WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Nontraditional renewable energy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper considers the application possibilities of nontraditional renewable energy sources to generate electricity, estimates the potential of nontraditional sources using energy of Sun, wind, biomass, as well as, geothermal energy and presents the results of economical analysis of cost of electricity generated by solar electrical power plants, geothermal and electrical plants and facilities for power reprocessing of biomass. 1 tab

2

Renewable energy sources (promotion)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Permission to present a Bill to establish an independent commission directly responsible for the research, development and demonstration of clean, renewable, alternative sources of energy (to nuclear energy) is requested. The paragraphs of the preamble to the Bill are summarized by the Member seeking permission. The main reason for promoting renewable energy sources is opposition to the nuclear industry. One objection was raised. However, permission was granted to present the Bill and it was read for the first time with a second reading ordered for 7 March 1986. The Bill itself is not reprinted but the permission and question are reported verbatim. (U.K.)

3

Renewable energy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report discusses the present status and future of selected renewable energy sources as solar energy, photovoltaics, hydro energy, wind energy, heat pumps, geothermal energy and biomass. The reasons for their uses as security of supply, regional development and positive environmental impact are stressed. Technological reliability, economic assessment, feasibility and potential development of electricity production are discussed. Comparison is made between the situation in different countries. 10 figs., 3 tabs. (orig.)

4

Non-renewable energy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In response to an energy demand growth about 2% per annum, non-renewable energy sources remain dominant until 2060, but the future pattern of their supplies will show market changes. With coal and oil declining, natural gas will be preferred fuel to the century, even with some limiting assumptions on its non-conventional production

5

Renewable energy sources in Slovakia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Renewable energies currently represent only 1.6% of the total primary energy consumption in Slovakia, if large hydropower plants (over 10 MW) are excluded. Technically exploitable potential: potential that can be used by implementing available technologies, limited by legislative, administrative and environmental barriers. This potential is estimated 87,754 TJ. Available potential: this refers to the part of technically exploitable potential that is limited by other uses of the resource. The current exploitation of renewable sources is estimated at 14,659 TJ, therefore the available potential represents 73,094 TJ. Economic potential: this refers to the part of the available potential that can be economically viable, given the social constraints (legislation, fiscal regulations, equipment and operation costs, discount rates, inflation, etc.). This potential is estimated to be slightly over 24,000 TJ, i.e. 32.8% of the available potential. Market potential: this refers to the part of economic potential, that investors are ready to develop by themselves, considering the market barriers (investments risks, expected benefits, etc.). It is estimated at 15.4% of the available potential. The table below gives an overview of the different potential for the various sources of renewable energy. Biomass has the greatest economic potential of all renewable energy sources, both in relative (42.7% of the available potential) and in absolute terms. Geothermal energy comes a close second. The other sources (wind, solar and small hydropower) have similar levels of potential i.e. their economic potential represents between 23% and 25% of the available resources. Potential for renewable energy sources in Slovakia in 2012 is reviewed

6

New renewable energy sources; Nye fornybare energikilder  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This booklet describes in simple terms the so-called new renewable energy sources: solar energy, biomass, wind power and wave power. In addition, there are brief discussions on hydrogen, ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), tidal power, geothermal energy, small hydropower plants and energy from salt gradients. The concept of new renewable energy sources is used to exclude large hydropower plants as these are considered conventional energy sources. The booklet also discusses the present energy use, the external frames for new renewable energy sources, and prospects for the future energy supply.

NONE

1996-07-01

7

Third party financing of renewable energy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

IDAE (Institute of Energy Saving and Diversification) Hosted the Third party on financing renewable energy sources. The meeting was articulated into chapters: 1.- Experiences in the renewable energy field. 2.- Third party financing of small hydro-power projects. 3.- Third party financing of biomass projects. 4.- Third party financing of wind energy projects

8

Third party financing of renewable energy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Institut of Energy Saving and Diversification (IDAE) hosted the third party on financing Renewable Energy Sources in Spain. The main aspects were : 1) Experiences in renewable energy. 2) Financing of small hydro-power projects. 3) Third party financing of biomass projects. 4) Financing of wind energy projects

9

Energy production from renewable energy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This table summarizes the electricity and heat produced in France and in overseas departments from renewable energy sources for 1998 (revised), 1999 (temporary) and 2000 (estimated): hydraulic, wind, solar photovoltaic and thermal, geothermal, solid municipal wastes, wood and wood wastes, biogas, ethanol and ester bio-fuels. (J.S.)

10

Renewable Energy Sources Brno '93  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The proceedings contain 27 contributions dealing with unconventional energy sources. The numbers of contributions in the individual classes of topics indicate that interest has mostly concentrated on the direct utilization of solar energy, whereas wind energy, hydroelectric energy and geothermal energy receive less attention and the use of biomass is at the margin of interest. (J.B.)

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Renewable Energy Sources Brno 1993  

Science.gov (United States)

The proceedings contain 27 contributions dealing with unconventional energy sources. The numbers of contributions in the individual classes of topics indicate that interest has mostly concentrated on the direct utilization of solar energy, whereas wind energy, hydroelectric energy and geothermal energy receive less attention and the use of biomass is at the margin of interest.

12

MODELING OF RENEWABLE HYBRID ENERGY SOURCES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent developments and trends in the electric power consumption indicate an increasing use of renewable energy. Renewable energy technologies offer the promise of clean, abundant energy gathered from self-renewing resources such as the sun, wind, earth and plants. Virtually all regions of the world have renewable resources of one type or another. By this point of view studies on renewable energies focuses more and more attention. The present paper intends to present different mathematical models related to different types of renewable energy sources such as: solar energy and wind energy. It is also presented the validation and adaptation of such models to hybrid systems working in geographical and meteorological conditions specific to central part of Transylvania region. The conclusions based on validation of such models are also shown.

Cristian-Dragos Dumitru

2009-11-01

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Modeling of renewable hybrid energy sources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent developments and trends in the electric power consumption indicate an increasing use of renewable energy. Renewable energy technologies offer the promise of clean, abundant energy gathered from self-renewing resources such as the sun, wind, earth and plants. Virtually all regions of the world have renewable resources of one type or another. By this point of view studies on renewable energies focuses more and more attention. The present paper intends to present different mathematical models related to different types of renewable energy sources such as: solar energy and wind energy. It is also presented the validation and adaptation of such models to hybrid systems working in geographical and meteorological conditions specific to central part of Transylvania region. The conclusions based on validation of such models are also shown.

Dumitru Cristian Dragos

2009-12-01

14

Renewable energy sources in agriculture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Greenhouse crop evolution if from one hand improves the quality of products and productive cycles, from another hand cause negative effects on the natural resources, the environment and the economy of the country. Although renewable energies already feature to some extent in the European Union's regional, the 2007-2013 Structural Funds package could be the occasion to increase the weight given to RES within the energy programmes for less favoured regions (particularly in ex-objective 1 areas). In those areas, greenhouse crop sector is particularly developed as agriculture industrial activity. According to numerous investigations, agricultural greenhouse consumption for greenhouse acclimatization represents approximately between 2% to 6% of the E U's-27 total energy consumption. This report is intended to give a general overview to the potential of renewable energy and technology in Italy, particularly geothermal, wind and solar (thermic and photovoltaic) as energy for greenhouse crop sector. RES have a high potential for developing of indigenous resources, service activities, new job creation and reducing Co2 emissions.

15

Optimal Power Allocation for Renewable Energy Source  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Battery powered transmitters face energy constraint, replenishing their energy by a renewable energy source (like solar or wind power) can lead to longer lifetime. We consider here the problem of finding the optimal power allocation under random channel conditions for a wireless transmitter, such that rate of information transfer is maximized. Here a rechargeable battery, which is periodically charged by renewable source, is used to power the transmitter. All of above is for...

Sinha, Abhinav; Chaporkar, Prasanna

2011-01-01

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Biogas: A renewable energy source  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Biogas refers to a gas produced by the biological breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen. Biogas can be used as a fuel in any country for any heating purpose such as cooking. By means of digesters, the energy in the gas can be converted to electricity and heat. Biogas like natural gas can also be used to power motor vehicle. Biogas is a renewable fuel which qualifies it for a renewable energy subsidy. It is non-toxic, environment-friendly and serve as a means of combating global warming. Biogas is presently being used in U.S.A, U.K, China, Sweden, Brazil, and India amongst others for domestic purposes, transportation and power generation. In this regard, this paper discusses biogas production. It also presents a model design of domestic biogas plant suitable for Nigerian households. The paper recommends that Nigerian Government should intensify efforts in educating the masses on this novel technology for a sustainable global development. A biogas plant designed for Nigerian household discussed in this paper is also recommended.

17

Life cycle assessment of renewable energy sources  

CERN Document Server

Governments are setting challenging targets to increase the production of energy and transport fuel from sustainable sources. The emphasis is increasingly on renewable sources including wind, solar, geothermal, biomass based biofuel, photovoltaics or energy recovery from waste. What are the environmental consequences of adopting these other sources? How do these various sources compare to each other? Life Cycle Assessment of Renewable Energy Sources tries to answer these questions based on the universally adopted method of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). This book introduces the concept and impor

Singh, Anoop; Olsen, Stig Irving

2013-01-01

18

Energy policy and renewable energy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to Shell, by 2050, renewable energy sources may supply over 50% of the energy, worldwide. This concentration on renewable energy sources is primarily due to the intensified environmental demands. The UN climate panel has estimated that to avoid irreversible climate change it is necessary to reduce the global emissions of CO2 by 50 to 60% during the next 100 years. Biomass energy includes a number of biological raw materials from forestry and agriculture. The forests provide wood, wood chips, bark, branches and treetops, and from agriculture, straw. Although biomass energy is not entirely pollution-free, it is renewable and CO2-neutral as long as growth and consumption are in balance. In Norway, the total annual growth of available biomass corresponds to about 80 TWh. The technical potential is estimated to 30 TWh per year, allowing for operationally reasonable ways of producing the biomass. However, there is competition for the biomass since it is used by the wood processing industry. The use of biomass and waste for energy generation varies considerably among the Nordic countries. In Denmark, agriculture dominates and large quantities of straw are burned in cogeneration plants. Sweden and Finland have well-developed forest industries, and the wood processing industry in these countries uses much more biomass fuel (bark, fibre mud, black liquor) than the Norwegian wood processing industry. In Norway, more energy can be obtained by retrofitting old hydroelectbe obtained by retrofitting old hydroelectric plants such as by installing a flexible liner in existing tunnels. This improves energy flexibility and increases energy production without negative environmental consequences. The potential for wind power is larger in Norway than in Denmark and Germany. The cost of wind power has fallen considerably as a consequence of the technological development of the sector

19

Environmental impacts of renewable energy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The global attention has always been focused on the adverse environmental impacts of conventional energy sources. In contrast nonconventional energy sources, particularly the renewable ones, have enjoyed a clean image vis a vis environmental impacts. The only major exception to this general trend has been large hydropower projects; experience has taught that they can be disastrous for the environment. The belief now is that mini hydro and microhydro projects are harmless alternatives. But are renewable energy sources really as benign as is widely believed? The present essay addresses this question in the background of Lovin's classical paradigm which had postulated the hard (malignant) and soft (benign) energy concepts in the first place. It then critically evaluates the environmental impacts of major renewable energy sources. It then comes up with the broad conclusion that renewable energy sources are not the panacea they are popularly perceived to be; indeed in some cases their adverse environmental impacts can be as strongly negative as the impacts of conventional energy sources. The paper also dwells on the steps needed to utilize renewable energy sources without facing environmental backlashes of the type experienced from hydropower projects

20

Renewable Energy Sources for Electricity Generation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The use of conventional energy sources for electricity generation, such as fossil fuel combustion and nuclear power, is questioned because of environmental and safety issues and concerns about possible anthropogenic climate change. This has led to rapid developments in the field of renewable energy exploitation. Entire new fast-growing industries are formed to supply equipment for renewable power plants. The contribution from Swedish industry to this development has so far largely been limite...

Norrga, Staffan; Stridh, Bengt; Meier, Stephan; Nee, Hans-peter

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Alternative and Renewable Energy Sources Course Model  

Science.gov (United States)

The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) has provided this course development model on renewable energy sources including solar energy, wind power, hydropower, fuel cells, biomass, and alternative transportation. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

2011-05-23

22

Renewable energy sources. European Commission papers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ''Directive on the Promotion of Electricity from Renewable Sources of Energy in the Internal Electricity Market'' was adopted in September 2001. Its purpose is to promote an increase in the contribution of renewable energy sources to electricity production in the internal market for electricity and to create a basis for a future Community framework. Energie-Cites provides in this document a summary of its opinion on the Green Paper and on Alterner II and gives a proposal for an Action Plan concerning the White Paper. (A.L.B.)

23

Promotion of renewable energy sources in Romania  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Romania's climate and geographical conditions offer the following types of renewable energy sources: solar energy, wind energy, hydro energy, biomass and geothermal energy. These are here considered within the country's energy balance on medium and long term. Romania has a significant renewable energy potential. Unfortunately at present this potential is not used but to a small extent, except for hydraulic energy and biomass (especially as firewood), the latter being used in the great majority of cases in low performance installations. Government Decision No. 443/2003 on the promotion of electric energy generation from RES and Government Decision No. 1535/2003 regarding the Strategy of RES, establish the legal framework necessary for the promotion of RES in Romania. Consequently, an Action Plan defining actions, measures, responsibilities and financial sources has been settled. (author)

24

Action plan for renewable energy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the Finnish Energy Strategy, approved by the Finnish Government in 1997, the emphasis is laid on the importance of bioenergy and other renewable energy sources for the creation of such prerequisites for the Finnish energy economy that the supply of energy can be secured, the price on energy is competitive and the emissions from energy generation are within the limits set by the international commitments made by Finland. In 1998, the European Union Meeting of the Ministers of Energy adopted a resolution taking a positive attitude to the Communication from the Commission 'Energy for the future: Renewable sources of energy' - White Paper for a Community Strategy and Action Plan. National measures play a key role in the achievement of the objectives set in the White Paper. This Action Plan for Renewable Energy Sources is a national programme in line with the EU's White Paper. It comprises all renewable sources of energy available in Finland. It encompasses even peat, which in Finland has traditionally been considered to be a solid biofuel but is internationally classified as one of the non-renewable sources of energy. In the Action Plan, objectives are set for the volume of renewable energy sources used in the year 2010 including a prognosis on the development by the year 2025. The goal is that by the year 2010 the volume of energy generated using renewable energy sources has increased by 50% compared with the year 1995. This would mean an increase by 3 Mtoe, which is about 1 Mtoe more than anticipated in the outlook based on the Finnish Energy Strategy. A further goal is to double the use of renewable energy sources by the year 2025. The aggregate use of renewable energy sources depends to a large extent both on the development of the price on energy produced using other energy sources and on possible changes in the production volume of the Finnish forest industry. The most important objective stated in the Action Plan is to improve the competitiveness of renewable energy sources in relation to other energy sources. The objective in the long term is to make them as competitive as possible in the open energy market. Among those measures of crucial importance included in the Action Plan, we can mention development and commercialisation of new technology as well as several financial measures, of which taxation and investment aid are considered to have the greatest effect. In addition, the Action Plan presents several administrative measures for the promotion of renewable energy sources. A separate assessment of the environmental impact of the Action Plan has been made resulting in an environmental impact statement (EIS) that contains a detailed account of the environmental impacts of the use of renewable energy sources and the use of peat in energy production. The most important environmental impact of the implementation of the Action Plan will be a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. As a result of the intensified measures to be taken in accordance with the Action Plan, carbon dioxide emissions are estimated to be reduced at least by 2 million tons per year compared with the outlook presented in the Energy Strategy. Further, the use of waste, which otherwise would have been transported to tips, in energy production is estimated to reduce methane emissions by 1 million ton per year (C02 equivalent). The reduction might be even much bigger in the next few years. To ensure that the objectives of the Action Plan will be achieved, the contribution by the State (tax subsidies, investment aid and other forms of aid) should be approx. FIM 500 million on an average per year in the next ten years. In 1998, the State's contribution exceeded FIM 300 million. Further, financing amounting to approx. FIM 200 million is channelled to the research on and the development of energy production technology, which in the future to a larger extent than now will be channelled to the development of such forms of energy production technology that are using renewable energy sources. (orig.)

25

Renewable energy sources: Energy Efficiency Agency  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper presents the activities of the Energy Efficiency Agency, its main functions, as well as the new legislation stimulating the use of RES, stipulated in the new Energy Law of Bulgaria. The second part of the paper describes the potential of renewable energy in i.e. wind energy; solar energy; biomass energy; hydro energy; geothermal energy; draft of a National Program on RES 2005-2015. The third part describes the main issues of the new ENERGY EFFICIENCY LAW and the established Energy efficiency fund. (Author)

26

Renewable energy sources and ecology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

(EAP) in Bulgaria with an international co-operation includes: solid wastes management; water sources management; water pollution problems; soil degradation; transport and environment; nuclear safety and nuclear waste problems and full value utilization of the RES. The Ministry of Environment and local Authorities have to develop their policies and implementing them by a range of activities to identify pollution control strategies, to identify areas where the greatest environmental benefits can be achieved at least cost and to incorporate the projects into national programmes. Possibilities for financing are linked with the expansion of Environmental Fund as well as with Western Donors and relevant international organizations

27

CARDOON, RENEWABLE SOURCE OF ENERGY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cardoon (Cynara cardunculus is a herbaceous perennial plant in the vegetable, artichoke, wild or garden, which belongs to the Compositae family (Asteraceae Compositae-and more precisely Cynara species and is grown specifically for the production of biomass (solid bio fuel as a pellet, or solid and liquid bio fuel, bio diesel. In this paper I have tried to highlight the profitability and economic efficiency of growing of this plant. Production capacity exceeding 2 tonnes dry matter/1000mp. The yield depends on climatic conditions, adequate soil moisture, soil nutrients, and range from 1 to 3 t/1000mp, dry. Cardoon seed contains on average 24% oil (category: 19-32%, with the same qualities as the sunflower. Quantity of seed production to 480 kgs/1000mp, while ordinary productivities range 70 to 330 kg/1000mp, always depending on the total biomass production. Growing cardooncan replace traditional crops, partly by ensuring a good profit for the farmer (double the wheat and rapeseed and bio fuel production with high energy content. Solid bio fuels (pellets, briquettes, artichokes, etc. can reach the enduser, at prices up to 30-40% lower than the price of oil. Because cardoon is a perennial plant which grows once every 10-12 years, and preparing the ground and sowing it will be carried out at intervals so large (this plant is harvested annually,it is remarkable cost reduction efficiency of growing this plant.In addition to the obvious environmental advantages by producing green energy, growing artichokes garden preserves the soil covered for the most part of the year, thereby minimizing the risk of soil erosion and limit the pollution of soil and groundwater with agrochemical products, especially in areas with intensive agriculture, because it does not require additional fertilization and/or with the use of chemical fertilizers or pesticides.

Cecilia NEAGU

2013-01-01

28

Can Renewable Energy Sources Satisfy Slovakia Future Energy Needs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper examines the options for replacing the current energy mix of non-renewable, conventional energy sources solely with renewable sources in the long term within the context of the Slovak environment, possibly combined with nuclear energy in the 50-year horizon. Vital needs are outlined in household energy consumption and energy consumption for industrial and transportation purposes to fulfil in order for Slovakia to become independent of foreign sources in energy supplies.(author).

29

Renewable energy sources and nuclear installations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This comprehensive work report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) made by the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI takes a look at work done in connection with the updating of the office's Energy Perspectives. In particular, the topic of electricity is reviewed in the light of pending important decisions in the area of nuclear energy and the newer renewable sources of energy. The report makes an attempt to estimate the effect on Swiss power production that the new renewables and new nuclear installations could have in the next 30-40 years and to what costs this could be done and which obstacles would have to overcome. The renewable energy sources include small hydro, wind, photovoltaics, solar thermal power plants, biogas, geothermal energy, wave-power and solar chemistry. The methods used include literature study and contacts with internal PSI experts on the various areas involved. The most important system characteristics were noted and learning curves for the various technologies were taken into account. Ecological and social factors were also considered

30

ECONOMICS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN INDIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Providing access to quality and sufficient energy to all households, individuals, sectors, and institutions at all times is the minimum condition for economic development. The climate change is gradually harming the environment, social and economic development of world economy. The major culprit fuelling the climate change is burning of fossil fuel. Hence, the power generation in India should not only aim at sufficient power generation, but also at generating clean, green and sustainable energy. The major sources of renewable power in India are 1 Wind power 2 Small Hydro power 3 Biomass 4 Cogeneration biogases and 5 waste to energy. India is having 89,760 MW estimated potential of renewable energy. But less than 2% are harnessed in actual terms.

S. R. Keshava

2014-06-01

31

Exploitation of Renewable Energy Sources and Its Legal Regulation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is great potential for exploitation of renewable energy sources in China, but the strength of policy support and stimulation measures is far from enough. Many practices in foreign countries to lead and standardize development of renewable energy sources can be used as sources of reference in China. The People's Republic of China Renewable Energy Law and relevant supporting regulations have stimulated and promoted exploitation of renewable energy sources in China.

Boyu Zhu

2010-02-01

32

White paper for the exploitation of the renewable energy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Italian government attributes at the renewable energy sources a remarkable strategy. Therefore supports the progressive integration of this energy sources in energy market and develop the co-operation with Mediterranean area countries

33

New renewable energy sources; Nye fornybare energikilder. Revidert utgave 2001  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This publication presents a review of the technological, economical and market status in the field of new renewable energy sources. It also deals briefly with the present use of energy, external conditions for new renewable energy sources and prospects for these energy sources in a future energy system. The renewable energy sources treated here are ''new'' in the sense that hydroelectric energy technology is excluded, being fully developed commercially. This publication updates a previous version, which was published in 1996. The main sections are: (1) Introduction, (2) Solar energy, (3) Bio energy, (4) Wind power, (5) Energy from the sea, (6) Hydrogen, (7) Other new renewable energy technologies and (8) New renewables in the energy system of the future.

NONE

2001-06-01

34

The development of renewable energy sources must change its scale.  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The French orientation law on energy should be adopted very soon. It fixes ambitious objectives to develop renewable energy sources, in particular a 50% increase of the renewable heat by 2010. Despite an evident acceleration in the development of these energy sources, the path remains long before reaching the orientation law and Kyoto protocol objectives. In particular, several brakes remain to be released for the development of collective facilities (renewable heat networks). This article presents the objectives of the French government in terms of renewable energy sources development (solar thermal and photovoltaic, wood fueled and cogeneration systems) and the problems encountered so far in the implementation of this policy. (J.S.)

35

OPPORTUNITIES FOR USING RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN BULGARIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bulgaria has one of Europe’s richest renewable energy resource bases. This paper presents an assessment of Bulgarian renewable sources of energy as a stage for increasing the share of these resources in the country’s total energy balance, to the end of the improvement of the environment, stimulation of industrial development and creation of new jobs. It considers the theoretical (total resource potential for solar, wind, both large and small hydro, geothermal, and biomass and waste sources. The paper presents the present status of renewable energy technologies and their installed capacities. The opportunities and constraints for development and use of renewable energy are considered.

D. Markova

2011-12-01

36

Support of energy savings and use of renewable energy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this presentation author reviews structural funds of the European Commission (EC) - Sector operational program Industry and Services. This review is divided on: Priority 1: Competition growth of industry and services by using development of home growth potential; Measure 1.4: Support of energy savings and renewable energy sources utilization; Measure 1.3: Support of enterprise, innovations and applicable research

37

Technology risk assessment to renewable energy sources. Interim report: Utilization of renewable energy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of this interim report of a BMFT-supported study are preliminary statements about the utilization of plant-derived raw materials for energy supply uses. Some aspects were analyzed by preparing technology risk assessments of the present economic situation (from the point of view of national economy) of about 50 product lines, the medium- term (2005) economic prospects, of threshold prices based on the price of fuel oil, the cost of carbon dioxide reduction, other environmental aspects, and of the acceptance of renewable energy sources among farmers. Arguments are derived from these analyses, and the present R and D deficiencies are discussed. (orig.)

38

Investigation and usage of renewable energy sources. Third conference proceedings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The third conference on investigation and usage of renewable energy sources took place in the Estonian Agricultural University at Tartu on November 1, 2001. There were numerous experts from Estonia, Finland, Germany and the EU Energy and Transportation Directorate General in Brussels. To sum up the discussions of the conference one may state that despite the improving the situation of the renewable energy source use there is still a long way to go. Firstly with amending the legislation, educating new people and financing research works. The widespread use of the renewable energy sources is the only possible way for the Estonian energy sector

39

RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN POLAND - CONDITIONS AND POSSIBILITES OF DEVELOPMENT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper describes the state of the art in renewable energy sources development. The obligation resulting from the membership of Poland in the European Union as well as from other international agreements in the scope of renewable energy sources development are described. The production of electricity, heat and biofuels in Poland is given and the perspectives of development of particular renewable energy sources in Poland are discussed in the view of potential reserves and other constrains. The economic aspects of renewable energy technologies are shown. The environmental pros and cons of biomass energy development are described. Arguments for development of renewable energy sources use are stated: the decrease of dependence from primary energy sources, the decrease the emission of green house gases and the recovery of agricultural regions of the country. In conclusion it is stated that the significance of renewable energy sources in Polish conditions is constrained to local societies. Their development should be adjusted to conditions predominating in a given region and that wider consumption of renewable energy sources should develop in conformity with sustainable development, so it is necessary to reach agreement between local societies, institutions dealing with environment protection and representatives of power sector. (auth)

Gawlik, L.; Mokrzycki, E.; Ney, R.

2007-07-01

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Renewable energy sources in Italy at 2010 an occupational impact  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present paper analyzes the occupational impact attained to the realization of programs of renewable energy sources illustrated in the Green Paper presented at the National Conference Energy and Environment

 
 
 
 
41

The White Paper for the enhancement of renewable energy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The White Paper is a guideline document on the sector which identifies, for each renewable energy source, the objects that must be achieved in order to reducing greenhouse emissions; Cipe resolution ascribes such reductions to renewable sources, pointing out the strategies and tools necessary for this purpose

42

Foreign national programs of nontraditional renewable energy source utilization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main statements of national energy programs of the USA, Great Britain, France, FRG, Italy, Japan and China in the field of nontraditional renewable energy sources development are briefly summarized. It is noted that utilization of renewable energy sources became the field for wide-range international cooperation at the verge of 80-90-ties. The cooperation was transformed into large-scale scientific, engineering and practical direction in global solution of ripened ecological and power engineering problems

43

OPPORTUNITIES FOR USING RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN BULGARIA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bulgaria has one of Europe’s richest renewable energy resource bases. This paper presents an assessment of Bulgarian renewable sources of energy as a stage for increasing the share of these resources in the country’s total energy balance, to the end of the improvement of the environment, stimulation of industrial development and creation of new jobs. It considers the theoretical (total) resource potential for solar, wind, both large and small hydro, geothermal, and biomass and waste sourc...

Markova, D.; Platikanov, S.; Konstantinoff, M.; Tsankov, P.

2011-01-01

44

Development of Electricity Generation from Renewable Energy Sources in Turkey  

Science.gov (United States)

Electricity is mainly produced from coal, natural gas and hydropower in Turkey. However, almost all the natural gas and high quality coal are imported. Thus, increasing the shares of both hydro and other renewables in energy supply is necessary to decrease dependency of the country on foreign sources. In 2008, the total installed capacity of Turkey was around 42000 MW and 66 % of this was from thermal sources. The remaining 33 % was from hydro, which leaves only one percent for the other renewable energy sources. The share of renewable energy in the energy budget of Turkey has increased in the last two decades; however, in 2008, only 17 % of the total electricity generation was realized from renewable sources most of which was hydro. According to State Hydraulic Works (SHW) which is the primary executive state agency responsible for the planning, operating and managing of Turkey's water resources, Turkey utilizes only around 35% of its economically viable hydro potential. The current situation clearly demonstrates the need for increasing the share of renewables in the energy budget. New laws, such as the Electricity Market Law, have been enacted and the following items were identified by the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources of Turkey among primary energy policies and priorities: (i) decreasing dependency on foreign resources by prioritizing utilization of natural resources, (ii) increasing the share of renewable energy resources in the energy budget of Turkey; (iii) minimization of adverse environmental impacts of production and utilization of natural resources. The government's energy policy increased investments in renewable energy resources; however lack of a needed legal framework brought various environmental and social problems with this fast development. The development of the share of renewable resources in the energy budget, current government policy, and environmental concerns related with renewables, and ideas to improve the overall benefits of the use of these domestic energy sources are investigated in this study.

Kentel, E.

2011-12-01

45

Renewable energy sources '91. Part 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Part 2 of the proceedings is devoted to the use of the energy of wind, biogas and small hydroelectric sources. The publication contains 14 contributions, out of which 3 have been inputted in INIS. They deal with a wind power plant in Sweden and its environmental impacts, economic aspects of the introduction of alternative energy sources in Czechoslovakia, and with the efficiency of application of a Fresnel lens-based solar collector. (M.D.). 5 figs., 1 tab., 2 refs

46

Development of alternative/renewable sources of energy in Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The depleting Conventional Energy Resources and highly raised prices of fuel oil, coal, firewood and such other fossil fuels, have forced the mankind to think about the utilization of Alternative / Renewable Sources of Energy. Alternative / Renewable Energy is very attractive, reliable and cost competitive energy. Sun is readily available to provide a clean, abundant and virtually infinite energy to meet the significant portion of mankind's energy-needs. The possible use of renewable-energy sources is discussed in this paper, in order to fill the estimated gap between the available energy-sources and energy-needs of our country in the near future. Designing, Fabrication and Installation of different renewable-energy devices by PCSIR are also discussed in this paper. Different renewable-energy devices such as, solar water heaters, solar cookers, solar dehydrators, solar water-desalination plants, solar heating and cooling of buildings, solar operated absorption-type chiller, solar furnace, solar architecture, developed by PCSIR are discussed in some detail so that the role of renewable-energy sources for their direct use (as heat and power) can be determined. Various technical aspects are discussed to reduce the unit cost with improved efficiency. (author)

47

48 CFR 217.175 - Multiyear contracts for electricity from renewable energy sources.  

Science.gov (United States)

...for electricity from renewable energy sources. 217.175 Section 217...for electricity from renewable energy sources. (a) The head of the...purchase of electricity from sources of renewable energy, as that term is defined...

2010-10-01

48

The renewable energies sources in France 1970-2000  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this report is to describe the energy production from renewable sources in France since 1970. In France the rate of using renewable energy sources is unequal. Some of them as hydro energy show a confirmed industrial and commercial interest when other techniques have not still reach the same level of maturity. The renewable energy sources chosen to calculate the electric and thermal production of France are: for electric power, hydro energy, wind energy, solar energy, geothermal energy, the urban wastes, the wood wastes, the harvesting residues, the biogas. For the thermal production, the thermal solar energy, the geothermal energy, the urban wastes, the wood and wood wastes, the harvesting residues, the biogas and bio fuels. The figures are marked in thirty tables. (N.C.)

49

Limits and Prospects of Renewable Energy Sources in Italy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Italian energy balance for year 2005 is discussed with particular attention on renewable energy production. The potentials of renewable sources are evaluated in terms of energy density that can be obtained from occupied plant area. About 20000 km2 of sunny barren lands are present in South of Italy, particularly suitable for photovoltaic plants and that corresponds to a potential production of 144 Mtep of primary energy. Therefore, in theory, the photovoltaic energy potential is comparable with energy balance. The grid connection limit due to intermittent power generation of photovoltaic and wind energy systems is considered in relation with the stability of grid power level. Assuming a 25% maximum grid penetration of intermittent power with respect to capacity of active thermoelectric generators, the renewable energy contribution amounts to about 2% of annual energy balance. In front of expectations for a larger contribution, the practical result is the renewable energy production of present systems is marginal, unsuitable for counteracting the global climate crisis. The conclusion is that, for exploiting the large renewable energy potential, is necessary to implement the plants with an energy storage system able to overcome the source intermittency. Without this improvement, the expectations on renewable energy sources could be disappointed.

50

Renewable energy sources in terms of entropy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A high standard of living causes a large number of irreversible processes, which generate entropy. Energy flow is necessary to remove entropy from the location of generation; commonly this is called energy consumption. The usefulness of an energy flow is defined by its capability of removing entropy from an irreversible process. Fossil energy sources are limited and their use causes ecological damage and conflicts about distribution. As a long-term alternative, energy needs to be obtained from the incoming stream of solar radiation, or indirectly by replacing natural heat engines with artificial ones. Due to the environmental side effects of this replacement, unnecessary artificial entropy production has to be minimized.

51

On the global and regional potential of renewable energy sources  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this thesis, the central research question is: what can be the contribution of renewable energy sources to the present and future world and regional energy supply system. The focus is on wind, solar PV and biomass energy (energy crops) for electricity generation. For the assessment of the economic potential, we construct cost-supply curves. As the economic potential also depends on the way renewables are integrated in the electricity system, we also explore the overall costs of wind electr...

Hoogwijk, Monique Maria

2004-01-01

52

Do energy efficiency measures promote the use of renewable sources?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper analyses the factors behind the deployment of renewable energy, focusing particularly on the effect of energy efficiency policies and measures. The impact of these factors is appraised within the context of several phases of the use of renewable sources. We therefore apply the quantile regression technique to a set of 21 European Countries in two time spans: from 1990 to 1998, and from 1999 to 2006. We control variables of policy, environment, socioeconomic characteristics, and electricity generation. For the second period, energy efficiency policies and measures concerning renewable sources effectively promote renewables, namely in the take-off phase. We shed light on the lobbying effect of traditional energy industries, showing that it depends both on the period under analysis, and on the kind of traditional energy source.

53

The likely adverse environmental impacts of renewable energy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The global attention has always been focused on the adverse environmental impacts of conventional energy sources. In contrast nonconventional energy sources, particularly the renewable ones, have enjoyed a 'clean' image vis a vis environmental impacts. The only major exception to this general trend has been large hydropower projects; experience has taught us that they can be disastrous for the environment. The belief now is that minihydel and microhydel projects are harmless alternatives. But are renewable energy sources really as benign as is widely believed? The present essay addresses this question in the background of Lovin's classical paradigm, which had postulated the hard (malignant) and soft (benign) energy concepts in the first place. It critically evaluates the environmental impacts of major renewable energy sources. It then comes up with the broad conclusion that renewable energy sources are not the panacea they are popularly perceived to be; indeed in some cases their adverse environmental impacts can be as strongly negative as the impacts of conventional energy sources. The paper also dwells on the steps we need to take so that we can utilise renewable energy sources without facing environmental backlashes of the type we got from hydropower projects. (Author)

54

Bamboo as a Renewable Energy Source.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our complete dependence upon imported fossil fuels forces us to make a conscientious evaluation of the other energy sources the authors have readily available. Some of the approximately 1000 species of bamboo of some 50 genera, which range from plants the...

A. E. Molini, J. G. Irizarry

1982-01-01

55

Interfaces for renewable energy sources with electric power systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents technological solutions that intend to contribute both for the efficient production of electric energy from renewable non-pollutant sources (namely Wind and Sun) and to the improvement of power quality in the electrical systems. It proposes the development of low-cost and high-efficiency power controllers that optimize energy extraction from hybrid systems, constituted by photovoltaic solar panels and wind power turbines, in small renewable energy power plants. Main innova...

Ferreira, Paulo Alves; Trindade, Manuel; Martins, Ju?lio S.; Afonso, Joa?o L.

2003-01-01

56

Renewable energy sources - the opportunity for a safer future  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The researches have shown that the potential of renewable energy sources is huge as they can in principle meet many times the world's energy demand. Renewable energy sources such as biomass, wind, solar, hydropower and geothermal can provide energy services based on the use of local available resources. Starting from this fact, a transition to renewable-based energy systems is looking increasingly likely as their costs have dropped while the price of oil and gas continue to fluctuate. In the past 30 years, the sales of solar and wind energy systems continued to increase because the capital and electricity production costs decreased simultaneously with the performance enhancement. It is becoming clear that future growth in the energy sector will be primarily in the renewable energy systems and to some extent natural gas-based systems and not in conventional oil and coal sources. It is also important to have governmental assistance and popular support in developing these alternate energy sources, that among others, reduce local and global atmospheric emissions, provide commercially attractive options, particularly in developing countries and rural areas and create the transition to the energy sector of the future. This paper tries to approach the renewable energy sources currently analyzed by the experts, emphasizing their strengths and weaknesses. The conventional energy sources based on oil, coal and natural gas have proven to be highly effective drivers of economic p be highly effective drivers of economic progress but at the same time damaging to the environment and human health. Furthermore they tend to be cyclical in nature, due to the effects of oligopoly in production and distribution. These traditional fossil fuel-based energy sources are facing increasing pressure on environmental issues, among these the future reduction of greenhouse gas specified in the Kyoto Protocol. Renewable energy sources currently supply between 15 - 20% of world's total energy demand. This supply is dominated by biomass (mostly wood used for cooking and heating - especially in developing countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America) as well as large hydropower stations providing nearly 20% of the global electricity supply provided by renewable sources. New renewable sources (solar, wind, modern bioenergy, geothermal energy and small hydropower stations) amount to about 2%. Recent studies of the future development of the energy sector show that in the second half of the 21 century the contribution of the renewable energy sources might range from the present figure of nearly 20% to more than 50% if the right policies will be put in place. Below are presented the most significant renewable energy sources. 1. Biomass Energy Biomass is the term used for all organic material originating from plants (including algae), trees and crops and is essentially the collection and storage of the sun's energy through photosynthesis. Biomass energy, or bioenergy, is the conversion of biomass into useful forms of energy such as heat, electricity and liquid fuels. Biomass was the first energy source harnessed by humans, and for nearly all of human history, wood has been our dominant energy source. Only during the last century, with the development of efficient techniques to extract and burn fossil fuels, have coal, oil, and natural gas, replaced wood as the industrialized world's primary fuel. Today it represents about 10-14 percent, making it the fourth largest source of energy behind oil (33 percent), coal (21 percent), and natural gas (19 percent). The precise amount is uncertain because the majority is used non-commercially in developing countries. Biomass is usually not considered a modern energy source, given the role that it has played, and continues to play, in most developing countries. In developing countries it still accounts for an estimated one third of primary energy use while in the poorest up to 90% of all energy is supplied by biomass. The direct combustion of biomass fuels, as used in developing countries today for domestic cooking and heati

57

Renewable Energy Sources - Technologies and Development of the Economy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The usage of renewable energy sources is a substitute for usage of fossil fuels, whose quantities are limited, and it represents an essential contribution to the reduction of greenhouse gases; at the same time it has a great economic significance for the development of new industries and creation of new jobs. To speed up gradual transition from fossil to renewable sources, governments of all EU member states harmonise their legislations and subordinate regulations promoting investments in usage of renewable sources and thus creating opportunities for new jobs especially in the production of plants and equipment for utilisation of wind power, solar energy, small hydro power plants, biomass and other kinds of renewable sources. In the last 10 years Croatia has adopted a number of acts and regulations that also stimulate investors to utilise renewable sources, and the source of such subsidies is a higher price of electricity paid by all the consumers. On the other hand, the development of domestic industry and gaining references necessary for gaining new contracts are very difficult because of stiff international competition and foreign sources of finance, which often require purchase of foreign equipment as a condition for contract award. In such conditions the utilisation of renewable sources does not contribute either to economic development or creating new jobs in Croatia, but in the countries in which such equipment is produ

58

THE ELECTRICITY SUPPLY FOR A FACILITY FROM RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this diploma work a supplying of a building with electricity from renewable energy sources will be presented. The opening chapter provides a description of all three types of renewable sources from which electricity will be obtained. The main part of thesis continues with a detailed description of the system with all main parts, the analysis of calculated values of produced electrical power, and economic calculation, which serves to determine whether the project is economical. Based...

Drev, Jernej

2012-01-01

59

Resource management tools based on renewable energy sources  

Science.gov (United States)

Renewable energy is an important source of power for unattended sensors (ground, sea, air), tagging systems, and other remote platforms for Homeland Security and Homeland Defense. Also, Command, Control, Communication, and Intelligence (C3I) systems and technologies often require renewable energy sources for information assurance (IA), in general, and anti-tampering (AT), in particular. However, various geophysical and environmental conditions determine different types of energy harvesting: solar, thermal, vibration, acoustic, hydraulic, wind, and others. Among them, solar energy is usually preferable, but, both a solar habitat and the necessity for night operation can create a need for other types of renewable energy. In this paper, we introduce figures of merit (FoMs) for evaluating preferences of specific energy sources, as resource management tools, based on geophysical conditions. Also, Battery Systemic Modeling is discussed.

