Electricite De France (EDF) and local non-nationalised power distributors to purchase electricity generated from renewable energy sources, waste incineration and combined heat and power, as long as the generating capacity of each source is below 12 MW; The French electricity sector's IPP which requires the minister in charge of energy policy to publish a forecast, every other year, of the country's requirements for electricity generating capacity - the IPP; and tax incentives. PNAEE's achievements and expectations by the end of 2001 are summarised. (UK)

Bal, Jean-Louis [French Environmental Agency for Environment and Energy Management (ADEME) (France)

2003-06-01

124

Renewable Energy: Capstone  

Science.gov (United States)

This is the culminating activity in the series of lessons on renewable energy. It serves to reinforce the idea that renewable sources of energy are necessary for a sustainable fuure, and to discuss some of the present impacts and potential drawbacks to renewable energy. In the activity, sudents will use online resources to research their present energy consumption and investigate whether it could economically be replaced by renewable sources.

Pratte, John

125

Innovative utilization of renewable energy sources to combat climate change  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Global warming has become a difficult challenge for both legislators and technologists. The need to reduce atmospheric CO{sub 2} has resulted in several new global and local agreements (the Kyoto protocol, Bali agreement etc., EU-emission trading directive) all driving tightening environmental legislation. /1/ Foster Wheeler as a global supplier of power equipment, has taken the challenge to respond to these environmental, social and political challenges. Products such as state-of-the-art boilers and gasifiers for heat and electricity generation from biomass are offered and further developed. Generally, biomass is considered to be a clean renewable energy source. Emissions are lower when firing biomass instead of fossil fuel, and the amount of SO{sub 2} released to the atmosphere is minimal due to the low sulfur content of the fuel. Life-cycle CO{sub 2} emissions are zero. /2/ Even though biomass can locally have a fairly large contribution in energy production, it will not be a global solution alone to mitigate the climate problem. Biomass currently accounts for about 10 % of world primary energy use, two thirds of which is used for small scale cooking and heating in developing countries. Biomass production is subject to a range of sustainability constraints, such deforestation etc. Coal will remain an important source for energy also in the future. Therefore it is important to develop clean coal solutions. The first, already existing solutions is to burn coal in high efficiency large Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boilers and cofire biomass. This way the biomass can be burned with much better efficiency than in small biomass fired plants. The co-firing of biomass in CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage) power plant will even enable a carbon negative solution for coal firing. The future solution will be CCS. A possible future solution to combat global warming and ensure sustainable power production can be large power plants fuelled by algae combined with CCS. Algae grows faster than any other plant, and as it grows it consumes CO{sub 2}. When the algae is combusted in a power plant with CCS. the CO{sub 2}consumed from the atmosphere will end up stored underground. /8/ Foster Wheeler developes its CFB technology (Flexi-Burn TM) for oxyfuel combustion for CCS. The Flexi-Burn technology will enable also biomass cofiring for carbon negative power production. The effort in developing the new, more advanced technologies to quickly reduce atmospheric CO{sub 2} is huge and cannot be managed by the equipment suppliers and power companies alone. It will require political and financial support from EU and local governments. Research and development work in universities, research institutes and companies as well the demonstrations of the technologies in large, industrial scale must increase and need additional public funding in order to research the set targets to reduce CO{sub 2} production. (orig.)

Harju-Jeantly, T.; Nuortio, K.; Hotta, A.; Coda-Zabetta, E.; Palonen, J.; Kokki, S. (Foster Wheeler Energia Oy, Varkaus (Finland)), Email: kalle.nuortimo@fwfin.com, Email: arto.hotta@fwfin.com, Email: juha.palonen@fwfin.com, Email: sami.kokki@fwfin.com

2009-07-01

126

Legislative and policy in energy efficient designing and renewable energy sources: Application in Serbia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper analyses political and legislative frames in the field of energy efficient building and renewable energy sources in planning and implementation in Serbia. „Development strategy until 2015.“ is reviewed in concise portrait. This strategy maps a way for the application of energy services of much higher quality than ones offered at a present day. It reviews relevant laws concerning the subject, as well as institutions, programs and their implementation. Basic principles of energy ...

Pucar Mila; Nenkovi?-Rizni? Marina

2007-01-01

127

National Renewable Energy Laboratory: Learning About Renewable Energy  

Science.gov (United States)

This site describes National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) research into renewable energy technologies and provides information on energy efficiency and various applications of renewable energy. Topics include the major categories of renewable energy (biomass, geothermal, solar, and wind); how renewable energy technologies can be used by consumers and providers; and how renewable energy can be stored and delivered. There is also information on advanced transportation technologies and links to a variety of educational resources for students about renewable energy sources and technologies.

128

An assessment of exploiting renewable energy sources with concerns of policy and technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent years, the Taiwanese government has vigorously promoted the development of renewable energy to engage the challenges of gradual depletion of fossil fuels and oil, as well as the intensification of the greenhouse effect. Since the Sustainable Energy Policy Principles were announced in 2008, Taiwanese government has declared that the development of renewable energy should take into account goals that pertain to energy, the environment, and the economy (3E goals). This study aims to assess the 3E goals and renewable energy sources regulated by the Renewable Energy Development Bill that passed in 2009. The fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) is used to resolve the multi-goal problem for achieving our research purposes. That is, this research attempts to reveal the suitable renewable energy sources for the purposes of meeting the 3E policy goals. The results first show that environmental goal is the most important to the development of various renewable energy technologies in Taiwan, followed by the economic and energy goals. Additionally, hydropower, solar energy, and wind energy would be the renewable energy sources utilized in meeting the 3E policy goals.

2010-08-01

129

Environmental impacts evaluation associated to renewable sources of energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As time goes by, the need for electricity increases and creates several problems to mankind. Health and environmental problems happens wherever a power plant arises. For many people the best option for these problems is to invest in energy alternative sources, such as solar and wind. But unfortunately this sources also generates some environmental and health damages. The objective of this work is to analyze the impacts of these energy sources, to review their utilization all over the world and to discuss its relevance in the global energy market. To make a comparative evaluation, the nuclear option will also be analyzed. (author)

2009-10-02

130

Green Minefield. Renewable sources of energy have both advantages and disadvantages  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Despite being more expensive, renewable energy sources have profound advantages - they are more environment-friendly and help decrease Europe's dependence on foreign energy producers. As a result, the European Union set a target to cover 20% of its energy demand with renewable sources by 2020. Slovakia's target is 14% with the current proportion being barely 7%. Half of this green energy comes from conventional water power plants. The other half is covered by biomass. Other than that, Slovakia is housing some new facilities producing bio fuels from corn and rapeseed. Other energy sources are more expensive. So far, geothermal springs have been used mostly for recreation. Solar and wind energy have hardly shown any development. Some investments have been announced in biogas heating and electricity production. Renewable energy sources are typically subsidized as early as the construction phase. Up to half of the investment costs can be covered by taxpayers' money. Other incentives include tax exemption or guaranteed higher purchase prices. In this area, last year's change in legislation, guaranteeing energy prices for renewable for the next fifteen years, has been crucial. The disadvantage is that higher prices for renewable energy have to be paid by the consumers. In addition, solar and wind energies are highly volatile - depending on weather conditions. This jeopardizes the stability of the national electricity grid and, if left unregulated, could lead to blackouts. Slovakia registers applications for up to 3,500 MW worth of new renewable energy sources. (authors)

2010-03-04

131

Comparison study between a Renewable Energy Supply System and a supergrid for achieving 100% from renewable energy sources in Islands  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Numerous efforts have been done for achieving the maximum penetration of renewable energy sources (RESs) in the autonomous grids of Greek islands, which never exceeded 10%, despite the exceptional wind and solar potential. Large fluctuations on demand during summer, winter, and 24-h period in combination with the technical restrictions of diesel generators of the existing conventional power stations are a major concern of power supply system. Reversing the roles of diesel generators and wind farms (WFs), to use WF as the basic energy source and diesel generators as stand-by system changed in fact the whole philosophy of energy supply systems in islands and created perspectives for the fundamental reformation of the conventional energy supply systems in autonomous grids. In fact, methods of contemporary interim medium term energy storage are investigated for hybrid systems in order to adjust the stochastic behavior of wind energy to the demand, to provide the system with guaranteed power. This Windâ??Hydro Plants in combination with the most adequate RES forming an Renewable Energy Supply System (RESS), increase further the economical penetration of RES into autonomous grids up to 90% or even 100% and simultaneously reduce drastically the fuel costs. Furthermore, a supergrid is examined and compared with RESS as another efficient way for achieving higher penetration of RES.

Xydis, George

2013-01-01

132

Energy Planning in Selected European Regions - Methods for Evaluating the Potential of Renewable Energy Sources  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Given their potentially positive impact on climate protection and the preservation of fossil resources, alternative energy sources have become increasingly important for the energy supply over the past years. However, the questions arises what economic and ecological impacts and potential conflicts over land use resources are associated with the promotion of renewable energy production. Using the examples of three selected European Regions in Poland, France and German, the dissertation discus...

2013-01-01

133

An extension of compromise ranking method with interval numbers for the evaluation of renewable energy sources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Evaluating and prioritizing appropriate renewable energy sources is inevitably a complex decision process. Various information and conflicting attributes should be taken into account. For this purpose, multi-attribute decision making (MADM methods can assist managers or decision makers in formulating renewable energy sources priorities by considering important objective and attributes. In this paper, a new extension of compromise ranking method with interval numbers is presented for the prioritization of renewable energy sources that is based on the performance similarity of alternatives to ideal solutions. To demonstrate the applicability of the proposed decision method, an application example is provided and the computational results are analyzed. Results illustrate that the presented method is viable in solving the evaluation and prioritization problem of renewable energy sources.

M. Mousavi

2014-06-01

134

Algorithm of constructing methods of application of renewable sources of energy at recreational objects ???????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ????????????? ????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article develops an algorithm of assessment of potential of use of renewable sources of energy with the aim to cover needs of recreational objects. The article reveals scientific principles of transformation of the power system and recreational economy of the Crimea on the basis of a wider application of the renewable sources of energy, including the solar one, in the result of which the situation in the region will change: ecological situation will improve, power independence of recreational objects will increase, and probability of man-caused catastrophes will reduce. The article considers results of practical introduction of scientific developments in the sphere of application of renewable sources of energy at recreational objects and offers a logical scheme of the algorithm of construction of methods of application of renewable sources of energy at recreational objects, which include four main stages. Each of the stages and items of the algorithm requires further detalisation and methodical development.????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ??????????????? ????????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ????? ???????? ???? ????????????? ????????. ? ?????? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????? ? ?????????????? ????????? ????? ?? ???? ????? ???????? ????????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ???????, ? ??? ????? ? ?????????, ? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ? ???????: ????????? ????????????? ????????, ????????? ??????????????????? ????????????? ????????, ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????. ?? ?????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ? ????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ????????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ????????????? ????????, ?????????? ? ???? ?????? ???????? ?????. ?????? ?? ?????? ? ??????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ??????????.

Bashta Alexander I.

2013-02-01

135

Renewable energy consents  

…increase in renewable energy will be a key part of the solution, which is why we strongly support the objectives of the EU Renewable Energy Directive (RED) which has recently been adopted. That requires the UK to achieve 15% of energy use from renewable sources by 2020, a dramatic increase from current…

136

Renewable energy sources in European energy supply and interactions with emission trading  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a model-based approach, which allows to determine the optimised structure and operation of the EU-15 electricity supply under different political and economic framework conditions, with a focus on the integration of renewable energy sources for electricity generation (RES-E) in the EU-15 countries. The approach is designed to take into account the characteristics of power production from both renewable and conventional sources, including the technological and economic characteristics of existing plants as well as those of future capacity expansion options. Beyond that, fuel supply structures are modelled, as well as the international markets for power and CO2-certificates with their restrictions. Thus, a profound evaluation of the exploitation of mid-term renewable potentials and an assessment of the market penetration of the various renewable power generation technologies under the (normative) premise of a cost-optimised evolution of the power system becomes possible. Results show that a promotion of renewable energies reduces the scarcity of CO2-emission allowances and thus lowers marginal costs of CO2 reduction up to 30% in 2030. Despite the higher overall costs, a diversification of the energy resource base by RES-E use is observed, as primarily natural gas and nuclear fuels are replaced.

2010-06-01

137

The integration of renewable energy sources into electric power transmission systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Renewable energy technologies such as photovoltaics, solar thermal power plants, and wind turbines are nonconventional, environmentally attractive sources of energy that can be considered for electric power generation. Many of the areas with abundant renewable energy resources (very sunny or windy areas) are far removed from major load centers. Although electrical power can be transmitted over long distances of many hundreds of miles through high-voltage transmission lines, power transmission systems often operate near their limits with little excess capacity for new generation sources. This study assesses the available capacity of transmission systems in designated abundant renewable energy resource regions and identifies the requirements for high-capacity plant integration in selected cases. In general, about 50 MW of power from renewable sources can be integrated into existing transmission systems to supply local loads without transmission upgrades beyond the construction of a substation to connect to the grid. Except in the Southwest, significant investment to strengthen transmission systems will be required to support the development of high-capacity renewable sources of 1000 MW or greater in areas remote from major load centers. Cost estimates for new transmission facilities to integrate and dispatch some of these high-capacity renewable sources ranged from several million dollars to approximately one billion dollars, with the latter figure an increase in total investment of 35%, assuming that the renewable source is the only user of the transmission facility.

Barnes, P.R.; Dykas, W.P.; Kirby, B.J.; Purucker, S.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Lawler, J.S. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

1995-07-01

138

Algorithm of constructing methods of application of renewable sources of energy at recreational objects ???????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ????????????? ????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article develops an algorithm of assessment of potential of use of renewable sources of energy with the aim to cover needs of recreational objects. The article reveals scientific principles of transformation of the power system and recreational economy of the Crimea on the basis of a wider application of the renewable sources of energy, including the solar one, in the result of which the situation in the region will change: ecological situation will improve, power independence of recreati...

Bashta Alexander I.

2013-01-01

139

The investments in renewable energy sources: do low carbon economies better invest in green technologies?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study is to analyse the driving of investment in renewable energy sources in low carbon and high carbon economies. To address these issues, a dynamic panel analysis of the renewable investment in a sample of 29 countries was proposed.

2011-01-01

140

Potential applications for energy from renewable sources in the railway sector; Anwendungsmoeglichkeiten erneuerbarer Energiequellen im Bahnsektor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Making use of energy from renewable sources has strategic and security-policy relevance. Since DB AG is a major energy consumer, the use of energy from renewable sources in railway operations will make economic sense in the long run. The railways depend on a very high security of energy supply nationwide. Efficient energy management can help enhance the security of supply to the railways. In addition, there are large potential energy savings to be made in railway operations. Major efforts are required to reach this objective. Using energy from renewable sources and increasing energy efficiency are two indispensable prerequisites for a sustainable energy supply to the railways as well as for increasing their attractiveness. (orig.)

Goldenberg, Philipp; Goldenberg, Vladimir; Reppich, Marcus [Hochschule Augsburg (Germany)

2012-07-01

 
 
 
 
141

Expected Rates of Renewable Energy Sources in Meeting of Energy Demands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Taking the expected growth of the world’s population and the estimated technological development and increase in living standards into account, the paper forecasts energy demands. On the basis of the actual production data of 380-400 EJ.year-1 in 2000 and data in publications, the author assumes the total energy demand to be 750-800 EJ.year-1 for 2030, 600-1,000 EJ.year-1 for 2050 and 900-3,600 EJ.year-1 for 2100. The author analyses the appearance of the different energy types in the history of mankind giving the specific heat content and heating value of the different fuels. The environmental advantages, disadvantages, technical and economic limits of application involved in the use of primary renewable energy sources are also dealt with. The analysis of the data in the different prognoses in publications gives the result that fossil fuels will meet 84-85 % of the total energy demand until 2030 in the foreseeable future. In 2050, the fossil rate may be 50-70 % and the rate of renewables may amount to 20-40 %. In 2100, the maximum fossil rate may be 40-50 % with a 30-60 % maximum rate of renewables. On the basis of the results of investigation, the general conclusion may be that the realistically exploitable amount of renewable energy sources is not so unlimitedly high as many suppose. Therefore, it is an illusion to expect that the replacement or substitution of mineral fuels and nuclear energy can be solved relying solely on renewable energies.

Ferenc Kovács

2007-12-01

142

On the physics of power, energy and economics of renewable electric energy sources - Part II  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Renewable Energy Technologies (RETs) are often recognized as less competitive than traditional electric energy conversion systems. Obstacles with renewable electric energy conversion systems are often referred to the intermittency of the energy sources and the relatively high maintenance cost. However, due to an intensified discourse on climate change and its effects, it has from a societal point of view, become more desirable to adopt and install CO{sub 2} neutral power plants. Even if this has increased the competitiveness of RETs in a political sense, the new goals for RET installations must also be met with economical viability. We propose that the direction of technical development, as well as the chosen technology in new installations, should not primarily be determined by policies, but by the basic physical properties of the energy source and the associated potential for inexpensive energy production. This potential is the basic entity that drives the payback of the investment of a specific RET power plant. With regard to this, we argue that the total electric energy conversion system must be considered if effective power production is to be achieved, with focus on the possible number of full loading hours and the Degree of Utilization. This will increase the cost efficiency and economical competitiveness of RET investments, and could enhance faster diffusion of new innovations and installations without over-optimistic subsidies. This paper elaborates on the overall problem of the economy of renewable electric energy conversion systems by studying the interface between physics, engineering and economy reported for RET power plants in different scientific publications. The core objective is to show the practical use of the Degree of Utilization and how the concept is crucial for the design and economical optimization disregarding subsidies. The results clearly indicate that the future political regulative frameworks should consider the choice of renewable energy source since this strongly affects the economical output from the RET power plants. (author)

Skoglund, Annika [Dep. of Industrial Economics, Royal Institute of Technology, Lindstedts vaeg 30, 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Leijon, Mats; Waters, Rafael [Div. of Electricity, Swedish Centre for Renewable Electric Energy Conversion, Uppsala University, Aangstroem 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Rehn, Alf [Dep. of Business Administration, Aabo Akademi University, Henriksgatan 7FIN-20500 Aabo (Finland); Lindahl, Marcus [Div. of Industrial Management, Uppsala University, Aangstroem 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)

2010-08-15

143

Electricity generation: regulatory mechanisms to incentive renewable alternative energy sources in Brazil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The dissemination of renewable alternative energy sources for electricity generation has always being done through regulatory mechanisms, created and managed by the government of each country. Since these sources are more costly to generate, they have received incentives in response to worldwide environmental concerns, above all with regard to the reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions. In Brazil, the electricity generation from renewable alternative sources are experiencing a new phase of growth. Until a short time ago, environmental appeal was the strongest incentive to these sources in Brazil but it was insufficient to attain its objective. With the electricity crisis and the rationing imposed in 2001, another important factor gained awareness: the need to diversify energy sources. Within this context, this work has the objective of analyzing the regulatory mechanisms recently developed to stimulate electricity generation from renewable alternative energy sources in Brazil by following the experience of other countries such as the United States, United Kingdom and Germany. (author)

Cavaliero, C.K.N.; Peres da Silva, E. [NIPE/UNICAMP, Campinas (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico

2005-09-01

144

Electricity generation: regulatory mechanisms to incentive renewable alternative energy sources in Brazil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dissemination of renewable alternative energy sources for electricity generation has always being done through regulatory mechanisms, created and managed by the government of each country. Since these sources are more costly to generate, they have received incentives in response to worldwide environmental concerns, above all with regard to the reduction of CO2 emissions. In Brazil, the electricity generation from renewable alternative sources is experiencing a new phase of growth. Until a short time ago, environmental appeal was the strongest incentive to these sources in Brazil but it was insufficient to attain its objective. With the electricity crisis and the rationing imposed in 2001, another important factor gained awareness: the need to diversify energy sources. Within this context, this work has the objective of analyzing the regulatory mechanisms recently developed to stimulate electricity generation from renewable alternative energy sources in Brazil by following the experience of other countries such as the United States, United Kingdom and Germany

2005-09-01

145

Global warming and renewable energy sources for sustainable development in Turkey  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Turkey, with its young population and growing energy demand per person, its fast growing urbanization, and its economic development, has been one of the fast growing power markets of the world for the last two decades. It is expected that the demand for electric energy in Turkey will be 300 billion kWh by the year 2010 and 580 billion kWh by the year 2020. Turkey is heavily dependent on expensive imported energy resources that place a big burden on the economy and air pollution is becoming a great environmental concern in the country. In this regard, renewable energy resources appear to be the one of the most efficient and effective solutions for clean and sustainable energy development in Turkey. Turkey's geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of most of these renewable energy sources. This article presents a review of the potential and utilization of the renewable energy sources in Turkey. (author)

Yueksel, Ibrahim [Technical Education Faculty, Department of Construction, Sakarya University, 54187 Sakarya (Turkey)

2008-04-15

146

Impact of renewable energy sources on greenhouse gas emissions in comparison to conventional energies - Simplified examples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper discusses definition problem of the full energy chain greenhouse gas (FENCH-GHG) emission analysis. The importance of good definition of the problem is essential: for what purpose this analysis is done, what shall be included and what can be excluded from the analysis. This is done by giving simplified examples of FENCH-GHG emission analysis. The example is use of small solar heating systems in an oil heated single family house in Finland and another renewable energy source: liquid biofuel combustion. The paper gives rough data for those options. Paper concludes with this example, to recommendations how definition of FENCH-GHG analysis should be done for intermittent renewable energies. (author)

1996-10-21

147

Education and training on renewable energy sources; Education et formation sur les energies renouvelables  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At present, there has been no formal university program developed to train people in the field of renewable energy sources. Wind turbines, photovoltaic and thermo solar energy are three fields that offer employment opportunities for engineers and technicians. Technicians are required to install and maintain equipment. Architects and engineers in fields such as photo-chemistry, thermodynamics, fluid mechanics and power electronics need access to training. Training centres should be located in close proximity to research facilities to enhance the practical aspects. UNESCO has developed a program that requires the participation of regional school boards through the General Renewable Energies Education Training (GREET) program in order to educate scientists and the general public including elected officials. 1 tab., 2 figs.

Benchikh, O.

2000-03-01

148

Experimental investigation of jojoba as a renewable energy source  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work examined jojoba (oil and cake) as possible alternative fuel sources. Jojoba is a shrub that grows very well in deserts and its cake is the solid part produced upon processing of the jojoba seeds for oil extraction. In this study, pure jojoba oil and 50/50 blends with diesel fuel were tested as fuels in a single cylinder diesel engine. The diesel fuel was the baseline of comparison throughout the runs. The cake was tested for both direct combustion (pellets) and as a substrate for biogas production. The pellets were formed by compacting the cake in cylindrical dies using a hydraulic press while the biogasification was conducted in an anaerobic digester model Bioflo 110 from Brunswick. The findings indicate that the optimum injection pressure for jojoba oil in the engine is 210 bars at which engine speed was maximum (2700 rpm), NOx and CO emissions as well as exhaust temperature were minimum. Using jojoba cake for biogasification resulted in a yield of about 600 ml biogas per 400 g of jojoba cake. Burning jojoba compacted cake (pellets) for direct combustion in a stove indicated that jojoba cake sustained a temperature in excess of 300 deg. C for a reasonable amount of time and that the cake was very competitive to wood and has energy content more than most types of wood. Overall, it may be stated that both jojoba oil and cake hold real promise as alternative energy sources.

2010-08-01

149

Energy research and energy technologies. Renewable energy sources -rational use of energy. Report of the year 1993  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At first introductory explanations of the main focus of the programme and an overview of the supported projects are given. The main part contains the project descriptions of the main focuses of support: Renewable energy sources and rational use of energy are described. Several registers have been prepared in order to access the extensive material: Register of project numbers; register of joint projects; register of companies. Finally the organisational plan of the project carrier Biology, Energy, Ecology (BC BEE) is explained. (UA)

1994-01-01

150

Citizens’ preferences on nuclear and renewable energy sources: Evidence from Turkey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Based on data from a face-to-face survey of 2422 residents from urban Turkey, this paper presents an analysis of citizens’ preferences in Turkey on nuclear and renewable energy sources. Findings indicate that opposition to nuclear power was strong, and only a small number of respondents endorsed it by listing it in their top two choices. Conversely, almost two-thirds of the sample endorsed investment in renewable energy sources (such as wind and solar), and only a small minority was opposed to it. Econometric analyses revealed that knowledge of the climate change problem was a common factor that explained endorsement of both nuclear and renewables. Yet, high levels of concern for the environment and a negative perception regarding its future differentiated the endorsers of renewables from those of nuclear energy. Endorsers of nuclear energy were found to be males who were knowledgeable about climate change and engaged in environmental issues, but less concerned about the environment, and optimistic about its future. Nuclear opponents, on the other hand, were found to be concerned about the environment, pessimistic about its future, and not fully relying on technology. - Highlights: ? We explore determinants of citizens’ preferences for renewable and nuclear energy. ? The analysis is based on a survey conducted in urban Turkey with 2422 respondents. ? Knowledge of climate change is a common factor of renewable and nuclear endorsement. ? Divergences relate to environmental concern and optimism, and reliance on technology. ? Energy conflicts emerge as complex and related to environmental values and attitudes.

2012-08-01

151

Renewable energy annual 1995  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Renewable Energy Annual 1995 is the first in an expected series of annual reports the Energy Information Administration (EIA) intends to publish to provide a comprehensive assessment of renewable energy. This report presents the following information on the history, status, and prospects of renewable energy data: estimates of renewable resources; characterizations of renewable energy technologies; descriptions of industry infrastructures for individual technologies; evaluations of current market status; and assessments of near-term prospects for market growth. An international section is included, as well as two feature articles that discuss issues of importance for renewable energy as a whole. The report also contains a number of technical appendices and a glossary. The renewable energy sources included are biomass (wood), municipal solid waste, biomass-derived liquid fuels, geothermal, wind, and solar and photovoltaic.

NONE

1995-12-01

152

The Investments in Renewable Energy Sources: Do Low Carbon Economies Better Invest in Green Technologies?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyse the driving of investment in renewable energy sources in low carbon and high carbon economies. To address these issues, a dynamic panel analysis of the renewable investment in a sample of 29 countries was proposed. Results demonstrate that the dynamic of investments in renewable sources is similar in the two panels, and depends by nuclear power generation, GDP and technological efficiency. Results show that countries try to reduce their environmental footprint, decreasing the CO2 intensity. Based on the estimation results, we think that energy sustainability passes through the use of renewable resources that can complement the nuclear technology on condition that both exceed their limits.

Antonio Angelo Romano

2011-01-01

153

Renewable Energy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This chapter presents an in-depth examination of major renewable energy technologies, including their installed capacity and energy supply in 2009 , the current state of market and technology development, their economic and financial feasibility in 2009 and in the near future,

2012-01-01

154

Power quality enhancement of renewable energy source power network using SMES system  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper deals with power quality enhancement of renewable energy source power network using SMES system and describes the operation characteristics of HTS SMES system using real-toroidal-type SMES coil for smoothening the fluctuation of large-scale renewable energy source such as photovoltaic (PV) power generation system. It generates maximum power of PV array under various weather conditions. SMES unit charges and discharges the HTS coil to mitigate the fluctuation of PV system output power. The SMES unit is controlled according to the PV array output and the utility power quality conditions. The grid connected PV and SMES system has been modeled and simulated using power-hard-in-the-loop simulation (PHILS). The PHILS results demonstrated the effectiveness of the SMES system for enhancing power quality in power network including large-scale renewable energy source, especially PV power generation system.

Seo, H. R.; Kim, A. R.; Park, M.; Yu, I. K.

2011-11-01

155

From the world of renewable sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper the perspectives use renewable energy sources in the world are discussed. By the year 2040 the renewable energy sources should cover nearly 50 % of global energy requirement. The highest contribution of all renewable sources will be able to be done biomass - as far as 58 %

2004-09-01

156

Actual economical and ecological problems by the use of renewable energy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A short overview is given of economic efficiency of the use of wind power, solar thermal service water heating, photovoltaic current generation and reproductive energy raw materials as well as effects on the environment by the use of renewable energy sources. (DG)

1993-01-01

157

Renewable energy sources. Systems engineering, economic efficiency, environmental aspects. 2. ed.  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The physical fundamentals and basic systems- engineering aspects of the main renewable-energy techniques applied in Germany are presented. The characteristics of renewable energy supplies are discussed. Solar thermal and geothermal techniques, and techniques for the generation of electrical energy from solar radiation (photovoltaics) are described. Parameters for an ecological and economic evaluation and for evaluation of the relevant energy management factors are discussed considering the present state and future development. Comparisons of the different techniques among each other and comparisons with techniques that utilize fossil energy sources allow one to evaluate the present and future chances and risks of renewable energy supplies in Germany considering the respective conventional techniques and the present situation of energy management. (orig./UA)

1997-01-01

158

Renewable Energy Trust  

Science.gov (United States)

The Renewable Energy Trust, which was created by the Massachusetts Legislature in 1998, is administered by the Massachusetts Technology Collaborative, a statewide quasi-public economic development agency. The Collaborative "seeks to maximize environmental and economic benefits for the CommonwealthâÂÂs citizens by pioneering and promoting clean energy technologies and fostering the emergence of sustainable markets for electricity generated from renewable sources." The website provides information on the Trust's various programs and activities. The Energy Information section of the website provides more information about renewable energy and suggestions for what energy users can do as well as resources for teaching students about renewable energy and global warming.

