WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Renewable energy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper strikes the balance of power production from renewable energy sources. This paper describes mainly solar energy uses for heat production (solar thermal systems) or power production (photovoltaic power systems). The other renewable energy sources (hydroelectric power, wind energy, biomass fuels and geothermal energy) are briefly described. 6 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

1992-01-01

2

Renewable energy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Here are summarized the main results concerning the renewable energy sources in Europe (wind power, geothermal energy, photovoltaic power, biomass). In particular, the installed capacities (current and future) and the production for the years 1998 and 1999 are developed and compared with the European objectives. The future developments for these energy sources are discussed too. (O.M.)

2000-01-01

3

Renewable Energy Sources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The electricity requirements of the world including India are increasing at alarming rate and the power demand has been running ahead of supply. It is also now widely recognized that the fossil fuels (i.e., coal, petroleum and natural gas) and other conventional resources, presently being used for generation of electrical energy, may not be either sufficient or suitable to keep pace with ever increasing demand of the electrical energy of the world. Also generation of electrical power by cold based steam power plant or nuclear power plants causes pollution, which is likely to be more accurate in future due to large generating capacity on one side and greater awareness of the people in this respect.This paper describes about different Renewable Energy Sources such as Hydro power Energy,Wind Energy,Solar Energy,Bio-mass Energy,Geo-thermal Energy,Ocean Energy,Hydrogen Energy.

K. KARTHIKEYAN

2012-01-01

4

Renewable energy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Here are briefly summarized 1)the main plans concerning the renewable energy sources ('CURE' plan, 'THERMIE' plan and 'SOLEIL' plan) 2)some news about fuel cells 3)the results of the year 1999 concerning the European and French production of bio-diesel 4)the data of the year 1999 on the installed wind capacity in the world and the future prospects up to the year 2003. (O.M.)

2000-01-01

5

Renewable energy sources in Slovakia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Renewable energies currently represent only 1.6% of the total primary energy consumption in Slovakia, if large hydropower plants (over 10 MW) are excluded. Technically exploitable potential: potential that can be used by implementing available technologies, limited by legislative, administrative and environmental barriers. This potential is estimated 87,754 TJ. Available potential: this refers to the part of technically exploitable potential that is limited by other uses of the resource. The current exploitation of renewable sources is estimated at 14,659 TJ, therefore the available potential represents 73,094 TJ. Economic potential: this refers to the part of the available potential that can be economically viable, given the social constraints (legislation, fiscal regulations, equipment and operation costs, discount rates, inflation, etc.). This potential is estimated to be slightly over 24,000 TJ, i.e. 32.8% of the available potential. Market potential: this refers to the part of economic potential, that investors are ready to develop by themselves, considering the market barriers (investments risks, expected benefits, etc.). It is estimated at 15.4% of the available potential. The table below gives an overview of the different potential for the various sources of renewable energy. Biomass has the greatest economic potential of all renewable energy sources, both in relative (42.7% of the available potential) and in absolute terms. Geothermal energy comes a close second. The other sources (wind, solar and small hydropower) have similar levels of potential i.e. their economic potential represents between 23% and 25% of the available resources. Potential for renewable energy sources in Slovakia in 2012 is reviewed

2004-01-01

6

Renewable energy sources and ecology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The share of renewable energy sources (RES) in the world energy balance is estimated from 1-2 to 10% of the total primary energy sources consumption. In EU since 1990 until now the power energy production from these sources is growing continuously by over 3% annually. The features of the updated Environmental Strategy for Bulgaria (ESB) elaborated with the World Bank in 1994 are: increasing the energy efficiency; utilising RES; granting preference to the regional energy concept and establishing regional energy centres based on the EU experience. In ESB the basic priorities are linked with disease factors - pollutants as lead in the air and soils (from leaded petrol, resp. from metallurgical enterprises), dust particles in the air (from household heating, industry and thermo-electric power stations) and sulfur dioxide and other gases (also from energy sector and industry). There is consistent policy for harmonization of the Bulgarian standards with those of the WHO. Among the implemented projects preference is granting to ones concerning new energy saving technologies and RES. Bulgaria got an environmental protection law harmonized with the international legislation and adapted to the economic situation inflicted by the market economy transition. The development of RES needs high investment cost and has low efficiency factor compared to the classical methods of energy production. Implementation of Environmental Action Programme (EAP) in Bulgaria with an international co-operation includes: solid wastes management; water sources management; water pollution problems; soil degradation; transport and environment; nuclear safety and nuclear waste problems and full value utilization of the RES. The Ministry of Environment and local Authorities have to develop their policies and implementing them by a range of activities to identify pollution control strategies, to identify areas where the greatest environmental benefits can be achieved at least cost and to incorporate the projects into national programmes. Possibilities for financing are linked with the expansion of Environmental Fund as well as with Western Donors and relevant international organizations

1998-01-01

7

Energy from renewable sources - development and trends  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper figures about energy production and consumption in the world as well as in Europe and Bulgaria are given. The main trends in field of renewable energy sources use are discussed. The possibilities for energy production from renewable sources like wind, sun, geothermal energy and biomass in Bulgaria are analysed

2008-01-01

8

New and renewable sources of energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book presents papers on renewable energy sources. Topics considered include the UN response to the challenge of the energy transition, technology transfer, national activities and trends, the Nairobi program of action, the United Nations conference on New and Renewable Sources of Energy, and future prospects.

El-Hinnawi, E.; Biswas, M.R.; Biswas, A.K.

1983-01-01

9

New and renewable sources of energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book is an appraisal of the UN Conference on New and Renewable Sources of Energy, held in Nairobi in 1981. It examines the technological and economic prospects and the problems involved in application of new and renewable energy technologies for development. It provides a summary of international thinking and action on the development of alternative energy sources.

El-Hinnawi, E.; Biswas, M.R.; Biswas, A.K.

1984-01-01

10

The drawbacks of the renewable energy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The continuing glut of oil and low energy prices are putting the renewable energy sources (solar, wind power, etc.) in a quandary. Although being much more expensive than the conventional energy sources, the renewable sources bear the advantage of being much more compatible with the interests of the environment and society, so that politicians increasingly call for more financial support for the development of the renewable energy sources. A closer look at the problems involved in these new energy techniques, however, describes the politicians' approach to be rather blue-eyed. (orig.)

1988-08-15

11

Energy production from renewable energy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This table summarizes the electricity and heat produced in France and in overseas departments from renewable energy sources for 1998 (revised), 1999 (temporary) and 2000 (estimated): hydraulic, wind, solar photovoltaic and thermal, geothermal, solid municipal wastes, wood and wood wastes, biogas, ethanol and ester bio-fuels. (J.S.)

2001-01-01

12

Renewable Energy Sources Brno '93  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The proceedings contain 27 contributions dealing with unconventional energy sources. The numbers of contributions in the individual classes of topics indicate that interest has mostly concentrated on the direct utilization of solar energy, whereas wind energy, hydroelectric energy and geothermal energy receive less attention and the use of biomass is at the margin of interest. (J.B.)

1993-01-01

13

Modeling of renewable hybrid energy sources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent developments and trends in the electric power consumption indicate an increasing use of renewable energy. Renewable energy technologies offer the promise of clean, abundant energy gathered from self-renewing resources such as the sun, wind, earth and plants. Virtually all regions of the world have renewable resources of one type or another. By this point of view studies on renewable energies focuses more and more attention. The present paper intends to present different mathematical models related to different types of renewable energy sources such as: solar energy and wind energy. It is also presented the validation and adaptation of such models to hybrid systems working in geographical and meteorological conditions specific to central part of Transylvania region. The conclusions based on validation of such models are also shown.

Dumitru Cristian Dragos; Gligor Adrian

2009-01-01

14

WATER: The renewable energy source  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Discussed in this paper are the renewable aspects of hydroelectric power. Concepts related to the energy potential of flowing water and hydraulic turbines are discussed in addition to a brief history pertaining to power generation and water usage. A case study involving the hydraulic facilities at Lake Oroville is used to illustrate water usage for power generation as well as municipal use. Finally, examples are discussed relating the effects the hydropower industry has on the environment and the non-reversible aspects shadowed upon migratory fish in the Pacific Northwest.

Clark, G.A. [California State Univ., Potter Valley, CA (United States)

1995-12-31

15

Biogas: A renewable energy source  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Biogas refers to a gas produced by the biological breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen. Biogas can be used as a fuel in any country for any heating purpose such as cooking. By means of digesters, the energy in the gas can be converted to electricity and heat. Biogas like natural gas can also be used to power motor vehicle. Biogas is a renewable fuel which qualifies it for a renewable energy subsidy. It is non-toxic, environment-friendly and serve as a means of combating global warming. Biogas is presently being used in U.S.A, U.K, China, Sweden, Brazil, and India amongst others for domestic purposes, transportation and power generation. In this regard, this paper discusses biogas production. It also presents a model design of domestic biogas plant suitable for Nigerian households. The paper recommends that Nigerian Government should intensify efforts in educating the masses on this novel technology for a sustainable global development. A biogas plant designed for Nigerian household discussed in this paper is also recommended.

2011-01-01

16

New and renewable sources of energy. [Monograph  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The search for new and renewable energy sources is becoming more urgent in the effort to keep Third World economies and societies from stagnating. The United Nations Development Program, which supports 386 energy projects at a cost of $127.4 million and 450 forestry projects at $177 million, commissioned this study to update renewable-energy-technology assessments and provide developing countries with information on their application. It summarizes activities that are promoting unconventional-energy development and identifies specific barriers to renewable-energy development to help countries with their planning and policymaking. 42 references, 10 figures, 5 tables. (DCK)

1981-01-01

17

Renewable energy sources and decentralized electricity production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Technological assessment, economic analysis, feasibility and potential development of the decentralized electricity production by various renewable energy sources (Small-scale hydro-electricity, wind energy, photovoltaic energy, thermodynamical solar plants, electricity from biomass) are presented and comparisons are made with other countries situation. Recommendations for optimal development are proposed

1991-01-01

18

Renewable energy sources: resistance to change  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper is the summary of a conference day organised by the students of the 'environment and sustainable development law' Master of Nantes university (France). This interdisciplinary meeting brought together professionals of renewable energy industries who could testify about the resistance of both politicians and the public opinion against the energy transition towards renewable sources. Legal, political, sociological and cultural considerations are put forward to explain this resistance. The French specificity, with an over-representation of nuclear energy, a constraining legal framework for renewable energies, a regional opposition to renewable energy projects (NIMBY syndrome), and a lack of trust in the political class and in its representatives are as many factors that have contributed to build this French 'cultural exception'. (J.S.)

2011-01-01

19

Renewable sources of energy; Odnawialne zrodla energii  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author takes a look at causes of the present interest in the renewable, natural sources of energy. These are: the fuel deposits becoming exhausted, hazard to environment (especially carbon dioxide) and accessibility of these sources for under-developed countries. An interrelation is shown between these sources and the energy circulations connected with atmosphere and ocean systems. The chief ones from among them that are being used now are discussed, i.e. solar radiation, wind, water waves energy, tides, geothermal heat, and the like. Problems of conversion of the forms of these kinds of energy are also given a mention. (author).

Wojas, K. [Stowarzyszenie Elektrykow Polskich, Warsaw (Poland)

1996-11-01

20

Seawater desalination using renewable energy sources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The origin and continuation of mankind is based on water. Water is one of the most abundant resources on earth, covering three-fourths of the planet's surface. However, about 97% of the earth's water is salt water in the oceans, and a tiny 3% is fresh water. This small percentage of the earth's water - which supplies most of human and animal needs - exists in ground water, lakes and rivers. The only nearly inexhaustible sources of water are the oceans, which, however, are of high salinity. It would be feasible to address the water-shortage problem with seawater desalination; however, the separation of salts from seawater requires large amounts of energy which, when produced from fossil fuels, can cause harm to the environment. Therefore, there is a need to employ environmentally-friendly energy sources in order to desalinate seawater. After a historical introduction into desalination, this paper covers a large variety of systems used to convert seawater into fresh water suitable for human use. It also covers a variety of systems, which can be used to harness renewable energy sources; these include solar collectors, photovoltaics, solar ponds and geothermal energy. Both direct and indirect collection systems are included. The representative example of direct collection systems is the solar still. Indirect collection systems employ two sub-systems; one for the collection of renewable energy and one for desalination. For this purpose, standard renewable energy and desalination systems are most often employed. Only industrially-tested desalination systems are included in this paper and they comprise the phase change processes, which include the multistage flash, multiple effect boiling and vapour compression and membrane processes, which include reverse osmosis and electrodialysis. The paper also includes a review of various systems that use renewable energy sources for desalination. Finally, some general guidelines are given for selection of desalination and renewable energy systems and the parameters t! hat need to be considered. (author)

Kalogirou, S.A. [Higher Technical Inst., Nicosia, Cyprus (Greece). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

2005-07-01

 
 
 
 
21

Renewable energy sources: Energy Efficiency Agency  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The paper presents the activities of the Energy Efficiency Agency, its main functions, as well as the new legislation stimulating the use of RES, stipulated in the new Energy Law of Bulgaria. The second part of the paper describes the potential of renewable energy in i.e. wind energy; solar energy; biomass energy; hydro energy; geothermal energy; draft of a National Program on RES 2005-2015. The third part describes the main issues of the new ENERGY EFFICIENCY LAW and the established Energy efficiency fund. (Author)

2004-01-01

22

Renewable sources of energy (carbohydrates)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Alcohol produced from carbohydrates by gasification followed by catalytic re-synthesis or by fermentation can be used as substitute liquid transport fuel or as chemical feedstock. Sugar cane at present appears to be the most attractive resource in tropical countries but there are other potentially suitable cereal and root crops. In temperate climates it is unlikely that biomass fuel will contribute much of the energy demand except in countries with large timber resources.

Coombs, J.

1980-01-01

23

Optimal Power Allocation for Renewable Energy Source  

CERN Multimedia

Battery powered transmitters face energy constraint, replenishing their energy by a renewable energy source (like solar or wind power) can lead to longer lifetime. We consider here the problem of finding the optimal power allocation under random channel conditions for a wireless transmitter, such that rate of information transfer is maximized. Here a rechargeable battery, which is periodically charged by renewable source, is used to power the transmitter. All of above is formulated as a Markov Decision Process. Structural properties like the monotonicity of the optimal value and policy derived in this paper will be of vital importance in understanding the kind of algorithms and approximations needed in real-life scenarios. The effect of curse of dimensionality which is prevalent in Dynamic programming problems can thus be reduced. We show our results under the most general of assumptions.

Sinha, Abhinav

2011-01-01

24

Renewable energy sources and nuclear installations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This comprehensive work report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) made by the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI takes a look at work done in connection with the updating of the office's Energy Perspectives. In particular, the topic of electricity is reviewed in the light of pending important decisions in the area of nuclear energy and the newer renewable sources of energy. The report makes an attempt to estimate the effect on Swiss power production that the new renewables and new nuclear installations could have in the next 30-40 years and to what costs this could be done and which obstacles would have to overcome. The renewable energy sources include small hydro, wind, photovoltaics, solar thermal power plants, biogas, geothermal energy, wave-power and solar chemistry. The methods used include literature study and contacts with internal PSI experts on the various areas involved. The most important system characteristics were noted and learning curves for the various technologies were taken into account. Ecological and social factors were also considered

2005-01-01

25

Exploitation of Renewable Energy Sources and Its Legal Regulation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is great potential for exploitation of renewable energy sources in China, but the strength of policy support and stimulation measures is far from enough. Many practices in foreign countries to lead and standardize development of renewable energy sources can be used as sources of reference in China. The People's Republic of China Renewable Energy Law and relevant supporting regulations have stimulated and promoted exploitation of renewable energy sources in China.

Boyu Zhu

2010-01-01

26

Gas fuels from renewable energy sources - production and uses  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The production of gas fuels from renewable energy sources relies on thermo-chemical and biochemical procedures allowing the conversion of a variety of raw materials. A survey of the essential properties of gases as well as of the recommended and available renewable energy sources is followed by a discussion of the basic steps and processes of gas production, the instrumentation of the respective procedures, gas uses as well as of the materials and energy balances of gas production from renewable energy sources.

Batel, W.; Graef, M.; Mejer, G.J.; Schoedder, F.; Vellguth, G.

1984-01-01

27

Prospects for harnessing renewable energy sources in Pakistan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Renewable energy resources can provide a viable alternative to the existing energy supply system, particularly in the developing countries. This paper first gives an outline of the conventional energy resources and then discusses in detail the significance of utilization of renewable energy sources in the development of remote areas of Pakistan, which consists of about 75% of its total population. Considering and outlining the indigenous renewable energy potential, and the course of the country's development, some newly established projects and the extent of their application are elucidated. The prospects of renewable energy sources for the remaining 25% urban population of Pakistan are also discussed. (author).

Hasnain, S.M.; Gibbs, B.M. (Leeds Univ. (GB). Dept. of Fuel and Energy)

1990-01-01

28

Tropical grasses as a renewable energy source  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Agronomists, evaluating tropical grasses from Saccharum and allied genera as potential renewable energy sources for boiler fuel and alcohol, emphasized (1) maximizing sugar cane's total biomass rather than sucrose production, (2) utilizing alternative tropical grasses during sugar cane's offseason for year-round fuel production, and (3) mechanizing production technologies for fibrous, thin-stemmed tropical grasses that are to be managed as solar-dried fuels and feedstocks. Based on the time required to maximize their dry matter yields, three categories of grasses have emerged as potential energy crops: short rotation (2-3 months) with Sordan 70A (a sorghum/sudan grass hybrid), intermediate rotation (4-6 months) with napier grass, and long rotation (12-18 months) with sugar cane. Total oven-dried matter is 50 tons/acre-yr (114 metric tons /hectare-yr) for sugar cane, 33 tons (74 metric tons) from napier grass harvested at 6-month intervals, and 21 tons (47 metric tons) from Sordan 70A harvested every 14 weeks.

Samuels, G.; Alexander, A.G.; Rios, C.; Garcia, M.

1983-01-01

29

OPPORTUNITIES FOR USING RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN BULGARIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bulgaria has one of Europe’s richest renewable energy resource bases. This paper presents an assessment of Bulgarian renewable sources of energy as a stage for increasing the share of these resources in the country’s total energy balance, to the end of the improvement of the environment, stimulation of industrial development and creation of new jobs. It considers the theoretical (total) resource potential for solar, wind, both large and small hydro, geothermal, and biomass and waste sources. The paper presents the present status of renewable energy technologies and their installed capacities. The opportunities and constraints for development and use of renewable energy are considered.

D. Markova; S. Platikanov; M. Konstantinoff; P. Tsankov

2011-01-01

30

Renewable energy sources for tenable development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Planning criteria for feasible tenable development strategies for industrialized and developing countries are discussed. Attention is given to the role to be played by industrial countries in renewable energy source development and technology transfer to curb the onslaught of global greenhouse effects related environmental problems. The paper cautions against the use of the expression 'tenable' in combination with 'growth'. It recommends, instead, the substitution of the expression, 'tenable growth', which implies the indefinite growth of something which is physical, with 'tenable development', a preferred term, since it denotes the realization of an optimum strategy, compatible with environmental ecosystems, for the betterment of living conditions. An assessment is made of the overall social-economic impacts of such a strategy on the proposed European free trade market and on developing countries struggling to survive in a fiercely competitive world. Here, the paper notes that, for the effective implementation of a tenable development strategy, it is of prime importance to make optimum use of the education system to instil a new set of social values and modify individual behaviour relative to the development and use of natural resources.

1992-01-01

31

Aspects of national economy in using renewable energy sources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Systems to use renewable energy sources are of interest to the whole national economy mainly for two reasons, i.e. because of their quality as a capital good and because of their effects on energy consumption, imports of energy, costs of energy and on the environment. This article examines the positive contribution of renewable energy sources on the whole economy. On a long-term basis the use of renewable energy sources will prevail to an extent that is relevant for the economic system only if it suceeds in competition without state assistance.

Ziesing, H.J.

1983-07-01

32

RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN POLAND - CONDITIONS AND POSSIBILITES OF DEVELOPMENT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper describes the state of the art in renewable energy sources development. The obligation resulting from the membership of Poland in the European Union as well as from other international agreements in the scope of renewable energy sources development are described. The production of electricity, heat and biofuels in Poland is given and the perspectives of development of particular renewable energy sources in Poland are discussed in the view of potential reserves and other constrains. The economic aspects of renewable energy technologies are shown. The environmental pros and cons of biomass energy development are described. Arguments for development of renewable energy sources use are stated: the decrease of dependence from primary energy sources, the decrease the emission of green house gases and the recovery of agricultural regions of the country. In conclusion it is stated that the significance of renewable energy sources in Polish conditions is constrained to local societies. Their development should be adjusted to conditions predominating in a given region and that wider consumption of renewable energy sources should develop in conformity with sustainable development, so it is necessary to reach agreement between local societies, institutions dealing with environment protection and representatives of power sector. (auth)

Gawlik, L.; Mokrzycki, E.; Ney, R.

2007-07-01

33

Bioenergy: a growing source of renewable energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This 2001 edition of the guide to UK renewable energy companies explores the bioenergy sector, and examines energy crops including short rotation coppice cultivation, the potential of the hardy perennial Miscanthus grass, and forestry and arboricultural byproducts as well as the production of bioethanol from agricultural wastes. Energy recovery technologies are described covering the thermochemical processes (combustion, pyrolysis, and gasification), and anaerobic digestion. The use of biomass to produce liquefied transportation fuels is discussed, and examples of the use of biomass for heating, combined heat and power production, and for electricity production are given. Export markets for bioenergy are considered.

2001-01-01

34

Renewable sources of energy: Some Swedish examples  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This chapter will discuss some of the opportunities for an expanded use of renewable energy, based on the work of IMES researchers. Our main interests have been in the supply and use of biomass, and we will also cover some aspects of an expansion of wind power electricity generation. Our results refer mainly to the Swedish context, but could be generalized to most industrialized countries, with regard to such factors as the performance of technologies. 42 refs, 5 tabs

Svenningsson, P.; Boerjesson, P.; Johansson, Bengt [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental and Energy Systems Studies

1995-12-31

35

Foreign national programs of nontraditional renewable energy source utilization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main statements of national energy programs of the USA, Great Britain, France, FRG, Italy, Japan and China in the field of nontraditional renewable energy sources development are briefly summarized. It is noted that utilization of renewable energy sources became the field for wide-range international cooperation at the verge of 80-90-ties. The cooperation was transformed into large-scale scientific, engineering and practical direction in global solution of ripened ecological and power engineering problems.

1993-01-01

36

Fuels for transportation derived from renewable energy sources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There are two main reasons for introducing renewable energy sources into the transportation sector: global warming on the one hand and the imminent end of cheap oil on the other. The future use of renewable energy sources for tranportation is the only sustainable solution that protects the climate and ensures energy supply - especially it is the only conceivable way to satisfy the demand for mobility of the people in the developing countries.

Schindler, J.; Weindorf, W.

2001-07-01

37

Energy utilization, environmental pollution and renewable energy sources in Turkey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, energy utilization and its major environmental impacts are discussed from the standpoint of sustainable development, including anticipated patterns of future energy use and subsequent environmental issues in Turkey. Several aspects relating to energy utilization, renewable energy, energy efficiency, environment and sustainable development are examined from both current and future perspectives. Turkey is an energy importing country, more than half of the energy requirement has been supplied by imports. Domestic oil and lignite reserves are limited, and the lignites are characterised by high ash, sulfur and moisture content. Because of increasing energy consumption, environmental pollution is becoming a serious problem in the future for the country. In this regard, renewable energy resources appear to be one of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy development and environmental pollution prevention in Turkey. Turkey's geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of most of these renewable energy sources. Especially hydropower, biomass, geothermal, solar and wind energy should be considered and seriously supported by governments and private sectors.

2004-01-01

38

The renewable energies sources in France 1970-2000  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this report is to describe the energy production from renewable sources in France since 1970. In France the rate of using renewable energy sources is unequal. Some of them as hydro energy show a confirmed industrial and commercial interest when other techniques have not still reach the same level of maturity. The renewable energy sources chosen to calculate the electric and thermal production of France are: for electric power, hydro energy, wind energy, solar energy, geothermal energy, the urban wastes, the wood wastes, the harvesting residues, the biogas. For the thermal production, the thermal solar energy, the geothermal energy, the urban wastes, the wood and wood wastes, the harvesting residues, the biogas and bio fuels. The figures are marked in thirty tables. (N.C.)

2001-01-01

39

Legislation on renewable energy sources in Central America  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the development of renewable energy in Central America and the cooperation given by the European Comission in the promotion of renewable energy sources. Also discuss the current situation in energy demand in Central America and possible solutions linked to legislation that promotes the inversion of the private sector. The legal framework in each country of Central America is presented and its impact in the increasing of generation of energy through tax reductions, trading and prices.