Jannson, Tomasz; Forrester, Thomas; Boghrat, Pedram; Pradhan, Ranjit; Kostrzewski, Andrew

2012-06-01

60

Alternative and renewable sources of energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper reviews the use of biomass as a source of energy and shows from a number of examples, particularly the growing of sugar beet for the manufacture of ethanol, that this way of producing fuel is not desirable. On a world basis it is possible that there might be a confrontation between the needs for 'food' and 'technological' calories of which there is already a hint in the so-called 'energy crop strategy'. In conclusion, given the present world food supply position, the intensification of food production should be given priority over attempts to produce fuel from biomass and we should not aim to use the photosynthetic process to provide technical calories. Other ways must be found to provide the latter, and it is suggested that nuclear energy should make an increasing contribution even in the developing countries. (Auth.)

 
 
 
 
61

Biochar As a Renewable Energy Source  

Science.gov (United States)

Biochar is a form of charcoal prepared by heating biomass in limited air. It is porous and has high surface area, maintaining much of the morphology of the biomass. The heat for its preparation arises primarily from burning volatiles emitted upon heating. About half the chemical energy in the biomass is contained in the biochar, about 40% is used for the conversion, and about 10% may be used as a local heat source. The biochar can serve as a soil additive where it acts as a template for the growth of bacteria and fungi which then lead to improved growth of biomass by as much as several hundred percent. It remains inert in the soil for many years. Thus, it sequesters the carbon, originally coming from the carbon dioxide absorbed during the photosynthesis occurring during the growth of the biomass. Its use reduces fertilizer and water needs and to pollution arising from the run-off of fertilizer and emission of noxious vapors. Its use is best done at a local level, close to sources of biomass from farm and forest waste. The Pioneer Valley Biochar Initiative along with the Center of Agriculture of the University of Massachusetts, Amherst is promoting the use of biochar on local farms which reduces their dependence on energy arising from fossil fuel and nuclear sources.

Stein, Richard

2011-11-01

62

Power Electronics as Efficient Interface of Renewable Energy Sources  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The global electrical energy consumption is steadily rising and consequently there is a demand to increase the power generation capacity. A significant percentage of the required capacity increase can be based on renewable energy sources. Wind turbine technology, as the most cost effective renewable energy conversion system, will play an important part in our future energy supply. But other sources like microturbines, photovoltaics and fuel cell systems may also be serious contributor to the power supply. Characteristically, power electronics will be an efficient and important interface to the grid and this paper will first briefly discuss three different alternative/ renewable energy sources. Next, various configurations of the wind turbine technology are presented, as this technology seems to be most developed and cost-effective. Finally, the developments and requirements from the grid are discussed.

Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe

2004-01-01

63

Optimal portfolio selection between different kinds of Renewable energy sources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, selection of the optimal energy supply system in an industrial unit is taken into consideration. This study takes environmental, economical and social parameters into consideration in modeling along with technical factors. Several alternatives which include renewable energy sources, micro-CHP systems and conventional system has been compared by means of an integrated model of linear programming and three multi-criteria approaches (AHP, TOPSIS and ELECTRE III). New parameters like availability of sources, fuels' price volatility, besides traditional factors are considered in different scenarios. Results show with environmental preferences, renewable sources and micro-CHP are good alternatives for conventional systems.

Zakerinia, MohammadSaleh; Piltan, Mehdi; Ghaderi, Farid

2010-09-15

64

Hydropower and biomass as renewable energy sources in Turkey  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

When talking about renewable energy sources today, the most important and economical energy sources for Turkey are hydropower and biomass.The present study gives a review of production, consumption, and economics of hydropower and biomass as renewable energy sources in Turkey. Turkey has a total gross hydropower potential of 433 GW, but only 125 GW of the total hydroelectric potential of Turkey can be economically used. By the commissioning of new hydropower plants, which are under construction, 36% of the economically usable potential of the country could be tapped. On the other hand, biomass (wood and wastes) energy is the second most important renewable energy source for Turkey. However, the biomass energy sources of Turkey are limited. In 1998, the biomass share of the total energy consumption of the country is 10%. In this study, the potential of important biomass energy sources and animal solid wastes of the country were determined. The effects of hydropower and biomass usage on the environment were also discussed. Considering total cereal products and fatty seed plants, approximately 50-60 million tons per year of biomass and 8-10 million tons of solid matter animal waste are produced, and 70% of total biomass is seen as being usable for energy. Some useful suggestions and recommendations are also presented. The present study shows that there is an important potential for hydropower and biomass energy sources in Turkey. (author)

Kaygusuz, K.

2001-10-15

65

Hydropower and biomass as renewable energy sources in Turkey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When talking about renewable energy sources today, the most important and economical energy sources for Turkey are hydropower and biomass.The present study gives a review of production, consumption, and economics of hydropower and biomass as renewable energy sources in Turkey. Turkey has a total gross hydropower potential of 433 GW, but only 125 GW of the total hydroelectric potential of Turkey can be economically used. By the commissioning of new hydropower plants, which are under construction, 36% of the economically usable potential of the country could be tapped. On the other hand, biomass (wood and wastes) energy is the second most important renewable energy source for Turkey. However, the biomass energy sources of Turkey are limited. In 1998, the biomass share of the total energy consumption of the country is 10%. In this study, the potential of important biomass energy sources and animal solid wastes of the country were determined. The effects of hydropower and biomass usage on the environment were also discussed. Considering total cereal products and fatty seed plants, approximately 50-60 million tons per year of biomass and 8-10 million tons of solid matter animal waste are produced, and 70% of total biomass is seen as being usable for energy. Some useful suggestions and recommendations are also presented. The present study shows that there is an important potential for hydropower and biomass energy sources in Turkey. (author)

66

Energy efficiency and renewable energy sources in Nordic homes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The role of citizens as innovators, adaptors of existing technologies and diffusers of new climate-relevant innovations has been studied extensively in recent years. Since the late 1970s, sociological and demographic research on residential energy use has consistently found great variations in energy use among similar households. It has been suggested that these variations constitute a source of innovative low-carbon practices. Yet, while there are many generic technologies available for end-use efficiency and renewables, their slow rate of diffusion suggests that they are not as such applicable to local conditions. Citizens have a key role in their adoption and adaptation to local conditions, as well in their diffusion to other users. Against this backdrop, the track 4 of NCF called for poster presentations of innovative new products, modifications of existing products, news ways of make use of existing technologies as well as such living practices that reduce energy use or enable the utilization of renewable energy sources in domestic settings in the Nordic countries. (orig.)

Hyysalo, S.; Rinkinen, J. [Aalto Univ. School of Economics, Helsinki (Finland). Dept. of Management and International Business; Heiskanen, E. [National Consumer Research Centre, Helsinki (Finland)

2011-07-01

67

Potential novel, renewable thermal energy source  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A team of researchers at Rowans University (RU) have conducted calorimetry studies of various solid fuels developed by New-Jersey-based BlackLight Power (BLP) in order to test and validate their claims of lower energy hydrogen. In this study, potassium hydride, sodium hydride, magnesium metal powder, titanium carbide support material and several halide salts were loaded in a cell and heated to initiate a chemical reaction. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry were used to analyze the products of the reaction. An XRD analysis of the solid samples revealed the presence of magnesium hydride, the metal of the metal halide reactant and an alkali halide. A small amount of magnesium halide was also observed, but the starting halide salt was absent in the products. Liquid proton NMR revealed the hydrino hydride ion H-(1/4) upfield at -3.85 ppm and the corresponding molecular hydrino H2(1/4) at 1.23 ppm as predicted. Detailed calorimetric studies were used to determine the heat that was generated in more than 20 thermal energy releasing experiments. While the average energy was 1.95, the energy for the most energetic conventional exothermic chemical reaction was 6.5. The RU researchers assessed the possible reactions occurring along with their enthalpies, and compared the enthalpies of the anticipated reaction with the actual heat observed in small 5X reactors and a large 50X reactor. The presence of water in the starting materials was ruled out by temperature programmed desorption studies. The RU researchers successfully reproduced BLP tests which identified a novel form of hydrogen as a potential explanation of the additional heat evolved. It was concluded that the novel source of thermal heat generated in the chemical reactions cannot be explained in the confines of conventional modern chemistry. 7 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig.

Jansson, P.M.; Schwabe, U.K.W. [Rowan Univ., Glassboro, NJ (United States). College of Engineering, Electrical and Computer Engineering; Mugweru, A.; Ramanujachary, K.V. [Rowan Univ., Glassboro, NJ (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry

2010-07-01

68

A Stochastic Calculus for Network Systems with Renewable Energy Sources  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We consider the performance modeling and evaluation of network systems powered with renewable energy sources such as solar and wind energy. Such energy sources largely depend on environmental conditions, which are hard to predict accurately. As such, it may only make sense to require the network systems to support a soft quality of service (QoS) guarantee, i.e., to guarantee a service requirement with a certain high probability. In this paper, we intend to build a solid math...

Wu, Kui; Jiang, Yuming; Marinakis, Dimitri

2011-01-01

69

Promotion of electricity from renewable energy sources in Finland  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main purpose of this case was to study the development of energy projects from renewable energy sources and green energy promotion in Finland. A further aim was to establish whether the development takes purely economic turn and if there is a need for improvement of green energy promotion. The research was based on comparison and analysis of wind energy development in Finland, Germany and the Netherlands. Special attention was given to the development of promotional strategies and pol...

Pozdnyakova, Liudmila

2009-01-01

70

Renewable energy sources. Systems engineering, economic efficiency, environmental aspects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The physical fundamentals and basic systems- engineering aspects of the main renewable-energy techniques applied in Germany are presented. The characteristics of renewable energy supplies are discussed. Solar thermal and geothermal techniques, and techniques for the generation of electrical energy from solar radiation (photovoltaics) are described. Parameters for an ecological and economic evaluation and for evaluation of the relevant energy management factors are discussed considering the present state and future development. Comparisons of the different techniques among each other and comparisons with techniques that utilize fossil energy sources allow one to evaluate the present and future chances and risks of renewable energy supplies in Germany considering the respective conventional techniques and the present situation of energy management. (orig./UA). 166 figs., 73 tabs

71

Prospects of renewable-energy sources in Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pakistan, despite the enormous potential of its energy resources, remains energy- deficient and has to rely heavily on imports to satisfy its needs. Moreover, a very large part of the rural areas does not have the electrification facilities, because they are either too remote and/or too expensive to connect to the national grid. Pakistan obtains its energy requirements from a variety of traditional and commercial sources. Share of various primary energy-sources in energy-supply mix remained during last few years as oil: 43.5%, gas: 41.5%, LPG: 0.3%, coal: 4.5%, hydro-electricity: 9.2%, and nuclear electricity: 1.1%. The electric-power generation included 71.9% thermal, 25.2% hydel and 2.9% nuclear. While there is no prospect for Pakistan to reach self-sufficiency in hydrocarbons, a good option is the exploitation and utilization of the huge coal-reserves of Thar and the other renewable energy sources. Pakistan has wide spectrum of high potential renewable energy sources, conventional as well as non-conventional, which have not been adequately explored, exploited and developed. 'Thus, the primary energy supplies today are not enough to meet even the present demand. So, Pakistan, like other developing countries of the region, is facing a serious challenge of energy deficit. The development of the renewable energy sources can play an important role in meeting this challenge. Present observations, based on reviewing the geological setup, geographical position, climatologi setup, geographical position, climatological cycles and the agricultural/industrial/ urbanization activities, reveal that there are bright prospects for the exploitation of various renewable-energy sources, which include mega and macro/micro-hydel, biomass, biogas, wind, solar, co-generation, city and other solid wastes, utilization of low-head canal levels, sea wave and tide and geothermal energies etc. Technologically, all these renewable-energy sources are viable and consequently suited to efforts for poverty alleviation and cleaner environment in Pakistan. The country can be benefited by harnessing these options of energy-generation as substitute energy in areas where sources exist. As Pakistan is an agricultural country and major part of its population lives in the rural areas, the electricity generated by renewable sources will also improve rural life, thereby reducing the urban migration that is taxing the ability of cities to cope with their own environmental problems. (author)

72

Renewable sources of electric energy: state and prospects (Macedonia)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Limited reserves of fossil fuels, increased local and global environmental risks and recent technological achievements, have straightened the global importance of renewable sources of electric energy. This is even more relevant fore Macedonia, with the only fossil fuel reserves (lignite) to be nearly exhausted, the environment notably polluted and energy strategy absent. Concerning indigenous renewable sources of electricity, it is necessary to re-estimate their strategic role, to complete the input data for the resources, as well as to establish national programs supported by research and educational activities and international cooperation. (author). 7 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab., 3 ills

73

Hydropower: An Essential Partner of Renewable Energy Source  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In 2006, the 17 percent of the world’s electricity that was generated from hydropower represented nearly 90 percent of renewable electricity generation worldwide; Hydropower is an important source of renewable energy and produces extremely small quantities of carbon dioxide. Between 1998 and 2008, renewable electricity production in the world rose from 2,794.9 to 3,762.6 TWh, i.e. an additional 967.6 TWh. As a final conclusion, despite hydropower’s high initial costs, its long-term overal...

Lejeune, Andre?; Hui, Samuel; Pirotton, Michel; Erpicum, Se?bastien; Dewals, Benjamin

2010-01-01

74

Marketing of renewable energy sources in the region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

European Union has a leading role in the world due to its strong commitment to increase renewable energy sources as for the energy system change. Success of such long term project requires first of all a stable political framework, well-tailored support system of finances, technical background and administrative, and by this way it can overcome the obstacles existing in distorted energy markets. Regardless their high potential, renewable energy resources are insufficiently exploited in Europe. The aim of the contribution is to bring characteristic of particular sources of energy and technologies of exploitation in the geographic area Hnilec valley. We obtained detailed summary of positive and negative aspects and the reason of further survey in this field. Overall result of the thesis is the complex of knowledge of possibility of exploitation of sustainable sources of the energy in the region Hnilec valley and determination of the best possible variant of it. (authors)

75

Electric power generation from renewable energy sources in Saxony  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report sums up the potentials for electric energy generation from different renewable energy sources in Saxony. Natural potentials, technical potentials and economic potentials are considered separately. The established technical potential (without biomass) corresponds roughly to an electic power generation of 7400 GW hours annually. About 2/3 of this is wind energy, the rest is divided equally among hydro power and photo-voltaics. The harnessing of these potentials since 1990 is described in detail. Apart from hydro power, which has a long history as an energy source, wind energy, especially, is experiencing a very dynamic development. In 1997 still, wind power will outstrip hydro power as the most important renewable energy source in Saxony. But the further extension of these two energy sources meets increasingly with ecological objections or opposition. In 1996, about 1.3 per cent of the electric power consumed in Saxony came from renewable energy sources. It seems possible to increase this share to 5 per cent by the year 2000. (orig.)

76

Marketing of renewable energy sources in the region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available European Union has a leading role in the world due to its strong commitment to increase renewable energy sources as forthe energy system change. Success of such long term project requires first of all a stable political framework, well-tailored supportsystem of finances, technical background and administrative, and by this way it can overcome the obstacles existing in distorted energymarkets. Regardless their high potential, renewable energy resources are insufficiently exploited in Europe. The aim of the contributionis to bring characteristic of particular sources of energy and technologies of exploitation in the geographic area Hnilec valley.We obtained detailed summary of positive and negative aspects and the reason of further survey in this field. Overall result of the thesisis the complex of knowledge of possibility of exploitation of sustainable sources of the energy in the region Hnilec valleyand determination of the best possible variant of it.

Adriana Csikósová

2012-12-01

77

Renewable energy sources in museum buildings; Museen entdecken die Erneuerbaren  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For several decades now, museums have been key elements in making cities with failing economies more attractive. Museum architecture has reached a high aesthetic and architectural level. Now, the museums of the world are discovering renewable energy sources. SONNE WIND and WAeRME presents some recent projects. (orig./AKb)

Claus, Juergen

2009-11-17

78

Environmental benefit from renewable energy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper a comparative environmental analysis on the electricity production between wind energy system and coal power plant has been made. The methodologies used are the LCA and the Impact Patway Analysis (IPA) - a recent tool to assess the externalities of the energy systems. Both methodologies, even if in different amount, show a remarkable convenience in the production of electricity from wind systems

79

Renewable Energy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Energy Committee of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has in a series of projects gathered information and knowledge on renewable energy from various sources, both within and outside the academic world. In this article, we synthesize and summarize some of the main points on renewable energy from the various Energy Committee projects and the Committee’s Energy 2050 symposium, regarding energy from water and wind, bioenergy, and solar energy. We further summarize the Energy Committee?...

Destouni, Georgia; Frank, Harry

2010-01-01

80

Renewable energy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Energy Committee of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has in a series of projects gathered information and knowledge on renewable energy from various sources, both within and outside the academic world. In this article, we synthesize and summarize some of the main points on renewable energy from the various Energy Committee projects and the Committee's Energy 2050 symposium, regarding energy from water and wind, bioenergy, and solar energy. We further summarize the Energy Committee's scenario estimates of future renewable energy contributions to the global energy system, and other presentations given at the Energy 2050 symposium. In general, international coordination and investment in energy research and development is crucial to enable future reliance on renewable energy sources with minimal fossil fuel use. PMID:20873681

Destouni, Georgia; Frank, Harry

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Marine energies, the new wave of renewable energy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hydro-kinetic power, wave energy, thermal energy of seawater, all these techniques have a low notoriety for the moment but are progressively gaining ground thanks to technological progress, to public support, but first of all to the mobilization of companies and regions in concern. This article shows that France is still within the time to build up its renewable marine energies industry

82

New renewable source of energy from municipal solid waste plastics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Renewable energy plays an important role in the supply of energy. When energy sources are used, the demand for fossil fuels is reduced. Emissions from the evaporation and combustion of these traditional fossil fuels contributing to a range of environmental and health problems, causing poor air quality, and emitting greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming. Alternative fuel created from domestic sources has been proposed as a solution to these problems and many alternative fuels are being developed based on solar, wind and biomass. Natural State Research has developed different alternative hydrocarbon fuel produced from abundant waste plastic materials.

Sarker, Moinuddin; Zaman, Ashiquz; Mamunor Rashid, Mohammad

2010-09-15

83

Energy Efficiency and Importance of Renewable Energy Sources in Latvia  

Science.gov (United States)

The main goal of Latvian energy policy is to ensure safe and environmentally friendly long-term energy supply at cost-effective prices, contributing to enhance competitiveness, and to ensure safe energy transit. The Latvian Parliament approved an Energy Efficiency Strategy in 2000. Its objective is to decrease energy consumption per unit of GDP by 25% by 2010. Awareness raising, implementation of standards and economic incentives for self financing are the main instruments to increase energy efficiency, mentioned in the strategy. Latvia, as many other European Union member states, is dependent on the import of primary energy resources. The Latvian Renewable Energy strategy is still under development. The only recent study on RES was developed in the framework of a PHARE program in year 2000: "Renewable energy resource program", where three main objectives for a future RES strategy were proposed: 1. To increase the use of wood waste and low value wood and forest residues. 2. To improve efficiency of combustion technologies and to replace outdated plants. 3. To increase the use of renewables in Combined Heat and Power plants (CHP). Through the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership, partners will develop a set of new shared activities, and coordinate and strengthen existing efforts in this area.

Skapare, I.; Kreslins, A.

2007-10-01

84

Potential utilization of renewable energy sources and the related problems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Estonia's most promising resource of renewable energy is the natural biomass. In 1994 the use of wood and waste wood formed about 4.9% of the primary energy supply, the available resource will provide for a much higher share of biomass in the future primary energy supply, reaching 9-14%. Along with the biomass, wind energy can be considered the largest resource. On the western and northern coast of Estonia, in particular, on the islands, over several years, the average wind speed has been 5 m/s. Based on the assumption that the wind speed exceeds 6 m/s in the area that forms ca 1.5% of the Estonian territory (the total area of Estonia is about 45,000 km 2 ) and is 5 - 6 m/s on about 15% of the total area, using 0.5 MW/km2 for the installation density, very approximate estimates permit to state that the maximum hypothetical installed capacity could be 3750 MW. It might be useful to make use of the current maximum 50 MW, which could enable the generation of approximately 70 - 100 GW h of energy per year. Although the solar energy currently has no practical use in Estonia and the resource of hydro power is also insignificant (only ca 1% of the electricity consumption), these two resources of renewable energy hold future promise in view of the use of local resources and that of environmental protection. It is not reasonable to regard renewable energy sources as a substitute for the traditional oil shale-based power engineering in Estonia. But, to some extent, local energy demand can be covered by renewable energy sources. Thus, they can contribute to the reduction of the greenhouse gases emissions in Estonia

85

Regensim – Matlab toolbox for renewable energy sources modelling and simulation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper deals with the implementation and development of a Matlab Simulink library named RegenSim designed for modeling, simulations and analysis of real hybrid solarwind-hydro systems connected to local grids. Blocks like wind generators, hydro generators, solar photovoltaic modules and accumulators are implemented. The main objective is the study of the hybrid power system behavior, which allows employing renewable and variable in time energy sources while providing a continuous supply.

Cristian Drago? Dumitru

2011-12-01

86

Sustainability of hydropower as source of renewable and clean energy  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydroelectric energy has been in recent times placed as an important future source of renewable and clean energy. The advantage of hydropower as a renewable energy is that it produces negligible amounts of greenhouse gases, it stores large amounts of electricity at low cost and it can be adjusted to meet consumer demand. This noble vision however is becoming more challenging due to rapid urbanization development and increasing human activities surrounding the catchment area. Numerous studies have shown that there are several contributing factors that lead towards the loss of live storage in reservoir, namely geology, ground slopes, climate, drainage density and human activities. Sediment deposition in the reservoir particularly for hydroelectric purposes has several major concerns due to the reduced water storage volume which includes increase in the risk of flooding downstream which directly effects the safety of human population and properties, contributes to economic losses not only in revenue for power generation but also large capital and maintenance cost for reservoir restorations works. In the event of functional loss of capabilities of a hydropower reservoir as a result of sedimentation or siltation could lead to both economical and environmental impact. The objective of this paper is aimed present the importance of hydropower as a source of renewable and clean energy in the national energy mix and the increasing challenges of sustainability.

Luis, J.; Sidek, L. M.; Desa, M. N. M.; Julien, P. Y.

2013-06-01

87

Sustainability of hydropower as source of renewable and clean energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hydroelectric energy has been in recent times placed as an important future source of renewable and clean energy. The advantage of hydropower as a renewable energy is that it produces negligible amounts of greenhouse gases, it stores large amounts of electricity at low cost and it can be adjusted to meet consumer demand. This noble vision however is becoming more challenging due to rapid urbanization development and increasing human activities surrounding the catchment area. Numerous studies have shown that there are several contributing factors that lead towards the loss of live storage in reservoir, namely geology, ground slopes, climate, drainage density and human activities. Sediment deposition in the reservoir particularly for hydroelectric purposes has several major concerns due to the reduced water storage volume which includes increase in the risk of flooding downstream which directly effects the safety of human population and properties, contributes to economic losses not only in revenue for power generation but also large capital and maintenance cost for reservoir restorations works. In the event of functional loss of capabilities of a hydropower reservoir as a result of sedimentation or siltation could lead to both economical and environmental impact. The objective of this paper is aimed present the importance of hydropower as a source of renewable and clean energy in the national energy mix and the increasing challenges of sustainability.enges of sustainability.

88

Mechanism for supporting the use of renewable energy sources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Member states of EU put bigger stress to the using of RES. Ambitious goal of EU till 2010 was to achieve 12 % rate of RESon the whole energy consumption. Therefore there were created many institutional and financial tools and schemes for support of RESusing and they will be important part of the energy sources structure. One of the basic prirorites of energetic policy in Slovakiais increasing of the RES rate on the production of heat and electricity with goal to create adequate additional sources necessary forcovering of domestic demand. Presented contribution is orientated to the various mechanisms that are using for support of renewableenergy sources. That means state regulation in this area generally and basic types of state donation policy in the frame of EuropeanUnion and their consequences on the market with renewable energy sources.

Roland Weiss

2010-07-01

89

Barriers to Investment in Energy from Renewable Sources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper attempts to create an overview of the current situation in the Romanian energy sector, pointing out elements of energy demand, production, investment in the sector and not least the potential of renewable energy sources. As Romania has aligned itself with the European Commission's 20-20-20 program, an important step in achieving the set targets is represented by a significant amount of investments in the development of energy from renewable sources. But there are a number of challenges that investment projects may face, namely, barriers more or less deliberate, more difficult or easier to overcome or remove, some of them real market distortions and others coming from the comparison between green energy and classic sources of energy. So, the last part of the work is dedicated to these barriers. Dividing them into four categories administrative barriers, technical and technological barriers, market barriers and economic barriers allows a better distribution of the identified barriers. It is a comprehensive and equitable approach than their splitting into cost barriers and non-cost barriers, which would have meant a long list for the second category specified.

Corina PÎRLOGEA

2011-06-01

90

Can renewable energy sources satiate Slovakia's future energy needs?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper examines the options for replacing the current energy mix of non-renewable, conventional energy sources solely with renewable sources in the long term within the context of the Slovak environment, possibly combined with nuclear energy in the 50-year horizon. Vital needs are outlined in household energy consumption and energy consumption for industrial and transportation purposes to fulfil in order for Slovakia to become independent of foreign sources in energy supplies.

Tomis, Igor; Koval, Peter; Janicek, Frantisek; Darula, Ivan

2010-09-15

91

Research and development as contribution of the Renewable Energy Sources Centre to the wind energy utilization in Slovakia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The expected development of renewable energy sources utilization was not reached in last years in Slovakia. This is caused by some barriers. These barriers decrease the easiness of investments into the Renewable energy sources utilization. We recognize specific barriers for each of renewable energy sources and general barriers for all renewable energy sources. Activities of the Renewable Energy Sources Centre help to eliminate both specific and general barriers in Slovakia. The main activitie...

Radim Rybár; Dušan Kudelas

2007-01-01

92

Investigation and usage of renewable energy sources. First conference proceedings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The conference was devoted to sustainable development promotion in Estonia. Modern lifestyle and outstanding technical achievements are strongly based on usage of fossil energy sources, especially oil products. Development demands an increasing amount of energy, but the supplies of non-renewable natural resources are limited. Moreover, their usage pollutes the environment and conveys vital oxygen out of the atmosphere. Due to supplies run out the production of fossil fuels will inevitably decrease already after 20 years. The same is likely to happen with Estonian oil shale resources, which is not only a fuel for electric power stations, but also an important staple of chemical industry. And after the rise of oil prices and its fall in market share, oil shale will have even greater value. To satisfy mankind's energy demand we have to take solar energy and processes started by solar (wind, flowing water, synthesis of plants biomass) more into use. The spread of their usage is determined by natural and social situation of the region, and economic expediency. Although rapid growth in using renewable energy sources has started, it will take decades to raise their share over half of total energy use. Estonia has chosen the path of sustainable development, which should guarantee development and healthy environment also in the farther future. There are great solar and wind energy resources plus good assumptions for producing biomass in Estonia. However, for efficient use of nn Estonia. However, for efficient use of national natural resources we need more knowledge and skills, people with environment friendly attitude and extensive scientific, technical and applied investigations. In addition we have to advance sensible international cooperation as well as national industry of this field. The technical progress concerning renewable energy usage has a long way to go, which could apply also Estonians

93

Renewable energy sources for electricity generation in selected developed countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objectives of this report are to analyze the present status and to assess the future of selected renewable energy sources (RE) other than hydropower, i.e. wind, solar, biomass, tidal and geothermal, already in use or expected to be used for electricity generation. The report focuses on grid connected technologies leaving stand-alone power plants unconsidered. This report provides recent information on environmental impacts, costs and technical potentials related to the implementation of electricity technologies using these energy sources. The study is limited to six OECD countries, i.e. Australia, the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. The situation in other OECD countries is addressed where appropriate, but no comprehensive information is provided. Nevertheless, efforts are made to determine the technical potential of the renewable energy sources for ''Rest of OECD''. The time horizons in this report are 2010 and 2030. While detailed information is provided for the period until 2010, the technical potential for 2030 is discussed only qualitatively. Scenario analysis and the design of national energy and electric systems assuming different sets of objectives and boundary conditions are outside the scope of this study. Nevertheless, the information given in this report should provide input data for such a systems analysis. All the information given in this report is based on literature surveys. Any figure given is contingent on the fact that it has appeared in a paper or a publicly available technical report. 251 refs, figs and tabs

94

Renewable energy source from pyrolysis of solid wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Malaysia is blessed with a significant renewable energy resource base such as solar energy and biomass. To continue with its industrial development, Malaysia must manages energy supply its c prudently in order to avoid becoming an energy importer supply. Most significantly renewable energy from biomass such as rice husks, wood wastes, oil palm wastes, rubber wastes and other agricultural wastes. Beside rice and timber. Malaysia produces a huge amount of palm oil and natural rubber. These generate a significant amount of solid wastes in the forms of oil palm shell and rubber. These wastes are producing pollution and emission problems in Malaysia which is causing an environmental issue. Besides energy is not recovered efficiently from these waste resources. From the elemental composition and thermogravimetric studies of the wastes, it appeared that the wastes could be used as an alternative value-added source of energy. For this purpose a fast pyrolysis of 300 mi-n lone, and 50 mm diameter stainless-steel reactor was designed and fabricated. The grounded, sieved and dried solid feed particles underwent pyrolysis reactor at moderate temperature and were converted into pyrolytic oil, solid char and cas. Oil and char were collected while the cas was flared. The oil was characterised by GC-MS technique. Detailed analysis of the oil showed that there was no concentration of biologically active polycyclic aromatic species in the oil. The fuel properties of the derived oils were also analysed and compared to diesel fuel. (Author)

95

A Stochastic Calculus for Network Systems with Renewable Energy Sources  

CERN Document Server

We consider the performance modeling and evaluation of network systems powered with renewable energy sources such as solar and wind energy. Such energy sources largely depend on environmental conditions, which are hard to predict accurately. As such, it may only make sense to require the network systems to support a soft quality of service (QoS) guarantee, i.e., to guarantee a service requirement with a certain high probability. In this paper, we intend to build a solid mathematical foundation to help better understand the stochastic energy constraint and the inherent correlation between QoS and the uncertain energy supply. We utilize a calculus approach to model the cumulative amount of charged energy and the cumulative amount of consumed energy. We derive upper and lower bounds on the remaining energy level based on a stochastic energy charging rate and a stochastic energy discharging rate. By building the bridge between energy consumption and task execution (i.e., service), we study the QoS guarantee under...

Wu, Kui; Marinakis, Dimitri

2011-01-01

96

17% of Renewable Energy Sources at competitive costs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Italian plan of financial incentives for the renewable energy sources (Res) is mainly addressed to the enhancements of technologies for electricity production, shifting onto the users of the electric system a large share of the costs of the stimulation policy. This approach is not efficient however and it will imply very high costs for achieving the 17% Res figure agreed in the European seat. The paper outlines the feasibility of living up to the undertaken commitment at very lower costs promoting the diffusion of Res for heat generation instead of electricity.

97

Electric power from renewable energy source in Bulgaria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The renewable resources are the solar energy, the wind power, the water flow, the geothermal energy and the energy based on utilization of biomass. National obligatory task for Bulgaria is till 2020 the share of the renewable resources to reach 16 % out of the total gross energy consumption at end points, in it is included the obligatory 10% share of the energy of the renewable resources used in the transport. In 2009 the production of electrical power by renewable resources in Bulgaria was increased by 26 % in comparison to 2008 and the total gross consumption of electrical energy in the country was reduced with 4.5 %, which allowed the share of the electrical energy produced of renewable resources to reach 9.9 %. This fact in great extent approaches the country to the fulfillment of the taken obligations to reach 11 % as indicative target. (author)

98

ANALYSIS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES PONTENTIALS IN POMURJE AND THE VALLEY OF ŠALEŠKA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Considering the fact that there is the increasing trend in finding alternative energy sources, in my diploma paper I analyzed the potentials of renewable energy sources in Slovenia. The aim of the diploma paper was to collect accurate data and to analyze the potentials of renewable energy sources in Slovenia. In the diploma paper the existing projects and analyses of particular renewable energy sources for the separate regions are summarized and grouped as a whole. On the basis of collected d...

Mustafic?, Edis

2012-01-01

99

Hybrid system of renewable energy sources with hydro accumulation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of renewable energy sources is being promoted in Russia's reformed electricity sector. However, energy storage is one of the primary issues that must be solved. Energy storage systems that are currently used are based on the retention of the end product, notably electricity. Primary energy storage is more economical and efficient because there are no energy losses for transformation and overflow. An example of this type of storage is the hydroelectric power station (HEPS) with reservoir. This paper addressed the issue of hydraulic energy storage of wind power based on HEPS and combining them into a hybrid system. Calculations revealed that the efficiency of hydraulic energy storage based on HEPS is one of the best among the other storage systems and can reach 90 per cent, including operation losses of 1-2 per cent. The use of hybrid HEPS and wind power stations (WPS) with hydraulic energy storage provides reliable and qualitative power supply for consumers at both individual and grid-connected systems. The integration of HEPS and WPS was shown to be effective for new projects. 3 refs., 11 figs.

Elistratov, V.V. [Saint-Petersburg Polytechnical Univ., Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation). Dept. of Renewable Energy Sources and Hydro Power Engineering

2008-07-01

100

Current state and utilization of nontraditional and renewable energy sources in Poland  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of the paper is to analyse and assess the use of renewable energy sources in the Polish energy balance for the period 2006-2010. In Poland, in according to the Energy Law (1997), renewable energy sources are sources using the processing power: wind energy, solar radiation, geothermal energy, waves power, energy of currents and tides, energy of river gradient, biogas and biomass. Biomass could be divided into forest biomass, agricultural biomass (mainly energy crops, but also consumer ...

Szyman?ska, Daniela; Chodkowska-miszczuk, Justyna

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Hybrid Design of Electric Power Generation Systems Including Renewable Sources of Energy  

Science.gov (United States)

With the stricter environmental regulations and diminishing fossil-fuel reserves, there is now higher emphasis on exploiting various renewable sources of energy. These alternative sources of energy are usually environmentally friendly and emit no pollutants. However, the capital investments for those renewable sources of energy are normally high,…

Wang, Lingfeng; Singh, Chanan

2008-01-01

102

Capitalization of renewable energy sources: Romanian case studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the major challenges of the recent integration of Romania in the European Union is the extension of use, at national scale, of Renewable Energy Sources (RES). Targeting private operators and municipalities, authors have as objective to deliver an investigation on the interesting 'Acquis' in financing and implementing RES projects in Romania. Using as method of investigation the accurate screening of their experience as well as the extended international experience in the field, authors have reviewed in the present paper different possibilities in RES investment financing, frequent obstacles and barriers, and ways for overcoming them. Recent results are motivating authors to consider the national experience of an encouraging success and to act towards the capitalization of such investments replication potential to a national and regional scale. (authors)

103

AC Motor Drive Fed by Renewable Energy Sources with PWM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this fast aproaching nature of technology the ned of Electricity becomes a mandatory in developing technology. The ned of Electricity increases the power demand where the power demand met by the conventional sources of energy has some disadvantage of polution, this disadvantage can be decreased by the use of the Renewable energy sources like Fuel Cel and available solar energy. When a FUEL cel produces AC power, basicaly two stages are required for conversion first a bosting stage and second is inversion stage. In this paper the Bost inverter topology is achieved where in the conventional methods the normal DC - AC power conversion method is used where as in this paper the PWM based DC - AC inverter has ben used which is useful in reducing the harmonics in the output of the Inverter. The voltage controled output is produced in the bost inverter the curent controled output is taken from dc-dc bidirectional converter. The Fuel cel canot be relied as a whole so a Solar PV module is conected acros the Load so while the Sunlight days the PV arays generate power and in the night time the Fuel cel is used to generate power for the load. Since, the Fuel cel and PV arays can generate power in Partial load they are prefered than any other sources. When the output from the Solar PV aray is low or when the sunlight available is not eficient in generating the power a automatic switch over is provided in the junction betwen the Solar PV aray and Fuel cel so that whenever it hapens the switch automaticaly switch over to another source. The simulation results are presented to confirm the operational feature of the proposed system.

J. Pavalam

2014-01-01

104

The promotion of renewable energy sources: European experiences and steps forward  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study investigates the instruments used by governments in order to support renewable energy sources in the European Union. The findings of this study reveal that policy goals could be achieved by using a large variety of instruments and renewable energies could be better promoted if policy instruments are harmonized. The study was carried out by combining a wide variety of sources, such as strategies, reports, regulations, and European experiences in promoting renewable energy sources. T...

Zamfir, Andreea

2009-01-01

105

Waste-to-energy: A way from renewable energy sources to sustainable development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nowadays, energy is key consideration in discussions of sustainable development. So, sustainable development requires a sustainable supply of clean and affordable renewable energy sources that do not cause negative societal impacts. Energy sources such as solar radiation, the winds, waves and tides are generally considered renewable and, therefore, sustainable over the relatively long term. Wastes and biomass fuels are usually viewed as sustainable energy sources. Wastes are convertible to useful energy forms like hydrogen (biohydrogen), biogas, bioalcohol, etc., through waste-to-energy technologies. In this article, possible future energy utilization patterns and related environmental impacts, potential solutions to current environmental problems and renewable energy technologies and their relation to sustainable development are discussed with great emphasis on waste-to-energy routes (WTERs). (author)

Kothari, Richa [Babasaheb BhimRao Ambedkar University, Lucknow, U.P. (India); Tyagi, V.V.; Pathak, Ashish [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, 110016 (India)

2010-12-15

106

Rural population and renewable energy sources: Experiences of the Republic of Serbia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

During the last decade of the twentieth century the use of green (renewable) energy has become the imperative not only in developed countries worldwide, but also in poorer countries like Asia and Africa. The change from traditional to renewable energy sources carries valuable improvements in environmental protection and economic efficacy. This paper through individual examples, explores the possibility of replacing traditional with renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, geothermal, ene...

Pucar Mila; Nenkovi? Marina

2006-01-01

107

The Examining of Prospective Teachers? Views about Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy Sources: A Case Study of Turkey  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study is to determine prospective teachers? views about renewable and non-renewable energy sources. To collect data, a questionnaire with 5 open-ended questions was conveyed to 463 prospective teachers selected from Agri Ibrahim Cecen University. The results showed that almost three fourths of the prospective teachers tend to…

Hasiloglu, Mehmet Akif

2014-01-01

108

The portfolio of renewable energy sources for achieving the three E policy goals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Renewable energy is considered by many policy-makers to contribute to achieving at least three major policy goals: the energy goal, the environmental goal, and the economic goal (3E goals). As an innovation-oriented island country with scarce natural resources, Taiwan announced the Sustainable Energy Policy Principles in 2008 that stated that Taiwan's renewable energy policy should accomplish the 3E goals. Several studies point out that specific renewable energy policy goals lead to specific renewable energy sources and technologies because each type of renewable energy has different features. In order to achieve the renewable energy policy goals, this research aims to examine how different policy goals lead to corresponding renewable energy sources. The relative importance of each goal is evaluated by using analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The weight of each policy goal is adjusted separately to construct policy scenarios by the sensitivity analysis. According to the results, non-pumped storage hydropower, wind energy, and solar energy are three sources that could meet the three policy goals at the same time. -- Highlights: ?This study aims to propose a portfolio of renewable energy sources to achieve energy, environmental, and economic policy goals for Taiwan. ?Non-pumped storage hydropower performs best to achieve energy and environmental goals. ?Wind energy performs well to accomplish environmental goal. ?Solar energy is the most preferred alternative to achieve economic goal. ?The portfolio of non-pumped storage hydropower, wind energy, and solar energy can accomplish the three E policy goals at the same time.

109

ENERGY ECONOMICS AND POLICY OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN THE EUROPEAN UNION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available European Union adapted the policy of reducing its carbon footprint and embarked on the journey to shift to renewable energy sources in the early 1990s. The whole process started with implementations of binding rules that set up indicative targets for the EU Member States. However, this process had to go hand in hand with high energy costs charged to the consumers. This paper defines various types of renewable sources in the EU and analyses European legislation on renewable energy sources. In addition, it deals with the current situation regarding the energy policies in the European Union and outlines its main criticisms and prospects. The results and conclusions might be of some value for EU main energy providers as well as for the EU partners in the world.