159

Are renewable energy sources the environmentally friendly problem solution? Pt. 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The possibilities and limits of renewable energy sources for energy supply in Germany continue to be a central topic in discussions about energy economy. Against this background the different uses of renewable energy sources are compared with each other, taking regional variations of supply into account. The publication deals with the following energy sources: solar thermal and geothermal low-temperature energy generation, photovoltaic power generation, wind and hydro-electric power generation, harnessing of organic wastes or by-products of farming and forestry (inter alia, straw, wood), as well as other organic wastes and fuel crops yielding solid or liquid fuels. For these options the potentials and costs are analyzed and discussed within the energy-economic boundary conditions of the Federal Republic of Germany. (orig.)

1994-12-08

160

Renewable Energy News  

Science.gov (United States)

Renewable Energy News is a comprehensive source which provides world-wide updates on all aspects of renewable energies. The site provides links to organizations and web directories of related products and information. The site is organized in a user-friendly way with issues organized by topic or region. Science, technology, economy energy, and nuclear review are highlighted areas of news.

2007-09-17

 
 
 
 
161

UN conference on new and renewable sources of energy (UNERG). [Review of important papers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A number of important conference documents are critically reviewed, including the ten new and renewable energy sources that were featured, a number of expert group reports, selected national reports - as well as the outcome of the conference. The review is considered an attempt to bring the environmental effects of new and renewables into focus under the theme, ''energy: the alternatives for development''. Subjects covered included biomass energy, fuelwood and charcoal, peat animal power, solar energy, wind power, geothermal energy, ocean thermal energy conversion, tidal and wave power, hydroelectric power, oil shales and tar sands, come environmental effects of different energy sources, rural energy, technology transfer, energy financing, and national reports from France, Israel, China, Peru, and Algeria.

Anon

1981-01-01

162

Summary for Policy Makers: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report Renewable Energy Sources (SRREN)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Working Group III Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation (SRREN) presents an assessment of the literature on the scientific, technological, environmental, economic and social aspects of the contribution of six renewable energy (RE) sources to the mitigation of climate change. It is intended to provide policy relevant information to governments, intergovernmental processes and other interested parties. This Summary for Policymakers provides an overview of the SRREN, summarizing the essential findings. The SRREN consists of 11 chapters. Chapter 1 sets the context for RE and climate change; Chapters 2 through 7 provide information on six RE technologies, and Chapters 8 through 11 address integrative issues.

Arvizu, Dan; Bruckner, Thomas; Christensen, John; Devernay, Jean-Michel; Faaij , Andre; Fischedick, Manfred; Goldstein, Barry; Hansen, Gerrit; Huckerby , John; Jager-Waldau, Arnulf; Kadner, Susanne; Kammen, Daniel; Krey, Volker; Kumar, Arun; Lewis , Anthony; Lucon, Oswaldo; Matschoss, Patrick; Maurice, Lourdes; Mitchell , Catherine; Moomaw, William; Moreira, Jose; Nadai, Alain; Nilsson, Lars J.; Nyboer, John; Rahman, Atiq; Sathaye, Jayant; Sawin, Janet; Schaeffer, Roberto; Schei, Tormod; Schlomer, Steffen; Sims, Ralph; von Stechow, Christoph; Verbruggen, Aviel; Urama, Kevin; Wiser, Ryan; Yamba, Francis; Zwickel, Timm

2011-05-08

163

Realities and prospects of employing renewable energy sources for electric power production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The rationale and economic aspects of electric power generation from renewable energy sources are discussed. The market of this type of energy in the United States is analyzed. The present situation of solar photovoltaic energy utilization is overviewed, and some of existing solar power plants in the USA are presented, and their economic viability assessed. Finally, prospects for energy conservation technologies are outlined. (R.P.)

1999-01-01

164

Fuel-efficiency of hydrogen and heat storage technologies for integration of fluctuating renewable energy sources  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper presents the methodology and results of analysing the use of different energy storage technologies in the task of integration of fluctuating renewable energy sources (RES) into the electricity supply. The analysis is done on the complete electricity system including renewable energy sources as well as power plants and CHP (Combined heat and power production). Emphasis is put on the need for ancillary services. Devices to store electricity as well as devices to store heat can be used to help the integration of fluctuating sources. Electricity storage tech- nologies can be used to relocate electricity production directly from the sources, while heat storage devices can be used to relo- cate the electricity production from CHP plants and hereby im- prove the ability to integrate RES. The analyses are done by ad- vanced computer modelling and the results are given as diagrams showing the system ability to integrate RES inputs between 0 and 100 percent of the electricity demand.

Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik

2005-01-01

165

Renewable energy consents  

…the EU Renewable Energy Directive (RED) which has recently been adopted. That requires the UK to achieve 15% of energy use from renewable sources by 2020, a dramatic increase from current levels in a relatively limited amount of time, which  reinforces the need for urgent action. It is imperative that…

166

Revisiting the Merit-Order Effect of Renewable Energy Sources  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An on-going debate in the energy economics and power market community has raised the question if energy-only power markets are increasingly failing due to growing in-feed shares from subsidized RES. The short answer to this is: no, they are not failing. Energy-based power markets are, however, facing several market distortions, namely from the gap between the electricity volume traded at spot markets versus the overall electricity consumption as well as the (wrong) regulat...

Hildmann, Marcus; Ulbig, Andreas; Andersson, Go?ran

2013-01-01

167

Stabilization of microgrid with intermittent renewable energy sources by SMES with optimal coil size  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A controller design of a superconducting magnetic energy storage unit is proposed. The structure of a power controller is the practical proportional-integral (PI). The PI parameters and coil size are tuned by a particle swarm optimization. The proposed method is able to effectively alleviate power fluctuations. It is well known that the superconducting coil is the vital part of a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) unit. This paper deals with the power controller design of a SMES unit with an optimal coil size for stabilization of an isolated microgrid. The study microgrid consists of renewable energy sources with intermittent power outputs i.e., wind and photovoltaic. Since power generations from such renewable sources are unpredictable and variable, these result in power fluctuations in a microgrid. To stabilize power fluctuations, a SMES unit with a fast control of active and reactive power can be applied. The structure of a power controller is the practical proportional-integral (PI). Based on the minimization of the variance of power fluctuations from renewable sources as well as the initial stored energy of SMES, the optimal PI parameters and coil size are automatically and simultaneously tuned by a particle swarm optimization. Simulation studies show that the proposed SMES controller with an optimal coil size is able to effectively alleviate power fluctuations under various power patterns from intermittent renewable sources.

2011-11-01

168

Power quality enhancement of renewable energy source power network using SMES system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Power quality enhancement of a renewable energy source power network is performed by a real-toroidal-type SMES coil. SMES unit charges and discharges the HTS coil to mitigate the fluctuation of PV system output power. The grid connected PV and SMES system has been modeled and simulated using power-hard-in-the-loop simulation. The PHILS results demonstrated the effectiveness of the SMES system for enhancing power quality. This paper deals with power quality enhancement of renewable energy source power network using SMES system and describes the operation characteristics of HTS SMES system using real-toroidal-type SMES coil for smoothening the fluctuation of large-scale renewable energy source such as photovoltaic (PV) power generation system. It generates maximum power of PV array under various weather conditions. SMES unit charges and discharges the HTS coil to mitigate the fluctuation of PV system output power. The SMES unit is controlled according to the PV array output and the utility power quality conditions. The grid connected PV and SMES system has been modeled and simulated using power-hard-in-the-loop simulation (PHILS). The PHILS results demonstrated the effectiveness of the SMES system for enhancing power quality in power network including large-scale renewable energy source, especially PV power generation system.

2011-11-01

169

Potential of hydrogen from oil palm biomass as a source of renewable energy worldwide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Various catastrophes related to extreme weather events such as floods, hurricanes, droughts and heat waves occurring on the Earth in the recent times are definitely a clear warning sign from nature questioning our ability to protect the environment and ultimately the Earth itself. Progressive release of greenhouse gases (GHG) such as CO2 and CH4 from development of various energy-intensive industries has ultimately caused human civilization to pay its debt. Realizing the urgency of reducing emissions and yet simultaneously catering to needs of industries, researches and scientists conclude that renewable energy is the perfect candidate to fulfill both parties requirement. Renewable energy provides an effective option for the provision of energy services from the technical point of view. In this context, biomass appears as one important renewable source of energy. Biomass has been a major source of energy in the world until before industrialization when fossil fuels become dominant and researches have proven from time to time its viability for large-scale production. Although there has been some successful industrial-scale production of renewable energy from biomass, generally this industry still faces a lot of challenges including the availability of economically viable technology, sophisticated and sustainable natural resources management, and proper market strategies under competitive energy markets. Amidst these challenges, the development and implementation of suitable policies by the local policy-makers is still the single and most important factor that can determine a successful utilization of renewable energy in a particular country. Ultimately, the race to the end line must begin with the proof of biomass ability to sustain in a long run as a sustainable and reliable source of renewable energy. Thus, the aim of this paper is to present the potential availability of oil palm biomass that can be converted to hydrogen (leading candidate positioned as the energy of the millennium) through gasification reaction in supercritical water, as a source of renewable energy to policy-makers. Oil palm topped the ranking as number 1 fruit crops in terms of production for the year 2007 with 36.90 million tonnes produced or 35.90% of the total edible oil in the world. Its potentiality is further enhanced by the fact that oil constitutes only about 10% of the palm production, while the rest 90% is biomass. With a world oil palm biomass production annually of about 184.6 million tons, the maximum theoretical yield of hydrogen potentially produced by oil palm biomass via this method is 2.16 x 1010 kg H2 year-1 with an energy content of 2.59 EJ year-1, meeting almost 50% of the current worldwide hydrogen demand. (author)

2007-11-01

170

Potential of hydrogen from oil palm biomass as a source of renewable energy worldwide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Various catastrophes related to extreme weather events such as floods, hurricanes, droughts and heat waves occurring on the Earth in the recent times are definitely a clear warning sign from nature questioning our ability to protect the environment and ultimately the Earth itself. Progressive release of greenhouse gases (GHG) such as CO2 and CH4 from development of various energy-intensive industries has ultimately caused human civilization to pay its debt. Realizing the urgency of reducing emissions and yet simultaneously catering to needs of industries, researches and scientists conclude that renewable energy is the perfect candidate to fulfill both parties requirement. Renewable energy provides an effective option for the provision of energy services from the technical point of view. In this context, biomass appears as one important renewable source of energy. Biomass has been a major source of energy in the world until before industrialization when fossil fuels become dominant and researches have proven from time to time its viability for large-scale production. Although there has been some successful industrial-scale production of renewable energy from biomass, generally this industry still faces a lot of challenges including the availability of economically viable technology, sophisticated and sustainable natural resources management, and proper market strategies under competitive energy markets. Amidst these challenges, the development and implementation of suitable policies by the local policy-makers is still the single and most important factor that can determine a successful utilization of renewable energy in a particular country. Ultimately, the race to the end line must begin with the proof of biomass ability to sustain in a long run as a sustainable and reliable source of renewable energy. Thus, the aim of this paper is to present the potential availability of oil palm biomass that can be converted to hydrogen (leading candidate positioned as the energy of the millennium) through gasification reaction in supercritical water, as a source of renewable energy to policy-makers. Oil palm topped the ranking as number 1 fruit crops in terms of production for the year 2007 with 36.90 million tonnes produced or 35.90% of the total edible oil in the world. Its potentiality is further enhanced by the fact that oil constitutes only about 10% of the palm production, while the rest 90% is biomass. With a world oil palm biomass production annually of about 184.6 million tons, the maximum theoretical yield of hydrogen potentially produced by oil palm biomass via this method is 2.16x1010 kg H2 year-1 with an energy content of 2.59 EJ year-1, meeting almost 50% of the current worldwide hydrogen demand

2007-11-01

171

Potential of hydrogen from oil palm biomass as a source of renewable energy worldwide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Various catastrophes related to extreme weather events such as floods, hurricanes, droughts and heat waves occurring on earth in the recent times are definitely a clear warning sign from nature questioning our ability to protect the environment and ultimately earth itself. Progressive release of greenhouse gases (GHG) such as CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} from development of various energy intensive industries has ultimately cause earth to pay its debt. Realizing the urgency of reducing the emissions and yet simultaneously catering to needs of industries, researches and scientist conclude that renewable energy is the perfect candidate to fulfill both parties requirement. Renewable energy is capable of providing an effective option for the provision of energy services from the technical point of view. One of the best sources of renewable energy identified is from biomass. Biomass has been a major source of energy in the world since the beginning of civilization and researches have proven from time to time its viability for large scale production. However, till now, the laboratory scale outcome has not been successfully translated into real industries realization. It is found that renewable energy faces a lot of challenges including the availability of economical viable technology, sophisticated and sustainable natural resources management and proper market strategies under competitive energy markets. Amidst these challenges, the development and implementation of suitable policies by the local policy-makers is still the single and most important factor that can determine a successful utilization of renewable energy in a particular country. Ultimately, the race to the end line must begin with the proof of biomass ability to sustain in a long run as a continuous and reliable source of renewable energy. Thus, the aim of this paper is to present the potential availability of oil palm biomass that can be converted to hydrogen (leading candidate positioned as the energy of the millennium) through gasification reaction in supercritical water, as a source of renewable energy to policy makers. Oil palm topped the ranking as number 1 fruit crops in terms of production for the past 20 decades worldwide and is a potential candidate as 90% of the overall constituent of oil palm tree is biomass. With a world oil palm biomass production annually of about 184 6 million tons, the maximum theoretical yield of hydrogen potentially produced by oil palm biomass via this method is 2.16 x1010 kg H2 year-1 with energy content of 2.59 EJ year-1, meeting almost 50% of the current worldwide hydrogen demand. (orig.)

Kelly Yong, Tau Len; Lee, Keat Teong; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman; Bhatia, Subhash (School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia))

2007-07-01

172

Analysis of PMMT Operation for Renewable (PV/FC Energy Source  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Utilization and construction of renewable energy sources require complexity of whole system. It is considered touse a set of devices that are necessary for energy conversion, accumulation, preparation and its distribution into electrical power supply network. The way of realization should be to use the system of power converters containing DC/DC converter that is used for mentioned activities (conversion, accumulation, preparation, distribution of energy.

Michal Frivaldsky

2008-01-01

173

Analysis of PMMT Operation for Renewable (PV/FC) Energy Source  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Utilization and construction of renewable energy sources require complexity of whole system. It is considered touse a set of devices that are necessary for energy conversion, accumulation, preparation and its distribution into electrical power supply network. The way of realization should be to use the system of power converters containing DC/DC converter that is used for mentioned activities (conversion, accumulation, preparation, distribution of energy).

2008-01-01

174

Promoting electricity from renewable energy sources -- lessons learned from the EU, U.S. and Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The promotion of electricity generated from Renewable Energy Sources (RES) has recently gained high priority in the energy policy strategies of many countries in response to concerns about global climate change, energy security and other reasons. This chapter compares and contrasts the experience of a number of countries in Europe, states in the US as well as Japan in promoting RES, identifying what appear to be the most successful policy measures. Clearly, a wide range of policy instruments have been tried and are in place in different parts of the world to promote renewable energy technologies. The design and performance of these schemes varies from place to place, requiring further research to determine their effectiveness in delivering the desired results. The main conclusions that can be drawn from the present analysis are: (1) Generally speaking, promotional schemes that are properly designed within a stable framework and offer long-term investment continuity produce better results. Credibility and continuity reduce risks thus leading to lower profit requirements by investors. (2) Despite their significant growth in absolute terms in a number of key markets, the near-term prognosis for renewables is one of modest success if measured in terms of the percentage of the total energy provided by renewables on a world-wide basis. This is a significant challenge, suggesting that renewables have to grow at an even faster pace if we expect them to contribute on a significant scale to the world's energy mix.

Haas, Reinhard; Meyer, Niels I.; Held, Anne; Finon, Dominique; Lorenzoni, Arturo; Wiser, Ryan; Nishio, Ken-ichiro

2007-06-01

175

Renewable energy sources role in the energy sources diversification process in Slovak Republic focused on east Slovakia region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Actually frequently discussed question is the problem of the human energy demand supply. Especially discussed is a problem of alternative energy devices integration into the existing fuel and energy supply system. For good interpretation of information's it is necessary to know specification of energy demand condition in particular branches of industry and energy sector. The subject of this article is to show variability, causality and complex character of the energetics as industry part, which directly determine human society progress tempo and direction. The accent was given to the problem of definition of basic requirement of electro-energetics, heat supply industry for communal and municipal applications and transport in narrow relation with environmental and social aspect. Renewable energy sources application is a one of the pillars of strategy for sustainable development. (authors)

2008-01-01

176

Utilization of Energy Capacitor Systems in Power Distribution Networks with Renewable Energy Sources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The impact of power fluctuation caused by renewable sources is highly negative. This article discusses the idea of an energy capacitor system (ECS which regulates the power balance in a distribution system based on Multi-Agent System (MAS. Energy Capacitor system as a storage device plays the main role to control the system’s power quality by absorbing the fluctuations. Load Following Operation (LFO process and coordination control scheme between the ECS and diesel generator have been introduced. Results show the efficient utilization of the ECS based on a special index defined in this paper to evaluate the power fluctuations in the distribution system. The results also show the useful implementation of the control scheme by revealing the capability of keeping the ECS stored energy in the specified range.

Yaser Soliman Qudaih

2010-05-01

177

Generation of Electricity by Renewable Energy Sources & Transmission of Energy Production Units using PLC & SCADA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ABSTRACTAutomationmeans Delegation of human controlto machine. A PLC (Programmable LogicController is a device that was invented toreplace the necessary sequential relay circuits formachine control. A SCADA (Supervisory Control& Data Acquisition System is used to control theprocess where person cannot go or stay for longerperiod. The aim of tis paper is to provideinformation about hoelectricity can be generatedfrom Renewable sources & how its transmissiondone usin automation system. Renewable Energyconsists of energy generated from natural andunlimited sources, which include wind, solar,biomass and hydroelectricity. Programmable logiccontrollers (PLC can be used for control &automation in Distribution of Energy. The mainreason for this is cost effectiveness. Variousfunctions and controls can be achieved byprogramming the PLC. They can be used for fullplant automation including governing of autooperationincludes speed control, load control,excitation control, and level control automaticstart/stop sequencing, gate control, start/stop ofauxiliary systems, and protection requirement etc.Functions other than control like continuousmonitoring, data recording, instrumentation andprotections can also be performed. For remoteoperation, communication with PLC can beperformed. For continuous monitoring purpose, apersonal computer can be interfaced with PLCand continuous data can be recorded regularly.In this paper I used different methods forgeneration of electricity like wind, PV(photovoltaic, hydro, biogas & distributed usingPLC & controlling using SCADA.

Rahul N Deshmukh ,P.H. Zope ,S.R. Suralkar

2012-12-01

178

Stabilization of microgrid with intermittent renewable energy sources by SMES with optimal coil size  

Science.gov (United States)

It is well known that the superconducting coil is the vital part of a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) unit. This paper deals with the power controller design of a SMES unit with an optimal coil size for stabilization of an isolated microgrid. The study microgrid consists of renewable energy sources with intermittent power outputs i.e., wind and photovoltaic. Since power generations from such renewable sources are unpredictable and variable, these result in power fluctuations in a microgrid. To stabilize power fluctuations, a SMES unit with a fast control of active and reactive power can be applied. The structure of a power controller is the practical proportional-integral (PI). Based on the minimization of the variance of power fluctuations from renewable sources as well as the initial stored energy of SMES, the optimal PI parameters and coil size are automatically and simultaneously tuned by a particle swarm optimization. Simulation studies show that the proposed SMES controller with an optimal coil size is able to effectively alleviate power fluctuations under various power patterns from intermittent renewable sources.

Saejia, M.; Ngamroo, I.

2011-11-01

179

Electricity from renewable energy sources in the United Kingdom. Current status and prospects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the prospect of the introduction of the Renewables Obligation and given the increasing level of interest of both customers and electricity suppliers in green energy offers, in one concise document the current status and the prospects of the market for electricity from renewable energy sources in the United Kingdom (UK) is explored. After an overview of the electricity market balance, the report investigates in turn the possibilities and incentives for entering the UK production and retail green energy business. The Renewable Obligation Certificates and the status of the regulation concerning imports and trades of certificates are also tackled. This report aims to provide foreign investors and/or new entrants on the challenging UK market for green power with the information they need.

NONE

2001-12-01

180

Sources of evaluation of nuclear and renewable energy contained in the local press  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Examined the sources of evaluative coverage concerning nuclear power and renewable alternatives contained in local UK daily press coverage. 10 categories of source were defined for their relevance to the nuclear debate and energy issues. Out of these, only pronuclear industries and national government produced more positive than negative appraisals of nuclear power. However, detractors of nuclear power were more varied, the most prolific category being the general public. Alternative technolo...

1987-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Wind Power: A Renewable Energy Source for Mars Transit Vehicle  

Science.gov (United States)

The Martian environment presents significant design challenges for the development of power generation systems. Nuclear-based systems may not be available due to political and safety concerns. The output of photovoltaics are limited by a solar intensity of 580 W/sqm as compared to 1353 W/sqm on Earth. The presence of dust particles in the Mars atmosphere will further reduce the photovoltaic output. Also, energy storage for a 12-hour night period must be provided. In this challenging environment, wind power generation capabilities may provide a viable option as a Martian power generation system. This paper provides an analysis of the feasibility of such a system.

Flynn, Michael; Kohout, Lisa; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

1998-01-01

182

Tennessee plant species screened for renewable energy sources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The USDA Northern Regional Research Center (NRRC) has previously studied chemical and botanical characteristics of about 1000 plant species in efforts to identify potential new plant sources for industrial raw materials. For this report, an additional 51 species were collected from Tennessee and studied. Above-ground plant samples were analyzed for yields of oils, polyphenols, hydrocarbons, protein, and ash. Oils were examined for the presence of seven classes of lipids and analyzed for yields of fatty acids and unsaponifiable matter. Hydrocarbons were examined for the presence of rubber, gutta, and waxes. Rubber and gutta were analyzed for average molecular weight (MW) and MW distribution. Chemical and botanical data are presented for eight of the 51 species. A checklist of the 43 other species is given; data on these are available from NRRC. Lapsana communis yielded the most oil (6.1%; dry, ash-free, plant sample basis). Ilex montana yielded the most polyphenol (21.5%) plus 4.5% oil. Agrimonia parviflora and Catalpa bignonioides gave substantial yields of polyphenol (20.0% and 17.9%, respectively), and Passiflora incarnata contained the most apparent protein (19.8%). Chrysopsis graminifolia, Solidago erecta, and Verbesina alternifolia were identified as rubber-producing species with 0.4-0.7% hydrocarbon.

Carr, M.E.; Bagby, M.O.

183

Evaluation of 107 legumes for renewable sources of energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One hundred and seven species of randomly-collected Leguminosae were evaluated for their potential as energy-producing crops. Whole plants, excluding roots, were chemically analyzed, and 11 species were identified as the more promising for future considerations based on a numerical rating system developed at this Center. Of the 11 species, one contained principally rubber (polyisoprene) in the hydrocarbon fraction and 7 contained principally wax. Hydrocarbon fractions of 3 species with less than 0.4% were not examined. The oils of species with at least 3.0% oil were examined by thin layer chromatography (TLC) to determine classes of components and were given a saponification treatment to determine yields of unsaponifiable matter and fatty acids. The oil of one species was quantitatively analyzed for classes of compounds by TLC-flame ionization detection. Selected species with ratings greater than 10 are briefly discussed. 16 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

Roth, W.B.; Carr, M.E.; Cull, I.M.; Phillips, B.S.; Bagby, M.O.

184

Renewable energy: Renewing the environment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the past 20 years, the United States has enacted some of the world`s most comprehensive legislation to protect and preserve its environmental heritage. These regulations have spawned a $115-billion-per-year industry for {open_quotes}green{close_quotes} products and services, with more than 35,000 companies providing jobs for American workers. On the other hand, environmental regulations have placed heavy cost burdens on many U.S. businesses as they struggle to remain competitive in both domestic and foreign markets. How, then, can one reconcile the growing need for environmental protection with the desire for a stronger, healthier economy? Even as Congress debates the value of existing environmental legislation, new threats are appearing on the horizon. For example, extensive storm damage from Hurricane Andrew and other natural disasters has prompted members of the $650-billion insurance industry to begin studying the effects that global warming may have on future property damage claims. More and more people are realizing that the most efficient and economical way to control pollution is to avoid creating it in the first place. And that`s where renewable energy comes in. Technologies based on nonpolluting renewable energy sources such as sunlight and wind can help preserve our environmental heritage without a tangled web of regulations to burden industry. Renewable energy technologies can also help the United States become a world leader in a potential $400-billion-a-year global market for environmentally friendly products.

Noun, R.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

1996-12-31

185

An investigation of energy harvesting from renewable sources with PVDF and PZT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Piezoelectric materials have been in use for many years; however, with an increasing concern about global warming, piezoelectricity has gained significant importance in research and development for extracting energy from the environment. In this work the voltage responses of ceramic based piezoelectric fibre composite structures (PFCs) and polymer based piezoelectric strips, PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride), were evaluated when subjected to various wind speeds and water droplets in order to investigate the possibility of energy generation from these two natural renewable energy sources for utilization in low power electronic devices. The effects of material dimensions, drop mass, releasing height of the drops and wind speed on the voltage output were studied and the power was calculated. This work showed that piezoelectric polymer materials can generate higher voltage/power than ceramic based piezoelectric materials and it was proved that producing energy from renewable sources such as rain drops and wind is possible by using piezoelectric polymer materials

2011-05-01

186

A potention of renewable energy sources in Slovakia in term of production of electricity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Electro-energetics of Slovak Republic is in this time in state of re-structuralization consequent from responsibilities which SR has with integration to the EU and on the other hand with actual status of production capacities of fossil fuels using in heat power stations and heat stations also the utilization of nuclear energy in nuclear power stations Jaslovské Bohunice and Mochovce. Paradoxically slim representation in production capacities have renewable energy sources, while only one relevant one is utilization of water in small hydro power stations. According to fact, that to the year 2010, the share of renewable sources of energy using in comparing with electric energy has to achieve 21,7% (direction of EU 77/2001. It is necessary to evaluate possibilities of utilization and to specify potential of utilization from technical and economical aspect.

Štefan Kuzevi?

2005-11-01

187

The integration of renewable energy sources into electric power distribution systems. Volume 1: National assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Renewable energy technologies such as photovoltaic, solar thermal electricity, and wind turbine power are environmentally beneficial sources of electric power generation. The integration of renewable energy sources into electric power distribution systems can provide additional economic benefits because of a reduction in the losses associated with transmission and distribution lines. Benefits associated with the deferment of transmission and distribution investment may also be possible for cases where there is a high correlation between peak circuit load and renewable energy electric generation, such as photovoltaic systems in the Southwest. Case studies were conducted with actual power distribution system data for seven electric utilities with the participation of those utilities. Integrating renewable energy systems into electric power distribution systems increased the value of the benefits by about 20 to 55% above central station benefits in the national regional assessment. In the case studies presented in Vol. II, the range was larger: from a few percent to near 80% for a case where costly investments were deferred. In general, additional savings of at least 10 to 20% can be expected by integrating at the distribution level. Wind energy systems were found to be economical in good wind resource regions, whereas photovoltaic systems costs are presently a factor of 2.5 too expensive under the most favorable conditions.