2000-01-01

40

New renewable energy sources: Strategies and prospects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An assessment is made of the technological reliability, and environmental and economic benefits of biomass, wind and photovoltaic energy sources in meeting the world's ever increasing demand for electric power. This assessment favours R ampersand D investment for the commercialization of processes involving the production of hydrogen through photovoltaic energy conversion. These plants are especially recommended for oil importing third world countries located in tropical areas

1992-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Renewable energy sources - the opportunity for a safer future  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The researches have shown that the potential of renewable energy sources is huge as they can in principle meet many times the world's energy demand. Renewable energy sources such as biomass, wind, solar, hydropower and geothermal can provide energy services based on the use of local available resources. Starting from this fact, a transition to renewable-based energy systems is looking increasingly likely as their costs have dropped while the price of oil and gas continue to fluctuate. In the past 30 years, the sales of solar and wind energy systems continued to increase because the capital and electricity production costs decreased simultaneously with the performance enhancement. It is becoming clear that future growth in the energy sector will be primarily in the renewable energy systems and to some extent natural gas-based systems and not in conventional oil and coal sources. It is also important to have governmental assistance and popular support in developing these alternate energy sources, that among others, reduce local and global atmospheric emissions, provide commercially attractive options, particularly in developing countries and rural areas and create the transition to the energy sector of the future. This paper tries to approach the renewable energy sources currently analyzed by the experts, emphasizing their strengths and weaknesses. The conventional energy sources based on oil, coal and natural gas have proven to be highly effective drivers of economic progress but at the same time damaging to the environment and human health. Furthermore they tend to be cyclical in nature, due to the effects of oligopoly in production and distribution. These traditional fossil fuel-based energy sources are facing increasing pressure on environmental issues, among these the future reduction of greenhouse gas specified in the Kyoto Protocol. Renewable energy sources currently supply between 15 - 20% of world's total energy demand. This supply is dominated by biomass (mostly wood used for cooking and heating - especially in developing countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America) as well as large hydropower stations providing nearly 20% of the global electricity supply provided by renewable sources. New renewable sources (solar, wind, modern bioenergy, geothermal energy and small hydropower stations) amount to about 2%. Recent studies of the future development of the energy sector show that in the second half of the 21 century the contribution of the renewable energy sources might range from the present figure of nearly 20% to more than 50% if the right policies will be put in place. Below are presented the most significant renewable energy sources. 1. Biomass Energy Biomass is the term used for all organic material originating from plants (including algae), trees and crops and is essentially the collection and storage of the sun's energy through photosynthesis. Biomass energy, or bioenergy, is the conversion of biomass into useful forms of energy such as heat, electricity and liquid fuels. Biomass was the first energy source harnessed by humans, and for nearly all of human history, wood has been our dominant energy source. Only during the last century, with the development of efficient techniques to extract and burn fossil fuels, have coal, oil, and natural gas, replaced wood as the industrialized world's primary fuel. Today it represents about 10-14 percent, making it the fourth largest source of energy behind oil (33 percent), coal (21 percent), and natural gas (19 percent). The precise amount is uncertain because the majority is used non-commercially in developing countries. Biomass is usually not considered a modern energy source, given the role that it has played, and continues to play, in most developing countries. In developing countries it still accounts for an estimated one third of primary energy use while in the poorest up to 90% of all energy is supplied by biomass. The direct combustion of biomass fuels, as used in developing countries today for domestic cooking and heating, has been called 'the poor man's oil' r

2004-01-01

42

Strategy on renewable energy sources in Romania  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The key to successful development of renewable energies in Romania requires a combination of political commitment and decision making as well as support mechanism including well defined government targets, technological advances and public acceptance. Overall short, medium and long term targets and required funding are recommended while expected benefits are estimated. Public funds in the form of grants and subsidies to promote and support RES constitute one of the best investments in the national economy. Commercial investments in RES will contribute to the country's balance of payments as well as towards the environmental protection. Therefore these actions may be supported through a special fund, in particular designed for RES and energy conservation investments. As a first step towards the commercialization of RES a short term action plan needs to be implemented for achieving the set forth long term objectives. This plan includes promising projects for the demonstration of technologically and economically viable applications in each RES sector as well as institutional and other soft measures .The RES promotional policy measures have to be translated into concrete legislation providing the necessary framework into which the sector will operate with transparency and open competitiveness. One of the key policies for RES strategy is to organize a flexible and efficient scheme for the implementation of the policy adopted by the government. The total rural population, together with the urban population living in medium sized towns will be considered as the primary market segment for RES applications (about 61 % of total population). (author). 1 fig., 2 tabs., 18 refs

1996-01-01

43

Opportunities for renewable energy sources in Central Asia countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents an overview of the state of conventional energy sources and the potential for development of renewable energy sources in the Central Asia countries of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, and Tajikistan. The region has a population of about 50 million in an area of more than four million square kilometers. The per capita gross internal product is more than $2,500, although the economy has been declining the past five years. The area has substantial coal, oil, uranium, and natural gas reserves, although they are not distributed equally among the five countries. Energy production is such that the countries do not have to rely heavily on imports. One of the problems in Central Asia is that the energy prices are substantially below the world prices. This is a factor in development of renewable energy sources. The primary renewable energy resources available are wind in Kazakhstan, solar in the entire region, biomass in Kyrgyzstan, and micro-hydropower stations in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. All of these have the potential to provide a significant amount of the required energy for the region. However, all of the countries have an abundance of various renewable energy resources. To effectively use these resources, however, a number of barriers to their development and commercialization must be overcome. These include low prices of conventional energy sources, absence of legislative support, lack of financing for new technologies, and lack of awareness of renewable energy sources by the population. A number of specific actions are proposed to overcome these barriers. These include establishment of a Central Asia coordinating council for renewable energy, development of a regional renewable energy program, and setting up a number of large demonstration projects. 16 figs.

Obozov, A.J. [Project KUN (Kyrgyzstan); Loscutoff, W.V. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

1998-07-01

44

Cyprus energy system and the use of renewable energy sources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cyprus is an island state whose energy production is almost completely dependent on imported hydrocarbon fuels. Its electricity production sector is more than 90% dependent on oil products while the remaining 9% are covered by imports of coal (4.5%) and by solar energy (4.5%). Because Cyprus will become a full member of the European Union (EU), it becomes essential to follow the EU white paper rules and insert renewable energy sources (RES) as part of its energy production system. Solar, wind energy and biomass are the three available forms of RES. This paper will examine and analyze the energy system of Cyprus. It will examine the RES available and the extent of the energy needs could be satisfied by them. (author)

Koroneos, C.; Fokaidis, P.; Moussiopoulos, N. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece). Department of Mechanical Engineering, Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Environmental Engineering

2005-07-01

45

Cyprus energy system and the use of renewable energy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cyprus is an island state whose energy production is almost completely dependent on imported hydrocarbon fuels. Its electricity production sector is more than 90% dependent on oil products while the remaining 9% are covered by imports of coal (4.5%) and by solar energy (4.5%). Because Cyprus will become a full member of the European Union (EU), it becomes essential to follow the EU white paper rules and insert renewable energy sources (RES) as part of its energy production system. Solar, wind energy and biomass are the three available forms of RES. This paper will examine and analyze the energy system of Cyprus. It will examine the RES available and the extent of the energy needs could be satisfied by them. (author)

2005-01-01

46

Power Electronics as Efficient Interface of Renewable Energy Sources  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The global electrical energy consumption is steadily rising and consequently there is a demand to increase the power generation capacity. A significant percentage of the required capacity increase can be based on renewable energy sources. Wind turbine technology, as the most cost effective renewable energy conversion system, will play an important part in our future energy supply. But other sources like microturbines, photovoltaics and fuel cell systems may also be serious contributor to the power supply. Characteristically, power electronics will be an efficient and important interface to the grid and this paper will first briefly discuss three different alternative/ renewable energy sources. Next, various configurations of the wind turbine technology are presented, as this technology seems to be most developed and cost-effective. Finally, the developments and requirements from the grid are discussed.

Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe

2004-01-01

47

Alternative and renewable sources of energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper reviews the use of biomass as a source of energy and shows from a number of examples, particularly the growing of sugar beet for the manufacture of ethanol, that this way of producing fuel is not desirable. On a world basis it is possible that there might be a confrontation between the needs for ''food'' and ''technological'' calories of which there is already a hint in the so-called ''energy crop strategy''. In conclusion, given the present world food supply position, the intensification of food production should be given priority over attempts to produce fuel from biomass and we should not aim to use the photosynthetic process to provide technical calories.

Seifritz, W.

1983-09-01

48

Renewable sources of energy in the United Kingdom  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The estimated size, and future market possibilities of renewable energy in the UK are reviewed. Assessment of four categories is based on cost effectiveness. Hot Dry Rock technology is in the investigatory stage. Geothermal aquifer use is being demonstrated in the Southhampton Project. Wind energy, already in use in island areas, might contribute to electricity for machines located in offshore shallows. Wave energy, solar energy, biofuels, and tidal energy are also surveyed. A complex set of interactions will determine the scale of introduction of renewable sources into the marketplace. Markets, projected for after the year 2000, are summarized.

Catteral, J.A.

1983-06-01

49

Energy efficiency and renewable energy sources in Nordic homes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The role of citizens as innovators, adaptors of existing technologies and diffusers of new climate-relevant innovations has been studied extensively in recent years. Since the late 1970s, sociological and demographic research on residential energy use has consistently found great variations in energy use among similar households. It has been suggested that these variations constitute a source of innovative low-carbon practices. Yet, while there are many generic technologies available for end-use efficiency and renewables, their slow rate of diffusion suggests that they are not as such applicable to local conditions. Citizens have a key role in their adoption and adaptation to local conditions, as well in their diffusion to other users. Against this backdrop, the track 4 of NCF called for poster presentations of innovative new products, modifications of existing products, news ways of make use of existing technologies as well as such living practices that reduce energy use or enable the utilization of renewable energy sources in domestic settings in the Nordic countries. (orig.)

Hyysalo, S.; Rinkinen, J. [Aalto Univ. School of Economics, Helsinki (Finland). Dept. of Management and International Business; Heiskanen, E. [National Consumer Research Centre, Helsinki (Finland)

2011-07-01

50

Prospects of renewable-energy sources in Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pakistan, despite the enormous potential of its energy resources, remains energy- deficient and has to rely heavily on imports to satisfy its needs. Moreover, a very large part of the rural areas does not have the electrification facilities, because they are either too remote and/or too expensive to connect to the national grid. Pakistan obtains its energy requirements from a variety of traditional and commercial sources. Share of various primary energy-sources in energy-supply mix remained during last few years as oil: 43.5%, gas: 41.5%, LPG: 0.3%, coal: 4.5%, hydro-electricity: 9.2%, and nuclear electricity: 1.1%. The electric-power generation included 71.9% thermal, 25.2% hydel and 2.9% nuclear. While there is no prospect for Pakistan to reach self-sufficiency in hydrocarbons, a good option is the exploitation and utilization of the huge coal-reserves of Thar and the other renewable energy sources. Pakistan has wide spectrum of high potential renewable energy sources, conventional as well as non-conventional, which have not been adequately explored, exploited and developed. 'Thus, the primary energy supplies today are not enough to meet even the present demand. So, Pakistan, like other developing countries of the region, is facing a serious challenge of energy deficit. The development of the renewable energy sources can play an important role in meeting this challenge. Present observations, based on reviewing the geological setup, geographical position, climatological cycles and the agricultural/industrial/ urbanization activities, reveal that there are bright prospects for the exploitation of various renewable-energy sources, which include mega and macro/micro-hydel, biomass, biogas, wind, solar, co-generation, city and other solid wastes, utilization of low-head canal levels, sea wave and tide and geothermal energies etc. Technologically, all these renewable-energy sources are viable and consequently suited to efforts for poverty alleviation and cleaner environment in Pakistan. The country can be benefited by harnessing these options of energy-generation as substitute energy in areas where sources exist. As Pakistan is an agricultural country and major part of its population lives in the rural areas, the electricity generated by renewable sources will also improve rural life, thereby reducing the urban migration that is taxing the ability of cities to cope with their own environmental problems. (author)

2005-01-01

51

Small hydro power - a clean, efficient and renewable energy source  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Small hydro power (SHP) is a clean, sustainable, efficient and secure renewable energy source, combining the advantages of hydro power with those of decentralized power generation, but without the disadvantages of large-scale installations. SHP has a huge untapped potential, offering a very good alternative to conventional generation in Europe and the developing world. The greatest impetus for small hydro development is currently coming from Asia, including China and India. SHP offers one of the most practical and immediately realizable routes to expanding use of renewable energy sources

2005-01-01

52

Marketing of renewable energy sources in the region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available European Union has a leading role in the world due to its strong commitment to increase renewable energy sources as forthe energy system change. Success of such long term project requires first of all a stable political framework, well-tailored supportsystem of finances, technical background and administrative, and by this way it can overcome the obstacles existing in distorted energymarkets. Regardless their high potential, renewable energy resources are insufficiently exploited in Europe. The aim of the contributionis to bring characteristic of particular sources of energy and technologies of exploitation in the geographic area Hnilec valley.We obtained detailed summary of positive and negative aspects and the reason of further survey in this field. Overall result of the thesisis the complex of knowledge of possibility of exploitation of sustainable sources of the energy in the region Hnilec valleyand determination of the best possible variant of it.

Adriana Csikósová; Mária Antošová; Katarína ?ulková

2012-01-01

53

New and renewable sources of energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The keynote address to a United Nations conference on energy at Nairobi, August 1981, was presented. A call to make energy a focal point of contemporary international cooperation and collaboration was made.

Gandhi, S.I.

1981-07-01

54

Renewable energy sources in museum buildings; Museen entdecken die Erneuerbaren  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For several decades now, museums have been key elements in making cities with failing economies more attractive. Museum architecture has reached a high aesthetic and architectural level. Now, the museums of the world are discovering renewable energy sources. SONNE WIND and WAeRME presents some recent projects. (orig./AKb)

Claus, Juergen

2009-11-17

55

Emergence of competitive sources of renewable energy in France  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Renewal energy sources have come in for renewed interest in France since 1995, firstly in the overseas departments and then more recently in metropolitan France itself. This renaissance follows a marked lack of interest between 1985 and 1995. This lack of interest is a result of the uncommon behaviour of France compared to other OECD COUNTRIES EXPLAINED BY THE SCALE OF THE French nuclear power program. Despite this difficult period for the French renewable energy source industry, the latter is able to face up to this new demand. The elements that explain this performance constitute the key theme of the present article. The strategy adopted bu the majority of key players and especially by the Ademe has involved promoting an export-centred industrial activity faced with the lack of investment support measures on a domestic level up until 1995. (authors)

56

On the economic and ecological assessment of renewable energy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper suggests introducing a quality rating for an assessment of different substitution strategies based on the criteria energy source, conversion technique, climate, and consumption pattern. Various reference quantities (costs, energy requirement for construction and during operation) are discussed. In an ecologically oriented economy the overall costs (installation, operating and recycling costs) turn out to be the most important reference quantity. It can be shown that thermal utilisation of solar and wind energy deserve the highest quality ratings of all renewable energy sources. (orig./HW)

1994-07-01

57

New renewable source of energy from municipal solid waste plastics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Renewable energy plays an important role in the supply of energy. When energy sources are used, the demand for fossil fuels is reduced. Emissions from the evaporation and combustion of these traditional fossil fuels contributing to a range of environmental and health problems, causing poor air quality, and emitting greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming. Alternative fuel created from domestic sources has been proposed as a solution to these problems and many alternative fuels are being developed based on solar, wind and biomass. Natural State Research has developed different alternative hydrocarbon fuel produced from abundant waste plastic materials.

Sarker, Moinuddin; Zaman, Ashiquz; Mamunor Rashid, Mohammad

2010-09-15

58

Potential utilization of renewable energy sources and the related problems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Estonia's most promising resource of renewable energy is the natural biomass. In 1994 the use of wood and waste wood formed about 4.9% of the primary energy supply, the available resource will provide for a much higher share of biomass in the future primary energy supply, reaching 9-14%. Along with the biomass, wind energy can be considered the largest resource. On the western and northern coast of Estonia, in particular, on the islands, over several years, the average wind speed has been 5 m/s. Based on the assumption that the wind speed exceeds 6 m/s in the area that forms ca 1.5% of the Estonian territory (the total area of Estonia is about 45,000 km 2 ) and is 5 - 6 m/s on about 15% of the total area, using 0.5 MW/km2 for the installation density, very approximate estimates permit to state that the maximum hypothetical installed capacity could be 3750 MW. It might be useful to make use of the current maximum 50 MW, which could enable the generation of approximately 70 - 100 GW h of energy per year. Although the solar energy currently has no practical use in Estonia and the resource of hydro power is also insignificant (only ca 1% of the electricity consumption), these two resources of renewable energy hold future promise in view of the use of local resources and that of environmental protection. It is not reasonable to regard renewable energy sources as a substitute for the traditional oil shale-based power engineering in Estonia. But, to some extent, local energy demand can be covered by renewable energy sources. Thus, they can contribute to the reduction of the greenhouse gases emissions in Estonia.

1996-01-01

59

Renewable energy sources for peak load demand management in India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In developing country such as India, demand for power is increasing day by day; especially peak load demand management is becoming crucial. This paper highlights the gap between peak load power demand and availability of power at the regional level, furthermore proposes the suitability of power generation from renewable sources to fill the gap. The problem is formulated for the optimum allocation of the various renewable energy options to meet the peak load demand at the regional level of India, based upon the application of a linear programming algorithm, considering various constraints. Due to the geological profile, potential of various renewable energy sources such as, small hydro power, solar photovoltaic, wind power, co-generation and biomass energy is varying from region to region. A computational result indicates that the power generated by renewable resources is quite suitable to meet the peak load demand and in fact some of regions have the potential, which can be transferred to the other regions utilizing the existing transmission line network. (author)

2006-01-01

60

Transient fault analysis of grid-connected renewable energy sources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The transients produced in a power system distribution line under fault conditions connected to a renewable energy source,is analysed in this paper. The formulation of the problem is based on the trapezoidal rule of integration for lumped parameters such as loads and inductors, and Bergeron`s method of characteristics for distributed parameters such as transmission and distribution lines. The steady state solution of the system is first obtained using an Improved Gauss-Seidel algorithm, written by the authors and based on the method of phase co-ordinates. The aim of the paper is to highlight requirements and possible difficulties that the electric utilities and renewable energy sources may face when the two systems are interconnected, including problems with protection co-ordination, under and overvoltage conditions brought on by the switching in of a wind-electric generator. (author). 3 tables. 1 fig., 7 refs.

Vawser, M.; Moorthy, S.; Al-Dabbagh, M. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia)

1995-12-31

 
 
 
 
61

ENEA programm in the field of renewable energy sources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In consideration of Italy's strong dependence on imported energy and in view of the targets established by the Italian National Energy Plan, renewable sources, especially solar, are expected to play a strategic role in Italy, due to Italy's favourable geographical position. The Italian Energy Plan has allocated a central task to ENEA (Italian Commission for Alternative Energy Sources), that has to take care of research and development activities, pursue demonstration programs, promote Italian industry for the development of technologies in the energy sector and finally to qualify the Italian industry. ENEA has also the task to provide advice and support to the Public Administration in initiatives in the field of new types of energy and energy saving.

Bianchi, G.; Ambrosini, G.

1989-09-01

62

Regensim – Matlab toolbox for renewable energy sources modelling and simulation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper deals with the implementation and development of a Matlab Simulink library named RegenSim designed for modeling, simulations and analysis of real hybrid solarwind-hydro systems connected to local grids. Blocks like wind generators, hydro generators, solar photovoltaic modules and accumulators are implemented. The main objective is the study of the hybrid power system behavior, which allows employing renewable and variable in time energy sources while providing a continuous supply.

Cristian Drago? Dumitru; Adrian Gligor; Hora?iu Grif

2011-01-01

63

Mechanism for supporting the use of renewable energy sources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Member states of EU put bigger stress to the using of RES. Ambitious goal of EU till 2010 was to achieve 12 % rate of RESon the whole energy consumption. Therefore there were created many institutional and financial tools and schemes for support of RESusing and they will be important part of the energy sources structure. One of the basic prirorites of energetic policy in Slovakiais increasing of the RES rate on the production of heat and electricity with goal to create adequate additional sources necessary forcovering of domestic demand. Presented contribution is orientated to the various mechanisms that are using for support of renewableenergy sources. That means state regulation in this area generally and basic types of state donation policy in the frame of EuropeanUnion and their consequences on the market with renewable energy sources.

Mária Antošová; Zuzana Fabiánová; Roland Weiss

2010-01-01

64

Barriers to Investment in Energy from Renewable Sources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper attempts to create an overview of the current situation in the Romanian energy sector, pointing out elements of energy demand, production, investment in the sector and not least the potential of renewable energy sources. As Romania has aligned itself with the European Commission's 20-20-20 program, an important step in achieving the set targets is represented by a significant amount of investments in the development of energy from renewable sources. But there are a number of challenges that investment projects may face, namely, barriers more or less deliberate, more difficult or easier to overcome or remove, some of them real market distortions and others coming from the comparison between green energy and classic sources of energy. So, the last part of the work is dedicated to these barriers. Dividing them into four categories administrative barriers, technical and technological barriers, market barriers and economic barriers allows a better distribution of the identified barriers. It is a comprehensive and equitable approach than their splitting into cost barriers and non-cost barriers, which would have meant a long list for the second category specified.

Corina PÎRLOGEA

2011-01-01

65

Can renewable energy sources satiate Slovakia's future energy needs?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper examines the options for replacing the current energy mix of non-renewable, conventional energy sources solely with renewable sources in the long term within the context of the Slovak environment, possibly combined with nuclear energy in the 50-year horizon. Vital needs are outlined in household energy consumption and energy consumption for industrial and transportation purposes to fulfil in order for Slovakia to become independent of foreign sources in energy supplies.

Tomis, Igor; Koval, Peter; Janicek, Frantisek; Darula, Ivan

2010-09-15

66

Consideration on a Low Power Solar Energy Renewable Source  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents the contribution of theauthors regarding the implementation of a low powersolar energy renewable source. To optimize theconversion efficiency of the solar irradiance intoelectrical energy an embedded system was designed. Theembedded system can accomplish the maximum powerpoint tracking by evaluation the output voltage andcurrent of the photovoltaic panels and calculate a propercommand for the DC-DC converter of the renewablesource. The key device in this system is a midrange 8 bitmicrocontroller that consists of acquisition, commandand control integrated hardware resources.

Nistor Daniel Trip; Viorel Popescu; Jaroslav Dudrik; Andrei Marusca

2008-01-01

67

How to classify the hydro power renewable energy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In this report various classifications of hydropower renewable energy sources (HRES) used in several countries like: USA, China, Russia, EU and Bulgaria are given and discussed. The existence of numerous differences and peculiarities in the various national classifications all over the world require the creation of a common unification. In particular the peculiarity and heterogeneity of HRES in Bulgaria demands a creation of specific regulations about. There is a necessity in a creation of a new law of RES and preparation of united EU energy policy

2006-01-01

68

Modeling of an autonomous microgrid for renewable energy sources integration  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The frequency stability analysis in an autonomous microgrid (MG) with renewable energy sources (RES) is a continuously studied issue. This paper presents an original method for modeling an autonomous MG with a battery energy storage system (BESS) and a wind power plant (WPP), with the purpose of frequency stability analysis. A reduced order model is developed, considering only the dominant elements in the frequency control loop. The model's parameters are identified from experimental results, and the presented results are focused on frequency response for variable load and variable wind speed.

Serban, I.; Teodorescu, Remus

2009-01-01

69

Technologies based on renewable energy sources - future prospects in Austria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Within a few years only technologies resorting to the utilization of renewable energy sources have come to rank with the economically most important technologies. The paper deals with the development of solar engineering, heat pumps, solar generators and wind power since the beginning of the seventies. Particular emphasis is on marketing as well as on technologies which have been exciting interest. Based on this development the paper points out data characterizing the potential of primary energy conservation. The substitution of heating oils may be improved by the following strategies: 1) thermal insulation reducing the heat demand 2) the retrofitting of heating systems with modern boilers or the installation of heat pump heating systems.

Faninger, G.

1986-01-01

70

Renewable energy sources for electricity generation in selected developed countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objectives of this report are to analyze the present status and to assess the future of selected renewable energy sources (RE) other than hydropower, i.e. wind, solar, biomass, tidal and geothermal, already in use or expected to be used for electricity generation. The report focuses on grid connected technologies leaving stand-alone power plants unconsidered. This report provides recent information on environmental impacts, costs and technical potentials related to the implementation of electricity technologies using these energy sources. The study is limited to six OECD countries, i.e. Australia, the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. The situation in other OECD countries is addressed where appropriate, but no comprehensive information is provided. Nevertheless, efforts are made to determine the technical potential of the renewable energy sources for ''Rest of OECD''. The time horizons in this report are 2010 and 2030. While detailed information is provided for the period until 2010, the technical potential for 2030 is discussed only qualitatively. Scenario analysis and the design of national energy and electric systems assuming different sets of objectives and boundary conditions are outside the scope of this study. Nevertheless, the information given in this report should provide input data for such a systems analysis. All the information given in this report is based on literature surveys. Any figure given is contingent on the fact that it has appeared in a paper or a publicly available technical report. 251 refs, figs and tabs

1992-01-01

71

A Stochastic Calculus for Network Systems with Renewable Energy Sources  

CERN Document Server

We consider the performance modeling and evaluation of network systems powered with renewable energy sources such as solar and wind energy. Such energy sources largely depend on environmental conditions, which are hard to predict accurately. As such, it may only make sense to require the network systems to support a soft quality of service (QoS) guarantee, i.e., to guarantee a service requirement with a certain high probability. In this paper, we intend to build a solid mathematical foundation to help better understand the stochastic energy constraint and the inherent correlation between QoS and the uncertain energy supply. We utilize a calculus approach to model the cumulative amount of charged energy and the cumulative amount of consumed energy. We derive upper and lower bounds on the remaining energy level based on a stochastic energy charging rate and a stochastic energy discharging rate. By building the bridge between energy consumption and task execution (i.e., service), we study the QoS guarantee under...

Wu, Kui; Marinakis, Dimitri

2011-01-01

72

Economic aspects and potentials of renewable energy sources in Germany  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

While there is a high theoretical potential for renewable energy sources in Germany, assessing theoretical potentials is more or less like playing with numbers; severe technical shortcomings and economic factors prevent then from being fully achieved. Unsuitable azimuth and slope of roofs, shading, absence of central hot water systems limit the application of collectors. The present storage technology is not suitable for a solar share higher than 50%. Individual space heating is not feasible under local climatic conditions. The broad application of biomass fuels fails because of limited resources. Feeding high amounts of fluctuating electricity generated by wind and photovoltaic systems into utility grids causes stability and storage problems. Insufficient training of installation personnel, lack of incentives for multi-family housing owners and high investment costs hinder the market penetration of renewable energy sources. Drastic cost reductions can only be expected from mass production. Therefore, appropriate policy measures - raised energy prices, as well as, subsidies or tax reliefs are necessary for market breakthrough.

Mannsbart, W.; Reichert, J. (Fraunhofer Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung, Germany (Germany))

1992-01-01

73

Measures to remove impediments to better utilization. Renewable energy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The utilization of renewable energy sources meets with a number of obstacles created in particular by economic framework conditions, regulatory provisions, lengthy administrative procedures, insufficient information, and to some part also to the reluctance of bankers and utilities. This is why an action programme was put underway by the Forum fuer Zukunftsenergien, together with the Berlin-based DIW (German economic research institute) and the Stuttgart-based DLR (German aerospace research institute), financed from public funds of the Federal Ministry of Economics. Under this programme, almost 900 operators of systems for electricity generation from wind power, hydropower, biomass, ambient heat, solar thermal energy and by photovoltaic conversion have been interviewed. Based on the information obtained, the article reveals the existing impediments and proposed action for overcoming the obstacles. (orig.)

1997-01-01

74

Energy models for commercial energy prediction and substitution of renewable energy sources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, three models have been projected namely Modified Econometric Mathematical (MEM) model, Mathematical Programming Energy-Economy-Environment (MPEEE) model, and Optimal Renewable Energy Mathematical (OREM) model. The actual demand for coal, oil and electricity is predicted using the MEM model based on economic, technological and environmental factors. The results were used in the MPEEE model, which determines the optimum allocation of commercial energy sources based on environmental limitations. The gap between the actual energy demand from the MEM model and optimal energy use from the MPEEE model, has to be met by the renewable energy sources. The study develops an OREM model that would facilitate effective utilization of renewable energy sources in India, based on cost, efficiency, social acceptance, reliability, potential and demand. The economic variations in solar energy systems and inclusion of environmental constraint are also analyzed with OREM model. The OREM model will help policy makers in the formulation and implementation of strategies concerning renewable energy sources in India for the next two decades.

Iniyan, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India)]. E-mail: iniyan777@hotmail.com; Suganthi, L. [School of Management, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India); Samuel, Anand A. [Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore 632 014 (India)

2006-11-15

75

Energy models for commercial energy prediction and substitution of renewable energy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, three models have been projected namely Modified Econometric Mathematical (MEM) model, Mathematical Programming Energy-Economy-Environment (MPEEE) model, and Optimal Renewable Energy Mathematical (OREM) model. The actual demand for coal, oil and electricity is predicted using the MEM model based on economic, technological and environmental factors. The results were used in the MPEEE model, which determines the optimum allocation of commercial energy sources based on environmental limitations. The gap between the actual energy demand from the MEM model and optimal energy use from the MPEEE model, has to be met by the renewable energy sources. The study develops an OREM model that would facilitate effective utilization of renewable energy sources in India, based on cost, efficiency, social acceptance, reliability, potential and demand. The economic variations in solar energy systems and inclusion of environmental constraint are also analyzed with OREM model. The OREM model will help policy makers in the formulation and implementation of strategies concerning renewable energy sources in India for the next two decades.