Wadim Strielkowski

2013-10-01

110

Evaluating the energy utilization efficiency of Turkey's renewable energy sources during 2001  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study evaluates the energy utilization efficiency of Turkey's renewable energy sources (RESs) during 2001 by using energy and exergy analyses, giving a brief outlook on the utilization of RESs. Total energy and exergy inputs are calculated to be 3203.22 PJ and 3139.07 PJ, while renewable energy and exergy production values are determined to be 428.62 PJ and 395.68 PJ, respectively. Renewable energy is used in the Turkish conversion, residential-commercial and industrial subsectors. The energy and exergy efficiency values for the RESs of Turkey are found to be 49.86% and 24.14% in 2001, respectively. Besides this, total energy and exergy utilization efficiency values for those are obtained to be 45.02% and 24.96% in the same year, respectively. The present study has clearly indicated the necessity of the planned studies towards increasing renewable energy utilization efficiency in the subsectors studied and especially the critical role of policymakers in establishing effective energy-efficiency delivery mechanisms throughout the country. It is also expected that this study will fill a considerably large gap since it is the first attempt towards analysing Turkey's renewable energy sources in terms of energy and exergy utilization efficiencies. (author)

Hepbasli, A. [Ege University, Izmir (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering; Utlu, Z. [NCO Vocational College, Balikesir (Turkey). Turkish Land Forces

2004-06-01

111

Renewable energy sources: resistance to change; Energies renouvelables: les resistances au changement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper is the summary of a conference day organised by the students of the 'environment and sustainable development law' Master of Nantes university (France). This interdisciplinary meeting brought together professionals of renewable energy industries who could testify about the resistance of both politicians and the public opinion against the energy transition towards renewable sources. Legal, political, sociological and cultural considerations are put forward to explain this resistance. The French specificity, with an over-representation of nuclear energy, a constraining legal framework for renewable energies, a regional opposition to renewable energy projects (NIMBY syndrome), and a lack of trust in the political class and in its representatives are as many factors that have contributed to build this French 'cultural exception'. (J.S.)

Dubreuil, Th.; Audrain-Demey, G.; Attal, J.Ph.; Lormeteau, B. [Nantes Univ., Droit de l' Environnement et du Developpement Durable, 44 (France)

2011-10-15

112

PROSPECTS OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN PROVINCE OF VOJVODINA  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper presents the outcome of the research in the field of energy efficiency improvement and development of the renewable energy sources in province of Vojvodina (Serbia). The summarized results of the paper are: - Potentials for energy efficiency improvement in Vojvodina, - Potentials for development of renewable energy sources in Vojvodina, - Proposal of measures of the energy policy for the promotion of research and development (R and D) which will use local scientific and technical potentials in the field of renewable energy sources and energy efficiency and improve the sustainability on the long run. - Proposal of measures for the energy policy in the domain of renewable energy sources development and energy efficiency and estimation of potentials for improvements by applying proposed measures in order to accomplish established tasks. - Synthesizing findings and proposals in the Action Plan of the Executive Council of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina for the realization of the medium term program as well as the establishment of the monitoring plan for the assessment of program objectives progress. (auth)

Gvozdenac, D.; Ciric, R.; Tesic, M.

2007-07-01

113

Renewable energy sources. European Commission papers; Energies renouvelables. Documents de la Commission Europeenne  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ''Directive on the Promotion of Electricity from Renewable Sources of Energy in the Internal Electricity Market'' was adopted in September 2001. Its purpose is to promote an increase in the contribution of renewable energy sources to electricity production in the internal market for electricity and to create a basis for a future Community framework. Energie-Cites provides in this document a summary of its opinion on the Green Paper and on Alterner II and gives a proposal for an Action Plan concerning the White Paper. (A.L.B.)

NONE

1997-05-01

114

Superconducting magnetic energy storage in power systems with renewable energy sources  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The increasing focus on large scale integration of new renewable energy sources like wind power and wave power introduces the need for energy storage. Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) is a promising alternative for active power compensation. Having high efficiency, very fast response time and high power capability it is ideal for levelling fast fluctuations. This thesis investigates the feasibility of a current source converter as a power conditioning system for SMES appl...

Nielsen, Knut Erik

2010-01-01

115

Panorama 2012 - Marine renewable energy sources: their place in energy policy, projects and players  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Marine energy sources are now a reality in the scientific landscape and, from now on, will be an increasingly important feature of the industry. Driven by public policy and renewable energy development targets, projects are multiplying, and industry players are jostling for maximum advantage in the first bidding rounds. (author)

116

Dynamic energy management employing renewable energy sources in IP over DWDM networks  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The continued growth of energy consumption has been one of the main constraints for the development of the Internet. The increasing emissions of greenhouse gases associated with electricity generation also raise public concern for the environment. In this paper, we propose a dynamic energy management framework employing renewable energy sources in IP over DWDM core networks. The main concept is to combine infrastructure sleeping and virtual router migration to improve the network energy efficiency. By using the energy source information provided by the smart grid, the nodes that are powered by a renewable energy source are selected, where possible, for hosting virtual routers during off-peak hours. Therefore, the energy consumption and CO2 emissions are both reduced. A heuristic algorithm based on a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm is proposed to select appropriate physical platforms to host the virtual routers.

Wang, Jiayuan; Ruepp, Sarah Renée

2013-01-01

117

Fuel Cells for Balancing Fluctuation Renewable Energy Sources  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the perspective of using fuel cells for integration of fluctuating renewable energy the SOFCs are the most promising. These cells have the advantage of significantly higher electricity efficiency than competing technologies and fuel flexibility. Fuel cells in general also have the advantage of fast regulation abilities combined with excellent part-load efficiencies. Additionally scaling the cells from W to kW to MW is possible and does not influence the efficiencies of the cells. The feasi...

Mathiesen, Brian Vad

2007-01-01

118

MODELING AND SIMULATION OF RENEWABLE HYBRID ENERGY SOURCES USING MATLAB/SIMULINK ENVIRONMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The using on a large scale of renewable energies brought a series of new problems in power energy generation and distribution systems. This represents one of the main reasons for study the impact of renewable energy sources on power systems. The paper proposes an effective study on the impact of renewable energy sources on power systems by using simulation models and the results obtained from these models. In the present paper are conceived Matlab/Simulink simulation models by considering mathematical models for hybrid systems based on renewable energy sources applied in the central region of Romania. The models can be implemented in any other Matlab SimPowerSystems simulation and study models and can be used in real simulated systems functioning using Matlab. The experimental results obtained from simulated models and conclusions resulted from the study of the impact of renewable energy hybrid systems on power systems are also presented.

Cristian-Dragos Dumitru

2009-11-01

119

Fuel Cells for Balancing Fluctuation Renewable Energy Sources  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In the perspective of using fuel cells for integration of fluctuating renewable energy the SOFCs are the most promising. These cells have the advantage of significantly higher electricity efficiency than competing technologies and fuel flexibility. Fuel cells in general also have the advantage of fast regulation abilities combined with excellent part-load efficiencies. Additionally scaling the cells from W to kW to MW is possible and does not influence the efficiencies of the cells. The feasibility of the scaling however depends on the market at hand and the fuel cells characteristics. Wind integration can also be preformed with other types of fuel cells than the SOFCs such as PEMFC in micro-CHP. These however have the disadvantage that the efficiency is lower and require pure hydrogen. PEMFCs have advantages for mobile applications replacing internal combustion engines and batteries were feasible. For mobile applications the PEMFCs have the advantages that they can compete with internal combustion engineswith fast start-up, fast regulation abilities and better efficiencies. In comparison with batteries fuel cells have the advantage that they have higher energy densities and can be refilled instantly, however the storage problems have yet to be solved. As storage and energy carriers methanol and ethanol are the most promising in regards to mass and volume. These can be used directly in SOFCs but have to be reformed for use in PEMFC. New technologies that can provide energy system flexibility, such as SOFCs, heat pumps and heat storage technologies are more important than storing electricity as hydrogen via electrolysis in energy systems with high amounts of wind [12]. Unnecessary energy conversions should be avoided. However in future energy systems with wind providing more than 50% of the electricity and with the best measures for improving flexibility have already been taken, making fuels via electrolysis is one of the alternatives to integrate more renewable energy. Creating the road map to a 100% renewable energy systems require difficult choices between balancing fluctuating renewable with hydrogen production or electric cars, and on the other hand using biomass and bio fuels [11]. Fuel cells can have an important role in these future energy systems.

Mathiesen, Brian Vad

2007-01-01

120

A potential of utilizing renewable energy sources and the state support in Slovakia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The renewable energy sources are domestic sources of energy that help to enhance the safety of energy supplies and the diversification of energy sources. The utilization of such sources complies with the environmental acceptability requirement and leads to a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. The renewable energy is proved to be commercially viable for a growing list of consumers and uses. The renewable energy technologies provide many benefits that go well beyond the energy alone. More and more, the renewable energies contribute to the three pillars of the sustainable development in the economy, environment and the society. Several renewable energy technologies are established in world markets, building global industries and infrastructures. Other renewables become competitive in growing markets, and some are widely recognised as the lowest cost option for stand-alone and off grid applications. An increased utilization of renewable energy sources in the heat and electricity generation is one of priority tasks of the Slovak Republic to boost the use of domestic energy potential and thus to decrease the Slovakia's dependence on imported fossil fuels. (authors)

 
 
 
 
121

QUESTIONABLE DEVELOPMENT OF REGULATION OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN THE EUROPEAN UNION  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article focuses on the development and current situation of renewableenergy sources in the European Union in a sphere of Energy law. Energy is a keysector in the European Community which becomes increasingly integrated bothpolitically and economically. Renewable energy sources have nowadays a greatimportance and big volume of legislation highly affects member states of the EuropeanUnion. Article concerns the development of Renewable Energy policy in EuropeanUnion and stress importance of...

PETR FLASAR

2011-01-01

122

The future of renewable energy sources in Romania  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Assuming that RES developments are in line with the indicative targets of the EU Directive for 2010 and that the present support mechanisms applied to EU-15 in the year 2001 remain unchanged at that time, the total RES payments in 2010 for the EU-15 countries using direct support for RES can be estimated at EURO 22 billion, with prices ranging from 2.7 EUROc/kWh in Finland to 9 EUROc/kWh in Germany and Luxembourg, and 11.9 EUROc/kWh in Italy with a weighted average of 6.8 EUROc/kWh. Compared to average wholesale electricity market price, RES support in EU-15 countries in 2010 would amount to 13.3 %, varying between 2.6% in Belgium to about 56% in Denmark. In case of EU-15 countries using only feed-in tariffs to promote RES, the weighted average of RES direct support is 17% If the existing RES direct support schemes continue to 2010 (including feed-in tariffs), this will result in a very substantial level of expenditure, with a significant impact on the average level of European electricity prices, with very significant variability and thus potential market distortions between countries. Romanian Governmental Decision No. 443/2003 aimed to the harmonization of the national legislative framework with EU Directive. The harmonization of Romanian legislative framework with European Union regulation concerning the promotion of renewable resources has to contribute to new renewable resources penetration into the electricity market. The development of the EU green electricity market could offer good opportunities for Romania. The harmonization of Romanian legislative framework with European Union regulation concerning the promotion of renewable resources has to contribute to new renewable resources penetration into the electricity market. The important share of large hydroelectricity generated in Romania could represent a good opportunity for Romania to participate in the EU green electricity market, but the key problem in Romania's case is the target of 12.5 % of RES-E in 2010 without large hydroelectricity. The Romania's accession to EU could mean the acceptance to increase the share of renewable in the next years. Such a request, involving the real implementation of schemes for RES support could be very difficult, taking into account the low supportability to increase the electricity price in Romania. Promotion of renewable resources in Romania needs not only legislative support, but financial and economic ones. The essential market and non-market barriers to sustainable renewable energy penetration to the market have to be identified and specific policies and strategies designed to overcome them

123

Power from renewable sources of energy should be promoted  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This short article presents the views of five experts concerning a model for the promotion of the use of solar energy that was developed by the Swiss Association of Electricity Utilities VSE. The model is based on a tendering system for promotion of solar installations. Also, various points of view are presented on the questions concerning the opening of the electricity market in Switzerland, the effect of the introduction of a CO2 levy and the status of the promotion of renewable forms of energy in the future. Opinions on the VSE's model and the competitiveness of Swiss electricity utilities in comparison with those in the European Union are stated

124

Legislative and policy in energy efficient designing and renewable energy sources: Application in Serbia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper analyses political and legislative frames in the field of energy efficient building and renewable energy sources in planning and implementation in Serbia. „Development strategy until 2015.“ is reviewed in concise portrait. This strategy maps a way for the application of energy services of much higher quality than ones offered at a present day. It reviews relevant laws concerning the subject, as well as institutions, programs and their implementation. Basic principles of energy ...

Pucar Mila; Nenkovi?-Rizni? Marina

2007-01-01

125

Fuel-efficiency of hydrogen and heat storage technologies for integration of fluctuating renewable energy sources  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents the methodology and results of analysing the use of different energy storage technologies in the task of integration of fluctuating renewable energy sources (RES) into the electricity supply. The analysis is done on the complete electricity system including renewable energy sources as well as power plants and CHP (Combined heat and power production). Emphasis is put on the need for ancillary services. Devices to store electricity as well as devices to store heat can be use...

Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik

2005-01-01

126

Environmental impacts evaluation associated to renewable sources of energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As time goes by, the need for electricity increases and creates several problems to mankind. Health and environmental problems happens wherever a power plant arises. For many people the best option for these problems is to invest in energy alternative sources, such as solar and wind. But unfortunately this sources also generates some environmental and health damages. The objective of this work is to analyze the impacts of these energy sources, to review their utilization all over the world and to discuss its relevance in the global energy market. To make a comparative evaluation, the nuclear option will also be analyzed. (author)

127

Green Minefield. Renewable sources of energy have both advantages and disadvantages  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Despite being more expensive, renewable energy sources have profound advantages - they are more environment-friendly and help decrease Europe's dependence on foreign energy producers. As a result, the European Union set a target to cover 20% of its energy demand with renewable sources by 2020. Slovakia's target is 14% with the current proportion being barely 7%. Half of this green energy comes from conventional water power plants. The other half is covered by biomass. Other than that, Slovakia is housing some new facilities producing bio fuels from corn and rapeseed. Other energy sources are more expensive. So far, geothermal springs have been used mostly for recreation. Solar and wind energy have hardly shown any development. Some investments have been announced in biogas heating and electricity production. Renewable energy sources are typically subsidized as early as the construction phase. Up to half of the investment costs can be covered by taxpayers' money. Other incentives include tax exemption or guaranteed higher purchase prices. In this area, last year's change in legislation, guaranteeing energy prices for renewable for the next fifteen years, has been crucial. The disadvantage is that higher prices for renewable energy have to be paid by the consumers. In addition, solar and wind energies are highly volatile - depending on weather conditions. This jeopardizes the stability of the national electricity grid and, if left unregulated, could lead to blackouts. Sft unregulated, could lead to blackouts. Slovakia registers applications for up to 3,500 MW worth of new renewable energy sources. (authors)

128

Rural population and renewable energy sources: Experiences of the Republic of Serbia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During the last decade of the twentieth century the use of green (renewable energy has become the imperative not only in developed countries worldwide, but also in poorer countries like Asia and Africa. The change from traditional to renewable energy sources carries valuable improvements in environmental protection and economic efficacy. This paper through individual examples, explores the possibility of replacing traditional with renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, geothermal, energy of small hydroelectric power plants, etc. worldwide and in rural Serbian communities.

Pucar Mila

2006-01-01

129

On the physics of power, energy and economics of renewable electric energy sources - Part II  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

stic subsidies. This paper elaborates on the overall problem of the economy of renewable electric energy conversion systems by studying the interface between physics, engineering and economy reported for RET power plants in different scientific publications. The core objective is to show the practical use of the Degree of Utilization and how the concept is crucial for the design and economical optimization disregarding subsidies. The results clearly indicate that the future political regulative frameworks should consider the choice of renewable energy source since this strongly affects the economical output from the RET power plants. (author)

130

Algorithm of constructing methods of application of renewable sources of energy at recreational objects ???????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ????????????? ????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article develops an algorithm of assessment of potential of use of renewable sources of energy with the aim to cover needs of recreational objects. The article reveals scientific principles of transformation of the power system and recreational economy of the Crimea on the basis of a wider application of the renewable sources of energy, including the solar one, in the result of which the situation in the region will change: ecological situation will improve, power independence of recreational objects will increase, and probability of man-caused catastrophes will reduce. The article considers results of practical introduction of scientific developments in the sphere of application of renewable sources of energy at recreational objects and offers a logical scheme of the algorithm of construction of methods of application of renewable sources of energy at recreational objects, which include four main stages. Each of the stages and items of the algorithm requires further detalisation and methodical development.????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ??????????????? ????????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ????? ???????? ???? ????????????? ????????. ? ?????? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????? ? ?????????????? ????????? ????? ?? ???? ????? ???????? ????????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ???????, ? ??? ????? ? ?????????, ? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ? ???????: ????????? ????????????? ????????, ????????? ??????????????????? ????????????? ????????, ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????. ?? ?????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ? ????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ????????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ????????????? ????????, ?????????? ? ???? ?????? ???????? ?????. ?????? ?? ?????? ? ??????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ??????????.

Bashta Alexander I.

2013-02-01

131

The integration of renewable energy sources into electric power transmission systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Renewable energy technologies such as photovoltaics, solar thermal power plants, and wind turbines are nonconventional, environmentally attractive sources of energy that can be considered for electric power generation. Many of the areas with abundant renewable energy resources (very sunny or windy areas) are far removed from major load centers. Although electrical power can be transmitted over long distances of many hundreds of miles through high-voltage transmission lines, power transmission systems often operate near their limits with little excess capacity for new generation sources. This study assesses the available capacity of transmission systems in designated abundant renewable energy resource regions and identifies the requirements for high-capacity plant integration in selected cases. In general, about 50 MW of power from renewable sources can be integrated into existing transmission systems to supply local loads without transmission upgrades beyond the construction of a substation to connect to the grid. Except in the Southwest, significant investment to strengthen transmission systems will be required to support the development of high-capacity renewable sources of 1000 MW or greater in areas remote from major load centers. Cost estimates for new transmission facilities to integrate and dispatch some of these high-capacity renewable sources ranged from several million dollars to approximately one billion dollars, with the latter figure an increase in total investment of 35%, assuming that the renewable source is the only user of the transmission facility.

Barnes, P.R.; Dykas, W.P.; Kirby, B.J.; Purucker, S.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Lawler, J.S. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

1995-07-01

132

AUTOMATION OF THE COUNTRY HOUSE HEATING SYSTEM WITH INCLUDED RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Graduate work involves automation of the country house heating system with included renewable energy sources. Listed are the main renewable energy sources, special describes and shows how exploitation of available resources. The structure of the revised system, the connection process with an industrial controller OMRON CP1E-20 I / O is described . The programming environment CX-Programmer and CX-Supervisor (SCADA). Description of solar (SSE), and the study of use of water power for a repla...

Zavrs?nik, Dejan

2011-01-01

133

Investments in renewable energy sources: the relationship with nuclear power consumptions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aimof this study is to analyze the driving of investment in renewable energy sources in countries with, or without, nuclear power plants. To address these issues, a dynamic panel analysis of the renewable investment in a sample of 29 countries is proposed. Results demonstrate that investments in renewable sources present an inverse relationship with share of nuclear power generation in countries with nuclear power plants but in the countries with power generation based on fossil fuel, investments in renewable sources depend on GDP and technological efficiency. Results also show that energy sustainability passes through the use of renewable resources that can complement the nuclear technology on condition that both exceed their limits.

Antonio Angelo Romano

2014-05-01

134

The share of renewable energy in the EU. Country Profiles. Overview of Renewable Energy Sources in the Enlarged European Union  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

for electricity) by 1 May 2004. In the accession treaty, national indicative targets are set and the overall renewable electricity target for the enlarged Union will therefore be 21% of gross electricity consumption by 2010. The Commission has the legal obligation to report on the degree of achievement of new Member States' targets by 2006. Although it is too early to assess RES-policy in the new Member States due to very recently adopted regulations, this document also includes national information on the States now joining the European Union. This Staff Working Document aims to give an overall picture of the situation and the potentials of renewable energy sources in the enlarged European Union.

135

Map of decentralised energy potential based on renewable energy sources in Croatia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although the Republic of Croatia is almost completely electrified there are still regions where electricity network is not in place or network capacity is insufficient. These regions usually include areas of special state care (underdeveloped, war-affected or depopulated areas), islands, and mountainous areas. However, they often have good renewable energy potential. Decentralised energy generation based on renewable energy sources (wind power, hydropower, solar energy, biomass) has potential to ensure energy supply to users in remote and often isolated rural areas (off-grid applications). Such applications will primarily be related to tourism business in mountainous, rural and island/coastal regions. Also, agriculture, wood-processing and food-processing industries will potentially be interested in application of decentralised energy generation systems, most likely those using biomass as fuel (for example cogeneration facilities, connected on-grid).(author)

136

Expected Rates of Renewable Energy Sources in Meeting of Energy Demands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Taking the expected growth of the world’s population and the estimated technological development and increase in living standards into account, the paper forecasts energy demands. On the basis of the actual production data of 380-400 EJ.year-1 in 2000 and data in publications, the author assumes the total energy demand to be 750-800 EJ.year-1 for 2030, 600-1,000 EJ.year-1 for 2050 and 900-3,600 EJ.year-1 for 2100. The author analyses the appearance of the different energy types in the history of mankind giving the specific heat content and heating value of the different fuels. The environmental advantages, disadvantages, technical and economic limits of application involved in the use of primary renewable energy sources are also dealt with. The analysis of the data in the different prognoses in publications gives the result that fossil fuels will meet 84-85 % of the total energy demand until 2030 in the foreseeable future. In 2050, the fossil rate may be 50-70 % and the rate of renewables may amount to 20-40 %. In 2100, the maximum fossil rate may be 40-50 % with a 30-60 % maximum rate of renewables. On the basis of the results of investigation, the general conclusion may be that the realistically exploitable amount of renewable energy sources is not so unlimitedly high as many suppose. Therefore, it is an illusion to expect that the replacement or substitution of mineral fuels and nuclear energy can be solved relying solely on renewable energies.

Ferenc Kovács

2007-12-01

137

People’s Perceptions on Renewable Energy Sources Penetration Prospects in the Khorezm Province, Uzbekistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The energy sectors of fossil fuel-rich Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan are heavily dependent on non-renewable resources. The abundance of these resources acts as a retardant the process of energy diversification in the above mentioned Central Asian states. Nevertheless, the future diversification of energy sources is an inevitable process due to many reasons; man-made climate change, the need for transition to reliable and secure energy sources and availability of a vast potential for renewable energy generation being the most important ones.

Bahtiyor R. ESHCHANOV

2011-12-01

138

Multi-port power electronic interface for renewable energy sources  

Science.gov (United States)

Energy intensive products and services are penetrating people's daily life as well as different sectors of industry during recent decades. Further effort to improve efficiency, reduce green house gas and hazardous particle emission lead to the emergence of the "more electric" concept in several industries including transportation. This trend, however, burdens the aging power system and existing local power networks. To offer a remedy to the problem and a smooth transition to a more reliable, more diverse, and more efficient power grid of the future, the concept of Multi-port Power Electronic Interface (MPEI) for localized power processing is introduced in this dissertation, which interfaces and manages various sources, loads and storages. Different means of integrating multiple sources and storages into the existing power system are studied and evaluated; the six phase-leg structure is chosen to interface five sources/loads: fuel cell, wind turbine, solar cell, battery and utility grid. Partitioning of source-interface and load-interface on a system level as well as analysis and modeling on small signal level are performed. A novel control structure for source-interface is proposed in the design, which forms Controlled Quasi Current Source (CQCS) during the load sharing operation and offers several salient advantages: • Inherent average current-mode control. • Easy share of steady state current/power. • Share of load dynamics for better source protection. Local control loops for various input ports are designed based on linearized system model; controller performance is tuned to accommodate the characteristics of different sources. To maintain a sustainable operation, different modes of operation are defined for MPEI; detailed state-transition with associated events are also defined in each operation mode. Prototype of MPEI is built and control system is implemented digitally in a digital signal processor; steady state and transient performance of MPEI is tested under variety of meaningful conditions, which proves the feasibility of the proposed design. The concepts, analysis and design of MPEI conducted in this dissertation pave the way for designing of intelligent power electronic infrastructure for future sustainable energy systems.

Jiang, Wei

139

Impact of renewable energy sources on greenhouse gas emissions in comparison to conventional energies - Simplified examples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper discusses definition problem of the full energy chain greenhouse gas (FENCH-GHG) emission analysis. The importance of good definition of the problem is essential: for what purpose this analysis is done, what shall be included and what can be excluded from the analysis. This is done by giving simplified examples of FENCH-GHG emission analysis. The example is use of small solar heating systems in an oil heated single family house in Finland and another renewable energy source: liquid biofuel combustion. The paper gives rough data for those options. Paper concludes with this example, to recommendations how definition of FENCH-GHG analysis should be done for intermittent renewable energies. (author)

140

People’s Perceptions on Renewable Energy Sources Penetration Prospects in the Khorezm Province, Uzbekistan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The energy sectors of fossil fuel-rich Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan are heavily dependent on non-renewable resources. The abundance of these resources acts as a retardant the process of energy diversification in the above mentioned Central Asian states. Nevertheless, the future diversification of energy sources is an inevitable process due to many reasons; man-made climate change, the need for transition to reliable and secure energy sources and availability of a vast potential for...

Eshchanov, Bahtiyor R.; Grinwis Plaat Stultjes, Mona; Eshchanov, Ruzumboy A.; Salaev, Sanaatbek K.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Experimental investigation of jojoba as a renewable energy source  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work examined jojoba (oil and cake) as possible alternative fuel sources. Jojoba is a shrub that grows very well in deserts and its cake is the solid part produced upon processing of the jojoba seeds for oil extraction. In this study, pure jojoba oil and 50/50 blends with diesel fuel were tested as fuels in a single cylinder diesel engine. The diesel fuel was the baseline of comparison throughout the runs. The cake was tested for both direct combustion (pellets) and as a substrate for biogas production. The pellets were formed by compacting the cake in cylindrical dies using a hydraulic press while the biogasification was conducted in an anaerobic digester model Bioflo 110 from Brunswick. The findings indicate that the optimum injection pressure for jojoba oil in the engine is 210 bars at which engine speed was maximum (2700 rpm), NOx and CO emissions as well as exhaust temperature were minimum. Using jojoba cake for biogasification resulted in a yield of about 600 ml biogas per 400 g of jojoba cake. Burning jojoba compacted cake (pellets) for direct combustion in a stove indicated that jojoba cake sustained a temperature in excess of 300 deg. C for a reasonable amount of time and that the cake was very competitive to wood and has energy content more than most types of wood. Overall, it may be stated that both jojoba oil and cake hold real promise as alternative energy sources.

142

Financial mechanisms for renewable energy sources; Mecanismos financeiros para fontes de energia renovaveis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work presents three different financial mechanisms in the world as choices in the electricity generation investment from alternative energy sources. It shows a description of the following methods developed in the world: payment capacity, social costs of energy, and markets that trade renewable energies certificates. Finally, a recommendation about the best choice that could be implemented in Brazil is suggested. Given the importance in the use of the renewable energy of electric energy generation, most of the electric systems in the world have developed mechanisms to encourage the use of alternative energies. With the capacity payment the power plants that employ alternative sources, can receive extra payment as benefits for their initial investment. A possibility could be fixing taxes for the generation of electricity with fossil fuel that could finance the renewable energy sources. A renewable energy market dealing with trade able certificates, forces the electricity purchasers to have a percentage from alternative energies of the totally energy acquired. In this way the forced purchasing of energy from power plants which use energy certificates allows the expansion of these technologies. (author)

Moya Chaves, Francisco David [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

2006-07-01

143

Citizens’ preferences on nuclear and renewable energy sources: Evidence from Turkey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Based on data from a face-to-face survey of 2422 residents from urban Turkey, this paper presents an analysis of citizens’ preferences in Turkey on nuclear and renewable energy sources. Findings indicate that opposition to nuclear power was strong, and only a small number of respondents endorsed it by listing it in their top two choices. Conversely, almost two-thirds of the sample endorsed investment in renewable energy sources (such as wind and solar), and only a small minority was opposed to it. Econometric analyses revealed that knowledge of the climate change problem was a common factor that explained endorsement of both nuclear and renewables. Yet, high levels of concern for the environment and a negative perception regarding its future differentiated the endorsers of renewables from those of nuclear energy. Endorsers of nuclear energy were found to be males who were knowledgeable about climate change and engaged in environmental issues, but less concerned about the environment, and optimistic about its future. Nuclear opponents, on the other hand, were found to be concerned about the environment, pessimistic about its future, and not fully relying on technology. - Highlights: ? We explore determinants of citizens’ preferences for renewable and nuclear energy. ? The analysis is based on a survey conducted in urban Turkey with 2422 respondents. ? Knowledge of climate change is a common factor of renewable and nuclear endorsement. ? Divergences relate tsement. ? Divergences relate to environmental concern and optimism, and reliance on technology. ? Energy conflicts emerge as complex and related to environmental values and attitudes.

144

The Investments in Renewable Energy Sources: Do Low Carbon Economies Better Invest in Green Technologies?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyse the driving of investment in renewable energy sources in low carbon and high carbon economies. To address these issues, a dynamic panel analysis of the renewable investment in a sample of 29 countries was proposed. Results demonstrate that the dynamic of investments in renewable sources is similar in the two panels, and depends by nuclear power generation, GDP and technological efficiency. Results show that countries try to reduce their environmental footprint, decreasing the CO2 intensity. Based on the estimation results, we think that energy sustainability passes through the use of renewable resources that can complement the nuclear technology on condition that both exceed their limits.

Antonio Angelo Romano

2011-01-01

145

Research and development as contribution of the Renewable Energy Sources Centre to the wind energy utilization in Slovakia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The expected development of renewable energy sources utilization was not reached in last years in Slovakia. This is caused by some barriers. These barriers decrease the easiness of investments into the Renewable energy sources utilization. We recognize specific barriers for each of renewable energy sources and general barriers for all renewable energy sources. Activities of the Renewable Energy Sources Centre help to eliminate both specific and general barriers in Slovakia. The main activities are: a realization of research projects, working out expertise and feasibility studies, information of public about principals and specifics of the wind energy utilization. How the Renewable Energy Sources Centre encourages of the utilization wind energy can be demonstrated on one of the research projects: The designing a stable standpoint with a sufficient storage tank of wind energy, possibly of compressed air. The wind energy serves as a primary resource when it powers the compressor, which fills the pneumatic accumulator (storage tank of compressed air). The compressed air is at a time of peak endurance consumed from pneumatic accumulators for the work of pneumatic engine, which powers the generator and the produced electric energy is being supplied to the public network. (authors)

146

Research and development as contribution of the Renewable Energy Sources Centre to the wind energy utilization in Slovakia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The expected development of renewable energy sources utilization was not reached in last years in Slovakia. This is caused by some barriers. These barriers decrease the easiness of investments into the Renewable energy sources utilization. We recognize specific barriers for each of renewable energy sources and general barriers for all renewable energy sources. Activities of the Renewable Energy Sources Centre help to eliminate both specific and general barriers in Slovakia. The main activities are: a realization of research projects, working out expertises and feasibility studies, information of public about principals and specifics of the wind energy utilization. How the Renewable Energy Sources Centre encourages of the utilization wind energy can be demonstrated on one of the research projects: The designing a stable standpoint with a sufficient storage tank of wind energy, possibly of compressed air. The wind energy serves as a primary resource when it powers the compressor, which fills the pneumatic accumulator (storage tank of compressed air. The compressed air is at a time of peak endurance consumed from pneumatic accumulators for the work of pneumatic engine, which powers the generator and the produced electric energy is being supplied to the public network.

Radim Rybár

2007-04-01

147

Renewable energy annual 1995  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Renewable Energy Annual 1995 is the first in an expected series of annual reports the Energy Information Administration (EIA) intends to publish to provide a comprehensive assessment of renewable energy. This report presents the following information on the history, status, and prospects of renewable energy data: estimates of renewable resources; characterizations of renewable energy technologies; descriptions of industry infrastructures for individual technologies; evaluations of current market status; and assessments of near-term prospects for market growth. An international section is included, as well as two feature articles that discuss issues of importance for renewable energy as a whole. The report also contains a number of technical appendices and a glossary. The renewable energy sources included are biomass (wood), municipal solid waste, biomass-derived liquid fuels, geothermal, wind, and solar and photovoltaic

148

Renewable energy annual 1995  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Renewable Energy Annual 1995 is the first in an expected series of annual reports the Energy Information Administration (EIA) intends to publish to provide a comprehensive assessment of renewable energy. This report presents the following information on the history, status, and prospects of renewable energy data: estimates of renewable resources; characterizations of renewable energy technologies; descriptions of industry infrastructures for individual technologies; evaluations of current market status; and assessments of near-term prospects for market growth. An international section is included, as well as two feature articles that discuss issues of importance for renewable energy as a whole. The report also contains a number of technical appendices and a glossary. The renewable energy sources included are biomass (wood), municipal solid waste, biomass-derived liquid fuels, geothermal, wind, and solar and photovoltaic.

NONE

1995-12-01

149

Are renewable energy sources the environmentally friendly problem solution? Pt. 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The possibilities and limits of renewable energy sources for energy supply in Germany continue to be a central topic in discussions about energy economy. Against this background the different uses of renewable energy sources are compared with each other, taking regional variations of supply into account. The publication deals with the following energy sources: solar thermal and geothermal low-temperature energy generation, photovoltaic power generation, wind and hydro-electric power generation, harnessing of organic wastes or by-products of farming and forestry (inter alia, straw, wood), as well as other organic wastes and fuel crops yielding solid or liquid fuels. For these options the potentials and costs are analyzed and discussed within the energy-economic boundary conditions of the Federal Republic of Germany. (orig.)

150

Renewable energy sources. Systems engineering, economic efficiency, environmental aspects. 2. ed.  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The physical fundamentals and basic systems- engineering aspects of the main renewable-energy techniques applied in Germany are presented. The characteristics of renewable energy supplies are discussed. Solar thermal and geothermal techniques, and techniques for the generation of electrical energy from solar radiation (photovoltaics) are described. Parameters for an ecological and economic evaluation and for evaluation of the relevant energy management factors are discussed considering the present state and future development. Comparisons of the different techniques among each other and comparisons with techniques that utilize fossil energy sources allow one to evaluate the present and future chances and risks of renewable energy supplies in Germany considering the respective conventional techniques and the present situation of energy management. (orig./UA)

151

Feasibility study of renewable energy source, explosion in India with regard to regional environmental factors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the context of global warming and growing energy needs, there is a need for exploration of alternative source of energy. The main renewable energy sources are: (1) solar (2) wind (3) biomass (4) geothermal. By far the largest energy resource is the sun. Using one ten-thousandth part of the incoming sunlight would cover the whole energy demand of mankind. Based on the raw energy source, power plants convert any source of energy (thermal, solar, wind, nuclear etc.) into electrical energy. Kinetic energy of wind can be used to run turbines. Wind can reach much higher densities than solar irradiance. Forms of energy such as wind are considered short term energy storage, whereas energy in biomass is accumulated over a period of months or years. Solid biomass such as combustible field crops or firewood is burnt to heat water or turbines. A literature survey is carried out to estimate the potential of each renewable energy resource in various parts of country. The economic factors involved and the policies and regulations in place are also considered in the present study. Parameters like exploration costs, capital expenditure, legal procedures involved, licences needed are considered in order to judge the viability of an investment. The objective of the study is to come up with a possible plan of region-wise exploitation of these alternative renewable resources in India

152

POLICIES AND MEASURES FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES AND ACHIEVEMENT OF TARGETS BY 2020 IN CROATIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper is considering set up a longer-term perspective and plan of actions for the development of renewable energy infrastructure in Croatia in accordance with the new Croatian Energy Sector Development Strategy. Overall target till the year 2020 has been calculated in accordance with effort sharing methodology used for Directive 2009/28/EC. The paper presents some main existing policies and measures for achieving this ambitious target, including feed-in tariffs, guarantees of origin, and greenhouse gas emissions taxation. It is addressed the necessity for creating enabling environment for promotion of renewable energy sources and gradually remove barriers for its stronger penetration on the energy market.

Igor Raguzin

2010-01-01

153

A support of the renewable source energy utilization and conditions for the biogas station investment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes possibilities of the renewable energy source projects funding and arises an importance of the analysis which should be the first step before investing in the generation of energy from renewable sources. The issue of investing in biogas plants is related to particular conditions of the investor. The extent of the investment is never clear and always depends on the company equipment. Therefore, the quality evaluation of the project in the preparatory phase can protect the investor against a direct damage and disappointment. (authors)

154

A support of the renewable source energy utilization and conditions for the biogass station investment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes possibilities of the renewable energy source projects funding and arises an importance of the analysis whichshould be the first step before investing in the generation of energy from renewable sources.The issue of investing in biogas plants is related to particular conditions of the investor. The extent of the investment is never clearand always depends on the company equipment. Therefore, the quality evaluation of the project in the preparatory phase can protectthe investor against a direct damage and disappointment.

Roland Weiss

2009-03-01

155

Summary for Policy Makers: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report Renewable Energy Sources (SRREN)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Working Group III Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation (SRREN) presents an assessment of the literature on the scientific, technological, environmental, economic and social aspects of the contribution of six renewable energy (RE) sources to the mitigation of climate change. It is intended to provide policy relevant information to governments, intergovernmental processes and other interested parties. This Summary for Policymakers provides an overview of the SRREN, summarizing the essential findings. The SRREN consists of 11 chapters. Chapter 1 sets the context for RE and climate change; Chapters 2 through 7 provide information on six RE technologies, and Chapters 8 through 11 address integrative issues.

Arvizu, Dan; Bruckner, Thomas; Christensen, John; Devernay, Jean-Michel; Faaij , Andre; Fischedick, Manfred; Goldstein, Barry; Hansen, Gerrit; Huckerby , John; Jager-Waldau, Arnulf; Kadner, Susanne; Kammen, Daniel; Krey, Volker; Kumar, Arun; Lewis , Anthony; Lucon, Oswaldo; Matschoss, Patrick; Maurice, Lourdes; Mitchell , Catherine; Moomaw, William; Moreira, Jose; Nadai, Alain; Nilsson, Lars J.; Nyboer, John; Rahman, Atiq; Sathaye, Jayant; Sawin, Janet; Schaeffer, Roberto; Schei, Tormod; Schlomer, Steffen; Sims, Ralph; von Stechow, Christoph; Verbruggen, Aviel; Urama, Kevin; Wiser, Ryan; Yamba, Francis; Zwickel, Timm

2011-05-08

156

ANALYSIS OF THE EDUCATIONAL METHODS AND CURRICULUM REQUIREMENTS FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Article is dedicated to the sources, analysis and output of the project ECEVE - Implementation of E-learning Content for Energy Saving Farm into Vocational Education. The project is solved in the period 2010 - 2012 within the program Leonardo da Vinci - Transfer of Innovation. Its coordinator is the Slovak Agricultural University in Nitra, and one of the strategic objectives is to analyze training needs in the area of vocational education and training in the field of renewable energy sources....

Floris, Norbert; Guzmicka, Janette; Palkova, Zuzana

2012-01-01

157

Technology risk assessment to renewable energy sources. Interim report: Utilization of renewable energy sources. Technikfolgenabschaetzung zum Thema 'Nachwachsende Rohstoffe'. Zwischenbericht: Energetische Nutzung nachwachsender Energietraeger  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The results of this interim report of a BMFT-supported study are preliminary statements about the utilization of plant-derived raw materials for energy supply uses. Some aspects were analyzed by preparing technology risk assessments of the present economic situation (from the point of view of national economy) of about 50 product lines, the medium- term (2005) economic prospects, of threshold prices based on the price of fuel oil, the cost of carbon dioxide reduction, other environmental aspects, and of the acceptance of renewable energy sources among farmers. Arguments are derived from these analyses, and the present R and D deficiencies are discussed. (orig.)

Fuerniss, B.; Klein-Vielhauer, S.; Leible, L.; Nieke, E.; Petermann, T.; Roesch, C.; Tangen, H.