Barnes, P.R.; Van Dyke, J.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Tesche, F.M. [6714 Norway Road, Dallas, TX (United States); Zaininger, H.W. [Zaininger Engineering Co., San Jose, CA (United States)

1994-06-01

188

Turkey's renewable energy sources. Part 2. Potential and utilization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Turkey, renewable energy sources (RESs) production is the second biggest production source after total coal production. About two-thirds of the need of the RESs is met by biomass, while the remaining is mainly met by hydroelectric energy. This article addresses both potential and utilization relating to Turkey's RESs such as hydroelectric, solar, geothermal, wind energies and biomass, while these energy sources have been reviewed in Part 1 of this study in terms of their historical developments. Turkey has considerably high levels of RESs. The utilization of these energy sources could cover a significant part of the energy demand in the country. Moreover, taking into consideration that Turkey is seeking admission to the European Union (EU) and is trying to meet EU environmental standards, it could make a substantial contribution to a wide range of the objectives of environmental, social and economic policies of the EU. (Author)

Hepbasli, Arif [Ege Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Izmir (Turkey); Ozgener, Onder [Ege Univ., Solar Energy Inst., Izmir (Turkey)

2004-08-15

189

The promotion in Romania of electricity from renewable energy sources - present and future  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper deals with the present situation and prospects of electricity generation from renewable energy sources in Romania. The following subject matters are addressed: Legal framework; - Regulatory framework; - Ministry of Economy and Commerce - competence and responsibilities; - ANRE - competence and responsibilities; - Targets by 2010; - Benefits of Electricity from RES; - Costs, by technology, for E-RES; - Renewable support mechanisms; - RES, technical and economical potential for Romania; - Sensitivity Analysis. In conclusion, one stresses that the existing legal and regulatory framework which sets up responsibilities and dead lines regarding the promotion of E-RES and it's access on the market: - ensures a transparent, nondiscriminatory and objective treatment for the E-RES producers; - gives some facilities concerning the authorization process and ensures the take over of the electricity produced from renewable sources to the national grid; -sets up state aids granting conditions for investments and operation of the renewable energy sources; - requires some improvements regarding the financial support for promoting E-RES, guarantee of origin and trade. Depending on the chosen support scheme, the institutional framework will be developed in order to comply with the legal requirements and dead-lines. The technologies for E-RES generation will be implemented depending on: - the RES potential; - the commercial maturity of the technology, i.e. the technologies implied in hydro, wind, biomass, solar, waves and tide energy generation

2004-06-13

190

Attitudes of South African environmentalists on the domestic use of renewable energy sources  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paucity of literature on the perceptions and attitudes of South Africans on recycling, reusing, and reducing the number of resources used suggests the need for an exploration of these environmental issues. The current energy situation in South Africa may impact on South Africans’ perceptions on quality of life issues that are thought to accompany the use of renewable energy sources such as solar power. This research aims to explore the attitudes and perceptions of envi...

Du Preez, Mathilda; Wagner, Claire; Cassimjee, Nafisa

2008-01-01

191

TESES rules as a tool of analysis for chosen renewable energy sources projects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Inevitability or in other words the need of energies extraction by other means than the present ones, leads us to further alternatives. The article is trying to show the importance of legislative by implementation of new technological solutions in using renewable energy sources. The impact of these limitations will be shown on two examples, which are limited by the mentioned legislative politics of the Slovak Republic. (authors)

2008-01-01

192

Potentials for energy efficiency and renewable energy sources in the Netherlands  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper insight is given in the potentials for energy efficiency and renewable energy sources, specifically when applied to the built environment in the Netherlands. To this end, an analysis is presented of the building stock development from the present to 2050 and building concepts and scenarios for a mid-century energy-neutral built environment in the Netherlands. The analysis deals with new and existing residential and non-residential buildings and distinguishes between different aspects of the energy balance; space heating and cooling, domestic hot water and electricity consumption. An analysis is made of the mix of measures which is needed to reach net energy-neutrality in the built environment in 2050. With the term 'net energy-neutrality', the overall annual energy-usage of the complete building stock, including built environment related systems such as streets within cities is meant, incorporating energy exchange with the industry and transport sectors. For the separate measures the technological feasibility is assessed and set against the current research developments in the Netherlands.

Opstelten, I.J.; Bakker, E.J. [ECN Energy in the Built Environment, Petten (Netherlands); Sinke, W.C. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands); De Bruijn, F.A. [ECN Hydrogen and Clean Fossil Fuels, Petten (Netherlands); Borsboom, W.A.; Krosse, L. [TNO Built Environment and Geosciences, Delft (Netherlands)

2007-05-15

193

Solar, wind and waves: Natural limits to renewable sources of energy within the Earth system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Renewable sources of energy, such as solar, wind, wave, or hydropower, utilize energy that is continuously generated by natural processes within the Earth system from the planetary forcing. Here we estimate the limits of these natural energy conversions and the extent to which these can be used as renewable energy sources using the laws of thermodynamics. At most, wind power in the order of 1 000 TW (1 TW = 1E12 W) can be derived from the total flux of incoming solar radiation of 175 000 TW, which is consistent with estimates based on observations. Other generation rates that are derived from the kinetic energy of wind are in the order of 10-100 TW. In comparison, the human primary energy demand of about 17 TW constitutes a considerable fraction of these rates. We provide some further analysis on the limits of wind power using a combination of conceptual models, observational data, and numerical simulation models. We find that many current estimates of wind power substantially overestimate the potential of wind power because the effect of kinetic energy extraction on the air flow is neglected. We conclude that the only form of renewable energy that is available in substantial amounts and that is associated with minor climatic impacts is solar power.

2013-03-01

194

Renewable energy sources, italian white paper; Libro bianco per la valorizzazione energetica delle fonti rinnovabili  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Italian government attributes at the renewable energy sources a remarkable strategy. Therefore supports the progressive integration of this energy sources in energy market and develop the co-operation with Mediterranean area countries. [Italian] Il Governo italiano attribuisce alle fonti rinnovabili una rilevanza strategica. Pertanto nell'ambito di una coerente e incisiva politica di supporto dell'Unione Europea, intende sostenere la progressiva integrazione di tali fonti nel mercato energetico e sviluppare la collaborazione con i paesi dell'area mediterranea.

Barra, L.; Avella, R.; Braccio, G.; Caserta, G.; Chiado' Rana, M.; Ciciolla, C.; Conte, G.; De Lillo, A.; Gerardi, V.; Giuliani, G.; Pignatelli, V.; Pirazzi, L.; Ricci, A.; Sarno, A.; Sonnino, A.; Viggiano, D. [ENEA, Rome (Italy); Pazzi, V. [Ministero dell' Industria, del Commercio e dell' Artigianato, Rome (Italy); Silvestrini, G. [Ministero dell' Ambiente, Rome (Italy); Morselli, F. [Ministero dell' Universita' e della Ricerca Scientifica e Tecnologica, Rome (Italy); Gomboli, M. [Coordinamento Interregionale Energia (Italy)

1998-07-01

195

Renewable energy sources for the world's poor: a review of current international development assistance programs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Foreign assistance funding of the creation, testing, and use of renewable energy sources concerning worldwide efforts to provide energy for Third World development is examined. Donor agencies and developing nations give serious attention to technologies that have been considered exotic and marginal: small-scale hydroelectric generation, solar water heating and distillation, biomass conversion to methane gas and alcohol, wind power, photovoltaic-powered small-scale irrigation, and village-level solar-powered absorption refrigeration. An initial effort to assist in the international coordination of donor activity and in the sharing of information generated by foreign-assistance projects that use renewable energy sources is reported. The report mainly provides information about specific development projects. It contains only a few of the projects that have been approved and funded by 1 June 1979. (MCW)

Ashworth, J. H.

1979-10-01

196

Renewable sources of energy. Principles, social acceptance, and state of the art  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of power in contemporary society is characterized by being dominated by fossil combustion. Because of this there has been a global warming which has led to the climate change that is experienced today and will continue in the coming years. The combustion of fossil is primarily used for power generation and automotive transport. However the ground constantly becomes an amount of energy from the Sun millions of times greater than any society which needs. This energy is transformed in different ways and can be exploited in a different way without fear until. This is the primary basis of the renewable sources of energy. Most used renewable energy sources are solar energy (thermal, luminous, photovoltaic, photochemistry), wind energy, hydraulic energy, the energy of the Sea (tides, currents, waves, ocean thermal gradient), bioenergy (biogas, biomass, biofuels). Renewable energy sources are characterized by having its origin in the Sun, be inexhaustible and does not contribute to the warming of the planet, but on the other hand being distributed and accessible to all are more difficult to convert into business. For the popular masses are a solution, for the transnational power are a challenge. Traditionally though these sources of energy are available and are inexhaustible have been disregarded by the energy market in favour of lines called hard which include oil, coal and nuclear power. The form of generation and use of energy in the contemporary civilization is dominated by the consumer society that obliges the excessive generation of heat, the emission of pollutants and the destruction of the environment and biodiversity. To the global energy crisis some pathways are presented as response that can trigger solutions, or an escalation of the crisis. Among the proposals for change and with varied approaches are the energy revolution in Cuba, development in the path of the Sun, the possession of technologies, control of resources, carbon credits and the wars to name a few. There are contradictions about the use of energy in terms of carbon credits, agrofuels and the subsidy of the generation with oil. The followers of the ER promote energy efficiency, bioclimatic architecture, respect for nature, the conservation and protection of biodiversity. Today has been the ethical problems of the use of power and the exploitation of the FRE depending on the market which brings concentration, centralized generation, use of food to produce energy, class exploitation of sources which adds to the crisis. On the other hand new technologies and materials have been developed to make more efficient and cost-effective avenues of exploitation of renewables which include the development of new selective materials, the use of hydrogen cells and wind power by induction

2008-06-11

197

Electric power generation from renewable energy sources in Saxony; Elektroenergieerzeugung aus erneuerbaren Energiequellen in Sachsen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report sums up the potentials for electric energy generation from different renewable energy sources in Saxony. Natural potentials, technical potentials and economic potentials are considered separately. The established technical potential (without biomass) corresponds roughly to an electic power generation of 7400 GW hours annually. About 2/3 of this is wind energy, the rest is divided equally among hydro power and photo-voltaics. The harnessing of these potentials since 1990 is described in detail. Apart from hydro power, which has a long history as an energy source, wind energy, especially, is experiencing a very dynamic development. In 1997 still, wind power will outstrip hydro power as the most important renewable energy source in Saxony. But the further extension of these two energy sources meets increasingly with ecological objections or opposition. In 1996, about 1.3 per cent of the electric power consumed in Saxony came from renewable energy sources. It seems possible to increase this share to 5 per cent by the year 2000. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Bericht werden die Potentiale zur Elektroenergieerzeugung aus verschiedenen erneuerbaren Energiequellen in Sachsen zusammengestellt. Dabei werden natuerliche Potentiale und - wo moeglich - technische Potentiale sowie wirtschaftliche Potentiale unterschieden. Das ermittelte technische Potential (ohne Biomasse) entspricht etwa einer Elektroenergieproduktion von 7400 GWh jaehrlich. Davon entfallen etwa 2/3 auf die Windenergie und der Rest zu gleichen Teilen auf die Wasserkraft und die Photovoltaik. Die Erschliessung der Potentiale seit 1990 wird im Einzelnen dargestellt. Neben der seit langem genutzten Wasserkraft entwickelt sich insbesondere die Windenergie sehr dynamisch. Die Windenergie wird noch 1997 die Wasserkraft als bedeutendste erneuerbare Energie in Sachsen abloesen. Die weitere Nutzung dieser beiden Energiequellen stoesst allerdings auf zunehmende oekologische Bedenken bzw. Widerstaende. Der Anteil der erneuerbaren Energiequellen am Elektroenergieverbrauch in Sachsen erreichte 1996 etwa 1,3%. Bis zum Jahr 2000 erscheint eine Vergroesserung dieses Anteils auf ca. 5% moeglich. (orig.)

Hackstein, G. [Westsaechsische Energie AG, Markkleeberg (Germany); Riedel, J. [Energieversorgung Sachsen Ost AG, Dresden (Germany); Rindelhardt, U. [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V. (FZR), Dresden (Germany); Schwanitz, M. [Energieversorgung Suedsachsen AG, Chemnitz (Germany)

1997-08-01

198

A practical algorithm for distribution state estimation including renewable energy sources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Renewable energy is energy that is in continuous supply over time. These kinds of energy sources are divided into five principal renewable sources of energy: the sun, the wind, flowing water, biomass and heat from within the earth. According to some studies carried out by the research institutes, about 25% of the new generation will be generated by Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) in the near future. Therefore, it is necessary to study the impact of RESs on the power systems, especially on the distribution networks. This paper presents a practical Distribution State Estimation (DSE) including RESs and some practical consideration. The proposed algorithm is based on the combination of Nelder-Mead simplex search and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithms, called PSO-NM. The proposed algorithm can estimate load and RES output values by Weighted Least-Square (WLS) approach. Some practical considerations are var compensators, Voltage Regulators (VRs), Under Load Tap Changer (ULTC) transformer modeling, which usually have nonlinear and discrete characteristics, and unbalanced three-phase power flow equations. The comparison results with other evolutionary optimization algorithms such as original PSO, Honey Bee Mating Optimization (HBMO), Neural Networks (NNs), Ant Colony Optimization (ACO), and Genetic Algorithm (GA) for a test system demonstrate that PSO-NM is extremely effective and efficient for the DSE problems. (author)

Niknam, Taher [Electronic and Electrical Department, Shiraz University of Technology, Modares Blvd., P.O. 71555-313, Shiraz (Iran); Firouzi, Bahman Bahmani [Islamic Azad University Marvdasht Branch, Marvdasht (Iran)

2009-11-15

199

Renewable energy education in Turkey  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Utilization of renewable energy sources and the application of environmentally sound energy technologies are essential to sustainable development and will help to secure the quality of living and the well-being of the future generations. Turkey presently has considerable renewable energy sources. The most important renewable sources are hydropower, wind, solar, geothermal, and biomass. The use of renewable energy as a topic to study energy and its forms permits a novel way to motivate students, particularly those who energy topics taking conscience with the environment. This paper presents the analysis and classification of renewable energy sources and how to find out their origin and a way to motivate students in energy topics related to renewable sources and also, the development of didactic competencies in special blended learning arrangements for educationalists, trainers and lecturers in adult education in the field of renewable energies in Turkey. (author)

Acikgoz, Caglayan [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Bilecik University, P.O.11030, Bilecik (Turkey)

2011-02-15

200

BPS, energy efficiency and renewable energy sources for buildings greening and zero energy cities planning harmony and ethics of sustainability  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Traditional village houses now use renewable materials and energy sources and this paper presents the intrinsic harmony of these buildings' greening and their sustainability. The paper covers building technical systems, sustainable energy supply, and the importance of renewable raw materials (RMS) for sustainable development. This study investigated the role of building dynamic behavior and optimized energy efficiency in reducing thermal loads significantly. A preliminary design for sustainable energy efficient settlements with net zero energy buildings is proposed and a comprehensive multidisciplinary engineering study was done which identified the technical feasibility of sustainable village energy and water supplies using solar or wind technologies. Overall, through analysis of sustainability definitions and possible ways to achieve sustainability, the study demonstrated that this can only be brought about by interdisciplinary interaction and finding the right balance between materiality and spirituality, science and art, and between technological development and concern for cultural and other human values.

Todorovic, Marija S. [University of Belgrade, Serbia and Southeast University (China)

2011-07-01

 
 
 
 
201

Renewable Energy Sources in the New Member States of the EU. Germany and Italy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The EU-Japan Centre aims to stimulate industrial cooperation between the EU and Japan, including in the field of energy. It has therefore set up a New Energy Programme, which is in operation since 1987. Within the context of this programme, exchanges of European and Japanese specialists on renewable energy are organised, and studies on specific topics initiated. Previous studies of the EU Japan Centre were carried out on liberalization of the EU electricity market, EU support policies, waste as an energy source, wind energy and hydrogen. The study in this report, which CE Environmental Solutions carried out for the Centre, is directed at the development of renewable energy sources (RES) in the new member states of the European Union. This topic is of particular interest to the Centre, as such RES projects can be also carried out by Japanese firms under the Joint Implementation provisions of the Kyoto-protocol. The link of Joint Implementation projects to the European Emission Trading System, which is due to start on 1 January 2005, offers new business opportunities to Japanese firms. This study describes the status of renewable energy in the new member states of the European Union, Germany and Italy. The study also focuses on the European Emission Trading System (ETS), and analyses business opportunities for Japan that arise through RES projects in relation to the emissions trading system. This report starts with an discussion of EU climate change policies and in particular the EU emissions trade system, which is due to start on January 1st, 2005 (Chapter 2). In Chapter 3 we give an overview of policies and developments in renewable energy in the EU in which we focus on the policy framework, recent developments and expectations. This Chapter is based on more detailed overviews for each individual country, which are given in the annexes. Each country study also contains one typical case study of development of a renewable energy source in that country. Finally, in Chapter 4 overall conclusions of renewable energy developments in the new member states, Germany and Italy is given, focusing on future prospects and chances for investors

2005-01-01

202

REDI (Renewable Energy Deployment Initiative) sponsored GSHP (Ground Source Heat Pump) initiatives  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The strategy developed by Canada to link the market transformation of ground source heat pump (GSHP) technology with the national strategy for renewable energy was described. In Canada, sales of GSHP systems account for less than one per cent of the Heating Ventilation Air Cooling (HVAC) market, while sales of GSHP systems in the United States account for less than two per cent, despite the availability of the technology for the past thirty years, and the economic and environmental benefits to be derived. A lack of awareness and the high initial installation cost represent the main barriers to the adoption of this technology. The author indicated that the technical capacity for the creation of a robust GSHP industry sector, and strategic marketing alliances need to be developed to achieve proper market penetration. A helpful tool to attain these goals is a partnership with Natural Resources Canada through various initiatives in renewable energy. Several factors are combining to provide opportunities in the renewable energy industry, such as the requirement to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, a restructuring of the power industries following deregulation of energy markets, the emergence of a new economy where carbon dioxide emissions are viewed as a commodity to be traded and sold. All these factors facilitate the promotion of the environmental and economic benefits to be derived from the adoption of the GSHP renewable energy system.

Hoshino, P. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

2000-12-01

203

Integration of renew able energy sources in smart grid: a review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The increasing complexity of the existing power grid due to rapid population growth, development in technology, infrastructure and computational tools are the factors that contribute to the need of deployment of smart grid for secure and efficient use of electrical energy. The modernization of electric grids toward a smart grid is being carried out to improve reliability, facilitate integration of renewable energies, and improve power consumption management. Due to continuous depletion of primary fuel resources and global concern about the environmental pollution, the development of smart grids based on renewable energy resources has gained huge strategic significance now a days to resolve the energy crisis. However the intermittent and fluctuating nature of these sources makes the integration a difficult task that needs to be effectively addressed. Firstly this paper briefly discuss the emerging renewable energy resources (RERs) and Energy storage systems (EES). Secondly this work comprehensively reviews the potential challenges in integration of these sources in smart grid along with the applied control strategies for their facilitation and some practical case studies. (author)

2013-01-01

204

Renewable energy sources and nuclear installations; Erneuerbare Energien und neue Nuklearanlagen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This comprehensive work report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) made by the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI takes a look at work done in connection with the updating of the office's Energy Perspectives. In particular, the topic of electricity is reviewed in the light of pending important decisions in the area of nuclear energy and the newer renewable sources of energy. The report makes an attempt to estimate the effect on Swiss power production that the new renewables and new nuclear installations could have in the next 30-40 years and to what costs this could be done and which obstacles would have to overcome. The renewable energy sources include small hydro, wind, photovoltaics, solar thermal power plants, biogas, geothermal energy, wave-power and solar chemistry. The methods used include literature study and contacts with internal PSI experts on the various areas involved. The most important system characteristics were noted and learning curves for the various technologies were taken into account. Ecological and social factors were also considered

Hirschberg, S.; Bauer, Ch.; Burgherr, P.; Stucki, S.; Vogel, F.; Biollaz, S.; Schulz, T.; Durisch, W.; Hardegger, P.; Foskolos, K.; Meier, A.; Schenler, W.

2005-02-15

205

Electricity from renewable energy sources in The Netherlands. Current status and prospects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An overview is given of the latest regulatory developments for electricity from renewable energy sources in the Netherlands. In the current confusion regarding the development of the REB (Dutch Energy Tax), the eligibility of sources and imports for the tax rebate, the changes brought to the green certificate system in the Dutch electricity system, this report attempts to provide you with the answers to your questions. Included are a detailed explanation of both article 36o) and 36i) of the Dutch Law on Environmental Taxes, supported by among other things diagrams, an overview of current suppliers and their pricing strategy, and tables on the expected changes to the present situation

2001-01-01

206

An economic assessment of biogas production and land use under the German renewable energy source act  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Renewable Energy Source Act (EEG) promotes German biogas production in order to substitute fossil fuels, protect the environment, and prevent climate change. As a consequence, green maize production has increased significantly over the last years, causing negative environmental effects on soil, water and biodiversity. In this paper we quantitatively analyse the EEG-reform in 2012 by applying the simulation tool ReSI-M (Regionalised Location Information System - Maize). Comparing the EEG 2...

Delzeit, Ruth; Britz, Wolfgang

2012-01-01

207

Grid integration of intermittent renewable energy sources using price-responsive plug-in electric vehicles  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are expected to balance the fluctuation of re-newable energy sources (RES). To investigate the contribution of PEVs, the availability of mobile battery storage and the control mechanism for load man-agement are crucial. This study therefore combined the following: a stochastic model to determine mobility behavior, an optimization model to minimize vehicle charging costs and an agent-based electricity market equilibrium model to esti-mate variable electricity p...

2011-01-01

208

Renewable energy sources and the realities of setting an energy agenda.  

Science.gov (United States)

The European Commission has been devoting considerable attention to energy issues. This Perspective describes recent progress in Europe toward achieving goals for renewable energy use, and the role that technology can play, as well as the new Strategic Energy Package. PMID:17289990

Potocnik, Janez

2007-02-01

209

Potential of renewable energy sources and its applications in Yakushima Island  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study was carried out to see if the potential of renewable energy sources other than hydroelectric power, such as wind, photovoltaic, solar thermal, biomass and waste energy sources, can meet the current energy consumption in Yakushima. The current electricity consumption can be covered by wind and photovoltaic energy sources. The total potential of wind and photovoltaic energy sources is 5.4 times as much as the current electricity consumption. LP gas and kerosene can be replaced by solar thermal and biogas energy. The potential of plant biomass and municipal waste is not sufficient (approximately one third) to cover the rest of the fossil fuels (gasoline, diesel oil and heavy oil). Also, plant biomass and municipal waste must be converted into fluid form. This shortage can be covered by the potential of wind and photovoltaic energy sources. We also investigated the possibility of tourism expansion using the potential of wind and photovoltaic energy sources. Taking into account three types of capacity (energy, accommodation and transportation), Yakushima can accept approximately four times as many tourists as the current number of tourists. (author)

Uemura, Yoshimitsu; Kai, Takami; Natori, Rintarou; Takahashi, Takeshige; Hatate, Yasuo; Yoshida, Masahiro [Kagoshima University (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Engineering

2004-04-01

210

A method for allocating renewable energy source subsidies among final energy consumers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a new context of growing need for renewable energy sources (RES), tariff design has become a critical component of energy system regulation. A methodology for allocating the cost of RES subsidies that ensures an optimal balance between compliance with the main regulatory principles of tariff design and each state's specific policy is of cardinal importance in the current context. This paper presents and discusses a novel methodology to allocate the RES subsidy costs, which consists of distributing them among final energy consumers, in proportion to their consumption, regardless of the type of final energy consumed (liquid fuels, gas, electricity or coal). First, the different designs of RES subsidies are categorized and a review of a good number of the RES burden sharing mechanisms implemented in the EU is presented. Then, the proposed methodology is developed on the basis of the basic regulatory principles underlying the tariff design and the current regulatory context in force in the EU. Finally, to illustrate its actual impact in a real case example, the proposed methodology is applied to the Spanish system, in which the burden of extra costs incurred for RES amounts to a very large proportion of the overall energy system costs. - Research highlights: {yields} This paper develops a novel methodology to allocate RES subsidy costs among final energy consumers. {yields} The methodology is built upon the basic tariff design principles and the 3rd package regulations. {yields} It consists of distributing them in proportion to liquid fuels, gas, electricity or coal consumption. {yields} The 20% RES target affects all energy sectors and justifies allocating the extra costs accordingly. {yields} The methodology is applied to the Spanish energy system, where the RES burden is a very significant.

Batlle, Carlos, E-mail: Carlos.Batlle@iit.upcomillas.e [Institute for Research in Technology, Comillas Pontifical University, Sta. Cruz de Marcenado 26, 28015 Madrid (Spain)

2011-05-15

211

Renewable energy sources the research strategies; Le strategie di ricerca. Fonti energetiche rinnovabili  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper are reported the strategies of research of renewable energy sources in Europe and in particular in Italy. Several technologies are considered: biomass, photovoltaic solar, wind energy, geothermal and hydroelectric. [Italian] Le tecnologie di sfruttamento delle fonti energetiche rinnovabili: biomassa, dispositivi fotovoltaici solari, energie geotermale, eolica e idroelettrica, appaiono come una valida risposta che puo' assicurare da un lato la crescita dei sistemi economici, dall'altro diminuire le emissioni gassose nell'atmosfera e quindi limitare l'impatto ambientale.

Menna, P.; Marino, A. [ENEA, Rome (Italy)

1998-07-01

212

Education and training in renewable energy sources in Serbia and Montenegro  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reports the status of Education and Training in Renewable Energy Sources (RFS) in Serbia and Montenegro (SAM) at the end of May 2003. It was found that universities in SAM do not give diplomas in RES. RES subjects primarily solar and wind energy are taught at graduate levels. RES units are taught as a part of some classical engineering disciplines at undergraduate level especially in solar and biomass energy. Teaching is mainly at encyclopaedic level and staff is mainly trained in general fields. This education may be regarded as unsatisfactory and should be expanded and intensified in future. (author)

Milorad Bojic [Kragujevac University (Yugoslavia). Mechanical Engineering Faculty

2004-08-01

213

Renewable Energy Snapshots 2010  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The title report shows that renewable energy sources accounted for 62% (17GW) of the new electricity generation capacity installed in the EU27 in 2009. The share rose from 57% in 2008. For the second year running, wind energy accounted for the largest share of the new capacity: 10.2 GW out of the 27.5 GW built, representing 38% of the total. In absolute terms, renewables produced 19.9% of Europe's electricity consumption last year.

Bloem, H.; Monforti-Ferrario, F.; Szabo, M.; Jaeger-Waldau, A.

2010-06-15

214

Potential of hydrogen from oil palm biomass as a source of renewable energy worldwide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Various catastrophes related to extreme weather events such as floods, hurricanes, droughts and heat waves occurring on the Earth in the recent times are definitely a clear warning sign from nature questioning our ability to protect the environment and ultimately the Earth itself. Progressive release of greenhouse gases (GHG) such as CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} from development of various energy-intensive industries has ultimately caused human civilization to pay its debt. Realizing the urgency of reducing emissions and yet simultaneously catering to needs of industries, researches and scientists conclude that renewable energy is the perfect candidate to fulfill both parties requirement. Renewable energy provides an effective option for the provision of energy services from the technical point of view. In this context, biomass appears as one important renewable source of energy. Biomass has been a major source of energy in the world until before industrialization when fossil fuels become dominant and researches have proven from time to time its viability for large-scale production. Although there has been some successful industrial-scale production of renewable energy from biomass, generally this industry still faces a lot of challenges including the availability of economically viable technology, sophisticated and sustainable natural resources management, and proper market strategies under competitive energy markets. Amidst these challenges, the development and implementation of suitable policies by the local policy-makers is still the single and most important factor that can determine a successful utilization of renewable energy in a particular country. Ultimately, the race to the end line must begin with the proof of biomass ability to sustain in a long run as a sustainable and reliable source of renewable energy. Thus, the aim of this paper is to present the potential availability of oil palm biomass that can be converted to hydrogen (leading candidate positioned as the energy of the millennium) through gasification reaction in supercritical water, as a source of renewable energy to policy-makers. Oil palm topped the ranking as number 1 fruit crops in terms of production for the year 2007 with 36.90 million tonnes produced or 35.90% of the total edible oil in the world. Its potentiality is further enhanced by the fact that oil constitutes only about 10% of the palm production, while the rest 90% is biomass. With a world oil palm biomass production annually of about 184.6 million tons, the maximum theoretical yield of hydrogen potentially produced by oil palm biomass via this method is 2.16 x 10{sup 10} kg H{sub 2} year{sup -1} with an energy content of 2.59 EJ year{sup -1}, meeting almost 50% of the current worldwide hydrogen demand. (author)

Kelly-Yong, Tau Len; Lee, Keat Teong; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman; Bhatia, Subhash [Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia). Engineering Campus, School of Chemical Engineering

2007-11-15

215

Renewable energy update: Malaysia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent renewable energy development in Malaysia is described. Three major sources, namely hydro-electricity, biomass and solar energy are discussed, focussing more towards the needs of electrical energy for electrification, and the need to dispose biomass waste generated from forestry and agricultural industries. (Author)

Dalimin, M.N. [University Kebangsaan Malaysia, Sabah (Malaysia). Faculty of Science and Natural Resources

1995-08-01

216

Renewable energy sources in the French national plan for improved energy efficiency  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The French National Plan for Improved Energy Efficiency (PNAEE, Programme National d'Amelioration de l'Efficacite Energetique) whose aim is to ensure the conformity of national energy policy with the climate change mitigation policy was designed to be in line with France's national plan to combat climatic change and with the French national targets in the European directive for electricity from renewable energy sources (RES). According to this directive, by 2010, RES electricity should account for 21% percent of electricity consumed in France as opposed 15% today. To pave the way for this increase, the mains tools that have been set up by the French authorities in the framework of the PNAEE are as follows: ADEME's programmes; the RES electricity purchase obligation with feed-in tariffs; the pluri-annual investment programme in the electricity sector. The Law no. 2000-108, dated 10 February 2000, on the modernization and development of the public service in the electricity field, includes two articles, which directly relate to RESs. Two years after the PNAEE's implementation, the first achievements are the followings: more than 63.000 square meters of solar thermal panels installed due to a rapidly increasing demand; a new contribution of 47.000 toe to the national energy production coming from wood energy and geothermal; a new contribution of 208 GWh/year to the national electricity production coming from RES electricity, mainly from wind energy. These first results are not yet in line with the final objectives but the budgetary, regulatory and fiscal framework is in place and the market is in a quickly growing phase. (author)

NONE

2002-07-01

217

Renewable energy sources in rural regions; Erneuerbare Energien in laendlichen Regionen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The contribution presents an infrastructure concept for rural regions on the basis of renewable energy sources. A village of 450 inhabitants in Ladakh in the western Himalaya was equipped with a PV system for electric power supply, a solar collector system for water heating, and a pump for water supply. Most important of all, local experts were trained in all aspects of renewable energy supply. [German] Vorgestellt wird ein Gesamtinfrastrukturkonzept auf der Basis Erneuerbarer Energien fuer zukuenftige Kreislaufwirtschaftskonzepte in netzfernen laendlichen Regionen. Das Projekt Ladakh im aeussersten Westen des Himalaja ist damit ein Beispiel fuer die nachhaltige Energieversorgung einer dorfaehnlichen Gemeinschaft mit 450 Einwohnern zur Verbesserung der extremen Lebensbedingungen. Das Projekt umfasst dazu die Installation einer elektrischen Energieversorgung auf Fotovoltaik-Basis, einer Solarkollektoranlage zur Warmwasserversorgung und Heizung, einer Pumpstation fuer die Wasserversorgung und vor allem die Schulung einheimischer Arbeitskraefte zum Einsatz Erneuerbarer Energien. (orig.)