2006-01-01

76

Hybrid Design of Electric Power Generation Systems Including Renewable Sources of Energy  

Science.gov (United States)

With the stricter environmental regulations and diminishing fossil-fuel reserves, there is now higher emphasis on exploiting various renewable sources of energy. These alternative sources of energy are usually environmentally friendly and emit no pollutants. However, the capital investments for those renewable sources of energy are normally high,…

Wang, Lingfeng; Singh, Chanan

2008-01-01

77

CONCERNING EFICIENCY AND REASONABILITY OF USING RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN THE KRASNODAR REGION ?? ????????????? ? ???????????????? ????????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ? ????????????? ????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the article, we introduce the criteria for the estima-tion of energy and economic efficiency of renewable energy sources as well as of its application and using in the Krasnodar region. Also hereby the main goals are examined and the plan of development of renew-able energy in the region is proposed

Grigorash O. V.; Tropin V. V.; Osykina A. S.

2012-01-01

78

Capitalization of renewable energy sources: Romanian case studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the major challenges of the recent integration of Romania in the European Union is the extension of use, at national scale, of Renewable Energy Sources (RES). Targeting private operators and municipalities, authors have as objective to deliver an investigation on the interesting 'Acquis' in financing and implementing RES projects in Romania. Using as method of investigation the accurate screening of their experience as well as the extended international experience in the field, authors have reviewed in the present paper different possibilities in RES investment financing, frequent obstacles and barriers, and ways for overcoming them. Recent results are motivating authors to consider the national experience of an encouraging success and to act towards the capitalization of such investments replication potential to a national and regional scale. (authors)

2007-01-01

79

International Standards to Develop and Promote Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Sources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

International Standards are a powerful tool for disseminating new technologies and good practices, developing global markets and supporting the harmonization of government policies on energy efficiency and renewable sources on a global scale.

NONE

2007-07-01

80

Renewable energy sources. Option for the future; Erneuerbare Energien. Einstieg in die Zukunft  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ensurance of a reliable, economical and environmental friendly energy supply is a major challenge of the 21st century. Renewable energy will play a central role. Under this aspect, the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) reported on the strategy and goals of the Federal Government. Other chapters deal with the contribution of renewable energy sources to the energy supply, funding instruments of the Federal Government, research and development of renewable energy sources, costs and benefits of developing renewable energy sources, systems integration and transformation, developments in the European Union and worldwide.

NONE

2011-11-15

 
 
 
 
81

The EIB and the financing of renewable energy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] As a financial institution o the European Union, The European Investment Bank is working and to add substance to the commitments made by the Union and its Member States at Kyoto and subsequently at Johannesburg. Over the last two years, renewable energy sources have attracted funding of more than 1.1 billion from the bank, equivalent to 14% of the total loans granted to the energy sector 7.8 billion), compared to an average o 7.9 % over the previous five years. In order to obviate the detrimental characteristics presented by these investments from a financial viewpoint, in March, 2004 the bank set up a 'CCFF' (Climate Change Financing Facility) of 500 million. Additionally, along with the other financial institutions, the EIB is looking into he possibility of supporting the establishment of European carbon credit trading hubs. Where the economic assessment of these projects is concerned, the bank has decided to take account of external environmental and technological factors when calculating the internal profitability levels for renewable energy projects. Moreover, in order to deal with the problem of who exactly should bear the related risks, the bank is able to offer structured financing. For projects located outside the European Union, venture capital and technical assistance instruments make it possible to promote the emergence of innovative projects. Although we are witnessing the sustained growth of loans from the EIB in this sector, additional efforts still need to be made by the legislature in order to strengthen the framework for such projects including emissions quotas, mechanisms for ensuring the solvency of environmental on-costs and international trading rules adapted to take account of the possible distortion of competition, etc. (author)

2004-01-01

82

The promotion of renewable energy sources: European experiences and steps forward  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigates the instruments used by governments in order to support renewable energy sources in the European Union. The findings of this study reveal that policy goals could be achieved by using a large variety of instruments and renewable energies could be better promoted if policy instruments are harmonized. The study was carried out by combining a wide variety of sources, such as strategies, reports, regulations, and European experiences in promoting renewable energy sources. The methodology and the results reported in this research may be used for designing new, harmonized policy instruments to support renewable energy sources in the European Union.

Andreea ZAMFIR

2009-01-01

83

Energy for survival. Research and development of renewable sources of energy for third world countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy supplies in the developing countries are surveyed (fossil and renewable energy sources). Attention is paid to the main renewable sources: wind, sun, hydraulics and biomass. Energy research should be focussed on all these energy sources. Different R and D stages are indicated: research, development, testing and mass production. An inventory is made of the Dutch research on renewable energy sources and the organizations carrying out these research programs. Finally, some recommendations are given how to perform energy research for the developing countries. Research on wind energy (for water pumping and electric power generation) and biomass (digestion and gasification) can give good results, because good contacts with developing countries and well developed technologies are available in these fields. (A.V.)

1984-01-01

84

Waste-to-energy: A way from renewable energy sources to sustainable development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nowadays, energy is key consideration in discussions of sustainable development. So, sustainable development requires a sustainable supply of clean and affordable renewable energy sources that do not cause negative societal impacts. Energy sources such as solar radiation, the winds, waves and tides are generally considered renewable and, therefore, sustainable over the relatively long term. Wastes and biomass fuels are usually viewed as sustainable energy sources. Wastes are convertible to useful energy forms like hydrogen (biohydrogen), biogas, bioalcohol, etc., through waste-to-energy technologies. In this article, possible future energy utilization patterns and related environmental impacts, potential solutions to current environmental problems and renewable energy technologies and their relation to sustainable development are discussed with great emphasis on waste-to-energy routes (WTERs). (author)

Kothari, Richa [Babasaheb BhimRao Ambedkar University, Lucknow, U.P. (India); Tyagi, V.V.; Pathak, Ashish [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, 110016 (India)

2010-12-15

85

Renewable energy sources in Germany, 1990 through 2007; Erneuerbare Energien in Deutschland 1990 bis 2007  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This brochure presents a picture of the rapid development of renewable energy sources in the years between 1990 and 2007. It shows the rapid growth and informs on the importance of renewable energy sources for climate protection. The new CDU/FDP government headed by Angela Merkel stressed its intention to develop the potential of renewable energy sources. Apart from the effect of higher energy efficiency, this will also help Germany to make an ambitious contribution to climate protection world-wide. Renewable energy sources are to provide the biggest share of power supply in the future. By 2020, the EEG (German Renewables Act) envisages at least a 30 percent share for renewable energy sources as an intermediate goal. In the field of heat supply, at least 14 percent are envisaged fro 2020. (orig./RHM)

Boehme, Dieter; Duerrschmidt, Wolfhart (comps.)

2009-11-15

86

Tax treatment of electricity from renewable energy sources and energy efficiency technologies : an international comparison  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study analyses the attractiveness of tax systems, including tax incentives, depreciation systems and income tax rates, offered for corporate investment in electricity from renewable sources and energy efficiency technologies in Canada and in other industrial countries, such as the United States, Japan, Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal and Switzerland. The report focuses on the tax treatment of certain types of environmentally beneficial investments, particularly investments in electricity from renewable sources and energy efficiency technologies. In the area of electricity from renewable energy sources, wind, solar, geothermal, and small hydro investments have been analyzed. In the area of energy efficiency, the focus was on investments in district energy and cogeneration, and efficiency and conservation in buildings. Tax credits have been found to be the most powerful incentive in most of the countries examined. The most generous tax treatment in all countries was accorded to `electricity from renewable sources`. In particular, wind-generated electricity has been the main beneficiary of income tax-based incentives. Overall, the attractiveness of corporate income tax treatment for renewable energy technology puts Canada in the `middle of the pack`; some countries provide more favorable treatment, some provide less. Compared to the United States, Canada`s attractiveness is significantly lower, particularly in the area of electricity from renewable sources. 14 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

Howatson, A.; Warda, J.

1998-03-01

87

Fuel Cells for Balancing Fluctuation Renewable Energy Sources  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the perspective of using fuel cells for integration of fluctuating renewable energy the SOFCs are the most promising. These cells have the advantage of significantly higher electricity efficiency than competing technologies and fuel flexibility. Fuel cells in general also have the advantage of fa...

Mathiesen, Brian Vad

88

Legislative and policy in energy efficient designing and renewable energy sources: Application in Serbia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper analyses political and legislative frames in the field of energy efficient building and renewable energy sources in planning and implementation in Serbia. „Development strategy until 2015.“ is reviewed in concise portrait. This strategy maps a way for the application of energy services of...

Pucar Mila; Nenkovi?-Rizni? Marina

89

PROSPECTS OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN PROVINCE OF VOJVODINA  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper presents the outcome of the research in the field of energy efficiency improvement and development of the renewable energy sources in province of Vojvodina (Serbia). The summarized results of the paper are: - Potentials for energy efficiency improvement in Vojvodina, - Potentials for development of renewable energy sources in Vojvodina, - Proposal of measures of the energy policy for the promotion of research and development (R and D) which will use local scientific and technical potentials in the field of renewable energy sources and energy efficiency and improve the sustainability on the long run. - Proposal of measures for the energy policy in the domain of renewable energy sources development and energy efficiency and estimation of potentials for improvements by applying proposed measures in order to accomplish established tasks. - Synthesizing findings and proposals in the Action Plan of the Executive Council of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina for the realization of the medium term program as well as the establishment of the monitoring plan for the assessment of program objectives progress. (auth)

Gvozdenac, D.; Ciric, R.; Tesic, M.

2007-07-01

90

Renewable energy sources. European Commission papers; Energies renouvelables. Documents de la Commission Europeenne  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ''Directive on the Promotion of Electricity from Renewable Sources of Energy in the Internal Electricity Market'' was adopted in September 2001. Its purpose is to promote an increase in the contribution of renewable energy sources to electricity production in the internal market for electricity and to create a basis for a future Community framework. Energie-Cites provides in this document a summary of its opinion on the Green Paper and on Alterner II and gives a proposal for an Action Plan concerning the White Paper. (A.L.B.)

NONE

1997-05-01

91

Learning About Renewable Energy  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is the nation's primary laboratory for renewable energy and energy efficiency research and development and their mission is focused on advancing the U.S. Department of Energy's energy goals. As part of their mission, NREL provides educational and informational tools on their website and it is a great source of information on renewable energy basics. Topics available here include: using renewable energy, energy delivery and storage basics, advanced vehicles, fuels basics, and student resources.

2010-03-31

92

Renewable energy source use in Brazil; Utilizacao de energia renovavel no Brasil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article evaluates the programs (PROINFA and CCC) developed by the State to deploy a policy of using renewable energy sources in Brazil, highlighting the biodiesel, which should be inserted in its energy matrix.

Newman, Joseph; Rosa, Fabio, e-mails: jnewman@winrock.org.br, e-mail: fabrosa@terra.com.br

2003-08-15

93

Utilization of Energy Capacitor Systems in Power Distribution Networks with Renewable Energy Sources  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The impact of power fluctuation caused by renewable sources is highly negative. This article discusses the idea of an energy capacitor system (ECS) which regulates the power balance in a distribution system based on Multi-Agent System (MAS). Energy Capacitor system as a storage device plays the main...

Yaser Soliman Qudaih; Takashi Hiyama

94

Panorama 2012 - Marine renewable energy sources: their place in energy policy, projects and players  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Marine energy sources are now a reality in the scientific landscape and, from now on, will be an increasingly important feature of the industry. Driven by public policy and renewable energy development targets, projects are multiplying, and industry players are jostling for maximum advantage in the first bidding rounds. (author)

2011-01-01

95

The Optimal Use of Renewable Energy Sources-The Case of Lemnos Island  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The efficient use of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) is one of the major issues in the modern energy sector. The objective of this work was to examine the potential of wind energy, solar energy (e.g. photovoltaics), biomass energy sources to meet the current energy use in the island of Lemnos in Greece. An optimisation methodology was applied to the energy system of the island, where various Renewable Energy Sources are abundant and could be exploited to satisfy part of the island's energy needs. An optimization model has been developed having as an objective the satisfaction of Lemnos Island energy needs from Renewable Energy Sources taking into consideration a multiplicity of criteria such as environmental impacts, energy demand, energy cost, and resources availability. A series of solutions have resulted, based on deterministic model runs, providing decision makers the flexibility to choose the appropriate solution based on the given situation.

Koroneos, C.; Xydis, George

2012-01-01

96

A potential of utilizing renewable energy sources and the state support in Slovakia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The renewable energy sources are domestic sources of energy that help to enhance the safety of energy supplies and the diversification of energy sources. The utilization of such sources complies with the environmental acceptability requirement and leads to a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. The renewable energy is proved to be commercially viable for a growing list of consumers and uses. The renewable energy technologies provide many benefits that go well beyond the energy alone. More and more, the renewable energies contribute to the three pillars of the sustainable development in the economy, environment and the society.Several renewable energy technologies are established in world markets, building global industries and infrastructures. Other renewables become competitive in growing markets, and some are widely recognised as the lowest cost option for stand-alone and offgrid applications. An increased utilization of renewable energy sources in the heat and electricity generation is one of priority tasks of the Slovak Republic to boost the use of domestic energy potential and thus to decrease the Slovakia’s dependence on imported fossil fuels.

Lívia Bodonská; Patrícia Repaská

2007-01-01

97

The future of renewable energy sources in Romania  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Assuming that RES developments are in line with the indicative targets of the EU Directive for 2010 and that the present support mechanisms applied to EU-15 in the year 2001 remain unchanged at that time, the total RES payments in 2010 for the EU-15 countries using direct support for RES can be estimated at EURO 22 billion, with prices ranging from 2.7 EUROc/kWh in Finland to 9 EUROc/kWh in Germany and Luxembourg, and 11.9 EUROc/kWh in Italy with a weighted average of 6.8 EUROc/kWh. Compared to average wholesale electricity market price, RES support in EU-15 countries in 2010 would amount to 13.3 %, varying between 2.6% in Belgium to about 56% in Denmark. In case of EU-15 countries using only feed-in tariffs to promote RES, the weighted average of RES direct support is 17% If the existing RES direct support schemes continue to 2010 (including feed-in tariffs), this will result in a very substantial level of expenditure, with a significant impact on the average level of European electricity prices, with very significant variability and thus potential market distortions between countries. Romanian Governmental Decision No. 443/2003 aimed to the harmonization of the national legislative framework with EU Directive. The harmonization of Romanian legislative framework with European Union regulation concerning the promotion of renewable resources has to contribute to new renewable resources penetration into the electricity market. The development of the EU green electricity market could offer good opportunities for Romania. The harmonization of Romanian legislative framework with European Union regulation concerning the promotion of renewable resources has to contribute to new renewable resources penetration into the electricity market. The important share of large hydroelectricity generated in Romania could represent a good opportunity for Romania to participate in the EU green electricity market, but the key problem in Romania's case is the target of 12.5 % of RES-E in 2010 without large hydroelectricity. The Romania's accession to EU could mean the acceptance to increase the share of renewable in the next years. Such a request, involving the real implementation of schemes for RES support could be very difficult, taking into account the low supportability to increase the electricity price in Romania. Promotion of renewable resources in Romania needs not only legislative support, but financial and economic ones. The essential market and non-market barriers to sustainable renewable energy penetration to the market have to be identified and specific policies and strategies designed to overcome them

98

Renewable Energy: Capstone  

Science.gov (United States)

This is the culminating activity in the series of lessons on renewable energy. It serves to reinforce the idea that renewable sources of energy are necessary for a sustainable fuure, and to discuss some of the present impacts and potential drawbacks to renewable energy. In the activity, sudents will use online resources to research their present energy consumption and investigate whether it could economically be replaced by renewable sources.

Pratte, John

99

Innovative utilization of renewable energy sources to combat climate change  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Global warming has become a difficult challenge for both legislators and technologists. The need to reduce atmospheric CO{sub 2} has resulted in several new global and local agreements (the Kyoto protocol, Bali agreement etc., EU-emission trading directive) all driving tightening environmental legislation. /1/ Foster Wheeler as a global supplier of power equipment, has taken the challenge to respond to these environmental, social and political challenges. Products such as state-of-the-art boilers and gasifiers for heat and electricity generation from biomass are offered and further developed. Generally, biomass is considered to be a clean renewable energy source. Emissions are lower when firing biomass instead of fossil fuel, and the amount of SO{sub 2} released to the atmosphere is minimal due to the low sulfur content of the fuel. Life-cycle CO{sub 2} emissions are zero. /2/ Even though biomass can locally have a fairly large contribution in energy production, it will not be a global solution alone to mitigate the climate problem. Biomass currently accounts for about 10 % of world primary energy use, two thirds of which is used for small scale cooking and heating in developing countries. Biomass production is subject to a range of sustainability constraints, such deforestation etc. Coal will remain an important source for energy also in the future. Therefore it is important to develop clean coal solutions. The first, already existing solutions is to burn coal in high efficiency large Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boilers and cofire biomass. This way the biomass can be burned with much better efficiency than in small biomass fired plants. The co-firing of biomass in CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage) power plant will even enable a carbon negative solution for coal firing. The future solution will be CCS. A possible future solution to combat global warming and ensure sustainable power production can be large power plants fuelled by algae combined with CCS. Algae grows faster than any other plant, and as it grows it consumes CO{sub 2}. When the algae is combusted in a power plant with CCS. the CO{sub 2}consumed from the atmosphere will end up stored underground. /8/ Foster Wheeler developes its CFB technology (Flexi-Burn TM) for oxyfuel combustion for CCS. The Flexi-Burn technology will enable also biomass cofiring for carbon negative power production. The effort in developing the new, more advanced technologies to quickly reduce atmospheric CO{sub 2} is huge and cannot be managed by the equipment suppliers and power companies alone. It will require political and financial support from EU and local governments. Research and development work in universities, research institutes and companies as well the demonstrations of the technologies in large, industrial scale must increase and need additional public funding in order to research the set targets to reduce CO{sub 2} production. (orig.)

Harju-Jeantly, T.; Nuortio, K.; Hotta, A.; Coda-Zabetta, E.; Palonen, J.; Kokki, S. (Foster Wheeler Energia Oy, Varkaus (Finland)), Email: kalle.nuortimo@fwfin.com, Email: arto.hotta@fwfin.com, Email: juha.palonen@fwfin.com, Email: sami.kokki@fwfin.com

2009-07-01

100

National Renewable Energy Laboratory: Learning About Renewable Energy  

Science.gov (United States)

This site describes National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) research into renewable energy technologies and provides information on energy efficiency and various applications of renewable energy. Topics include the major categories of renewable energy (biomass, geothermal, solar, and wind); how renewable energy technologies can be used by consumers and providers; and how renewable energy can be stored and delivered. There is also information on advanced transportation technologies and links to a variety of educational resources for students about renewable energy sources and technologies.

 
 
 
 
101

An assessment of exploiting renewable energy sources with concerns of policy and technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent years, the Taiwanese government has vigorously promoted the development of renewable energy to engage the challenges of gradual depletion of fossil fuels and oil, as well as the intensification of the greenhouse effect. Since the Sustainable Energy Policy Principles were announced in 2008, Taiwanese government has declared that the development of renewable energy should take into account goals that pertain to energy, the environment, and the economy (3E goals). This study aims to assess the 3E goals and renewable energy sources regulated by the Renewable Energy Development Bill that passed in 2009. The fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) is used to resolve the multi-goal problem for achieving our research purposes. That is, this research attempts to reveal the suitable renewable energy sources for the purposes of meeting the 3E policy goals. The results first show that environmental goal is the most important to the development of various renewable energy technologies in Taiwan, followed by the economic and energy goals. Additionally, hydropower, solar energy, and wind energy would be the renewable energy sources utilized in meeting the 3E policy goals.

2010-01-01

102

Environmental impacts evaluation associated to renewable sources of energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As time goes by, the need for electricity increases and creates several problems to mankind. Health and environmental problems happens wherever a power plant arises. For many people the best option for these problems is to invest in energy alternative sources, such as solar and wind. But unfortunately this sources also generates some environmental and health damages. The objective of this work is to analyze the impacts of these energy sources, to review their utilization all over the world and to discuss its relevance in the global energy market. To make a comparative evaluation, the nuclear option will also be analyzed. (author)

Ferreira, Vinicius Verna M.; Aronne, Ivan D.; Santos, Rosana A.M. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: vvmf@cdtn.br, e-mail: aroneid@cdtn.br, e-mail: zaninhameneses@pop.com.br

2009-07-01

103

Rural population and renewable energy sources: Experiences of the Republic of Serbia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During the last decade of the twentieth century the use of green (renewable) energy has become the imperative not only in developed countries worldwide, but also in poorer countries like Asia and Africa. The change from traditional to renewable energy sources carries valuable improvements in environmental protection and economic efficacy. This paper through individual examples, explores the possibility of replacing traditional with renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, geothermal, energy of small hydroelectric power plants, etc. worldwide and in rural Serbian communities.

Pucar Mila; Nenkovi? Marina

2006-01-01

104

Future prospects for renewable energy sources in a global frame  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this study has been to evaluate the possibilities of some new energy sources (solar, wind) in the future world energy supply. We intend to prepare future projections accounting for limitations in infrastructure, time and material inputs. One underlying assumption in the analyses is that new technologies will see an early market introduction in the near future which would continue up to year 2020. During these 30 years, there will still be technological developments leading to a much better manufacturability, mass production, and hence reduced costs. In year 2020, the industrial and economic infrastructure of new energy sources would be mature for a major penetration into the world energy market starting to substitute existing energy sources mainly for environmental reasons. This scenario will be suported by more factual information and data in the following chapters. Each new energy technology will be handled separately. (Quittner)

1992-01-01

105

Comparison study between a Renewable Energy Supply System and a supergrid for achieving 100% from renewable energy sources in Islands  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Numerous efforts have been done for achieving the maximum penetration of renewable energy sources (RESs) in the autonomous grids of Greek islands, which never exceeded 10%, despite the exceptional wind and solar potential. Large fluctuations on demand during summer, winter, and 24-h period in combination with the technical restrictions of diesel generators of the existing conventional power stations are a major concern of power supply system. Reversing the roles of diesel generators and wind farms (WFs), to use WF as the basic energy source and diesel generators as stand-by system changed in fact the whole philosophy of energy supply systems in islands and created perspectives for the fundamental reformation of the conventional energy supply systems in autonomous grids. In fact, methods of contemporary interim medium term energy storage are investigated for hybrid systems in order to adjust the stochastic behavior of wind energy to the demand, to provide the system with guaranteed power. This Wind–Hydro Plants in combination with the most adequate RES forming an Renewable Energy Supply System (RESS), increase further the economical penetration of RES into autonomous grids up to 90% or even 100% and simultaneously reduce drastically the fuel costs. Furthermore, a supergrid is examined and compared with RESS as another efficient way for achieving higher penetration of RES.

Xydis, George

2013-01-01

106

Renewable energy sources in Senegal: Energy for development?; Erneuerbare Energien im Senegal: Welche Energien braucht Entwicklung?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Only about 8 percent of the rural population in Senegal have access to electric power. A concessional contract model is to raise this figure to more than 30 percent by 2015. The contribution discusses the chances of renewable energy sources. (orig.)

Kebir, N. [MicroEnergy-Project (Germany). Bereich Energieversorgung in Strukturschwachen Regionenn

2005-09-15

107

Renewable energy sources in the energy system. Vedvarende energikilder i energisystemet; Systemanalyse  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim was to contribute to the development of a general model which could be used for calculating the reduction in fossil fuels consumption that could be achieved within a given energy system where a determinable extent of utilization of renewable energy sources took place. The method of analysis, a cumputerized model, is summarized and the results of the analyses are presented and discussed. Aspects concerning environmental impacts and energy conservation are included. (AB).

Illum, K.; Lund, H.; Maeng, H.

1990-06-15

108

Renewable Energy  

Science.gov (United States)

In this lesson, students are introduced to the five types of renewable energy resources by engaging in various activities to help them understand the transformation of energy (solar, water and wind) into electricity. Students explore the different roles engineers who work in renewable energy fields have in creating a sustainable environment â an environment that contributes to greater health, happiness and safety.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

109

Overview of renewable energy sources in the Republic of the Sudan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sudan is an agricultural country with fertile land, plenty of water resources, livestock, forestry resources and agricultural residues. An overview of the energy situation in Sudan is introduced with reference to the end uses and regional distribution. Energy sources are divided into two main types: conventional energy (biomass, petroleum products and electricity) and non-conventional energy (solar, wind, hydro, etc.). Sudan possesses a relatively high abundance of solar radiation, moderate wind speeds, hydro and biomass energy resources. Application of new and renewable sources of energy available in Sudan is now a major issue in strategic planning for alternatives to fossil fuels to provide part of local energy demand. Sudan is an important case study in the context of renewable energy. It has a long history of meeting its energy needs through renewables. Sudan's renewables portfolio is broad and diverse, due in part to the country's wide range of climates and landscapes. Like many of the African leaders in renewable energy utilisation, Sudan has a well-defined commitment to continue research, development and implementation of new technologies. Sustainable low-carbon energy scenarios for the new century emphasise the untapped potential of renewable resources. Rural areas of Sudan can benefit from this transition. The increased availability of reliable and efficient energy services stimulates new development alternatives. Renewable environmentally friendly energy must be encouraged, promoted, implemented and demonstrated, for use in the Republic of the Sudan. (Author)

Omer, A.M.

2002-06-01

110

Application of renewable energy sources in the Greek Islands of the South Aegean Sea  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of renewable energy sources is a fundamental factor for a responsible energy policy in the future. Taking into account the sustainable character of the majority of renewable energy technologies, they are able to preserve resources and to provide security, diversity of energy supply and services, virtually without environmental impact. The present paper deals with the description of several applications of renewable energy sources in the area of the South Aegean Sea islands. The potential of the most important forms of renewable energy such as solar and wind energy, biomass, photovoltaics and geothermal energy, is investigated and analysed for the majority of the South Aegean Sea islands, while alternative scenarios are assessed and discussed. (Author)

Mihalakakou, G.; Santamouris, M. [Athens Univ., Central Inst. for Energy Efficiency Education, Dept. of Physics, Athens (Greece); Psiloglou, B. [National Observatory of Athens, Inst. of Meteorology and Physics of the Atmospheric Environment, Athens (Greece); Nomidis, D. [Ministry of Development, Athens (Greece)

2002-05-01

111

Guide to funding sources for renewable energy in schools and colleges  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This guide has been designed specifically to identify sources of funding for renewable energy projects in schools, such as a wind generator or a solar water heating system. It is intended for teachers or Friends of associations. (author)

NONE

2000-07-01

112

Renewable energy sources - goals and tasks of the European Union  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the last years the significant improvement in the use of reversible energy sources (RES) contributes to the decreasing of the European Union (EU) dependence on fuel import. The European Commission strategy presented in the White Book called 'The energy of future - reversible energy sources' foresees 12% of the primary energy consumption about 2010 to be covered by RES. In the paper a comparison between the current trends and targets defined in the White Book for solar energy, photovoltaic systems, biomass and wind energy is presented. A data for the installed solar collectors and wind generators in some EU countries are shown. It is concluded that Bulgaria has a substantial potential of RES and should fully use it

113

The integration of renewable energy sources into electric power transmission systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Renewable energy technologies such as photovoltaics, solar thermal power plants, and wind turbines are nonconventional, environmentally attractive sources of energy that can be considered for electric power generation. Many of the areas with abundant renewable energy resources (very sunny or windy areas) are far removed from major load centers. Although electrical power can be transmitted over long distances of many hundreds of miles through high-voltage transmission lines, power transmission systems often operate near their limits with little excess capacity for new generation sources. This study assesses the available capacity of transmission systems in designated abundant renewable energy resource regions and identifies the requirements for high-capacity plant integration in selected cases. In general, about 50 MW of power from renewable sources can be integrated into existing transmission systems to supply local loads without transmission upgrades beyond the construction of a substation to connect to the grid. Except in the Southwest, significant investment to strengthen transmission systems will be required to support the development of high-capacity renewable sources of 1000 MW or greater in areas remote from major load centers. Cost estimates for new transmission facilities to integrate and dispatch some of these high-capacity renewable sources ranged from several million dollars to approximately one billion dollars, with the latter figure an increase in total investment of 35%, assuming that the renewable source is the only user of the transmission facility.