1991-11-01

158

Renewable energy worldwide outlooks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Because of the demographic growth, there should be an increase of the worldwide energy consumption, which could be assumed by the fossil fuels (coal, petroleum, gas). But carbon dioxide should increase. Nuclear energy should develop but less than provided. The ecological, environmental, worldwide pressures should be strengthened or the economical reinforced development should fit with more growth. There are three forms of renewable energies: hydraulics, biomass, new energies. This energy form consumption is going to increase but the penetration of renewable sources remains very slow. Nevertheless biomass, solar and wind energies are developing the most. The environment and the public opinion must privilege that renewable source development

159

Potential contributions of renewable energy sources and economically and ecologically feasible development strategies for Nordrhein-Westfalen. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This final technical report of the study contains the important equations and results of the above mentioned project. The main aim of the study was to show the importance of renewable energy in Nordrhein-Westfalen regarding its possible contribution to the energy supply as well as the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions, caused by the convertion of energy. Considering the energy sources photovoltaic, solar heating, wind and biomass, an economically oriented energy mix of renewable energy systems is developed, which describes the most economical combination of renewable energy sources and its production costs in dependence on the converted energy. In this connection a regional disaggregated estimation of the theoretical possible maximum contribution of the single renewable energy sources to the energy supply in the communities of Nordrhein-Westfalen is investigated. Basing on this estimation and on the technical datas of commerical manufactured systems, converting the energy sources sun, wind and biomass, the technical possibilities for an extension of the renewable energy are determined for every community. The result of the examinations shows, that the energy supply in Nordrhein-Westfalen could by based in future on barely a fourth by using renewable energy sources, on barely a third by using energy more efficient and on nearly the half by using fossil and nuclear energy sources. The costs however, which would be connected with an extension of renewable energy sources according to the suggested energy mix, can economical not be accepted in the further future. (orig./UA)

160

Fuel-efficiency of hydrogen and heat storage technologies for integration of fluctuating renewable energy sources  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper presents the methodology and results of analysing the use of different energy storage technologies in the task of integration of fluctuating renewable energy sources (RES) into the electricity supply. The analysis is done on the complete electricity system including renewable energy sources as well as power plants and CHP (Combined heat and power production). Emphasis is put on the need for ancillary services. Devices to store electricity as well as devices to store heat can be used to help the integration of fluctuating sources. Electricity storage tech- nologies can be used to relocate electricity production directly from the sources, while heat storage devices can be used to relo- cate the electricity production from CHP plants and hereby im- prove the ability to integrate RES. The analyses are done by ad- vanced computer modelling and the results are given as diagrams showing the system ability to integrate RES inputs between 0 and 100 percent of the electricity demand.

Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Promotion of electricity produced from renewable energy sources - Strategic objective of the Romania energy policy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper presents different types of support schemes for promoting electricity produced from renewable energy sources in some countries from European Union and details concerning the primary and secondary legislation developed in Romania in the field of promotion of electricity produced from renewable energy sources, making a rehearse of the acts issued. Romania has a clear regulatory framework in the field of promoting E-RES, the green certificates market becoming operational from November 2005, when the first green certificates transaction session organised by SC OPCOM SA took place. With hydro energy being exception from the rule, the Romanian RES potential is almost unused, existing the possibility for promotion some efficient investments in units which produce E-RES, turning to good account to the best emplacements. Although the achievements in using RES are still modest, taking into consideration the attention of numerous investors and the way that the support scheme worked until now, with advantages for the existing E-RES producers, it is expected an acceleration of the rhythm of appearance of new investments. In order to actuate the investors attention, a stronger involvement of the local authorities is necessary, for identifying and promoting the most efficient RES using projects

162

Stabilization of microgrid with intermittent renewable energy sources by SMES with optimal coil size  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A controller design of a superconducting magnetic energy storage unit is proposed. The structure of a power controller is the practical proportional-integral (PI). The PI parameters and coil size are tuned by a particle swarm optimization. The proposed method is able to effectively alleviate power fluctuations. It is well known that the superconducting coil is the vital part of a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) unit. This paper deals with the power controller design of a SMES unit with an optimal coil size for stabilization of an isolated microgrid. The study microgrid consists of renewable energy sources with intermittent power outputs i.e., wind and photovoltaic. Since power generations from such renewable sources are unpredictable and variable, these result in power fluctuations in a microgrid. To stabilize power fluctuations, a SMES unit with a fast control of active and reactive power can be applied. The structure of a power controller is the practical proportional-integral (PI). Based on the minimization of the variance of power fluctuations from renewable sources as well as the initial stored energy of SMES, the optimal PI parameters and coil size are automatically and simultaneously tuned by a particle swarm optimization. Simulation studies show that the proposed SMES controller with an optimal coil size is able to effectively alleviate power fluctuations under various power patterns from intermittent renewable sources.

163

Potential of hydrogen from oil palm biomass as a source of renewable energy worldwide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Various catastrophes related to extreme weather events such as floods, hurricanes, droughts and heat waves occurring on the Earth in the recent times are definitely a clear warning sign from nature questioning our ability to protect the environment and ultimately the Earth itself. Progressive release of greenhouse gases (GHG) such as CO2 and CH4 from development of various energy-intensive industries has ultimately caused human civilization to pay its debt. Realizing the urgency of reducing emissions and yet simultaneously catering to needs of industries, researches and scientists conclude that renewable energy is the perfect candidate to fulfill both parties requirement. Renewable energy provides an effective option for the provision of energy services from the technical point of view. In this context, biomass appears as one important renewable source of energy. Biomass has been a major source of energy in the world until before industrialization when fossil fuels become dominant and researches have proven from time to time its viability for large-scale production. Although there has been some successful industrial-scale production of renewable energy from biomass, generally this industry still faces a lot of challenges including the availability of economically viable technology, sophisticated and sustainable natural resources management, and proper market strategies under competitive energy markets. Amidst these challenges, the development andidst these challenges, the development and implementation of suitable policies by the local policy-makers is still the single and most important factor that can determine a successful utilization of renewable energy in a particular country. Ultimately, the race to the end line must begin with the proof of biomass ability to sustain in a long run as a sustainable and reliable source of renewable energy. Thus, the aim of this paper is to present the potential availability of oil palm biomass that can be converted to hydrogen (leading candidate positioned as the energy of the millennium) through gasification reaction in supercritical water, as a source of renewable energy to policy-makers. Oil palm topped the ranking as number 1 fruit crops in terms of production for the year 2007 with 36.90 million tonnes produced or 35.90% of the total edible oil in the world. Its potentiality is further enhanced by the fact that oil constitutes only about 10% of the palm production, while the rest 90% is biomass. With a world oil palm biomass production annually of about 184.6 million tons, the maximum theoretical yield of hydrogen potentially produced by oil palm biomass via this method is 2.16 x 1010 kg H2 year-1 with an energy content of 2.59 EJ year-1, meeting almost 50% of the current worldwide hydrogen demand. (author)

164

Potential of hydrogen from oil palm biomass as a source of renewable energy worldwide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Various catastrophes related to extreme weather events such as floods, hurricanes, droughts and heat waves occurring on earth in the recent times are definitely a clear warning sign from nature questioning our ability to protect the environment and ultimately earth itself. Progressive release of greenhouse gases (GHG) such as CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} from development of various energy intensive industries has ultimately cause earth to pay its debt. Realizing the urgency of reducing the emissions and yet simultaneously catering to needs of industries, researches and scientist conclude that renewable energy is the perfect candidate to fulfill both parties requirement. Renewable energy is capable of providing an effective option for the provision of energy services from the technical point of view. One of the best sources of renewable energy identified is from biomass. Biomass has been a major source of energy in the world since the beginning of civilization and researches have proven from time to time its viability for large scale production. However, till now, the laboratory scale outcome has not been successfully translated into real industries realization. It is found that renewable energy faces a lot of challenges including the availability of economical viable technology, sophisticated and sustainable natural resources management and proper market strategies under competitive energy markets. Amidst these challenges, the development and implementation of suitable policies by the local policy-makers is still the single and most important factor that can determine a successful utilization of renewable energy in a particular country. Ultimately, the race to the end line must begin with the proof of biomass ability to sustain in a long run as a continuous and reliable source of renewable energy. Thus, the aim of this paper is to present the potential availability of oil palm biomass that can be converted to hydrogen (leading candidate positioned as the energy of the millennium) through gasification reaction in supercritical water, as a source of renewable energy to policy makers. Oil palm topped the ranking as number 1 fruit crops in terms of production for the past 20 decades worldwide and is a potential candidate as 90% of the overall constituent of oil palm tree is biomass. With a world oil palm biomass production annually of about 184 6 million tons, the maximum theoretical yield of hydrogen potentially produced by oil palm biomass via this method is 2.16 x1010 kg H2 year-1 with energy content of 2.59 EJ year-1, meeting almost 50% of the current worldwide hydrogen demand. (orig.)

Kelly Yong, Tau Len; Lee, Keat Teong; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman; Bhatia, Subhash (School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia))

2007-07-01

165

Analysis of PMMT Operation for Renewable (PV/FC) Energy Source  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Utilization and construction of renewable energy sources require complexity of whole system. It is considered to use a set of devices that are necessary for energy conversion, accumulation, preparation and its distribution into electrical power supply network. The way of realization should be to use the system of power converters containing DC/DC converter that is used for mentioned activities (conversion, accumulation, preparation, distribution of energy).

Michal Frivaldsky; Peter Fibich; Robert Sul

2008-01-01

166

Analysis of PMMT Operation for Renewable (PV/FC Energy Source  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Utilization and construction of renewable energy sources require complexity of whole system. It is considered touse a set of devices that are necessary for energy conversion, accumulation, preparation and its distribution into electrical power supply network. The way of realization should be to use the system of power converters containing DC/DC converter that is used for mentioned activities (conversion, accumulation, preparation, distribution of energy.

Michal Frivaldsky

2008-01-01

167

Renewable energy sources role in the energy sources diversification process in Slovak republic focused on east Slovakia region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Actually frequently discussed question is the problem of the human energy demand supply. Especially discussed is a problem ofalternative energy devices integration into the existing fuel and energy supply system. For good interpretation of information’s it isnecessary to know specification of energy demand condition in particular branches of industry and energy sector.The subject of this article is to show variability, causality and complex character of the energetics as industry part, which directlydetermine human society progress tempo and direction. The accent was given to the problem of definition of basic requirement ofelectroenergetics, heat supply industry for communal and municipal applications and transport in narrow relation with environmentaland social aspect. Renewable energy sources application is a one of the pillars of strategy for sustainable development.

Radim Rybár

2008-11-01

168

Renewable energy sources role in the energy sources diversification process in Slovak Republic focused on east Slovakia region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Actually frequently discussed question is the problem of the human energy demand supply. Especially discussed is a problem of alternative energy devices integration into the existing fuel and energy supply system. For good interpretation of information's it is necessary to know specification of energy demand condition in particular branches of industry and energy sector. The subject of this article is to show variability, causality and complex character of the energetics as industry part, which directly determine human society progress tempo and direction. The accent was given to the problem of definition of basic requirement of electro-energetics, heat supply industry for communal and municipal applications and transport in narrow relation with environmental and social aspect. Renewable energy sources application is a one of the pillars of strategy for sustainable development. (authors)

169

Energy policy. Technical developments, political strategies, and concepts of action regarding renewable energy sources and rational energy use  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This interdisciplinary study book deals with problems from the history of energy, energy sytems, energy engineering, and the potential of renewable energy sources: hydro and wind power, biomass, geothermal energy, photovoltaics and solar thermal conversion; the improvement of boundary conditions for their transfer to market; concepts of action and project funding preferences of the EU, USA and Japan in this sector; relevant activities of the federal German government and proposals by non-governmental players in the field as well as strategies for rational energy use; methods for building an energy consensus and criteria for valuating energy systems; concepts of action and proposals for extending solar energy use in the Mediterranean and Afrika, as well as political factors governing the market introduction and export promotion of renewable energy technologies in this triad: the USA, Japan, and the European Union. Seven of the papers contained in the book are individually recorded. (orig./RHM). 76 figs., 100 tabs

170

Promoting electricity from renewable energy sources -- lessons learned from the EU, U.S. and Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The promotion of electricity generated from Renewable Energy Sources (RES) has recently gained high priority in the energy policy strategies of many countries in response to concerns about global climate change, energy security and other reasons. This chapter compares and contrasts the experience of a number of countries in Europe, states in the US as well as Japan in promoting RES, identifying what appear to be the most successful policy measures. Clearly, a wide range of policy instruments have been tried and are in place in different parts of the world to promote renewable energy technologies. The design and performance of these schemes varies from place to place, requiring further research to determine their effectiveness in delivering the desired results. The main conclusions that can be drawn from the present analysis are: (1) Generally speaking, promotional schemes that are properly designed within a stable framework and offer long-term investment continuity produce better results. Credibility and continuity reduce risks thus leading to lower profit requirements by investors. (2) Despite their significant growth in absolute terms in a number of key markets, the near-term prognosis for renewables is one of modest success if measured in terms of the percentage of the total energy provided by renewables on a world-wide basis. This is a significant challenge, suggesting that renewables have to grow at an even faster pace if we expect them to contribute on a significant scale to the world's energy mix.

Haas, Reinhard; Meyer, Niels I.; Held, Anne; Finon, Dominique; Lorenzoni, Arturo; Wiser, Ryan; Nishio, Ken-ichiro

2007-06-01

171

Utilization of Energy Capacitor Systems in Power Distribution Networks with Renewable Energy Sources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The impact of power fluctuation caused by renewable sources is highly negative. This article discusses the idea of an energy capacitor system (ECS which regulates the power balance in a distribution system based on Multi-Agent System (MAS. Energy Capacitor system as a storage device plays the main role to control the system’s power quality by absorbing the fluctuations. Load Following Operation (LFO process and coordination control scheme between the ECS and diesel generator have been introduced. Results show the efficient utilization of the ECS based on a special index defined in this paper to evaluate the power fluctuations in the distribution system. The results also show the useful implementation of the control scheme by revealing the capability of keeping the ECS stored energy in the specified range.

Yaser Soliman Qudaih

2010-05-01

172

A Control Architecture to Coordinate Renewable Energy Sources and Energy Storage Systems in Islanded Microgrids  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Coordinated operation of microgrids requires that energy management system takes into account both the available power in renewable energy sources (RES) and storage capacity of energy storage systems (ESS). In this paper, a coordinated architecture of islanded AC microgrids with smooth switching droop control (SSDC) is derived. Based on the proposed SSDC approach, flexible power control of each ESS /RES unit can be obtained with seamless modes changes. Furthermore, decentralized power management can be achieved by executing frequency bus-signaling (FBS). The power management principle based on different operational modes is explained in details, and small-signal analysis is carried out for SSDC. Real-time hardware-in-the-loop (HiL) results of an islanded microgrid are provided under several scenarios to validate the proposed coordinated control strategy.

Wu, Dan; Tang, Fen

2014-01-01

173

Generation of Electricity by Renewable Energy Sources & Transmission of Energy Production Units using PLC & SCADA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ABSTRACTAutomationmeans Delegation of human controlto machine. A PLC (Programmable LogicController is a device that was invented toreplace the necessary sequential relay circuits formachine control. A SCADA (Supervisory Control& Data Acquisition System is used to control theprocess where person cannot go or stay for longerperiod. The aim of tis paper is to provideinformation about hoelectricity can be generatedfrom Renewable sources & how its transmissiondone usin automation system. Renewable Energyconsists of energy generated from natural andunlimited sources, which include wind, solar,biomass and hydroelectricity. Programmable logiccontrollers (PLC can be used for control &automation in Distribution of Energy. The mainreason for this is cost effectiveness. Variousfunctions and controls can be achieved byprogramming the PLC. They can be used for fullplant automation including governing of autooperationincludes speed control, load control,excitation control, and level control automaticstart/stop sequencing, gate control, start/stop ofauxiliary systems, and protection requirement etc.Functions other than control like continuousmonitoring, data recording, instrumentation andprotections can also be performed. For remoteoperation, communication with PLC can beperformed. For continuous monitoring purpose, apersonal computer can be interfaced with PLCand continuous data can be recorded regularly.In this paper I used different methods forgeneration of electricity like wind, PV(photovoltaic, hydro, biogas & distributed usingPLC & controlling using SCADA.

Rahul N Deshmukh ,P.H. Zope ,S.R. Suralkar

2012-12-01

174

Electricity generation from renewable energy sources in Italy: the costs of the System Inefficiencies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The promotion of electricity from renewable energy sources (RES) is a high European Union (E U) priority for several reasons, including the security and diversification of energy supply, environmental protection and social and economic cohesion. The Eu Council's decision of 9 March 2007 points towards increasing renewable penetration to 20% of total primary energy supply by 2020 (binding target). There are both costs and benefits associated with the achievement of such an ambitious target. For renewable technologies, the industrial cost is often higher compared to other energy sources. however, due to learning curve effects and market diffusion, technology related costs are coming down considerably. In some cases, when the external costs are taken into account by the price system, renewable can now be close to competitive with fossil fuels. With particular reference to renewable electricity in Italy, its development is often hampered by burdensome and time consuming authorisation procedures with the consequence of a high mortality rate for the investments in the sector, leading to increased costs for the project management. Therefore, in these projects an important cost factor is the high cost of capital due to risk. The analysis of the various renewables' support mechanisms currently in place in the E U shows that some types of incentive have proven to be more efficient than others in reducing the risk perception of investors and financing institutions, therefore mak and financing institutions, therefore making projects less expensive by reducing the cost of capital (both debt and equity). Therefore the focus here is on the electricity generation costs of some renewable technologies and on the costs related to the additional risk perceived by investors/lenders in the sector. The authors estimate the additional cost of capital which investors pay when operating in a risky environment. Some policy indications are finally given to reduce the non-technology related costs for a faster and more efficient growth of the sector.

175

Some successful financing mechanisms for energy efficiency projects (EE) and projects using renewable energy sources (RES) - the experience of Bulgaria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper analysis some of the most promising financial mechanisms for energy efficiency (EE) and renewable energy sources (RES) projects in Bulgaria - the TPF mechanism, the KIDS Fund, delivered by the EBRD fund the EE fund of the WB, established on the floor of the EE act, as well as a number of some of the pre accession and European energy programs used for financing this area. All data its rich intensive international and in -home work in the are of energy efficiency and renewable energy sources. (Author)

176

An investigation of energy harvesting from renewable sources with PVDF and PZT  

Science.gov (United States)

Piezoelectric materials have been in use for many years; however, with an increasing concern about global warming, piezoelectricity has gained significant importance in research and development for extracting energy from the environment. In this work the voltage responses of ceramic based piezoelectric fibre composite structures (PFCs) and polymer based piezoelectric strips, PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride), were evaluated when subjected to various wind speeds and water droplets in order to investigate the possibility of energy generation from these two natural renewable energy sources for utilization in low power electronic devices. The effects of material dimensions, drop mass, releasing height of the drops and wind speed on the voltage output were studied and the power was calculated. This work showed that piezoelectric polymer materials can generate higher voltage/power than ceramic based piezoelectric materials and it was proved that producing energy from renewable sources such as rain drops and wind is possible by using piezoelectric polymer materials.

Vatansever, D.; Hadimani, R. L.; Shah, T.; Siores, E.

2011-05-01

177

An investigation of energy harvesting from renewable sources with PVDF and PZT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Piezoelectric materials have been in use for many years; however, with an increasing concern about global warming, piezoelectricity has gained significant importance in research and development for extracting energy from the environment. In this work the voltage responses of ceramic based piezoelectric fibre composite structures (PFCs) and polymer based piezoelectric strips, PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride), were evaluated when subjected to various wind speeds and water droplets in order to investigate the possibility of energy generation from these two natural renewable energy sources for utilization in low power electronic devices. The effects of material dimensions, drop mass, releasing height of the drops and wind speed on the voltage output were studied and the power was calculated. This work showed that piezoelectric polymer materials can generate higher voltage/power than ceramic based piezoelectric materials and it was proved that producing energy from renewable sources such as rain drops and wind is possible by using piezoelectric polymer materials

178

Tennessee plant species screened for renewable energy sources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The USDA Northern Regional Research Center (NRRC) has previously studied chemical and botanical characteristics of about 1000 plant species in efforts to identify potential new plant sources for industrial raw materials. For this report, an additional 51 species were collected from Tennessee and studied. Above-ground plant samples were analyzed for yields of oils, polyphenols, hydrocarbons, protein, and ash. Oils were examined for the presence of seven classes of lipids and analyzed for yields of fatty acids and unsaponifiable matter. Hydrocarbons were examined for the presence of rubber, gutta, and waxes. Rubber and gutta were analyzed for average molecular weight (MW) and MW distribution. Chemical and botanical data are presented for eight of the 51 species. A checklist of the 43 other species is given; data on these are available from NRRC. Lapsana communis yielded the most oil (6.1%; dry, ash-free, plant sample basis). Ilex montana yielded the most polyphenol (21.5%) plus 4.5% oil. Agrimonia parviflora and Catalpa bignonioides gave substantial yields of polyphenol (20.0% and 17.9%, respectively), and Passiflora incarnata contained the most apparent protein (19.8%). Chrysopsis graminifolia, Solidago erecta, and Verbesina alternifolia were identified as rubber-producing species with 0.4-0.7% hydrocarbon.

Carr, M.E.; Bagby, M.O.

179

Integration of Renewable Energy Sources in Future Power Systems: The Role of Storage  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Integrating a high share of electricity from non-dispatchable Renewable Energy Sources in a power supply system is a challenging task. One option considered in many studies dealing with prospective power systems is the installation of storage devices to balance the fluctuations in power production. However, it is not yet clear how soon storage devices will be needed and how the integration process depends on different storage parameters. Using long-term solar and wind energy...

Weitemeyer, Stefan; Kleinhans, David; Vogt, Thomas; Agert, Carsten

2014-01-01

180

The promotion in Romania of electricity from renewable energy sources - present and future  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper deals with the present situation and prospects of electricity generation from renewable energy sources in Romania. The following subject matters are addressed: Legal framework; - Regulatory framework; - Ministry of Economy and Commerce - competence and responsibilities; - ANRE - competence and responsibilities; - Targets by 2010; - Benefits of Electricity from RES; - Costs, by technology, for E-RES; - Renewable support mechanisms; - RES, technical and economical potential for Romania; - Sensitivity Analysis. In conclusion, one stresses that the existing legal and regulatory framework which sets up responsibilities and dead lines regarding the promotion of E-RES and it's access on the market: - ensures a transparent, nondiscriminatory and objective treatment for the E-RES producers; - gives some facilities concerning the authorization process and ensures the take over of the electricity produced from renewable sources to the national grid; -sets up state aids granting conditions for investments and operation of the renewable energy sources; - requires some improvements regarding the financial support for promoting E-RES, guarantee of origin and trade. Depending on the chosen support scheme, the institutional framework will be developed in order to comply with the legal requirements and dead-lines. The technologies for E-RES generation will be implemented depending on: - the RES potential; - the commercial maturity of the technology, i.e. the technologies implied in hydro, wind, biomass, solar, waves and tide energy generation

 
 
 
 
181

Solar, wind and waves: Natural limits to renewable sources of energy within the Earth system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Renewable sources of energy, such as solar, wind, wave, or hydropower, utilize energy that is continuously generated by natural processes within the Earth system from the planetary forcing. Here we estimate the limits of these natural energy conversions and the extent to which these can be used as renewable energy sources using the laws of thermodynamics. At most, wind power in the order of 1 000 TW (1 TW = 1E12 W) can be derived from the total flux of incoming solar radiation of 175 000 TW, which is consistent with estimates based on observations. Other generation rates that are derived from the kinetic energy of wind are in the order of 10-100 TW. In comparison, the human primary energy demand of about 17 TW constitutes a considerable fraction of these rates. We provide some further analysis on the limits of wind power using a combination of conceptual models, observational data, and numerical simulation models. We find that many current estimates of wind power substantially overestimate the potential of wind power because the effect of kinetic energy extraction on the air flow is neglected. We conclude that the only form of renewable energy that is available in substantial amounts and that is associated with minor climatic impacts is solar power.

182

Solar, wind and waves: Natural limits to renewable sources of energy within the Earth system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Renewable sources of energy, such as solar, wind, wave, or hydropower, utilize energy that is continuously generated by natural processes within the Earth system from the planetary forcing. Here we estimate the limits of these natural energy conversions and the extent to which these can be used as renewable energy sources using the laws of thermodynamics. At most, wind power in the order of 1 000 TW (1 TW = 1E12 W) can be derived from the total flux of incoming solar radiation of 175 000 TW, which is consistent with estimates based on observations. Other generation rates that are derived from the kinetic energy of wind are in the order of 10-100 TW. In comparison, the human primary energy demand of about 17 TW constitutes a considerable fraction of these rates. We provide some further analysis on the limits of wind power using a combination of conceptual models, observational data, and numerical simulation models. We find that many current estimates of wind power substantially overestimate the potential of wind power because the effect of kinetic energy extraction on the air flow is neglected. We conclude that the only form of renewable energy that is available in substantial amounts and that is associated with minor climatic impacts is solar power.

Kleidon, Axel [Max-Planck-Institute for Biogeochemistry, Jena (Germany)

2013-07-01

183

Renewable energy sources monitoring systems; Sistema de monitoramento de fontes de energias renovaveis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The development of techniques and products for use of sources of energy renewed it depends on economic and technical parameters that result of revenue analyses and acting for its improvement. With the objective of to provide and to facilitate the access the information on the future acting of products and techniques of generation of energy of alternative sources and you renewed of energy, it was developed a collection project and storage of data of reduced cost and of facilitated visualization. The system developed in platform of software LabView controls a system of acquisition of data through interface RS-232 and it stores the data in files Excel or Files text, depending on the application type. The system of acquisition of data consists of a circuit of conditioning of analogic signs for digital signs, a control circuit and a circuit of communication type interface serial asynchronous RS-232. (author)

Souza, Teofilo Miguel de; Canto, Mario Afonso Ribeiro do [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Centro de Energias Renovaveis], e-mail: teofilo@feg.unesp.br

2004-07-01

184

Renewable energy sources for the world's poor: a review of current international development assistance programs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Foreign assistance funding of the creation, testing, and use of renewable energy sources concerning worldwide efforts to provide energy for Third World development is examined. Donor agencies and developing nations give serious attention to technologies that have been considered exotic and marginal: small-scale hydroelectric generation, solar water heating and distillation, biomass conversion to methane gas and alcohol, wind power, photovoltaic-powered small-scale irrigation, and village-level solar-powered absorption refrigeration. An initial effort to assist in the international coordination of donor activity and in the sharing of information generated by foreign-assistance projects that use renewable energy sources is reported. The report mainly provides information about specific development projects. It contains only a few of the projects that have been approved and funded by 1 June 1979. (MCW)

Ashworth, J. H.

1979-10-01

185

Renewable sources of energy. Principles, social acceptance, and state of the art  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of power in contemporary society is characterized by being dominated by fossil combustion. Because of this there has been a global warming which has led to the climate change that is experienced today and will continue in the coming years. The combustion of fossil is primarily used for power generation and automotive transport. However the ground constantly becomes an amount of energy from the Sun millions of times greater than any society which needs. This energy is transformed in different ways and can be exploited in a different way without fear until. This is the primary basis of the renewable sources of energy. Most used renewable energy sources are solar energy (thermal, luminous, photovoltaic, photochemistry), wind energy, hydraulic energy, the energy of the Sea (tides, currents, waves, ocean thermal gradient), bioenergy (biogas, biomass, biofuels). Renewable energy sources are characterized by having its origin in the Sun, be inexhaustible and does not contribute to the warming of the planet, but on the other hand being distributed and accessible to all are more difficult to convert into business. For the popular masses are a solution, for the transnational power are a challenge. Traditionally though these sources of energy are available and are inexhaustible have been disregarded by the energy market in favour of lines called hard which include oil, coal and nuclear power. The form of generation and use of energy in the contemporary civilization is dominated by the consumer society that obliges the excessive generation of heat, the emission of pollutants and the destruction of the environment and biodiversity. To the global energy crisis some pathways are presented as response that can trigger solutions, or an escalation of the crisis. Among the proposals for change and with varied approaches are the energy revolution in Cuba, development in the path of the Sun, the possession of technologies, control of resources, carbon credits and the wars to name a few. There are contradictions about the use of energy in terms of carbon credits, agrofuels and the subsidy of the generation with oil. The followers of the ER promote energy efficiency, bioclimatic architecture, respect for nature, the conservation and protection of biodiversity. Today has been the ethical problems of the use of power and the exploitation of the FRE depending on the market which brings concentration, centralized generation, use of food to produce energy, class exploitation of sources which adds to the crisis. On the other hand new technologies and materials have been developed to make more efficient and cost-effective avenues of exploitation of renewables which include the development of new selective materials, the use of hydrogen cells and wind power by induction

186

Programs in Renewable Energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Our nation faces significant challenges as we enter the 1990s: securing a reliable supply of competitively priced energy, improving the quality of our environment, and increasing our share of foreign markets for goods and services. The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Programs in Renewable Energy are working toward meeting these challenges by developing the technologies that make use of our nation's largest energy resource: renewable energy. The sunlight, wind biomass, flowing water, ocean energy, and geothermal energy that make up the renewable energy resource can be found throughout our nation. These resources can provide all the forms of energy our nation needs: liquid fuels, electricity, and heating and cooling. Renewable energy meets about 10% of our need for these forms of energy today, yet the potential contribution is many times greater. DOE's Programs in Renewable Energy are working side-by-side with American industry to develop the technologies that convert renewable energy resources into practical, cost-competitive energy. After a decade of progress in research, several of these technologies are poised to make large contributions during the 1990s and beyond. This booklet provides an overview of the renewable energy programs and their plans for FY 1990. Sources of additional information are listed at the back of the booklet. 48 figs., 4 tabs.

1990-01-01

187

A practical algorithm for distribution state estimation including renewable energy sources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Renewable energy is energy that is in continuous supply over time. These kinds of energy sources are divided into five principal renewable sources of energy: the sun, the wind, flowing water, biomass and heat from within the earth. According to some studies carried out by the research institutes, about 25% of the new generation will be generated by Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) in the near future. Therefore, it is necessary to study the impact of RESs on the power systems, especially on the distribution networks. This paper presents a practical Distribution State Estimation (DSE) including RESs and some practical consideration. The proposed algorithm is based on the combination of Nelder-Mead simplex search and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithms, called PSO-NM. The proposed algorithm can estimate load and RES output values by Weighted Least-Square (WLS) approach. Some practical considerations are var compensators, Voltage Regulators (VRs), Under Load Tap Changer (ULTC) transformer modeling, which usually have nonlinear and discrete characteristics, and unbalanced three-phase power flow equations. The comparison results with other evolutionary optimization algorithms such as original PSO, Honey Bee Mating Optimization (HBMO), Neural Networks (NNs), Ant Colony Optimization (ACO), and Genetic Algorithm (GA) for a test system demonstrate that PSO-NM is extremely effective and efficient for the DSE problems. (author)

Niknam, Taher [Electronic and Electrical Department, Shiraz University of Technology, Modares Blvd., P.O. 71555-313, Shiraz (Iran); Firouzi, Bahman Bahmani [Islamic Azad University Marvdasht Branch, Marvdasht (Iran)

2009-11-15

188

BPS, energy efficiency and renewable energy sources for buildings greening and zero energy cities planning harmony and ethics of sustainability  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Traditional village houses now use renewable materials and energy sources and this paper presents the intrinsic harmony of these buildings' greening and their sustainability. The paper covers building technical systems, sustainable energy supply, and the importance of renewable raw materials (RMS) for sustainable development. This study investigated the role of building dynamic behavior and optimized energy efficiency in reducing thermal loads significantly. A preliminary design for sustainable energy efficient settlements with net zero energy buildings is proposed and a comprehensive multidisciplinary engineering study was done which identified the technical feasibility of sustainable village energy and water supplies using solar or wind technologies. Overall, through analysis of sustainability definitions and possible ways to achieve sustainability, the study demonstrated that this can only be brought about by interdisciplinary interaction and finding the right balance between materiality and spirituality, science and art, and between technological development and concern for cultural and other human values.

Todorovic, Marija S. [University of Belgrade, Serbia and Southeast University (China)

2011-07-01

189

Renewable Energy Sources in the New Member States of the EU. Germany and Italy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The EU-Japan Centre aims to stimulate industrial cooperation between the EU and Japan, including in the field of energy. It has therefore set up a New Energy Programme, which is in operation since 1987. Within the context of this programme, exchanges of European and Japanese specialists on renewable energy are organised, and studies on specific topics initiated. Previous studies of the EU Japan Centre were carried out on liberalization of the EU electricity market, EU support policies, waste as an energy source, wind energy and hydrogen. The study in this report, which CE Environmental Solutions carried out for the Centre, is directed at the development of renewable energy sources (RES) in the new member states of the European Union. This topic is of particular interest to the Centre, as such RES projects can be also carried out by Japanese firms under the Joint Implementation provisions of the Kyoto-protocol. The link of Joint Implementation projects to the European Emission Trading System, which is due to start on 1 January 2005, offers new business opportunities to Japanese firms. This study describes the status of renewable energy in the new member states of the European Union, Germany and Italy. The study also focuses on the European Emission Trading System (ETS), and analyses business opportunities for Japan that arise through RES projects in relation to the emissions trading system. This report starts with an discussion of EU climate change policies and in particular the EU emissions trade system, which is due to start on January 1st, 2005 (Chapter 2). In Chapter 3 we give an overview of policies and developments in renewable energy in the EU in which we focus on the policy framework, recent developments and expectations. This Chapter is based on more detailed overviews for each individual country, which are given in the annexes. Each country study also contains one typical case study of development of a renewable energy source in that country. Finally, in Chapter 4 overall conclusions of renewable energy developments in the new member states, Germany and Italy is given, focusing on future prospects and chances for investors

190

Renewable energy in Europe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Europe's increasing demand for energy and its environmental preoccupations are creating a favourable environment for the development of renewable energy sources. This article stated that although many European countries have adopted voluntary policies since the 1990s to increase the use of renewable energy sources, they have not been developed in an equal or consistent manner. A table was included to show the consumption of renewable energies by country; the percentage of renewable energies in 1995 as compared to 2006; and the consumption of primary energy resources. Combined, Germany, Spain and Denmark produce 75 per cent of wind energy in Europe, while 75 per cent of Europe's hydroelectricity is produced in Norway, Sweden, France, Italy, Austria and Switzerland. Germany has also made significant contributions in developing biomass energy. The article emphasized that the development of renewable energy sources is limited by the fact that it cannot keep up with growing energy demands. In addition, renewable energies cannot yet replace all fossil fuel consumption in Europe because of the variation in development from one country to another. 1 ref., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

191

Renewable energy education in Turkey  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Utilization of renewable energy sources and the application of environmentally sound energy technologies are essential to sustainable development and will help to secure the quality of living and the well-being of the future generations. Turkey presently has considerable renewable energy sources. The most important renewable sources are hydropower, wind, solar, geothermal, and biomass. The use of renewable energy as a topic to study energy and its forms permits a novel way to motivate students, particularly those who energy topics taking conscience with the environment. This paper presents the analysis and classification of renewable energy sources and how to find out their origin and a way to motivate students in energy topics related to renewable sources and also, the development of didactic competencies in special blended learning arrangements for educationalists, trainers and lecturers in adult education in the field of renewable energies in Turkey. (author)

Acikgoz, Caglayan [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Bilecik University, P.O.11030, Bilecik (Turkey)

2011-02-15

192

A regional energy planning methodology including renewable energy sources and environmental constraints  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, a bottom-up energy system optimisation model is proposed in order to support planning policies for promoting the use of renewable sources. A linear programming optimisation methodology based on the energy flow optimisation model (EFOM) is adopted, detailing the primary energy sources exploitation (including biomass, solid waste, process by-products), power and heat generation, emissions and end-use sectors. The modelling framework is enhanced in order to adapt the model to the characteristics and requirements of the region under investigation. In particular, a detailed description of the industrial cogeneration system, that turns out to be the more efficient and increasingly spread, is incorporated in the regional model. The optimisation process, aiming to reduce environmental impact and economical efforts, provides feasible generation settlements that take into account the installation of combined cycle power plants, wind power, solid-waste and biomass exploitation together with industrial combined heat and power (CHP) systems. The proposed methodology is applied to case of the Apulia region in the Southern Italy. (author)

Cormio, C.; Dicorato, M.; Minoia, A.; Trovato, M. [Politecnico di Bari (Italy). Dipartimento di Elettrotecnica ed Elettronica

2003-04-01

193

Energy conservation and renewable sources in regional legislation in the sectors of publishing, industry, crafts, and agriculture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An analysis is made of regional and provincial autonomous regulations in Italy that are concerned with energy conservation and renewable energy sources in the absence of a single national set of regulations.

Croce, G.

1981-07-01

194

Issues, Challenges, Causes, Impacts and Utilization of Renewable Energy Sources - Grid Integration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The renewable energy sources have increased significantly due to environmental issues and fossil fuels elevated cost. Integration of renewable energy sources to utility grid depends on the scale of power generation. Large scale power generations are connected to transmission systems where as small scale distributed power generation is connected to distribution systems. There are certain challenges in the integration of both types of systems directly. Due to this, wind energy has gained a lot of investments from all over the world. However, due to the wind speed‘s uncertain behavior it is difficult to obtain good quality power, since wind speed fluctuations reflect on the voltage and active power output of the electric machine connected to the wind turbine. Solar penetration also changes the voltage profile and frequency response of the system and affects the transmission and distribution systems of utility grid. This paper presents a review in the issues, challenges, causes, impacts and utilization of renewable energy sources (RES - Grid Integration.

Er. Mamatha Sandhu

2014-03-01

195

Energy efficiency technologies and renewable energy source utilizations in the Lake Balaton region in Hungary  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Summary: The share of renewable energy used in the Lake Balaton region is far below the EU target value of 12%. The region is rich in biomass, solar, and geothermal energy. A strategic plan is under implementation to increase the share of renewable energy to a least 6% in the next few years. The projects include direct use of biomass for heating in village centres, biodiesel and bioethanol production, solar hot water production at hotels and camp sites, small scale photovoltaic and wind energy applications, multipurpose geothermal energy utilization, etc. Lake Balaton Development Coordination Agency launched the 'Balaton Partnership Program' that includes educational courses on renewable energy use with practical aspects and increases the awareness of the public of the non-sustainability of the present practice of the use of energy resources. (orig.)

Molnar, G. [Lake Balaton Development Coordination Agency, Siofok (Hungary)

2006-07-01

196

An Approach to Develop Embedded System For Web Based Monitoring & Controlling of Renewable Energy Sources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The widespread application of Renewable Energy Sources (RESrequires centralized monitoring and controlling System. To makethese operations control room independent, there is need todevelop smart servers and web based applications. Cost is anessential factor of any embedded system design. This paperdiscusses a novel concept of designing of cost effective server/client embedded system Renewable Energy sources. Hereembedded server is developed with ARM9 controller loaded withwindows CE operating system. Low cost client are designedusing Atmega32 microcontroller with LAN connection. Server/client are connected in LAN system and server basedapplications has been developed to monitor/ controlling the clientoperation. The server has web based applications that can beaccessed via internet. Author has presented developed systemand results.

Akansha S. Fating

2013-06-01

197

Again about electricity production from renewable sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Based on the foreign up-to-date experience, it is analysed the possibilities for effective electricity production from renewable sources in Bulgaria. An example for developing and using of renewable energy resources in Portugal is presented

198

Synchronization of grid-connected renewable energy sources under highly distorted voltages and unbalanced grid faults  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Renewable energy sources require accurate and appropriate performance not only under normal grid operation but also under abnormal and faulty grid conditions according to the modern grid codes. This paper proposes a novel phase-locked loop algorithm (MSHDC-PLL), which can enable the fast and dynamic synchronization of the interconnected renewable energy system under unbalanced grid faults and under highly harmonic distorted voltage. The outstanding performance of the suggested PLL is achieved by implementing an innovative multi-sequence/harmonic decoupling cell in order to dynamically cancel out the oscillation of the positive sequence voltage vector, produced by the existence of unbalanced and harmonic distorted voltage. The fast and accurate response of the proposed PLL under abnormal grid conditions is very important for the appropriate synchronization and control of the interconnected renewable energy systems. Therefore, the performance of the new PLL can increase the quality of the injected power under abnormal conditions and in addition enable the renewable energy systems to provide the appropriate support to the grid under balanced and unbalanced grid faults.

Hadjidemetriou, Lenos; Kyriakides, Elias

2013-01-01

199

Renewable energy sources and the realities of setting an energy agenda.  

Science.gov (United States)

The European Commission has been devoting considerable attention to energy issues. This Perspective describes recent progress in Europe toward achieving goals for renewable energy use, and the role that technology can play, as well as the new Strategic Energy Package. PMID:17289990

Potocnik, Janez

2007-02-01

200

Energy from Waste: Reuse of Compost Heat as a Source of Renewable Energy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An in-vessel tunnel composting facility in Scotland was used to investigate the potential for collection and reuse of compost heat as a source of renewable energy. The amount of energy offered by the compost was calculated and seasonal variations analysed. A heat exchanger was designed in order to collect and transfer the heat. This allowed heated water of 47.3?C to be obtained. The temperature could be further increased to above 60?C by passing it through multiple tunnels in series. Estimated costs for installing and running the system were calculated. In order to analyse these costs alternative solar thermal and ground source heat pump systems were also designed. The levels of supply and economic performance were then compared. A capital cost of £11,662 and operating cost of £1,039 per year were estimated, resulting in a cost of £0.50 per kWh for domestic water and £0.10 per kWh for spatial heat. Using the heat of the compost was found to provide the most reliable level of supply at a similar price to its rivals.