Becker, G. [TBB Techn. Buero Becker - Erneuerbare Energien, Absam (Austria)

2003-06-01

218

Promotion of energy conservation and renewable energy sources in Bavaria; Foerderung von Energiesparen und Erneuerbaren Energien in Bayern  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present article gives an overview of the measures taken in Bavaria (Federal German Republic) for promoting energy conservation. There include: Efficient energy utilisation; communal energy saving concepts; utilisation of renewable energy sources; small-scale hydropower plants; modernisation measures; and cultivable raw materials. (HW) [Deutsch] Der Artikel liefert einen Ueberblick ueber die Foerdermassnahmen zur Energieeinsparung im Freistaat Bayern (Bundesrepublik Deutschland): - Rationelle Energieverwendung - kommunale Energieeinsparkonzepte - Nutzung erneuerbarer Energien - Kleinwasserkraftanlagen - Modernisierungsmassnahmen - nachwachsende Rohstoffe. (HW)

Schirm, D. [Bayerisches Staatsministerium fuer Wirtschaft, Verkehr und Technologie, Muenchen (Germany)

1995-09-01

219

Renewable Energy Policy Project  

Science.gov (United States)

Established in 1995 with funding from the Energy Foundation and the Department of Energy, the Renewable Energy Policy Project (REPP) has spent the past decade educating the general public about renewable energies. This is accomplished by providing competent and rigorous policy analysis about the myriad of issues surrounding the viability and sustainability of such energy sources. Visitors to the siteâÂÂs homepage will find clickable icons (such as those depicting wind, solar, and hydrogen), and they can discover the variety of resources associated with each type of renewable energy source. These resources generally include a brief description of the REPPâÂÂs work in each field, along with links to some of their more recent working papers and policy briefs. For persons who hope to join the discussion about some of these timely topics, the site also maintains a number of relevant listservs, such as those dealing with bioconversion and strawbale conversion.

220

Proposal for a directive for the promotion of electricity based on renewable energy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The amended ''Directives concerning common rules for the internal markets in electricity and natural gas'', adopted in June 2003, organizes the future framework of electricity and gas, making all European consumers eligible, from 2004 onwards and at the latest by 2007 for the domestic sector, as well as integrating some components related to general interest services. Energie-Cites gives in this document its opinion and its expectations concerning this proposal for a directive for the promotion of electricity based on renewable energy sources. (A.L.B.)

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Prospects for biomass as a of renewable energy source in rural areas in Uzbekistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Due to world-wide increasing energy demand during the last decades energy source stocks (petroleum, gas, the coal) becomes much less. Besides the use of specified sources of energy, the results in deterioration of ecological conditions. In connection with these the using of renewed sources of energy is very essential. Now in the world the wide experience on using of such renewed sources of energy as: a wind power, hydro power, tidal energy, energy of waves, energy of solar light, geothermal energy, biomass energy is developed. Opportunities for using of renewable energy sources depend on geographical and climatic conditions of an environment. It is obvious, that for Uzbekistan most effective from this viewpoint, are wind, solar, hydro power, and biomass energies. However, correct choice of the proper renewable energy source depending on the area is needed. In this context solar energy and energy of biomass are effective for any region of Uzbekistan. At the same time for using of geothermal energy, hydro power and wind power it is required selection of geographical places adequate to the special requirements. According to Ref. [1] there are enough natural potential of a solar energy, in Uzbekistan , since the average density of solar power flow is 4.5 kWh/m2 per day or 16 MG/m2 per day. For comparison, it is possible to estimate, that every kilogram of biomass on the average can produce energy the same order 12.5 MG/kg [2]. It is obvious, that use of a solar energy for transformation to electrical with using of solar cells based modules requires the rather large financial expenses for purchase of the appropriate equipment, which is not accessible to each farm and requires large time for recouping of the charges. At the same time equipment for producing of biogas is accessible almost to each farm engaged as by animal industries, poultry and cultivation of vegetative cultures. In addition, the construction of biogas devices does not require high technologies and almost all materials for its construction are accessible in Uzbekistan. It should be noted that besides the above advantages, biogas devices are much safer from the environmental viewpoint. Moreover, the waste from the biogas device can be used at cultivation of various cultures in a farm. For research of opportunities, advantages and lacks during generation of energy from biomass in a plant of Urganch State University biogas installation with reactor volume 10 m3 is constructed and installed in a farm. Biogas generator was designed and constructed for working in continuous mode of operations and allows regularly adding of the biomass. The biogas generator is equipped with heating system for start of the generation in the winter.(authors) References: [1.] Internet site: www.bpsolar.com/ContentDocuments/17/PV System Sizing Tools.zip [2.] Vedenev A.G, Maslov A.N. Stroitel'stvo biogazovykh ustanovok. Kratkoe rukovodstvo. -B.:Evro . 2006

2012-10-01

222

Renewable Energy Monitoring Protocol. Update 2010. Methodology for the calculation and recording of the amounts of energy produced from renewable sources in the Netherlands  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is the fifth, updated edition of the Dutch Renewable Energy Monitoring Protocol. The protocol, compiled on behalf of the Ministry of Economic Affairs, can be considered as a policy document that provides a uniform calculation method for determining the amount of energy produced in the Netherlands in a renewable manner. Because all governments and organisations use the calculation methods described in this protocol, this makes it possible to monitor developments in this field well and consistently. The introduction of this protocol outlines the history and describes its set-up, validity and relationship with other similar documents and agreements. The Dutch Renewable Energy Monitoring Protocol is compiled by NL Agency, and all relevant parties were given the chance to provide input. This has been incorporated as far as is possible. Statistics Netherlands (CBS) uses this protocol to calculate the amount of renewable energy produced in the Netherlands. These data are then used by the Ministry of Economic Affairs to gauge the realisation of policy objectives. In June 2009 the European Directive for energy from renewable sources was published with renewable energy targets for the Netherlands. This directive used a different calculation method - the gross energy end-use method - whilst the Dutch definition is based on the so-called substitution method. NL Agency was asked to add the calculation according to the gross end use method, although this is not clearly defined on a number of points. In describing the method, the unanswered questions become clear, as do, for example, the points the Netherlands should bring up in international discussions.

Te Buck, S.; Van Keulen, B.; Bosselaar, L.; Gerlagh, T.; Skelton, T.

2010-07-15

223

Electricity produced from renewable energy sources-What target are we aiming for?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 2001, the European Commission (hereafter 'EC') formulated an ambitious target of 21% of total community electricity consumption to be generated with renewable energy sources by 2010. Moreover, national indicative targets per Member State were specified. In practice, the latter are implemented in all Member States as national production targets, achievable exclusively through an increase of the domestic production of electricity produced from renewable energy sources (hereafter 'RES-E'). However, in this article it will be shown that this is not in line with the EC's intent. Looking at the legislative process resulting in the Directive on the promotion of RES-E, it is demonstrated that instead the EC aimed for European trade in renewable electricity through national consumption targets. It is shown that the legislative process has resulted in confusion on both the nature (absolute or proportional figures) and the subject (consumption or production) of the RES-E targets that are being aimed for. Despite the EC's attempt to clarify this confusion, the reality of national production targets remains, hindering the attainment of the European RES-E target in the most cost-efficient manner

2007-11-01

224

Electricity produced from renewable energy sources - What target are we aiming for?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 2001, the European Commission (hereafter ''EC'') formulated an ambitious target of 21% of total community electricity consumption to be generated with renewable energy sources by 2010. Moreover, national indicative targets per Member State were specified. In practice, the latter are implemented in all Member States as national production targets, achievable exclusively through an increase of the domestic production of electricity produced from renewable energy sources (hereafter ''RES-E''). However, in this article it will be shown that this is not in line with the EC's intent. Looking at the legislative process resulting in the Directive on the promotion of RES-E, it is demonstrated that instead the EC aimed for European trade in renewable electricity through national consumption targets. It is shown that the legislative process has resulted in confusion on both the nature (absolute or proportional figures) and the subject (consumption or production) of the RES-E targets that are being aimed for. Despite the EC's attempt to clarify this confusion, the reality of national production targets remains, hindering the attainment of the European RES-E target in the most cost-efficient manner. (author)

2007-11-01

225

Utilizing hydropower for load balancing non-storable renewable energy sources - technical and environmental challenges  

Science.gov (United States)

About 99% of the total energy production in Norway comes from hydropower, and the total production of about 120 TWh makes Norway Europe's largest hydropower producer. Most hydropower systems in Norway are based on high-head plants with mountain storage reservoirs and tunnels transporting water from the reservoirs to the power plants. In total, Norwegian reservoirs contributes around 50% of the total energy storage capacity in Europe. Current strategies to reduce emission of greenhouse gases from energy production involve increased focus on renewable energy sources, e.g. the European Union's 202020 goal in which renewable energy sources should be 20% of the total energy production by 2020. To meet this goal new renewable energy installations must be developed on a large scale in the coming years, and wind power is the main focus for new developments. Hydropower can contribute directly to increase renewable energy through new development or extensions to existing systems, but maybe even more important is the potential to use hydropower systems with storage for load balancing in a system with increased amount of non-storable renewable energies. Even if new storage technologies are under development, hydro storage is the only technology available on a large scale and the most economical feasible alternative. In this respect the Norwegian system has a high potential both through direct use of existing reservoirs and through an increased development of pump storage plants utilizing surplus wind energy to pump water and then producing during periods with low wind input. Through cables to Europe, Norwegian hydropower could also provide balance power for the North European market. Increased peaking and more variable operation of the current hydropower system will present a number of technical and environmental challenges that needs to be identified and mitigated. A more variable production will lead to fluctuating flow in receiving rivers and reservoirs, and it will also lead to more dynamic water temperatures and alter the interaction with the adjacent hyporheic zone. Frequent drying and wetting may impact the aquatic ecosystem e.g. through stranding of fish, and it may increase erosion and sediment transport in receiving reservoirs and rivers. During winter, most Norwegian systems currently adapt releases to prevent unstable ice conditions and ice runs and a more intermittent production schedule may lead to more unstable ice conditions. More transient flow may also have implications in the transfer tunnels and new methods are needed to monitor conditions to avoid turbine damage and loss of production. As a part of the Norwegian governments focus on developing renewable energy, a number of research centers for environmentally friendly energy production were created in 2009. For one of these centers, Center for environmentally design of renewable energy (CEDREN), one of the main objectives is to study the use of the Norwegian hydropower system for large scale peaking and load balancing, and to provide means of mitigating possible unwanted impacts. We will present data on how increased load balancing will influence the Norwegian hydropower system and an overview of challenges and possible solutions that the new operational strategy may incur.

Alfredsen, K. T.; Killingtveit, A.

2011-12-01

226

Funding of renewable energy sources in the deregulated German electricity market; Foerderung erneuerbarer Energien im liberalisierten deutschen Strommarkt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study intends to develop an efficient market design for the German electricity market, with particular regard to renewable energy sources. The German electricity market is disintegrated, i.e. market sectors are not coordinated by a central agency but by their own interactions. The first part of the investigation analyzes the interdependences of market sectors, while the second part will analyze funding instruments for renewable energy sources on this basis. (orig.)

Wawer, T.

2007-12-14

227

Bonus payments for electricity production from renewable energy sources and the impact on the market participants' capacity choice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Promoting the use of renewable energy sources is a central goal of most industrialized countries. Up to today, fixed feed in tariffs are a commonly used support scheme. However, these have major disadvantages concerning market integration. Thus, more market-conforming solutions come into focus. One of these are bonus payments. Their fundamental characteristic is an augmented market price for the production of electricity from renewable energy sources. This paper takes a closer look at the mec...

Flinkerbusch, Kai

2010-01-01

228

Economics of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration and Mitigation versus a Suite of Alternative Renewable Energy Sources for Electricity Generation in U.S.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An equilibrium economic model for policy evaluation related to electricity generation in U.S has been developed; the model takes into account the non-renewable and renewable energy sources, demand and supply factors and environmental constraints. The non-renewable energy sources include three types of fossil fuels: coal, natural gas and petroleum, and renewable energy sources include nuclear, hydraulic, wind, solar photovoltaic, biomass wood, biomass waste and geothermal. Energy demand sector...

2011-01-01

229

Renewable Energy Curriculum Units  

Science.gov (United States)

Eight curriculum units, developed by teachers who were National Fellows in a 2007 seminar through the National Initiative of the Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute, explore the science related to current and potential future sources of energy, with a focus on renewable energy.

Gary Brudvig (Yale University ;Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry)

2010-05-13

230

A Review of Nipa Palm as a Renewable Energy Source in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the renewable energy potential of Nipa Palm, a bio-energy crop widely available yet underutilized in Nigeria. The combustion of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas has increased the concentration of carbon dioxide in the earth's atmosphere. The carbon dioxide and other socalled greenhouse gases allow solar energy to enter the Earth's atmosphere, but reduce the amount of energy that can re-radiate back into space, trapping energy and causing global warming. Nipa Palm which has been regarded as an environmental menace is now regarded as one of the candidates for renewable energy to fulfill the requirement of clean carbon emission. Abundant quantity of Nipa Palm provides an impetus for the sustainable generation of bio-ethanol. This sugar based bio-ethanol source development in Nigeria provides not only profitable use to a problem plant but also provides an opportunity and incentive to generate some Carbon Emission Reduction (CERs credits.

O.T. Okugbo

2012-08-01

231

Resource constraints in a hydrogen economy based on renewable energy sources: An exploration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to tackle climate change, a transition to a renewable based energy system is crucial. A renewable based hydrogen economy is one of the possible implementations of such a system. The world receives ample energy from the sun that can be harvested by PV solar cells and, indirectly, by wind turbines. In order to use the most optimal locations for collecting and concentrating energy from these diffuse sources, a long distance transmission network is needed. Mature and semi-mature technologies are available for all parts of the system: from collection to transmission to end-use. In an early stage of development, when new technologies have to win market share from the existing energy system, their development is driven almost exclusively by the reduction of costs per J delivered. However, if a technology should be able to deliver tens to hundreds of EJ, resource constraints can become show stoppers. Many of the newest, most cost-efficient, energy technologies make use of scarce resources and, although they may play an important role in the transition process, they can not be scaled up the level we need for a complete transition. In most cases however other technologies are available that use more abundant materials, be it often at a cost of efficiency. The issue is not only with scarce resources. The sheer size of the energy transition will also challenge the industrial capacity for the mining and production of bulk materials like steel and copper. (author)

2010-12-01

232

Heating market in change - renewable energy sources, energy efficiency, climate protection. Lectures; Waermemarkt im Umbruch - Erneuerbare Energien, Energieeffizienz, Klimaschutz. Vortraege  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Within the 1st ICG meeting of Innovation Congress GmbH (Cologne, Federal Republic of Germany) at 3rd to 4th June, 2008 in Berlin (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) The two pillars of the politics of climatic protection: energy efficiency and renewable energy sources (Franzjosef Schafhausen); (2) The Renewable Energy Resources Act (EEG) from the view of the municipal energy management (Juergen Weigt); (3) Law on utilization of renewable thermal energy in Baden-Wuerttemberg (Gerhard Spilok); (4) Local district heating and long-distance heating in Germany - The intelligent solution of supply for a better climate (Werner Lutzsch); (5) The new legal framework for power generation in regenerative and fossil cogeneration plants (Martin Altrock); (6) Future-oriented supply concepts for Munich under consideration of changing boundary conditions (Robert Graf); (7) Perspectives of the development of long-distance heating illustrated by Aachen (Wolfgang Hyrenbach); (8) Perspectives of the development of long-distance heating illustrated by Dresden(Frank Wustmann); (9) Public utility companies and climate protection: Integrated supply concepts (Marcus Diekmann); (10) Gas appliance technology in the focus of renewable energy sources illustrated for a single-family dwelling and two-family dwelling (W. Wessling); (11) Bio-natural gas - A chance for power supply companies (Georg Radlinger).

NONE

2008-07-01

233

Use of renewable energy sources in light of the “New Energy Strategy for Europe 2011–2020”  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Theoretical and methodological achievements required for an analysis of energy strategy. ? Developments for an energy policy ensuring the appropriate utilization of renewable energy sources. ? EU should set up grants for research supporting the implementation of the strategy. ? Developments for the knowledge management support of the use of backcasting method. ? Principles for the development of the network of energy security centres. -- Abstract: The paper analyses the issues for consideration listed in the stock taking document “New Energy Strategy for Europe 2011–2020” and explores the impact of their implementation on the use of renewable energy sources. The main objective of the paper is to introduce and provide a summary of the theoretical and methodological achievements required for an analysis of the implications of such an EU level strategy. It also provides a summary of the results of the analysis of the impacts of the Strategy on a specific field; namely, on the use of renewable energy sources. Contradictions inherent in the Strategy are discussed as well, and a proposal is put forward to aid the resolution of these contradictions. The paper also points out that the further development of the theoretical and methodological achievements may result in the creation of a simulation model, the application of which could effectively aid the process of strategic planning and the testing of strategies prior to approval. Finally, the paper discusses how an EU level and/or a global network of energy security centres could promote the development and implementation of an energy policy ensuring the appropriate utilization of renewable energy sources.

2012-08-01

234

Environmental and economic effects of renewable energy sources use on a local case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Renewable sources represent an effective alternative to fossil fuels for preventing resources depletion and for reducing air pollution. However, their diffusion requires huge capital investment and major infrastructure changes, which have to be assessed to verify their effectiveness. The article present an application of the R-MARKAL model to investigate the feasibility of renewable use on a local case study for electricity and thermal energy production. A comprehensive modelling approach is used to emphasise the relationships and feedback between conversion and demand sectors (residential, services and commercial), taking into account contemporaneously legal issues and physical limits of the system. The model's solutions represent the minimum cost choice and the results show that even in absence of erogenous environmental constraints, many renewable technologies are profitable demand device and their investment costs are paid off in a medium term by lower operating and maintenance expenditures. In this context the use of thermal energy from incinerator allows one to achieve a consistent reduction of atmospheric pollutant emissions and, particularly, of greenhouse gases emissions due to waste degradation. (author)

2003-04-01

235

Environmental and economic effects of renewable energy sources use on a local case study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Renewable sources represent an effective alternative to fossil fuels for preventing resources depletion and for reducing air pollution. However, their diffusion requires huge capital investment and major infrastructure changes, which have to be assessed to verify their effectiveness. The article present an application of the R-MARKAL model to investigate the feasibility of renewable use on a local case study for electricity and thermal energy production. A comprehensive modelling approach is used to emphasise the relationships and feedback between conversion and demand sectors (residential, services and commercial), taking into account contemporaneously legal issues and physical limits of the system. The model's solutions represent the minimum cost choice and the results show that even in absence of erogenous environmental constraints, many renewable technologies are profitable demand device and their investment costs are paid off in a medium term by lower operating and maintenance expenditures. In this context the use of thermal energy from incinerator allows one to achieve a consistent reduction of atmospheric pollutant emissions and, particularly, of greenhouse gases emissions due to waste degradation. (author)

Cosmi, C.; Salvia, M. [Istituto di Metodologie Avanzate di Analisi Ambientali, Tito Scalo (Italy); Unita di Napoli (Italy). Istituto Nazionale di Fisica della Materia; Macchiato, M. [Universita Federico II, Napoli (Italy). Dpto. di Scienze Fisiche; Mangiamele, L.; Marmo, G. [Universita degli Studi della Basilicata, Potenza (Italy); Pietrapertosa, F. [Istituto di Metodologie Avanzate di Analisi Ambientali, Tito Scalo (Italy); Universita degli Studi della Basilicata, Potenza (Italy)

2003-04-01

236

Price control for electricity supplied to the grid from renewable energy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The law governing the supply of electricity generated by renewable energy sources to the public grid regulates the purchase and payment by public utilities of electricity exclusively generated from such sources as hydropower, wind power, solar energy, landfill gas or sewage gas, or from biomass produced in agriculture and forestry or derived and processed in waste treatment systems. The author discusses aspects and issues hitherto left unconsidered by publications or by the jurisdiction and puts them into the context of a review of recent legislation, addressing in particular the following aspects: (1) The place of the Act on Supply of Electricity from Renewable Sources to the Public Grid within the legal framework of price controls. (2) Limits to be set by price control activities in accordance with Para. 12, sub-section 2 BTO Elt and with Para. 11, sub-section 1, sentence 3 BTO Elt. (3) Limits set to price controls due to Para. 12, sub-section 2 BTO Elt. (4) The conflict of purposes arising from price controls. (orig./HP)

1994-02-20

237

Renewable energy sources in Basque Country. Recursos energeticos renovables en la comunidad autonoma del Pais Vasco  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Autonomous Basque Energy Authority makes an analysis on the final results obtained during 1980 decade promoting renewable energies: Minihydroelectric power plants, solar thermal, photovoltaics, biomass and Wind Energy. New goals until the year 2000 are outlined.

Ente Vasco de la Energia (EVE. Vitoria (Spain))

1992-07-01

238

Grid Interfacing Inverter of Renewable Energy Sources to Improve the Power Quality in Distribution System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the increase in load demand, the Renewable Energy Sources (RES are increasingly connected in the distribution systems which utilizes power electronic Converters/Inverters. In this thesis, Photo Voltaic (PV system is integrated to a three phase four wire distribution system. The Photo Voltaic (PV Panel is modeled based on associated equations. The use of non-linear loads in the power system will lead to the generation of current harmonics which in turn deteriorates the power quality. Active Power Filters (APF are extensively used to compensate the current harmonics and load unbalance. In this work, the existing PV inverter acts as Shunt Active Power Filter (SAPF that is capable of simultaneously compensating problems like current unbalance, current harmonics and also of injecting the energy generated by renewable energy source. The inverter is controlled on the basis of hysteresis control and thus it can be utilized as a power converter injecting power generated from RES to the grid and as a shunt APF to compensate the Load disturbances. It is proposed to investigate in this paper, the performance of PV inverter for various loads. This work is carried out using MATLAB/SIMULINK 7.8 software.

M.ARCHANA

2013-05-01

239

Rural Electrification through Renewable Energy Sources- An Overview of Challenges and Prospects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Energy security and sustainable development are prime issues these days in developed as well as in developing countries. Decentralized Renewable Energy (DCRE generation of electricity is expected to become more important in the future electricity generation system. This paper explores the various challenges faced in the process of rural electrification in India. It also highlights the alternatives available including usage of renewable energy towards decentralized electrification and policy recommendations for the use of renewable energy technologies. There are complex socio-economic issues that are hindering the growth of renewables in rural India, especially in off-grid villages. What should be the approach for maximum penetration of renewables in remote villages in India? How can renewable devices be made affordable for active use? How can local participation in such initiatives be increased? How can private participation be encouraged? These are the key issues that the Indian government is trying to address.

Sanjeev H. Kulkarni, T. R. Anil

2014-06-01

240

An Indian scenario on renewable and sustainable energy sources with emphasis on algae  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

India is the fifth largest primary energy consumer and fourth largest petroleum consumer after USA, China, and Japan. Despite the global economic crisis, India's economy is expected to grow at 6 to 8 %/year. There is an extreme dependence on petroleum products with considerable risks and environmental issues. Petroleum-derived transport fuels are of limited availability and contribute to global warming, making renewable biofuel as the best alternative. The focus on biogas and biomass-based energy, such as bioethanol and biohydrogen, will enhance cost-effectiveness and provide an opportunity for the rural community. Among all energy sources, microalgae have received, so far, more attention due to their facile adaptability to grow in the photobioreactors or open ponds, high yields, and multiple applications. Microalgae can produce a substantial amount of triacylglycerols as a storage lipid under photooxidative stress or other adverse environmental conditions. In addition to renewable biofuels, they can provide different types of high-value bioproducts added to their advantages, such as higher photosynthetic efficiency, higher biomass production, and faster growth compared to any other energy crops. The viability of first-generation biofuels production is, however, questionable because of the conflict with food supply. In the future, biofuels should ideally create the environmental, economic, and social benefits to the communities and reflect energy efficiency so as to plan a road map for the industry to produce third-generation biofuels. (orig.)

Hemaiswarya, S.; Carvalho, Isabel S. [Algarve Univ., Faro (Portugal). Food Science Lab.; Raja, Rathinam [Algarve Univ., Faro (Portugal). Food Science Lab.; Institute of Integrative Omics and Applied Biotechnology (IIOAB), Purba Medinipur (India). Centre for Bioprocess, Biotechnology and Renewable Energy; Ravikumar, R. [Aquatic Energy LLC, Lake Charles, LA (United States); Zambare, Vasudeo [Institute of Integrative Omics and Applied Biotechnology (IIOAB), Purba Medinipur (India). Centre for Bioprocess, Biotechnology and Renewable Energy; Barh, Debmalya [Institute of Integrative Omics and Applied Biotechnology (IIOAB), Purba Medinipur (India). Centre for Genomics and Applied Gene Technology

2012-12-15

 
 
 
 
241

The latest Greek statute laws and its consequences to the Greek renewable energy source market  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since the summer of 2006, the legislation governing the installation of Renewable Energy Sources electric energy production facilities in Greece has been updated by the law 3468/2006. The aim of the current study is to present a synopsis of the recently introduced statute with emphasis on the main changes imported. The objective of the law 3468/2006 is to provide favorable conditions for the infiltration of RES investors into the electric energy market, leading to benefit of the consumers and also to decreasing CO{sub 2} emissions, providing a more favorable framework for compliance to the frames of the Kyoto Protocol. The authors wish to thank Dr. George Mariatos and Mr. George Spyrou for providing support for the work reported in this paper. The research for this study was financed by the European Union (75%) and the Greek government (25%). (author)

Lazarou, Stavros; Pyrgioti, Eleftheria; Agoris, Dimosthenes [University of Patras (Greece). High Voltage Laboratory

2007-08-15

242

The latest Greek statute laws and its consequences to the Greek renewable energy source market  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the summer of 2006, the legislation governing the installation of Renewable Energy Sources electric energy production facilities in Greece has been updated by the law 3468/2006. The aim of the current study is to present a synopsis of the recently introduced statute with emphasis on the main changes imported. The objective of the law 3468/2006 is to provide favorable conditions for the infiltration of RES investors into the electric energy market, leading to benefit of the consumers and also to decreasing CO2 emissions, providing a more favorable framework for compliance to the frames of the Kyoto Protocol. The authors wish to thank Dr. George Mariatos and Mr. George Spyrou for providing support for the work reported in this paper. The research for this study was financed by the European Union (75%) and the Greek Government (25%). [PENED 2003, code number 03ED158

2007-08-01

243

Using the Potential of Alternative and Renewable Energy Sources in Energy Efficiency through the Introduction of Modern Organizational and Economic Forms ????????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ???????? ???????????????? ?? ???? ????????? ??????????? ??????????????-????????????? ????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article explored the possibility of using alternative and renewable energy sources in the country's energy balance. Tools of motivation and union of energy saving process participants, including clusters, G2B-platform performance-contracting are developed.? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????????????? ? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ?????????????? ??????? ...