Barnes, P.R.; Dykas, W.P.; Kirby, B.J.; Purucker, S.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Lawler, J.S. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

1995-07-01

114

Renewable energy sources: Perspectives for power generation. 2. ed.; Erneuerbare Energien - Perspektiven fuer die Stromerzeugung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The book outlines the current climate situation and the national and international development scenarios for renewable energy sources. It presents the current state of the art of the various technologies, the use of renewable energy sources in buildings, and the legal fundamentals of the EEG with regard to grid connection, grid expansion, financial aspects in general and reimbursement for solar power in particular. (orig./RHM)

Boehmer, Till; Weissenborn, Christoph (eds.)

2009-07-01

115

Renewable energy sources in European energy supply and interactions with emission trading  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper presents a model-based approach, which allows to determine the optimised structure and operation of the EU-15 electricity supply under different political and economic framework conditions, with a focus on the integration of renewable energy sources for electricity generation (RES-E) in the EU-15 countries. The approach is designed to take into account the characteristics of power production from both renewable and conventional sources, including the technological and economic characteristics of existing plants as well as those of future capacity expansion options. Beyond that, fuel supply structures are modelled, as well as the international markets for power and CO2-certificates with their restrictions. Thus, a profound evaluation of the exploitation of mid-term renewable potentials and an assessment of the market penetration of the various renewable power generation technologies under the (normative) premise of a cost-optimised evolution of the power system becomes possible. Results show that a promotion of renewable energies reduces the scarcity of CO2-emission allowances and thus lowers marginal costs of CO2 reduction up to 30% in 2030. Despite the higher overall costs, a diversification of the energy resource base by RES-E use is observed, as primarily natural gas and nuclear fuels are replaced.

2010-01-01

116

Expected Rates of Renewable Energy Sources in Meeting of Energy Demands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Taking the expected growth of the world’s population and the estimated technological development and increase in living standards into account, the paper forecasts energy demands. On the basis of the actual production data of 380-400 EJ.year-1 in 2000 and data in publications, the author assumes the total energy demand to be 750-800 EJ.year-1 for 2030, 600-1,000 EJ.year-1 for 2050 and 900-3,600 EJ.year-1 for 2100. The author analyses the appearance of the different energy types in the history of mankind giving the specific heat content and heating value of the different fuels. The environmental advantages, disadvantages, technical and economic limits of application involved in the use of primary renewable energy sources are also dealt with. The analysis of the data in the different prognoses in publications gives the result that fossil fuels will meet 84-85 % of the total energy demand until 2030 in the foreseeable future. In 2050, the fossil rate may be 50-70 % and the rate of renewables may amount to 20-40 %. In 2100, the maximum fossil rate may be 40-50 % with a 30-60 % maximum rate of renewables. On the basis of the results of investigation, the general conclusion may be that the realistically exploitable amount of renewable energy sources is not so unlimitedly high as many suppose. Therefore, it is an illusion to expect that the replacement or substitution of mineral fuels and nuclear energy can be solved relying solely on renewable energies.

Ferenc Kovács

2007-01-01

117

On the physics of power, energy and economics of renewable electric energy sources - Part II  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Renewable Energy Technologies (RETs) are often recognized as less competitive than traditional electric energy conversion systems. Obstacles with renewable electric energy conversion systems are often referred to the intermittency of the energy sources and the relatively high maintenance cost. However, due to an intensified discourse on climate change and its effects, it has from a societal point of view, become more desirable to adopt and install CO2 neutral power plants. Even if this has increased the competitiveness of RETs in a political sense, the new goals for RET installations must also be met with economical viability. We propose that the direction of technical development, as well as the chosen technology in new installations, should not primarily be determined by policies, but by the basic physical properties of the energy source and the associated potential for inexpensive energy production. This potential is the basic entity that drives the payback of the investment of a specific RET power plant. With regard to this, we argue that the total electric energy conversion system must be considered if effective power production is to be achieved, with focus on the possible number of full loading hours and the Degree of Utilization. This will increase the cost efficiency and economical competitiveness of RET investments, and could enhance faster diffusion of new innovations and installations without over-optimistic subsidies. This paper elaborates on the overall problem of the economy of renewable electric energy conversion systems by studying the interface between physics, engineering and economy reported for RET power plants in different scientific publications. The core objective is to show the practical use of the Degree of Utilization and how the concept is crucial for the design and economical optimization disregarding subsidies. The results clearly indicate that the future political regulative frameworks should consider the choice of renewable energy source since this strongly affects the economical output from the RET power plants. (author)

2010-01-01

118

QUESTIONABLE DEVELOPMENT OF REGULATION OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN THE EUROPEAN UNION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article focuses on the development and current situation of renewableenergy sources in the European Union in a sphere of Energy law. Energy is a keysector in the European Community which becomes increasingly integrated bothpolitically and economically. Renewable energy sources have nowadays a greatimportance and big volume of legislation highly affects member states of the EuropeanUnion. Article concerns the development of Renewable Energy policy in EuropeanUnion and stress importance of many strategic documents which laid down thefoundation of European Energy law legislation. Article also deals with directive2001/77/EC and directive 2009/28/EC. Both directives establish a common frameworkfor the use of energy from renewable energy sources primarily in order to limitgreenhouse gas emissions and to promote cleaner transport.

PETR FLASAR

2011-01-01

119

Covering of heating load of object by using ground heat as a renewable energy source  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rational use of energy, improving energy performance of buildings and use of renewable energy sources are the most important measures for reducing consumption of non-renewable primary energy (solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels), environmental protection and for the future sustainable development of mankind. In the total primary energy consumption great part is related to building industry, for heating spaces in which people stay and live. Renewable energy sources (RES) present natural resources and they are one of the alternatives that allow obtaining heat for heating buildings, and by that they provide a significant contribution to the energy balance of a country. This paper analyzes the participation of ground source as RES, when the vertical (the probe in the ground) and horizontal (registry in the ground) heat exchangers are used for covering heating load of the building.

?enejac Aleksandra R.; Bjelakovi? Radivoje M.; An?elkovi? Aleksandar S.; ?akovi? Damir D.

2012-01-01

120

Evaluation of Renewable Energy Sources and Sustainable Development Planning of Turkey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyse the possibility of using of the renewable energy sources and to find out the using for solving environmental problems in Turkey. Because at present, the preference of energy systems should be made according environmental conditions for sustainable development. The renewable energy resources, with having an important share in the sustainable development of Turkey constitute this studies` material. In this study also, the native and foreign literatures, related to use of non-renewable sources and landscape planning studies, were used as a materials. The study was carried out in some stages by collecting and analyzing data. Natural and cultural properties were also determined by surveys and data obtaining and on-site observation and measurement. The importance of the primary energy production and consumption of Turkey were emphasised. Throughout the paper several issues relating to renewable energy, environment and sustainable development are examined from both current and future perspectives in Turkey.

Ruya Yilmaz

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Power Quality Enhancement of Distributed Network fed with Renewable Energy Sources based on Interfacing Inverter  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Renewable energy technologies such asphotovoltaics, solar thermal electricity using dish-stirlingsystems, and wind turbine power are environmentallyadvantageous sources of energy that can be considered forelectric power generation. The expenses of renewable energytechnologies have decreased in recent years, so that anever-increasing number of applications can be economicallyjustified by utilities. The integration of generation fromrenewable energy sources into electric power distributionsystems is a reasonable way for electric utilities to applyrenewable energy resources, since it places the sources nearthe load w i t h more efficient operation. The interfacing inverteris controlled to perform as a multi-function device byincorporating active power filter functionality and this inverter isused to inject power generated from Renewable Energy Sources tothe grid. The objectives of this paper is to develop an assessmentmethodology for renewable energy electric generation andenergy storage facilities integrated into electric powerdistribution systems which addresses the distributed benefits ofelectricity generation from renewable sources and their true valueto the system, and to apply the methodology in case studies. Therenewable energy sources which are interconnected todistributed network with interfacing power electronic inverter isanalyzed for power quality enhancement by usingMATLAB/SIMULINK software.

Mr.R.Murali,; Mr. P.Nagasekhara Reddy,; Mrs. B. Asha Kiran,

2013-01-01

122

People’s Perceptions on Renewable Energy Sources Penetration Prospects in the Khorezm Province, Uzbekistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The energy sectors of fossil fuel-rich Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan are heavily dependent on non-renewable resources. The abundance of these resources acts as a retardant the process of energy diversification in the above mentioned Central Asian states. Nevertheless, the future diversification of energy sources is an inevitable process due to many reasons; man-made climate change, the need for transition to reliable and secure energy sources and availability of a vast potential for renewable energy generation being the most important ones.

Bahtiyor R. ESHCHANOV; Mona GRINWIS PLAAT STULTJES; Ruzumboy A. ESHCHANOV; Sanaatbek K. SALAEV

2011-01-01

123

A Kalina power cycle driven by renewable energy sources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present paper investigates a Kalina cycle using low-temperature heat sources to produce power. The main heat source of the cycle is provided from flat solar collectors. In addition, an external heat source is connected to the cycle, which corresponds to 5% up to 10% of the total thermal energy supplied to the cycle. The cycle operates at low pressure levels (0.2-4.5 bar) and low maximum temperature (130 C). The NH{sub 3} mass fraction at the turbine inlet varies along with the expansion pressure and the effects on the cycle efficiency are studied. For given conditions, an optimum range of vapor mass fractions and operating pressures can be identified that result in optimum cycle performance. Simple equations have been derived that link the operational parameters with the independent variables as well as with the cycle efficiency. (author)

Lolos, P.A.; Rogdakis, E.D. [Laboratory of Applied Thermodynamics, Department of Thermal Engineering, School of Mechanical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Heroon Polytechniou Street, Zografou Campus, 15780 Athens (Greece)

2009-04-15

124

Information systems and technology transfer programs on geothermal energy and other renewable sources of energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to remain competitive, it is necessary to stay informed and use the most advanced technologies available. Recent developments in communication, like the Internet and the World Wide Web, enormously facilitate worldwide data and technology transfer. A compilation of the most important sources of data on renewable energies, especially geothermal, as well as lists of relevant technology transfer programs are presented. Information on how to gain access to, and learn more about them, is also given.

Lippmann, M.J.; Antunez, E.

1996-01-01

125

Information systems and technology transfer programs on geothermal energy and other renewable sources of energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to remain competitive it is necessary to stay informed and use the most advanced technologies available. Recent developments in communication, like the Internet and the World Wide Web, enormously facilitate worldwide data and technology transfer. A compilation of the most important sources of data on renewable energies, especially geothermal, as well as lists of relevant technology transfer programs are presented. Information on how to gain access to, and learn more about them is also given.

Lippmann, Marcelo J.; Antunez, Emilio u.

1996-01-24

126

Nuclear energy, its social impact to the environment. The renewable energy sources, a viable alternative  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors present arguments against nuclear energy and pro renewable energy sources. Thus, the water used in Uranium mining and primary ore processing becomes contaminated in long lived radioisotopes and so a threat for local ecosystems and communities. Then, during the fabrication, enrichment, and handling of nuclear fuel the workers are exposed to radiations and dangerous accidental radioactive leaks can occur. But, by far, the most menacing aspect of nuclear power exploitation remains the human errors in operating the nuclear plants which can result in major accidents like that from Chernobyl which spread radioactivity all over the Europe. The equipment used in nuclear facilities which is highly contaminated as well as the burned fuel implies transportation and long term storage which also present high risks. The major advantage of the nuclear energy consists in its very low environment impact and its null contribution to the greenhouse effect. In contrast, the renewable energy sources appear to be both increasingly cheaper and more safe for man and environment. The authors present a list of twelve major advantages pleading in favour of development of renewable energy technology

1996-03-15

127

Evaluation of water mills as a source of renewable energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The hydropower in Himachal Pradesh at micro level can be harnessed by tapping the water energy at the various sites, where sufficient quantity of water and a drop of 2-4 m is available in a tributary, which save the commercial energy used for agro industries. Presently, a number of water mills in the Kangra valley are in operation for running various agro-based machines by utilizing the source of water as energy. Keeping this in view, the vertical and horizontal water mills installed in the Palampur area of district Kangra have been studied to compare their advantages, energy saving, functioning, constraints, and problems faced by the beneficiaries. It is observed that a number of operations can be performed by the horizontal water mill with the help of various machines, such as flour mill, rice huller, oil expeller, etc., while only one machine, i.e., flour mill, can be successfully run by the vertical water mill. Though the installation cost of the horizontal water mill is high in comparison to the vertical water mill, it can be suitable for installing domestic agro-based industries which will provide employment to unemployed rural educated youth. The savings in the form of electrical energy will be as much as 1.3 MW and 2.6 MW per month with the adoption of vertical and horizontal water mills, respectively. (author)

Singh, S.P.; Goel, A.K.; Vatsa, D.K.

2001-04-01

128

Public utilities with renewable energy sources. Proceedings; Stadtwerke mit Erneuerbaren Energien. Konferenzband  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Decentral power supply from renewable energy sources opens up new perspectives for communities and their utilities. It provides added value and new jobs and ensures sustainable power supply and climate protection. Increasingly, municipal utilities are changing from power providers to modern providers of energy services. This was the background of the 5th conference of EUROSOLAR e.V. and HSE AG. Among others, the following subjects were discussed: Life-span extension of nuclear power plants: Will this political decision have negative effects on competition? How do power grids get smart? What is the role of municipal utilities in the development of electromobility? How can communities achieve sustainable power supply - hints for founding municipal utilities. What chances are opened up by recommunalisation of power supply? What is the contribution of renewable energy sources to communal added value? What strategies for the development of renewable energy sources are employed by municipal utilities?.

NONE

2011-07-01

129

The potential of battery energy storage for grid connected domestic renewable sources of energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The continuous fluctuations in oil prices together with the recent nuclear disaster in Japan have triggered a new way of looking at alternatives to cope with the future energy demands. Such disasters will leave without power even those who have decided to give a valid input by investing in a grid connected renewable source of energy. Such sources of energy, which are clearly on the increase, are also creating an ever increasing need for ensuring stability and this has been controlled to some extent with the drive towards self consumption. All this is creating a higher interest and scope of having some sort of battery energy storage. In this paper, the results presented at the last IRES, will first of all be extended to analyse the effects of energy measures taken on isolated small grids such as Malta with particular focus on the effect of further photovoltaic penetration.

Cilia, Joseph [Malta Univ. (Malta); Scicluna, Mark; Azzopardi, Neville; Merz, Klaus Dieter; Mentzer, Bjoern [ABERTAX (Malta)

2011-07-01

130

Citizens’ preferences on nuclear and renewable energy sources: Evidence from Turkey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Based on data from a face-to-face survey of 2422 residents from urban Turkey, this paper presents an analysis of citizens’ preferences in Turkey on nuclear and renewable energy sources. Findings indicate that opposition to nuclear power was strong, and only a small number of respondents endorsed it by listing it in their top two choices. Conversely, almost two-thirds of the sample endorsed investment in renewable energy sources (such as wind and solar), and only a small minority was opposed to it. Econometric analyses revealed that knowledge of the climate change problem was a common factor that explained endorsement of both nuclear and renewables. Yet, high levels of concern for the environment and a negative perception regarding its future differentiated the endorsers of renewables from those of nuclear energy. Endorsers of nuclear energy were found to be males who were knowledgeable about climate change and engaged in environmental issues, but less concerned about the environment, and optimistic about its future. Nuclear opponents, on the other hand, were found to be concerned about the environment, pessimistic about its future, and not fully relying on technology. - Highlights: ? We explore determinants of citizens’ preferences for renewable and nuclear energy. ? The analysis is based on a survey conducted in urban Turkey with 2422 respondents. ? Knowledge of climate change is a common factor of renewable and nuclear endorsement. ? Divergences relate to environmental concern and optimism, and reliance on technology. ? Energy conflicts emerge as complex and related to environmental values and attitudes.

2012-01-01

131

Overview of United Nations activities in the development and application of renewable sources of energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy continues to be a major constraint in achieving socio-economic growth in developing countries. Recent studies indicate that current patterns of energy consumption and anticipated growth of demand in developing countries risk becoming unsustainable in the long run and hence countries need to focus on sustainable energy strategies that do not impair their development goals. While the important role renewable sources of energy are destined to play in sustainable development strategies is well recognized by nearly all nations, the development and application of these sources on a wide scale face formidable technical, economic and social challenges. Major national and international efforts are needed to expand the use of renewable energy in order to ensure that future energy systems are sustainable from an environmental perspective. Such efforts are especially needed in building the requisite institutional capacity, decentralized infrastructure, human resource capabilities, technological and production capabilities and above all an enabling environment. The renewable energy development effort will have to assume a sufficient scale and magnitude if it is to serve as an instrument of economic growth and social progress. The United Nations system is well positioned to make an important contribution to developing the strategies needed for this effort and to assisting the developing countries in implementing them. This paper presents recent highlights of the United Nations work in the field of renewable sources of energy and suggests specific initiatives that could be taken to increase the future impact of these energy sources.

Mak, K.N.; Gururaja, J.; Shearer, W. [United Nations, New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Development Support and Management Services

1996-12-31

132

The Investments in Renewable Energy Sources: Do Low Carbon Economies Better Invest in Green Technologies?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyse the driving of investment in renewable energy sources in low carbon and high carbon economies. To address these issues, a dynamic panel analysis of the renewable investment in a sample of 29 countries was proposed. Results demonstrate that the dynamic of investments in renewable sources is similar in the two panels, and depends by nuclear power generation, GDP and technological efficiency. Results show that countries try to reduce their environmental footprint, decreasing the CO2 intensity. Based on the estimation results, we think that energy sustainability passes through the use of renewable resources that can complement the nuclear technology on condition that both exceed their limits.

Antonio Angelo Romano; Giuseppe Scandurra

2011-01-01

133

Research and development as contribution of the Renewable Energy Sources Centre to the wind energy utilization in Slovakia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The expected development of renewable energy sources utilization was not reached in last years in Slovakia. This is caused by some barriers. These barriers decrease the easiness of investments into the Renewable energy sources utilization. We recognize specific barriers for each of renewable energy sources and general barriers for all renewable energy sources. Activities of the Renewable Energy Sources Centre help to eliminate both specific and general barriers in Slovakia. The main activities are: a realization of research projects, working out expertise and feasibility studies, information of public about principals and specifics of the wind energy utilization. How the Renewable Energy Sources Centre encourages of the utilization wind energy can be demonstrated on one of the research projects: The designing a stable standpoint with a sufficient storage tank of wind energy, possibly of compressed air. The wind energy serves as a primary resource when it powers the compressor, which fills the pneumatic accumulator (storage tank of compressed air). The compressed air is at a time of peak endurance consumed from pneumatic accumulators for the work of pneumatic engine, which powers the generator and the produced electric energy is being supplied to the public network. (authors)

2007-01-01

134

Research and development as contribution of the Renewable Energy Sources Centre to the wind energy utilization in Slovakia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The expected development of renewable energy sources utilization was not reached in last years in Slovakia. This is caused by some barriers. These barriers decrease the easiness of investments into the Renewable energy sources utilization. We recognize specific barriers for each of renewable energy sources and general barriers for all renewable energy sources. Activities of the Renewable Energy Sources Centre help to eliminate both specific and general barriers in Slovakia. The main activities are: a realization of research projects, working out expertises and feasibility studies, information of public about principals and specifics of the wind energy utilization. How the Renewable Energy Sources Centre encourages of the utilization wind energy can be demonstrated on one of the research projects: The designing a stable standpoint with a sufficient storage tank of wind energy, possibly of compressed air. The wind energy serves as a primary resource when it powers the compressor, which fills the pneumatic accumulator (storage tank of compressed air). The compressed air is at a time of peak endurance consumed from pneumatic accumulators for the work of pneumatic engine, which powers the generator and the produced electric energy is being supplied to the public network.

Dušan Kudelas; Radim Rybár

2007-01-01

135

POLICIES AND MEASURES FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES AND ACHIEVEMENT OF TARGETS BY 2020 IN CROATIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper is considering set up a longer-term perspective and plan of actions for the development of renewable energy infrastructure in Croatia in accordance with the new Croatian Energy Sector Development Strategy. Overall target till the year 2020 has been calculated in accordance with effort sharing methodology used for Directive 2009/28/EC. The paper presents some main existing policies and measures for achieving this ambitious target, including feed-in tariffs, guarantees of origin, and greenhouse gas emissions taxation. It is addressed the necessity for creating enabling environment for promotion of renewable energy sources and gradually remove barriers for its stronger penetration on the energy market.

Igor Raguzin; Davor Vešligaj; Vladimir Jelavi?

2010-01-01

136

Renewable Energy Trust  

Science.gov (United States)

The Renewable Energy Trust, which was created by the Massachusetts Legislature in 1998, is administered by the Massachusetts Technology Collaborative, a statewide quasi-public economic development agency. The Collaborative "seeks to maximize environmental and economic benefits for the CommonwealthÂs citizens by pioneering and promoting clean energy technologies and fostering the emergence of sustainable markets for electricity generated from renewable sources." The website provides information on the Trust's various programs and activities. The Energy Information section of the website provides more information about renewable energy and suggestions for what energy users can do as well as resources for teaching students about renewable energy and global warming.

137

Renewable Energy Sources in the Frame of New Croatian Energy Laws  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Foreseen changes in the market of network energy systems in the Republic of Croatia, that include restructuring, privatisation and changes in the whole energy sector are going to have significant influence on the possibilities of introduction and use of renewable energy sources (RES). After recognition of Energy Law and three laws on markets (electric energy, gas, oil and oil derivatives) and Energy Activities Regulation Law, there is still a demanding job to be undertaken regarding numerous sub law acts, that are to define precisely all instruments of the state policy considering RES. The application of new laws and sub laws on RES projects in Croatia will create stabile and complete framework through incentive measures that are going to evaluate environmental and all other positive outcomes from RES. In accordance with other European countries Croatia will create a transparent platform to accommodate expected increase in the RES sector.(author)

2001-12-07

138

Summary for Policy Makers: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report Renewable Energy Sources (SRREN)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Working Group III Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation (SRREN) presents an assessment of the literature on the scientific, technological, environmental, economic and social aspects of the contribution of six renewable energy (RE) sources to the mitigation of climate change. It is intended to provide policy relevant information to governments, intergovernmental processes and other interested parties. This Summary for Policymakers provides an overview of the SRREN, summarizing the essential findings. The SRREN consists of 11 chapters. Chapter 1 sets the context for RE and climate change; Chapters 2 through 7 provide information on six RE technologies, and Chapters 8 through 11 address integrative issues.

Arvizu, Dan; Bruckner, Thomas; Christensen, John; Devernay, Jean-Michel; Faaij , Andre; Fischedick, Manfred; Goldstein, Barry; Hansen, Gerrit; Huckerby , John; Jager-Waldau, Arnulf; Kadner, Susanne; Kammen, Daniel; Krey, Volker; Kumar, Arun; Lewis , Anthony; Lucon, Oswaldo; Matschoss, Patrick; Maurice, Lourdes; Mitchell , Catherine; Moomaw, William; Moreira, Jose; Nadai, Alain; Nilsson, Lars J.; Nyboer, John; Rahman, Atiq; Sathaye, Jayant; Sawin, Janet; Schaeffer, Roberto; Schei, Tormod; Schlomer, Steffen; Sims, Ralph; von Stechow, Christoph; Verbruggen, Aviel; Urama, Kevin; Wiser, Ryan; Yamba, Francis; Zwickel, Timm

2011-05-08

139

A support of the renewable source energy utilization and conditions for the biogass station investment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes possibilities of the renewable energy source projects funding and arises an importance of the analysis whichshould be the first step before investing in the generation of energy from renewable sources.The issue of investing in biogas plants is related to particular conditions of the investor. The extent of the investment is never clearand always depends on the company equipment. Therefore, the quality evaluation of the project in the preparatory phase can protectthe investor against a direct damage and disappointment.

Jana Naš?áková; Erik Weiss; Petr ?ervenka; Ladislav Mixtaj; Roland Weiss

2009-01-01

140

Renewable Energy News  

Science.gov (United States)

Renewable Energy News is a comprehensive source which provides world-wide updates on all aspects of renewable energies. The site provides links to organizations and web directories of related products and information. The site is organized in a user-friendly way with issues organized by topic or region. Science, technology, economy energy, and nuclear review are highlighted areas of news.

2007-09-17

 
 
 
 
141

Global warming and renewable energy sources for sustainable development: A case study in Turkey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Renewable energy sources have been important for humans since the beginning of civilization. For centuries and in many ways, biomass has been used for heating and cooking. Many centuries ago mankind was already utilizing the clearly visible power of water for mechanical drive purposes, as was also the case with wind. On the other hand, Turkey, with its young population and growing energy demand per person, its fast growing urbanization, and its economic development, has been one of the fast growing power markets of the world for the last two decades. It is expected that the demand for electric energy in Turkey will be 300 billion kWh by the year 2010 and 580 billion kWh by the year 2020. Turkey is heavily dependent on expensive imported energy resources that place a big burden on the economy and air pollution is becoming a great environmental concern in the country. In this regard, renewable energy resources appear to be the one of the most efficient and effective solutions for clean and sustainable energy development in Turkey. Turkey's geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of most of these renewable energy sources. This article presents a review of the potential and utilization of the renewable energy sources in Turkey. (author)

2008-01-01

142

Renewable energy worldwide outlooks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Because of the demographic growth, there should be an increase of the worldwide energy consumption, which could be assumed by the fossil fuels (coal, petroleum, gas). But carbon dioxide should increase. Nuclear energy should develop but less than provided. The ecological, environmental, worldwide pressures should be strengthened or the economical reinforced development should fit with more growth. There are three forms of renewable energies: hydraulics, biomass, new energies. This energy form consumption is going to increase but the penetration of renewable sources remains very slow. Nevertheless biomass, solar and wind energies are developing the most. The environment and the public opinion must privilege that renewable source development

1992-11-27

143

Municipal solid waste (MSW) as a renewable source of energy: current and future practices in China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

With rapid economic growth and massive urbanization, China faces the problem of municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal and the pressing need for development of alternative energy. Waste-to-energy (WTE) incineration, which recovers energy from discarded MSW and produces electricity and/or steam for heating, is recognized as a renewable source of energy and is playing an increasingly important role in MSW management in China. This article provides an overview of the WTE industry, discusses the major challenges in expanding WTE incineration in China, namely, high capital and operational costs, equipment corrosion, air pollutant emissions, and fly ash disposal. A perspective on MSW as a renewable energy source in China is also presented. Currently, only approximately 13% of MSW generated in China is disposed in WTE facilities. With the significant benefits of environmental quality, the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and government policies and financial incentives as a renewable energy source, WTE incineration industry is expected to experience significant growth in the coming decade and make greater contribution to supplying renewable energy in China.