B. Antizar-Ladislao

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Public utilities with renewable energy sources. Proceedings; Stadtwerke mit Erneuerbaren Energien. Konferenzband  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Within the 3rd EUROSOLAR Conference at 25th to 26th May, 2009, in Ludwigshafen (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (a) Municipal power supply - Renewable energies (Hermann Scheer); (b) The significance of municipal regulations for the development of renewable energies by the example of Rheinland-Pfalz (Gerhard Weissmueller); (c) The solar regulation of the city Marburg (Franz Kahle); (d) Large-area solar-potential register SUN-AREA, the example Osnabrueck (Martina Klaerle); (e) Energy autonomy by means of methods at municipal and state level (Stephan Grueger); (f) Concession process according to paragraph 46 EnWG as a start for a locally regenerative strategic reorientation (Christian Theobald); (g) Municipal utilities and regenerative power generation (Johannes van Bergen); (h) The hybrid power plant Enertrag (Michael Wenske); (i) Eco-power with ecological added value (Uwe Leprich); (j) Increase of added value at biogas by means of grid connection (Leonhard Thien); (k) Biogas products for private customers (Oliver Hummel); (l) Marketing of biogas as a fuel - WEGAS Wendlaender BioGas (Hans-Volker Marklewitz); (m) Geothermal heat in the Upper Rhine Graben by the example of the geothermal power plant Landau (Peter Hauffe); (n) The Act on Heating with Renewable Energy Sources - A chance for new fields of business for municipal utilities (Klara Siraki); (o) Direct marketing of electricity from renewable energies as a chance for municipal utilities (Martin Altrock, Matthias Stark); (p) The significance of EEG and EEWaermeG 2009 in the further enlargement of renewable energies (Fabio Longo); (q) Taking over of the gas grid by the municipal utility Waldkirch GmbH (Dieter Nagel); (r) Municipal added value - municipal economical effects of decentral power generation (Michael Wuebbels).

NONE

2009-09-25

202

Potential of hydrogen from oil palm biomass as a source of renewable energy worldwide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Various catastrophes related to extreme weather events such as floods, hurricanes, droughts and heat waves occurring on the Earth in the recent times are definitely a clear warning sign from nature questioning our ability to protect the environment and ultimately the Earth itself. Progressive release of greenhouse gases (GHG) such as CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} from development of various energy-intensive industries has ultimately caused human civilization to pay its debt. Realizing the urgency of reducing emissions and yet simultaneously catering to needs of industries, researches and scientists conclude that renewable energy is the perfect candidate to fulfill both parties requirement. Renewable energy provides an effective option for the provision of energy services from the technical point of view. In this context, biomass appears as one important renewable source of energy. Biomass has been a major source of energy in the world until before industrialization when fossil fuels become dominant and researches have proven from time to time its viability for large-scale production. Although there has been some successful industrial-scale production of renewable energy from biomass, generally this industry still faces a lot of challenges including the availability of economically viable technology, sophisticated and sustainable natural resources management, and proper market strategies under competitive energy markets. Amidst these challenges, the development and implementation of suitable policies by the local policy-makers is still the single and most important factor that can determine a successful utilization of renewable energy in a particular country. Ultimately, the race to the end line must begin with the proof of biomass ability to sustain in a long run as a sustainable and reliable source of renewable energy. Thus, the aim of this paper is to present the potential availability of oil palm biomass that can be converted to hydrogen (leading candidate positioned as the energy of the millennium) through gasification reaction in supercritical water, as a source of renewable energy to policy-makers. Oil palm topped the ranking as number 1 fruit crops in terms of production for the year 2007 with 36.90 million tonnes produced or 35.90% of the total edible oil in the world. Its potentiality is further enhanced by the fact that oil constitutes only about 10% of the palm production, while the rest 90% is biomass. With a world oil palm biomass production annually of about 184.6 million tons, the maximum theoretical yield of hydrogen potentially produced by oil palm biomass via this method is 2.16 x 10{sup 10} kg H{sub 2} year{sup -1} with an energy content of 2.59 EJ year{sup -1}, meeting almost 50% of the current worldwide hydrogen demand. (author)

Kelly-Yong, Tau Len; Lee, Keat Teong; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman; Bhatia, Subhash [Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia). Engineering Campus, School of Chemical Engineering

2007-11-15

203

Renewable energy sources in the French national plan for improved energy efficiency  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The French National Plan for Improved Energy Efficiency (PNAEE, Programme National d'Amelioration de l'Efficacite Energetique) whose aim is to ensure the conformity of national energy policy with the climate change mitigation policy was designed to be in line with France's national plan to combat climatic change and with the French national targets in the European directive for electricity from renewable energy sources (RES). According to this directive, by 2010, RES electricity should account for 21% percent of electricity consumed in France as opposed 15% today. To pave the way for this increase, the mains tools that have been set up by the French authorities in the framework of the PNAEE are as follows: ADEME's programmes; the RES electricity purchase obligation with feed-in tariffs; the pluri-annual investment programme in the electricity sector. The Law no. 2000-108, dated 10 February 2000, on the modernization and development of the public service in the electricity field, includes two articles, which directly relate to RESs. Two years after the PNAEE's implementation, the first achievements are the followings: more than 63.000 square meters of solar thermal panels installed due to a rapidly increasing demand; a new contribution of 47.000 toe to the national energy production coming from wood energy and geothermal; a new contribution of 208 GWh/year to the national electricity production coming from RES electricity, mainly from wind energy. These first results are not yet in line with the final objectives but the budgetary, regulatory and fiscal framework is in place and the market is in a quickly growing phase. (author)

NONE

2002-07-01

204

Selecting sustainable renewable energy source for energy assistance to North Korea  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Renewable energy (RE) is the best sustainable energy solution South Korea can provide to assist North Korea in overcoming its chronic energy shortage. Designed as a follow-on research to Sin et al., a survey was conducted with a panel of experts consisting of various disciplines and affiliations using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) with benefit, opportunity, cost, and risk (BOCR). The results showed the panel viewed security as the most important factor among the strategic criteria. For the level 1 attributes, the panel showed no significant differences of opinion among the different alternatives; however, cost showed to be the most important factor for the panel. The panel chose wind power as the best alternative source of energy for North Korea; however, there were some differences in opinion among the sub-groups of the panel depending on the composition and the expertise of the sub-group. Compared to other studies on the similar topic, this research stands out in that the research results were derived using AHP and BOCR and that the panel was composed of both Korean and foreign experts on North Korea affiliated with state-run research organizations, armed forces, non-governmental organizations, academic research organizations, private consulting firms, and journalism. The research arrived at the conclusion that the following factors must be considered as South Korea designs its future North Korean energy assistance policy: (1) RE assistance for North Korea can take on various forms; hence, experts consulted during the design, writing, and implementation phases of the policy in question must possess knowledge and expertise in the appropriate technology and methodology being considered; (2) possibility of a sudden destabilization of the Northeast Asian security paradigm due to the collapse of North Korea; and (3) continued nuclearization of North Korea. (author)

Yi, Sul-Ki [Korea Electrical Engineering and Science Research Institute, Bldg 130, Seoul National University, 599 Gwanangno, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Sin, Hwa-Young; Heo, Eunnyeong [Department of Energy Systems Engineering, Seoul National University, 599, Gwanang-no, Gwanak-Gu, Seoul 157-742 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-01-15

205

Electricity produced from renewable energy sources - What target are we aiming for?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 2001, the European Commission (hereafter ''EC'') formulated an ambitious target of 21% of total community electricity consumption to be generated with renewable energy sources by 2010. Moreover, national indicative targets per Member State were specified. In practice, the latter are implemented in all Member States as national production targets, achievable exclusively through an increase of the domestic production of electricity produced from renewable energy sources (hereafter ''RES-E''). However, in this article it will be shown that this is not in line with the EC's intent. Looking at the legislative process resulting in the Directive on the promotion of RES-E, it is demonstrated that instead the EC aimed for European trade in renewable electricity through national consumption targets. It is shown that the legislative process has resulted in confusion on both the nature (absolute or proportional figures) and the subject (consumption or production) of the RES-E targets that are being aimed for. Despite the EC's attempt to clarify this confusion, the reality of national production targets remains, hindering the attainment of the European RES-E target in the most cost-efficient manner. (author)

206

Renewable Energy Monitoring Protocol. Update 2010. Methodology for the calculation and recording of the amounts of energy produced from renewable sources in the Netherlands  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is the fifth, updated edition of the Dutch Renewable Energy Monitoring Protocol. The protocol, compiled on behalf of the Ministry of Economic Affairs, can be considered as a policy document that provides a uniform calculation method for determining the amount of energy produced in the Netherlands in a renewable manner. Because all governments and organisations use the calculation methods described in this protocol, this makes it possible to monitor developments in this field well and consistently. The introduction of this protocol outlines the history and describes its set-up, validity and relationship with other similar documents and agreements. The Dutch Renewable Energy Monitoring Protocol is compiled by NL Agency, and all relevant parties were given the chance to provide input. This has been incorporated as far as is possible. Statistics Netherlands (CBS) uses this protocol to calculate the amount of renewable energy produced in the Netherlands. These data are then used by the Ministry of Economic Affairs to gauge the realisation of policy objectives. In June 2009 the European Directive for energy from renewable sources was published with renewable energy targets for the Netherlands. This directive used a different calculation method - the gross energy end-use method - whilst the Dutch definition is based on the so-called substitution method. NL Agency was asked to add the calculation according to the gross end use method, although this is not clearly defined on a number of points. In describing the method, the unanswered questions become clear, as do, for example, the points the Netherlands should bring up in international discussions.

Te Buck, S.; Van Keulen, B.; Bosselaar, L.; Gerlagh, T.; Skelton, T.

2010-07-15

207

Utilizing hydropower for load balancing non-storable renewable energy sources - technical and environmental challenges  

Science.gov (United States)

About 99% of the total energy production in Norway comes from hydropower, and the total production of about 120 TWh makes Norway Europe's largest hydropower producer. Most hydropower systems in Norway are based on high-head plants with mountain storage reservoirs and tunnels transporting water from the reservoirs to the power plants. In total, Norwegian reservoirs contributes around 50% of the total energy storage capacity in Europe. Current strategies to reduce emission of greenhouse gases from energy production involve increased focus on renewable energy sources, e.g. the European Union's 202020 goal in which renewable energy sources should be 20% of the total energy production by 2020. To meet this goal new renewable energy installations must be developed on a large scale in the coming years, and wind power is the main focus for new developments. Hydropower can contribute directly to increase renewable energy through new development or extensions to existing systems, but maybe even more important is the potential to use hydropower systems with storage for load balancing in a system with increased amount of non-storable renewable energies. Even if new storage technologies are under development, hydro storage is the only technology available on a large scale and the most economical feasible alternative. In this respect the Norwegian system has a high potential both through direct use of existing reservoirs and through an increased development of pump storage plants utilizing surplus wind energy to pump water and then producing during periods with low wind input. Through cables to Europe, Norwegian hydropower could also provide balance power for the North European market. Increased peaking and more variable operation of the current hydropower system will present a number of technical and environmental challenges that needs to be identified and mitigated. A more variable production will lead to fluctuating flow in receiving rivers and reservoirs, and it will also lead to more dynamic water temperatures and alter the interaction with the adjacent hyporheic zone. Frequent drying and wetting may impact the aquatic ecosystem e.g. through stranding of fish, and it may increase erosion and sediment transport in receiving reservoirs and rivers. During winter, most Norwegian systems currently adapt releases to prevent unstable ice conditions and ice runs and a more intermittent production schedule may lead to more unstable ice conditions. More transient flow may also have implications in the transfer tunnels and new methods are needed to monitor conditions to avoid turbine damage and loss of production. As a part of the Norwegian governments focus on developing renewable energy, a number of research centers for environmentally friendly energy production were created in 2009. For one of these centers, Center for environmentally design of renewable energy (CEDREN), one of the main objectives is to study the use of the Norwegian hydropower system for large scale peaking and load balancing, and to provide means of mitigating possible unwanted impacts. We will present data on how increased load balancing will influence the Norwegian hydropower system and an overview of challenges and possible solutions that the new operational strategy may incur.

Alfredsen, K. T.; Killingtveit, A.

2011-12-01

208

Energy Sources  

Science.gov (United States)

This short video surveys the different current and potential sources of energy - both non-renewable and renewable. It provides some discussion of the pros and cons of the different sources and explains how they are used to produce energy that people can use.

Foundation, Wgbh E.; Domain, Teachers'

209

Funding of renewable energy sources in the deregulated German electricity market; Foerderung erneuerbarer Energien im liberalisierten deutschen Strommarkt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study intends to develop an efficient market design for the German electricity market, with particular regard to renewable energy sources. The German electricity market is disintegrated, i.e. market sectors are not coordinated by a central agency but by their own interactions. The first part of the investigation analyzes the interdependences of market sectors, while the second part will analyze funding instruments for renewable energy sources on this basis. (orig.)

Wawer, T.

2007-12-14

210

Economics of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration and Mitigation versus a Suite of Alternative Renewable Energy Sources for Electricity Generation in U.S.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An equilibrium economic model for policy evaluation related to electricity generation in U.S has been developed; the model takes into account the non-renewable and renewable energy sources, demand and supply factors and environmental constraints. The non-renewable energy sources include three types of fossil fuels: coal, natural gas and petroleum, and renewable energy sources include nuclear, hydraulic, wind, solar photovoltaic, biomass wood, biomass waste and geothermal. Energy demand sector...

Zheming Zhang; Lee Chusak; Ramesh Agarwal

2011-01-01

211

Renewable Energies  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this project was to expose middle school students to a variety of alternative energy sources with a variety of practical applications. It was part of an Austria-wide IMST-project (IMST stands for innovation makes students strong). As part of this exposure, several classes of about 80 students visited a number of locations for alternative energy resources, including a hydroelectric site, a biological energy plant, a wind turbine manufacturing plant, a water purification station as well as others others. A short film was made to document the project in order that non-participants in the class could also gain knowledge on alternative energy. The three minute film will be shown at the poster.

Ditterich, Barbara

2010-05-01

212

Utilization of renewable energy sources in the German electric power industry, 1998 survey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since 1997, the VDEW has published at regular intervals surveys documenting the contribution of renewable energy sources to total electricity supply in Germany from (public) utilities, differentiating between on-site power generation and surplus electricity fed to the grid on the one hand, and power generation from renewables by commercial power producers for the public grid. The article here presents information as of 1998 and commenting statements of the VDEW and is an update of the previous analyses of 1997, 1996 and back to 1986. Many tables show the power generated by non-utility or utility-owned power plants (hydroelectric power plants, refuse-fueled power plants, biomass, wind power plants, photovoltaic systems) on a national or federal state basis, also indicating growth rates, number of plants, capacities, gross output and supply to the grid. (orig./CB)

213

Use of renewable energy sources in light of the “New Energy Strategy for Europe 2011–2020”  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Theoretical and methodological achievements required for an analysis of energy strategy. ? Developments for an energy policy ensuring the appropriate utilization of renewable energy sources. ? EU should set up grants for research supporting the implementation of the strategy. ? Developments for the knowledge management support of the use of backcasting method. ? Principles for the development of the network of energy security centres. -- Abstract: The paper analyses the issues for consideration listed in the stock taking document “New Energy Strategy for Europe 2011–2020” and explores the impact of their implementation on the use of renewable energy sources. The main objective of the paper is to introduce and provide a summary of the theoretical and methodological achievements required for an analysis of the implications of such an EU level strategy. It also provides a summary of the results of the analysis of the impacts of the Strategy on a specific field; namely, on the use of renewable energy sources. Contradictions inherent in the Strategy are discussed as well, and a proposal is put forward to aid the resolution of these contradictions. The paper also points out that the further development of the theoretical and methodological achievements may result in the creation of a simulation model, the application of which could effectively aid the process of strategic planning and the testing of strategies prior to approval. Finally, the paper discusses how an EU level and/or a global network of energy security centres could promote the development and implementation of an energy policy ensuring the appropriate utilization of renewable energy sources.

214

A Review of Nipa Palm as a Renewable Energy Source in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the renewable energy potential of Nipa Palm, a bio-energy crop widely available yet underutilized in Nigeria. The combustion of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas has increased the concentration of carbon dioxide in the earth's atmosphere. The carbon dioxide and other socalled greenhouse gases allow solar energy to enter the Earth's atmosphere, but reduce the amount of energy that can re-radiate back into space, trapping energy and causing global warming. Nipa Palm which has been regarded as an environmental menace is now regarded as one of the candidates for renewable energy to fulfill the requirement of clean carbon emission. Abundant quantity of Nipa Palm provides an impetus for the sustainable generation of bio-ethanol. This sugar based bio-ethanol source development in Nigeria provides not only profitable use to a problem plant but also provides an opportunity and incentive to generate some Carbon Emission Reduction (CERs credits.

O.T. Okugbo

2012-08-01

215

Generation of Electricity by Renewable Energy Sources & Transmission of Energy Production Units using PLC & SCADA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

ABSTRACTAutomationmeans Delegation of human controlto machine. A PLC (Programmable LogicController) is a device that was invented toreplace the necessary sequential relay circuits formachine control. A SCADA (Supervisory Control& Data Acquisition System) is used to control theprocess where person cannot go or stay for longerperiod. The aim of tis paper is to provideinformation about hoelectricity can be generatedfrom Renewable sources & how its transmissiondone usin automation system. Renewab...

Rahul N Deshmukh, P. H. Zope

2012-01-01

216

Price control for electricity supplied to the grid from renewable energy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The law governing the supply of electricity generated by renewable energy sources to the public grid regulates the purchase and payment by public utilities of electricity exclusively generated from such sources as hydropower, wind power, solar energy, landfill gas or sewage gas, or from biomass produced in agriculture and forestry or derived and processed in waste treatment systems. The author discusses aspects and issues hitherto left unconsidered by publications or by the jurisdiction and puts them into the context of a review of recent legislation, addressing in particular the following aspects: (1) The place of the Act on Supply of Electricity from Renewable Sources to the Public Grid within the legal framework of price controls. (2) Limits to be set by price control activities in accordance with Para. 12, sub-section 2 BTO Elt and with Para. 11, sub-section 1, sentence 3 BTO Elt. (3) Limits set to price controls due to Para. 12, sub-section 2 BTO Elt. (4) The conflict of purposes arising from price controls. (orig./HP)

217

Assessment of public acceptance and willingness to pay for renewable energy sources in Crete  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study is to analyse and to evaluate the citizens' public acceptance and willingness to pay (WTP), for Renewable Energy Sources (RES) in Crete. For this purpose a contingent valuation study was conducted, using a double bound dichotomous choice format to elicit people's WTP and factors affecting it. Residents of 1440 households all over Crete were interviewed face-to-face. Major conclusions can be used as a basis for sustainable energy planning, for policies and the formulation of awareness campaigns and for RES investment programs and projects in order to prepare implementation conditions and enhance public acceptance of renewable energy investments and programmes. Mean WTP per household was found to be 16.33EUR to be paid quarterly as an additional charge on the electricity bill. Larger willingness to pay was reported by those with high family income and residence size, those having a higher level of energy information and awareness concerning climatic change, those who have invested in some energy saving measures, and those who suffer from more electricity shortages than others. (author)

218

An Indian scenario on renewable and sustainable energy sources with emphasis on algae.  

Science.gov (United States)

India is the fifth largest primary energy consumer and fourth largest petroleum consumer after USA, China, and Japan. Despite the global economic crisis, India's economy is expected to grow at 6 to 8 %/year. There is an extreme dependence on petroleum products with considerable risks and environmental issues. Petroleum-derived transport fuels are of limited availability and contribute to global warming, making renewable biofuel as the best alternative. The focus on biogas and biomass-based energy, such as bioethanol and biohydrogen, will enhance cost-effectiveness and provide an opportunity for the rural community. Among all energy sources, microalgae have received, so far, more attention due to their facile adaptability to grow in the photobioreactors or open ponds, high yields, and multiple applications. Microalgae can produce a substantial amount of triacylglycerols as a storage lipid under photooxidative stress or other adverse environmental conditions. In addition to renewable biofuels, they can provide different types of high-value bioproducts added to their advantages, such as higher photosynthetic efficiency, higher biomass production, and faster growth compared to any other energy crops. The viability of first-generation biofuels production is, however, questionable because of the conflict with food supply. In the future, biofuels should ideally create the environmental, economic, and social benefits to the communities and reflect energy efficiency so as to plan a road map for the industry to produce third-generation biofuels. PMID:23070650

Hemaiswarya, S; Raja, Rathinam; Carvalho, Isabel S; Ravikumar, R; Zambare, Vasudeo; Barh, Debmalya

2012-12-01

219

An Indian scenario on renewable and sustainable energy sources with emphasis on algae  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

India is the fifth largest primary energy consumer and fourth largest petroleum consumer after USA, China, and Japan. Despite the global economic crisis, India's economy is expected to grow at 6 to 8 %/year. There is an extreme dependence on petroleum products with considerable risks and environmental issues. Petroleum-derived transport fuels are of limited availability and contribute to global warming, making renewable biofuel as the best alternative. The focus on biogas and biomass-based energy, such as bioethanol and biohydrogen, will enhance cost-effectiveness and provide an opportunity for the rural community. Among all energy sources, microalgae have received, so far, more attention due to their facile adaptability to grow in the photobioreactors or open ponds, high yields, and multiple applications. Microalgae can produce a substantial amount of triacylglycerols as a storage lipid under photooxidative stress or other adverse environmental conditions. In addition to renewable biofuels, they can provide different types of high-value bioproducts added to their advantages, such as higher photosynthetic efficiency, higher biomass production, and faster growth compared to any other energy crops. The viability of first-generation biofuels production is, however, questionable because of the conflict with food supply. In the future, biofuels should ideally create the environmental, economic, and social benefits to the communities and reflect energy efficiency so as to plan a road map for the industry to produce third-generation biofuels. (orig.)

Hemaiswarya, S.; Carvalho, Isabel S. [Algarve Univ., Faro (Portugal). Food Science Lab.; Raja, Rathinam [Algarve Univ., Faro (Portugal). Food Science Lab.; Institute of Integrative Omics and Applied Biotechnology (IIOAB), Purba Medinipur (India). Centre for Bioprocess, Biotechnology and Renewable Energy; Ravikumar, R. [Aquatic Energy LLC, Lake Charles, LA (United States); Zambare, Vasudeo [Institute of Integrative Omics and Applied Biotechnology (IIOAB), Purba Medinipur (India). Centre for Bioprocess, Biotechnology and Renewable Energy; Barh, Debmalya [Institute of Integrative Omics and Applied Biotechnology (IIOAB), Purba Medinipur (India). Centre for Genomics and Applied Gene Technology

2012-12-15

220

Special purpose fund for the promotion of energy efficiency, the use of renewable energy sources and environmental protection (NEP fund)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

f equipment and the realisation of energy efficiency, renewable energy and environmental protection projects. Financing would be available for project implementation, the finalization of initiated projects, project preparation and development, and the reconstruction or adaptation of existing infrastructure, facilities, etc. The elaborated model envisages commercial bank financing (funds earmarked for special purpose financing) and special product charges on fuel and electricity to be the fund's principal sources of income. (author)

 
 
 
 
221

Fuelwood: The ''other'' renewable energy source for Africa?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In recent years, increasing concerns over rising oil prices, supply shortfalls and the environmental impacts of fossil fuel use have fed growing interest in renewable energy sources for Sub-Saharan Africa. Although traditional biofuels already enjoy widespread popularity, their use has often been actively discouraged due to the lingering influence of ''fuelwood crisis'' era narratives. In particular, urban fuelwood consumption is frequently portrayed as a cause of environmental degradation leading to energy insecurity among low-income households, especially where the resource is commercialized. Such views have had significant influence among policy makers, often resulting in repressive forestry legislation. In contrast, however, a number of researchers have demonstrated that wood energy dependence is often not a significant cause of deforestation and can provide important livelihood opportunities. This article reassesses urban fuelwood sourcing and its impacts using a recent case study conducted by the authors in Maun, Botswana and results previously reported in the literature. Findings indicate that although harvesting is unregulated, its impacts are significantly mitigated by collectors' strong preferences for source sites with abundant dead wood, low competition and recognized access rights. As well, fuelwood vending is found to provide critical support to rural incomes and a key source of low-cost urban energy. As such, the benefits of fuelwood use and avoidance of negative effects will most effectively be achieved by decentralised management approaches that build on local institutions and understandings of the resource. (author)

Hiemstra-van der Horst, Greg; Hovorka, Alice J. [Department of Geography, Hutt Building, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1 (Canada)

2009-11-15

222

Using the Potential of Alternative and Renewable Energy Sources in Energy Efficiency through the Introduction of Modern Organizational and Economic Forms ????????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ???????? ???????????????? ?? ???? ????????? ??????????? ??????????????-????????????? ????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article explored the possibility of using alternative and renewable energy sources in the country's energy balance. Tools of motivation and union of energy saving process participants, including clusters, G2B-platform performance-contracting are developed.? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????????????? ? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ?????????????? ??????? ...

Yudin Mikhail A.

2012-01-01

223

The latest Greek statute laws and its consequences to the Greek renewable energy source market  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the summer of 2006, the legislation governing the installation of Renewable Energy Sources electric energy production facilities in Greece has been updated by the law 3468/2006. The aim of the current study is to present a synopsis of the recently introduced statute with emphasis on the main changes imported. The objective of the law 3468/2006 is to provide favorable conditions for the infiltration of RES investors into the electric energy market, leading to benefit of the consumers and also to decreasing CO2 emissions, providing a more favorable framework for compliance to the frames of the Kyoto Protocol. The authors wish to thank Dr. George Mariatos and Mr. George Spyrou for providing support for the work reported in this paper. The research for this study was financed by the European Union (75%) and the Greek Government (25%). [PENED 2003, code number 03ED158

224

Certificate trading as a motivation for development of new renewable energy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sustainable development is one of the main priorities of EU energy policy. Directive 2001/77/EC states 'there is a need to promote renewable energy sources (RES) as a priority measure' and Cited several reasons, including the security of supply and diversification of energy supply, environmental protection and social and economic cohesion. Article 4 of Directive 2001/77/EC, refers to support schemes of RES in the internal electricity market. A market mechanism for support of RES, called tradable RES certificates system, which is suggested as unified European system and completely supported by EURELECTRIC and which introduces the principles of deregulated electricity market is presented in this paper. Concept of application of tradable RES certificates system in R. Macedonia is also presented. (Author)

225

Grid-connected renewable energy source systems: Challenges and proposed management schemes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a result of the world's rapid socioeconomic growth and environmental concerns, exploring diverse energy resources besides fossil fuel has become a necessity and not an optional mission. Even for the oil wealthy nations, adopting energy-mix policy has become a strategic goal that is profoundly sought. As preliminary outcome, investments in renewable energy source (RES) systems in arid region nations have taken tangible steps in planning and policy making. RES has several appealing factors; however, most countries where regulated or vertically integrated electric power systems are the principal methods for supplying the demand are cautious. Most of the electric utilities in these countries are putting reservations on RES due to the lack of monitoring and control of these grid-connected RES systems that might contribute to the instability of the electric grid. This paper identified the challenges and concerns of grid-connected RES. Moreover, it presented possible RES interconnection management schemes for the vertically integrated electric power systems.

226

Promoting renewable energy sources for heating and cooling in EU-27 countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In addition to public policies aimed at improving the energy efficiency of buildings, EU authorities have also promoted the use of Renewable Energy Sources for heating and cooling uses (RES H and C). This paper analyses the main policy measures implemented in EU-27 countries up to 2009: i.e. subsidies, tax incentives, financial support and feed-in tariffs. Twenty-three Member States (MSs) have developed some of these policy measures. The most widespread measure is the subsidy (22 MSs have implemented these) because from a political point of view, subsidies provide a straightforward approach to promote the use of RES H and C. Secondly, tax incentives have been used for reducing investment costs and making renewable energy profitable. Thirdly, financial incentives and feed-in tariffs have been used sparingly. While financial incentives might be used more extensively for promoting RES H and C if they are accompanied by other policy measures, feed-in tariffs are not likely to be implemented significantly in the future because this measure is not designed for household heat producers. - Highlights: > Main EU policies to reduce energy consumption are focused on buildings' efficiency. > Alternative incentives to promote the use of RES H and C in EU-27 are now studied. > Subsidies are the most widespread measure. > Tax incentives are used for reducing investment costs and making RES profitable. > Financial incentives and feed-in tariffs have been used sparingly.

Cansino, Jose M., E-mail: jmcansino@us.es [Department of Economic Analysis and Political Economy, Seville University, Avda. Ramon y Cajal, no. 1, 41018 Seville (Spain); Pablo-Romero, Maria del P. [Department of Economic Analysis and Political Economy, Seville University, Avda. Ramon y Cajal, no. 1, 41018 Seville (Spain); Roman, Rocio, E-mail: rroman@us.es [Department of Economic Analysis and Political Economy, Seville University, Avda. Ramon y Cajal, no. 1, 41018 Seville (Spain); Yniguez, Rocio [Department of Economic Analysis and Political Economy, Seville University, Avda. Ramon y Cajal, no. 1, 41018 Seville (Spain)

2011-06-15

227

Analysis of the possibility of replacing conventional sources of heat energy in recreation facilities of the ARC on the basis of renewable energy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The basic aspects of the transformation of heat-power recreational enterprises of Crimea on the basis of renewable energy sources are shown. The calculation of the possible quantitative and relative magnitudes of the replacement of traditional renewable energy sources is described. When you are citing the document, use the following link http://essuir.sumdu.edu.ua/handle/123456789/34145

?????, ?. ?.

2012-01-01

228

A historical review of promotion strategies for electricity from renewable energy sources in EU countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The core objective of this paper is to elaborate on historically implemented promotion strategies of renewable energy sources and the associated deployment within the European electricity market. Hence, at a first glance, the historic development of renewable energy sources in the electricity (RES-E) sector is addressed on Member State and on sectoral level as well as consequently discussed according to available RES-E potentials and costs. The specific focus of this paper, are promotion strategies for RES-E options as they are the key driver of an efficient and effective RES-E deployment. Therefore, the paper depicts the main types of different promotion schemes and their properties. Additionally, several cases studies of different European Member States show an in-depth analysis of the different RES-E promotion schemes. In this context, special emphasises are put on the question of effective and efficient promotion scheme designs of different RES-E technologies. Generally, conducted research led to the conclusion, that technology specific financial support measures of RES-E performed much more effective and efficient than others did. Hence, it is not all about the common question of feed-in tariffs vs. quota systems based on tradable green certificates, but more about the design criteria of implemented RES-E support schemes. (author)

229

Management of Renewable Sources of Energy: A Case on Rice Bran oil and Vegetable oils of Bangladesh Perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Renewable energy is a now burning issue for sustainable development. Moreover, it is also environmentally compatible. Bangladesh produces huge amount rice every year. From this, a significant amount of wastes are generated from rice. Rice bran is one of them. On the other hand oil seeds such as coconut, soybean, pulm and mustard are available in Bangladesh. In this view, rice bran oil and vegetable oils are considered for a case study for renewable sources of energy and alternative fuel for lighting purposes of Bangladesh.

Key words: Rice bran oil; Vegetable oil; Renewable energy; Management; Bangladesh

Md Mamunur Rashid

2011-09-01

230

The current status of the development of renewable energy sources worldwide and in Russia  

Science.gov (United States)

Resorting to renewable energy sources (RESs) as one of the bases of the promising world energy industry has become a logical result of the historical development and the recognition that is necessary to diversify primary energy sources being used, with the aim of enhancing both energy and ecological security of countries, regions, and concrete energy consumers. The review of the development of new technologies used for conversion of RESs, the progress of which can be characterized by the fact that by the year 2013 the total generating capacity of RES-based power plants now in operation has amounted to 500 GW—by a factor of 1.5 more than the total generating capacity of all nuclear power stations in the world. The paper presents an analysis of the current status of RESs and problems that restrain their development in Russia. It is noted that the peculiarities of the energy situation in Russia impose the specific requirements upon drawing up the programs of the development of RESs. Along with the use of RESs as part of systems of centralized energy supply, which is a priority for most industrially developed countries and promises the most large-scale introduction of RESs in Russia, it is necessary, first of all, to give attention to the development and creation of systems for independent supply of consumers with power and heat and the development of distributed powergenerating systems using RESs.

Fortov, V. E.; Popel', O. S.

2014-06-01

231

Unified System-Level Modeling of Intermittent Renewable Energy Sources and Energy Storage for Power System Operation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The system-level consideration of inter- mittent renewable energy sources and small-scale en- ergy storage in power systems remains a challenge as either type is incompatible with traditional operation concepts. Non-controllability and energy-constraints are still considered contingent cases in market-based operation. The design of operation strategies for up to 100 % renewable energy systems requires an explicit consideration of non-dispatchable generation and stor- age capacities, as well as the evaluation of operational performance in terms of energy eciency, reliability, environmental impact and cost. By abstracting from technology-dependent and physical unit properties, the modeling framework presented and extended in this pa- per allows the modeling of a technologically diverse unit portfolio with a unied approach, whilst establishing the feasibility of energy-storage consideration in power system operation. After introducing the modeling ap- proach, a case study is presented for illustration.

Heussen, Kai

2011-01-01

232

The development of the renewable energy sector - Source for more and better jobs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a global world, isolation becomes impossible. An important set of values are unanimously recognized, and 'like peace, the prosperity is indivisible and for being sustainable must be shared'. The problems of the global environment and their consequences have essentially contributed to 'the crystallization' of the necessity to pass to the Sustainable Development, meaning the incorporation of two important dimensions: the social one and the environmental one along with the economic objectives. The paper has the following contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Environment problems and their consequences; 3. Energetic security - transition to regenerative sources of energy; 4. Renewable energy sector and its impact on employment; 5. Conclusions. The following special conclusions concerning the renewable energy sector are highlighted: 1) it is a knowledge-based-sector which use intensively the labour force; 2) it includes a higher potential of high-skill job creation, characterized by higher productivity per capita, above the average of the national economy, by promoting friendly environment technologies; 3) it is a friendly environment sector with perspectives for modelling the structural changes on medium and long term; 4) it is likely to have an positive impact on workers' health and safety (workplace quality, pollution, hazardous substances and physical demanding work) and on the entire population; 5) it ensures that the potential for environmentally related innovations is exploited overall and that the emerging eco-jobs opportunities (in all skill range) can be met; 6) it supports the shift towards technologies that incorporate all the costs (technologies compatible with life cycles)

233

On quantifying uncertainty for project selection: the case of renewable energy sources' investment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The selection of a project among different alternatives, considering the limited resources of a company (organisation), is an added value process that determines the prosperity of an undertaken project (investment). This applies also to the 'boming' Renewable Energy Sector, especially under the circumstances established by the recent activation of the Kyoto protocal and by the plethora of available choices for renewable energy sources (RES) projjects. The need for a reliable project selection method among the various alternatives is, therefore, highlighted and, in this context, the paper proposes the NPV function as one of possible criteria for the selection of a RES project. Furthermore, it differentiates from the typical NPV calculation process by adding the concept of a probabilistic NPV approach through Monte Carlo simulation. Reality is non-deterministic, so any attempt of modelling it by using a deterministic approach is by definition erroneous. The paper ultimately proposes a process of substituting the point with a range estimation, capable of quantifying the various uncertainty factors and in this way elucidate the accomplishment possibilities of eligible scenarious. The paper is enhanced by case study showing how the proposed method can be practically applied to support the investment decision, thus enabling the decision makers to judge its effectiveness and usefulness.(Author)

234

PROFIT MAXIMIZATION AND OPTIMAL SIZING OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN A HYBRID SYSTEM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The renewable energy sources wind, solar etc. have become very essential and important in the generation mix as a result of rising energy demand and environmental reasons. In addition tax is being imposed on high carbon emission. But the uncertainty and variability associated with renewable such as wind may result in economical andtechnical problems in the power system. In order to compensate wind intermittency, generation resources such as gas plant, pumped storage unit etc. are employed due to their lesser start up time, lower operating cost and good ramping capabilities. This paper proposes a model which investigates the combined operation of thermal, wind andpumped storage units for the profit maximization in varying wind, load, and price scenarios. The optimal size of the pumped storage unit to be used has been obtained after putting the system to different operating conditions such as varying wind power and load demand, imposing tax on carbon emission and varying ramping limits etc. The model has been applied on IEEE-30 bus test data and satisfactory results have been obtained for optimal hybrid systemoperation.

YAJVENDER PAL VERMA

2010-09-01

235

Power flow modelling in electric networks with renewable energy sources in large areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In many worlds regions there is a great potential for utilizing home grid connected renewable power generating systems, with capacities of MW thousands. The optimal utilization of these sources is connected with power flow possibilities trough the power network in which they have to be connected. There is necessary to respect the long distances among the electric power sources with great outputs and power consumption and non even distribution of the power sources as well. The article gives the solution possibilities for Libya region under utilization of wind renewable sources in north in shore regions. (Authors)

236

Renewable energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Evidence given before the Energy Committee by the Wind Energy Group Ltd, British Wind Energy Association, the Yorkshire Electricity Group PLC and Yorkshire Water is presented. Topics covered include viability, sales and exports, the non-fossil fuel obligation (NFFO) and the government target of 1,000 MW, research and development, training and offshore wind energy. (author)

237

Local challenges in the promotion of renewable energy sources: The case of Crete  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Crete, the largest Greek island, attracts about 20% of the total Greek tourist activity and hosts more than 50% of all renewable energy projects situated in the Hellenic island territories. In this article, we probe the comparatively successful promotion of renewable energy applications among Cretan municipalities by identification of key components and drivers of local dynamics which facilitate the development of such innovative and collective projects. We then refer to a theoretical economic grid highlighting the strength of local factors (i.e. social and institutional forces) in co-ordination mechanisms. We conclude that for the case of Crete, both internal factors (such as local acceptance) and external elements (such as macrostructure) play a core role in successful implementation of renewable energy, and from this we propose a number of facilitating conditions which could help promote renewable energy production on other islands.

238

Cost and prices of electricity. Fossil fuels, nuclear power and renewable energy sources in comparison  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Consumers of electricity pay for production, transport and distribution as well as for taxes and dues. Electricity rates depend on various influencing factors, e.g. different fuel and capital cost of the power plants and the ratio of supply and demand in the electricity stock markets. End user electricity rats also include taxes and dues as well as the cost of power transmission. The publication presents background information on the formation of electricity rates in Germany. In a second step, the different cost factors of fossil fuels, nuclear power and renewable energy sources are compared. In particular, the external cost is gone into which often tends to be neglected in the electricity markets.

239

Renewable energy sources and base load power stations, a conflict of systems?; Erneuerbare Energien und Grundlastkraftwerke, ein Systemkonflikt?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There are many days in a year when classic base load power stations are not required, i.e. when power generation from renewables is high and demand is low. As a simulation made by Fraunhofer IWES shows, by 2020 only the conventional power generation capacities either of modern coal power plants or of atomic power plants will be necessary to supplement power generation from renewable energy sources. The study discusses options for future power supply, including smart grids.

Schmidt, Janine; Vohrer, Philipp

2010-06-15

240

The long-term relationships among China's energy consumption sources and adjustments to its renewable energy policy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To reduce its consumption of coal and oil in its primary energy consumption, China promotes the development of renewable energy resources. I have analysed the long-term relationship among China's primary energy consumption sources. Changes in coal consumption lead those in the consumption of other energy sources in the long term. Coal and oil fuels substitute for each other equally. The long-term elasticities of China's coal consumption relative to its hydroelectricity consumption were greater than one and nearly equal during the two sample periods. Therefore, increased hydroelectricity consumption did not imply a reduction in coal consumption. China holds abundant hydroelectricity, wind and, solar energy potential. China must prevent an excessive escalation of its economy and resultant energy demand to realise a meaningful substitution of coal with hydroelectricity. Moreover, China must develop and use wind and solar energy sources. Natural gas can be a good substitute for coal, given its moderate price growth and affordable price levels. - Highlights: ? Coal consumption changes lead those of other energy sources in the long term. ? Coal and oil fuels substitute for each other equally. ? Increased hydroelectricity consumption has not meant lower coal consumption. ? Wind, solar and natural gas are China's promising energy sources.

 
 
 
 
241

Social Inequity and Risks Associated With Renewable and Conventional Energy Sources  

Science.gov (United States)

The various environmental, health and social burdens of conventional electricity generation have long been recognized. However, the social inequity that stems from conventional electricity generation is less well documented. This ranges from the vulnerability of indigenous populations to adverse impacts resulting from routine operation and accidents in the extraction of energy sources such as natural gas and oil; to the vastly disproportionate - based on levels of energy consumption - vulnerability of the poor to climate change. There are also feedback loops that need to be considered in assessing risks and social inequity associated with conventional energy production, particularly in the category of accidents which could increase in frequency due to the effects of climate change. Renewable technologies offer the possibility to reduce many of these burdens, but are not themselves without impact. The quantification and comparison of burdens from electricity generation options is extremely difficult. Challenges stem from (i) the wide range of consequences and resulting metrics used for evaluation; and (ii) uncertainties in estimating the likelihood of events. Some of the most important risks from electricity generation technologies resist robust quantification. Nevertheless, there has been a vast and sometimes conflicting body of literature analyzing the risks and impacts of different technologies for electricity generation. The goal of this work is to compare the risks of photovoltaics (PV), a promising renewable technology, with other options (coal, oil, gas and nuclear) for electricity generation - with a particular emphasis on social inequity questions. We achieve this through an analysis that proceeds in two steps. First, we develop a framework for mapping the risk landscapes associated with different life cycle stages for PV and conventional electricity generation technologies, by grouping risks into three categories: routine, accidents, and perception-influenced. Second, we review and compare these qualitative estimates of risks within and across energy technologies through ordinal rankings.