2012-01-01

244

Management of Renewable Sources of Energy: A Case on Rice Bran oil and Vegetable oils of Bangladesh Perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Renewable energy is a now burning issue for sustainable development. Moreover, it is also environmentally compatible. Bangladesh produces huge amount rice every year. From this, a significant amount of wastes are generated from rice. Rice bran is one of them. On the other hand oil seeds such as coconut, soybean, pulm and mustard are available in Bangladesh. In this view, rice bran oil and vegetable oils are considered for a case study for renewable sources of energy and alternative fuel for lighting purposes of Bangladesh.

Key words: Rice bran oil; Vegetable oil; Renewable energy; Management; Bangladesh

Md Mamunur Rashid

2011-09-01

245

Special purpose fund for the promotion of energy efficiency, the use of renewable energy sources and environmental protection (NEP fund)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The legislation of the Republic of Croatia encourages energy efficiency, the use of renewable energy sources and environmental protection through many of its acts and regulations. The establishment of a system for the efficient use of energy and the utilisation of renewable energy sources largely depends on investments in relevant projects, programmes and initiatives. It is, therefore, necessary to establish special purpose financial mechanisms which would encourage investments in, as well as the realisation of such projects, programmes and initiatives. The article elaborates the model for the development of an extra-budgetary, special purpose fund (NEP fund) for financing energy efficiency, renewable energy and environmental protection programmes, projects and measures. Its organisation, operation, project cycle, revenues and expenditures are elaborated. The proposed organisational model for the fund would not include an institutional framework for its operation. Instead, the fund would be an organisational scheme within the existing structure of commercial banks. It would be an organised system consisting of three basic elements: the Supervisory Board, the Financial Operator and the Professional Operator. The fund's area of operation would include the provision of loans under favourable conditions (interest rate, payback, grace period) for the production of equipment, the construction of energy facilities, the installation of equipment and the realisation of energy efficiency, renewable energy and environmental protection projects. Financing would be available for project implementation, the finalization of initiated projects, project preparation and development, and the reconstruction or adaptation of existing infrastructure, facilities, etc. The elaborated model envisages commercial bank financing (funds earmarked for special purpose financing) and special product charges on fuel and electricity to be the fund's principal sources of income. (author)

1999-12-10

246

Solid waste as renewable source of energy. Current and future possibility in Algeria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Algeria has created a green momentum by launching an ambitious program to develop renewable energies and promote energy efficiency. Solid waste is one of most important sources of biomass potential in Algeria, which can be used as renewable energy sources. With economic development and the evolution of population, the quantity of solid waste is increasing rapidly in Algeria; according to the National Cadastre for Solid Waste Generation, the overall generation of municipal solid waste was more than 10.3 million tons per year, and the amount of industrial solid waste, including non-hazardous and inert industrial waste was 2,547,000 tons per year, with a stock quantity of 4,483,500 tons. The hazardous waste generated amounts to 325,100 tons per year; the quantities of waste in stock and awaiting a disposal solution amount to 2,008,500 tons. Healthcare waste reaches to 125,000 tons per year. The management of solid waste and its valorization is based on the understanding of solid waste composition by its categories and physicochemical characteristics. Elimination is the solution applied to 97% of waste produced in Algeria. Wastes are disposed in the following ways: open dumps (57%), burned in the open air in public dumps or municipal uncontrolled ones (30%), and controlled dumps and landfill (10%). On the other side, the quantities destined for recovery are too low: only 2% for recycling and 1% for composting. Waste to energy is very attractive option for elimination solid waste with energy recovery. In this paper, we give an overview for this technology, including its conversion options and its useful products (such as electricity, heat and transportation fuel), and waste to energy-related environmental issues and its challenges. (orig.)

Taqiy Eddine, Boukelia; Salah, Mecibah Med [Mentouri Univ., Constantine (Algeria). Mechanical Dept.

2012-11-01

247

The current status of the development of renewable energy sources worldwide and in Russia  

Science.gov (United States)

Resorting to renewable energy sources (RESs) as one of the bases of the promising world energy industry has become a logical result of the historical development and the recognition that is necessary to diversify primary energy sources being used, with the aim of enhancing both energy and ecological security of countries, regions, and concrete energy consumers. The review of the development of new technologies used for conversion of RESs, the progress of which can be characterized by the fact that by the year 2013 the total generating capacity of RES-based power plants now in operation has amounted to 500 GW—by a factor of 1.5 more than the total generating capacity of all nuclear power stations in the world. The paper presents an analysis of the current status of RESs and problems that restrain their development in Russia. It is noted that the peculiarities of the energy situation in Russia impose the specific requirements upon drawing up the programs of the development of RESs. Along with the use of RESs as part of systems of centralized energy supply, which is a priority for most industrially developed countries and promises the most large-scale introduction of RESs in Russia, it is necessary, first of all, to give attention to the development and creation of systems for independent supply of consumers with power and heat and the development of distributed powergenerating systems using RESs.

Fortov, V. E.; Popel', O. S.

2014-06-01

248

Renewable energy markets: Ukrainian perspective  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Energy from renewable energy sources is the most dynamic and one of the most promising sectors of European and global energy, while renewable energy is seen not only as an emergency replacement of fossil organic fuels, especially oil and gas as well as economically and environmentally sound replacement of traditional fossil fuels, where even now there are all conditions for their use.

2013-01-01

249

Gearing up for renewable energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Swedish energy plan for the fiscal years 1981-1984 is briefly reviewed. The government allocations for energy R and D are quoted, and the programs for development of domestic, renewable energy sources are discussed.

1981-11-01

250

Unified System-Level Modeling of Intermittent Renewable Energy Sources and Energy Storage for Power System Operation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The system-level consideration of inter- mittent renewable energy sources and small-scale en- ergy storage in power systems remains a challenge as either type is incompatible with traditional operation concepts. Non-controllability and energy-constraints are still considered contingent cases in market-based operation. The design of operation strategies for up to 100 % renewable energy systems requires an explicit consideration of non-dispatchable generation and stor- age capacities, as well as the evaluation of operational performance in terms of energy eciency, reliability, environmental impact and cost. By abstracting from technology-dependent and physical unit properties, the modeling framework presented and extended in this pa- per allows the modeling of a technologically diverse unit portfolio with a unied approach, whilst establishing the feasibility of energy-storage consideration in power system operation. After introducing the modeling ap- proach, a case study is presented for illustration.

Heussen, Kai; Koch, Stephan

2011-01-01

251

Management of Renewable Sources of Energy: A Case on Rice Bran oil and Vegetable oils of Bangladesh Perspective  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Renewable energy is a now burning issue for sustainable development. Moreover, it is also environmentally compatible. Bangladesh produces huge amount rice every year. From this, a significant amount of wastes are generated from rice. Rice bran is one of them. On the other hand oil seeds such as coconut, soybean, pulm and mustard are available in Bangladesh. In this view, rice bran oil and vegetable oils are considered for a case study for renewable sources of energy and alternative f...

Md Mamunur Rashid

2011-01-01

252

The development of the renewable energy sector - Source for more and better jobs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a global world, isolation becomes impossible. An important set of values are unanimously recognized, and 'like peace, the prosperity is indivisible and for being sustainable must be shared'. The problems of the global environment and their consequences have essentially contributed to 'the crystallization' of the necessity to pass to the Sustainable Development, meaning the incorporation of two important dimensions: the social one and the environmental one along with the economic objectives. The paper has the following contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Environment problems and their consequences; 3. Energetic security - transition to regenerative sources of energy; 4. Renewable energy sector and its impact on employment; 5. Conclusions. The following special conclusions concerning the renewable energy sector are highlighted: 1) it is a knowledge-based-sector which use intensively the labour force; 2) it includes a higher potential of high-skill job creation, characterized by higher productivity per capita, above the average of the national economy, by promoting friendly environment technologies; 3) it is a friendly environment sector with perspectives for modelling the structural changes on medium and long term; 4) it is likely to have an positive impact on workers' health and safety (workplace quality, pollution, hazardous substances and physical demanding work) and on the entire population; 5) it ensures that the potential for environmentally related innovations is exploited overall and that the emerging eco-jobs opportunities (in all skill range) can be met; 6) it supports the shift towards technologies that incorporate all the costs (technologies compatible with life cycles)

2006-06-11

253

Pre-feasibility MCDM tools to aid communities in prioritising local viable renewable energy sources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Integrating use of renewable energy sources (RESs) with conventional fuel sources increases energy security by minimizing dependence on imported energy sources. It also minimizes the negative environmental impact of generating energy, and the related health implications. Several RES alternatives can be identified in typical applications with various benefits and constraints. This makes the process of deciding which type of RES to implement at a specific site a multi-dimensional problem. Decision-making tools can be used to assist communities, in particular, in prioritizing their RES alternatives. Two multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) tools are discussed in this work. The first tool is the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and the second is the sequential interactive model for urban sustainability (SIMUS). AHP is based on community participation in the decision-making process through data collection and elicitation of expert opinions in which data are subjectively weighted to come to a cardinal ranking of alternatives. SIMUS, on the other hand, uses mathematical linear programming manipulation, which also and primarily relies on elicitation of expert opinions, but in a less subjective and more objective manner. The article discusses the application of the MCDM tools to assist communities in pre-feasibility ranking of the alternative local RESs. Both MCDM tools proved to be effective and to facilitate group decision-making in transparent and scientific procedures that enabled communities to get support for their initiative. (author)

Nigim, K. [Waterloo Univ. (Canada). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Munier, N. [TEAMIC International-Canada, Ottawa, Ont. (Canada); Green, J. [Community Renewable Energy Works, Kitchener, Ont. (Canada)

2004-09-01

254

An integrated system for the energy production and accumulation from renewable sources: a rural tower prototype  

Science.gov (United States)

This research work presents the implementation of an architectural prototype aiming at the complete energy self-sufficiency through an integrated system based on renewable energy. It is suitable for historical buildings in rural areas, isolated but important from natural and architectonical point of view. In addition to the energy aspects, it is important to protect the impact in terms of land-use and environment. This idea is also especially powerful because in the rural countries there are many little building centers abandoned because they are devoid of a connection to the electric energy grid and methane piping. Thus, taking inspiration from dove towers, architectural typology widespread in central Italy, a virtual model has been developed as an integrated system for renewable energy production, storage and supply. While recovering the ancient tower, it is possible to design and assembly an integrated intelligent system, able to combine energy supply and demand: a new tower that should be flexible, efficient and replicable in other contexts as manufacturing, commercial and residential ones. The prototype has been applied to a real case of study, an ancient complex located in Umbria Region. The sources for electric production installed on the tower are photovoltaics, on the head and shaft of the tower, hydropower and a biomass gasifier providing thermal too. A tank at the head of the tower allows an available hydraulic potential energy, for the turbine at any time, to cover photovoltaic lacks, caused by sudden loss of production, for environmental causes. Conversely, photovoltaic peaks, otherwise unusable, can be used to reload the water from the receiving tank at the foot of the tower, up to the tank in the head. The same underground tank acts as a thermal flywheel to optimize the geothermal heat pumps for the heat and cold production. Keywords: hydropower, photovoltaics, dove tower.

Di Francesco, Silvia; Petrozzi, Alessandro; Montesarchio, Valeria

2014-05-01

255

Are renewable resources an energy source for Brandenburg?. A discussion paper on possible alternative employment opportunities in the renewable resources sector in rural areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study contributes to clarifying the following: What short-, medium- and long-term measures are required in selected sectors for the cultivation, conditioning and use of renewable energy sources and, especially, what effects are, thereby, to be obtained on the labour market of the Land Brandenburg especially at the regional level. (orig.)

1993-01-01

256

PROFIT MAXIMIZATION AND OPTIMAL SIZING OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN A HYBRID SYSTEM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The renewable energy sources wind, solar etc. have become very essential and important in the generation mix as a result of rising energy demand and environmental reasons. In addition tax is being imposed on high carbon emission. But the uncertainty and variability associated with renewable such as wind may result in economical andtechnical problems in the power system. In order to compensate wind intermittency, generation resources such as gas plant, pumped storage unit etc. are employed due to their lesser start up time, lower operating cost and good ramping capabilities. This paper proposes a model which investigates the combined operation of thermal, wind andpumped storage units for the profit maximization in varying wind, load, and price scenarios. The optimal size of the pumped storage unit to be used has been obtained after putting the system to different operating conditions such as varying wind power and load demand, imposing tax on carbon emission and varying ramping limits etc. The model has been applied on IEEE-30 bus test data and satisfactory results have been obtained for optimal hybrid systemoperation.

YAJVENDER PAL VERMA

2010-09-01

257

On quantifying uncertainty for project selection: the case of renewable energy sources' investment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The selection of a project among different alternatives, considering the limited resources of a company (organisation), is an added value process that determines the prosperity of an undertaken project (investment). This applies also to the 'boming' Renewable Energy Sector, especially under the circumstances established by the recent activation of the Kyoto protocal and by the plethora of available choices for renewable energy sources (RES) projjects. The need for a reliable project selection method among the various alternatives is, therefore, highlighted and, in this context, the paper proposes the NPV function as one of possible criteria for the selection of a RES project. Furthermore, it differentiates from the typical NPV calculation process by adding the concept of a probabilistic NPV approach through Monte Carlo simulation. Reality is non-deterministic, so any attempt of modelling it by using a deterministic approach is by definition erroneous. The paper ultimately proposes a process of substituting the point with a range estimation, capable of quantifying the various uncertainty factors and in this way elucidate the accomplishment possibilities of eligible scenarious. The paper is enhanced by case study showing how the proposed method can be practically applied to support the investment decision, thus enabling the decision makers to judge its effectiveness and usefulness.(Author)

2006-01-01

258

Power flow modelling in electric networks with renewable energy sources in large areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In many worlds regions there is a great potential for utilizing home grid connected renewable power generating systems, with capacities of MW thousands. The optimal utilization of these sources is connected with power flow possibilities trough the power network in which they have to be connected. There is necessary to respect the long distances among the electric power sources with great outputs and power consumption and non even distribution of the power sources as well. The article gives the solution possibilities for Libya region under utilization of wind renewable sources in north in shore regions. (Authors)

2012-05-15

259

Hydrogen rich gas from oil palm biomass as a potential source of renewable energy in Malaysia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oil palm is one of the major economic crops in many countries. Malaysia alone produces about 47% of the world's palm oil supply and can be considered as the world's largest producer and exporter of palm oil. Malaysia also generates huge quantity of oil palm biomass including oil palm trunks, oil palm fronds, empty fruit bunches (EFB), shells and fibers as waste from palm oil fruit harvest and oil extraction processing. At present there is a continuously increasing interest in the utilization of oil palm biomass as a source of clean energy. One of the major interests is hydrogen from oil palm biomass. Hydrogen from biomass is a clean and efficient energy source and is expected to take a significant role in future energy demand due to the raw material availability. This paper presents a review which focuses on different types of thermo-chemical processes for conversion of oil palm biomass to hydrogen rich gas. This paper offers a concise and up-to-date scenario of the present status of oil palm industry in contributing towards sustainable and renewable energy. (author)

Mohammed, M.A.A.; Salmiaton, A.; Wan Azlina, W.A.K.G.; Mohammad Amran, M.S.; Fakhru' l-Razi, A. [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Taufiq-Yap, Y.H. [Centre of Excellence for Catalysis Science and Technology and Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

2011-02-15

260

Presence of renewable sources of energy, cogeneration, energy efficiency and distributed generation in the International Nuclear Information System (INIS)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The International Nuclear Information System (INIS) it was created in 1970 by the International Atomic Energy Agency (OIEA) with the objective of propitiating the exchange of scientific information and technique on the peaceful uses of the energy atomic. INIS processes most of scientific literature and technique in engineering matters nuclear, safeguard and non proliferation and applications in agriculture and health that it generates in the world and it contributes to create a repository of nuclear information for present and future generations. Additionally it includes economic aspects and environmental of other energy sources that facilitate comparative studies for the taking of decisions. The database INIS, is its main informative product and it counts with more than 3 million registrations. One of the services that lends the Center of Administration of the Information and Development of the Energy (CUBAENERGIA), like center INIS in Cuba, is the search of information on the peaceful use of the science and nuclear technology in the Countries Members and the registration of information on their applications in Cuba. More recently, it extends this service to the Renewable Sources application of Energy in the country; as part of the works of administration of the information that it carries out for the National Group of Renewable Energy, Cogeneration, Saving and Energy Efficiency, created in the 2007 and coordinated by the MINBAS with the participation of institutions belonging to Organisms of the Administration Central of the State. In this work the results of a preliminary study are presented on the witnesses in the INIS of the Renewable Sources of Energy, the Cogeneration, Energy Efficiency, and the Distributed Generation. As well as of the application of metric tools to the opposing registrations for the case of the Distributed generation, that which allowed to characterize their historical evolution, the participation for countries in their development and main impact publications in the thematic. (author)

2011-06-10

 
 
 
 
261

Renewable energies for power generation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Power generation from renewable energy sources is different from power generation from classical energies (nuclear, thermal..). Therefore, the integration into the grid of the electricity supplied by renewable sources requires a deep thinking. The reason is that these power sources are controlled by variable elements, like wind, water and sun, which condition production. This book deals with the following aspects in detail: characteristics of classical and intermittent generators; grid balancing between supply and demand; conversion methods of renewable energies into electricity; power systems; privatizing of power generation and birth of new markets, in particular the 'green' power market; development of renewable energies thanks to technical advances. It gives a comprehensive overview of the present day available renewable energy sources for power generation. (J.S.)

2009-01-01

262

Renewable energy annual 1996  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents summary data on renewable energy consumption, the status of each of the primary renewable technologies, a profile of each of the associated industries, an analysis of topical issues related to renewable energy, and information on renewable energy projects worldwide. It is the second in a series of annual reports on renewable energy. The renewable energy resources included in the report are biomass (wood and ethanol); municipal solid waste, including waste-to-energy and landfill gas; geothermal; wind; and solar energy, including solar thermal and photovoltaic. The report also includes various appendices and a glossary

1997-01-01

263

Renewable energy annual 1996  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents summary data on renewable energy consumption, the status of each of the primary renewable technologies, a profile of each of the associated industries, an analysis of topical issues related to renewable energy, and information on renewable energy projects worldwide. It is the second in a series of annual reports on renewable energy. The renewable energy resources included in the report are biomass (wood and ethanol); municipal solid waste, including waste-to-energy and landfill gas; geothermal; wind; and solar energy, including solar thermal and photovoltaic. The report also includes various appendices and a glossary.

NONE

1997-03-01

264

The green brewery concept - Energy efficiency and the use of renewable energy sources in breweries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of the Green Brewery Concept is to demonstrate the potential for reducing thermal energy consumption in breweries, to substantially lower fossil CO2 emissions and to develop an expert tool in order to provide a strategic approach to reach this reduction. Within the project 'Green Brewery' three detailed case studies have been performed and a Green Brewery Concept has been developed. The project outcomes show that it is preferable to develop a tool instead of a simple guideline where a pathway to a CO2 neutral thermal energy supply is shown for different circumstances. The methodology of the Green Brewery Concept includes detailed energy balancing, calculation of minimal thermal energy demand, process optimization, heat integration and finally the integration of renewable energy based on exergetic considerations. For the studied breweries, one brewery with optimized heat recovery can potentially supply its thermal energy demand over own resources (excluding space heating). The energy produced from biogas from biogenic residues of breweries and waste water exceeds the remaining thermal process energy demand of 37 MJ/hl produced beer. - Highlights: ? A 'Green Brewery Concept' tool as guideline for breweries to reach minimal CO2 emissions in thermal energy supply. ? tool as guideline for breweries to reach minimal CO2 emissions in thermal energy supply. ? Reached thermal energy savings of higher than 20% with heat integration via pinch analysis. ? Potential of solar process heat integration for thermal energy supply in packaging and mashing processes. ? In one brewery with optimized heat integration the thermal energy demand can be covered by biogas production from its own resources.

2011-09-01

265

World Renewable Energy Network Homepage  

Science.gov (United States)

Through its worldwide network, WREN advocates the utilization of renewable energy sources by promoting the technical education of scientists, engineers, and technicians in addressing the energy needs of both developing and developed countries.

2007-10-02

266

Governmental interventions in the energy market. Study of the Dutch level playing field for fossil fuels, renewable sources, nuclear energy and energy conservation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study has made an inventory of 53 governmental interventions in the Dutch energy market. Moreover, the consequences for the playing field for fossil fuels, renewable sources, nuclear energy and energy saving have been quantified. It shows that the government still stimulates the use of energy and fossil fuels more than it stimulates use of renewable energy sources. Policy that focuses on decreasing the price differences between sustainable and fossil should therefore focus on the phase-out of this support and subsequently on bridging the remaining financial gap.

2011-01-01

267

CONSIDERATIONS ON RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES AND THEIR RELATED PERSPECTIVES OFAGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper discusses some considerations and advances a number of proposals about the potential of Agricultural Engineering to contribute to the field of renewable energy, with an emphasis on biomass. Several areas for action are identified. First, general education and teaching of students who will go on to become technicians and professionals in the sector of renewable energies, even though the characteristics of the sectors are still fuzzy. Diffusion of the energy culture, a too often neglected aspect that is however indispensable to sustain the overdue penetration of renewable energies in Italy, is an additional area for action. Another critical area, energy planning, is currently viewed mainly as involving the assessment on more or less wide areas of energy consumption and for the scope of replacing fossil resources with renewables to meet some energy requirements. A more complex, overarching issue is energy efficiency, especially of buildings, which should be a mainstay of the planning process but is in fact not so clearly addressed in development plans for renewables. At this same level, all interactions among production sectors should be assessed, to enhance the role of agriculture, one of the new potential energy-producing sectors and one of the possible prospective suppliers of renewable energy for different final users, from households to the service sector and industry. Agricultural Engineering has the skills needed to implement all these different actions. A role for it in advanced research, i.e. biotechnologies, can and should also be envisaged. Its work in the renewable energy sector should closely involve microbiological, genetic, chemical, agronomic, and animal research to define the goals to be pursued and to implement intuitions. In this way, Agricultural Engineering would increasingly be characterized as Biosystems Engineering.

Daniele Duca

2010-06-01

268

Diversification of the energy mix and renewable energy sources in Slovenia for ensuring sustainable, competitive and secure energy in the future  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The European Union is facing major challenges in the energy field - growing import dependency, the need for substantial investment and lack of competitive energy market. It has adopted binding legislation and non-binding recommendations, but they do not suffice. The latest Green paper identifies diversification of energy mix as one of the key areas, where further action is needed, if Europe is to overcome this crisis. Renewable energy is recognised as a relevant factor in improving security of energy supply, since it increases the share of indigenous energy and thus provides a more balanced and diversified energy mix. Slovenia's energy mix includes 11 % of renewables. In our electricity mix the share of renewables is higher, 27,6 %.The estimations show that by 2015 13,3 % of primary energy use will come from renewable sources. Our current strategy in the field of renewable energy sources is to increase their share in overall energy balance sheet to 12 % in 2010 and to increase their share in electricity production to 33,6 % in 2010. But Slovenia will have to take into account new ambitious targets the European Commission recommended recently, while trying to determine the optimally balanced diversification of energy sources in the future. (auth)

Podlogar, Sasa; Raner, Damjana; Zebeljan, Djordje

2007-07-01

269

Renewable energy sources. An advantage for Germany's economic standing; Erneuerbare Energien. Ein Gewinn fuer den Wirtschaftsstandort Deutschland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As the publication shows, renewable energy sources are often cited as the main cause of high energy cost, owing to the specifications of the German Renewables Act (EEG). But is this really the case, and to what extent does the environmental regulation affect the industry? In order to answer these questions, the report first presents background information on the composition and influencing factors of the industrial electricity rates. The second chapter outlines the effects of the energy cost on various industrial sectors, while the third chapter compares this cost with the positive effects resulting for the German industry from the development of renewable energy sources. The fourth and final chapter discusses whether higher electricity rates will have adverse effects on the competitive strength of the German industry.

Schmidt, Janine

2011-03-15

270

Decision support system for exploiting local renewable energy sources: A case study of the Chigu area of southwestern Taiwan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The topic of climate and energy policy has drawn new attention since the Kyoto Protocol has now come into force. It is hoped that strengthened use of renewable energy sources can meet new international environmental requirements and provide self-sufficient domestic energy supplies. The decision support system established in this study integrates potential evaluations, cost analyses, legal incentives, and analysis of returns on investments with the aid of a geographic information system (GIS). This system can provide insights for policymakers into where and the extent of the potentials, for lawmakers into whether the current legal incentives are sufficient to encourage private investment, and for investors into whether investments in exploiting local renewable energy sources are economically feasible. Under the current incentive framework in Taiwan, the amortization periods of investment on renewable energy are generally longer than the period over which the investment is to be recovered. This presents an unfavorable condition for attracting investments to and for developing renewable energy. An increase in remuneration through legal revisions is needed before domestic investment in renewable energy will actively expand

2007-01-01

271

Renewable energy sources - EU projects, research activities, supported programmes and projects; Erneuerbare Energie - Initiativen der EU, Forschung, Foerderung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Many instruments and programmes are available at the national level and within the EU that may support and boost research into and applications of renewable energy sources. The European Union posts information on the Internet about proposed or supported research activities and projects, in order to keep interested parties informed about ongoing EU commitments. Online information is available about recent activities and programmes for power generation from renewables, such as hydropower, wind energy converters, solar thermal and photovoltaic systems, as well as exploitation of geothermal energy sources. Future activities and research programmes are announced by the recent ``White Paper for a Community Strategy and Action Plan`` of the European Commission posted on the www., and information on projects in operation can be found there in the Gree Paper ``energy for the Future: renewable Sources of Energy - Green Paper for a Community Strategy``, as of November 1996. The contribution here contains additional information about research activities in solar energy research in Germany, compiled by the authors and available on the Internet. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Fuer regenerative Energien besteht auf nationaler sowie auf europaeischer Ebene eine Vielzahl von Foerderungsmoeglichkeiten. Neue Beschluesse der Europaeischen Union sowie von ihr angeregte Initiativen und Forschungaktivitaeten werden ins Internet gespeist, um dem daran interessierten Surfer auf dem aktuellsten Stand zu halten. Neuigkeiten im Bereich der regenerativen Energiegewinnung wie Wasserstoff, Wind- und Solarenergie/Photovoltaik, aber auch Geothermik sind online erschliessbar. Ueber kuenftige Entwicklungsrichtungen und Massnahmen informiert das Weissbuch der EU-Kommission. Was die Europaeischen Union schon initiiert hat, ist dem Gruenbuch vom November 1996 zu entnehmen. Des weiteren sind Forschungsaktivitaeten im Bereich der Solarenergie in Deutschland im Internet fuer den folgenden Beitrag recherchiert worden. (orig.)

Maass, D. [Information Research, Hamburg (Germany)

1999-01-01

272

Renewable energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Evidence given before the Energy Committee by the Seven Tidal Power Group and the Mersey Barrage Company Ltd is presented. The current state of the development of the projects, prices at which electricity could be generated, governmental support, the non-fossil fuel obligation (NNFFO), export potential, and discounted cashflow analysis and discount rate are discussed. (author).

1991-11-20

273

Renewable energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Evidence given before the Energy Committee by the Seven Tidal Power Group and the Mersey Barrage Company Ltd is presented. The current state of the development of the projects, prices at which electricity could be generated, governmental support, the non-fossil fuel obligation (NNFFO), export potential, and discounted cashflow analysis and discount rate are discussed. (author)

1991-01-01

274

Basic approaches to the research of renewable sources of energy as the energy potential of territories and built-up areas ???????? ??????? ? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????? ??? ??????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ?????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The authors have analyzed the energy potential of the Russian regions based on the planning of territories through the employment of renewable sources of energy, their incorporation into architectural solutions applicable to buildings and structures. The authors also provide their comparative analysis of different sources of renewable energy, of which windmills are covered in more detail. Urban development of Russia is accompanied by environmental changes and substantial growth of power consumption caused by the expansion of urban clusters that feature high concentration of population and housing density. Against this background, optimization of energy consumption through the incorporation of energy efficient technologies and renewable sources of energy into the process of construction and operation of buildings is of particular importance. The principal renewable sources of energy include water, sun, and wind. Wind power engineering best fits the conditions of the Russian territories. However, experts believe that the wind power is to be backed by other sources due to the irregularity of its generation. This approach to the power generation and planning of territories coupled with the integration of renewable energy technologies into architectural designs of buildings and structures will make it possible to identify the prerequisites for the energy generation specialization of the subjects of the Russian Federation on the basis of their climatic conditions and urban development patterns. Private investments into renewable sources of energy will assure sustainable population settlement patterns and optimal energy generation and consumption.?????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????? (???, ???????????????? ???????????? ? ?????????????? ???, ?????????? ???????????? ??? ????????? ??????? ?? ?????????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ??????. ???????????? ?????? ????????? ????? ?????????????? ?????????? ???????, ????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ???????????????????? ?????????? ? ?????? ??????????????????? ?????????.