Cheng H; Hu Y

2010-06-01

144

Potential contributions of renewable energy sources and economically and ecologically feasible development strategies for Nordrhein-Westfalen. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This final technical report of the study contains the important equations and results of the above mentioned project. The main aim of the study was to show the importance of renewable energy in Nordrhein-Westfalen regarding its possible contribution to the energy supply as well as the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions, caused by the convertion of energy. Considering the energy sources photovoltaic, solar heating, wind and biomass, an economically oriented energy mix of renewable energy systems is developed, which describes the most economical combination of renewable energy sources and its production costs in dependence on the converted energy. In this connection a regional disaggregated estimation of the theoretical possible maximum contribution of the single renewable energy sources to the energy supply in the communities of Nordrhein-Westfalen is investigated. Basing on this estimation and on the technical datas of commerical manufactured systems, converting the energy sources sun, wind and biomass, the technical possibilities for an extension of the renewable energy are determined for every community. The result of the examinations shows, that the energy supply in Nordrhein-Westfalen could by based in future on barely a fourth by using renewable energy sources, on barely a third by using energy more efficient and on nearly the half by using fossil and nuclear energy sources. The costs however, which would be connected with an extension of renewable energy sources according to the suggested energy mix, can economical not be accepted in the further future. (orig./UA)

1995-01-01

145

Fuel-efficiency of hydrogen and heat storage technologies for integration of fluctuating renewable energy sources  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper presents the methodology and results of analysing the use of different energy storage technologies in the task of integration of fluctuating renewable energy sources (RES) into the electricity supply. The analysis is done on the complete electricity system including renewable energy sources as well as power plants and CHP (Combined heat and power production). Emphasis is put on the need for ancillary services. Devices to store electricity as well as devices to store heat can be used to help the integration of fluctuating sources. Electricity storage tech- nologies can be used to relocate electricity production directly from the sources, while heat storage devices can be used to relo- cate the electricity production from CHP plants and hereby im- prove the ability to integrate RES. The analyses are done by ad- vanced computer modelling and the results are given as diagrams showing the system ability to integrate RES inputs between 0 and 100 percent of the electricity demand.

Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik

2005-01-01

146

Promotion of electricity produced from renewable energy sources - Strategic objective of the Romania energy policy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper presents different types of support schemes for promoting electricity produced from renewable energy sources in some countries from European Union and details concerning the primary and secondary legislation developed in Romania in the field of promotion of electricity produced from renewable energy sources, making a rehearse of the acts issued. Romania has a clear regulatory framework in the field of promoting E-RES, the green certificates market becoming operational from November 2005, when the first green certificates transaction session organised by SC OPCOM SA took place. With hydro energy being exception from the rule, the Romanian RES potential is almost unused, existing the possibility for promotion some efficient investments in units which produce E-RES, turning to good account to the best emplacements. Although the achievements in using RES are still modest, taking into consideration the attention of numerous investors and the way that the support scheme worked until now, with advantages for the existing E-RES producers, it is expected an acceleration of the rhythm of appearance of new investments. In order to actuate the investors attention, a stronger involvement of the local authorities is necessary, for identifying and promoting the most efficient RES using projects

2006-01-01

147

Stabilization of microgrid with intermittent renewable energy sources by SMES with optimal coil size  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A controller design of a superconducting magnetic energy storage unit is proposed. The structure of a power controller is the practical proportional-integral (PI). The PI parameters and coil size are tuned by a particle swarm optimization. The proposed method is able to effectively alleviate power fluctuations. It is well known that the superconducting coil is the vital part of a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) unit. This paper deals with the power controller design of a SMES unit with an optimal coil size for stabilization of an isolated microgrid. The study microgrid consists of renewable energy sources with intermittent power outputs i.e., wind and photovoltaic. Since power generations from such renewable sources are unpredictable and variable, these result in power fluctuations in a microgrid. To stabilize power fluctuations, a SMES unit with a fast control of active and reactive power can be applied. The structure of a power controller is the practical proportional-integral (PI). Based on the minimization of the variance of power fluctuations from renewable sources as well as the initial stored energy of SMES, the optimal PI parameters and coil size are automatically and simultaneously tuned by a particle swarm optimization. Simulation studies show that the proposed SMES controller with an optimal coil size is able to effectively alleviate power fluctuations under various power patterns from intermittent renewable sources.

2011-01-01

148

Alternative carriers for remote renewable energy sources using existing CNG infrastructure  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Optimal locations of renewable energy sources are often remote relative to consumers and electricity grids. In contrast, some existing CNG pipelines pass through optimal renewable energy harvesting regions. The growing interest in the possibility of using geothermal energy in central Australia has created a need to assess the economic, technical, and environmental viability of converting remote renewable energy to fuel for transport using existing CNG pipelines, and to compare this alternative with that required to construct new high-capacity electricity transmission lines. This assessment is reported, using first the conversion of electricity to hydrogen, and then conversion of the hydrogen to methane. The paper also compares the alternative of direct injection of hydrogen into existing CNG pipelines to create ''hythane'' (HCNG). An economic assessment showed that the relative capital and operating costs are sufficient make the alternative carrier prospect worthy of further consideration. (author)

Dickinson, Robert R.; Nathan, Graham (Gus) J. [School of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Centre for Energy Technology, The University of Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Battye, David L.; Ashman, Peter J. [School of Chemical Engineering, The University of Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Centre for Energy Technology, The University of Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Linton, Valerie M. [School of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia)

2010-02-15

149

Renewable energy sources role in the energy sources diversification process in Slovak republic focused on east Slovakia region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Actually frequently discussed question is the problem of the human energy demand supply. Especially discussed is a problem ofalternative energy devices integration into the existing fuel and energy supply system. For good interpretation of information’s it isnecessary to know specification of energy demand condition in particular branches of industry and energy sector.The subject of this article is to show variability, causality and complex character of the energetics as industry part, which directlydetermine human society progress tempo and direction. The accent was given to the problem of definition of basic requirement ofelectroenergetics, heat supply industry for communal and municipal applications and transport in narrow relation with environmentaland social aspect. Renewable energy sources application is a one of the pillars of strategy for sustainable development.

Radim Rybár; Dušan Kudelas; Slavomír Perunko

2008-01-01

150

Renewable energy sources role in the energy sources diversification process in Slovak Republic focused on east Slovakia region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Actually frequently discussed question is the problem of the human energy demand supply. Especially discussed is a problem of alternative energy devices integration into the existing fuel and energy supply system. For good interpretation of information's it is necessary to know specification of energy demand condition in particular branches of industry and energy sector. The subject of this article is to show variability, causality and complex character of the energetics as industry part, which directly determine human society progress tempo and direction. The accent was given to the problem of definition of basic requirement of electro-energetics, heat supply industry for communal and municipal applications and transport in narrow relation with environmental and social aspect. Renewable energy sources application is a one of the pillars of strategy for sustainable development. (authors)

2008-01-01

151

Promoting electricity from renewable energy sources -- lessons learned from the EU, U.S. and Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The promotion of electricity generated from Renewable Energy Sources (RES) has recently gained high priority in the energy policy strategies of many countries in response to concerns about global climate change, energy security and other reasons. This chapter compares and contrasts the experience of a number of countries in Europe, states in the US as well as Japan in promoting RES, identifying what appear to be the most successful policy measures. Clearly, a wide range of policy instruments have been tried and are in place in different parts of the world to promote renewable energy technologies. The design and performance of these schemes varies from place to place, requiring further research to determine their effectiveness in delivering the desired results. The main conclusions that can be drawn from the present analysis are: (1) Generally speaking, promotional schemes that are properly designed within a stable framework and offer long-term investment continuity produce better results. Credibility and continuity reduce risks thus leading to lower profit requirements by investors. (2) Despite their significant growth in absolute terms in a number of key markets, the near-term prognosis for renewables is one of modest success if measured in terms of the percentage of the total energy provided by renewables on a world-wide basis. This is a significant challenge, suggesting that renewables have to grow at an even faster pace if we expect them to contribute on a significant scale to the world's energy mix.

Haas, Reinhard; Meyer, Niels I.; Held, Anne; Finon, Dominique; Lorenzoni, Arturo; Wiser, Ryan; Nishio, Ken-ichiro

2007-06-01

152

Utilization of Energy Capacitor Systems in Power Distribution Networks with Renewable Energy Sources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The impact of power fluctuation caused by renewable sources is highly negative. This article discusses the idea of an energy capacitor system (ECS) which regulates the power balance in a distribution system based on Multi-Agent System (MAS). Energy Capacitor system as a storage device plays the main role to control the system’s power quality by absorbing the fluctuations. Load Following Operation (LFO) process and coordination control scheme between the ECS and diesel generator have been introduced. Results show the efficient utilization of the ECS based on a special index defined in this paper to evaluate the power fluctuations in the distribution system. The results also show the useful implementation of the control scheme by revealing the capability of keeping the ECS stored energy in the specified range.

Yaser Soliman Qudaih; Takashi Hiyama

2010-01-01

153

Generation of Electricity by Renewable Energy Sources & Transmission of Energy Production Units using PLC & SCADA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ABSTRACTAutomationmeans Delegation of human controlto machine. A PLC (Programmable LogicController) is a device that was invented toreplace the necessary sequential relay circuits formachine control. A SCADA (Supervisory Control& Data Acquisition System) is used to control theprocess where person cannot go or stay for longerperiod. The aim of tis paper is to provideinformation about hoelectricity can be generatedfrom Renewable sources & how its transmissiondone usin automation system. Renewable Energyconsists of energy generated from natural andunlimited sources, which include wind, solar,biomass and hydroelectricity. Programmable logiccontrollers (PLC) can be used for control &automation in Distribution of Energy. The mainreason for this is cost effectiveness. Variousfunctions and controls can be achieved byprogramming the PLC. They can be used for fullplant automation including governing of autooperationincludes speed control, load control,excitation control, and level control automaticstart/stop sequencing, gate control, start/stop ofauxiliary systems, and protection requirement etc.Functions other than control like continuousmonitoring, data recording, instrumentation andprotections can also be performed. For remoteoperation, communication with PLC can beperformed. For continuous monitoring purpose, apersonal computer can be interfaced with PLCand continuous data can be recorded regularly.In this paper I used different methods forgeneration of electricity like wind, PV(photovoltaic), hydro, biogas & distributed usingPLC & controlling using SCADA.

Rahul N Deshmukh ,P.H. Zope ,S.R. Suralkar

2012-01-01

154

Some successful financing mechanisms for energy efficiency projects (EE) and projects using renewable energy sources (RES) - the experience of Bulgaria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper analysis some of the most promising financial mechanisms for energy efficiency (EE) and renewable energy sources (RES) projects in Bulgaria - the TPF mechanism, the KIDS Fund, delivered by the EBRD fund the EE fund of the WB, established on the floor of the EE act, as well as a number of some of the pre accession and European energy programs used for financing this area. All data its rich intensive international and in -home work in the are of energy efficiency and renewable energy sources. (Author)

2004-01-01

155

Renewable energy sources and climate change mitigation. Special report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Climate change is one of the great challenges of the 21st century. Its most severe impacts may still be avoided if efforts are made to transform current energy systems. Renewable energy sources have a large potential to displace emissions of greenhouse gases from the combustion of fossil fuels and thereby to mitigate climate change. If implemented properly, renewable energy sources can contribute to social and economic development, to energy access, to a secure and sustainable energy supply, and to a reduction of negative impacts of energy provision on the environment and human health. This Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation (SRREN) impartially assesses the scientific literature on the potential role of renewable energy in the mitigation of climate change for policymakers, the private sector, academic researchers and civil society. It covers six renewable energy sources - bioenergy, direct solar energy, geothermal energy, hydropower, ocean energy and wind energy - as well as their integration into present and future energy systems. It considers the environmental and social consequences associated with the deployment of these technologies, and presents strategies to overcome technical as well as non-technical obstacles to their application and diffusion. The authors also compare the levelized cost of energy from renewable energy sources to recent non-renewable energy costs. (Author)

Edenhofer, O. (Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK), Potsdam (Germany)); Pichs Madruga, R. (Centro de Investigaciones de la Economia Mundial (CIEM), Hanoi (Viet Nam)); Sokona, Y. (African Climate Policy Centre, United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)) (and others)

2012-07-01

156

A potention of renewable energy sources in Slovakia in term of production of electricity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Electro-energetics of Slovak Republic is in this time in state of re-structuralization consequent from responsibilities which SR has with integration to the EU and on the other hand with actual status of production capacities of fossil fuels using in heat power stations and heat stations also the utilization of nuclear energy in nuclear power stations Jaslovské Bohunice and Mochovce. Paradoxically slim representation in production capacities have renewable energy sources, while only one relevant one is utilization of water in small hydro power stations. According to fact, that to the year 2010, the share of renewable sources of energy using in comparing with electric energy has to achieve 21,7% (direction of EU 77/2001). It is necessary to evaluate possibilities of utilization and to specify potential of utilization from technical and economical aspect.

Peter Tauš; Radim Rybár; Dušan Kudelas; Dušan Domaracký; Štefan Kuzevi?

2005-01-01

157

Forest biomass as a source of renewable energy in Turkey  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Turkey illegal cutting takes place, which cannot be controlled. Legal cuttings have also been done by several state forest enterprises. As a result, the amount of wood raw material produced by forest enterprises legally and by forest villagers illegally has exceeded the potential capacity of the forest. According to the research related to Macka and other Turkish state forests, the state forests have been decreasing day by day. This is because the amount of wood raw material taken from the forests has exceeded the production potential of the forest. That study concluded that the Macka and other Turkish forests will be exhausted after 64 and 67 years, respectively. This study also examined both establishing and exploiting energy forests near the forest villages and producing fuel briquettes manufactured using the residues of agriculture, forestry, and stock breeding to diminish the demand for illegal fuel wood cutting from the state forests.

Tuerker, M.F.; Ayaz, H.; Kaygusuz, K. [Karadeniz Technical Univ., Trabzon (Turkey)

1999-10-01

158

The promotion in Romania of electricity from renewable energy sources - present and future  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper deals with the present situation and prospects of electricity generation from renewable energy sources in Romania. The following subject matters are addressed: Legal framework; - Regulatory framework; - Ministry of Economy and Commerce - competence and responsibilities; - ANRE - competence and responsibilities; - Targets by 2010; - Benefits of Electricity from RES; - Costs, by technology, for E-RES; - Renewable support mechanisms; - RES, technical and economical potential for Romania; - Sensitivity Analysis. In conclusion, one stresses that the existing legal and regulatory framework which sets up responsibilities and dead lines regarding the promotion of E-RES and it's access on the market: - ensures a transparent, nondiscriminatory and objective treatment for the E-RES producers; - gives some facilities concerning the authorization process and ensures the take over of the electricity produced from renewable sources to the national grid; -sets up state aids granting conditions for investments and operation of the renewable energy sources; - requires some improvements regarding the financial support for promoting E-RES, guarantee of origin and trade. Depending on the chosen support scheme, the institutional framework will be developed in order to comply with the legal requirements and dead-lines. The technologies for E-RES generation will be implemented depending on: - the RES potential; - the commercial maturity of the technology, i.e. the technologies implied in hydro, wind, biomass, solar, waves and tide energy generation

2004-01-01

159

A credit line appropriated for energy efficiency and renewable energy sources in Bulgaria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The credit line was developed by the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) in co-operation with the Bulgarian government. In this financial project several bulgarian banks are involved. The purpose of this project is to support mainly the private enterprises in the sector of energy efficiency and renewable energy sources. The main steps of the applying process are discussed and useful practical information is given. In Bulgaria till now 125 projects are successful financed with total amount about 72 million Euro. The projects will generate annually more than 457 000 MWh electric power and 615 285 MWh thermal power, as well as an annual reduction of about 494 200 t CO2 emissions is expected

2008-01-01

160

Renewable energy: Renewing the environment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the past 20 years, the United States has enacted some of the world`s most comprehensive legislation to protect and preserve its environmental heritage. These regulations have spawned a $115-billion-per-year industry for {open_quotes}green{close_quotes} products and services, with more than 35,000 companies providing jobs for American workers. On the other hand, environmental regulations have placed heavy cost burdens on many U.S. businesses as they struggle to remain competitive in both domestic and foreign markets. How, then, can one reconcile the growing need for environmental protection with the desire for a stronger, healthier economy? Even as Congress debates the value of existing environmental legislation, new threats are appearing on the horizon. For example, extensive storm damage from Hurricane Andrew and other natural disasters has prompted members of the $650-billion insurance industry to begin studying the effects that global warming may have on future property damage claims. More and more people are realizing that the most efficient and economical way to control pollution is to avoid creating it in the first place. And that`s where renewable energy comes in. Technologies based on nonpolluting renewable energy sources such as sunlight and wind can help preserve our environmental heritage without a tangled web of regulations to burden industry. Renewable energy technologies can also help the United States become a world leader in a potential $400-billion-a-year global market for environmentally friendly products.

Noun, R.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

1996-12-31

 
 
 
 
161

Programs in Renewable Energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Our nation faces significant challenges as we enter the 1990s: securing a reliable supply of competitively priced energy, improving the quality of our environment, and increasing our share of foreign markets for goods and services. The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Programs in Renewable Energy are working toward meeting these challenges by developing the technologies that make use of our nation's largest energy resource: renewable energy. The sunlight, wind biomass, flowing water, ocean energy, and geothermal energy that make up the renewable energy resource can be found throughout our nation. These resources can provide all the forms of energy our nation needs: liquid fuels, electricity, and heating and cooling. Renewable energy meets about 10% of our need for these forms of energy today, yet the potential contribution is many times greater. DOE's Programs in Renewable Energy are working side-by-side with American industry to develop the technologies that convert renewable energy resources into practical, cost-competitive energy. After a decade of progress in research, several of these technologies are poised to make large contributions during the 1990s and beyond. This booklet provides an overview of the renewable energy programs and their plans for FY 1990. Sources of additional information are listed at the back of the booklet. 48 figs., 4 tabs.

1990-01-01

162

Fuels from renewable sources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Great interest has lately been taken in plants as a source of renewable fuels. A study of Messrs. Dornier System on behalf of the BMFT showed that, although the area required for a 10% fuel substitution would be available in West Germany without reducing the agricultural production area, the medium-term cost of alcohol fuel would be too high to make it suitable as a petroleum substitute. Still, alcohol production from renewable sources - e.g. from waste or surplus matter containing lignocellulose - should not be abandoned as there are interesting uses as industrial alcohols and as feedstock for chemical processes.

Hoffmann, L.; Schnell, C.; Gieseler, G.

1981-01-01

163

Electric power generation from renewable energy sources in Saxony; Elektroenergieerzeugung aus erneuerbaren Energiequellen in Sachsen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report sums up the potentials for electric energy generation from different renewable energy sources in Saxony. Natural potentials, technical potentials and economic potentials are considered separately. The established technical potential (without biomass) corresponds roughly to an electic power generation of 7400 GW hours annually. About 2/3 of this is wind energy, the rest is divided equally among hydro power and photo-voltaics. The harnessing of these potentials since 1990 is described in detail. Apart from hydro power, which has a long history as an energy source, wind energy, especially, is experiencing a very dynamic development. In 1997 still, wind power will outstrip hydro power as the most important renewable energy source in Saxony. But the further extension of these two energy sources meets increasingly with ecological objections or opposition. In 1996, about 1.3 per cent of the electric power consumed in Saxony came from renewable energy sources. It seems possible to increase this share to 5 per cent by the year 2000. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Bericht werden die Potentiale zur Elektroenergieerzeugung aus verschiedenen erneuerbaren Energiequellen in Sachsen zusammengestellt. Dabei werden natuerliche Potentiale und - wo moeglich - technische Potentiale sowie wirtschaftliche Potentiale unterschieden. Das ermittelte technische Potential (ohne Biomasse) entspricht etwa einer Elektroenergieproduktion von 7400 GWh jaehrlich. Davon entfallen etwa 2/3 auf die Windenergie und der Rest zu gleichen Teilen auf die Wasserkraft und die Photovoltaik. Die Erschliessung der Potentiale seit 1990 wird im Einzelnen dargestellt. Neben der seit langem genutzten Wasserkraft entwickelt sich insbesondere die Windenergie sehr dynamisch. Die Windenergie wird noch 1997 die Wasserkraft als bedeutendste erneuerbare Energie in Sachsen abloesen. Die weitere Nutzung dieser beiden Energiequellen stoesst allerdings auf zunehmende oekologische Bedenken bzw. Widerstaende. Der Anteil der erneuerbaren Energiequellen am Elektroenergieverbrauch in Sachsen erreichte 1996 etwa 1,3%. Bis zum Jahr 2000 erscheint eine Vergroesserung dieses Anteils auf ca. 5% moeglich. (orig.)

Hackstein, G. [Westsaechsische Energie AG, Markkleeberg (Germany); Riedel, J. [Energieversorgung Sachsen Ost AG, Dresden (Germany); Rindelhardt, U. [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V. (FZR), Dresden (Germany); Schwanitz, M. [Energieversorgung Suedsachsen AG, Chemnitz (Germany)

1997-08-01

164

PROGRESS Renewable Energy Country Profiles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This Final Report presents the main findings of the project PROGRESS, Promotion and Growth of Renewable Energy Sources and Systems. For each EU-country an overview is given of activities with regard to renewable energy

2008-01-01

165

A practical algorithm for distribution state estimation including renewable energy sources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Renewable energy is energy that is in continuous supply over time. These kinds of energy sources are divided into five principal renewable sources of energy: the sun, the wind, flowing water, biomass and heat from within the earth. According to some studies carried out by the research institutes, about 25% of the new generation will be generated by Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) in the near future. Therefore, it is necessary to study the impact of RESs on the power systems, especially on the distribution networks. This paper presents a practical Distribution State Estimation (DSE) including RESs and some practical consideration. The proposed algorithm is based on the combination of Nelder-Mead simplex search and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithms, called PSO-NM. The proposed algorithm can estimate load and RES output values by Weighted Least-Square (WLS) approach. Some practical considerations are var compensators, Voltage Regulators (VRs), Under Load Tap Changer (ULTC) transformer modeling, which usually have nonlinear and discrete characteristics, and unbalanced three-phase power flow equations. The comparison results with other evolutionary optimization algorithms such as original PSO, Honey Bee Mating Optimization (HBMO), Neural Networks (NNs), Ant Colony Optimization (ACO), and Genetic Algorithm (GA) for a test system demonstrate that PSO-NM is extremely effective and efficient for the DSE problems. (author)

Niknam, Taher [Electronic and Electrical Department, Shiraz University of Technology, Modares Blvd., P.O. 71555-313, Shiraz (Iran); Firouzi, Bahman Bahmani [Islamic Azad University Marvdasht Branch, Marvdasht (Iran)

2009-11-15

166

Renewable energy in Europe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Europe's increasing demand for energy and its environmental preoccupations are creating a favourable environment for the development of renewable energy sources. This article stated that although many European countries have adopted voluntary policies since the 1990s to increase the use of renewable energy sources, they have not been developed in an equal or consistent manner. A table was included to show the consumption of renewable energies by country; the percentage of renewable energies in 1995 as compared to 2006; and the consumption of primary energy resources. Combined, Germany, Spain and Denmark produce 75 per cent of wind energy in Europe, while 75 per cent of Europe's hydroelectricity is produced in Norway, Sweden, France, Italy, Austria and Switzerland. Germany has also made significant contributions in developing biomass energy. The article emphasized that the development of renewable energy sources is limited by the fact that it cannot keep up with growing energy demands. In addition, renewable energies cannot yet replace all fossil fuel consumption in Europe because of the variation in development from one country to another. 1 ref., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

167

BPS, energy efficiency and renewable energy sources for buildings greening and zero energy cities planning harmony and ethics of sustainability  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Traditional village houses now use renewable materials and energy sources and this paper presents the intrinsic harmony of these buildings' greening and their sustainability. The paper covers building technical systems, sustainable energy supply, and the importance of renewable raw materials (RMS) for sustainable development. This study investigated the role of building dynamic behavior and optimized energy efficiency in reducing thermal loads significantly. A preliminary design for sustainable energy efficient settlements with net zero energy buildings is proposed and a comprehensive multidisciplinary engineering study was done which identified the technical feasibility of sustainable village energy and water supplies using solar or wind technologies. Overall, through analysis of sustainability definitions and possible ways to achieve sustainability, the study demonstrated that this can only be brought about by interdisciplinary interaction and finding the right balance between materiality and spirituality, science and art, and between technological development and concern for cultural and other human values.

Todorovic, Marija S. [University of Belgrade, Serbia and Southeast University (China)

2011-07-01

168

A valuation of renewable energy sources from the viewpoint of a municipal works with in-plant energy production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In the face of the global increases in energy demand and the resultant burden on the environment, renewable energy sources are steadily gaining proved in the energy-political discussion. However, the further development of renewable energy utilization must be adapted to existing distribution structures and to the economic conditions in which power supply companies operate. The authors attempt an operational analysis of renewable energy sources from the viewpoint of a municipal works with internal energy production. (orig.)[de] Der weltweit steigende Energiebedarf und die daraus resultierenden Umweltbelastungen ruecken den verstaerkten Einsatz regenerativer Energien immer mehr in den Mittelpunkt der energiepolitischen Diskussion. Ein Ausbau regenerativer Energien muss aber vor dem Hintergrund der derzeitigen Versorgungsstruktur gesehen werden und die wirtschaftlichen Rahmenbedingungen der Energieversorgungsunternehmen beruecksichtigen. Die Autoren machen den Versuch einer betriebswirtschaftlichen Bewertung regenerativer Energien aus der Sicht eines Stadtwerkes mit eigenen fossilen Erzeugungsanlagen. (orig.)

1993-01-01

169

Renewable energy sources and nuclear installations; Erneuerbare Energien und neue Nuklearanlagen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This comprehensive work report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) made by the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI takes a look at work done in connection with the updating of the office's Energy Perspectives. In particular, the topic of electricity is reviewed in the light of pending important decisions in the area of nuclear energy and the newer renewable sources of energy. The report makes an attempt to estimate the effect on Swiss power production that the new renewables and new nuclear installations could have in the next 30-40 years and to what costs this could be done and which obstacles would have to overcome. The renewable energy sources include small hydro, wind, photovoltaics, solar thermal power plants, biogas, geothermal energy, wave-power and solar chemistry. The methods used include literature study and contacts with internal PSI experts on the various areas involved. The most important system characteristics were noted and learning curves for the various technologies were taken into account. Ecological and social factors were also considered

Hirschberg, S.; Bauer, Ch.; Burgherr, P.; Stucki, S.; Vogel, F.; Biollaz, S.; Schulz, T.; Durisch, W.; Hardegger, P.; Foskolos, K.; Meier, A.; Schenler, W.