Trancik, J. E.; Krishnan, N.; Franco, G.; Kim, H.; Fthenakis, V.

2005-12-01

242

Diversification of the energy mix and renewable energy sources in Slovenia for ensuring sustainable, competitive and secure energy in the future  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The European Union is facing major challenges in the energy field - growing import dependency, the need for substantial investment and lack of competitive energy market. It has adopted binding legislation and non-binding recommendations, but they do not suffice. The latest Green paper identifies diversification of energy mix as one of the key areas, where further action is needed, if Europe is to overcome this crisis. Renewable energy is recognised as a relevant factor in improving security of energy supply, since it increases the share of indigenous energy and thus provides a more balanced and diversified energy mix. Slovenia's energy mix includes 11 % of renewables. In our electricity mix the share of renewables is higher, 27,6 %.The estimations show that by 2015 13,3 % of primary energy use will come from renewable sources. Our current strategy in the field of renewable energy sources is to increase their share in overall energy balance sheet to 12 % in 2010 and to increase their share in electricity production to 33,6 % in 2010. But Slovenia will have to take into account new ambitious targets the European Commission recommended recently, while trying to determine the optimally balanced diversification of energy sources in the future. (auth)

Podlogar, Sasa; Raner, Damjana; Zebeljan, Djordje

2007-07-01

243

Renewable energy annual 1996  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents summary data on renewable energy consumption, the status of each of the primary renewable technologies, a profile of each of the associated industries, an analysis of topical issues related to renewable energy, and information on renewable energy projects worldwide. It is the second in a series of annual reports on renewable energy. The renewable energy resources included in the report are biomass (wood and ethanol); municipal solid waste, including waste-to-energy and landfill gas; geothermal; wind; and solar energy, including solar thermal and photovoltaic. The report also includes various appendices and a glossary.

NONE

1997-03-01

244

Renewable energy annual 1996  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents summary data on renewable energy consumption, the status of each of the primary renewable technologies, a profile of each of the associated industries, an analysis of topical issues related to renewable energy, and information on renewable energy projects worldwide. It is the second in a series of annual reports on renewable energy. The renewable energy resources included in the report are biomass (wood and ethanol); municipal solid waste, including waste-to-energy and landfill gas; geothermal; wind; and solar energy, including solar thermal and photovoltaic. The report also includes various appendices and a glossary

245

Basic approaches to the research of renewable sources of energy as the energy potential of territories and built-up areas ???????? ??????? ? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????? ??? ??????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ?????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The authors have analyzed the energy potential of the Russian regions based on the planning of territories through the employment of renewable sources of energy, their incorporation into architectural solutions applicable to buildings and structures. The authors also provide their comparative analysis of different sources of renewable energy, of which windmills are covered in more detail. Urban development of Russia is accompanied by environmental changes and substantial growth of power consumption caused by the expansion of urban clusters that feature high concentration of population and housing density. Against this background, optimization of energy consumption through the incorporation of energy efficient technologies and renewable sources of energy into the process of construction and operation of buildings is of particular importance. The principal renewable sources of energy include water, sun, and wind. Wind power engineering best fits the conditions of the Russian territories. However, experts believe that the wind power is to be backed by other sources due to the irregularity of its generation. This approach to the power generation and planning of territories coupled with the integration of renewable energy technologies into architectural designs of buildings and structures will make it possible to identify the prerequisites for the energy generation specialization of the subjects of the Russian Federation on the basis of their climatic conditions and urban development patterns. Private investments into renewable sources of energy will assure sustainable population settlement patterns and optimal energy generation and consumption.?????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????? (???, ???????????????? ???????????? ? ?????????????? ???, ?????????? ???????????? ??? ????????? ??????? ?? ?????????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ??????. ???????????? ?????? ????????? ????? ?????????????? ?????????? ???????, ????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ???????????????????? ?????????? ? ?????? ??????????????????? ?????????.

Poddaeva Olga Igorevna

2012-10-01

246

Renewable energy sources evolution connected with Romania's accession to the EU process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The RES direct support in 2010 for the EU-15 countries varies from 0.08 Euro cents/kWh of total electricity in Finland, to 1.32 Euro cents/kWh of total electricity in Denmark, with a weighted average of 0-39 Euro cents/kWh of total electricity. In case of EU-15 countries using only feed-in tariffs to promote RES, the weighted average of RES direct support is 0.44 Euro cents/kWh. EURELECTRIC's position on RES support is in favor of market-based mechanisms to support renewable sources, which do not lead to market distortions. EURELECTRIC supports the Commission's intention to create a regulatory framework for the promotion of renewable sources in the internal market. Romanian Governmental Decision No. 443/2003 is aiming at the harmonization of the national legislative framework with EU Directive. The important share of large hydroelectricity generated in Romania could represent a good opportunity for Romania to participate in the EU green electricity market, but the key problem in Romania's case is the target of 12.5 % of RES-E in 2010 without large hydroelectricity. On the other hand, the development of the future European green market will influence Romania's energy policy concerning RES development. The development of some national schemes presenting an obstacle to a European certificate trading system, which do not recognize foreign certificates, could cut down the Romania's opportunities to sell into an European green electricity market the electricity generated at low price in the existing large hydropower plants. Some member states accepted electricity generated in large HPP as 'green', the others consider only small HPP in this category. The Romania's accession to EU could mean the acceptance to increase the share of new renewable sources in the next years. Such a request, involving the real implementation of schemes for RES support could be very difficult, taking into account the low support ability to increase the electricity price in Romania. (author)

247

Decision support system for exploiting local renewable energy sources: A case study of the Chigu area of southwestern Taiwan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The topic of climate and energy policy has drawn new attention since the Kyoto Protocol has now come into force. It is hoped that strengthened use of renewable energy sources can meet new international environmental requirements and provide self-sufficient domestic energy supplies. The decision support system established in this study integrates potential evaluations, cost analyses, legal incentives, and analysis of returns on investments with the aid of a geographic information system (GIS). This system can provide insights for policymakers into where and the extent of the potentials, for lawmakers into whether the current legal incentives are sufficient to encourage private investment, and for investors into whether investments in exploiting local renewable energy sources are economically feasible. Under the current incentive framework in Taiwan, the amortization periods of investment on renewable energy are generally longer than the period over which the investment is to be recovered. This presents an unfavorable condition for attracting investments to and for developing renewable energy. An increase in remuneration through legal revisions is needed before domestic investment in renewable energy will actively expand

248

Comparative analyses of seven technologies to facilitate the integration of fluctuating renewable energy sources  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

An analysis of seven different technologies is presented. The technologies integrate fluctuating renewable energy sources (RES) such as wind power production into the electricity supply, and the Danish energy system is used as a case. Comprehensive hour-by-hour energy system analyses are conducted of a complete system meeting electricity, heat and transport demands, and including RES, power plants, and combined heat and power production (CHP) for district heating and transport technologies. In conclusion, the most fuel-efficient and least-cost technologies are identified through energy system and feasibility analyses. Large-scale heat pumps prove to be especially promising as they efficiently reduce the production of excess electricity. Flexible electricity demand and electric boilers are low-cost solutions, but their improvement of fuel efficiency is rather limited. Battery electric vehicles constitute the most promising transport integration technology compared with hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCVs). The costs of integrating RES with electrolysers for HFCVs, CHP and micro fuel cell CHP are reduced significantly with more than 50% of RES.

Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik

2009-01-01

249

The competition of different measures to increase flexibility in energy systems with a high share of fluctuating renewable energy sources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The continuous expansion of electricity generation from intermittent renewable energy sources (RES) is changing the present generation structure that has been designed to follow fluctuating demand considerably. In order to utilise a high share of supply-dependent RES, the future energy system needs to become more flexible than it is today. This paper describes the different flexibility options that can be implemented with regard to their major restrictions as well as their suitability to balance a certain deficit or surplus of RES generation. Furthermore, it outlines the importance of competition between these different balancing measures to meet the required level of flexibility at lowest cost. (orig.)

Brunner, Christoph; Teufel, Felix [EnBW Energie Baden-Wuerttemberg AG, Karlsruhe (Germany). Research and Innovation Dept.

2013-04-01

250

Large scale integration of intermittent renewable energy sources in the Greek power sector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a member of the European Union, Greece has committed to achieve ambitious targets for the penetration of renewable energy sources (RES) in gross electricity consumption by 2020. Large scale integration of RES requires a suitable mixture of compatible generation units, in order to deal with the intermittency of wind velocity and solar irradiation. The scope of this paper is to examine the impact of large scale integration of intermittent energy sources, required to meet the 2020 RES target, on the generation expansion plan, the fuel mix and the spinning reserve requirements of the Greek electricity system. We perform hourly simulation of the intermittent RES generation to estimate residual load curves on a monthly basis, which are then inputted in a WASP-IV model of the Greek power system. We find that the decarbonisation effort, with the rapid entry of RES and the abolishment of the grandfathering of CO2 allowances, will radically transform the Greek electricity sector over the next 10 years, which has wide-reaching policy implications. - Highlights: ? Greece needs 8.8 to 9.3 GW additional RES installations by 2020. ? RES capacity credit varies between 12.2% and 15.3%, depending on interconnections. ? Without institutional changes, the reserve requirements will be more than double. ? New CCGT installed capacity will probably exceed the cost-efficient level. ? Competitive pressures should be introduced in segments other than day-ahead market.

251

Renewable energy and jobs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Over 5.7 million people are employed directly or indirectly in renewable energy - a figure that could triple by 2030 with the scale-up needed to ensure global energy sustainability. As policy makers look beyond energy security and environmental aspects, the comprehensive Renewable Energy and Jobs report from the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) examines wider socio-economic benefits, and specifically job creation. The report was released ahead of the first International Renewable...

Ferroukhi, Rabia; Lucas, Hugo; Renner, Michael; Lehr, Ulrike; Breitschopf, Barbara; Lallement, Dominique; Petrick, Kristian

2013-01-01

252

Basic approaches to the research of renewable sources of energy as the energy potential of territories and built-up areas ???????? ??????? ? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????? ??? ??????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ?????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The authors have analyzed the energy potential of the Russian regions based on the planning of territories through the employment of renewable sources of energy, their incorporation into architectural solutions applicable to buildings and structures. The authors also provide their comparative analysis of different sources of renewable energy, of which windmills are covered in more detail. Urban development of Russia is accompanied by environmental changes and substantial growth of power consu...

Poddaeva Olga Igorevna; Dunichkin Ilya Vladimirovich; Kochanov Oleg Aleksandrovich

2012-01-01

253

Renewable Energy Alternatives in Maryland.  

Science.gov (United States)

This handbook discusses the renewable energy resources suitable for use in Maryland. It follows a question and answer format with sections about the following alternative renewable energy sources; solar, wind, wood, water, bio-gas/methane, and geothermal. Each section includes a list of recommended readings, appropriate agencies or organizations,…

Welsh, Greg E.; McClellan, Deborah A. S.

254

Renewable energy integration challenges and solutions  

CERN Document Server

This book presents different aspects of renewable energy integration, from the latest developments in renewable energy technologies to the currently growing smart grids. The importance of different renewable energy sources is discussed, in order to identify the advantages and challenges for each technology. The rules of connecting the renewable energy sources have also been covered along with practical examples. Since solar and wind energy are the most popular forms of renewable energy sources, this book provides the challenges of integrating these renewable generators along with some innovati

Hossain, Jahangir

2014-01-01

255

Potential applications of renewable energy sources, biomass combustion problems in boiler power systems and combustion related environmental issues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the potential applications of renewable energy sources to replace fossil fuel combustion as the prime energy sources in various countries, and discusses problems associated with biomass combustion in boiler power systems. Here, the term biomass includes organic matter produced as a result of photosynthesis as well as municipal, industrial and animal waste material. Brief summaries of the basic concepts involved in the combustion of biomass fuels are presented. Renewable energy sources (RES) supply 14% of the total world energy demand. RES are biomass, hydropower, geothermal, solar, wind and marine energies. The renewables are the primary, domestic and clean or inexhaustible energy resources. The percentage share of biomass was 62.1% of total renewable energy sources in 1995. Experimental results for a large variety of biomass fuels and conditions are presented. Numerical studies are also discussed. Biomass is an attractive renewable fuel in utility boilers. The compositions of biomass among fuel types are variable. Ash composition for the biomass is fundamentally different from ash composition for the coal. Especially inorganic constituents cause to critical problems of toxic emissions, fouling and slagging. Metals in ash, in combination with other fuel elements such as silica and sulfur, and facilitated by the presence of chlorine, are responsible for many undesirable reactions in combustion furnaces and power boilers. Elements including K, Na, Spower boilers. Elements including K, Na, S, Cl, P, Ca, Mg, Fe, Si are involved in reactions leading to ash fouling and slagging in biomass combustors. Chlorine in the biomass may affect operation by corrosion. Ash deposits reduce heat transfer and may also result in severe corrosion at high temperatures. Other influences of biomass composition are observed for the rates of combustion and pollutant emissions. Biomass combustion systems are non-polluting and offer significant protection of the environment. The reduction of greenhouse gases pollution is the main advantage of utilizing biomass energy. (Author)

256

Special report on renewable energy sources and climate change mitigation, (SRREN). Summary for policy makers; FNs klimapanel: Spesialrapport om fornybar energi, sammendrag for beslutningstakere  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In May 2011 the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change published a report on six renewable energy sources and their role in climate change mitigation. This is a Norwegian, unofficial translation of the Summary for Policy makers. (Author)

2011-06-15

257

Renewable energy potential in Colombia  

Science.gov (United States)

Renewable energy flows are very large in comparison with humankind's use of energy. In principle, all our energy needs, both now and into the future, can be met by energy from renewable sources. After many years trying to develop the alternative energy potential of Colombia, a major effort is principally being made since 2000 to explore and assess the renewable resources of the entire country. Until 2000, the availability of conventional energy sources in Colombia prevented renewable energy exploration from reaching a higher level. However, the extreme energy crisis of 1992 - 1993 alerted the authorities and the community to the necessity for exploring alternative energy sources. This energy study is a general approach to the current and future renewable energy scenario of Colombia. It was prepared in response to the increased interest around the world and in particular in Colombia to develop its non-fossil energy prospective. It, therefore, represents a working document giving an initial impression of the possible scale of the main renewables sources as a response to the concern about energy security and fossil fuel dependence problems. The assumptions made and calculations reported may therefore be subject to revision as more information becomes available. The aim of this dissertation is not only to improve the public understanding and discussion of renewable energy matters in Colombia but also to stimulate the development and application of renewable energy, wherever they have prospects of economic viability and environmental acceptability. To achieve such goal this paper reviews several renewable technologies, their availability, contribution and feasibility in Colombia.

Correa Guzman, Jose Luis

258

Optimal operation of conventional power plants in power system with integrated renewable energy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Approach for solving the generation scheduling problem of a complex system. ? WPPs integration into the system in order to minimize the total system fuel costs. ? Application on specific system consisted of TPPs, HPPs, PSHPP and WPP. - Abstract: This paper presents an approach for solving the generation scheduling problem of a complex system consisted of conventional and renewable energy sources (RES). Wind power plants are integrated into the system in order to minimize the total thermal unit fuel costs. The gained results for wind farm power production are used as input in the system to determine the optimal amounts of generated power for the thermal generating units and hydro generating units over the study period. The optimization problem consists of minimizing the total production costs, respecting power balance equations for each time interval and all operational system constraints. The proposed approach is applied on a specific system consisted of thermal power plants (TPPs), storage hydro power plants (HPPs), pumped-storage hydro power plant (PSHPP) and wind power plant (WPP). The benefits of energy production from WPP, in terms of reducing the production costs of conventional thermal power plants are also investigated. In the proposed paper two cases are analyzed. In the two analyzed cases power unit’s generation, thermal unit’s fuel costs and stream flows of hydro units are calculated over the study period.iod.

259

Integrated solutions for power and desalination, using fossil and renewable energy sources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The mining industry in Chile has grown in recent years and this requires adequate energy and water supplies. This paper discusses integrated solutions for power and desalination using fossil and renewable energy sources. Among the various methods of desalination are: multi-stage flash evaporation (MSF); multiple-effect distillation (MED); and seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO). Technologies for solar thermal power include linear Fresnel, parabolic trough and others. These techniques can be integrated, for example, in a power plant with MED/MSF desalination or a power plant with SWRO but there are associated costs as well as benefits. Some of the benefits are financial, in the form of lower DNI at sites near the coast, for instance. An integrated solution suitable for Chile would be a fossil power plant with desalination that can de done at a site near the ocean. The economics of the two integration options are compared and a pie chart shows the operating costs. In summary, desalination and CSP are continuously evolving and integration in conventional fossil power plants is effective.

Zachary, Justin; Nawaz, Arshad; Layman, Colleen [Bechtel Power Corporation (United States)

2010-07-01

260

Capacity Optimization of Renewable Energy Sources and Battery Storage in an Autonomous Telecommunication Facility  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper describes a robust optimization approach to minimize the total cost of supplying a remote telecommunication station exclusively by renewable energy sources (RES). Due to the intermittent nature of RES, such as photovoltaic (PV) panels and small wind turbines, they are normally supported by a central energy storage system (ESS), consisting of a battery and a fuel cell. The optimization is carried out as a robust mixed-integer linear program (RMILP), and results in different optimal solutions, depending on budgets of uncertainty, each of which yields different RES and storage capacities. These solutions are then tested against a set of possible outcomes, thus simulating the future operation of the system. Since battery cycling is inevitable in this application, an algorithm that counts the number of cycles and associated depths of discharges (DoD) is applied to the optimization results. The annual capacity reduction that results from these cycles is calculated for two types of battery technologies, i.e., valve-regulated lead–acid (VRLA) and lithium–ion (Li–ion), and treated as an additional cost. Finally, all associated costs are added up and the ideal con?guration is proposed.

Dragicevic, Tomislav; Pandži?, Hrvoje

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

A review of net metering mechanism for electricity renewable energy sources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this work, an overview of the net metering mechanism for renewable energy sources for power generation (RES-E systems is carried out. In particular, the net metering concept is examined with its benefits and misconceptions. Furthermore, a survey of the current operational net metering schemes in different countries in the world, such as, in Europe, USA, Canada, Thailand and Australia, is carried out. The survey indicated that there are different net metering mechanisms depending on the particularities of each country (or state in the case of USA. Especially, in Europe, only five countries are using net metering in a very simple form, such as, any amount of energy produced by the eligible RES-E technology is compensated from the energy consumed by the RES-E producer, which results to either a less overall electricity bill or to an exception in payment energy taxes. In the USA and the USA territories, any customer’s net excess generation is credited to the customer’s next electricity bill for a 12-month billing cycle at various rates or via a combination between rates. The actual type of net excess generation (NEG credit is decided by a number of set criteria, such as the type of RES-E technology, the RES-E capacity limit, the type of customer and the type of utility. Regarding any excess credit at the end of the 12-month billing cycle, this is either granted to the utilities, or carries over indefinitely to the customer’s next electricity bill, or is reconciled annually at any rate, or provides an option to the customer to choose between the last two options.

Andreas Poullikkas, George Kourtis, Ioannis Hadjipaschalis

2013-01-01

262

The sustainable management of renewable energy sources installations: legal aspects of their environmental impact in small Greek islands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nowadays, an attractive legislative and financing framework has been established in Greece for the development of renewable energy sources. This has resulted in a strong increase of investors' interest, especially in the islands, mainly due to their high renewable energy potential all year round. However, the typical characteristics of the small Greek island, which constitute sensitive ecosystems with unique attributes of a natural and cultural heritage, impose a limitation on the development of energy generation plants using renewables. In order to adopt the principles of sustainable development of these island regions, the application of the proportionality principle in relation to other general principles of environmental law is proposed as a suitable legislative tool for resolution of the foreseeable conflicts

263

National Renewable Energy Laboratory  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Renewable Energy Lab is the U.S. Department of Energy's premier laboratory for renewable energy research and development and a leading laboratory for energy efficiency research and development. The web site provides access to a large array of information that targets many different audiences. There are educational links and classroom activities and projects suited for audiences from primary education through college-level. Other features include information about different forms of energy, databases on renewable energy production, an extensive photo gallery, and information on current research and applications in energy efficiency and renewable energy.

2002-04-01

264

Panorama 2011: Ocean renewable energies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Our society is looking increasingly to renewable energy sources in the face of the energy and environmental challenges with which it is grappling. As far as ocean renewable energies are concerned, a wide range of technologies is currently being experimented with, including wind power and energy derived from waves and tidal currents. They are all at varying levels of maturity, and bring with them very different technical and economic challenges. (author)

265

Renewable Energy in Latvia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Latvia is among those countries that do not have gas, coal and, for the time being, also oil resources of its own. The amount of power produced in Latvia does not meet the demand, consequently a part of the power has to be purchased from neighbouring countries. Firewood, peat and hydro resources are the only significant domestic energy resources. Massive decrease of energy consumption has been observed since Latvia regained independence. Domestic and renewable energy resources have been examined and estimated. There are already 13 modern boiler houses operating in Latvia with total installed capacity 45 MW that are fired with wood chips. Latvian companies are involved in the production of equipment. 7 small HPPs have been renewed with the installed capacity 1.85 MW. Wind plant in Ainazi has started its operation, where two modern wind turbines with the capacity of 0.6 MW each have been installed. Mechanism of tariff setting is aligned. Favourable power energy purchasing prices are set for renewable energy sources and small cogeneration plants

Shipkovs, P.; Kashkarova, G. [Latvian Energy Agency, Riga (Latvia); Shipkovs, M. [Energy-R Ltd., Riga (Latvia)

1997-12-31

266

State of renewable energy sources use for electricity production in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article sets the position of renewable energy and its political framework requirements in Germany together with its market position at the start of the twenty first century. In its first section, it concentrates on electricity production. Here the requirements have been considerably changed through the liberation of the electricity market. (author)

267

Grid Interconnection of Renewable Energy Sources with Power-Quality Improvement Features  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A Power quality problem is an occurrence of nonstandard voltage, current or frequency that results in a failure or a misoperation of end user equipments. Utility distribution networks, sensitive industrial loads and critical commercial operations suffer from various types of outages and service interruptions which can cost significant financial losses. With the increase in load demand, the Renewable Energy Sources (RES are increasingly connected in the distribution systems which utilizes power electronic Converters/Inverters. This paper presents a novel control strategy for achieving maximum benefits from these grid-interfacing inverters using the closed loop fuzzy logic control, when installed in 3-phase 4-wire distribution systems. The inverter is controlled to perform as a multi-function device by incorporating active power filter functionality. The inverter can thus be utilized as: 1 power converter to inject power generated from RES to the grid, and 2 shunt APF to compensate current unbalance, load current harmonics, load reactive power demand and load neutral current. All of these functions may be accomplished either individually or simultaneously. This new control concept is demonstrated with extensive MATLAB/Simulink.

Mohin Ahamed Syed*

2014-10-01

268

Determination of biogas generation potential as a renewable energy source from supermarket wastes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fruit, vegetable, flower waste (FVFW), dairy products waste (DPW), meat waste (MW) and sugar waste (SW) obtained from a supermarket chain were anaerobically digested, in order to recover methane as a source of renewable energy. Batch mesophilic anaerobic reactors were run at total solids (TS) ratios of 5%, 8% and 10%. The highest methane yield of 0.44 L CH4/g VS(added) was obtained from anaerobic digestion of wastes (FVFW+DPW+MW+SW) at 10% TS, with 66.4% of methane (CH4) composition in biogas. Anaerobic digestion of mixed wastes at 5% and 8% TS provided slightly lower methane yields of 0.41 and 0.40 L CH4/g VS(added), respectively. When the wastes were digested alone without co-substrate addition, the highest methane yield of 0.40 L CH4/g VS(added) was obtained from FVFW at 5% TS. Generally, although the volatile solids (VS) conversion percentages seemed low during the experiments, higher methane yields could be obtained from anaerobic digestion of supermarket wastes. A suitable carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio, proper adjustment of the buffering capacity and the addition of essential trace nutrients (such as Ni) could improve VS conversion and biogas production yields significantly. PMID:24120116

Alkanok, Gizem; Demirel, Burak; Onay, Turgut T

2014-01-01

269

Rural electrification program with renewable energy sources: An analysis of China’s Township Electrification Program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Given the fact that 1.4 billion people, over 20% of the world’s population, lack access to electricity, rural electrification remains a common challenge for many developing countries. The ‘Township Electrification Program’ launched by the Chinese government in 2002 is known as the world’s largest renewable energy-based rural electrification program in terms of investment volume ever carried out by a country. This study gives an in-depth examination of the program implemented in two selected townships in remote of rural areas of western China. The results showed that the implementation of the program possessed a technical orientation (e.g., construction of stations, installation of systems), and underestimated the financial implications (e.g., electricity tariff, households’ ability to pay electricity fees, financial management) as well as human resources available (e.g., training for operators, household participation) and institutional capacity building (e.g., good governance, regulatory framework) at the local level. Even though electricity was provided by the solar PV power stations, households still relied on traditional energy sources, such as candles and dry cell batteries, due to the fact that electricity service was unreliable and electricity supply was not sufficient for households’ needs. - Highlights: ? China’s electrification rate has reached the level of OECD countries. ? Township Electrification Program is the world’s largest electrifrld’s largest electrification program. ? The program possessed a technical orientation and underestimated other aspects. ? Households still relied on traditional energy, such as candles and batteries. ? Having electricity access did not mean that electricity was actually used.

270

Renewables | Energies renouvelables  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available World Energy Generated for Commercial Use by Type*Production mondiale d’énergie destinée à des applications commerciales, par type*­Main ProducersPrincipaux producteurs* Renewables also include biomass, yet most of it is used for energy generation for non-commercial purposes. | Les énergies renouvelables incluent la biomasse, mais celle-ci sert essentiellement à générer de l’énergie qui ne rentre pas dans les circuits commerciaux.Source: British Petroleum, BP Statistical Review of World Energ...

2012-05-01

271

STUDY OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF COMPLEX USE OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN THE REGIONAL POWER SECTOR OF THE REPUBLIC OF THE UNION OF MYANMAR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article aims to study the prospects of energy complexes on the basis of renewable energy sources to supply electricity to the stand-alone consumers in different regions of Myanmar. In order to do that territory of Myanmar is divided into some regions according to their amount of renewable energy sources, methods for determining the optimum parameters and operation of energy complex on the basis of renewable energy sources are developed and the cost-effectiveness of those energy complexes in the regional power sector of Myanmar is analyzed

Malinin N. K.

2014-06-01

272

Latin American electricity markets and renewable energy sources: The Argentinean and Chilean cases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From the mid eighties on, most of Latin American Countries reformed their energy systems. The impact of these reforms over electricity markets was different in each case. However, in the majority of these cases there was a shift to private participation, instead of State, and a convergence of electricity systems to hydro and thermal technologies. This is the case of Argentina and Chile. In this context, the aim of this paper is to discuss the current situation of renewable energies in Chilean and Argentinean electric markets and the potential to increase their share in total energy supply. To this purpose, we firstly study electricity deregulation process and its current situation. Secondly, we analyze renewable energy share in these electricity systems comparatively to worldwide situation. Finally, we briefly present the policy instruments used in each country. (author)

273

Different Predictive Control Strategies for Active Load Management in Distributed Power Systems with High Penetration of Renewable Energy Sources  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In order to achieve a Danish energy supply based on 100% renewable energy from combinations of wind, biomass, wave and solar power in 2050 and to cover 50% of the Danish electricity consumption by wind power in 2020, it requires more renewable energy in buildings and industries (e.g. cold stores, greenhouses, etc.), and to coordinate the management of large numbers of distributed energy resources with the smart grid solution. This paper presents different predictive control (Genetic Algorithm-based and Model Predictive Control-based) strategies that schedule controlled loads in the industrial and residential sectors, based on dynamic power price and weather forecast, considering users’ comfort settings to meet an optimization objective, such as maximum profit or minimum energy consumption. Some field tests were carried out on a facility for intelligent, active and distributed power systems, which is built around a small power grid with renewable power generations (two wind turbines and solar panels), a vanadium battery for storage, EV-charging infrastructure for EVs, and an intelligent office building. The simulation and field tests demonstrated that GA-based and MPC-based predictive control strategies are able to achieve load shifting and enable end users to participate in market-based power systems, and thus profit from optimal consumption of energy in relation to price and supply of ancillary services in the power system, as well as improve grids with integration of high penetration of renewable energy sources, which could lead to reducing reinforcements in the future power systems.

Zong, Yi; Bindner, Henrik W.

2013-01-01

274

Renewable energy beyond 2020  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

All presentations have been indexed separately for the database, (the posters are not indexed). The conference consisted of both plenary sessions and parallel sessions. The headline of the plenary sessions was: P1: Renewable energy beyond 2020; P2: Research update on renewable energy; P3: Industrialization and framework conditions.The parallel sessions consisted of in-debt presentations on research related to the different renewable energy technologies: Bioenergy; Hydropower; Ocean energy; Photovoltaic solar cells; Social studies of renewable energy; Transport; Wind energy; Zero emission buildings. (AG)

275

Regional income effects and renewable fuels. Increased usage of renewable energy sources in Danish rural areas and its impact on regional incomes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

CO2-emission is a world wide problem and in the attempt to reduce these emissions, renewable energy sources may be considered serious alternatives to the present usage of fossil fuels. As part of a research programme financed by The Danish Energy Agency, data concerning the different heating technologies based on oil and wood fuels have been collected. Private and social costs are estimated and these economic data are used when analysing regional income effects of increased consumption of fuels (e.g. wood) locally produced. The impacts on income and tax revenues are calculated from multiplier expressions, constructed with rights to the measurement of local effects. (au) 10 refs

276

Renewable energy action agenda  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To assist the long-term development of the renewable energy industry, the Commonwealth Government, in partnership with industry, has developed the Renewable Energy Action Agenda. New Era -New Energy, launched in June 2000 by Minister for Industry, Science and Resources, Senator Nick Minchin, Minister for the Environment and Heritage, Senator Robert Hill, and Greg Bourne, Regional President of BP Amoco, sets an ambitious target for growth and identifies the strategies and actions necessary to achieve it. The objective of the Renewable Energy Action Agenda was to develop a policy framework underpinning growth in a commercially viable and internationally competitive Australian renewable energy industry

277

Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Africa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles take stock of the latest development of renewable energy in two regions where renewable energy can make a significant contribution to combat climate change and bring modern energy services to everyone: Africa and the Pacific. These two regions are presented separately in this volume and its sister publication. The country profiles combine elements of IRENA analysis with the latest information available from a vast array of sources in order to give a brief yet comprehensive and up-to-date picture of the situation of renewable energy that includes energy supply, electrical capacity, energy access, policies, targets, investment climate, projects and endowment in renewable energy resources. Because of the different timelines of these sources, data presented here refer to years between 2008 and 2012. Data availability also differs from country to country, which makes comparison with a wider regional group possible only for the year for which figures are available for all the members of the group; while this may not be the most recent year, the differences between countries, regions and the world remain striking. The current country profiles are just a starting point; they will be extended upon with new indicators to make them more informative, and maintained as a live product on the IRENA website as a key source of information on renewable energy.

NONE

2012-02-15

278

Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Pacific  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles take stock of the latest development of renewable energy in two regions where renewable energy can make a significant contribution to combat climate change and bring modern energy services to everyone: Africa and the Pacific. These two regions are presented separately in this volume and its sister publication. The country profiles combine elements of IRENA analysis with the latest information available from a vast array of sources in order to give a brief yet comprehensive and up-to-date picture of the situation of renewable energy that includes energy supply, electrical capacity, energy access, policies, targets, investment climate, projects and endowment in renewable energy resources. Because of the different timelines of these sources, data presented here refer to years between 2008 and 2012. Data availability also differs from country to country, which makes comparison with a wider regional group possible only for the year for which figures are available for all the members of the group; while this may not be the most recent year, the differences between countries, regions and the world remain striking. The current country profiles are just a starting point; they will be extended upon with new indicators to make them more informative, and maintained as a live product on the IRENA website as a key source of information on renewable energy.

NONE

2012-09-15

279

Alternative scenarios of the utilisation of renewable energy sources in small prefectures: a case study in Lasithi Prefecture, Greece  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The sector of Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) is growing very fast, with many innovations and applications becoming a reality. The continuous reduction of natural resources has forced all policymakers to turn to alternative energy sources. The total energy (oil and electricity consumption) consumed in the prefecture of Lasithi during the years 1997-2002 in correlation with the RES exploitation potential in the prefecture is the base of an analysis where RES methodologies are exploited to satisfy part of the prefecture's energy needs. Solar energy, wind energy, geothermal energy and biomass are examined and a case study is performed for Lasithi that involves an application of specific mathematical tools leading to a set of alternative scenarios. The objective of this work is the integration of environmentally friendly processes for the satisfaction of the energy needs of Lasithi Prefecture, paying attention at the same time to the financial viability of these systems.

Xydis, George; Koroneos, no-firstname

2009-01-01

280

Possibilities of support for utilization of renewable energy sources from national sources of Ministry of the Environment of the Slovak Republic  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this contribution is to familiarize potential person concerned in obtaining of support for projects of utilization of renewable energy sources from the Ministry of the Environment of the Slovak Republic through so-called 'Programme for realization of environmental measures' which is managed by the Section for realization of environmental measures

 
 
 
 
281

New energy making money. Vaillant for the installation of renewable sources of current business  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The government, individuals and companies should consider the lowering of energy consumption and moving into renewable resources. This is a phrase which a person would expect from an environmental activist or a rock singer with a Messianic tendency. If the managers of an industry concern say it - known mainly as a producer of gas boilers and air conditioning units - with a slight cynicism we could think of this as the company's social responsibility side. But it came out from the mouths of the Vaillant managers in connection with business. On one side they admit that the crisis affecting the construction industry damaged their sales. But they add right away that this is the era when it is possible to support technological development, and government support of effective energy devices including the usage of renewable resources are helping them to maintain business without further damage. 'Because we specialize in innovative energy devices and we continue with development,' Dieter Mueller, the executive director of the group, describes Vaillant's expansion of their business model. The company which he leads settled in Slovakia with two factories. For Vaillant business, energy devices using renewable resources are not the future. In June last year the concern started producing solar collectors in the German Gelsenkirchene's factory. Solar panels with a 370,000 square meter area come from a line with a capacity to produce 150,000 collectors every year. Groups interested collectors every year. Groups interested in solar devices and technology for all renewable resources don't have to wonder. The firm noted its historically highest numbers: above 2.4 billion euros. At the slowing down of sales of traditional boilers, so-called 'green' devices were growing, and little by little they are climbing up to a 200 million euro mark. The numbers for the installation of solar heat devices alone added to the group's numbers 60% more than the previous year. (authors)

282

An overview of the EU Member States support schemes for the promotion of renewable energy sources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this work, an overview of the European Union (EU Member States support schemes for the promotion of renewable energy sources (RES is provided. In particular, the status of the electricity generation capacity as well as the RES mixture in the Member States is described. Moreover, the different support schemes such as, investment support, feed-in tariffs (FiTs, tradable green certificates, and fiscal and financial measures which the Member States have adopted for the promotion of RES technologies are discussed in detail. Some Member States are implementing a single support scheme for the promotion of RES for power generation (RES-E, e.g., seven Member States use FiTs, or implement a hybrid support scheme by combining all or some of the four categories of the RES-E supporting schemes. Although, these support schemes have increased the penetration of the RES-E technologies in the Member States, still there is a long way in order to achieve the 2020 target. The reason for this may be that the way these schemes have been used so far, i.e., either as single support schemes or in combination of FiTs or tradable green certificates with investment support and fiscal and financial measures, has been ineffective. A more effective combination could be a hybrid scheme consisting of FiTs with tradable green certificates measures, as in the case of Italy and United Kingdom, that will increase the RES-E penetration and eliminate the possible technical problems which will arise from this increased penetration and have an effect in the stability of the power system.

Andreas Poullikkas, George Kourtis, Ioannis Hadjipaschalis

2012-01-01

283

An overview of the EU Member States support schemes for the promotion of renewable energy sources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this work, an overview of the European Union (EU) Member States support schemes for the promotion of renewable energy sources (RES) is provided. In particular, the status of the electricity generation capacity as well as the RES mixture in the Member States is described. Moreover, the different support schemes such as, investment support, feed-in tariffs (FiTs), tradable green certificates, and fiscal and financial measures which the Member States have adopted for the promotion of RES technologies are discussed in detail. Some Member States are implementing a single support scheme for the promotion of RES for power generation (RES-E), e.g., seven Member States use FiTs, or implement a hybrid support scheme by combining all or some of the four categories of the RES-E supporting schemes. Although, these support schemes have increased the penetration of the RES-E technologies in the Member States, still there is a long way in order to achieve the 2020 target. The reason for this may be that the way these schemes have been used so far, i.e., either as single support schemes or in combination of FiTs or tradable green certificates with investment support and fiscal and financial measures, has been ineffective. A more effective combination could be a hybrid scheme consisting of FiTs with tradable green certificates measures, as in the case of Italy and United Kingdom, that will increase the RES-E penetration and eliminate the possible technical problems which will arise from this increased penetration and have an effect in the stability of the power system.

Poullikkas, Andreas; Kourtis, George; Hadjipaschalis, Ioannis [Electricity Authority of Cyprus, P.O. Box 24506, 1399 Nicosia (Cyprus)

2012-07-01

284

The role of cool thermal energy storage (CTES) in the integration of renewable energy sources (RES) and peak load reduction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The building sector is one of the largest energy consumers. Even though cooling needs do not contribute a large share to the overall energy demand in temperate climates, recent trends show a tendency of large growth. This growth is related to two main drivers: cheap and affordable air-conditioning units that have overrun the market and the more frequent occurrence of hot and extremely hot weather conditions. In combination with inadequate insulation and sealing in most old buildings, both drivers contributed to new cooling installations that are significantly increasing electricity demand and peak load, even at the national level. Consequently, the use of fossil fuels in power plants and electricity import has increased. The development of sustainable buildings and the use of renewable energy sources (RES) seem to be promising solutions. However, the problem of the integration of RES in the current energy system is related to their intermittent nature and uncontrollable occurrence. Cool Thermal Energy Storage (CTES) may play an important role in the management of peak loads and solve the intermittency problem of RES, especially when cooling storage is integrated into district cooling systems. A simple mathematical model of a system with integrated RES and CTES has been developed. Hourly system analyses have been conducted for one building, a group of buildings connected to the district cooling system and a region represented by a mixture of different demands for cool thermal energy. This paper also includes the results for the overall energy efficiency, cost effectiveness and environmental impact of the systems analysed.

285

Renewable Energy in Alaska  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report examines the opportunities, challenges, and costs associated with renewable energy implementation in Alaska and provides strategies that position Alaska's accumulating knowledge in renewable energy development for export to the rapidly growing energy/electric markets of the developing world.

2013-03-01

286

The alternative and renewable energy sources in Mexico; Fuentes alternativas y renovables de energia en Mexico  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents an overview of the efforts that have been made in our Mexico in the area of Alternative and Renewable Sources of Energy, effort performed by different institutions, government agencies and private companies along the last 25 years. Older periods are not contemplated, although significant advances have existed, specifically in the area of small micro-hydraulic power plants, since the end of the past century and in solar collectors, more than 60 years ago, as the most relevant advances have been contemplated in these last two decades. The entire world energy demand is analyzed, making emphasis in our country, the efforts on the installed geothermal power plants, the flat collectors for domestic use, the solar power plants installed by some government agencies are also mentioned, as well as the strong growth in the photo-voltaic field at worldwide level as well as at domestic level (a graph is presented of the multiple applications of the photo-voltaic conversion of the solar energy at world level of which some of these are already operational in our country), including the hybrid systems (wind power photo-voltaic Diesel, the pilot biogas plants, the solar ponds efforts and the recently inaugurated wind-power plant of 1.575 MW installed at La Venta, in the Oaxaca State. [Espanol] El presente articulo, presenta una revision de los esfuerzos que se han desarrollado en nuestro Mexico, en el campo de las Fuentes Alternas y Renovables de Energia, esfuerzos realizados por diferentes instituciones, dependencias y companias a lo largo de los ultimos 25 anos. No se contemplan periodos mas antiguos, aunque han existido adelantos significativos, especificamente, en el campo de pequenas centrales microhidraulicas desde fines del siglo, y de colectores solares desde hace mas de 60 anos, ya que los mas relevantes se contemplan en estas ultimas dos decadas de recopilacion. Se analiza la demanda de energia mundial, haciendo enfasis a nuestro pais, se mencionan los esfuerzos de las plantas geotermicas instaladas, los colectores planos para uso domestico y las plantas solares instaladas por algunas dependencias; tambien el fuerte crecimiento del campo fotovoltaico, tanto a nivel mundial como nacional (se presenta un cuadro de las multiples aplicaciones de la conversion fotovoltaica de la energia solar a nivel mundial, de las cuales algunas de estas ya estan siendo operativas en nuestro pais), incluyendo los sistemas hibridos (viento-fotovoltaico-diesel), las plantas pilotos de biogas, los esfuerzos en estanques solares y la recientemente inaugurada planta eolica de 1.575 Megawatt instalada en La Venta, Edo. de Oaxaca.