Poddaeva Olga Igorevna

2012-10-01

275

Comparative analyses of seven technologies to facilitate the integration of fluctuating renewable energy sources  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

An analysis of seven different technologies is presented. The technologies integrate fluctuating renewable energy sources (RES) such as wind power production into the electricity supply, and the Danish energy system is used as a case. Comprehensive hour-by-hour energy system analyses are conducted of a complete system meeting electricity, heat and transport demands, and including RES, power plants, and combined heat and power production (CHP) for district heating and transport technologies. In conclusion, the most fuel-efficient and least-cost technologies are identified through energy system and feasibility analyses. Large-scale heat pumps prove to be especially promising as they efficiently reduce the production of excess electricity. Flexible electricity demand and electric boilers are low-cost solutions, but their improvement of fuel efficiency is rather limited. Battery electric vehicles constitute the most promising transport integration technology compared with hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCVs). The costs of integrating RES with electrolysers for HFCVs, CHP and micro fuel cell CHP are reduced significantly with more than 50% of RES.

Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik

2009-01-01

276

Large scale integration of intermittent renewable energy sources in the Greek power sector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a member of the European Union, Greece has committed to achieve ambitious targets for the penetration of renewable energy sources (RES) in gross electricity consumption by 2020. Large scale integration of RES requires a suitable mixture of compatible generation units, in order to deal with the intermittency of wind velocity and solar irradiation. The scope of this paper is to examine the impact of large scale integration of intermittent energy sources, required to meet the 2020 RES target, on the generation expansion plan, the fuel mix and the spinning reserve requirements of the Greek electricity system. We perform hourly simulation of the intermittent RES generation to estimate residual load curves on a monthly basis, which are then inputted in a WASP-IV model of the Greek power system. We find that the decarbonisation effort, with the rapid entry of RES and the abolishment of the grandfathering of CO2 allowances, will radically transform the Greek electricity sector over the next 10 years, which has wide-reaching policy implications. - Highlights: ? Greece needs 8.8 to 9.3 GW additional RES installations by 2020. ? RES capacity credit varies between 12.2% and 15.3%, depending on interconnections. ? Without institutional changes, the reserve requirements will be more than double. ? New CCGT installed capacity will probably exceed the cost-efficient level. ? Competitive pressures should be introduced in segments other than day-ahead market.

2012-11-01

277

The competition of different measures to increase flexibility in energy systems with a high share of fluctuating renewable energy sources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The continuous expansion of electricity generation from intermittent renewable energy sources (RES) is changing the present generation structure that has been designed to follow fluctuating demand considerably. In order to utilise a high share of supply-dependent RES, the future energy system needs to become more flexible than it is today. This paper describes the different flexibility options that can be implemented with regard to their major restrictions as well as their suitability to balance a certain deficit or surplus of RES generation. Furthermore, it outlines the importance of competition between these different balancing measures to meet the required level of flexibility at lowest cost. (orig.)

Brunner, Christoph; Teufel, Felix [EnBW Energie Baden-Wuerttemberg AG, Karlsruhe (Germany). Research and Innovation Dept.

2013-04-01

278

Basic approaches to the research of renewable sources of energy as the energy potential of territories and built-up areas ???????? ??????? ? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????? ??? ??????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ?????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The authors have analyzed the energy potential of the Russian regions based on the planning of territories through the employment of renewable sources of energy, their incorporation into architectural solutions applicable to buildings and structures. The authors also provide their comparative analysis of different sources of renewable energy, of which windmills are covered in more detail. Urban development of Russia is accompanied by environmental changes and substantial growth of power consu...

Poddaeva Olga Igorevna; Dunichkin Ilya Vladimirovich; Kochanov Oleg Aleksandrovich

2012-01-01

279

Renewable energy sources from the agriculture; Erneuerbare Energien aus der Landwirtschaft  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The sustainable and efficient production of renewable energy from agricultural resources is an active contribution to the climate protection. This is a serious issue for farmers, particularly as the climatic change affects the production of the farmers. The brochure under consideration shows how farmers can not only produce energy efficiently, but also use energy at their own farms. With this, not only an independence from the energy suppliers is achieved, but also the energy supply is supplied.

Gaul, Thomas

2013-06-01

280

Proceedings of the 28th intersociety energy conversion engineering conference. Volume 2--Environmental impact, energy systems, new technology for energy utilization, policy issues, renewable energy sources, stirling cycles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The section on environmental impacts covers global environmental concerns and air pollution. Energy systems includes the following: alternative fuels; co-generation; fossil fuels; mechanical thermal storage; fission/fusion; thermal management; electric and hybrid vehicles. The section on renewable energy sources includes biomass, hydrogen, and solar. This volume also contains separate sections for stirling cycles, policy issues, and new technologies for energy utilization. Separate abstracts were prepared for 150 papers of this volume.

1993-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Proceedings of the 28th intersociety energy conversion engineering conference. Volume 2--Environmental impact, energy systems, new technology for energy utilization, policy issues, renewable energy sources, stirling cycles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The section on environmental impacts covers global environmental concerns and air pollution. Energy systems includes the following: alternative fuels; co-generation; fossil fuels; mechanical thermal storage; fission/fusion; thermal management; electric and hybrid vehicles. The section on renewable energy sources includes biomass, hydrogen, and solar. This volume also contains separate sections for stirling cycles, policy issues, and new technologies for energy utilization. Separate abstracts were prepared for 150 papers of this volume

1993-08-08

282

Renewable energy consents  

Renewable energy consents We are a member of the Renewable Energy Deployment and Environmental Issues Project Board. As part of that board, we will work together to help ensure consistent, evidence based and timely consenting decisions for renewable energy projects. Read our board statement Statement…

283

Electricity supply on the island of Dia based on renewable energy sources (R.E.S.)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents a methodology for determining the specifications of an isolated R.E.S. power production system on an environmentally sensitive ecosystem. The wind and solar power constitute the primary power generation system and diesel generators act as backup. Real wind and solar potential measurements are used. The wind atlas of the island has been constructed. The specifications of the proposed system are optimized by the life cycle cost method. The renewable energy sources (R.E.S.) total annual energy production exceeds 90%. As a result, the dependence on the diesel generator set annual energy production is limited and the system's operational cost is not practically influenced by the increasing fossil fuel prices. The introduction of a small size desalination plant for the production of drinkable water is also investigated. Both the available R.E.S. potential and the minimization of environmental impacts are considered for the siting of the equipment. The methodology of the present paper may be applied to other regions rich in R.E.S. potential, where the introduction of small size environmentally friendly isolated R.E.S. power systems is investigated. (author)

Katsaprakakis, Dimitris Al.; Papadakis, Nikos; Kozirakis, George; Minadakis, Yiannis; Christakis, Dimitris; Kondaxakis, Konstantinos [Wind Energy Laboratory, Technological Educational Institute of Crete, Estavromenos, Heraklion Crete 710 04 (Greece)

2009-04-15

284

Integration of Renewable Energy Sources in Future Power Systems: The Role of Storage  

CERN Multimedia

Integrating a high share of electricity from non-dispatchable Renewable Energy Sources in a power supply system is a challenging task. One option considered in many studies dealing with prospective power systems is the installation of storage devices to balance the fluctuations in power production. However, it is not yet clear how soon storage devices will be needed and how the integration process depends on different storage parameters. Using long-term solar and wind energy power production data series, we present a modelling approach to investigate the influence of storage size and efficiency on the pathway towards a 100% RES scenario. Applying our approach to data for Germany, we found that up to 50% of the overall electricity demand can be met by an optimum combination of wind and solar resources without both curtailment and storage devices if the remaining energy is provided by sufficiently flexible power plants. Our findings show further that the installation of small, but highly efficient storage devic...

Weitemeyer, Stefan; Vogt, Thomas; Agert, Carsten

2014-01-01

285

The diverging paths of German and United States policies for renewable energy: Sources of difference  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The United States and Germany started out with very similar policies for renewable energy after the energy crisis of the 1970s. By the year 2000 they were on very different policy paths and, as a result, the German renewable energy industry has moved well ahead of that in the United States, both in terms of installed capacity in the country and in terms of creating a highly successful export market. In this paper, we reject some of the conventional explanations for this difference. Instead, these differences arise from the intersection of contingent historical events with the distinctive institutional and social structures that affect policy making in each country. Our analysis of the historical path-dependent dynamics of each country suggests that those who wish to further renewable energy policy in the United States need to take into account these institutional and social factors so that they will better be able to exploit the next set of favorable historical circumstances.

2009-07-01

286

Renewable energy integration challenges and solutions  

CERN Document Server

This book presents different aspects of renewable energy integration, from the latest developments in renewable energy technologies to the currently growing smart grids. The importance of different renewable energy sources is discussed, in order to identify the advantages and challenges for each technology. The rules of connecting the renewable energy sources have also been covered along with practical examples. Since solar and wind energy are the most popular forms of renewable energy sources, this book provides the challenges of integrating these renewable generators along with some innovati

Hossain, Jahangir

2014-01-01

287

Renewable energy sources project appraisal under uncertainty: the case of wind energy exploitation within a changing energy market environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are four elements, which contribute to the oncoming increase of electricity demand: climate changes, the expected growth rates of EU Member State economies, changes in the consumption patterns and the introduction of new technologies. The new deregulated Electricity Market is expected to respond to this challenge and the energy supply will be adequate and cost effective within this new environment which offers promising opportunities for power producers both existing and newcomers. In this paper a framework for the appraisal of power projects under uncertainty within a competitive market environment is identified, focusing on the electricity from Renewable Energy Sources. To this end the wind energy-to-electricity, production in Greece will serve as a case study. The subject matter is centred on the following areas: the uncertainties within the new deregulated energy market; the evaluation methods including an analysis of the introduced uncertainties after deregulation and a new approach to project evaluation using the real options, as well as comparison of the valuation methodologies within the new environment drawing from the case for Greece. (author)

2002-03-01

288

report on the french objectives of electricity consumption, produced from renewable energies sources and on the analysis of their realization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents the french objectives of electricity, from renewable energies sources, internal consumption for the next ten years, as the analysis of their realization taking into account the climatic factors likely to change the realization of these objectives. It also discusses the adequacy of the actions to the national engagement in matter of climatic change. (A.L.B.)

2007-01-01

289

Special report on renewable energy sources and climate change mitigation, (SRREN). Summary for policy makers; FNs klimapanel: Spesialrapport om fornybar energi, sammendrag for beslutningstakere  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In May 2011 the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change published a report on six renewable energy sources and their role in climate change mitigation. This is a Norwegian, unofficial translation of the Summary for Policy makers. (Author)

2011-06-15

290

Optimal operation of conventional power plants in power system with integrated renewable energy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Approach for solving the generation scheduling problem of a complex system. ? WPPs integration into the system in order to minimize the total system fuel costs. ? Application on specific system consisted of TPPs, HPPs, PSHPP and WPP. - Abstract: This paper presents an approach for solving the generation scheduling problem of a complex system consisted of conventional and renewable energy sources (RES). Wind power plants are integrated into the system in order to minimize the total thermal unit fuel costs. The gained results for wind farm power production are used as input in the system to determine the optimal amounts of generated power for the thermal generating units and hydro generating units over the study period. The optimization problem consists of minimizing the total production costs, respecting power balance equations for each time interval and all operational system constraints. The proposed approach is applied on a specific system consisted of thermal power plants (TPPs), storage hydro power plants (HPPs), pumped-storage hydro power plant (PSHPP) and wind power plant (WPP). The benefits of energy production from WPP, in terms of reducing the production costs of conventional thermal power plants are also investigated. In the proposed paper two cases are analyzed. In the two analyzed cases power unit’s generation, thermal unit’s fuel costs and stream flows of hydro units are calculated over the study period.

2013-01-01

291

The potentional of renewable energy sources for greenhouse gases emissions reduction in Macedonia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As European Union (EU candidate country, Macedonia is in the process of adoption of the EU strategic energy policies, harmonization of the national legislation with the EU legislation and defining the respective national goals. In this regard, the government has recently adopted a National Strategy for Utilization of Renewable Energy Sources (RES, prepared by ICEIM-MANU. The main goal of this paper is to assess the potential for greenhouse gases (GHG emissions reduction by implementation of 21%-RES-scenarios from the Strategy. The corresponding emissions reduction is calculated against the baseline (reference scenario developed within the Second National Communication on Climate Change. Furthermore, all potential RES technologies are analyzed from economic aspect and combined in a form of emissions reduction cost curve, displaying the total marginal cost of the GHG emissions reduction by RES. Finally, on the bases of the environmental and economic effectiveness of the considered RES technologies, as well as taking into account the country specific barriers, the priority actions for GHG emissions reduction are identified.

Dedinec Aleksandar

2012-01-01

292

Capacity Optimization of Renewable Energy Sources and Battery Storage in an Autonomous Telecommunication Facility  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper describes a robust optimization approach to minimize the total cost of supplying a remote telecommunication station exclusively by renewable energy sources (RES). Due to the intermittent nature of RES, such as photovoltaic (PV) panels and small wind turbines, they are normally supported by a central energy storage system (ESS), consisting of a battery and a fuel cell. The optimization is carried out as a robust mixed-integer linear program (RMILP), and results in different optimal solutions, depending on budgets of uncertainty, each of which yields different RES and storage capacities. These solutions are then tested against a set of possible outcomes, thus simulating the future operation of the system. Since battery cycling is inevitable in this application, an algorithm that counts the number of cycles and associated depths of discharges (DoD) is applied to the optimization results. The annual capacity reduction that results from these cycles is calculated for two types of battery technologies, i.e., valve-regulated leadâ??acid (VRLA) and lithiumâ??ion (Liâ??ion), and treated as an additional cost. Finally, all associated costs are added up and the ideal configuration is proposed.

Dragicevic, Tomislav; PandžiÄ?, Hrvoje

2014-01-01

293

The sociological constraints to the development of renewable energy sources in France; Les contraintes sociologiques au developpement des energies renouvelables en France  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Why did the use of the renewable energy sources develop so slowly in France where the technic systems are important? Three reasons to this situation: renewable energy sources are in image failure that require a strong commitment for relative advantages; the domination of the all nuclear all fossil culture, everything explained by a mode of government of the socio technic system that relies on a centralized culture controlled by the Grandes Ecoles. (N.C.)

Zelem, M.Ch. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CERTOP-CNRS), 31 - Toulouse (France)

2002-02-01

294

A review of net metering mechanism for electricity renewable energy sources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this work, an overview of the net metering mechanism for renewable energy sources for power generation (RES-E) systems is carried out. In particular, the net metering concept is examined with its benefits and misconceptions. Furthermore, a survey of the current operational net metering schemes in different countries in the world, such as, in Europe, USA, Canada, Thailand and Australia, is carried out. The survey indicated that there are different net metering mechanisms depending on the particularities of each country (or state in the case of USA). Especially, in Europe, only five countries are using net metering in a very simple form, such as, any amount of energy produced by the eligible RES-E technology is compensated from the energy consumed by the RES-E producer, which results to either a less overall electricity bill or to an exception in payment energy taxes. In the USA and the USA territories, any customer’s net excess generation is credited to the customer’s next electricity bill for a 12-month billing cycle at various rates or via a combination between rates. The actual type of net excess generation (NEG) credit is decided by a number of set criteria, such as the type of RES-E technology, the RES-E capacity limit, the type of customer and the type of utility. Regarding any excess credit at the end of the 12-month billing cycle, this is either granted to the utilities, or carries over indefinitely to the customer’s next electricity bill, or is reconciled annually at any rate, or provides an option to the customer to choose between the last two options.

Poullikkas, Andreas; Kourtis, George; Hadjipaschalis, Ioannis [Electricity Authority of Cyprus, P.O. Box 24506, 1399 Nicosia (Cyprus)

2013-07-01

295

A review of net metering mechanism for electricity renewable energy sources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this work, an overview of the net metering mechanism for renewable energy sources for power generation (RES-E systems is carried out. In particular, the net metering concept is examined with its benefits and misconceptions. Furthermore, a survey of the current operational net metering schemes in different countries in the world, such as, in Europe, USA, Canada, Thailand and Australia, is carried out. The survey indicated that there are different net metering mechanisms depending on the particularities of each country (or state in the case of USA. Especially, in Europe, only five countries are using net metering in a very simple form, such as, any amount of energy produced by the eligible RES-E technology is compensated from the energy consumed by the RES-E producer, which results to either a less overall electricity bill or to an exception in payment energy taxes. In the USA and the USA territories, any customer’s net excess generation is credited to the customer’s next electricity bill for a 12-month billing cycle at various rates or via a combination between rates. The actual type of net excess generation (NEG credit is decided by a number of set criteria, such as the type of RES-E technology, the RES-E capacity limit, the type of customer and the type of utility. Regarding any excess credit at the end of the 12-month billing cycle, this is either granted to the utilities, or carries over indefinitely to the customer’s next electricity bill, or is reconciled annually at any rate, or provides an option to the customer to choose between the last two options.

Andreas Poullikkas, George Kourtis, Ioannis Hadjipaschalis

2013-01-01

296

The sustainable management of renewable energy sources installations: legal aspects of their environmental impact in small Greek islands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nowadays, an attractive legislative and financing framework has been established in Greece for the development of renewable energy sources. This has resulted in a strong increase of investors' interest, especially in the islands, mainly due to their high renewable energy potential all year round. However, the typical characteristics of the small Greek island, which constitute sensitive ecosystems with unique attributes of a natural and cultural heritage, impose a limitation on the development of energy generation plants using renewables. In order to adopt the principles of sustainable development of these island regions, the application of the proportionality principle in relation to other general principles of environmental law is proposed as a suitable legislative tool for resolution of the foreseeable conflicts

2004-03-01

297

The sustainable management of renewable energy sources installations: legal aspects of their environmental impact in small Greek islands  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nowadays, an attractive legislative and financing framework has been established in Greece for the development of renewable energy sources. This has resulted in a strong increase of investors' interest, especially in the islands, mainly due to their high renewable energy potential all year round. However, the typical characteristics of the small Greek island, which constitute sensitive ecosystems with unique attributes of a natural and cultural heritage, impose a limitation on the development of energy generation plants using renewables. In order to adopt the principles of sustainable development of these island regions, the application of the proportionality principle in relation to other general principles of environmental law is proposed as a suitable legislative tool for resolution of the foreseeable conflicts. (author)

Efpraxia Maria [Technical University of Crete, Chania (Greece); Theocharis Tsoutsos [Centre for Renewable Energy Sources, Pikermi (Greece)

2004-03-01

298

Towards new markets. Export initiative renewable energy sources; Auf in neue Maerkte. Exportinitiative Erneuerbare Energien  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Export Initiative Renewable Energy offers the latest market information, insider knowledge as well as funding requirement for selected target markets. The export initiative supports entrepreneurs in their first steps on foreign markets and assists in finding suitable business partners as well as contacts abroad. The export initiative supports the marketing activities of entrepreneurs in their target markets.

NONE

2012-04-15

299

State of renewable energy sources use for electricity production in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article sets the position of renewable energy and its political framework requirements in Germany together with its market position at the start of the twenty first century. In its first section, it concentrates on electricity production. Here the requirements have been considerably changed through the liberation of the electricity market. (author)

2001-06-10

300

Determination of biogas generation potential as a renewable energy source from supermarket wastes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fruit, vegetable, flower waste (FVFW), dairy products waste (DPW), meat waste (MW) and sugar waste (SW) obtained from a supermarket chain were anaerobically digested, in order to recover methane as a source of renewable energy. Batch mesophilic anaerobic reactors were run at total solids (TS) ratios of 5%, 8% and 10%. The highest methane yield of 0.44 L CH4/g VS(added) was obtained from anaerobic digestion of wastes (FVFW+DPW+MW+SW) at 10% TS, with 66.4% of methane (CH4) composition in biogas. Anaerobic digestion of mixed wastes at 5% and 8% TS provided slightly lower methane yields of 0.41 and 0.40 L CH4/g VS(added), respectively. When the wastes were digested alone without co-substrate addition, the highest methane yield of 0.40 L CH4/g VS(added) was obtained from FVFW at 5% TS. Generally, although the volatile solids (VS) conversion percentages seemed low during the experiments, higher methane yields could be obtained from anaerobic digestion of supermarket wastes. A suitable carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio, proper adjustment of the buffering capacity and the addition of essential trace nutrients (such as Ni) could improve VS conversion and biogas production yields significantly. PMID:24120116

Alkanok, Gizem; Demirel, Burak; Onay, Turgut T

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Hydrogen Generation Through Renewable Energy Sources at the NASA Glenn Research Center  

Science.gov (United States)

An evaluation of the potential for generating high pressure, high purity hydrogen at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) was performed. This evaluation was based on producing hydrogen utilizing a prototype Hamilton Standard electrolyzer that is capable of producing hydrogen at 3000 psi. The present state of the electrolyzer system was determined to identify the refurbishment requirements. The power for operating the electrolyzer would be produced through renewable power sources. Both wind and solar were considered in the analysis. The solar power production capability was based on the existing solar array field located at NASA GRC. The refurbishment and upgrade potential of the array field was determined and the array output was analyzed with various levels of upgrades throughout the year. The total available monthly and yearly energy from the array was determined. A wind turbine was also sized for operation. This sizing evaluated the wind potential at the site and produced an operational design point for the wind turbine. Commercially available wind turbines were evaluated to determine their applicability to this site. The system installation and power integration were also addressed. This included items such as housing the electrolyzer, power management, water supply, gas storage, cooling and hydrogen dispensing.

Colozza, Anthony; Prokopius, Kevin

2007-01-01

302

Renewable energy beyond 2020  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

All presentations have been indexed separately for the database, (the posters are not indexed). The conference consisted of both plenary sessions and parallel sessions. The headline of the plenary sessions was: P1: Renewable energy beyond 2020; P2: Research update on renewable energy; P3: Industrialization and framework conditions.The parallel sessions consisted of in-debt presentations on research related to the different renewable energy technologies: Bioenergy; Hydropower; Ocean energy; Photovoltaic solar cells; Social studies of renewable energy; Transport; Wind energy; Zero emission buildings. (AG)

2010-06-07

303

Investment in renewable energy. Proceedings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Finding the best and most profitable way of supplying electricity to the customer has always been the goal of the power industry. With increasing pressure to become environmentally aware there is a growing need for renewable sources of energy. This book gives an insight into the methods that can be used to develop a strong case to invest in renewable energy within the context of a developing competitive electricity market. These include green pricing strategies, overseas experience, and customer awareness. The challenge of green energy labelling is also considered. This volume covers key areas such as: Financial structuring and the management of risk; Renewable energy in the competitive market; Using wind energy and solar power; Longevity of renewable energy sources. (UK)

NONE

1998-12-31

304

Effect of renewable energy sources on power quality - recent research activities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Renewable energies are gaining increasing importance for the electrical supply system. The integration of distributed electricity generation (DG) by many small generation units into the existing supply structure calls for new technological solutions. New developed devices, improved energy management procedures and advanced communication technologies are demanded to support a reliable, economic and safe operation of all power plants. The Institut für Solare Energieversorgungstechnik e.V. (ISE...

Degner, T.; Bendel, C.; Engler, A.; Viotto, M.; Metzger, C.

2003-01-01

305

Encouraging the use of renewable energy sources in the implementation of the EU energy performance building directive  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The recent EC Directive on the Energy Performance of Buildings (Directive 2002/91/EC, in short: EPBD) will urge member states to develop and design energy performance regulations before 2006. The international EC Fifth Framework Altener research project Build-On-RES2 was formulated with this objective in mind. The Build-On-RES project aims to develop the methodological and contextual framework to maximise the incorporation of renewable energy sources (RES) in an Energy Performance Method for both new and for existing residential buildings. Build-On-RES started by benchmarking energy regulations in five of the EU member states that have experience of energy performance regulations and scrutinised the extent to which they encourage the use of RES in buildings. In addition to energy regulations, other policy schemes that encourage use of RES techniques like financial incentives and schemes based on communication have been collected and described. On the basis of this collection of existing information, the project is designing a framework to maximise the incorporation of RES in an Energy Performance Method for use by member states that are in the process of (re)designing their (new) energy performance building regulations. This paper describes the results of the Build-on-RES research and presents in short the methodological and contextual framework to maximise the incorporation of RES in an Energy Performance Method. (orig.)

Beerepoot, M. [OTB Research Institute for Housing, Urban and Mobility Studies/Delft University of Technology (Netherlands); Engelund Thomsen, K. [Danish Building andUrgban Reseach, Horsholm (Denmark)

2004-07-01

306

Regional income effects and renewable fuels. Increased usage of renewable energy sources in Danish rural areas and its impact on regional incomes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

CO{sub 2}-emission is a world wide problem and in the attempt to reduce these emissions, renewable energy sources may be considered serious alternatives to the present usage of fossil fuels. As part of a research programme financed by The Danish Energy Agency, data concerning the different heating technologies based on oil and wood fuels have been collected. Private and social costs are estimated and these economic data are used when analysing regional income effects of increased consumption of fuels (e.g. wood) locally produced. The impacts on income and tax revenues are calculated from multiplier expressions, constructed with rights to the measurement of local effects. (au) 10 refs.

Bentzen, J.; Smith, V. [Aarhus School of Business, Dept. of Economics (Denmark); Dilling-Hansen, M. [Univ. of Aarhus, Dept. of Management (Denmark)

1996-12-31

307

Bolivia renewable energy development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author summarizes changes which have occurred in Bolivia in the past year which have had an impact on renewable energy source development. Political changes have included the privatization of power generation and power distribution, and resulted in a new role for state level government and participation by the individual. A National Rural Electrification Plan was adopted in 1996, which stresses the use of GIS analysis and emphasizes factors such as off grid, economic index, population density, maintenance risk, and local organizational structure. The USAID program has chosen to stress economic development, environmental programs, and health over village power programs. The national renewables program has adopted a new development direction, with state projects, geothermal projects, and private sector involvement stressed.

Smith, P.

1997-12-01

308

Electricity sector in Mexico. Current status. Contribution of renewable energy sources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The challenge facing the world electricity sector is the cost incurred in maintaining the system and seeing to the environmental effects it causes. In Mexico the grid is supplied by thermal plants fed by oil products. Its great potential of renewable energies clearly shown in studies by national and international scholars has led the government to become more committed to take advantage of these energies. The goal is to reduce dependence on fossil fuels to generate electricity and to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases. In this article we analyse the current state of renewable energies, the conditions needed to foster them and the legislative changes already introduced to promote their greater part in the national electricity grid. (author)

Cancino-Solorzano, Yoreley [Departamento de Ing. Electrica-Electronica, Instituto Tecnologico de Veracruz, Calzada Miguel A. de Quevedo 2779, 91860 Veracruz (Mexico); Villicana-Ortiz, Eunice; Gutierrez-Trashorras, Antonio J.; Xiberta-Bernat, Jorge [Departamento de Energia, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros de Minas, Universidad de Oviedo, C/Independencia, 13, 2a Planta, 33004 Oviedo (Spain)

2010-01-15

309

Electricity sector in Mexico. Current status. Contribution of renewable energy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The challenge facing the world electricity sector is the cost incurred in maintaining the system and seeing to the environmental effects it causes. In Mexico the grid is supplied by thermal plants fed by oil products. Its great potential of renewable energies clearly shown in studies by national and international scholars has led the government to become more committed to take advantage of these energies. The goal is to reduce dependence on fossil fuels to generate electricity and to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases. In this article we analyse the current state of renewable energies, the conditions needed to foster them and the legislative changes already introduced to promote their greater part in the national electricity grid. (author)

2010-01-01

310

Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Africa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles take stock of the latest development of renewable energy in two regions where renewable energy can make a significant contribution to combat climate change and bring modern energy services to everyone: Africa and the Pacific. These two regions are presented separately in this volume and its sister publication. The country profiles combine elements of IRENA analysis with the latest information available from a vast array of sources in order to give a brief yet comprehensive and up-to-date picture of the situation of renewable energy that includes energy supply, electrical capacity, energy access, policies, targets, investment climate, projects and endowment in renewable energy resources. Because of the different timelines of these sources, data presented here refer to years between 2008 and 2012. Data availability also differs from country to country, which makes comparison with a wider regional group possible only for the year for which figures are available for all the members of the group; while this may not be the most recent year, the differences between countries, regions and the world remain striking. The current country profiles are just a starting point; they will be extended upon with new indicators to make them more informative, and maintained as a live product on the IRENA website as a key source of information on renewable energy.