2005-02-15

170

Hyperactivation of lignin peroxidase for utilization of lignocellulosic biomass as renewable energy source  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The most abundant renewable energy source is lignocellulosic biomass. Next to cellulose, lignin is the second most abundant resource, accounting for about 40 per cent of the solar energy stored in plants. In lignocellulosic material, the polysaccharide components form microfibres and are densely packed in layers of lignin, protecting them against the activity of hydrolytic enzymes and other external factors. Therefore, the cellulose fibers in lignincellulosic material are extremely resistant to biodegradation. Because lignin physically protects most of the world cellulose and hemicellulose from enzymatic hydrolysis, lignin biodegradation is central to the carbon cycle. However, lignin is extremely recalcitrant and is mineralized in an obligatory aerobic oxidative process, carried out appreciably only by the white-rot fungi. The purification and immobilization of lignin peroxidase (LiP) produced by phanerochaete chrysosporium for utilization of lignocellulosic biomass as renewable energy source is studied. It was concluded that immobilization in hydrophobic xerogels resulted in hyperactivation of the phanerochaete chrysosporium LiP. Immobilization also enhanced pH and temperature stability properties of the enzyme. This suggests its potential applications for LiP immobilization that may be used in lignocellulosic biomass utilization as a renewable source of energy. 32 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

Asghar, M.; Bhatti, H.N.; Asad, M.J.; Legge, R.L. [Univ. of Agriculture, Faisalabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Chemistry

2006-07-01

171

International directory of new and renewable energy information sources and research centres. 3. ed  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The UNESCO Energy Information Programme serves to improve the flow of information on new and renewable energies, in part through the coordination of information systems and services. The new edition of this directory has been collated and edited by UNESCO as part of this programme. It details nearly four thousand new and renewable energy and energy conservation research centres and information sources from over 160 different countries from Afghanistan to Zimbabwe, together with International Organizations and United Nations Organizations concerned with these fields. National Government Organizations, Information Resources, Research Centres, Professional and Trade Associations, Training Institutions, Networks, Databases and Publications are listed for each country. Full contact details, a description and a summary of areas of interest are given for each listing. (author)

1993-01-01

172

Electricity from renewable energy sources in The Netherlands. Current status and prospects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An overview is given of the latest regulatory developments for electricity from renewable energy sources in the Netherlands. In the current confusion regarding the development of the REB (Dutch Energy Tax), the eligibility of sources and imports for the tax rebate, the changes brought to the green certificate system in the Dutch electricity system, this report attempts to provide you with the answers to your questions. Included are a detailed explanation of both article 36o) and 36i) of the Dutch Law on Environmental Taxes, supported by among other things diagrams, an overview of current suppliers and their pricing strategy, and tables on the expected changes to the present situation.

NONE

2001-10-01

173

Electricity from renewable energy sources in The Netherlands. Current status and prospects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] An overview is given of the latest regulatory developments for electricity from renewable energy sources in the Netherlands. In the current confusion regarding the development of the REB (Dutch Energy Tax), the eligibility of sources and imports for the tax rebate, the changes brought to the green certificate system in the Dutch electricity system, this report attempts to provide you with the answers to your questions. Included are a detailed explanation of both article 36o) and 36i) of the Dutch Law on Environmental Taxes, supported by among other things diagrams, an overview of current suppliers and their pricing strategy, and tables on the expected changes to the present situation

2001-01-01

174

An Approach to Develop Embedded System For Web Based Monitoring & Controlling of Renewable Energy Sources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The widespread application of Renewable Energy Sources (RES)requires centralized monitoring and controlling System. To makethese operations control room independent, there is need todevelop smart servers and web based applications. Cost is anessential factor of any embedded system design. This paperdiscusses a novel concept of designing of cost effective server/client embedded system Renewable Energy sources. Hereembedded server is developed with ARM9 controller loaded withwindows CE operating system. Low cost client are designedusing Atmega32 microcontroller with LAN connection. Server/client are connected in LAN system and server basedapplications has been developed to monitor/ controlling the clientoperation. The server has web based applications that can beaccessed via internet. Author has presented developed systemand results.

Akansha S. Fating; T.H. Nagrare

2013-01-01

175

Analysis of Possible Challenges in Implementation of EU Goals in Relation to Renewable Energy Sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy is in all European countries traditionally treated as an activity of special national interest. By entering the EU, the member states have retained the earlier method of energy planning, making in this way the EU energy policy only a sum of energy policies of the member states. The sum of energy policies has in no way been the best policy if the EU is observed as a whole. In addition, some new challenges that the EU is faced with in the field of energy cannot be solved without a comprehensive European energy strategy. Increased use of renewable energy sources is one of the key assumptions of sustainable development in the EU energy sector and in fulfilling the request for decreasing greenhouse gases emissions. In its energy strategy the Republic of Croatia has also accepted the basic EU guidelines in this area and declared its readiness to contribute to that European initiative. There are still some unanswered and challenging details related to technical, economic and environmental parameters in connection with the future development that may question the feasibility and reliability of certain goals. This article presents EU goals related to the use of renewable sources of energy and elaborates the possible challenges in the realization of the whole project. The commitments of the Republic of Croatia and its possibilities and perspectives in realization of the set goals are also presented.(author).

2009-11-20

176

Public utilities with renewable energy sources. Proceedings; Stadtwerke mit Erneuerbaren Energien. Konferenzband  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Within the 3rd EUROSOLAR Conference at 25th to 26th May, 2009, in Ludwigshafen (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (a) Municipal power supply - Renewable energies (Hermann Scheer); (b) The significance of municipal regulations for the development of renewable energies by the example of Rheinland-Pfalz (Gerhard Weissmueller); (c) The solar regulation of the city Marburg (Franz Kahle); (d) Large-area solar-potential register SUN-AREA, the example Osnabrueck (Martina Klaerle); (e) Energy autonomy by means of methods at municipal and state level (Stephan Grueger); (f) Concession process according to paragraph 46 EnWG as a start for a locally regenerative strategic reorientation (Christian Theobald); (g) Municipal utilities and regenerative power generation (Johannes van Bergen); (h) The hybrid power plant Enertrag (Michael Wenske); (i) Eco-power with ecological added value (Uwe Leprich); (j) Increase of added value at biogas by means of grid connection (Leonhard Thien); (k) Biogas products for private customers (Oliver Hummel); (l) Marketing of biogas as a fuel - WEGAS Wendlaender BioGas (Hans-Volker Marklewitz); (m) Geothermal heat in the Upper Rhine Graben by the example of the geothermal power plant Landau (Peter Hauffe); (n) The Act on Heating with Renewable Energy Sources - A chance for new fields of business for municipal utilities (Klara Siraki); (o) Direct marketing of electricity from renewable energies as a chance for municipal utilities (Martin Altrock, Matthias Stark); (p) The significance of EEG and EEWaermeG 2009 in the further enlargement of renewable energies (Fabio Longo); (q) Taking over of the gas grid by the municipal utility Waldkirch GmbH (Dieter Nagel); (r) Municipal added value - municipal economical effects of decentral power generation (Michael Wuebbels).

NONE

2009-09-25

177

Energy from Waste: Reuse of Compost Heat as a Source of Renewable Energy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An in-vessel tunnel composting facility in Scotland was used to investigate the potential for collection and reuse of compost heat as a source of renewable energy. The amount of energy offered by the compost was calculated and seasonal variations analysed. A heat exchanger was designed in order to collect and transfer the heat. This allowed heated water of 47.3?C to be obtained. The temperature could be further increased to above 60?C by passing it through multiple tunnels in series. Estimated costs for installing and running the system were calculated. In order to analyse these costs alternative solar thermal and ground source heat pump systems were also designed. The levels of supply and economic performance were then compared. A capital cost of Ł11,662 and operating cost of Ł1,039 per year were estimated, resulting in a cost of Ł0.50 per kWh for domestic water and Ł0.10 per kWh for spatial heat. Using the heat of the compost was found to provide the most reliable level of supply at a similar price to its rivals.

G. Irvine; E. R. Lamont; B. Antizar-Ladislao

2010-01-01

178

Italian renewable energy sources improvement; Decollo su larga scala delle fonti rinnovabili  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper reports Italian and international guidelines for renewable energy sources improvement. [Italian] Si assiste ad una ripresa di attenzione a livello internazionale ed italiano nei confronti delle energie rinnovabili, il cui panoramam e' oggi cambiato. In Italia sono pero' inadeguate le realta' produttive in questo settore ed anche i grandi attori energetici hanno finora affrontato la tematica con eccessiva timidezza. Il Ministero dell'Ambiente sollecita un maggiore impegno da parte delle societa' energetiche nei confronti delle energie rinnovabili.

Silvestrini, G. [Ministero dell' Ambiente, Rome (Italy)

1999-08-01

179

Renewable energy sources in the The Walloon provinces provinces in Belgium; Hernieuwbare energiebronnen in Wallonie  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Solar energy is the most abundant source, since it is the most essential one, but also without doubt one of the hardest to exploit at the present position of the technology. The possibilities for development of solar energy in The Walloon provinces are limited. Wind energy is also omnipresent and not bound to specific places, but very unstable and whimsical. In the present situation an average of 5.5m/s is the minimum requested to install a windmill. The Walloon provinces (3.6 a 4 m/s) is not the most ideal region. Geothermal contains the exploitation of heat sources in the earth's crust. These sources can be used for heating and the production of electricity. Only in Saint-Ghislain exploitation takes place. There are more forms for use possible if new sources will be striked, which is not the case. In Belgium, the Walloon provinces are the region with the most hydroelectric sources. This is linked to the relief and the water management of this area. In contrast to wind, this source is easy to localize. The marks of the place where this has to happen, are easy to determine, the only thing that varies is the available amount of water. At the present there are 35 hydroelectric plants with a capacity of 95 MW. The Walloon provinces is full of biomass and this represents the biggest stock which is easy to exploit and develop. The development of renewable energy sources depends of different factors, technological and socio-economic. Of course, there can also be problems of legal and administrative nature. The economic aspect enforces the biggest limitation on the development of renewable energy because the costs of traditional fossil and nucleair energy are much lower.

Switten, S.

1997-08-01

180

Electric power supply and the influence of changes on renewable sources' utilisation and energy efficiency  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Changes expected to occur at the electricity market min the Republic of Croatia will have a considerable influence on the development of renewable sources and on the interest in the rationalisation of electricity consumption. If this area and its significance within the total, not only energy-related but also social relations, is stimulated by the law, the influence will be a positive one. Post-liberalisation experience of developed European countries presented in this paper implies arising problems, which can be partly avoided by means of anticipated legislative alternations. Special attention is paid to the possibility of introducing additional work places through a new market approachz, renewable sources' utilisation and consumption rationalisation. (author)

2000-12-08

 
 
 
 
181

Emissions balancing of renewable energy sources. Avoided emissions due to the use of renewable energies in 2007; Emissionsbilanz erneuerbarer Energietraeger. Durch Einsatz erneuerbarer Energien vermiedene Emissionen im Jahr 2007  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report on the emissions accounting with respect to renewable energy covers the following issues: 1. Introduction and purpose. 2. Methodology concerning the balancing for electricity, heat and traffic, uncertainties due to lack of data. 3. Energy supply from renewable energy sources in 2007. 4. Fossil energy substitution by renewable energy sources: electricity, heat and traffic. 5. Emissions from different energy supply lines: electricity, heat, traffic. 6. Results of the emissions accounting for renewable energy sources: electricity, heat, traffic and comprehensive review. 7. Retroacting accounting and forward projection.

Memmler, Michael; Mohrbach, Elke; Schneider, Sven; Dreher, Marion; Herbener, Reinhard

2009-10-15

182

Renewable energy sources in the French national plan for improved energy efficiency  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The French National Plan for Improved Energy Efficiency (PNAEE, Programme National d'Amelioration de l'Efficacite Energetique) whose aim is to ensure the conformity of national energy policy with the climate change mitigation policy was designed to be in line with France's national plan to combat climatic change and with the French national targets in the European directive for electricity from renewable energy sources (RES). According to this directive, by 2010, RES electricity should account for 21% percent of electricity consumed in France as opposed 15% today. To pave the way for this increase, the mains tools that have been set up by the French authorities in the framework of the PNAEE are as follows: ADEME's programmes; the RES electricity purchase obligation with feed-in tariffs; the pluri-annual investment programme in the electricity sector. The Law no. 2000-108, dated 10 February 2000, on the modernization and development of the public service in the electricity field, includes two articles, which directly relate to RESs. Two years after the PNAEE's implementation, the first achievements are the followings: more than 63.000 square meters of solar thermal panels installed due to a rapidly increasing demand; a new contribution of 47.000 toe to the national energy production coming from wood energy and geothermal; a new contribution of 208 GWh/year to the national electricity production coming from RES electricity, mainly from wind energy. These first results are not yet in line with the final objectives but the budgetary, regulatory and fiscal framework is in place and the market is in a quickly growing phase. (author)

NONE

2002-07-01

183

Promotion of energy conservation and renewable energy sources in Bavaria; Foerderung von Energiesparen und Erneuerbaren Energien in Bayern  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present article gives an overview of the measures taken in Bavaria (Federal German Republic) for promoting energy conservation. There include: Efficient energy utilisation; communal energy saving concepts; utilisation of renewable energy sources; small-scale hydropower plants; modernisation measures; and cultivable raw materials. (HW) [Deutsch] Der Artikel liefert einen Ueberblick ueber die Foerdermassnahmen zur Energieeinsparung im Freistaat Bayern (Bundesrepublik Deutschland): - Rationelle Energieverwendung - kommunale Energieeinsparkonzepte - Nutzung erneuerbarer Energien - Kleinwasserkraftanlagen - Modernisierungsmassnahmen - nachwachsende Rohstoffe. (HW)

Schirm, D. [Bayerisches Staatsministerium fuer Wirtschaft, Verkehr und Technologie, Muenchen (Germany)

1995-09-01

184

Herbaceous land plants as a renewable energy source for Puerto Rico  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Herbaceous tropical plants are a renewable energy source of major importance to many tropical nations. They convert the radiant energy of sunlight to chemical energy, which is stored in plant tissues (cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin) and fermentable solids (sugars, starches). Because all tropical plants do this - even those commonly regarded as weeds - they constitute an inexpensive, renewable, and domestic alternative to foreign fossil energy. The vast majority of herbaceous tropical plants have never been cultivated for food, fiber, or energy. A major screening program would be needed to identify superior species and the most effective roles they can play in a domestic energy industry. Other herbaceous plants, such as sugarcane and tropical forage grasses, have been cultivated for centuries as agricultural commodities. As energy crops, important revisions in management will be needed to maximize their energy yield. Two broad groups of herbaceous plants are seen to have an immediate potential for reducing Puerto Rico's reliance on imported fossil fuels: the tropical grasses (of which sugarcane is the dominant member) and the tropical legumes. Managed for its maximum growth potential, sugarcane is an excellent source of boiler fuel, fermentation substrates, cellulosic feedstocks, and the sweetener sucrose. Other tropical grasses store relatively little extractable sugar while equaling or moderately surpassing sugarcane in yield of cellulosic dry matter. The latter might soon become an economical source of fermentation substrates. Certain legume species are also very effective producers of biomass. Herbaceous tropical legumes are perceived as a potential source of biological nitrogen for energy crops unable to utilize nitrogen from the atmosphere.

Alexander, A.G.

1980-01-01

185

Selecting sustainable renewable energy source for energy assistance to North Korea  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Renewable energy (RE) is the best sustainable energy solution South Korea can provide to assist North Korea in overcoming its chronic energy shortage. Designed as a follow-on research to Sin et al., a survey was conducted with a panel of experts consisting of various disciplines and affiliations using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) with benefit, opportunity, cost, and risk (BOCR). The results showed the panel viewed security as the most important factor among the strategic criteria. For the level 1 attributes, the panel showed no significant differences of opinion among the different alternatives; however, cost showed to be the most important factor for the panel. The panel chose wind power as the best alternative source of energy for North Korea; however, there were some differences in opinion among the sub-groups of the panel depending on the composition and the expertise of the sub-group. Compared to other studies on the similar topic, this research stands out in that the research results were derived using AHP and BOCR and that the panel was composed of both Korean and foreign experts on North Korea affiliated with state-run research organizations, armed forces, non-governmental organizations, academic research organizations, private consulting firms, and journalism. The research arrived at the conclusion that the following factors must be considered as South Korea designs its future North Korean energy assistance policy: (1) RE assistance for North Korea can take on various forms; hence, experts consulted during the design, writing, and implementation phases of the policy in question must possess knowledge and expertise in the appropriate technology and methodology being considered; (2) possibility of a sudden destabilization of the Northeast Asian security paradigm due to the collapse of North Korea; and (3) continued nuclearization of North Korea. (author)

Yi, Sul-Ki [Korea Electrical Engineering and Science Research Institute, Bldg 130, Seoul National University, 599 Gwanangno, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Sin, Hwa-Young; Heo, Eunnyeong [Department of Energy Systems Engineering, Seoul National University, 599, Gwanang-no, Gwanak-Gu, Seoul 157-742 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-01-15

186

Renewable Energy Policy Project  

Science.gov (United States)

Established in 1995 with funding from the Energy Foundation and the Department of Energy, the Renewable Energy Policy Project (REPP) has spent the past decade educating the general public about renewable energies. This is accomplished by providing competent and rigorous policy analysis about the myriad of issues surrounding the viability and sustainability of such energy sources. Visitors to the site's homepage will find clickable icons (such as those depicting wind, solar, and hydrogen), and they can discover the variety of resources associated with each type of renewable energy source. These resources generally include a brief description of the REPP's work in each field, along with links to some of their more recent working papers and policy briefs. For persons who hope to join the discussion about some of these timely topics, the site also maintains a number of relevant listservs, such as those dealing with bioconversion and strawbale conversion.

2006-01-09

187

Prospects for biomass as a of renewable energy source in rural areas in Uzbekistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Due to world-wide increasing energy demand during the last decades energy source stocks (petroleum, gas, the coal) becomes much less. Besides the use of specified sources of energy, the results in deterioration of ecological conditions. In connection with these the using of renewed sources of energy is very essential. Now in the world the wide experience on using of such renewed sources of energy as: a wind power, hydro power, tidal energy, energy of waves, energy of solar light, geothermal energy, biomass energy is developed. Opportunities for using of renewable energy sources depend on geographical and climatic conditions of an environment. It is obvious, that for Uzbekistan most effective from this viewpoint, are wind, solar, hydro power, and biomass energies. However, correct choice of the proper renewable energy source depending on the area is needed. In this context solar energy and energy of biomass are effective for any region of Uzbekistan. At the same time for using of geothermal energy, hydro power and wind power it is required selection of geographical places adequate to the special requirements. According to Ref. [1] there are enough natural potential of a solar energy, in Uzbekistan , since the average density of solar power flow is 4.5 kWh/m2 per day or 16 MG/m2 per day. For comparison, it is possible to estimate, that every kilogram of biomass on the average can produce energy the same order 12.5 MG/kg [2]. It is obvious, that use of a solar energy for transformation to electrical with using of solar cells based modules requires the rather large financial expenses for purchase of the appropriate equipment, which is not accessible to each farm and requires large time for recouping of the charges. At the same time equipment for producing of biogas is accessible almost to each farm engaged as by animal industries, poultry and cultivation of vegetative cultures. In addition, the construction of biogas devices does not require high technologies and almost all materials for its construction are accessible in Uzbekistan. It should be noted that besides the above advantages, biogas devices are much safer from the environmental viewpoint. Moreover, the waste from the biogas device can be used at cultivation of various cultures in a farm. For research of opportunities, advantages and lacks during generation of energy from biomass in a plant of Urganch State University biogas installation with reactor volume 10 m3 is constructed and installed in a farm. Biogas generator was designed and constructed for working in continuous mode of operations and allows regularly adding of the biomass. The biogas generator is equipped with heating system for start of the generation in the winter.(authors) References: [1.] Internet site: www.bpsolar.com/ContentDocuments/17/PV System Sizing Tools.zip [2.] Vedenev A.G, Maslov A.N. Stroitel'stvo biogazovykh ustanovok. Kratkoe rukovodstvo. -B.:Evro . 2006

2012-01-01

188

Electricity produced from renewable energy sources-What target are we aiming for?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 2001, the European Commission (hereafter 'EC') formulated an ambitious target of 21% of total community electricity consumption to be generated with renewable energy sources by 2010. Moreover, national indicative targets per Member State were specified. In practice, the latter are implemented in all Member States as national production targets, achievable exclusively through an increase of the domestic production of electricity produced from renewable energy sources (hereafter 'RES-E'). However, in this article it will be shown that this is not in line with the EC's intent. Looking at the legislative process resulting in the Directive on the promotion of RES-E, it is demonstrated that instead the EC aimed for European trade in renewable electricity through national consumption targets. It is shown that the legislative process has resulted in confusion on both the nature (absolute or proportional figures) and the subject (consumption or production) of the RES-E targets that are being aimed for. Despite the EC's attempt to clarify this confusion, the reality of national production targets remains, hindering the attainment of the European RES-E target in the most cost-efficient manner

2007-01-01

189

Electricity produced from renewable energy sources-What target are we aiming for?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 2001, the European Commission (hereafter 'EC') formulated an ambitious target of 21% of total community electricity consumption to be generated with renewable energy sources by 2010. Moreover, national indicative targets per Member State were specified. In practice, the latter are implemented in all Member States as national production targets, achievable exclusively through an increase of the domestic production of electricity produced from renewable energy sources (hereafter 'RES-E'). However, in this article it will be shown that this is not in line with the EC's intent. Looking at the legislative process resulting in the Directive on the promotion of RES-E, it is demonstrated that instead the EC aimed for European trade in renewable electricity through national consumption targets. It is shown that the legislative process has resulted in confusion on both the nature (absolute or proportional figures) and the subject (consumption or production) of the RES-E targets that are being aimed for. Despite the EC's attempt to clarify this confusion, the reality of national production targets remains, hindering the attainment of the European RES-E target in the most cost-efficient manner.

Verhaegen, Karolien [K.U. Leuven, Electrical Engineering Department ESAT-ELECTA, Kasteelpark Arenberg 10, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium)], E-mail: Karolienverhaegen@gmail.be; Meeus, Leonardo [K.U. Leuven, Electrical Engineering Department ESAT-ELECTA, Kasteelpark Arenberg 10, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Delvaux, Bram [K.U. Leuven, Institute for Environmental and Energy Law IEEL, Tiensestraat 41, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Belmans, Ronnie [K.U. Leuven, Electrical Engineering Department ESAT-ELECTA, Kasteelpark Arenberg 10, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium)

2007-11-15

190

Renewable Energy Monitoring Protocol. Update 2010. Methodology for the calculation and recording of the amounts of energy produced from renewable sources in the Netherlands  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is the fifth, updated edition of the Dutch Renewable Energy Monitoring Protocol. The protocol, compiled on behalf of the Ministry of Economic Affairs, can be considered as a policy document that provides a uniform calculation method for determining the amount of energy produced in the Netherlands in a renewable manner. Because all governments and organisations use the calculation methods described in this protocol, this makes it possible to monitor developments in this field well and consistently. The introduction of this protocol outlines the history and describes its set-up, validity and relationship with other similar documents and agreements. The Dutch Renewable Energy Monitoring Protocol is compiled by NL Agency, and all relevant parties were given the chance to provide input. This has been incorporated as far as is possible. Statistics Netherlands (CBS) uses this protocol to calculate the amount of renewable energy produced in the Netherlands. These data are then used by the Ministry of Economic Affairs to gauge the realisation of policy objectives. In June 2009 the European Directive for energy from renewable sources was published with renewable energy targets for the Netherlands. This directive used a different calculation method - the gross energy end-use method - whilst the Dutch definition is based on the so-called substitution method. NL Agency was asked to add the calculation according to the gross end use method, although this is not clearly defined on a number of points. In describing the method, the unanswered questions become clear, as do, for example, the points the Netherlands should bring up in international discussions.

Te Buck, S.; Van Keulen, B.; Bosselaar, L.; Gerlagh, T.; Skelton, T.

2010-07-15

191

Funding of renewable energy sources in the deregulated German electricity market; Foerderung erneuerbarer Energien im liberalisierten deutschen Strommarkt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study intends to develop an efficient market design for the German electricity market, with particular regard to renewable energy sources. The German electricity market is disintegrated, i.e. market sectors are not coordinated by a central agency but by their own interactions. The first part of the investigation analyzes the interdependences of market sectors, while the second part will analyze funding instruments for renewable energy sources on this basis. (orig.)

Wawer, T.

2007-12-14

192

Will emission trading promote renewable energy sources?; Emissionshandel als Foerderung Erneuerbarer Energien?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The global anthropogenic greenhouse effect is assessed by the IPCC, a global network of scientists. For prevention of a climate change the reduction of greenhouse gases emissions is necessary. Consistent to the UNFCCC and the Protocol of the third Conference of the Parties in Kyoto 1997 the emission trade as a mechanism for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions started 2005 in the EU. The experience from implementation of the European trading scheme on a thermal power station is described. By theoretical examples the range of the emission trade for promotion of biomass use as renewable source is calculated. Critical opinions against the compliance of emission trade and promotion of renewable energies are discussed. (orig.)

Thiele, W. [EWN GmbH, Lubmin (Germany); Wilde, H. [Fachhochschule Stralsund (Germany)

2005-07-01

193

Renewable Energy Curriculum Units  

Science.gov (United States)

Eight curriculum units, developed by teachers who were National Fellows in a 2007 seminar through the National Initiative of the Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute, explore the science related to current and potential future sources of energy, with a focus on renewable energy.

Gary Brudvig (Yale University ;Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry)

2010-05-13

194

A Review of Nipa Palm as a Renewable Energy Source in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the renewable energy potential of Nipa Palm, a bio-energy crop widely available yet underutilized in Nigeria. The combustion of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas has increased the concentration of carbon dioxide in the earth's atmosphere. The carbon dioxide and other socalled greenhouse gases allow solar energy to enter the Earth's atmosphere, but reduce the amount of energy that can re-radiate back into space, trapping energy and causing global warming. Nipa Palm which has been regarded as an environmental menace is now regarded as one of the candidates for renewable energy to fulfill the requirement of clean carbon emission. Abundant quantity of Nipa Palm provides an impetus for the sustainable generation of bio-ethanol. This sugar based bio-ethanol source development in Nigeria provides not only profitable use to a problem plant but also provides an opportunity and incentive to generate some Carbon Emission Reduction (CERs) credits.

O.T. Okugbo; U. Usunobun; J.A. Adegbegi; C.O. Okiemien

2012-01-01

195

Renewable energy sources in selected southern and eastern mediterranean countries: status, prospects, barriers and opportunities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Southern and Eastern Mediterranean Countries are endowed with a large potential for renewable energy sources which they aim to develop. This article analyzes two scenarios up to 2010. The first one is based on officially announced projects while the second proposes a voluntarist alternative for a high integration of RES. Barriers (institutional, economic and financial) to the development of RES in these countries have been addressed as well as possible measures needed to overcome them, both at the domestic and international level. (authors)

2003-01-01

196

Price control for electricity supplied to the grid from renewable energy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The law governing the supply of electricity generated by renewable energy sources to the public grid regulates the purchase and payment by public utilities of electricity exclusively generated from such sources as hydropower, wind power, solar energy, landfill gas or sewage gas, or from biomass produced in agriculture and forestry or derived and processed in waste treatment systems. The author discusses aspects and issues hitherto left unconsidered by publications or by the jurisdiction and puts them into the context of a review of recent legislation, addressing in particular the following aspects: (1) The place of the Act on Supply of Electricity from Renewable Sources to the Public Grid within the legal framework of price controls. (2) Limits to be set by price control activities in accordance with Para. 12, sub-section 2 BTO Elt and with Para. 11, sub-section 1, sentence 3 BTO Elt. (3) Limits set to price controls due to Para. 12, sub-section 2 BTO Elt. (4) The conflict of purposes arising from price controls. (orig./HP).