Urbano C, J. Antonio [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Matsumoto K, Yasuhiro; Asomoza P, Rene [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

1996-12-31

287

Boosting renewable energies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Public policy and funding are basically different, but both are needed to develop the renewable energy market. Public policy creates incentives, but also obligations. The setting up of a 'repurchase rate' also called a 'feed-in tariff' or 'clean energy cash back scheme' obliges electric power companies to buy back energy of renewable origin at a fixed, guaranteed rate. The extra-cost generated, although usually low, is passed on to all customers and does not cost the State anything. Funding is characterized by its source, the manner in which it is obtained and who supplies it, whether it be banks, mutual funds, development agencies, electric power companies, local governments or the consumers themselves. Repurchasing yields regular cash flows over a given period at a lower risk and allows banks to provide funding. This is one of the reasons for its success. This solution is also very popular with political leaders because it does not weigh down public funding. Both these reasons explain why repurchasing is so appreciated in Europe and in a growing number of countries, more than seventy having adopted it in 2010. In addition, it is regularly discounted in relation to technological breakthroughs and lower costs. As is the case in Europe, the problem lies in maintaining an acceptable rate while avoiding excessive project profitability. In Europe, for instance, the number of renewable energy projects is such that consumers are starting to complain about seeing their electrting to complain about seeing their electricity rates rise because of the famous feed-in tariff, even though the cost of renewable energies continues to drop on a regular basis. The United States and a few other countries, including China, prefer the quota system, or RPS (Renewable Portfolio Standards), which requires electric power companies to generate a minimal share of electric power by a renewable energy source. These companies consequently invest in renewable energy projects or purchase this energy from other suppliers. Like the repurchase rate, this system costs the State nothing. In contrast to Europe, where solar and wind power benefit from repurchasing systems, solar power in the US is subsidized in various ways at state level. Subsidies generally range from 30 to 50% of the total cost of the installation. Three quite distinct approaches to biofuel funding are found in the United States, Brazil and Europe. In the United States, the government directly subsidizes biofuel producers at a rate, in 2010, of around 13 cents on the dollar per liter of ethanol and 28 cents on the dollar per liter of bio-diesel fuel (2009). In Brazil the State partially subsidizes sugar cane plantations and refineries, despite the fact that ethanol production is competitive in relation to oil-based fuels. Europe and a few countries elsewhere have only gone so far as to lighten or remove the tax on hydrocarbons when they are associated with biofuels; still others impose specific mixes of biofuels with gasoline or diesel fuel

288

Renewable energy strategies for sustainable development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper discusses the perspective of renewable energy (wind, solar, wave and biomass) in the making of strategies for a sustainable development. Such strategies typically involve three major technological changes: energy savings on the demand side, efficiency improvements in the energy production, and replacement of fossil fuels by various sources of renewable energy. Consequently, large-scale renewable energy implementation plans must include strategies of how to integrate the renewable s...

Lund, Henrik

2005-01-01

289

Quota regime for renewable energy sources and Green Labels trading in the electricity market of the Netherlands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The renewables quota regime combined with a ''green electricity'' labelling and trading system, implemented by the Dutch association of distribution undertakings, is the first of its kind in Europe. The distribution undertakings are bound by a commitment to take and distribute ''green label'' electricity from renewables amounting to approx. 3% of their total sales to contractual customers. This is a modest percentage, but the quota regime already proved to be a promoter of close-to-the-market generation technologies. It would be too early now to make a final statement on the quota regime's influence on enhanced use of renewable energy sources. Practice so far also revealed the need for some modifications in the design of the pricing system for''green electricity''. Current debates consider integration of renewable energy sources abroad. The first accounting date for giving evidence of compliance with the commitment to green label quotas is late in the year 2000. This will be the test for the system and the efficiency of sanctions provided for in case of non-compliance. It will be a task of the future to examine whether it might be appropriate to establish a similar system for the heat market. (RHM/CB)

290

Current Renewable Energy Technologies and Future Projections  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The generally acknowledged sources of renewable energy are wind, geothermal, biomass, solar, hydropower, and hydrogen. Renewable energy technologies are crucial to the production and utilization of energy from these regenerative and virtually inexhaustible sources. Furthermore, renewable energy technologies provide benefits beyond the establishment of sustainable energy resources. For example, these technologies produce negligible amounts of greenhouse gases and other pollutants in providing energy, and they exploit domestically available energy sources, thereby reducing our dependence on both the importation of fossil fuels and the use of nuclear fuels. The market price of renewable energy technologies does not reflect the economic value of these added benefits

291

Renewable energies in France 1970-2002  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The energy observatory presents in this 2004 edition today data concerning the thermal renewable energies and the new energetic accounting method for the electric renewable energies. The following energy sources are concerned: hydroelectric power, wind power, photovoltaic, geothermal energy, biomass, wood fuels, domestic wastes, heat pumps, biogas, the thermal solar and biofuels. The energy production by renewable sources from 1970 to 2002, is also provided. (A.L.B.)

292

Local investment in renewable energies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although the vast majority of renewable energies projects are established by commercial developers, some of them are financed by ''ordinary citizens'' pooling together through different schemes. This is particularly frequent in Denmark and Germany, possibly a key reason for the continuous and so successful growth of various renewable energies sources in these countries. This guideline aims to define the term of local investment and provides examples of development and recommendations. (A.L.B.)

293

Supporting renewable energies: The '  

...Supporting renewable energies: The 'transition' schemes | EurActiv climate-environment,energy,feed-in tariff,renewable energies,solar energy,wind energy EU news & ... Energy and climate change: Towards an integrated EU policy The EU's economic governance: Rewriting the rulebook Financial regulation: The EU's ...of labour in the EU 27 Global food prices and CAP reform [Archived] Energy Section homepage Who runs EU energy policies? Energy efficiency: ...The EU's new action plan Energy Performance of Buildings Directive Smart meters: Controlling your energy bill? Eco-design requirements for energy-using products (...

294

A renewable energy future?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent developments in the field of renewable energy taking place in Australia are highlighted. It is estimated that the developments are not only scientifically possible but are rapidly approaching economic viability and the industry is proactively identifying the markets. The author emphasised that there is an increasing recognition of the need to include a business perspective in measures taken to commercialize renewable energy technologies

295

Can renewable energies be turned to a source of advantage by developing countries?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Traditional industrial development pathways, that did not take into explicit consideration the issue of energy technologies to be utilized, now imperil development prospects around the world. As oil supplies approach their peak globally, and energy security becomes a major issue, so developing countries have everything to lose by simply following fossil fuel based industrialization, and everything to gain by recasting their development strategies around the prospects for renewable energies and biofuels. This is now a feasible prospect, as shown dramatically by the Brazilian experience, now being replicated in many developing countries, including most notably in India and China. This paper argues that the time is therefore ripe for developing countries, and development agencies such as the World Bank, to re-evaluate their stance on biofuels. Developing countries, particularly in the tropics, have an abundance of land, water and sunshine that give them a competitive advantage in biofuels, and for the development of a new industry ergo-culture that will stand alongside traditional agriculture. The paper argues that a swing behind biofuels can unlock a chain reaction of favorable developmental processes provided developing countries seize the initiative and set in place renewable energy industry creation projects before the developed world has managed to shake itself out of its fossil fuel dependence. In doing so, they will do a great service to themselves and to everyone concerned with the disastrous prospects of global climate change. (author)

296

Creating prospective value chains for renewable road transport energy sources up to 2050 in Nordic Countries  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

If the Nordic energy and transport sectors are to meet the 2050 energy and climate policy targets, major systemic changes are necessary. Along with new technologies, changes are required also in other societal functions such as business models and consumer habits. The transition requires cooperation between public and private actors. This paper discusses the paradigm change towards 2050 Nordic road transport system based on renewable energy. More precisely, it proposes an approach for creation and analysis of prospective value networks up to the year 2050. The value networks arise from three alternative, but partly overlapping technology platforms, namely electricity, biofuels and hydrogen. The approach outlined in the paper combines elements from the fields of system level changes (transitions), value chain analysis and forward looking policy design. It presents a novel, policy relevant application with a set of practical tools to support development of implementation strategies and policy programmes in the fields of energy and transport.

Bolwig, Simon

2013-01-01

297

Renewable energy strategies for sustainable development  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper discusses the perspective of renewable energy (wind, solar, wave and biomass) in the making of strategies for a sustainable development. Such strategies typically involve three major technological changes: energy savings on the demand side, efficiency improvements in the energy production, and replacement of fossil fuels by various sources of renewable energy. Consequently, large-scale renewable energy implementation plans must include strategies of how to integrate the renewable sources in coherent energy systems influenced by energy savings and efficiency measures. Based on the case of Denmark, this paper discusses the problems and perspectives of converting present energy systems into a 100 percent renewable energy system. The conclusion is that such development will be possible. The necessary renewable energy sources are present, if further technological improvements of the energy system are achieved. Especially technologies of converting the transportation and the introduction of flexible energy system technologies are crucial.

Lund, Henrik

2005-01-01

298

Renewable energy delivery systems and methods  

Science.gov (United States)

A system, method and/or apparatus for the delivery of energy at a site, at least a portion of the energy being delivered by at least one or more of a plurality of renewable energy technologies, the system and method including calculating the load required by the site for the period; calculating the amount of renewable energy for the period, including obtaining a capacity and a percentage of the period for the renewable energy to be delivered; comparing the total load to the renewable energy available; and, implementing one or both of additional and alternative renewable energy sources for delivery of energy to the site.

Walker, Howard Andrew

2013-12-10

299

Renewable energies - Alain Chardon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In an interview, the chairman of Cleantechs and Decarbonate, Capgemini Consulting, comments the challenge of the struggle against global warming, discusses the role of gas on the way towards a de-carbonated economy, the cost of renewable energies compared to that of fossil and nuclear energies. He outlines other brakes upon the development of renewable energies, discusses the political issues and the challenge of meeting European objectives with respect with the share of renewable energies in the energy mix and the electricity mix by 2020

300

77 FR 32531 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee  

Science.gov (United States)

...sources of new capital for investment in the U.S. renewable energy and energy efficiency...speed of the Overseas Private Investment Corporation's decision-making...pertaining to shipping by U.S. renewable energy exporters. The...

2012-06-01

 
 
 
 
301

A multi-criteria methodology for energy planning and developing renewable energy sources at a regional level: A case study Thassos, Greece  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rational energy planning under the pressure of environmental and economic problems is imperative to humanity. An evaluational framework is proposed in order to support energy planning for promoting the use of renewable energy sources. A multi-criteria decision analysis is adopted, detailing exploitation of renewable energy sources (including Wind, Solar, Biomass, Geothermal, and small Hydro) for power and heat generation. The aim of this paper is the analysis and development of a multilevel decision-making structure, utilizing multiple criteria for energy planning and exploitation of Renewable Energy Sources of at the regional level. The proposed evaluation framework focuses on the use of a multi-criteria approach as a tool for supporting energy planning in the area of concern, based on a pool of qualitative and quantitative evaluation criteria. The final aim of this study is to discover the optimal amount of each Renewable Energy Source that can be produced in the region and to contribute to an optimal energy mix. In this paper, a case study for the island of Thassos, Greece is analyzed. The results prove that Renewable Energy Sources exploitation at a regional level can satisfy increasing power demands through environmental-friendly energy systems that combine wind power, biomass and PV systems. - Highlights: ? An evaluational framework is proposed in order to support energy planning. ? A multi-criteria decision analysis is adopted, detailing exploitation of RESadopted, detailing exploitation of RES for power and heat generation. ? The aim is to discover the optimal amount of each RES that can be produced in each region.

302

Renewable energy in Antarctica  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Australian Antarctic Division is attempting the largest renewable energy installation of any nation in Antarctica. It has been investigating the potential of renewable energy sources to supplement existing fuel-generated energy supplies since 1993. In 1995, a 10 kW Vergnet turbine was installed at Casey station to investigate the operational aspects of using wind turbines in Antarctica. By the end of 1996, research had revealed that the suitability of using wind power was greater at some of Australia's stations than others. Maw-son station has the most suitable wind profile, with an annual average wind of 11 m/sec. Macquarie Island's profile is also suitable. Casey has less potential, with a major issue being strong wind gusts of 81 m/sec and long periods of calm weather. Davis has much less wind and limited potential. Further wind resource research was undertaken before feasibility studies commenced for large wind turbines at Mawson and Macquarie Island in 1999. The studies concluded that commercial turbines with minimal modifications should be suitable for the stations. This, however, was only the first step

303

Renewable energy technologies  

CERN Document Server

This book deals with the emerging generation of renewable energy technologies, covering solar energy (photovoltaic, thermal and thermodynamic energy conversion), wind energy, marine energy, small hydropower, geothermal energy, biofuels, biogas and the use of wood as a substitute for fossil fuels.

Sabonnadière, Jean-Claude

2010-01-01

304

The case for renewable energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The 25-year history of ISES ( International Solar Energy Society)-UK and the development of renewable energy sources was recalled. The renewables business was said to have been of scientific interest in the 1970s (when ISES-UK apparently played a role in solar energy), to engineering interest in the 80s (the time of competition for the largest wind and solar plants) to the present day situation of a sound manufacturing and marketing environment and a multi-billion dollar market. Some important milestones in the progress of the development of renewables are discussed - they include: the era of low oil prices and large fossil reserves, concern for carbon dioxide emissions, trade in green certificates, technological innovations and de-privatisation. The future for renewables and the possible role of the International Energy Agency are discussed briefly.

Lysen, E.H. [Utrecht Centre for Energy Research (UCE) (Netherlands)

1999-07-01

305

Sistemas Integrados de energías con fuentes renovables, requisitos y opciones / Integrated systems of energy with renewable sources, requirements and options  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En el presente reporte se consideró una instalación conectada a la red eléctrica en la isla de Cuba. Se tenía el interés de introducir un determinado % de energía a partir de fuentes renovables, y se poseía un determinado potencial de energía eólica y fotovoltaica. Se analizaron los requisitos y opc [...] iones energéticas, se realizaron simulaciones de alternativas con el programa HOMER y se concluyó con la determinación de las condiciones o potenciales de las fuentes renovables para la recomendación de cada opción energética, y se presentaron los resultados de forma gráfica y fácil comprensión. Se ofreció un análisis de las posibilidades reales que en el ámbito de una localidad, pueden aprovecharse en función de diversificar de manera sostenible, el esquema energético comunitario con la utilización de las fuentes renovables de energía, utilizando la variante que desde el punto económico y ambiental resulte de más conveniencia. Abstract in english In this report was considered an electric net connected installation in the island of Cuba. It had the interest of introducing a certain % of energy starting from renewable sources, and a certain potential of wind and photovoltaic energy was possessed. The requirements and energy options were analyz [...] ed, and it were carried out simulations of alternative with the HOMER program and it was concluded with the determination of the conditions or potentials of the renewable sources for the recommendation of each energy option, and the results were presented in graphic way and easy understanding. It was offered an analysis of the real possibilities in the environment of a town. It can take advantage in function of diversifying from a sustainable way, with the community energy outline using the renewable sources of energy, and taking the variant of more convenience from the economic and environmental point of view.

Antonio, Sarmiento Sera; María, Rodríguez Gámez; Orestes, Castillo Castillo; Antonio, Vázquez Pérez.

2014-04-01

306

Sistemas Integrados de energías con fuentes renovables, requisitos y opciones / Integrated systems of energy with renewable sources, requirements and options  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En el presente reporte se consideró una instalación conectada a la red eléctrica en la isla de Cuba. Se tenía el interés de introducir un determinado % de energía a partir de fuentes renovables, y se poseía un determinado potencial de energía eólica y fotovoltaica. Se analizaron los requisitos y opc [...] iones energéticas, se realizaron simulaciones de alternativas con el programa HOMER y se concluyó con la determinación de las condiciones o potenciales de las fuentes renovables para la recomendación de cada opción energética, y se presentaron los resultados de forma gráfica y fácil comprensión. Se ofreció un análisis de las posibilidades reales que en el ámbito de una localidad, pueden aprovecharse en función de diversificar de manera sostenible, el esquema energético comunitario con la utilización de las fuentes renovables de energía, utilizando la variante que desde el punto económico y ambiental resulte de más conveniencia. Abstract in english In this report was considered an electric net connected installation in the island of Cuba. It had the interest of introducing a certain % of energy starting from renewable sources, and a certain potential of wind and photovoltaic energy was possessed. The requirements and energy options were analyz [...] ed, and it were carried out simulations of alternative with the HOMER program and it was concluded with the determination of the conditions or potentials of the renewable sources for the recommendation of each energy option, and the results were presented in graphic way and easy understanding. It was offered an analysis of the real possibilities in the environment of a town. It can take advantage in function of diversifying from a sustainable way, with the community energy outline using the renewable sources of energy, and taking the variant of more convenience from the economic and environmental point of view.

Antonio, Sarmiento Sera; María, Rodríguez Gámez; Orestes, Castillo Castillo; Antonio, Vázquez Pérez.

307

Sistemas Integrados de energías con fuentes renovables, requisitos y opciones. Integrated systems of energy with renewable sources, requirements and options  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En el presente reporte se consideró una instalación conectada a la red eléctrica en la isla de Cuba. Se tenía el interés de introducir un determinado % de energía a partir de fuentes renovables, y se poseía un determinado potencial de energía eólica y fotovoltaica. Se analizaron los requisitos y opciones energéticas, se realizaron simulaciones de alternativas con el programa HOMER y se concluyó con la determinación de las condiciones o potenciales de las fuentes renovables para la recomendación de cada opción energética, y se presentaron los resultados de forma gráfica y fácil comprensión. Se ofreció un análisis de las posibilidades reales que en el ámbito de una localidad, pueden aprovecharse en función de diversificar de manera sostenible, el esquema energético comunitario  con la utilización de las fuentes renovables de energía, utilizando la variante que desde el punto económico y ambiental resulte de más conveniencia.  In this report was considered an electric net connected installation in the island of Cuba. It had the interest of introducing a certain % of energy starting from renewable sources, and a certain potential of wind and photovoltaic energy was possessed. The requirements and energy options were analyzed, and it were carried out simulations of alternative with the HOMER program and it was concluded with the determination of the conditions or potentials of the renewable sources for the recommendation of each energy option, and the results were presented in graphic way and easy understanding. It was offered an analysis of the real possibilities in the environment of a town. It can take advantage in function of diversifying from a sustainable way, with the community energy outline using the renewable sources of energy, and taking the variant of more convenience from the economic and environmental point of view.

Antonio Sarmiento Sera

2014-01-01

308

The green brewery concept - Energy efficiency and the use of renewable energy sources in breweries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

avings of higher than 20% with heat integration via pinch analysis. ? Potential of solar process heat integration for thermal energy supply in packaging and mashing processes. ? In one brewery with optimized heat integration the thermal energy demand can be covered by biogas production from its own resources.

309

Economic evaluation of renewable energy sources in a green power market  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Biomass- and biogas technologies will at present not be able to compete with wind turbines. A possible solution is to split the market for renewable energies into separate markets, e.g. one for the wind turbine electricity and another one for bio electricity. Some of the analysed straw- and wood-chip fired plants have good economy. It is characteristic that the technology, which has most operation experiences has the worst economy. Existing cooperative biogas plants are expected to keep or obtain an acceptable economic. For new cooperative plants, which are established before 2002, a subsidy of almost 20% is required, before an economic balance is made. For cooperative plants, which is established after 2002, an economic balance will be difficult to make, even though renewable energy should get the maximal value 27 oere every kWh. It is the same with farm systems. Investors will not establish photovoltaic plants in several years for economic reasons. The large hydro-electric power plants generally have a good economy based on the present operational conditions and on present subsidies. With unchanged operations the plants will need subsidy for the power production of 0 to 26 oere/kWh. (EHS)

310

Multicriteria analysis of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) utilisation in waste treatment facilities: the case of Chania prefecture, Greece  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Greece's current solid waste management system faces important environmental challenges that make it non-sustainable. There is a need to move towards an integrated solid waste management that shall include systems in the frames of 'sustainable development' approach. An optimisation methodology is applied in Greece, where various Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) could be exploited to satisfy part of the existing and proposed waste management facilities' energy needs. An application of multicriteria analysis and many scenarios were examined in the cases where the requirements of certain end uses were increased and where RES could not contribute at the maximum of their potential.

Xydis, George; Loizidou, Maria

2010-01-01

311

Supports for renewable energies. Help  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Considered as costly, and disruptive for the electricity market and supply, the renewable energy sources are the object of strong criticisms, in particular from the biggest European energy groups. They will not escape to a revision of the support mechanisms which were implemented to encourage their development

312

Cationically polymerizable monomers derived from renewable sources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objectives of this project are to design and synthesize novel monomers which orginate from renewable biological sources and to carry out their rapid, efficient, pollution-free and energy efficient cationic polymerization to useful products under the influence of ultraviolet light or heat. A summary of the results of the past year's research on cationically polymerizable monomers derived from renewable sources is presented. Three major areas of investigation corresponding to the different classes of naturally occurring starting materials were investigated; epoxidized terpenes and natural rubber and vinyl ethers from alcohols and carbohydrates.

Crivello, J.V.

1992-10-01

313

Progress in renewable energy.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper provides an overview of some of the key technological and market developments for leading renewable energy technologies--wind, wave and tidal, photovoltaics (PV) and biomass energy. Market growth, innovation and policy are closely interrelated in the development of renewables and the key issues in each area are explored for each of the main types of renewable energy technology. This enables the prospects for future development and cost reduction to be considered in detail. Key issues for policy are outlined. PMID:12605943

Gross, Robert; Leach, Matthew; Bauen, Ausilio

2003-04-01

314

Design of Power Converters for Renewable Energy Sources and Electric Vehicles Charging  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper describes the design and construction of new series of power converters equipped with liquid cooling system. This power series is created for project ENET – Energy Units for Utilization of non Traditional Energy Sources. First power converter is determined for stationary battery system use, the second one is used as an inverter/rectifier for a small solar plant system and the last power inverter is used as a fast charger for electric vehicles. Energy balance is performed for the ...

Martin Tvrdon; Petr Chlebis; Michal Hromjak

2013-01-01

315

Renewable energy islands in Europe  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This publication includes a compiled presentation of various aspects concerning the possible transformation of some European islands into renewable energy communities and these projects were presented by a selection of pioneer islands at the first European Seminar on Renewable Energy Islands, held on the Danish island of Samsoee, 29-30 June 1998. This issue has increased in importance with the presentation of the ambitious EU-White Paper: `Energy for the future: Renewable Sources of Energy` which was adopted in 1998. One of the key elements of the strategy for an accelerated implementation of renewable energy is to transform 100 localities within Europe into communities which are to be 100% self-sufficient with renewable energy before 2010. In line with this strategy, the Danish Government appointed the island of Samsoe towards the end of 1997 to be the first `official` Danish, renewable energy island. This is to serve as a demonstration project for other local communities, both in Denmark as well as in the rest Europe. Gothland, Madeira, Canary Islands, Cape Verde, Arki, Crete, Minorca and Orkney Islands were represented. Environmental advantages of wind, solar and wave power for distant island communities were indicated. Serious savings would be achieved by limitation of fossil fuel import and utilization of local resources. (EG)

Oestergaard, Iben [ed.

1998-12-31

316

Renewable energy projects in small island countries funded under the United Nation trust found for new and renewable source of energy (NRSE)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The NRSE trust fund established with financial support from the Italian Government has succeeded in catalyzing a number of energy projects in small island developing countries. These projects have elicited a great deal of interest by local communities and opened up prospects for further utilization of locally available energy resources. The projects have created a positive impact on the quality of life of people in dispersed locations in small island developing countries by focusing on provision of renewable energy based electricity services such as solar PV lighting for homes, schools, and hospitals; radio, TV, VCR as well as medicine refrigerators. Thus it has become evident that renewable energy technologies such as solar and wind systems can have an important role to play in improving the quality of life of people in these small island countries. Market potential for these technologies is indeed substantial. However constraints and barriers still exist. One of the principal barriers is still the high initial cost of solar devices. Innovative financing including microcredit facilities needs to be explored. Efforts are also needed to strengthen local capacity to undertake assembly of components and systems, and also in the installation, maintenance, and service of renewable energy devices. Entrepreneurial activities need to be fostered through further strengthening of skills in this area. (EHS)

317

Renewable energy sources. Systems engineering, economic efficiency, environmental aspects. 4. actual., rev. and enl. ed.; Erneuerbare Energien. Systemtechnik, Wirtschaftlichkeit, Umweltaspekte  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The physical fundamentals and basic systems- engineering aspects of the main renewable-energy techniques applied in Germany are presented. The characteristics of renewable energy supplies are discussed. Solar thermal and geothermal techniques, and techniques for the generation of electrical energy from solar radiation (photovoltaics) are described. Parameters for an ecological and economic evaluation and for evaluation of the relevant energy management factors are discussed considering the present state and future development. Comparisons of the different techniques among each other and comparisons with techniques that utilize fossil energy sources allow one to evaluate the present and future chances and risks of renewable energy supplies in Germany considering the respective conventional techniques and the present situation of energy management. The 4th edition is corrected and actualized and focusses on the most advanced and new developed solar energy systems. (GL) [German] Dieses Standardwerk stellt die physikalisch-technischen Grundlagen und die Systemtechnik fuer Anlagen zur Nutzung regenerativer Energien zur Strom- und Waermebereitstellung dar. Es bietet auch einen umfassenden Ueberblick ueber die Charakteristik des regenerativen Energieangebots. Zusaetzlich werden Kennzahlen fuer eine oekonomische und oekologische Bewertung zugaenglich gemacht und die Potenziale der regenerativen Energien und deren derzeitige Nutzung in Deutschland umfassend diskutiert. Im Einzelnen sind dies die - passive Solarenergienutzung, - solarthermische Waermebereitstellung und photovoltaische Stromerzeugung, - Stromerzeugung aus Windenergie und Wasserkraft, - Waermebereitstellung aus Umgebungsluft und oberflaechennaher Erdwaerme, - Strom- und Waermebereitstellung aus der Energie des tiefen Untergrunds. Zusaetzlich werden kursorisch die Moeglichkeiten einer Nutzung der Meeresenergien und der solarthermischen Stromerzeugung dargestellt. Fuer die 4. Auflage wurde u. a. die photovoltaische Stromerzeugung vollstaendig aktualisiert, die passive und aktive Sonnenenergienutzung ueberarbeitet und der Stand der Nutzung des regenerativen Energieangebots an die juengsten Entwicklungen angepasst. Neben seiner Eignung fuer die Lehre bietet das Buch Entscheidungstraegern in Energiewirtschaft, Politik und Verwaltung sowie Wissenschaftlern und Beratern eine fundierte und verlaessliche Wissensbasis. (orig.)

Kaltschmitt, M. [Institut fuer Energetik und Umwelt gemeinnuetzige GmbH, Leipzig (Germany); Streicher, W. [Technische Univ., Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Waermetechnik; Wiese, A. (eds.) [Lahmeyer International GmbH, Bad Vilbel (Germany)

2006-07-01

318

Osmotic power. A great energy source for renewable energy; Una gran fuente de energia renovable para electricidad. Potencia osmotica  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

When freshwater meets saltwater, for example, where a river flows out into the sea, enormous quantities of energy can be utilised to generate power, through the natural phenomenon of osmosis. Osmotic power is based on the natural phenomenon of osmosis, defined as the transport of water through a semi-permeable membranes, enclosing their cells, and tho produce osmotic power one has to design similar, artificial membranes. In an osmotic power plant we feed freshwater into separate chambers, separated by an artificial membranes. The salt molecules in the seawater then draw the freshwater through the membranes, causing the pressure on the seawater side to increase. This pressure corresponds to a water column of 120 meters or a large waterfall, and can be utilised in a turbine which generated electricity. The idea to generate power through osmosis is originates from the 1970s. At the time, however, the membranes had low efficiency and power price were too low to enable anyone to profitable invest in such a project. many years later, research scientists al SINTEF brought the idea to STAT kraft. The collaboration was initiated in 1997, and the development of a new, renewable energy source was initiated. (Author)

Alonso Alvarez, J.

2009-07-01

319

Polymer biocomposites with renewable sources  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nowadays production of natural biodegradable polymer composites is an important research topic on the stage of renewable sourcesimplementation instead of petrochemical sources. In this work, possibilities of processing biocomposites on the base on different types of biopolymers – polylactide (PLA), thermoplastic starch (TPS), polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), cellulose acetate (CA) - filled with natural fibers such as wood, kenaf, horse hair and nettle are presented. Large variety of natural fiber...

Kuciel, S.; Kuz?niar, P.; Liber-knec?, A.

2010-01-01

320

The new Greek legislation about electricity production from renewable energy sources and national policies and activities in the sector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to its geophysical morphology and temperate climate Greece is a country which possesses abundant reserves of Renewable Energy Sources (RES). Indeed climate conditions are ideal for the exploitation of solar and wind energy. The current status is that in 1994, RES contributed only 3.9% to total consumption (22 Mtoe), despite the fact that the exploitable potential has been estimated to be twenty times higher. The main reasons for the slow development of the sector stem from the restrictive measures embodied in law No. 1559/85 regarding the development of RES. Today, three main axes define energy policy, working towards the ultimate objectives of guaranteeing security of supply and reducing energy costs. These axes include the new legislative framework as defined by law No. 2244/94 (which incorporates institutional regulations and the definition of a tariff policy for production) and financial mechanisms to support investments in the energy sector. (author)

 
 
 
 
321

Project financing renewable energy schemes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The viability of many Renewable Energy projects is critically dependent upon the ability of these projects to secure the necessary financing on acceptable terms. The principal objective of the study was to provide an overview to project developers of project financing techniques and the conditions under which project finance for Renewable Energy schemes could be raised, focussing on the potential sources of finance, the typical project financing structures that could be utilised for Renewable Energy schemes and the risk/return and security requirements of lenders, investors and other potential sources of financing. A second objective is to describe the appropriate strategy and tactics for developers to adopt in approaching the financing markets for such projects. (author)

322

2008 Renewable Energy Data Book  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2008 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar energy, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investments.

2009-07-01

323

Use of Hydrogen from Renewable Energy Source for Powering Hot-Mix Asphalt Plant  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A significant portion of paved roads and highways are surfaced with Hot-Mix Asphalt. Environmental Life-Cycle Assessment studies have shown that, in the production of Hot-Mix Asphalt pavements, major consumption of energy takes place during asphalt mixing and drying of aggregates, more than what is consumed during the extraction of crude oil and the distillation of bitumen. Currently, natural gas is the primarily source of fossil fuel used to produce 70 to 90 percent of the Hot-Mix Asphalt in the USA, while the remainder of the Hot-Mix Asphalt is produced using oil, propane, waste oil, or other fuels. Energy-related CO2 emissions resulting from the use of fossil fuels in various industry and transportation sectors represent a significant portion of human-made greenhouse gas emissions. This study investigates the technical feasibility of using a hybrid wind energy system as a clean source of energy for operating an entire Hot-Mix Asphalt production facility. Since wind blows intermittently, the extracted wind energy will be stored in the form of hydrogen which is considered a lightweight, compact energy carrier, for later use, thus creating a ready source of electricity for the Hot-Mix Asphalt plant when wind is not present or when electricity demand is high.

Kasthurirangan Gopalakrishnan

2012-03-01

324

Evaluation of the integration of renewable energy sources into the electricity supply from the aspect of system reliability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The increasing integration of renewable energy sources into the existing electricity supply raises the question to what extent the systems are able not only to save fuel and the emission of harmful substances in conventional systems, but also to replace powerstation capacity. Using the example of generation from wind power, the method for determining the capacity effect is explained. Connections in principle can be recognised from analytical processes, but these alone are not sufficient for evaluation and must therefore be supplemented by simulation methods. (orig./HW)

325

Renewable energies in the EU  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On January 23, 2008, the European Commission presented proposals in the form of a directive in an effort to give more specific shape to the objective adopted in the spring, i.e. to increase to 20% by 2020 the share of renewable energies in energy consumption in the Community. The proposal was to include legally binding goals for the overall share of renewable energy sources and the share of biofuels in the transport sector. The proposed directive on 'promoting the use of energy from renewable sources' calls upon each member state to ensure that its share of energy from renewable sources in the total energy consumption in 2020 at least corresponds to the target mentioned in Annex I Part A. In addition to the targets, the EU Commission charted a tentative course towards a minimum increase in the share of renewable energies in the period between 2011 and 2020. Finally, the member states are obliged to adopt national action plans. Unfortunately, the EU is missing an important target in its proposed directive: It should establish a framework for harmonized conditions promoting the use of renewable energies. One aspect to be welcomed is the introduction of a system of certificates of origin. It represents the entry, in principle, into a trading system with certificates of origin. The Green Package incorporates a wealth of new approaches. They will have to be tested and, if necessary, supplemented. Something else is evident, however: The directive established the foundations The directive established the foundations of a vast number of new regulations and red tape. (orig.)

326

Microgrids project. Part 2. Design of an electrification kit with high content of renewable energy sources in Senegal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Senegal is one of the less developed countries in the world (position 158 in a list of 174 countries). 85% of its rural population does not have access to electricity and there's no doubt that this is an important barrier for socio-economic development. In this context, the project Microgrids aims at contributing to solve this problem. This project is part of the Intelligent Energy - Europe Programme supported by the European Commission. Its objective is the promotion and dissemination of the use of micro-grids with high content of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) for the electrification of villages far away from the grid in Senegal. One of the results of the project was the analysis of rural electrification needs, which is described in another paper [Camblong H, Sarr J, Niang AT, Curea O, Alzola JA, Sylla EH, Santos M. Microgrids project, part 1: analysis of rural electrification with high content of renewable energy sources in Senegal. Renewable Energy, submitted for publication.]. This paper presents the design of an electrification kit based on the information provided by that analysis [Analyse des besoins locaux pour l'electrification de zones rurales au Senegal. Technical report of Microgrids project; 2007. Available from: http://www.microgrids-eie.com.]. After identifying necessary previous conditions for the sustainability of any electrification project, a methodology is proposed for the design of the electrification kit. This methodology is applied to a typical village and results are extended to differently sized villages in the areas of Thies, Fatick and Kaolack. Economic considerations are also included to establish the relationship between electrification costs and paying capability of the communities. Now the Microgrids' consortium hopes to set-up a new project to apply the designed kit on some rural non-electrified villages. (author)

Alzola, J.A.; Santos, M. [Robotiker Tecnalia, Parque Tecnologico, Edificio 202, 48170 Zamudio (Spain); Vechiu, I. [ESTIA Recherche Technopole Izarbel, 64210 Bidart (France); Camblong, H. [ESTIA Recherche Technopole Izarbel, 64210 Bidart (France); Electrical Engineering Department, University of the Basque Country (E.U.P.-D), Europa Plaza 1, 20018 Donostia - San Sebastian (Spain); Sall, M. [Centre d' Etudes et de Recherches sur les Energies Renouvelables (UCAD) (Senegal); Sow, G. [Laboratoire des Energies Renouvelables (LER), Ecole Sup. Polytechnique, Dakar (Senegal)

2009-10-15

327

Pigs, peas, and...power? Farmers soon may grow a renewable energy source  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Biomass, grown in an economically and environmentally sustainable manner, realistically could be used to supply 50,000 MW (5 Quads) of electric capacity by 2010 and probably twice that amount by 2030. During the past year, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the US Department of Energy each have been evaluating the potential for biomass to become a major renewable energy resource over the next four decades, able to offset some of the US dependency on imported fossil fuels while offering environmental and economic benefits. EPRI's conclusion that biomass could become a truly important feedstock for electric generation in the near term grew out of a series of workshops attended by experts from government, academia, and industry. These experts did not conclude that significant biomass resource development would take place, but rather that it could take place in an economically profitable and environmentally acceptable manner. They identified two major barriers to biomass resource development: a lack of assurance that a reliable market exists for a dedicated biomass energy crop (significantly influenced by the current costs of both coal and natural gas); and current federal agricultural policies, particularly those dealing with price supports for some types of crops and the present constraints on the use of the more than 54 million acres of agricultural reserve program lands. Moreover, the very limited federal budget and program support for biomass energy within both the US Departments of Energy and Agriculture over the past 12 years has exacerbated the risks facing farmers making biomass/biofuels resource decisions and electric utilities considering using biomass resources. A third barrier is the general lack of consensus as to what criteria should be used for the environmentally sound development of biomass

328

Power generation from renewable energy sources. Climate-friendly and economically efficient. Background information; Stromerzeugung aus erneuerbaren Energien. Klimafreundlich und oekonomisch sinnvoll. Hintergrund  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As the publication shows, the public discussion in Germany is increasingly focusing on the cost of the promotion of renewable energy sources. Critical comments state that the EEG (Renewables Act) accounts for most of the recent electricity rate increases and also does not contribute to climate protection. This background paper of the Federal Environmental Office stresses the role of the EEC for climate protection and its effects on price trends in electricity supply. The resulting financial burden for the German citizens and industry is investigated, and it is discussed whether public funding of renewable energy sources is indeed beneficial for the German economy on the whole.

NONE

2011-02-15

329

Photon Science for Renewable Energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Our current fossil-fuel-based system is causing potentially catastrophic changes to our planet. The quest for renewable, nonpolluting sources of energy requires us to understand, predict, and ultimately control matter and energy at the electronic, atomic, and molecular levels. Light-source facilities - the synchrotrons of today and the next-generation light sources of tomorrow - are the scientific tools of choice for exploring the electronic and atomic structure of matter. As such, these photon-science facilities are uniquely positioned to jump-start a global revolution in renewable and carbonneutral energy technologies. In these pages, we outline and illustrate through examples from our nation's light sources possible scientific directions for addressing these profound yet urgent challenges.

330

Photon Science for Renewable Energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Our current fossil-fuel-based system is causing potentially catastrophic changes to our planet. The quest for renewable, nonpolluting sources of energy requires us to understand, predict, and ultimately control matter and energy at the electronic, atomic, and molecular levels. Light-source facilities - the synchrotrons of today and the next-generation light sources of tomorrow - are the scientific tools of choice for exploring the electronic and atomic structure of matter. As such, these photon-science facilities are uniquely positioned to jump-start a global revolution in renewable and carbonneutral energy technologies. In these pages, we outline and illustrate through examples from our nation's light sources possible scientific directions for addressing these profound yet urgent challenges.

Hussain, Zahid; Tamura, Lori; Padmore, Howard; Schoenlein, Bob; Bailey, Sue

2010-03-31

331

Renewable energies for Amapa's sustainable development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The generation of energy requires huge quantities of fuels which produce significant amounts of waste that are given back to the environment, causing remarkable damage. In order to avoid or at least reduce this damage, society is devoting research to other means of energy generation, free from that king of consequences - renewable energies. The article overviews of Amapa, Brazilian state, energy renewable sources

332

The renewable energies in Uruguay  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report is about the energetic politc and its strong commitment with the incorporation of autochthonous sources and renewable energy. The objective and the main lines of action in Uruguay are: provide electric power, wind, biomass, bioethanol, biodiesel, solar and hydroelectric power

333

Renewable energies in France: main 2003 results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document makes a synthesis of the power and thermal productions linked with renewable energy sources (of primary or secondary origin) for 2003. It details the uses (electrical or thermal) of the different renewable energy sources and their contribution to the different users' needs (residential, industry, agriculture..). A comparison with the previous years (2001 and 2002) is presented in tables. (J.S.)