NONE

2012-02-15

311

Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Pacific  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles take stock of the latest development of renewable energy in two regions where renewable energy can make a significant contribution to combat climate change and bring modern energy services to everyone: Africa and the Pacific. These two regions are presented separately in this volume and its sister publication. The country profiles combine elements of IRENA analysis with the latest information available from a vast array of sources in order to give a brief yet comprehensive and up-to-date picture of the situation of renewable energy that includes energy supply, electrical capacity, energy access, policies, targets, investment climate, projects and endowment in renewable energy resources. Because of the different timelines of these sources, data presented here refer to years between 2008 and 2012. Data availability also differs from country to country, which makes comparison with a wider regional group possible only for the year for which figures are available for all the members of the group; while this may not be the most recent year, the differences between countries, regions and the world remain striking. The current country profiles are just a starting point; they will be extended upon with new indicators to make them more informative, and maintained as a live product on the IRENA website as a key source of information on renewable energy.

NONE

2012-09-15

312

Renewable Energy Technology  

Science.gov (United States)

In many ways the field of renewable energy technology is being introduced to a society that has little knowledge or background with anything beyond traditional exhaustible forms of energy and power. Dotson (2009) noted that the real challenge is to inform and educate the citizenry of the renewable energy potential through the development of…

Daugherty, Michael K.; Carter, Vinson R.

2010-01-01

313

Renewable Energy in Alaska  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report examines the opportunities, challenges, and costs associated with renewable energy implementation in Alaska and provides strategies that position Alaska's accumulating knowledge in renewable energy development for export to the rapidly growing energy/electric markets of the developing world.

2013-03-01

314

Alternative scenarios of the utilisation of renewable energy sources in small prefectures: a case study in Lasithi Prefecture, Greece  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The sector of Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) is growing very fast, with many innovations and applications becoming a reality. The continuous reduction of natural resources has forced all policymakers to turn to alternative energy sources. The total energy (oil and electricity consumption) consumed in the prefecture of Lasithi during the years 1997-2002 in correlation with the RES exploitation potential in the prefecture is the base of an analysis where RES methodologies are exploited to satisfy part of the prefecture's energy needs. Solar energy, wind energy, geothermal energy and biomass are examined and a case study is performed for Lasithi that involves an application of specific mathematical tools leading to a set of alternative scenarios. The objective of this work is the integration of environmentally friendly processes for the satisfaction of the energy needs of Lasithi Prefecture, paying attention at the same time to the financial viability of these systems.

Xydis, George; Koroneos, no-firstname

2009-01-01

315

Boosting renewable energies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Public policy and funding are basically different, but both are needed to develop the renewable energy market. Public policy creates incentives, but also obligations. The setting up of a 'repurchase rate' also called a 'feed-in tariff' or 'clean energy cash back scheme' obliges electric power companies to buy back energy of renewable origin at a fixed, guaranteed rate. The extra-cost generated, although usually low, is passed on to all customers and does not cost the State anything. Funding is characterized by its source, the manner in which it is obtained and who supplies it, whether it be banks, mutual funds, development agencies, electric power companies, local governments or the consumers themselves. Repurchasing yields regular cash flows over a given period at a lower risk and allows banks to provide funding. This is one of the reasons for its success. This solution is also very popular with political leaders because it does not weigh down public funding. Both these reasons explain why repurchasing is so appreciated in Europe and in a growing number of countries, more than seventy having adopted it in 2010. In addition, it is regularly discounted in relation to technological breakthroughs and lower costs. As is the case in Europe, the problem lies in maintaining an acceptable rate while avoiding excessive project profitability. In Europe, for instance, the number of renewable energy projects is such that consumers are starting to complain about seeing their electricity rates rise because of the famous feed-in tariff, even though the cost of renewable energies continues to drop on a regular basis. The United States and a few other countries, including China, prefer the quota system, or RPS (Renewable Portfolio Standards), which requires electric power companies to generate a minimal share of electric power by a renewable energy source. These companies consequently invest in renewable energy projects or purchase this energy from other suppliers. Like the repurchase rate, this system costs the State nothing. In contrast to Europe, where solar and wind power benefit from repurchasing systems, solar power in the US is subsidized in various ways at state level. Subsidies generally range from 30 to 50% of the total cost of the installation. Three quite distinct approaches to biofuel funding are found in the United States, Brazil and Europe. In the United States, the government directly subsidizes biofuel producers at a rate, in 2010, of around 13 cents on the dollar per liter of ethanol and 28 cents on the dollar per liter of bio-diesel fuel (2009). In Brazil the State partially subsidizes sugar cane plantations and refineries, despite the fact that ethanol production is competitive in relation to oil-based fuels. Europe and a few countries elsewhere have only gone so far as to lighten or remove the tax on hydrocarbons when they are associated with biofuels; still others impose specific mixes of biofuels with gasoline or diesel fuel

2010-01-01

316

Renewable energy strategies for sustainable development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper discusses the perspective of renewable energy (wind, solar, wave and biomass) in the making of strategies for a sustainable development. Such strategies typically involve three major technological changes: energy savings on the demand side, efficiency improvements in the energy production, and replacement of fossil fuels by various sources of renewable energy. Consequently, large-scale renewable energy implementation plans must include strategies of how to integrate the renewable s...

2005-01-01

317

The role of cool thermal energy storage (CTES) in the integration of renewable energy sources (RES) and peak load reduction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The building sector is one of the largest energy consumers. Even though cooling needs do not contribute a large share to the overall energy demand in temperate climates, recent trends show a tendency of large growth. This growth is related to two main drivers: cheap and affordable air-conditioning units that have overrun the market and the more frequent occurrence of hot and extremely hot weather conditions. In combination with inadequate insulation and sealing in most old buildings, both drivers contributed to new cooling installations that are significantly increasing electricity demand and peak load, even at the national level. Consequently, the use of fossil fuels in power plants and electricity import has increased. The development of sustainable buildings and the use of renewable energy sources (RES) seem to be promising solutions. However, the problem of the integration of RES in the current energy system is related to their intermittent nature and uncontrollable occurrence. Cool Thermal Energy Storage (CTES) may play an important role in the management of peak loads and solve the intermittency problem of RES, especially when cooling storage is integrated into district cooling systems. A simple mathematical model of a system with integrated RES and CTES has been developed. Hourly system analyses have been conducted for one building, a group of buildings connected to the district cooling system and a region represented by a mixture of different demands for cool thermal energy. This paper also includes the results for the overall energy efficiency, cost effectiveness and environmental impact of the systems analysed.

2012-12-01

318

The alternative and renewable energy sources in Mexico; Fuentes alternativas y renovables de energia en Mexico  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents an overview of the efforts that have been made in our Mexico in the area of Alternative and Renewable Sources of Energy, effort performed by different institutions, government agencies and private companies along the last 25 years. Older periods are not contemplated, although significant advances have existed, specifically in the area of small micro-hydraulic power plants, since the end of the past century and in solar collectors, more than 60 years ago, as the most relevant advances have been contemplated in these last two decades. The entire world energy demand is analyzed, making emphasis in our country, the efforts on the installed geothermal power plants, the flat collectors for domestic use, the solar power plants installed by some government agencies are also mentioned, as well as the strong growth in the photo-voltaic field at worldwide level as well as at domestic level (a graph is presented of the multiple applications of the photo-voltaic conversion of the solar energy at world level of which some of these are already operational in our country), including the hybrid systems (wind power photo-voltaic Diesel, the pilot biogas plants, the solar ponds efforts and the recently inaugurated wind-power plant of 1.575 MW installed at La Venta, in the Oaxaca State. [Espanol] El presente articulo, presenta una revision de los esfuerzos que se han desarrollado en nuestro Mexico, en el campo de las Fuentes Alternas y Renovables de Energia, esfuerzos realizados por diferentes instituciones, dependencias y companias a lo largo de los ultimos 25 anos. No se contemplan periodos mas antiguos, aunque han existido adelantos significativos, especificamente, en el campo de pequenas centrales microhidraulicas desde fines del siglo, y de colectores solares desde hace mas de 60 anos, ya que los mas relevantes se contemplan en estas ultimas dos decadas de recopilacion. Se analiza la demanda de energia mundial, haciendo enfasis a nuestro pais, se mencionan los esfuerzos de las plantas geotermicas instaladas, los colectores planos para uso domestico y las plantas solares instaladas por algunas dependencias; tambien el fuerte crecimiento del campo fotovoltaico, tanto a nivel mundial como nacional (se presenta un cuadro de las multiples aplicaciones de la conversion fotovoltaica de la energia solar a nivel mundial, de las cuales algunas de estas ya estan siendo operativas en nuestro pais), incluyendo los sistemas hibridos (viento-fotovoltaico-diesel), las plantas pilotos de biogas, los esfuerzos en estanques solares y la recientemente inaugurada planta eolica de 1.575 Megawatt instalada en La Venta, Edo. de Oaxaca.

Urbano C, J. Antonio [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Matsumoto K, Yasuhiro; Asomoza P, Rene [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

1996-12-31

319

Renewable Energy Association  

Science.gov (United States)

As the trade association for the UK bioenergy industry, British Biogen's mission is to promote and coordinate the commercial development of biomass as a renewable fuel resource for energy production. British Biogen has merged with the Renewable Power Association. By clicking on the Renewable Energy tab, users will find information on the different subject areas. REA adds new information based upon what we discover and updates these subject fields.

2007-06-11

320

Current Renewable Energy Technologies and Future Projections  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The generally acknowledged sources of renewable energy are wind, geothermal, biomass, solar, hydropower, and hydrogen. Renewable energy technologies are crucial to the production and utilization of energy from these regenerative and virtually inexhaustible sources. Furthermore, renewable energy technologies provide benefits beyond the establishment of sustainable energy resources. For example, these technologies produce negligible amounts of greenhouse gases and other pollutants in providing energy, and they exploit domestically available energy sources, thereby reducing our dependence on both the importation of fossil fuels and the use of nuclear fuels. The market price of renewable energy technologies does not reflect the economic value of these added benefits.

Allison, Stephen W [ORNL; Lapsa, Melissa Voss [ORNL; Ward, Christina D [ORNL; Smith, Barton [ORNL; Grubb, Kimberly R [ORNL; Lee, Russell [ORNL

2007-05-01

 
 
 
 
321

Energy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Different kinds of energy sources are compared with one another based on the book 'Energie -c'est quoi' edited by the Management of French Electric Installations. Energy sources are classified according to their densities, regular or irregular occurrences, renewable or constant amounts, flowing or storage type nature. Characteristics and advantages of nuclear power are discussed emphasizing the significance of nuclear power plants as converters. (V.N.)

1985-01-01

322

Wind, biomass, hydrogen: renewable energies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This press kit gathers a series of articles about renewable energies: the compared availabilities of renewable energy sources (comparison at a given time); offshore wind turbines (projects under development, cost optimisation); hydrogen for transports: present day situation (production, transport and storage, hydrogen conversion into mechanical energy, indirect use in biomass conversion); biomass: future carbon source (resource potential in France, pyrolysis and fermentation, development of biofuels and synthetic fuels, stakes for agriculture); beneficial standards for the heat pumps market (market organization and quality approach); collecting solar energy (solar furnaces and future solar power plants, hydrogen generation). (J.S.)

2007-06-01

323

Quota regime for renewable energy sources and Green Labels trading in the electricity market of the Netherlands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The renewables quota regime combined with a ''green electricity'' labelling and trading system, implemented by the Dutch association of distribution undertakings, is the first of its kind in Europe. The distribution undertakings are bound by a commitment to take and distribute ''green label'' electricity from renewables amounting to approx. 3% of their total sales to contractual customers. This is a modest percentage, but the quota regime already proved to be a promoter of close-to-the-market generation technologies. It would be too early now to make a final statement on the quota regime's influence on enhanced use of renewable energy sources. Practice so far also revealed the need for some modifications in the design of the pricing system for''green electricity''. Current debates consider integration of renewable energy sources abroad. The first accounting date for giving evidence of compliance with the commitment to green label quotas is late in the year 2000. This will be the test for the system and the efficiency of sanctions provided for in case of non-compliance. It will be a task of the future to examine whether it might be appropriate to establish a similar system for the heat market. (RHM/CB)

1998-01-01

324

POSITIVE ECONOMIC INCENTIVES: THE PROMOTION OF THE USE OF ENERGY FROM RENEWABLE SOURCES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper is focused on positive economic incentives for environmentalprotection, particularly on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sourceswhich should be in accordance with the concept of sustainable development. Firstly,functions and types of economic incentives for environmental protection aredescribed. Next, legislation on the promotion of the use of energy from renewablesources (which follows the Directives of the European Union is analyzed; approachesto its amendments in the Czech Republic and Germany are compared. Finally, relevantproblems are discussed in addition to their possible solutions.

HELENA DOLEŽALOVÁ

2011-01-01

325

Renewable energy export network  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Renewable Energy Exporters Network (REEN) has recently been established, following a meeting of renewable energy exporters and government agencies on 30 October 2000. REEN will assist the Australian renewable energy industry to take advantage of the opportunities offered by the burgeoning global market for renewable energy goods and services. Recent estimates of the significant potential global growth is renewable energy demand have reinforced the industry and Government's view that, in the medium to long-term, growth in the Australian renewable energy industry will largely depend on capturing export market share. Expanding the export market was identified as a crucial component in the Renewable Energy Action Agenda, developed jointly by industry and Government and released in June 2000. It was estimated that, for the industry to achieve its vision of sales of $4 billion per year by 2010, exports would need to comprise approximately 50% of the forecast growth in sales. As such, the need for a specific export strategy for the Australian renewable energy industry was recognised in the Action Agenda, and the establishment of the REEN is one of the first initiatives undertaken as part of the Renewable Energy Export Strategy. The REEN comprises approximately 50 export-ready renewable energy companies, the Department of Industry, Science and Resources, Austrade, and Stage Government agencies such as NSW's Sustainable Energy Development Authority. The Export Network will operate electronically, with face-to-face meetings held as appropriate. The Department of Industry, Science and Resources will facilitate the Export Network and has published a website at www.isr.gov.au/industry/reen. The site includes: a members directory; a discussion forum; information on opportunities to showcase Australian renewable; energy products and services; and Iinks to sites containing information that may be useful to renewable energy exporters. Other actions that are being undertaken as part of the Renewable Energy Export Strategy include: identifying the size, location and accessibility of potential export markets; identifying Australian export capabilities including successful exporters and export-ready companies; implementing a mechanism to disseminate information to industry on export markets and opportunities; showcasing Australian export capabilities; identifying export barriers and developing a mechanism for addressing these; and strengthening and broadening the focus of the Electric Energy Industry Export Council on renewable energy exports

2000-03-01

326

Combination drying with renewable energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A combination corn drying system using renewable energy sources for heat was tested in 1981 and 1982. The high temperature drying phase used heat from the gasification of corn cobs. Drying was completed in a storage bin with forced natural air supplemented by heat from solar energy. System and component performances are discussed along with estimates of relative energy costs.

Foster, G.H.; Baker, K.D.; Tuite, J.

1982-12-01

327

A renewable energy future?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent developments in the field of renewable energy taking place in Australia are highlighted. It is estimated that the developments are not only scientifically possible but are rapidly approaching economic viability and the industry is proactively identifying the markets. The author emphasised that there is an increasing recognition of the need to include a business perspective in measures taken to commercialize renewable energy technologies

1995-03-01

328

Renewable energy consents  

…to develop renewable energy installations.  Consenting bodies and developers will need to work together constructively and effectively to meet that challenge. We will need to build on the positive practice that is already occurring, as there are many examples of renewable energy developments which…

329

Which available capacity of the grid for renewable energy sources?; Quelle capacite d'accueil des reseaux pour les energies renouvelables?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The development of renewable energy sources for the generation of electricity, particularly wind energy and solar electricity, implicates to take into account the necessary developments of the electric power transmission network to be able to receive and guarantee the trans-mission of electricity produced from renewable sources which must represent more than 20 % of energy consumption in France in 2020. A transmission grid correctly sized is necessary to reach such targets. The ambitious development of renewable energy sources implicates therefore that the grid problematic is entirely taken into account and that the transmission grid operator has means allowing to locate favor-able zones to this development and to link to these zones an amount of power. Besides, the regulation frame must allow the building of the new electrical lines necessary for the connection of wind farms to the grid, respecting criteria of sustainable development. (authors)

Bezat, G.; Roy, F. [Reseau de Transport d' Electricite, Dept. Performance du Systeme et Acces au Reseau, 92 - La Defense (France); Busse, Ph. [Reseau de Transport d' Electricite, Dept. Developpement de Reseau et Perspectives Energetiques, 92 - La Defense (France)

2009-10-15

330

The promotional impacts of green power products on renewable energy sources: direct and indirect eco-effects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Green power products may be seen as a means of fostering renewable energy sources because they create and channel consumer demand for environmentally sound power generation. They can therefore be evaluated on a par with other support instruments regarding their effectiveness to connect new capacity to the grid. Apart from this direct effect however, green power products confer a much more active role for customers and utilities. Thus, learning processes, which foster eco-oriented decisions beyond the construction of new renewable generation capacity, may be induced. In the present paper, we provide an encompassing review of the ecological consequences of green electricity products. We examine the direct eco-effects by comparing five European countries in their endeavor to increase electricity generation from renewable energy. The results show that the impact of green power on increasing renewable generation capacity is rather limited. In a second step, we analyze the contribution of green power in stimulating eco-oriented learning. It turns out that green power has particular potential in facilitating simultaneous learning processes involving power producers, traders, suppliers and consumers. We conclude that green electricity can be a crucial complement to governmental energy policies in the mid term. A precondition for reaping this potential is the careful policy design to create synergies in the interaction of regulatory support schemes and the green power market

2006-02-01

331

Can renewable energies be turned to a source of advantage by developing countries?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Traditional industrial development pathways, that did not take into explicit consideration the issue of energy technologies to be utilized, now imperil development prospects around the world. As oil supplies approach their peak globally, and energy security becomes a major issue, so developing countries have everything to lose by simply following fossil fuel based industrialization, and everything to gain by recasting their development strategies around the prospects for renewable energies and biofuels. This is now a feasible prospect, as shown dramatically by the Brazilian experience, now being replicated in many developing countries, including most notably in India and China. This paper argues that the time is therefore ripe for developing countries, and development agencies such as the World Bank, to re-evaluate their stance on biofuels. Developing countries, particularly in the tropics, have an abundance of land, water and sunshine that give them a competitive advantage in biofuels, and for the development of a new industry ergo-culture that will stand alongside traditional agriculture. The paper argues that a swing behind biofuels can unlock a chain reaction of favorable developmental processes provided developing countries seize the initiative and set in place renewable energy industry creation projects before the developed world has managed to shake itself out of its fossil fuel dependence. In doing so, they will do a great service to themselves and to everyone concerned with the disastrous prospects of global climate change. (author)

2007-01-01

332

Renewable energy delivery systems and methods  

Science.gov (United States)

A system, method and/or apparatus for the delivery of energy at a site, at least a portion of the energy being delivered by at least one or more of a plurality of renewable energy technologies, the system and method including calculating the load required by the site for the period; calculating the amount of renewable energy for the period, including obtaining a capacity and a percentage of the period for the renewable energy to be delivered; comparing the total load to the renewable energy available; and, implementing one or both of additional and alternative renewable energy sources for delivery of energy to the site.

Walker, Howard Andrew

2013-12-10

333

Renewable Energy Technology Certificate  

Science.gov (United States)

The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) has provided this framework for a renewable energy certificate. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

2011-05-27

334

GIS-based evaluation of multifarious local renewable energy sources: a case study of the Chigu area of southwestern Taiwan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The issue of regulating greenhouse gas emissions of developing countries is one of the main reasons for the US's retreat from ratifying the Kyoto Protocal, and this deserves particular attention in order to ensure that a robust international climate policy exists in the future. Enabling developing countries to move toward low-carbon energy systems would enhance the feasibility for their participation in mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. This study evaluates wind, solar, and biomass energy sources in a rural area of Chigu in southwestern Taiwan by means of analyzing technical, economic, environmental, and political implications in order to establish an evaluation model for developing local renewable energy sources. The adopted approach evaluates local potentials of renewable energy sources with the aid of a geographic information system according to actual local conditions, and allows the assessment to consider local potentials and restrictions such as climate conditions, land uses, and ecological environments, thus enabling a more-accurate assessment than is possible with evaluations on an approximate basis. These results may help build a developmental vision for sustainable energy systems based on locally available natural resources, and facilitate a transition of national energy and environmental policies towards sustainability

2006-04-01

335

Renewable energy in Antarctica  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Australian Antarctic Division is attempting the largest renewable energy installation of any nation in Antarctica. It has been investigating the potential of renewable energy sources to supplement existing fuel-generated energy supplies since 1993. In 1995, a 10 kW Vergnet turbine was installed at Casey station to investigate the operational aspects of using wind turbines in Antarctica. By the end of 1996, research had revealed that the suitability of using wind power was greater at some of Australia's stations than others. Maw-son station has the most suitable wind profile, with an annual average wind of 11 m/sec. Macquarie Island's profile is also suitable. Casey has less potential, with a major issue being strong wind gusts of 81 m/sec and long periods of calm weather. Davis has much less wind and limited potential. Further wind resource research was undertaken before feasibility studies commenced for large wind turbines at Mawson and Macquarie Island in 1999. The studies concluded that commercial turbines with minimal modifications should be suitable for the stations. This, however, was only the first step

2002-06-01

336

Renewable energy technologies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book provides a valuable overview of the prospects for new and renewable energy technologies and their possible role in energy planning in developing countries. Contents include: biomass energy; production; conversion; utilisation; biomass engines and biomass fuels; solar energy systems; wind energy systems; and hydro energy systems.

Kristoferson, L.A.; Bokalders, V.

1986-01-01

337

Potential role of Romanian environment NGOs in renewable energy sources promotion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Renewable Energy Resources (RES) promotion in Romania can be accelerated with the support of local Non-government organizations (NGOs). This is illustrated by two very interesting RES sectors, solar energy and small-hydro. The most important recommendations for RES use in Romania are potential applications and market for Renewable Energy Technology (RET), identification of pilot projects to be launched in the short term, preparation of a legal, organizational and institutional framework for the use of RES and promotion of RET, preparation of a financial framework for RES and RET and elaboration of an RES strategy for the next 15 years, public awareness through RES campaigns, and special programs for rural electrification. Environment and social requirements which need consideration, and the respective advantages of these are discussed. RET market development is a most important part of the approach proposed. It is concluded that with all approaches regarding RES promotion by NGOs in Romania, the reliability of the equipment combined with good design should be top priority. The contribution of local NGOs, as well as the co-operation with other European and non-European NGOs could represent an important component of RES promotion. (author). 6 refs.

Fara, L. [Romanian Solar Energy Society, Bucharest, (Romania)

1995-12-31

338

The case for renewable energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The 25-year history of ISES ( International Solar Energy Society)-UK and the development of renewable energy sources was recalled. The renewables business was said to have been of scientific interest in the 1970s (when ISES-UK apparently played a role in solar energy), to engineering interest in the 80s (the time of competition for the largest wind and solar plants) to the present day situation of a sound manufacturing and marketing environment and a multi-billion dollar market. Some important milestones in the progress of the development of renewables are discussed - they include: the era of low oil prices and large fossil reserves, concern for carbon dioxide emissions, trade in green certificates, technological innovations and de-privatisation. The future for renewables and the possible role of the International Energy Agency are discussed briefly.

Lysen, E.H. [Utrecht Centre for Energy Research (UCE) (Netherlands)

1999-07-01

339

Renewable Energy Living Lab: Energy Experts  

Science.gov (United States)

Students use real-world data to evaluate various renewable energy sources and the feasibility of implementing these sources. Working in small groups, students use data from the Renewable Energy Living Lab to describe and understand the way the world works. The data is obtained through observation and experimentation. Using the living lab gives students and teachers the opportunity to practice analyzing data to solve problems or answer questions, in much the same way that scientists and engineers do every day.

Civil And Environmental Engineering Department

340

Energy conservation in ethanol production from renewable resources and non-petroleum energy sources  

Science.gov (United States)

The dry milling process for the conversion of grain to fuel ethanol is reviewed for the application of energy conservation technology, which will reduce the energy consumption to 70,000 Btu per gallon, a reduction of 42 percent from a distilled spirits process. Specific energy conservation technology applications are outlined and guidelines for the owner/engineer for fuel ethanol plants to consider in the selection on the basis of energy conservation economics of processing steps and equipment are provided. Steps discussed are mash preparation and cooking, fermentation, distillation, and distillers dried grains processing. The economics of cogeneration of fuel ethanol plants is also studied.

1981-03-01

 
 
 
 
341

Sistemas Integrados de energías con fuentes renovables, requisitos y opciones. Integrated systems of energy with renewable sources, requirements and options  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En el presente reporte se consideró una instalación conectada a la red eléctrica en la isla de Cuba. Se tenía el interés de introducir un determinado % de energía a partir de fuentes renovables, y se poseía un determinado potencial de energía eólica y fotovoltaica. Se analizaron los requisitos y opciones energéticas, se realizaron simulaciones de alternativas con el programa HOMER y se concluyó con la determinación de las condiciones o potenciales de las fuentes renovables para la recomendación de cada opción energética, y se presentaron los resultados de forma gráfica y fácil comprensión. Se ofreció un análisis de las posibilidades reales que en el ámbito de una localidad, pueden aprovecharse en función de diversificar de manera sostenible, el esquema energético comunitario  con la utilización de las fuentes renovables de energía, utilizando la variante que desde el punto económico y ambiental resulte de más conveniencia.  In this report was considered an electric net connected installation in the island of Cuba. It had the interest of introducing a certain % of energy starting from renewable sources, and a certain potential of wind and photovoltaic energy was possessed. The requirements and energy options were analyzed, and it were carried out simulations of alternative with the HOMER program and it was concluded with the determination of the conditions or potentials of the renewable sources for the recommendation of each energy option, and the results were presented in graphic way and easy understanding. It was offered an analysis of the real possibilities in the environment of a town. It can take advantage in function of diversifying from a sustainable way, with the community energy outline using the renewable sources of energy, and taking the variant of more convenience from the economic and environmental point of view.

Antonio Sarmiento Sera

2014-01-01

342

Sistemas Integrados de energías con fuentes renovables, requisitos y opciones / Integrated systems of energy with renewable sources, requirements and options  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En el presente reporte se consideró una instalación conectada a la red eléctrica en la isla de Cuba. Se tenía el interés de introducir un determinado % de energía a partir de fuentes renovables, y se poseía un determinado potencial de energía eólica y fotovoltaica. Se analizaron los requisitos y opc [...] iones energéticas, se realizaron simulaciones de alternativas con el programa HOMER y se concluyó con la determinación de las condiciones o potenciales de las fuentes renovables para la recomendación de cada opción energética, y se presentaron los resultados de forma gráfica y fácil comprensión. Se ofreció un análisis de las posibilidades reales que en el ámbito de una localidad, pueden aprovecharse en función de diversificar de manera sostenible, el esquema energético comunitario con la utilización de las fuentes renovables de energía, utilizando la variante que desde el punto económico y ambiental resulte de más conveniencia. Abstract in english In this report was considered an electric net connected installation in the island of Cuba. It had the interest of introducing a certain % of energy starting from renewable sources, and a certain potential of wind and photovoltaic energy was possessed. The requirements and energy options were analyz [...] ed, and it were carried out simulations of alternative with the HOMER program and it was concluded with the determination of the conditions or potentials of the renewable sources for the recommendation of each energy option, and the results were presented in graphic way and easy understanding. It was offered an analysis of the real possibilities in the environment of a town. It can take advantage in function of diversifying from a sustainable way, with the community energy outline using the renewable sources of energy, and taking the variant of more convenience from the economic and environmental point of view.

Sarmiento Sera, Antonio; Rodríguez Gámez, María; Castillo Castillo, Orestes; Vázquez Pérez, Antonio.

343

Renewable Energy Sources, Energy Efficiency and Reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions as Main Sources Development of 'Green Economy' in Croatia until 2050  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Most countries will need a shift in their energy strategies in order to limit the increase in global warming and to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases. It is worrying that while technologies with little or no greenhouse gas emissions exist, and are used for a couple of decades now, the increase of their market share is extremely low and the investments and subsidies in fossil fuels are substantially larger on a world wide scale. For changes to accrue it is necessary to carefully plan both the energy consumption and supply. A correct and rational prediction of future energy consumption is the basic assumption for the advanced analysis and modelling of energy systems and it will, as an input, have a profound influence on them. In this paper a bottom up approach was selected because it is the most suitable methodology to describe the legal, economic or purely technical mechanisms. Scenarios for the energy supply in 100% renewable systems in 2050 and the possibility to create a low-carbon society were simulated using the EnergyPLAN model for energy system analysis. Comparison of the necessary useful energy for space heating in 2050 shows a difference greater than 16% for different rates of renovation of the existing buildings in the residential sector of 1% and 3% annually. The electrification of road transport for passenger cars in combination with increased requirements for energy efficiency of internal combustion engines can reduce the energy consumption in the transport sector by 30% in comparison to the reference scenario for 2050. It is possible to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases by 82% in the period 2030-2050 and the use of renewable energy sources and the production of synthetic fuels can enable a transition to a 100% renewable energy system in Croatia in 2050. Doing so would create 192000 jobs in plant maintenance and fuel production alone, increase the security of energy supply and reduce the expenditure for the purchase of fossil fuels by 4-5 billion EUR according to the results of the simulation.(author)

2012-06-03

344

Multicriteria analysis of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) utilisation in waste treatment facilities: the case of Chania prefecture, Greece  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Greece's current solid waste management system faces important environmental challenges that make it non-sustainable. There is a need to move towards an integrated solid waste management that shall include systems in the frames of 'sustainable development' approach. An optimisation methodology is applied in Greece, where various Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) could be exploited to satisfy part of the existing and proposed waste management facilities' energy needs. An application of multicriteria analysis and many scenarios were examined in the cases where the requirements of certain end uses were increased and where RES could not contribute at the maximum of their potential.