1994-01-01

197

Environmental and economic effects of renewable energy sources use on a local case study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Renewable sources represent an effective alternative to fossil fuels for preventing resources depletion and for reducing air pollution. However, their diffusion requires huge capital investment and major infrastructure changes, which have to be assessed to verify their effectiveness. The article present an application of the R-MARKAL model to investigate the feasibility of renewable use on a local case study for electricity and thermal energy production. A comprehensive modelling approach is used to emphasise the relationships and feedback between conversion and demand sectors (residential, services and commercial), taking into account contemporaneously legal issues and physical limits of the system. The model's solutions represent the minimum cost choice and the results show that even in absence of erogenous environmental constraints, many renewable technologies are profitable demand device and their investment costs are paid off in a medium term by lower operating and maintenance expenditures. In this context the use of thermal energy from incinerator allows one to achieve a consistent reduction of atmospheric pollutant emissions and, particularly, of greenhouse gases emissions due to waste degradation. (author)

Cosmi, C.; Salvia, M. [Istituto di Metodologie Avanzate di Analisi Ambientali, Tito Scalo (Italy); Unita di Napoli (Italy). Istituto Nazionale di Fisica della Materia; Macchiato, M. [Universita Federico II, Napoli (Italy). Dpto. di Scienze Fisiche; Mangiamele, L.; Marmo, G. [Universita degli Studi della Basilicata, Potenza (Italy); Pietrapertosa, F. [Istituto di Metodologie Avanzate di Analisi Ambientali, Tito Scalo (Italy); Universita degli Studi della Basilicata, Potenza (Italy)

2003-04-01

198

Environmental and economic effects of renewable energy sources use on a local case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Renewable sources represent an effective alternative to fossil fuels for preventing resources depletion and for reducing air pollution. However, their diffusion requires huge capital investment and major infrastructure changes, which have to be assessed to verify their effectiveness. The article present an application of the R-MARKAL model to investigate the feasibility of renewable use on a local case study for electricity and thermal energy production. A comprehensive modelling approach is used to emphasise the relationships and feedback between conversion and demand sectors (residential, services and commercial), taking into account contemporaneously legal issues and physical limits of the system. The model's solutions represent the minimum cost choice and the results show that even in absence of erogenous environmental constraints, many renewable technologies are profitable demand device and their investment costs are paid off in a medium term by lower operating and maintenance expenditures. In this context the use of thermal energy from incinerator allows one to achieve a consistent reduction of atmospheric pollutant emissions and, particularly, of greenhouse gases emissions due to waste degradation. (author)

2003-01-01

199

Grid Interfacing Inverter of Renewable Energy Sources to Improve the Power Quality in Distribution System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the increase in load demand, the Renewable Energy Sources (RES) are increasingly connected in the distribution systems which utilizes power electronic Converters/Inverters. In this thesis, Photo Voltaic (PV) system is integrated to a three phase four wire distribution system. The Photo Voltaic (PV) Panel is modeled based on associated equations. The use of non-linear loads in the power system will lead to the generation of current harmonics which in turn deteriorates the power quality. Active Power Filters (APF) are extensively used to compensate the current harmonics and load unbalance. In this work, the existing PV inverter acts as Shunt Active Power Filter (SAPF) that is capable of simultaneously compensating problems like current unbalance, current harmonics and also of injecting the energy generated by renewable energy source. The inverter is controlled on the basis of hysteresis control and thus it can be utilized as a power converter injecting power generated from RES to the grid and as a shunt APF to compensate the Load disturbances. It is proposed to investigate in this paper, the performance of PV inverter for various loads. This work is carried out using MATLAB/SIMULINK 7.8 software.

M.ARCHANA; Y.C.V.KONDAIAH

2013-01-01

200

An Indian scenario on renewable and sustainable energy sources with emphasis on algae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

India is the fifth largest primary energy consumer and fourth largest petroleum consumer after USA, China, and Japan. Despite the global economic crisis, India's economy is expected to grow at 6 to 8 %/year. There is an extreme dependence on petroleum products with considerable risks and environmental issues. Petroleum-derived transport fuels are of limited availability and contribute to global warming, making renewable biofuel as the best alternative. The focus on biogas and biomass-based energy, such as bioethanol and biohydrogen, will enhance cost-effectiveness and provide an opportunity for the rural community. Among all energy sources, microalgae have received, so far, more attention due to their facile adaptability to grow in the photobioreactors or open ponds, high yields, and multiple applications. Microalgae can produce a substantial amount of triacylglycerols as a storage lipid under photooxidative stress or other adverse environmental conditions. In addition to renewable biofuels, they can provide different types of high-value bioproducts added to their advantages, such as higher photosynthetic efficiency, higher biomass production, and faster growth compared to any other energy crops. The viability of first-generation biofuels production is, however, questionable because of the conflict with food supply. In the future, biofuels should ideally create the environmental, economic, and social benefits to the communities and reflect energy efficiency so as to plan a road map for the industry to produce third-generation biofuels.

Hemaiswarya S; Raja R; Carvalho IS; Ravikumar R; Zambare V; Barh D

2012-12-01

 
 
 
 
201

An Indian scenario on renewable and sustainable energy sources with emphasis on algae  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

India is the fifth largest primary energy consumer and fourth largest petroleum consumer after USA, China, and Japan. Despite the global economic crisis, India's economy is expected to grow at 6 to 8 %/year. There is an extreme dependence on petroleum products with considerable risks and environmental issues. Petroleum-derived transport fuels are of limited availability and contribute to global warming, making renewable biofuel as the best alternative. The focus on biogas and biomass-based energy, such as bioethanol and biohydrogen, will enhance cost-effectiveness and provide an opportunity for the rural community. Among all energy sources, microalgae have received, so far, more attention due to their facile adaptability to grow in the photobioreactors or open ponds, high yields, and multiple applications. Microalgae can produce a substantial amount of triacylglycerols as a storage lipid under photooxidative stress or other adverse environmental conditions. In addition to renewable biofuels, they can provide different types of high-value bioproducts added to their advantages, such as higher photosynthetic efficiency, higher biomass production, and faster growth compared to any other energy crops. The viability of first-generation biofuels production is, however, questionable because of the conflict with food supply. In the future, biofuels should ideally create the environmental, economic, and social benefits to the communities and reflect energy efficiency so as to plan a road map for the industry to produce third-generation biofuels. (orig.)

Hemaiswarya, S.; Carvalho, Isabel S. [Algarve Univ., Faro (Portugal). Food Science Lab.; Raja, Rathinam [Algarve Univ., Faro (Portugal). Food Science Lab.; Institute of Integrative Omics and Applied Biotechnology (IIOAB), Purba Medinipur (India). Centre for Bioprocess, Biotechnology and Renewable Energy; Ravikumar, R. [Aquatic Energy LLC, Lake Charles, LA (United States); Zambare, Vasudeo [Institute of Integrative Omics and Applied Biotechnology (IIOAB), Purba Medinipur (India). Centre for Bioprocess, Biotechnology and Renewable Energy; Barh, Debmalya [Institute of Integrative Omics and Applied Biotechnology (IIOAB), Purba Medinipur (India). Centre for Genomics and Applied Gene Technology

2012-12-15

202

An Indian scenario on renewable and sustainable energy sources with emphasis on algae.  

Science.gov (United States)

India is the fifth largest primary energy consumer and fourth largest petroleum consumer after USA, China, and Japan. Despite the global economic crisis, India's economy is expected to grow at 6 to 8 %/year. There is an extreme dependence on petroleum products with considerable risks and environmental issues. Petroleum-derived transport fuels are of limited availability and contribute to global warming, making renewable biofuel as the best alternative. The focus on biogas and biomass-based energy, such as bioethanol and biohydrogen, will enhance cost-effectiveness and provide an opportunity for the rural community. Among all energy sources, microalgae have received, so far, more attention due to their facile adaptability to grow in the photobioreactors or open ponds, high yields, and multiple applications. Microalgae can produce a substantial amount of triacylglycerols as a storage lipid under photooxidative stress or other adverse environmental conditions. In addition to renewable biofuels, they can provide different types of high-value bioproducts added to their advantages, such as higher photosynthetic efficiency, higher biomass production, and faster growth compared to any other energy crops. The viability of first-generation biofuels production is, however, questionable because of the conflict with food supply. In the future, biofuels should ideally create the environmental, economic, and social benefits to the communities and reflect energy efficiency so as to plan a road map for the industry to produce third-generation biofuels. PMID:23070650

Hemaiswarya, S; Raja, Rathinam; Carvalho, Isabel S; Ravikumar, R; Zambare, Vasudeo; Barh, Debmalya

2012-10-16

203

Sireme: the renewable heat fund, engine of renewable energy sources; Sireme: le fonds chaleur renouvelable locomotive des EnR  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For its first issue, the international exhibition of renewable energies (Sireme) gathered 15000 visitors in Paris in mid-November. The program of conferences has permitted to take stock of the progresses made since the publication of the texts following the 'Grenelle de l'Environnement' multi-parties debate. The announcement of the national plan of renewable energies development by J.L. Borloo, French Minister of ecology, has been the starting point of these meetings. The most outstanding news of this plan concerns the creation of a renewable heat fund for a revival of district heating networks and the increase of photovoltaic conversion by a factor of 400 (6400 MW) by the year 2020. (J.S.)

Anon

2008-12-15

204

Management of Renewable Sources of Energy: A Case on Rice Bran oil and Vegetable oils of Bangladesh Perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Renewable energy is a now burning issue for sustainable development. Moreover, it is also environmentally compatible. Bangladesh produces huge amount rice every year. From this, a significant amount of wastes are generated from rice. Rice bran is one of them. On the other hand oil seeds such as coconut, soybean, pulm and mustard are available in Bangladesh. In this view, rice bran oil and vegetable oils are considered for a case study for renewable sources of energy and alternative fuel for lighting purposes of Bangladesh.Key words: Rice bran oil; Vegetable oil; Renewable energy; Management; Bangladesh

Md Mamunur Rashid

2011-01-01

205

Solid waste as renewable source of energy. Current and future possibility in Algeria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Algeria has created a green momentum by launching an ambitious program to develop renewable energies and promote energy efficiency. Solid waste is one of most important sources of biomass potential in Algeria, which can be used as renewable energy sources. With economic development and the evolution of population, the quantity of solid waste is increasing rapidly in Algeria; according to the National Cadastre for Solid Waste Generation, the overall generation of municipal solid waste was more than 10.3 million tons per year, and the amount of industrial solid waste, including non-hazardous and inert industrial waste was 2,547,000 tons per year, with a stock quantity of 4,483,500 tons. The hazardous waste generated amounts to 325,100 tons per year; the quantities of waste in stock and awaiting a disposal solution amount to 2,008,500 tons. Healthcare waste reaches to 125,000 tons per year. The management of solid waste and its valorization is based on the understanding of solid waste composition by its categories and physicochemical characteristics. Elimination is the solution applied to 97% of waste produced in Algeria. Wastes are disposed in the following ways: open dumps (57%), burned in the open air in public dumps or municipal uncontrolled ones (30%), and controlled dumps and landfill (10%). On the other side, the quantities destined for recovery are too low: only 2% for recycling and 1% for composting. Waste to energy is very attractive option for elimination solid waste with energy recovery. In this paper, we give an overview for this technology, including its conversion options and its useful products (such as electricity, heat and transportation fuel), and waste to energy-related environmental issues and its challenges. (orig.)

Taqiy Eddine, Boukelia; Salah, Mecibah Med [Mentouri Univ., Constantine (Algeria). Mechanical Dept.

2012-11-01

206

Biotechnology and renewable energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As petroleum reserves decline, attention is turned to cellulosic biomass as a possible source of renewable energy. This book explores aspects of biotechnology. Topics covered include the following: biomass production; pretreatment technology; enzyme production; genetic engineering research; fuels and chemicals; fermentation technology; and process implementation.

Moo-Young, M.; Hasnain, S.; Lamptey, J.

1986-01-01

207

Understanding renewable energy systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Beginning with an overview of renewable energy sources including biomass, hydroelectricity, geothermal, tidal, wind and solar power, this book explores the fundamentals of different renewable energy systems. The main focus is on technologies with high development potential such as solar thermal systems, photovoltaics and wind power. This text not only describes technological aspects, but also deals consciously with problems of the energy industry. In this way, the topics are treated in a holistic manner, bringing together maths, engineering, climate studies and economics, and enabling readers to gain a broad understanding of renewable energy technologies and their potential. The book also contains a free CD-ROM resource, which includes a variety of specialist simulation software and detailed figures from the book. (Author)

Quaschning, Volker

2005-01-15

208

Round-up of the U. N. conference on new and renewable sources of energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A broad-ranging Programme of Action to deal with the global energy crisis, especially its impact on developing countries, was adopted in Nairobi, 21 August, at the conclusion of the United Nations Conference on New and Renewable Sources of Energy. The Conference decided that there should be an intergovernmental body in the United Nations specifically concerned with new and renewable sources of energy and entrusted with guiding and monitoring the implementation of the Programme of Action. It recommended that the immediate launching of the implementation of the Programme of Action be entrusted to a Committee patterned after the Preparatory Committee for the Conference and that a final decision on further institutional measures should be taken by the General Assembly at its session in 1982. The Committee will hold a one two-week session in 1982. The conference based its work on the premise that supplies of conventional fossil fuels - coal, gas and oil - will not last forever. As many participants in the conference debate noted, energy supplies for many countries are not a theoretical problem. Of over 133 developing countries, 90 have no domestic oil resources at all and have to rely almost totally on imported oil to meet their basic energy needs. Many cannot afford to purchase badly needed fuel supplies and high costs have caused severe inflation and balance-of-payments problems. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) reported that balance-of-payment deficits of oil-importing countries increased from $7 billion in 1970, to an expected $97 billion in 1981. The high price that must be paid for oil diverts scarce national resources that could be used for development.

1981-01-01

209

Barriers on the propagation of renewable energy sources and sustainable solid waste management practices in Greece.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Renewable energy sources (RES), excluding large hydroelectric plants, currently produce 4.21% of total electricity production in Greece. Even when considering the additional production from large hydroelectric plants, which accounts for some 7.8%, the distance to be covered towards the objective of 20% electricity produced from RES by 2010 and respectively towards 20% of total energy production by 2020 is discouraging. The potential, however, does exist; unfortunately so do serious barriers. On the other hand, solid waste management (SWM) is an issue that generates continuously increasing interest due to the extra amounts of solid waste generated; the lack of existing disposal facilities with adequate infrastructure and integrated management plans, also often accompanied by legislative and institutional gaps. However, socio-economic and public awareness problems are still met in the planning and implementation of RES and SWM projects, together with the lack of a complete national cadastre and a spatial development master plan, specifying areas eligible for RES and SWM development. Specific barriers occur for individual RES and the on-going inclusion of waste-derived renewable energy in the examined palette further increases the complexity of the entire issue. The consolidated study of this broad set of barriers was a main task of the present study which was carried out within the frame of a Hellenic-Canadian research project; the main results will be discussed herein.

Boemi S; Papadopoulos A; Karagiannidis A; Kontogianni S

2010-11-01

210

The development of the renewable energy sector - Source for more and better jobs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a global world, isolation becomes impossible. An important set of values are unanimously recognized, and 'like peace, the prosperity is indivisible and for being sustainable must be shared'. The problems of the global environment and their consequences have essentially contributed to 'the crystallization' of the necessity to pass to the Sustainable Development, meaning the incorporation of two important dimensions: the social one and the environmental one along with the economic objectives. The paper has the following contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Environment problems and their consequences; 3. Energetic security - transition to regenerative sources of energy; 4. Renewable energy sector and its impact on employment; 5. Conclusions. The following special conclusions concerning the renewable energy sector are highlighted: 1) it is a knowledge-based-sector which use intensively the labour force; 2) it includes a higher potential of high-skill job creation, characterized by higher productivity per capita, above the average of the national economy, by promoting friendly environment technologies; 3) it is a friendly environment sector with perspectives for modelling the structural changes on medium and long term; 4) it is likely to have an positive impact on workers' health and safety (workplace quality, pollution, hazardous substances and physical demanding work) and on the entire population; 5) it ensures that the potential for environmentally related innovations is exploited overall and that the emerging eco-jobs opportunities (in all skill range) can be met; 6) it supports the shift towards technologies that incorporate all the costs (technologies compatible with life cycles)

2006-01-01

211

Renewable energy in New Zealand  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Report ``New and Emerging Renewable Energy Opportunities in New Zealand`` is a joint publication by the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Authority (EECA) and the Centre for Advanced Engineering at Canterbury University. It covers renewable energy sources other than New Zealand`s traditional large hydro and geothermal resources. The report outlines the present state of the technology, economic viability and environmental impact of various types of renewable energy systems for implementation in New Zealand. (Author)

Weightman, F. [CADDET New Zealand National Team, Wellington (New Zealand)

1996-11-01

212

Subsidies for renewable energy?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ambitious Danish and European energy and environment objectives make a point of using renewable energy sources in the electricity supply. Denmark has been leading country in successful development and commercialization of wind turbines and is as yet one of the leading manufacturers of the world. Danish governments have successfully invested a lot in this development. Other countries have spent more money without achieving a similar success. The questions are why things have gone so well in Denmark and if the Danish success can be repeated for other renewable energy technologies. The starting point of this book is that a political decision on subsidizing the developmental process of a specific technology not in itself guarantees that the technology will turn out reliable and efficient enough to compete successfully in a liberalized electricity market. An understanding of this development is necessary in order to affect a technological development. This book goes through the development of different renewable energy technologies and two theories used for discussing the technological development: experience curves and innovation theory. Based on the discussions and a description of causal relations, an analytical model for different phases of renewable energy technologies' developmental progress and technological life cycle is made. The model is used for evaluating the subsidies for chosen renewable technologies in Denmark. With wind energy as example an analysis of what went well or badly, what might be done and which actions might be efficient is made. (BA)

2004-01-01

213

Sustainable application of renewable sources in water pumping systems: Optimized energy system configuration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Eighteen years ago, in Portugal, the expenses in a water supply system associated with energy consumption were quite low. However, with the successive crises of energy fuel and the increase of the energy tariff as well as the water demand, the energy consumption is becoming a larger and a more important part of the total budget of water supply pumping systems. Also, new governmental policies, essentially in developed countries, are trying to implement renewable energies. For these reasons, a case-study in Portugal of a water pumping system was analysed to operate connected to solar and wind energy sources. A stand-alone and a grid-connected systems were tested. The stand alone was compared with the cost of extending the national electric grid. In the grid-connected system two solutions were analysed, one with a water turbine and another without. To be able to implement a water turbine, a larger water pump was needed to pump the necessary water as for consumption as for energy production. For the case analysed the system without a water turbine proved to be more cost-effective because the energy tariff is not yet so competitive as well as the cost of water turbines

2009-01-01

214

Financing and regulation for the new and renewable energy sources: the geothermal case  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development and rational utilization of energy sources promotes economic growth and alleviates the environmental worries. Within the first frame, the use of new and renewable energy sources - wind, solar, photovoltaic, biomass, small hydroelectrical and geothermal - progressively reaches the highest priority in the context of the energy reforms that have been undertaken in the countries of the region. Among renewable energies, besides those of the hydraulic origin, geothermal is the one with the highest grade of safety as was demonstrated by its technical and economical reliability. If the estimation that the geothermal electricity potential of the Latin American region will reach more than 6000 MWe is correct, this is only indicative of its nature. The enormous financial resources of the Andean geothermal systems have to this date been ignored, while in Central America there exits a large number of financial resources still untouched. The rationale and the problems connected with this that remain - in all of Latin America, with the exception of Mexico - are of different natures. Most importantly, in first place, the economical difficulties; in effect, the fault of the ad-hoc economic initiatives have very much obstructed the sustained geothermal development and support. Other relevant obstacles for the use of this type of resource have been the lacking of specific and reliable legal aspects. Last but not least, the financial obstacles of the projects, under private or mixed schemes, should be emphasized. Because of the crucial role that these problems are asked to play in the implementation and development of geothermal projects in Latin America, it has been decided to prepare this document which is a part of the global view about the subject (making comparisons with experiences of other countries), and tries to identify possible solutions for the future

1998-01-01

215

Employment balance of expanding renewable energy sources; Beschaeftigungsbilanz des weiteren Ausbaus Erneuerbarer Energien  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The contribution balances positive and negative effects of the resolved expansion of renewable energies in Germany. A doubling of the share of renewables on the entire power consumption is bonded to additional investment and positive employment effects, but on the other hand to additional cost respectively production losses and negative employment effects.

Hillebrand, B.; Buttermann, H.G.; Behringer, J.M.; Bleuel, M. [EEFA GmbH, Muenster (Germany)

2005-07-01

216

Renewable energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Evidence given before the Energy Committee by the Wind Energy Group Ltd, British Wind Energy Association, the Yorkshire Electricity Group PLC and Yorkshire Water is presented. Topics covered include viability, sales and exports, the non-fossil fuel obligation (NFFO) and the government target of 1,000 MW, research and development, training and offshore wind energy. (author)

1991-01-01

217

Renewable energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Evidence given before the Energy Committee by the Wind Energy Group Ltd, British Wind Energy Association, the Yorkshire Electricity Group PLC and Yorkshire Water is presented. Topics covered include viability, sales and exports, the non-fossil fuel obligation (NFFO) and the government target of 1,000 MW, research and development, training and offshore wind energy. (author).

1991-11-13

218

Borregaard Fabrikker cut their oil consumption by 50 per cent by means of energy conservation measures and renewable energy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Borregaard Fabrikker in Sarpsborg, Norway, are concentrating strongly on energy conservation and renewable energy sources. 20 000 tonnes of fuel oil will be substituted with 70 000 tonnes of residual waste in a bio fuel plant that will generate steam for the processes. The energy production is 190 to 240 GWh. The environmental and climatic gain is considerable, and the economic saving is great. More measures are under way. A new bio fuel plant for liquid fuel will be ready in 2004, based on residual products from the production of cellulose. The emission of carbon dioxide from Borregaard Fabrikker will then be cut by more than 100 000 tonnes

2002-01-01

219

The green brewery concept - Energy efficiency and the use of renewable energy sources in breweries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of the Green Brewery Concept is to demonstrate the potential for reducing thermal energy consumption in breweries, to substantially lower fossil CO2 emissions and to develop an expert tool in order to provide a strategic approach to reach this reduction. Within the project 'Green Brewery' three detailed case studies have been performed and a Green Brewery Concept has been developed. The project outcomes show that it is preferable to develop a tool instead of a simple guideline where a pathway to a CO2 neutral thermal energy supply is shown for different circumstances. The methodology of the Green Brewery Concept includes detailed energy balancing, calculation of minimal thermal energy demand, process optimization, heat integration and finally the integration of renewable energy based on exergetic considerations. For the studied breweries, one brewery with optimized heat recovery can potentially supply its thermal energy demand over own resources (excluding space heating). The energy produced from biogas from biogenic residues of breweries and waste water exceeds the remaining thermal process energy demand of 37 MJ/hl produced beer. - Highlights: ? A 'Green Brewery Concept' tool as guideline for breweries to reach minimal CO2 emissions in thermal energy supply. ? tool as guideline for breweries to reach minimal CO2 emissions in thermal energy supply. ? Reached thermal energy savings of higher than 20% with heat integration via pinch analysis. ? Potential of solar process heat integration for thermal energy supply in packaging and mashing processes. ? In one brewery with optimized heat integration the thermal energy demand can be covered by biogas production from its own resources.

2010-09-01

220

Renewable energy annual 1996  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents summary data on renewable energy consumption, the status of each of the primary renewable technologies, a profile of each of the associated industries, an analysis of topical issues related to renewable energy, and information on renewable energy projects worldwide. It is the second in a series of annual reports on renewable energy. The renewable energy resources included in the report are biomass (wood and ethanol); municipal solid waste, including waste-to-energy and landfill gas; geothermal; wind; and solar energy, including solar thermal and photovoltaic. The report also includes various appendices and a glossary.

NONE

1997-03-01

 
 
 
 
221

Case studies on the integration of renewable energy sources into power systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the context of the DISPOWER European project, case studies have been carried out on the integration of Distributed Generation (DG) and Renewable Energy Sources (RES) into power systems. The main objectives were: - to apply the tools and concepts developed in the DISPOWER project on national, regional or local power systems in different European countries and to assess their performance, - to demonstrate the implementation of DG and RES technology both on interconnected grids and on island power systems, - to contribute to the dissemination and exploitation of the results of DISPOWER. Eleven case studies have thus been done: 5 case studies on interconnected grids in Germany, France, Spain and Austria, and 6 case studies on weak grids and island power systems in the United Kingdom, Greece, and the French Caribbean. A summary of the work done and of the main results obtained is given in this paper.

Belhomme, R.; Bousseau, P. [EDF Electricite de France S.A., Clamart (France); Navarro, E. [Iberdrola Distribution Electrica, S.A., Bilbao (ES)] [and others

2005-07-01

222

The long-term relationships among China's energy consumption sources and adjustments to its renewable energy policy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] To reduce its consumption of coal and oil in its primary energy consumption, China promotes the development of renewable energy resources. I have analysed the long-term relationship among China's primary energy consumption sources. Changes in coal consumption lead those in the consumption of other energy sources in the long term. Coal and oil fuels substitute for each other equally. The long-term elasticities of China's coal consumption relative to its hydroelectricity consumption were greater than one and nearly equal during the two sample periods. Therefore, increased hydroelectricity consumption did not imply a reduction in coal consumption. China holds abundant hydroelectricity, wind and, solar energy potential. China must prevent an excessive escalation of its economy and resultant energy demand to realise a meaningful substitution of coal with hydroelectricity. Moreover, China must develop and use wind and solar energy sources. Natural gas can be a good substitute for coal, given its moderate price growth and affordable price levels. - Highlights: ? Coal consumption changes lead those of other energy sources in the long term. ? Coal and oil fuels substitute for each other equally. ? Increased hydroelectricity consumption has not meant lower coal consumption. ? Wind, solar and natural gas are China's promising energy sources.

2012-01-01

223

World Renewable Energy Network Homepage  

Science.gov (United States)

Through its worldwide network, WREN advocates the utilization of renewable energy sources by promoting the technical education of scientists, engineers, and technicians in addressing the energy needs of both developing and developed countries.

2007-10-02

224

Diversification of the energy mix and renewable energy sources in Slovenia for ensuring sustainable, competitive and secure energy in the future  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The European Union is facing major challenges in the energy field - growing import dependency, the need for substantial investment and lack of competitive energy market. It has adopted binding legislation and non-binding recommendations, but they do not suffice. The latest Green paper identifies diversification of energy mix as one of the key areas, where further action is needed, if Europe is to overcome this crisis. Renewable energy is recognised as a relevant factor in improving security of energy supply, since it increases the share of indigenous energy and thus provides a more balanced and diversified energy mix. Slovenia's energy mix includes 11 % of renewables. In our electricity mix the share of renewables is higher, 27,6 %.The estimations show that by 2015 13,3 % of primary energy use will come from renewable sources. Our current strategy in the field of renewable energy sources is to increase their share in overall energy balance sheet to 12 % in 2010 and to increase their share in electricity production to 33,6 % in 2010. But Slovenia will have to take into account new ambitious targets the European Commission recommended recently, while trying to determine the optimally balanced diversification of energy sources in the future. (auth)

Podlogar, Sasa; Raner, Damjana; Zebeljan, Djordje

2007-07-01

225

CONSIDERATIONS ON RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES AND THEIR RELATED PERSPECTIVES OFAGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper discusses some considerations and advances a number of proposals about the potential of Agricultural Engineering to contribute to the field of renewable energy, with an emphasis on biomass. Several areas for action are identified. First, general education and teaching of students who will go on to become technicians and professionals in the sector of renewable energies, even though the characteristics of the sectors are still fuzzy. Diffusion of the energy culture, a too often neglected aspect that is however indispensable to sustain the overdue penetration of renewable energies in Italy, is an additional area for action. Another critical area, energy planning, is currently viewed mainly as involving the assessment on more or less wide areas of energy consumption and for the scope of replacing fossil resources with renewables to meet some energy requirements. A more complex, overarching issue is energy efficiency, especially of buildings, which should be a mainstay of the planning process but is in fact not so clearly addressed in development plans for renewables. At this same level, all interactions among production sectors should be assessed, to enhance the role of agriculture, one of the new potential energy-producing sectors and one of the possible prospective suppliers of renewable energy for different final users, from households to the service sector and industry. Agricultural Engineering has the skills needed to implement all these different actions. A role for it in advanced research, i.e. biotechnologies, can and should also be envisaged. Its work in the renewable energy sector should closely involve microbiological, genetic, chemical, agronomic, and animal research to define the goals to be pursued and to implement intuitions. In this way, Agricultural Engineering would increasingly be characterized as Biosystems Engineering.