334

The economic impact of renewable energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report summarises the findings of a project investigating the economic impact of renewable energy. The background to the study is traced, and potential sources of public finance for renewable projects, sensitivity analysis of the employment estimates , estimates of demand met by renewable energy technologies, the expenditures involved in investment in renewable energy; and sectoral linkages are examined. Wealth creation through investment in renewable energy, and the economic and employment impacts are explored. Plant retirement and replacement analysis, and input-output models are considered in appendices

335

Modularized multilevel and z-source power converter as renewable energy interface for vehicle and grid-connected applications  

Science.gov (United States)

Due the energy crisis and increased oil price, renewable energy sources such as photovoltaic panel, wind turbine, or thermoelectric generation module, are used more and more widely for vehicle and grid-connected applications. However, the output of these renewable energy sources varies according to different solar radiation, wind speed, or temperature difference, a power converter interface is required for the vehicle or grid-connected applications. Thermoelectric generation (TEG) module as a renewable energy source for automotive industry is becoming very popular recently. Because of the inherent characteristics of TEG modules, a low input voltage, high input current and high voltage gain dc-dc converters are needed for the automotive load. Traditional high voltage gain dc-dc converters are not suitable for automotive application in terms of size and high temperature operation. Switched-capacitor dc-dc converters have to be used for this application. However, high voltage spike and EMI problems exist in traditional switched-capacitor dc-dc converters. Huge capacitor banks have to be utilized to reduce the voltage ripple and achieve high efficiency. A series of zero current switching (ZCS) or zero voltage switching switched-capacitor dc-dc converters have been proposed to overcome the aforementioned problems of the traditional switched-capacitor dc-dc converters. By using the proposed soft-switching strategy, high voltage spike is reduced, high EMI noise is restricted, and the huge capacitor bank is eliminated. High efficiency, high power density and high temperature switched-capacitor dc-dc converters could be made for the TEG interface in vehicle applications. Several prototypes have been made to validate the proposed circuit and confirm the circuit operation. In order to apply PV panel for grid-connected application, a low cost dc-ac inverter interface is required. From the use of transformer and safety concern, two different solutions can be implemented, non-isolated or isolated PV inverter. For the non-isolated transformer-less solution, a semi-Z-source inverter for single phase photovoltaic systems has been proposed. The proposed semi-Z-source inverter utilizes only two switching devices with doubly grounded feature. The total cost have been reduced, the safety and EMI issues caused by the high frequency ground current are solved. For the transformer isolated solution, a boost half-bridge dc-ac micro-inverter has been proposed. The proposed boost half-bridge dc-dc converter utilizes only two switching devices with zero voltage switching features which is able to reduce the total system cost and power loss.

Cao, Dong

336

Use of Oil Palm Waste as a Renewable Energy Source and Its Impact on Reduction of Air Pollution in Context of Malaysia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy supply to supplement the increasing energy demand and reducing environment pollution is renewable energy resources. Malaysia is currently the world's second largest producer and exporter of palm oil and 47% of the world's supply of palm oil is produced by this country. Nearly 80 million tonnes of Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB) are processed annually in 406 palm oil mills and are generating approximately 54 million tonnes of palm oil mill effluent (POME), known to generate biogas consisting of methane – a Green House Gas (GHG) identifiable to cause global warming. This is 21 times more potent GHG than CO2. These two major oil palm wastes are a viable renewable energy (RE) source for production of electricity. If the two sources are used in harnessing the renewable energy potential the pollution intensity from usage of non-renewable sources can also be reduced significantly. This study focused on the pollution mitigation potential of biogas as biogas is a renewable energy. Utilization of this renewable source for the production of electricity is believed to reduce GHG emissions to the atmosphere.

337

Integrating renewable energy sources in the Portuguese power system. New generation adequacy indicators  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The penetration of intermittent energy sources in the Portuguese power system is growing significantly. The identification of possible solutions to maintain the operational reserve levels is necessary to preserve flexibility and security of electricity supply. In this context, the development of probabilistic tools is essential to calculate new generation adequacy indicators associated with the analysis of the operational reserve. In this paper, the mathematical model RESERVAS, is briefly described and is used to analyse the impact of integrating high levels of intermittent energy sources in the Portuguese power system. The presented results allow us to conclude that the electricity adequacy evaluation should be done using probabilistic indicators, which reflect the power system performance in the following areas: (i) Adequacy (evaluation of the available power to face the hourly electricity demand) and (ii) Security (evaluation of the operational reserve requirements through the deviations in the demand-supply balance that occur among all elementary periods). (orig.)

Martins, Nuno; Santos, Joana; Damas, Manuela [Redes Energeticas Nacionais (REN), Porto (Portugal). Studies and Innovation Dept.

2012-07-01

338

An adaptive Phase-Locked Loop algorithm for faster fault ride through performance of interconnected renewable energy sources  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Interconnected renewable energy sources require fast and accurate fault ride through operation in order to support the power grid when faults occur. This paper proposes an adaptive Phase-Locked Loop (adaptive d??PLL) algorithm, which can be used for a faster and more accurate response of the grid side converter control of a renewable energy source, especially under fault ride through operation. The adaptive d??PLL is based on modifying the control parameters of the d??PLL according to the type and voltage characteristic of the grid fault with the purpose of accelerating the performance of the phase-locked loop algorithm. The adaptive parameters are adjusted in real time according to the proposed fault classification unit, which permits a fast estimation of the type of the grid fault. The outstanding performance of the proposed adaptive PLL is verified through simulation and experimental results. Furthermore, the benefits of using the proposed adaptive PLL on the control of the GSC of RES are also demonstratedin this paper.

Hadjidemetriou, Lenos; Kyriakides, Elias

2013-01-01

339

RENEWABLE ENERGY BETWEEN AGRICULTURE AND INDUSTRY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper aims to present the evolution of renewable energy in the entire world, including Moldova and Romania as states that tend to reach their micro- and macro-economic objectives. One of the most important goal remains thedevelopment of renewable energy from agricultural waste and so the energy coming from natural sources such assolar, wind or water without air pollution. As a conclusion, the solution to obtain this renewable energy is to attractfinancial resources from EU or USA investors.

Grosu, Diana

2013-01-01

340

road-map for smart grids and electricity systems integrating renewable energy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The vision of smart grids and electricity systems elaborated in this road-map was drawn up on the basis of consultation and talks with a group of experts from industry (EDF, AREVA, GDF-Suez), public research bodies (SUPELEC, Ecole des Mines, INES, universities), grid operators (ERDF, RTE), local authorities' groups (FNCCR) and ADEME. In the course of these working sessions the experts expressed their opinions intuitu personae. The views outlined in this road-map are not to be assimilated with the official positions of the corporations or research organisations to which the members of the group belong. The visions of smart electricity grids and systems integrating renewable energies in 2020 and in 2050 are in sharp contrast. This contrast was deliberately sought out, for two reasons: - to offer the most exhaustive panorama possible of imaginable futures; - to avoid neglecting a critical technological, organisational or socioeconomic bottleneck that might be associated with a possible scenario left out of the discussion. Accordingly, in seeking contrasting visions the group arrived at extreme representations and even caricatures of the future, which nonetheless help define the outer limit of possibilities, and the scope within which the actual situation will most likely be situated in 2020 and in 2050

 
 
 
 
341

Renewable Energy Opportunities at Fort Hood, Texas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The document provides an overview of renewable resource potential at Fort Hood based primarily upon analysis of secondary data sources supplemented with limited on-site evaluations. The effort was funded by the U.S. Army Installation Management Command (IMCOM) as follow-on to the 2005 DoD Renewables Assessment. This effort focuses on grid-connected generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and also ground source heat pumps for heating and cooling buildings, as directed by IMCOM.

Chvala, William D.; Warwick, William M.; Dixon, Douglas R.; Solana, Amy E.; Weimar, Mark R.; States, Jennifer C.; Reilly, Raymond W.

2008-06-30

342

Promotion of renewable energy supply in Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper discusses the utilization of the various non-renewable energy resources and the associated environmental problems deriving from the different stages and uses of these resources. Some of the most important of these problems are loss of vegetation and environmental pollution. The need for a conscious shift to the exploitation of renewable energy sources are highlighted and a presentation of renewable energy resources of Nigeria is made. A review of national efforts in the development and utilization of renewable energy sources in Nigeria and the achievements so far are presented

343

Using renewable energy sources in development of the far eastern region of the russian federation ????????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????? ??? ???????? ???????????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Today, Russian Far East represents a transit hub connecting Europe and Russia with Southeast Asia, Japan and America. The optimal pattern of its development involves its economic growth in combination with the implementation of major investment projects to be funded by the state and private investors. Despite substantial local problems, development of eastern regions is the top-priority task for Russian and international businesses. The paper proposes several alternative solutions to the power generation problems of Russian Far East through the application of renewable sources of power. Namely, several options considered in this paper include construction of a tidal power plant in Tugurskij bay sheltered from the heavy ice of the Sea of Ohotsk by a string of the Shantar Islands, as well as the complementary operation of wave power plants. However, the use of power generated by tidal power plants seems to be problematic due to uneven power generation for the reason of cyclical (bi-weekly nature of tides. This paper proposes several solutions to ensure regular power generation by Tugurskaja tidal power plant. Solution 1 contemplates the backing to be provided by Sredne-Uchurskaja and Kankunskaja hydraulic power plants in South Yakutia. The amount of power undersupplied by Tugurskaja tidal power plant may be covered by the hydraulic power plants, and the drop-down in the performance of a tidal power plant may be compensated by the hydraulic power plants to ensure guaranteed complementary performance of a power generating vehicle composed of a network of tidal and hydraulic power plants. Solution 2, which is more effective, involves construction of a pumped-storage power plant in a valley of the Ujkan River tributary in Khabarovsk Krai.??????? ??????? ?????? - ??? ??????? ?????????? ?????, ??????????? ?????? ? ?????? ? ???-????????? ?????, ???????, ????????. ???????? ??????????? ???? ???????? ????? ??????? - ??? ????????????? ????????, ?????? ? ??????????? ??????? ?????????????? ????????, ?????????? ?????????????? ??????? ????? ????? ??? ??????????????? ??????, ??? ? ?????????????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????????????? ??????? ???. ???????? ?? ??????? ????????? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ???????????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ???????. ??????????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ?????????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ?? ? ?????????????? ?????????????? ??????????. ? ????????? ????????? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ??? ? ????????? ??????, ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ?? ??????? ???????? ?????, ? ????? ???????????? ????????????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????. ?????? ??? ????????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????????? ????????? ????????? ????????, ????????, ????????? ??????? ??-?? ??????????? ???????? ? ??????? ????????????? ???????. ??????????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????????? ????????? ???: ?????? ?????? - ????????????? ??????????????????? (???: ??????-???????? ? ????

Monahov Boris Evgen'evich

2012-02-01

344

Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Caribbean  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles take stock of the latest developments in the field of renewables at country level around the world. Each profile combines analysis by IRENA's specialists with the latest available country data and additional information from a wide array of sources. The resulting reports provide a brief yet comprehensive picture of the situation with regard to renewable energy, including energy supply, electrical generation and grid capacity, and access. Energy policies, targets and projects are also considered, along with each country's investment climate and endowment with renewable energy resources. The energy statistics presented here span the period from 2009 until 2012, reflecting varying timelines in the source material. Since data availability differs from country to country, wider regional comparisons are possible only for the latest year with figures available for every country included. Despite the time lag in some cases, the evident differences and disparities between countries and regions around the world remain striking. The current package of country profiles is just a starting point. The geographic scope will continue to expand, and existing profiles will be enhanced with new indicators, with the whole series maintained as a live product on the IRENA website (www.irena.org)

NONE

2012-09-15

345

Potential of renewable energy systems in China  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Along with high-speed economic development and increasing energy consumption, the Chinese Government faces a growing pressure to maintain the balance between energy supply and demand. In 2009, China has become both the largest energy consumer and CO2 emitting country in the world. In this case, the inappropriate energy consumption structure should be changed. As an alternative, a suitable infrastructure for the implementation of renewable energy may serve as a long-term sustainable solution. The perspective of a 100% renewable energy system has been analyzed and discussed in some countries previously. In this process, assessment of domestic renewable energy sources is the first step. Then appropriate methodologies are needed to perform energy system analyses involving the integration of more sustainable strategies. Denmark may serve as an example of how sustainable strategies can be implemented. The Danish system has demonstrated the possibility of converting into a 100% renewable energy system. This paper discusses the perspective of renewable energy in China firstly, and then analyses whether it is suitable to adopt similar methodologies applied in other countries as China approaches a renewable energy system. The conclusion is that China’s domestic renewable energy sources are abundant and show the possibility to cover future energy demand; the methodologies used to analyse a 100% renewable energy system are applicable in China. Therefore, proposing an analysis of a 100% renewable energy system in China is not unreasonable.

Liu, Wen; Lund, Henrik

2011-01-01

346

Learning about Renewable Energy.  

Science.gov (United States)

This booklet provides an introduction to renewable energy, discussing: (1) the production of electricity from sunlight; (2) wind power; (3) hydroelectric power; (4) geothermal energy; and (5) biomass. Also provided are nine questions to answer (based on the readings), four additional questions to answer (which require additional information), and…

Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

347

Energy and durable development: the place of the renewable energies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 29 may 2000, took place at the UNESCO, a colloquium on the place of the renewable energies facing the economic development. This document presents the opening presentation of A. Antolini and L. Jospin and the colloquium papers and debates in the following four domains: the energy challenges of the durable development, the renewable energies sources facing the european directive, the thermal renewable energies (solar, geothermics and biomass) and the greenhouse effect, the world market of the renewable energies. (A.L.B.)

348

Micro-grids project. Part 1. Analysis of rural electrification with high content of renewable energy sources in Senegal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Africa is the poorest continent in the world and this poverty is linked to the lack of access to energy of its population. A big part of inhabitants live in rural zones where the lack of energy and in particular of electricity is still more flagrant. The aim of the Micro-grids project was to promote the electrification of rural regions of Senegal by the installation of micro-grids with high content of renewable energies. This paper presents some results of this project. Surveys have been carried out in three regions of Senegal to study the needs of electrical energy of non-electrified rural villages' households. These surveys have led to the estimation of electricity needs of the concerned households. The potential in renewable energies of the three regions has also been examined. It has been concluded that the solar energy potential is excellent while the wind energy potential can be interesting in some specific sites. The biomass could also be an efficient source if livestock farming was properly managed in the future. Moreover, many events have been carried out in the three regions to analyse the obstacles for the development of micro-grids in the Senegalese energy context, and to establish suitable solutions to overcome these obstacles. The results presented in this paper have been used to design a rural electrification kit which is described in another paper. Now the Micro-grids' consortium hopes to set up a new project to apply the designed kit on some rural non-electrified villages. (author)

Camblong, H. [ESTIA Recherche, Technopole Izarbel, 64210 Bidart (France); Electrical Engineering Department, University of the Basque Country (E.U.P.-D), Europa Plaza 1, 20018 Donostia, San Sebastian (Spain); Sarr, J. [GRTT-LASES, Faculte des Sciences de l' Universite Cheitk Anta DIOP de Dakar(UCAD), 5005 Dakar-Fann (Senegal); Niang, A.T. [CERER, Center of Studies and Research on Renewable Energies, Hann-Equipe, 476 Dakar (Senegal); Curea, O. [ESTIA Recherche, Technopole Izarbel, 64210 Bidart (France); Alzola, J.A.; Santos, M. [Robotiker, Parque Tecnologico, Edificio 202, 48170 Zamudio (Spain); Sylla, E.H. [LER, Ecole Superieure Polytechnique, 5085 Dakar Fann/ESP/UCAD (Senegal)

2009-10-15

349

Selecting Sites for Renewable Energy Projects  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, students use Google Earth to investigate a variety of renewable energy sources and select sites within the United States that would be appropriate for projects based on those sources.

Richard, Glenn A.; University, Mineral P.; On the Cutting Edge Collection, Science Education Resource Center (SERC)

350

CO2 Tax or Fee as a Single Economic Instrument for Climate Protection Policy Promoting Renewable Energy Sources and Enhancing Energy Efficiency  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the analysis of the current implementation of the policy to reduce CO2 emissions through four practically independent processes: energy market, emission market, support for renewable energy sources through feed-in tariffs (FIT) and support scheme for enhancing energy efficiency. The conclusion is that in this system, some elements of which appear to be controversial, it is not possible to reach the goal - a radical reduction of CO2 emissions by 80% in total and 95% in electricity production until 2050, which the EU has set as emission reduction targets for this period. Therefore, a new system is now proposed that is based on a single objective function, CO2 emissions. The process would be managed through taxes or fees on CO2, while the raised revenues would be returned to projects aimed at reducing CO2 emissions, projects for enhancing energy efficiency, renewable energy sources projects and projects reducing emissions from fossil fuels. The paper outlines the basis of the concept of CO2 tax or fee as a key measure to stimulate the lowering of emissions and gives an analysis of the impact of different rates of tax or fee on CO2 emissions on the energy price. A critical analysis of the new model's impact on development of renewable energy sources and on improving energy efficiency in buildings was carried out. Also, there is an analysis of the impact of the new model on transport development. The introduction of the new model should clear the energy market from administrative limitations and privileged positions of renewable sources and should bring all back in the frame of market economy, no matter what source of energy for production of electricity we are dealing with. One limitation to the new model is translation of the current situation in to the new system, especially in the field of renewable energy sources and their protected position under the already concluded long-term contracts. The paper also elaborates the basis for the model of using the revenues collected from taxes or fees on CO2 emissions to stimulate emission reductions and the fulfilment of long-term goal of minimizing CO2 emissions. Finally, recommendations are given for the introduction of the new model.(author)

351

Wind energy renewable energy and the environment  

CERN Document Server

As the demand for energy increases, and fossil fuels continue to decrease, Wind Energy: Renewable Energy and the Environment, Second Edition considers the viability of wind as an alternative renewable energy source. This book examines the wind industry from its start in the 1970s until now, and introduces all aspects of wind energy. The phenomenal growth of wind power for utilities is covered along with applications such as wind-diesel, village power, telecommunications, and street lighting.. It covers the characteristics of wind, such as shear, power potential, turbulence, wind resource, wind

Nelson, Vaughn

2013-01-01

352

Feasibility of anaerobic digestion of flotation skim and its potential as renewable energy source  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The high portions of organic and Greasy constituents of the Induced Air Flotation (IAF unit skim that is typically land disposed or rendered have made it environmentally problematic for the receiving bodies due to its poor natural solubility and degradability. One solution for that was the use of anaerobic digestion. Five laboratory scale batch reactors (each of 10 L working volume were used in this study to test the effect of different IAF skim to working volume ratios; namely 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 4.0, 5.0:10 (R1-R5, with the rest of working volume to be filled with livestock manure (as inoculums. These five reactors were operated at two different temperatures (25C and 45C, to determine the temperature effects on digestion performance. COD removal efficiencies of 72.6%, 68.6%, 60.1%, 52.1%, and 43.25% were achieved for R1-R5 respectively, at temperature of 25C. These removal efficiencies were significantly improved when operating these reactors at temperature of 45C, where efficiencies of 91.2%, 81.5%, 72.1%, 60.7% and about 50% were achieved for these reactors. In addition to the achievement of good removal efficiencies regarding the COD and TSS, very promising biogas production rates were determined to have average values of 4.5- 5.8 l/day at operation temperatures of 45C (compared with 3- 4 l/day at 25C for the majority reactor life times. This achievement may compensate the treatment costs in addition to the supply of cheap renewable energy. Author would like to acknowledge the logistic and technical support of the Institute of International Education IIE, Scholars Rescue Fund SRF and Russ College of Engineering/ Ohio University. 

Salam J Bash AlMaliky

2010-08-01

353

Use of Hydrogen from Renewable Energy Source for Powering Hot-Mix Asphalt Plant  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A significant portion of paved roads and highways are surfaced with Hot-Mix Asphalt. Environmental Life-Cycle Assessment studies have shown that, in the production of Hot-Mix Asphalt pavements, major consumption of energy takes place during asphalt mixing and drying of aggregates, more than what is consumed during the extraction of crude oil and the distillation of bitumen. Currently, natural gas is the primarily source of fossil fuel used to produce 70 to 90 percent of the Hot-Mix Asphalt in...

Kasthurirangan Gopalakrishnan; Siddhartha Kumar Khaitan

2012-01-01

354

Large growth of electricity from renewable sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 2009 the production of Electricity from renewable sources in the Netherlands rose to almost 9 percent of the domestic electricity use. The target of the Dutch government envisages 9 percent renewable electricity before 2010.

355

Design optimization of a fuzzy distributed generation (DG) system with multiple renewable energy sources  

Science.gov (United States)

The global rise in energy demands brings major obstacles to many energy organizations in providing adequate energy supply. Hence, many techniques to generate cost effective, reliable and environmentally friendly alternative energy source are being explored. One such method is the integration of photovoltaic cells, wind turbine generators and fuel-based generators, included with storage batteries. This sort of power systems are known as distributed generation (DG) power system. However, the application of DG power systems raise certain issues such as cost effectiveness, environmental impact and reliability. The modelling as well as the optimization of this DG power system was successfully performed in the previous work using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). The central idea of that work was to minimize cost, minimize emissions and maximize reliability (multi-objective (MO) setting) with respect to the power balance and design requirements. In this work, we introduce a fuzzy model that takes into account the uncertain nature of certain variables in the DG system which are dependent on the weather conditions (such as; the insolation and wind speed profiles). The MO optimization in a fuzzy environment was performed by applying the Hopfield Recurrent Neural Network (HNN). Analysis on the optimized results was then carried out.

Ganesan, T.; Elamvazuthi, I.; Shaari, Ku Zilati Ku; Vasant, P.

2012-09-01

356

Renewable energies in Baden-Wuerttemberg 2011; Erneuerbare Energien in Baden-Wuerttemberg 2011  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Within the contribution under consideration the Ministry of Environment, Climate Protection and Service Sector (Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on the following aspects: (1) Development of the energy consumption; (2) Contribution of the renewable energy sources to the energy supply; (3) Development of the amounts of renewable energy sources in the energy supply; (4) Structure of final energy supply from renewable energies; (5) Economic considerations on the utilization of renewable energy sources; (6) CO{sub 2} emissions and CO{sub 2} avoidance by means of renewable energy sources; (7) Utilization of renewable energy sources in Germany and Europe; (8) Remuneration for power from renewable energy sources according to the Renewable Energy Law and evaluation of the costs; (9) Utilization of renewable energy sources by Federal States; (10) Utilization of renewable energy sources by counties; (11) Potentials of renewable energy sources; (12) Employment effects in Baden-Wuertemberg; (13) Promotion of renewable energy sources.

NONE

2012-11-15

357

Renewable Energy: Policy Considerations for Deploying Renewables  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This information paper accompanies the IEA publication Deploying Renewables 2011: Best and Future Policy Practice (IEA, 2011a). It provides more detailed data and analysis on policies for Deploying Renewables, and is intended to complement the main publication. It provides an account of the strategic drivers underpinning renewable energy (RE) technology deployment (energy security, economic development and environment protection) and assesses RE technologies with respect to these drivers, including an estimate of GHG emissions reductions due to RE technologies. The paper also explores the different barriers to deploying renewables at a given stage of market maturity and discusses what tools policy makers can avail of to succeed in removing deployment barriers. An additional topical highlight explores the challenges associated with accelerating the diffusion of RE technologies in developing countries.

NONE

2011-07-01

358

PEI's perspective on renewable energy development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Approximately 7 per cent of Prince Edward Island's (PEI) energy supply is from renewable sources, acquired mainly from biomass. Wind power accounts for 0.5 per cent of electricity production. This paper discussed issues concerning renewable energy developments in PEI, with particular reference to the PEI Renewable Energy Act as well as the PEI energy framework and renewable energy strategy, which was the result of public consultation sessions held in 2003. The results of these sessions indicated that greater development of indigenous renewable energy resources was desired, particularly in wind power. It was also stated that the government should help to advance renewable energy development in the province. Several development opportunities were highlighted, including: wind; biodiesel; ethanol; biomass; bio-gas; and small-scale hydro. The advantages of wind power were reviewed and wind data was presented. The economic and community benefits of renewable energy include local price stability, development opportunities, diversity of fuel type and security of supply. It was noted that renewable energy fully complemented the energy goals of the PEI government. Several strategies were discussed towards the development of renewable energy, including feasibility studies in biogas and biomass generation. The PEI government's commitment towards developing a regulatory framework acknowledging environmental sustainability was re-stated. Objectives include the promotion of renewable energy sources through the establishment of a Renewable Portfolio Standard for electricity; improvements in the economics of small-scale electricity production from renewable resources through the introduction of net metering; decreases in peak demand; enablement of green credits; the designation of areas for large-scale wind developments; and provision of guaranteed prices paid to producers for medium and large-scale renewable energy generators through feed-in tariffs. tabs, figs

359

Australian renewable energy progress  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With some of the world's best solar and wind resources, Australia is a prime market for solar and wind energy. The growing renewable energy industry can take advantage of Australia's stable economy, good access to grid infrastructure and well organised financial and legal services. Although development has been slower than what was anticipated, but with the promises made by the new government, the renewable community hopes for a brighter future for solar and wind energy in Australia. The objective of this paper is to present an overview of the current status of solar and wind energy in Australia, then to take a closer look at solar and wind potential, current activities, and finally to discusses about Australian Government support and to predict the future outlook of solar and wind energy. (author)

360

The potential of renewable energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On June 27 and 28, 1989, the US Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories were convened to discuss plans for the development of a National Energy Strategy (NES) and, in particular, the analytic needs in support of NES that could be addressed by the laboratories. As a result of that meeting, interlaboratory teams were formed to produce analytic white papers on key topics, and a lead laboratory was designated for each core laboratory team. The broad-ranging renewables assignment is summarized by the following issue statement from the Office of Policy, Planning and Analysis: to what extent can renewable energy technologies contribute to diversifying sources of energy supply What are the major barriers to greater renewable energy use and what is the potential timing of widespread commercialization for various categories of applications This report presents the results of the intensive activity initiated by the June 1989 meeting to produce a white paper on renewable energy. Scores of scientists, analysts, and engineers in the five core laboratories gave generously of their time over the past eight months to produce this document. Their generous, constructive efforts are hereby gratefully acknowledged. 126 refs., 44 figs., 32 tabs.

1990-03-01

 
 
 
 
361

Renewable Energy Essentials: Hydropower  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydropower is currently the most common form of renewable energy and plays an important part in global power generation. Worldwide hydropower produced 3 288 TWh, just over 16% of global electricity production in 2008, and the overall technical potential for hydropower is estimated to be more than 16 400 TWh/yr.

NONE

2010-07-01

362

A clear perspective in the matter of renewable energy sources. Data and facts about the energy sources of the future; Der volle Durchblick in Sachen Erneuerbare Energien. Daten and Fakten zu den Energiequellen der Zukunft  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Are renewable energies not too expensive? Went the lights out when we focus on renewable energy? Do wind turbines destroy the nature? Bioenergy can the people in developing countries go hungry? With the updated brochure ''The full clear view in terms of renewable energy'', the Agency for Renewable Energy works up the most stubborn misunderstandings. The layman will find in the brochure clear answers to frequently asked questions about the potential of renewable energies. Professionals will find support and suggestions for daily energy debate. Many results in the publication of scientific papers are collated and presented in a comprehensive collection of sources to verify the publicly debated theses against renewable energy. [German] Sind Erneuerbare Energien nicht viel zu teuer? Gehen bei uns die Lichter aus, wenn wir auf Erneuerbare Energien setzen? Zerstoeren Windraeder die Natur? Laesst Bioenergie die Menschen in Entwicklungslaendern hungern? Mit der aktualisierten Broschuere: ''Der volle Durchblick in Sachen Erneuerbare Energien'' arbeitet die Agentur fuer Erneuerbare Energien die hartnaeckigsten Missverstaendnisse auf. Der Laie findet in der Broschuere klare Antworten auf haeufig gestellte Fragen zu den Potenzialen Erneuerbarer Energien. Profis finden Unterstuetzung und Anregungen fuer die taegliche Energie-Diskussion. In der Publikation sind viele Ergebnisse wissenschaftlicher Arbeiten zusammengetragen und in einer umfangreichen Quellensammlung aufgefuehrt, um die oeffentlich debattierten Thesen gegen die Erneuerbaren Energien zu ueberpruefen.

NONE

2013-04-15

363

Development and Indicators of Multifunctional Autonomous Plants Using Renewable Energy Sources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The autonomous plants using the solar and geothermal energy were developed and designed in ENIN. The plants are intended for solving the concrete regional problems and allow to lift the water from the sources or wells of different depth (up to 20 m and more, including the pure water and the water with particles or the brine, and supply also the steam and heated water to consumers in the places, which are remote from water supply and district heating system. The other purposes were: a removal of heat and chemical environmental impact, decreasing mineralization or desalination of mineralized water etc. The common feature of plants under consideration was the application of jet pumps (condensing injectors, which have the different constructions but combine simultaneously the vacuum and delivery pump as well as the condenser and heat exchanger. It was shown that in the conditions under consideration the use of such plants is economically profitable.

Vladimir I. Kabakov

2014-08-01

364

Renewable energy 1988-1998  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The winning of energy from renewable energy sources increased strongly in the period 1988-1998, in particular for wind energy (12x), heat recovery by means of solar collectors (4x) and heat recovery by means of heat pumps (5x). However, the contribution of those sources to the total energy supply is low. The most important source (wind power) contributed in 1998 only 0.7% of the total production of electricity. Energy from wastes about doubled in the period 1988-1998, which resulted in 1998 in a saving of 1,200 million m3 of natural gas (1.3% of the total energy consumption in the Netherlands). 5 refs

365

Renewable energy resources in Pakistan: status, potential and information systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper provides some details regarding the characteristic properties, potential and assessment of renewable energy compared with other forms of energy sources. It gives status of renewable energy sources in Pakistan. It also lights about the agencies providing technical information regarding renewable energy in Pakistan as well as suggestions and recommendations for the development of these resources, and over view the present status of renewable energy sources. (author)

366

Local investment in renewable energies - European experiences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This booklet is realized within the framework of the european commission called PREDAC. This document have been conceived by a working group specialized on the local investment into renewable energies thematic. The objectives of this project are: to promote citizen participation in the financing of renewable energies projects in Europe; to make organizations, investor clubs and local government to be aware of this way of implication into renewable energies development; to examine more especially three renewable energy sources: biomass, photovoltaic and wind in Denmark, France, Germany, Greece and United Kingdom. (author)

367

Planning for renewable energy in Devon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of the Study was to examine the technical, planning and environmental factors, and the resource availability, which may affect the development of renewable energy schemes in Devon, with particular reference to West Devon. The study was undertaken to draw up a specimen planning policy framework for the development of renewable energy in Devon, looking at each major renewable energy source and at the relevant environmental and planning constraints; using this framework, to amplify the draft Structure Plan policy for renewable energy; to draw up draft guidance and specimen policies for a Local Plan covering renewable energy for a District Council, in this case, West Devon Borough; and to provide a pilot study for implementing the draft Planning Policy Guidance (PPG) on renewable energy. (author)

368

Electricity production from renewables energies  

CERN Document Server

Energy and environmental issues have caused a marked increase in electricity production from renewable energy sources since the beginning of the 21st Century. The concept of sustainable development and concern for future generations challenge us every day to produce new technologies for energy production, and new patterns of use for these energies. Their rapid emergence can make the understanding and therefore the perception of these new technologies difficult. This book aims to contribute to a better understanding of the new electricity generation technologies by addressing a diverse audie

Robyns, Benoit; François, Bruno; Henneton, Antoine; Sprooten, Jonathan

2012-01-01

369

Economics of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration and Mitigation versus a Suite of Alternative Renewable Energy Sources for Electricity Generation in U.S.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An equilibrium economic model for policy evaluation related to electricity generation in U.S has been developed; the model takes into account the non-renewable and renewable energy sources, demand and supply factors and environmental constraints. The non-renewable energy sources include three types of fossil fuels: coal, natural gas and petroleum, and renewable energy sources include nuclear, hydraulic, wind, solar photovoltaic, biomass wood, biomass waste and geothermal. Energy demand sectors include households, industrial manufacturing and non-manufacturing commercial enterprises. Energy supply takes into account the electricity delivered to the consumer by the utility companies at a certain price which maybe different for retail and wholesale customers. Environmental risks primarily take into account the CO2 generation from fossil fuels. The model takes into account the employment in various sectors and labor supply and demand. Detailed electricity supply and demand data, electricity cost data, employment data in various sectors and CO2 generation data are collected for a period of nineteen years from 1990 to 2009 in U.S. The model is employed for policy analysis experiments if a switch is made in sources of electricity generation, namely from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources. As an example, we consider a switch of 10% of electricity generation from coal to 5% from wind, 3% from solar photovoltaic, 1% from biomass wood and 1% from biomass waste. The model is also applied to a switch from 10% coal to 10% from clean coal technologies. It should be noted that the cost of electricity generation from different sources is different and is taken into account. The consequences of this switch on supply and demand, employment, wages, and emissions are obtained from the economic model under three scenarios: (1 energy prices are fully regulated, (2 energy prices are fully adjusted with electricity supply fixed, and (3 energy prices and electricity supply both are fully adjusted.

Zheming Zhang

2011-01-01

370

Renewable and alternative energy  

CERN Document Server

With growing populations across the world consuming Earth's limited oil and natural gas reserves, the environmental and economic toll of energy dependence becomes an increasingly global concern. The development of renewable forms of energy-solar, wind, water, and geothermal, to name a few-offers alternatives to fossil fuels. Consumers are embracing these new modes of energy delivery and use. This extensive volume examines the possibility of a cleaner and more energy efficient future by detailing the historic and emerging technologies behind some the most promising alternative resources.

Curley, Robert

2011-01-01

371

Issues - II. Renewable energies and environment law: the exploitation of renewable energies or when the implementation of a measure aimed at the protection of the environment impacts the environment; water as a renewable energy source: to which price?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A first article discusses the different impacts that renewable energies may have on the environment, i.e. on the human environment (risks associated with dams, aesthetic impacts, impacts on landscapes, neighbouring nuisances) or on the natural environment (natural media, wildlife and flora). A second article outlines that the legal framework of hydroelectricity is rather old and therefore ignored (willingly or not?) environmental concerns whereas environmental impacts actually exist. Therefore, a new legal context must be defined, notably by taking into account objectives defined in the international and European Union law, in particularly the requirements related to ecological continuity

372

Vascular plants for water pollution control and renewable sources of energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Vascular aquatic plants have demonstrated their ability to remove pollutants from domestic and chemical wastewaters. Plants such as the water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), duckweed (Lemna sp., Spirodela sp., and Wolffia sp.), and cattail (Typha sp.) thrive in nutrient-rich waters and produce tremendous quantities of biomass under favorable climatic conditions. This method of wastewater treatment is currently being used exclusively at NASA's National Space Technology Laboratories (NSTL) with water hyacinths and duckweed to treat daily over 759 m/sup 3/ of domestic wastewater and 114 m/sup 3/ of chemical wastewater in four separate systems. The harvested plants from these systems have been used in various biomass utilization projects over the past five years. In laboratory batch studies of digesting vascular plants with anaerobic filters, NASA has found that 140 to 280 liters methane per kg dry weight can be obtained in an average of 23 days. Current NASA projects at NSTL seek to expand the technology required to design energy systems which produce methane through bioconversion with anaerobic filters and use the mineral residue as a nutrient source for producing new biomass.

Wolverton, B.C.; McDonald, R.C.

1980-01-01

373

Renewable energy development in China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the resources availability, technologies development and their costs of renewable energies in China and introduces the programs of renewable energies technologies development and their adaptation for rural economic development in China. As the conclusion of this paper, renewable energies technologies are suitable for some rural areas, especially in the remote areas for both household energy and business activities energy demand. The paper looks at issues involving hydropower, wind energy, biomass combustion, geothermal energy, and solar energy.

Junfeng, Li

1996-12-31

374

Power Quality Assessment in Small Scale Renewable Energy Sources Supplying Distribution Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The impact of wind turbines and photovoltaic systems on network operation and power quality (harmonics, and voltage fluctuations is very important. The capability of the power system to absorb this perturbation is dependent on the fault level at the point of common coupling. The paper deals with power quality case studies conducted on existing renewable resources-based systems. Voltage fluctuations determined by a 0.65 MVA wind turbine are analyzed. The impact of photovoltaic systems on steady state voltage variations and current harmonics is investigated. The correlation between the generated power and the main power quality indices is highlighted.

Dario Zaninelli

2013-01-01

375

Power Quality Improvement at Distribution Level for Grid Connected Renewable Energy Sources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The non-linear load current harmonics may result in voltage harmonics and can create a serious PQ problem in the power system network. Active power filters (APF are extensively used to compensate the load current harmonics and load unbalance at distribution level. This results in an additional hardware cost. However, in this project it has incorporated the features of APF in the conventional inverter interfacing renewable with the grid, without any additional hardware cost. Here, the main idea is the maximum utilization of inverter rating which is most of the time underutilized due to intermittent nature of RES. The grid-interfacing inverter can effectively be utilized to perform the four important functions they are to transfer active power harvested from the renewable resources (wind, solar, etc., load reactive power demand support, current harmonics compensation at PCC and current unbalance and neutral current compensation in case of 3-phase 4-wire system. Moreover, with adequate control of grid-interfacing inverter, all the four objectives can be accomplished either individually or simultaneously. The PQ constraints at the PCC can therefore be strictly maintained within the utility standards without additional hardware cost. With such a control, the combination of grid-interfacing inverter and the 3-phase 4-wire linear/non-linear unbalanced load at point of common coupling appears as balanced linear load to the grid. This new control concept is demonstrated with extensive MATLAB/Simulink simulation studies

S. Syed Ahmed

2014-09-01

376

Investments in renewable energy sources and protection of confidence; Investitionen in Erneuerbare Energien und Vertrauensschutz  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The energy policy of a state, at least a free and constitutional state like Germany, must always aim in two directions. First, of course, there are the envisaged energy policy goals. But on the other hand the legally protected interests of the private actors of the energy sector must be considered who will be touched by the energy policy measures. The authors show how these two considerations are combined in German energy law. (orig.)

Papier, Hans-Juergen; Kroenke, Christoph

2012-07-01

377

Renewable energy project development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author presents this paper with three main thrusts. The first is to discuss the implementation of renewable energy options in China, the second is to identify the key project development steps necessary to implement such programs, and finally is to develop recommendations in the form of key issues which must be addressed in developing such a program, and key technical assistance needs which must be addressed to make such a program practical.

Ohi, J.

1996-12-31

378

Potential of renewable energy sources for electric power production in Belgium; Potentieel van duurzame energiebronnen voor elektriciteitsproductie in Belgie  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of this paper is to discuss the possibilities of producing electric power from renewable energies in Belgium. The discussion is based on representative literature where different data are compared and applied in the Belgian context. The situation for renewable energy in Belgium is not favorable in comparison with neighboring countries : the availability of wind, biomass and hydropower is low whereas the energy concentration is high due the population and industry density. If energy from organic wastes is considered as renewable energy, the best techno-economical potential seems to be the waste-to-energy sector where about 1 TWh/y should be achievable on the short term (landfill gas, agriculture, industry, municipal waste). Energy from energy crops and wood residues is not ready yet for commercial application but another 1 TWh/y should be achievable on the longer term. Hydropower and wind have potentials of 0.1 - 0.3 and 0.2 -0.4 TWh/y. Both however need getting sites and exploitation permits, which seems to be a major obstacle. Solar energy should allow for some 10 TWh/y but this cannot be achieved yet due to the prohibitive cost and due to the issue of solar energy storage. An increase from 1 TWh or about 1.5% of the electric power production in 1990, to about 3 TWh in the Belgian power mix should be feasible on the short to medium term assuming a maximum effort to use all available resources, and assuming all required permits would be delivered. Such a scenario would be in accordance with the ALTENER statement which aims at a tripling of the electric power from renewables. An important conclusion from the report is that the Madrid declaration which states 15% from renewables in 2020 is not achievable in Belgium, unless highly expensive solar energy is applied or renewable energy is imported. There is not enough other renewable energy available in an area of high energy intensity. It is also quite unlikely to install 15% of the power production on the base of such new technology in a time frame of 20 years, and quite unlikely that the important non-electric consumers such as road transport can also realize 15% on renewables.

Ruyck, J. De

1997-08-01

379

A review of the potential of renewable energy sources for the State of Jammu and Kashmir (India)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The future economic development trajectory for India is likely to result in rapid and accelerated growth in energy demand, with expected shortages. Many of its current policies and strategies are aimed at the improvement and possible maximization of energy production from the renewable sector. It is also clear that while energy-conservation and energy-efficiency can make an important contribution in the national energy strategy, renewable energies will be essential to the solution and are likely to play an increasingly important role for the growth of grid power, providing energy access, reducing consumption of fossil fuels, and helping India pursue its low carbon progressive pathway. However, most of the states in India, like the northernmost State of Jammu and Kashmir (J and K), have experienced an energy crisis over a sustained period of time. As India intends to be one of the emerging powers of the 21st century, it has to embark upon with these pressing issues in a more sustainable manner and accordingly initiate various renewable energy projects within these states. This paper will provide a broad-spectrum view abo