Xydis, George; Loizidou, Maria

2010-01-01

345

Renewable energy islands in Europe  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This publication includes a compiled presentation of various aspects concerning the possible transformation of some European islands into renewable energy communities and these projects were presented by a selection of pioneer islands at the first European Seminar on Renewable Energy Islands, held on the Danish island of Samsoee, 29-30 June 1998. This issue has increased in importance with the presentation of the ambitious EU-White Paper: `Energy for the future: Renewable Sources of Energy` which was adopted in 1998. One of the key elements of the strategy for an accelerated implementation of renewable energy is to transform 100 localities within Europe into communities which are to be 100% self-sufficient with renewable energy before 2010. In line with this strategy, the Danish Government appointed the island of Samsoe towards the end of 1997 to be the first `official` Danish, renewable energy island. This is to serve as a demonstration project for other local communities, both in Denmark as well as in the rest Europe. Gothland, Madeira, Canary Islands, Cape Verde, Arki, Crete, Minorca and Orkney Islands were represented. Environmental advantages of wind, solar and wave power for distant island communities were indicated. Serious savings would be achieved by limitation of fossil fuel import and utilization of local resources. (EG)

Oestergaard, Iben [ed.

1998-12-31

346

Renewable energy projects in small island countries funded under the United Nation trust found for new and renewable source of energy (NRSE)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The NRSE trust fund established with financial support from the Italian Government has succeeded in catalyzing a number of energy projects in small island developing countries. These projects have elicited a great deal of interest by local communities and opened up prospects for further utilization of locally available energy resources. The projects have created a positive impact on the quality of life of people in dispersed locations in small island developing countries by focusing on provision of renewable energy based electricity services such as solar PV lighting for homes, schools, and hospitals; radio, TV, VCR as well as medicine refrigerators. Thus it has become evident that renewable energy technologies such as solar and wind systems can have an important role to play in improving the quality of life of people in these small island countries. Market potential for these technologies is indeed substantial. However constraints and barriers still exist. One of the principal barriers is still the high initial cost of solar devices. Innovative financing including microcredit facilities needs to be explored. Efforts are also needed to strengthen local capacity to undertake assembly of components and systems, and also in the installation, maintenance, and service of renewable energy devices. Entrepreneurial activities need to be fostered through further strengthening of skills in this area. (EHS)

1999-11-01

347

Design of power converters for renewable energy sources and electric vehicles charging  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper describes the design and construction of new series of power converters equipped with liquid cooling system. This power series is created for project ENET – Energy Units for Utilization of non Traditional Energy Sources. First power converter is determined for stationary battery system use, the second one is used as an inverter/rectifier for a small solar plant system and the last power inverter is used as a fast charger for electric vehicles. Energy balance is performed for the ...

Tvrdon?, Martin; Chlebis?, Petr; Hromjak, Michal

2013-01-01

348

Design of Power Converters for Renewable Energy Sources and Electric Vehicles Charging  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper describes the design and construction of new series of power converters equipped with liquid cooling system. This power series is created for project ENET – Energy Units for Utilization of non Traditional Energy Sources. First power converter is determined for stationary battery system use, the second one is used as an inverter/rectifier for a small solar plant system and the last power inverter is used as a fast charger for electric vehicles. Energy balance is performed for the ...

Martin Tvrdon; Petr Chlebis; Michal Hromjak

2013-01-01

349

Implementing Renewable Energy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The project has a focus on the implementation of the Renewable Energy Directive from 2009 in the European Member States. It studies the formal transposition and the practical implementation of the directive until 2012 and projects expected target fulfillment in 2020. The project aims at assessing the effect of European legislation within the field of renewable energy, whether formal transposition correlates with practical implementation and could therefor be said to be a valuable indicator ac...

2012-01-01

350

Renewable energy sources role in the energy sources diversification process in Slovak republic focused on east Slovakia region  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Actually frequently discussed question is the problem of the human energy demand supply. Especially discussed is a problem ofalternative energy devices integration into the existing fuel and energy supply system. For good interpretation of information’s it isnecessary to know specification of energy demand condition in particular branches of industry and energy sector.The subject of this article is to show variability, causality and complex character of the energetics as industry part, whic...

2008-01-01

351

2008 Renewable Energy Data Book  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2008 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar energy, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investments.

2009-07-01

352

Project financing renewable energy schemes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The viability of many Renewable Energy projects is critically dependent upon the ability of these projects to secure the necessary financing on acceptable terms. The principal objective of the study was to provide an overview to project developers of project financing techniques and the conditions under which project finance for Renewable Energy schemes could be raised, focussing on the potential sources of finance, the typical project financing structures that could be utilised for Renewable Energy schemes and the risk/return and security requirements of lenders, investors and other potential sources of financing. A second objective is to describe the appropriate strategy and tactics for developers to adopt in approaching the financing markets for such projects. (author)

1993-01-01

353

Project financing renewable energy schemes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The viability of many Renewable Energy projects is critically dependent upon the ability of these projects to secure the necessary financing on acceptable terms. The principal objective of the study was to provide an overview to project developers of project financing techniques and the conditions under which project finance for Renewable Energy schemes could be raised, focussing on the potential sources of finance, the typical project financing structures that could be utilised for Renewable Energy schemes and the risk/return and security requirements of lenders, investors and other potential sources of financing. A second objective is to describe the appropriate strategy and tactics for developers to adopt in approaching the financing markets for such projects. (author)

Brandler, A.

1993-12-31

354

Reassessing renewable energy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This policy brief presents a long term assessment of low-carbon energies including renewables, nuclear and fossil energy with CCS. It targets the electricity sector from a global to a regional perspective and from centralized to decentralized energy systems. The policy brief aims at finding answers to the following questions: What role can and should renewable energy play in the next decades on the way to a low-carbon energy future? What is the optimal electricity mix (now and in the future)?...

2012-01-01

355

Development of Innovative Heating and Cooling Systems Using Renewable Energy Sources for Non-Residential Buildings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Industrial and commercial areas are synonymous with high energy consumption, both for heating/cooling and electric power requirements, which are in general associated to a massive use of fossil fuels producing consequent greenhouse gas emissions. Two pilot systems, co-funded by the Italian Ministry for the Environment, have been created to upgrade the heating/cooling systems of two existing buildings on the largest industrial estate in Umbria, Italy. The upgrade was specifically designed to improve the system efficiency and to cover the overall energy which needs with renewable energy resources. In both cases a solar photovoltaic plant provides the required electric power. The first system features a geothermal heat pump with an innovative layout: a heat-storage water tank, buried just below ground level, allows a significant reduction of the geothermal unit size, hence requiring fewer and/or shorter boreholes (up to 60%–70%. In the other system a biomass boiler is coupled with an absorption chiller machine, controlling the indoor air temperature in both summer and winter. In this case, lower electricity consumption, if compared to an electric compression chiller, is obtained. The first results of the monitoring of summer cooling are presented and an evaluation of the performance of the two pilot systems is given.

Cinzia Buratti

2013-10-01

356

Photon Science for Renewable Energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Our current fossil-fuel-based system is causing potentially catastrophic changes to our planet. The quest for renewable, nonpolluting sources of energy requires us to understand, predict, and ultimately control matter and energy at the electronic, atomic, and molecular levels. Light-source facilities - the synchrotrons of today and the next-generation light sources of tomorrow - are the scientific tools of choice for exploring the electronic and atomic structure of matter. As such, these photon-science facilities are uniquely positioned to jump-start a global revolution in renewable and carbonneutral energy technologies. In these pages, we outline and illustrate through examples from our nation's light sources possible scientific directions for addressing these profound yet urgent challenges.

2010-01-01

357

Changes in the German law system, the role of banks and the effects on the contribution of renewable energy sources after the governmental changes in 1998 and 2005  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since 1999 there is a strong increase in the contribution of renewable energy sources in Germany caused by the governmental change in 1998, and by the global efforts to fight climate change. For Minister Sigmund Gabriel, sustainable usage and supply of energy belongs to the most important challenges of the 21st century. During the last eight years, the government undertook many efforts to improve the use of renewable energy sources. There are many studies about amendments and the effect of state promotion. The aim of this evaluation is to show in which years remarkable changes in the allocation of renewable energy sources took place. In a further step, reasons therefore are given. Wind energy, Biomass and Photovoltaics/Solar Radiation and Geothermal energy are growing, especially since 1999. Interesting for this analysis are the years when the installed electricity generation grew rapidly in one source. That is the reason why Hydropower plays no important role. The GWh provided in 1990 of about 17,000 had its all time high in 2000 with 24,936 and is 21,600 in 2006. For all other kinds of renewable energy sources an analysis is done in detail. In this case, both the nominal and percentile growth are important. At the beginning of the commercial use of a source, we can find high growth rates but small nominal growth while in a later stage the ratios change. The sources are sorted by their relevance. Most important is actually Biomass with a contribution of 102.488 GWh followed by Wind power with 30.500 GWh, Photovoltaics/Solar Radiation (5.400 GWh) and Geothermal energy (2.000 GWh). While wind energy is only used for electricity generation, heat supply is more relevant in all three other sources. Opposite of renewable energy, oil, gas and coal are the main sources of primary energy and heat production. Remarkable in this analysis is that no year can be identified where the growth of renewable energy sources was in all four cases similar. As carbon trading started 1 January 2005, a general positive impulse to all renewable energy sources should be recognizable. This positive impulse can not be verified. Further it can be pointed out that the Renewable Energy Sources Act is a basis and one reason for the positive development of renewable energy sources but surely not the only. Many other factors must be taken into account; in particular state benefits and subsidized loans as well as the oil, gas and coal price. Higher costs for other sources of energy makes renewable energy sources more profitable with smaller subventions. In the future, a basis like the Renewable Energy Sources Act is absolutely necessary to promote alternative or renewable sources of energy. State benefits for the development will become more and more unimportant as the technical development goes forward. Then the price mechanism in case of rising cost for raw materials like oil, gas or coal will support the further development of Biomass, Wind energy, Solar Radiation and Geothermal energy.

Gerner, D.; Rybar, P.

2007-07-01

358

Contribution of Renewable Energy Sources to the Sustainable Development of Islands: An Overview of the Literature and a Research Agenda  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Renewable energy sources (RES have significant potential to contribute to the economic, social and environmental energy sustainability of small islands. They improve access to energy for most of the population, they also reduce emissions of local and global pollutants and they may create local socioeconomic development opportunities. The aim of this paper is to provide a review of the theoretical and empirical literature on the contribution of RES to the energy sustainability of islands, focusing on the main results and the methodologies used. Papers are classified according to their coverage of the three dimensions of the triangular approach to sustainability (economic, environmental and social. The review also takes into account whether and how the procedural sustainability has been tackled in those papers. It is acknowledged that although several topics have been covered by the existing literature, there are promising avenues for future research on several fronts, both thematic and methodological.

Loraima Jaramillo-Nieves

2010-03-01

359

Design of Power Converters for Renewable Energy Sources and Electric Vehicles Charging  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes the design and construction of new series of power converters equipped with liquid cooling system. This power series is created for project ENET – Energy Units for Utilization of non Traditional Energy Sources. First power converter is determined for stationary battery system use, the second one is used as an inverter/rectifier for a small solar plant system and the last power inverter is used as a fast charger for electric vehicles. Energy balance is performed for the fast charger converter, which is solved using numerical simulations of the system.

Martin Tvrdon

2013-01-01

360

Renewable energies for Amapa's sustainable development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The generation of energy requires huge quantities of fuels which produce significant amounts of waste that are given back to the environment, causing remarkable damage. In order to avoid or at least reduce this damage, society is devoting research to other means of energy generation, free from that king of consequences - renewable energies. The article overviews of Amapa, Brazilian state, energy renewable sources

1999-12-02

 
 
 
 
361

The renewable energies in Uruguay  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report is about the energetic politc and its strong commitment with the incorporation of autochthonous sources and renewable energy. The objective and the main lines of action in Uruguay are: provide electric power, wind, biomass, bioethanol, biodiesel, solar and hydroelectric power

2011-01-01

362

Power electronics for renewable energies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Content: Review and Principles of Power Electronics; Power Semiconducters, Inductors and Capacitors; Power Electronics for Off-Grid Photovoltaics; Photovoltaic Inverters for Grid Connection; Grid Integration of Renewable Energy Sources; Electromagnetic Compatibility; Feedback Control Systems for Power Electronics; Interactions between Modules and Inverters. Most contributions are presented in foils. (GL)

NONE

2007-07-01

363

The economic impact of renewable energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report summarises the findings of a project investigating the economic impact of renewable energy. The background to the study is traced, and potential sources of public finance for renewable projects, sensitivity analysis of the employment estimates , estimates of demand met by renewable energy technologies, the expenditures involved in investment in renewable energy; and sectoral linkages are examined. Wealth creation through investment in renewable energy, and the economic and employment impacts are explored. Plant retirement and replacement analysis, and input-output models are considered in appendices

1998-01-01

364

The economic impact of renewable energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarises the findings of a project investigating the economic impact of renewable energy. The background to the study is traced, and potential sources of public finance for renewable projects, sensitivity analysis of the employment estimates , estimates of demand met by renewable energy technologies, the expenditures involved in investment in renewable energy; and sectoral linkages are examined. Wealth creation through investment in renewable energy, and the economic and employment impacts are explored. Plant retirement and replacement analysis, and input-output models are considered in appendices.

NONE

1998-02-01

365

Renewable energies in France: main 2003 results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document makes a synthesis of the power and thermal productions linked with renewable energy sources (of primary or secondary origin) for 2003. It details the uses (electrical or thermal) of the different renewable energy sources and their contribution to the different users' needs (residential, industry, agriculture..). A comparison with the previous years (2001 and 2002) is presented in tables. (J.S.)

2004-01-01

366

Projection of the possible use of renewable energy sources including energy saving in North-Rhine Westphalia. 11. technical report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Eleventh Technical Report prepared within the framework of the investigation 'Analysis of Possibilities of Solar Power Supply and its Development in Nordrhein-Westfalen' includes the projection of important results describing the present and possible future Power Supply for the state Nordrhein-Westfalen. In the first part of this report the structure of the conventional Power Supply and the CO2 emissions are described and discussed. As a consequence of the strong coupling of the use of renewable energy supply systems in combination with energy saving, a possible contribution of energy saving is quantified. In the second part of this report the combined installation of different renewable energy supply systems maximizing the energy output under technical and economical conditions are analyzed reflecting on the 'area rivalry'. Furthermore, strategies for least cost renewable energy supply systems for maximum CO2 reduction or maximum energy output are developed. Summarizing, a comparative assessment of both strategies is given at the end of this report. (orig.)

1994-01-01

367

Funding for Renewable Energy  

Science.gov (United States)

On May 25, 1999, the House and Senate appropriation committees cut funding for renewable energy and energy efficiency programs, while at the same time increasing funding for nuclear and fossil fuel programs. This move runs counter to the opinions of most Americans, according to a recent survey commissioned by the Sustainable Energy Coalition. According to the survey, Americans believe renewable energy and energy efficiency funding should be prioritized, while nuclear power and fossil fuel spending should be reduced. Following the budget changes, President Clinton issued an executive order for federal agencies to cut energy consumption by 35 percent of 1985 levels by 2010, as the federal government is the largest consumer of energy. Clinton also urged Congress to reevaluate and approve the 2000 budget funding requests for research to help American businesses use energy-saving technology. This week's In The News examines the recent federal decisions regarding energy use and technology; the eight resources listed provide background information on this important issue.

Schultz, Jennifer J.

368

People and renewable energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of renewable energy is tightly connected to solving social problems in Estonia by creating more new jobs. It is essential that Estonia should increase the use of biofuels. One of the biofuels, firewood, has been used already for centuries. For wider use of renewable energy in Estonia, it is not enough to rely only on enterprices. Rather, before any serious progress can take place, the state should create the appropriate legal environment. Due to its many social and environmental aspects, renewable energy is more important to the state than a sole enterprice. Unfortunately, Estonian government has been delaying its duties. Estonia has two resources that should be taken advantage of, fertile spare land and people still used to the country life. The country people would get work by growing different energy crops on the spare land. (author)

2001-11-01

369

RENEWABLE ENERGY BETWEEN AGRICULTURE AND INDUSTRY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper aims to present the evolution of renewable energy in the entire world, including Moldova and Romania as states that tend to reach their micro- and macro-economic objectives. One of the most important goal remains thedevelopment of renewable energy from agricultural waste and so the energy coming from natural sources such assolar, wind or water without air pollution. As a conclusion, the solution to obtain this renewable energy is to attractfinancial resources from EU or USA investors.

2013-01-01

370

Economics of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration versus a Suite of Alternative Renewable Energy Sources for Electricity Generation in U.S., California and Illinois  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An equilibrium economic model for policy evaluation related to electricity generation at national and individual state level in U.S has been developed. The model takes into account the non-renewable and renewable energy sources, demand and supply factors and environmental constraints (CO2 emissions). Economic policy analysis experiments are carried out to determine the consequences of switching the sources of electricity generation under two scenarios: in first scenario, a switch from coal t...

2012-01-01

371

Modularized multilevel and z-source power converter as renewable energy interface for vehicle and grid-connected applications  

Science.gov (United States)

Due the energy crisis and increased oil price, renewable energy sources such as photovoltaic panel, wind turbine, or thermoelectric generation module, are used more and more widely for vehicle and grid-connected applications. However, the output of these renewable energy sources varies according to different solar radiation, wind speed, or temperature difference, a power converter interface is required for the vehicle or grid-connected applications. Thermoelectric generation (TEG) module as a renewable energy source for automotive industry is becoming very popular recently. Because of the inherent characteristics of TEG modules, a low input voltage, high input current and high voltage gain dc-dc converters are needed for the automotive load. Traditional high voltage gain dc-dc converters are not suitable for automotive application in terms of size and high temperature operation. Switched-capacitor dc-dc converters have to be used for this application. However, high voltage spike and EMI problems exist in traditional switched-capacitor dc-dc converters. Huge capacitor banks have to be utilized to reduce the voltage ripple and achieve high efficiency. A series of zero current switching (ZCS) or zero voltage switching switched-capacitor dc-dc converters have been proposed to overcome the aforementioned problems of the traditional switched-capacitor dc-dc converters. By using the proposed soft-switching strategy, high voltage spike is reduced, high EMI noise is restricted, and the huge capacitor bank is eliminated. High efficiency, high power density and high temperature switched-capacitor dc-dc converters could be made for the TEG interface in vehicle applications. Several prototypes have been made to validate the proposed circuit and confirm the circuit operation. In order to apply PV panel for grid-connected application, a low cost dc-ac inverter interface is required. From the use of transformer and safety concern, two different solutions can be implemented, non-isolated or isolated PV inverter. For the non-isolated transformer-less solution, a semi-Z-source inverter for single phase photovoltaic systems has been proposed. The proposed semi-Z-source inverter utilizes only two switching devices with doubly grounded feature. The total cost have been reduced, the safety and EMI issues caused by the high frequency ground current are solved. For the transformer isolated solution, a boost half-bridge dc-ac micro-inverter has been proposed. The proposed boost half-bridge dc-dc converter utilizes only two switching devices with zero voltage switching features which is able to reduce the total system cost and power loss.

Cao, Dong

372

Renewable Energy Opportunities at Fort Hood, Texas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The document provides an overview of renewable resource potential at Fort Hood based primarily upon analysis of secondary data sources supplemented with limited on-site evaluations. The effort was funded by the U.S. Army Installation Management Command (IMCOM) as follow-on to the 2005 DoD Renewables Assessment. This effort focuses on grid-connected generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and also ground source heat pumps for heating and cooling buildings, as directed by IMCOM.

Chvala, William D.; Warwick, William M.; Dixon, Douglas R.; Solana, Amy E.; Weimar, Mark R.; States, Jennifer C.; Reilly, Raymond W.

2008-06-30

373

Renewal of the Advanced Photon Source  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To ensure that state-of-the-art hard x-ray tools are available for US scientists and engineers who are solving key problems in energy, environment, technology development and human health, the nation's unique high-energy x-ray source needs a major renewal of its capabilities. The Advanced Photon Source renewal program responds to key scientific needs driven by our user community. The renewal encompasses many innovations in beamlines and accelerator capabilities, each of which will transform our tools and allow new problems to be solved. In particular the APS renewal dramatically expands two compelling avenues for research. Through x-ray imaging, we can illuminate complex hierarchical structures from the molecular level to the macroscopic level, and study how they change in time and in response to stimuli. Images will facilitate understanding how proteins fit together to make living organisms, contribute to development of lighter, higher-strength alloys for fuel-efficient transportation and advance the use of biomass for alternative fuels. Hard x-rays are also especially suited to the study of real materials, under realistic conditions and in real-time. The advances proposed in this area would help develop more efficient catalysts, enhance green manufacturing, point the way to artificial light-harvesting inspired by biology and help us develop more efficient lighting. The scope of the renewal of our ?$1.5B facility is estimated to be ?$350M over five years. It is vital that the investment begin as soon as possible. The renewed APS would complement other national investments such as the National Synchrotron Light Source-II and would keep the U.S. internationally competitive

2008-01-01

374

Renewal of the Advanced Photon Source.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To ensure that state-of-the-art hard x-ray tools are available for US scientists and engineers who are solving key problems in energy, environment, technology development and human health, the nation's unique high-energy x-ray source needs a major renewal of its capabilities. The Advanced Photon Source renewal program responds to key scientific needs driven by our user community. The renewal encompasses many innovations in beamlines and accelerator capabilities, each of which will transform our tools and allow new problems to be solved. In particular the APS renewal dramatically expands two compelling avenues for research. Through x-ray imaging, we can illuminate complex hierarchical structures from the molecular level to the macroscopic level, and study how they change in time and in response to stimuli. Images will facilitate understanding how proteins fit together to make living organisms, contribute to development of lighter, higher-strength alloys for fuel-efficient transportation and advance the use of biomass for alternative fuels. Hard x-rays are also especially suited to the study of real materials, under realistic conditions and in real-time. The advances proposed in this area would help develop more efficient catalysts, enhance green manufacturing, point the way to artificial light-harvesting inspired by biology and help us develop more efficient lighting. The scope of the renewal of our {approx}$1.5B facility is estimated to be {approx}$350M over five years. It is vital that the investment begin as soon as possible. The renewed APS would complement other national investments such as the National Synchrotron Light Source-II and would keep the U.S. internationally competitive.

Gibson, J. M.

2008-12-31

375

Use of Oil Palm Waste as a Renewable Energy Source and Its Impact on Reduction of Air Pollution in Context of Malaysia  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy supply to supplement the increasing energy demand and reducing environment pollution is renewable energy resources. Malaysia is currently the world's second largest producer and exporter of palm oil and 47% of the world's supply of palm oil is produced by this country. Nearly 80 million tonnes of Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB) are processed annually in 406 palm oil mills and are generating approximately 54 million tonnes of palm oil mill effluent (POME), known to generate biogas consisting of methane - a Green House Gas (GHG) identifiable to cause global warming. This is 21 times more potent GHG than CO2. These two major oil palm wastes are a viable renewable energy (RE) source for production of electricity. If the two sources are used in harnessing the renewable energy potential the pollution intensity from usage of non-renewable sources can also be reduced significantly. This study focused on the pollution mitigation potential of biogas as biogas is a renewable energy. Utilization of this renewable source for the production of electricity is believed to reduce GHG emissions to the atmosphere.

Begum, Shahida; P, Kumaran; M, Jayakumar

2013-06-01

376

Use of Oil Palm Waste as a Renewable Energy Source and Its Impact on Reduction of Air Pollution in Context of Malaysia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy supply to supplement the increasing energy demand and reducing environment pollution is renewable energy resources. Malaysia is currently the world's second largest producer and exporter of palm oil and 47% of the world's supply of palm oil is produced by this country. Nearly 80 million tonnes of Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB) are processed annually in 406 palm oil mills and are generating approximately 54 million tonnes of palm oil mill effluent (POME), known to generate biogas consisting of methane – a Green House Gas (GHG) identifiable to cause global warming. This is 21 times more potent GHG than CO2. These two major oil palm wastes are a viable renewable energy (RE) source for production of electricity. If the two sources are used in harnessing the renewable energy potential the pollution intensity from usage of non-renewable sources can also be reduced significantly. This study focused on the pollution mitigation potential of biogas as biogas is a renewable energy. Utilization of this renewable source for the production of electricity is believed to reduce GHG emissions to the atmosphere.

2013-06-17

377

An adaptive Phase-Locked Loop algorithm for faster fault ride through performance of interconnected renewable energy sources  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Interconnected renewable energy sources require fast and accurate fault ride through operation in order to support the power grid when faults occur. This paper proposes an adaptive Phase-Locked Loop (adaptive dαβPLL) algorithm, which can be used for a faster and more accurate response of the grid side converter control of a renewable energy source, especially under fault ride through operation. The adaptive dαβPLL is based on modifying the control parameters of the dαβPLL according to the type and voltage characteristic of the grid fault with the purpose of accelerating the performance of the phase-locked loop algorithm. The adaptive parameters are adjusted in real time according to the proposed fault classification unit, which permits a fast estimation of the type of the grid fault. The outstanding performance of the proposed adaptive PLL is verified through simulation and experimental results. Furthermore, the benefits of using the proposed adaptive PLL on the control of the GSC of RES are also demonstratedin this paper.

Hadjidemetriou, Lenos; Kyriakides, Elias

2013-01-01

378

Renewable energy technologies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A review is given of the renewable energy technologies used in the rural sector in developing countries. This is covered under the subject headings of the production, conversion and utilization of bioenergy; biomass engines and biomass engine fuels; solar energy and hydro, wind and water power (U.K).

Kristoferson, L.A.; Bokalders, V.

1991-01-01

379

Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Caribbean  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles take stock of the latest developments in the field of renewables at country level around the world. Each profile combines analysis by IRENA's specialists with the latest available country data and additional information from a wide array of sources. The resulting reports provide a brief yet comprehensive picture of the situation with regard to renewable energy, including energy supply, electrical generation and grid capacity, and access. Energy policies, targets and projects are also considered, along with each country's investment climate and endowment with renewable energy resources. The energy statistics presented here span the period from 2009 until 2012, reflecting varying timelines in the source material. Since data availability differs from country to country, wider regional comparisons are possible only for the latest year with figures available for every country included. Despite the time lag in some cases, the evident differences and disparities between countries and regions around the world remain striking. The current package of country profiles is just a starting point. The geographic scope will continue to expand, and existing profiles will be enhanced with new indicators, with the whole series maintained as a live product on the IRENA website (www.irena.org)

NONE

2012-09-15

380

A probabilistic multi-objective daily Volt/Var control at distribution networks including renewable energy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the moment, due to technology improvements and governmental incentives for the use of green energies, Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) appears to be a promising approach for electricity generation. This motivates the implementation of Wind Farms (WFs) and Fuel Cell Power Plants (FCPPs) over a mass scale by Distribution Companies (DisCos). As RESs become a larger and larger portion of the generation mix, many aspects of the distribution systems operation and planning has changed. In the context of Volt/Var control problem, proliferation of RESs becomes a challenging issue for DisCos. Since wind power acts as a variable energy source, probabilistic load flow techniques are going to be necessary to analyze the utility system. This paper presents a multi-objective probabilistic method to solve the Volt/Var control problem in distribution system with high wind power penetration. A probabilistic load flow approach using Point Estimate Method (PEM) is employed to model the uncertainty in load demands and electrical power generation of WFs. To regard the operational and economic assessment of system containing WFs and FCPPs, different objective functions have been taken into account. Cost of electrical power generated by WFs, FCPPs, and DisCos, electrical energy losses, emissions produced by WFs, FCPPs and DisCos for the next day are selected as objective functions. A new powerful optimization technique based on a Modified shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithm (MSFLA) is proposed to achieve the optimal values for active and reactive power of WFs and FCPPs, reactive power of capacitors and transformers tap positions for the next day ahead. In order to tackle the optimization problem with non-commensurable objectives, the objectives are fuzzified and max-min operator is employed. The results are compared with other evolutionary methods on a 69-bus distribution feeder in terms of efficiency and accuracy. -- Highlights: ? DFR problem and Clean Air Act Amendments in November 1990. ? Use of renewable energy. ? Save energy and environmental pollution.

2011-05-01