Ester Foppa-Pedretti; Giovanni Riva; Giuseppe Toscano; Daniele Duca

2010-01-01

226

Decision support system for exploiting local renewable energy sources: a case study of the Chigu area of southwestern Taiwan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The topic of climate and energy policy has drawn new attention since the Kyoto Protocol has now come into force. It is hoped that strengthened use of renewable energy sources can meet new international environmental requirements and provide self-sufficient domestic energy supplies. The decision support system established in this study integrates potential evaluations, cost analyses, legal incentives, and analysis of returns on investments with the aid of a geographic information system (GIS). This system can provide insights for policymakers into where and the extent of the potentials, for lawmakers into whether the current legal incentives are sufficient to encourage private investment, and for investors into whether investments in exploiting local renewable energy sources are economically feasible. Under the current incentive framework in Taiwan, the amortization periods of investment on renewable energy are generally longer than the period over which the investment is to be recovered. This presents an unfavorable condition for attracting investments to and for developing renewable energy. An increase in remuneration through legal revisions is needed before domestic investment in renewable energy will actively expand. [Author].

Cheng Dar Yue; Yang, Grant Gwo Liang [Leader Univ., Tainan, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Resource and Environment

2007-01-15

227

Decision support system for exploiting local renewable energy sources: A case study of the Chigu area of southwestern Taiwan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The topic of climate and energy policy has drawn new attention since the Kyoto Protocol has now come into force. It is hoped that strengthened use of renewable energy sources can meet new international environmental requirements and provide self-sufficient domestic energy supplies. The decision support system established in this study integrates potential evaluations, cost analyses, legal incentives, and analysis of returns on investments with the aid of a geographic information system (GIS). This system can provide insights for policymakers into where and the extent of the potentials, for lawmakers into whether the current legal incentives are sufficient to encourage private investment, and for investors into whether investments in exploiting local renewable energy sources are economically feasible. Under the current incentive framework in Taiwan, the amortization periods of investment on renewable energy are generally longer than the period over which the investment is to be recovered. This presents an unfavorable condition for attracting investments to and for developing renewable energy. An increase in remuneration through legal revisions is needed before domestic investment in renewable energy will actively expand

2007-01-01

228

Memoranda. Renewable energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The document contains 32 memoranda from UK companies, associations, non-governmental organizations and the Ministry of Defence submitted as contributions to the UK House of Commons Environmental Audit Committee's inquiry into renewable energy policy. It includes contributions from Powergen, Innogy plc, the Electricity Association, The Energy Saving Trust. The Energy from Waste Association, Scottish and Southern TXU Europe, Energy plc, Yorkshire Electricity Supply, the Combined Heat and Power Association, the Association of Electricity Producers, Centrica plc, the National Grid Company plc and Aquatic Energy Ltd. Other contributors are the Royal Society, the Royal Society for the Protection of Brids, The Countryside Agency, English Nature and Greenpeace. Memoranda were also submitted from the Confederation of UK Coal Producers (COALPRO) and the Association of Coal Mine Methane Operators (ACMMO). COALPRO calls for investment in clean coal technology and also for gas from abandoned coal mines to be defined as a renewable source and advocates support for energy from waste schemes. ACMMO explains the potential of coal mine methane (CMM) as an energy source and recommends CMM be accorded green certificate status and be allowed to contribute to the electricity suppliers' Renewables Obligation.

NONE

2001-05-03

229

Protocol Monitoring Renewable Energy. Method to record and calculate the contribution of renewable energy sources in the Netherlands. Update 2002; Protocol Monitoring Duurzame Energie. Methodiek voor het registreren en berekenen van de bijdrage van duurzame energiebronnen. Update 2002  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An overview is given of methods and information sources by means of which the contribution of renewable and sustainable energy sources to the energy supply in the Netherlands can be recorded and calculated. [Dutch] Een overzicht wordt gegeven van methoden en informatiebronnen waarmee de bijdrage van duurzame energiebronnen aan de energievoorziening in Nederland kan worden vastgelegd en berekend.

NONE

2002-07-01

230

Comparative analyses of seven technologies to facilitate the integration of fluctuating renewable energy sources  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

An analysis of seven different technologies is presented. The technologies integrate fluctuating renewable energy sources (RES) such as wind power production into the electricity supply, and the Danish energy system is used as a case. Comprehensive hour-by-hour energy system analyses are conducted of a complete system meeting electricity, heat and transport demands, and including RES, power plants, and combined heat and power production (CHP) for district heating and transport technologies. In conclusion, the most fuel-efficient and least-cost technologies are identified through energy system and feasibility analyses. Large-scale heat pumps prove to be especially promising as they efficiently reduce the production of excess electricity. Flexible electricity demand and electric boilers are low-cost solutions, but their improvement of fuel efficiency is rather limited. Battery electric vehicles constitute the most promising transport integration technology compared with hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCVs). The costs of integrating RES with electrolysers for HFCVs, CHP and micro fuel cell CHP are reduced significantly with more than 50% of RES.

Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik

2009-01-01

231

ANALYSIS OF THE EDUCATIONAL METHODS AND CURRICULUM REQUIREMENTS FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Article is dedicated to the sources, analysis and output of the project ECEVE - Implementation of E-learning Content for Energy Saving Farm into Vocational Education. The project is solved in the period 2010 - 2012 within the program Leonardo da Vinci - Transfer of Innovation. Its coordinator is the Slovak Agricultural University in Nitra, and one of the strategic objectives is to analyze training needs in the area of vocational education and training in the field of renewable energy sources. The members of research group analyzed needs in the field of education, and have regard to evaluation, expansion and improvement of educational programs for the current labor market needs and modernizing didactic methods and resources for selected target groups - especially those members involved in vocational education and training.The paper also describes a new instructional design, course development and learning process management methodology based on new learning principles making e-learning more efficient by shifting from the “passive” book paradigm to a new “active” e-learning content structure and information workflow conveying the knowledge.

Zuzana PALKOVA; Janette GUZMICKA; Norbert FLORIS

2012-01-01

232

Public utilities with renewable energy sources. Proceedings; Stadtwerke mit Erneuerbaren Energien. Konferenzbeitraege  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Within the Second EUROSOLAR Conference of EUROSOLAR, the European Association for Renewable Energy (Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany) between 15th and 16th May, 2008, at the Waterworks Braunschweig (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) The municipal public utility: The paradigm shift from power distribution companies to municipal infrastructure provider (C. Jaenig); (2) Public utilities and their concepts (Z. Meszaros); (3) The BS Energy Group (U.Lehmann-Grube); (4) New ways with energy (T. Westerheide); (5) Public utilities and their concepts (R. Edzards); (6) Public utilities with renewable energy (P. Asmuth); (7) Total concept of the public utility Wolfhagen (M. Ruehl); (8) Municipal energy concepts for the expansion of the combined heat and power generation and renewable energies (J. van Bergen); (9) Storage of renewable energy (T. Blank); (10) Public utility as a confident partner of a renewable regional economy (R. Hemmers); (11) The regenerative combined cycle power plant (M. Meyr); (12) The solar power system of systaic (O. Achilles); (13) The concession contract as an instrument for restructuring (J. Schwarz); (14) EEG 2009, GasNZV and EEWaermeG: The changed legal framework as a chance for a restructured power generation (M. Altrock).

NONE

2008-07-01

233

Renewable energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Evidence given before the Energy Committee by the Seven Tidal Power Group and the Mersey Barrage Company Ltd is presented. The current state of the development of the projects, prices at which electricity could be generated, governmental support, the non-fossil fuel obligation (NNFFO), export potential, and discounted cashflow analysis and discount rate are discussed. (author).

1991-11-20

234

Renewable energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Evidence given before the Energy Committee by the Seven Tidal Power Group and the Mersey Barrage Company Ltd is presented. The current state of the development of the projects, prices at which electricity could be generated, governmental support, the non-fossil fuel obligation (NNFFO), export potential, and discounted cashflow analysis and discount rate are discussed. (author)

1991-01-01

235

Proceedings of the 28th intersociety energy conversion engineering conference. Volume 2--Environmental impact, energy systems, new technology for energy utilization, policy issues, renewable energy sources, stirling cycles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The section on environmental impacts covers global environmental concerns and air pollution. Energy systems includes the following: alternative fuels; co-generation; fossil fuels; mechanical thermal storage; fission/fusion; thermal management; electric and hybrid vehicles. The section on renewable energy sources includes biomass, hydrogen, and solar. This volume also contains separate sections for stirling cycles, policy issues, and new technologies for energy utilization. Separate abstracts were prepared for 150 papers of this volume

1993-01-01

236

Electricity generation from renewable energy sources in Germany -potentials, costs and implementation strategies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Four renewable options are discussed: hydropower, windtechnical and photovoltaic electricity generation and the possible electricity production of biomass. First the technical potentials are identified for the present and future reference years. Then specific costs are analysed, for the present and the future. Finally an implementation strategy is defined and discussed leading to a total renewable electricity generation in the year 2020 of about 86 TWh/a which would be a share of about 19 % of the total present electrical energy demand. (author)

Wiese, A. (Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Energiewirtschaft und Rationelle Energieanwendung (IER))

1994-08-01

237

The diverging paths of German and United States policies for renewable energy. Sources of difference  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The United States and Germany started out with very similar policies for renewable energy after the energy crisis of the 1970s. By the year 2000 they were on very different policy paths and, as a result, the German renewable energy industry has moved well ahead of that in the United States, both in terms of installed capacity in the country and in terms of creating a highly successful export market. In this paper, we reject some of the conventional explanations for this difference. Instead, these differences arise from the intersection of contingent historical events with the distinctive institutional and social structures that affect policy making in each country. Our analysis of the historical path-dependent dynamics of each country suggests that those who wish to further renewable energy policy in the United States need to take into account these institutional and social factors so that they will better be able to exploit the next set of favorable historical circumstances. (author)

Laird, Frank N. [Josef Korbel School of International Studies, 2201 S. Gaylord Street, University of Denver, Denver, CO 80208 (United States); Stefes, Christoph [Department of Political Science, University of Colorado Denver, King Center 502, Campus Box 190, Denver, CO (United States)

2009-07-15

238

The diverging paths of German and United States policies for renewable energy: Sources of difference  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The United States and Germany started out with very similar policies for renewable energy after the energy crisis of the 1970s. By the year 2000 they were on very different policy paths and, as a result, the German renewable energy industry has moved well ahead of that in the United States, both in terms of installed capacity in the country and in terms of creating a highly successful export market. In this paper, we reject some of the conventional explanations for this difference. Instead, these differences arise from the intersection of contingent historical events with the distinctive institutional and social structures that affect policy making in each country. Our analysis of the historical path-dependent dynamics of each country suggests that those who wish to further renewable energy policy in the United States need to take into account these institutional and social factors so that they will better be able to exploit the next set of favorable historical circumstances.

2009-01-01

239

The diverging paths of German and United States policies for renewable energy: Sources of difference  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The United States and Germany started out with very similar policies for renewable energy after the energy crisis of the 1970s. By the year 2000 they were on very different policy paths and, as a result, the German renewable energy industry has moved well ahead of that in the United States, both in terms of installed capacity in the country and in terms of creating a highly successful export market. In this paper, we reject some of the conventional explanations for this difference. Instead, these differences arise from the intersection of contingent historical events with the distinctive institutional and social structures that affect policy making in each country. Our analysis of the historical path-dependent dynamics of each country suggests that those who wish to further renewable energy policy in the United States need to take into account these institutional and social factors so that they will better be able to exploit the next set of favorable historical circumstances.

Laird, Frank N. [Josef Korbel School of International Studies, 2201 S. Gaylord Street, University of Denver, Denver, CO 80208 (United States)], E-mail: flaird@du.edu; Stefes, Christoph [Department of Political Science, University of Colorado Denver, King Center 502, Campus Box 190, Denver, CO 80217 (United States)], E-mail: christoph.stefes@cudenver.edu

2009-07-15

240

POLICIES AND MEASURES FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES AND ACHIEVEMENT OF TARGETS BY 2020 IN CROATIA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper is considering set up a longer-term perspective and plan of actions for the development of renewable energy infrastructure in Croatia in accordance with the new Croatian Energy Sector Development Strategy. Overall target till the year 2020 has been calculated in accordance with effort sha...

Igor Raguzin; Davor Vešligaj; Vladimir Jelavi?

 
 
 
 
241

Potential applications of renewable energy sources, biomass combustion problems in boiler power systems and combustion related environmental issues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper describes the potential applications of renewable energy sources to replace fossil fuel combustion as the prime energy sources in various countries, and discusses problems associated with biomass combustion in boiler power systems. Here, the term biomass includes organic matter produced as a result of photosynthesis as well as municipal, industrial and animal waste material. Brief summaries of the basic concepts involved in the combustion of biomass fuels are presented. Renewable energy sources (RES) supply 14% of the total world energy demand. RES are biomass, hydropower, geothermal, solar, wind and marine energies. The renewables are the primary, domestic and clean or inexhaustible energy resources. The percentage share of biomass was 62.1% of total renewable energy sources in 1995. Experimental results for a large variety of biomass fuels and conditions are presented. Numerical studies are also discussed. Biomass is an attractive renewable fuel in utility boilers. The compositions of biomass among fuel types are variable. Ash composition for the biomass is fundamentally different from ash composition for the coal. Especially inorganic constituents cause to critical problems of toxic emissions, fouling and slagging. Metals in ash, in combination with other fuel elements such as silica and sulfur, and facilitated by the presence of chlorine, are responsible for many undesirable reactions in combustion furnaces and power boilers. Elements including K, Na, S, Cl, P, Ca, Mg, Fe, Si are involved in reactions leading to ash fouling and slagging in biomass combustors. Chlorine in the biomass may affect operation by corrosion. Ash deposits reduce heat transfer and may also result in severe corrosion at high temperatures. Other influences of biomass composition are observed for the rates of combustion and pollutant emissions. Biomass combustion systems are non-polluting and offer significant protection of the environment. The reduction of greenhouse gases pollution is the main advantage of utilizing biomass energy. (Author)

2005-01-01

242

Bonus payments for electricity production from renewable energy sources and the impact on the market participants' capacity choice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Promoting the use of renewable energy sources is a central goal of most industrialized countries. Up to today, fixed feed in tariffs are a commonly used support scheme. However, these have major disadvantages concerning market integration. Thus, more market-conforming solutions come into focus. One ...

Flinkerbusch, Kai

243

report on the french objectives of electricity consumption, produced from renewable energies sources and on the analysis of their realization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This report presents the french objectives of electricity, from renewable energies sources, internal consumption for the next ten years, as the analysis of their realization taking into account the climatic factors likely to change the realization of these objectives. It also discusses the adequacy of the actions to the national engagement in matter of climatic change. (A.L.B.)

2007-01-01

244

Special report on renewable energy sources and climate change mitigation, (SRREN). Summary for policy makers; FNs klimapanel: Spesialrapport om fornybar energi, sammendrag for beslutningstakere  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In May 2011 the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change published a report on six renewable energy sources and their role in climate change mitigation. This is a Norwegian, unofficial translation of the Summary for Policy makers. (Author)

2011-06-15

245

Integrated solutions for power and desalination, using fossil and renewable energy sources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The mining industry in Chile has grown in recent years and this requires adequate energy and water supplies. This paper discusses integrated solutions for power and desalination using fossil and renewable energy sources. Among the various methods of desalination are: multi-stage flash evaporation (MSF); multiple-effect distillation (MED); and seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO). Technologies for solar thermal power include linear Fresnel, parabolic trough and others. These techniques can be integrated, for example, in a power plant with MED/MSF desalination or a power plant with SWRO but there are associated costs as well as benefits. Some of the benefits are financial, in the form of lower DNI at sites near the coast, for instance. An integrated solution suitable for Chile would be a fossil power plant with desalination that can de done at a site near the ocean. The economics of the two integration options are compared and a pie chart shows the operating costs. In summary, desalination and CSP are continuously evolving and integration in conventional fossil power plants is effective.

Zachary, Justin; Nawaz, Arshad; Layman, Colleen [Bechtel Power Corporation (United States)

2010-07-01

246

Optimal operation of conventional power plants in power system with integrated renewable energy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Approach for solving the generation scheduling problem of a complex system. ? WPPs integration into the system in order to minimize the total system fuel costs. ? Application on specific system consisted of TPPs, HPPs, PSHPP and WPP. - Abstract: This paper presents an approach for solving the generation scheduling problem of a complex system consisted of conventional and renewable energy sources (RES). Wind power plants are integrated into the system in order to minimize the total thermal unit fuel costs. The gained results for wind farm power production are used as input in the system to determine the optimal amounts of generated power for the thermal generating units and hydro generating units over the study period. The optimization problem consists of minimizing the total production costs, respecting power balance equations for each time interval and all operational system constraints. The proposed approach is applied on a specific system consisted of thermal power plants (TPPs), storage hydro power plants (HPPs), pumped-storage hydro power plant (PSHPP) and wind power plant (WPP). The benefits of energy production from WPP, in terms of reducing the production costs of conventional thermal power plants are also investigated. In the proposed paper two cases are analyzed. In the two analyzed cases power unit’s generation, thermal unit’s fuel costs and stream flows of hydro units are calculated over the study period.

2013-01-01

247

The potentional of renewable energy sources for greenhouse gases emissions reduction in Macedonia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As European Union (EU) candidate country, Macedonia is in the process of adoption of the EU strategic energy policies, harmonization of the national legislation with the EU legislation and defining the respective national goals. In this regard, the government has recently adopted a National Strategy for Utilization of Renewable Energy Sources (RES), prepared by ICEIM-MANU. The main goal of this paper is to assess the potential for greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions reduction by implementation of 21%-RES-scenarios from the Strategy. The corresponding emissions reduction is calculated against the baseline (reference) scenario developed within the Second National Communication on Climate Change. Furthermore, all potential RES technologies are analyzed from economic aspect and combined in a form of emissions reduction cost curve, displaying the total marginal cost of the GHG emissions reduction by RES. Finally, on the bases of the environmental and economic effectiveness of the considered RES technologies, as well as taking into account the country specific barriers, the priority actions for GHG emissions reduction are identified.

Dedinec Aleksandar; Markovska Natasa; Taseska Verica; Kanevce Gligor; Bosevski Tome; Pop-Jordanov Jordan

2012-01-01

248

Interactions between measures for the support of electricity from renewable energy sources and CO2 mitigation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As Europe wants to move towards a secure, sustainable and competitive energy market, it has taken action, amongst other, to support electricity from renewable energy sources (RES-E) and to mitigate CO2 emissions. This paper first qualitatively discusses price- and quantity-based measures for RES-E deployment as well as CO2 mitigation. Next, a simulation model is developed to quantitatively discuss the effects of a tradable green certificate system, a premium mechanism, a tradable CO2 allowance system and a CO2 tax on both RES-E deployment and CO2 mitigation. A three-regional model implementation representing the Benelux, France and Germany is used. In a first step of simulations, all measures are implemented separately. In a second step, combinations of both RES-E supporting and CO2 mitigating measures are simulated and discussed. Significant indirect effects are demonstrated, especially for RES-E supporting measures on the reduction of CO2 emissions. Interactions between different measures show that the price level of quantity-based measures can be strongly influenced.

2009-01-01

249

Renewable energy research in India  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A compendium of progress reports on renewable energy sources research programs in India is presented. Sixty-four contributions from government departments, academic institutions, research institutions, and industries are included. (MCW)

1981-01-01

250

A review of net metering mechanism for electricity renewable energy sources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this work, an overview of the net metering mechanism for renewable energy sources for power generation (RES-E) systems is carried out. In particular, the net metering concept is examined with its benefits and misconceptions. Furthermore, a survey of the current operational net metering schemes in different countries in the world, such as, in Europe, USA, Canada, Thailand and Australia, is carried out. The survey indicated that there are different net metering mechanisms depending on the particularities of each country (or state in the case of USA). Especially, in Europe, only five countries are using net metering in a very simple form, such as, any amount of energy produced by the eligible RES-E technology is compensated from the energy consumed by the RES-E producer, which results to either a less overall electricity bill or to an exception in payment energy taxes. In the USA and the USA territories, any customer’s net excess generation is credited to the customer’s next electricity bill for a 12-month billing cycle at various rates or via a combination between rates. The actual type of net excess generation (NEG) credit is decided by a number of set criteria, such as the type of RES-E technology, the RES-E capacity limit, the type of customer and the type of utility. Regarding any excess credit at the end of the 12-month billing cycle, this is either granted to the utilities, or carries over indefinitely to the customer’s next electricity bill, or is reconciled annually at any rate, or provides an option to the customer to choose between the last two options.

Andreas Poullikkas, George Kourtis, Ioannis Hadjipaschalis

2013-01-01

251

Panorama 2011: Ocean renewable energies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Our society is looking increasingly to renewable energy sources in the face of the energy and environmental challenges with which it is grappling. As far as ocean renewable energies are concerned, a wide range of technologies is currently being experimented with, including wind power and energy derived from waves and tidal currents. They are all at varying levels of maturity, and bring with them very different technical and economic challenges. (author)

2011-01-01

252

National Renewable Energy Laboratory  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Renewable Energy Lab is the U.S. Department of Energy's premier laboratory for renewable energy research and development and a leading laboratory for energy efficiency research and development. The web site provides access to a large array of information that targets many different audiences. There are educational links and classroom activities and projects suited for audiences from primary education through college-level. Other features include information about different forms of energy, databases on renewable energy production, an extensive photo gallery, and information on current research and applications in energy efficiency and renewable energy.

2002-04-01

253

Renewable Energy in Latvia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Latvia is among those countries that do not have gas, coal and, for the time being, also oil resources of its own. The amount of power produced in Latvia does not meet the demand, consequently a part of the power has to be purchased from neighbouring countries. Firewood, peat and hydro resources are the only significant domestic energy resources. Massive decrease of energy consumption has been observed since Latvia regained independence. Domestic and renewable energy resources have been examined and estimated. There are already 13 modern boiler houses operating in Latvia with total installed capacity 45 MW that are fired with wood chips. Latvian companies are involved in the production of equipment. 7 small HPPs have been renewed with the installed capacity 1.85 MW. Wind plant in Ainazi has started its operation, where two modern wind turbines with the capacity of 0.6 MW each have been installed. Mechanism of tariff setting is aligned. Favourable power energy purchasing prices are set for renewable energy sources and small cogeneration plants

Shipkovs, P.; Kashkarova, G. [Latvian Energy Agency, Riga (Latvia); Shipkovs, M. [Energy-R Ltd., Riga (Latvia)

1997-12-31

254

Energy resources and world population. Enhanced harnessing of renewable energy sources in the future; Energiereserven und Weltbevoelkerung. In Zukunft verstaerkt erneuerbare Energien nutzen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At present, the security of the supply of mechanical and electrical energy is ensured by fossil and nuclear energy sources. Renewable energy sources therefore meet with less attention. The article demonstrates that optimum harnessing of renewable energy sources will be a cogent necessity in the decades to come from a global angle. Renewable energy sources are environmentally neutral resources from the rural sector. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die sichere Verfuegbarkeit von mechanischer und elektrischer Energie basiert heute auf fossilen und nuklearen Energietraegern. Weniger Beachtung wird deshalb den erneuerbaren Energiequellen geschenkt. In diesem Beitrag soll aufgezeigt werden, dass global betrachtet in den naechsten Jahrzehnten der Zwang zur optimalen Nutzung der erneuerbaren Energien bestehen wird. Erneuerbare Energien sind umweltneutrale Ressourcen des laendlichen Raumes. (orig.)

Irps, H. [Inst. fuer Landwirtschaftliche Bauforschung, Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft (FAL), Braunschweig (Germany)

1997-10-01

255

Determination of biogas generation potential as a renewable energy source from supermarket wastes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fruit, vegetable, flower waste (FVFW), dairy products waste (DPW), meat waste (MW) and sugar waste (SW) obtained from a supermarket chain were anaerobically digested, in order to recover methane as a source of renewable energy. Batch mesophilic anaerobic reactors were run at total solids (TS) ratios of 5%, 8% and 10%. The highest methane yield of 0.44LCH4/gVSadded was obtained from anaerobic digestion of wastes (FVFW+DPW+MW+SW) at 10% TS, with 66.4% of methane (CH4) composition in biogas. Anaerobic digestion of mixed wastes at 5% and 8% TS provided slightly lower methane yields of 0.41 and 0.40LCH4/gVSadded, respectively. When the wastes were digested alone without co-substrate addition, the highest methane yield of 0.40LCH4/gVSadded was obtained from FVFW at 5% TS. Generally, although the volatile solids (VS) conversion percentages seemed low during the experiments, higher methane yields could be obtained from anaerobic digestion of supermarket wastes. A suitable carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio, proper adjustment of the buffering capacity and the addition of essential trace nutrients (such as Ni) could improve VS conversion and biogas production yields significantly.

Alkanok G; Demirel B; Onay TT

2013-10-01

256

The effects of the German renewable energy sources Act (EEG) on market, technical and industrial development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since 1999, the German photovoltaic market has been growing rapidly. In 2003, more than 130 MWp PV systems were installed in Germany; in 2004, more than 200 MWp are expected to be installed additionally. The main reason for this impressive market success has been the market stimulation policy of the German government. In January 1999, the 100.000 Roofs Programme for photovoltaic systems had started, offering interest-reduced loans for PV systems. In April 2000, it was backed by the Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG), which considerably increased the feed-in tariff to 99 Pfennig (0.51 euros) per kWh. Since then, the PV market has boomed. In 2003, the 100,000 Roofs Programme (HTRP) ended successfully, after loans for more than 300 MWp PV systems had been granted. In order to fill the gap created by the termination of the programme, the government decided to increase the feed-in tariff provided by the EEG. Since January 2004, grid-connected PV systems on roofs and facades receive a tariff between 0,540 euros and 0,624 euros per kWh over 20 years. This improvement of the EEG further increased the interest in photovoltaics. The growth rate of the photovoltaic market, exceeding 50% in 2004, has led to the demand being higher than the available supply of PV systems. (author)

2004-01-01

257

Towards new markets. Export initiative renewable energy sources; Auf in neue Maerkte. Exportinitiative Erneuerbare Energien  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Export Initiative Renewable Energy offers the latest market information, insider knowledge as well as funding requirement for selected target markets. The export initiative supports entrepreneurs in their first steps on foreign markets and assists in finding suitable business partners as well as contacts abroad. The export initiative supports the marketing activities of entrepreneurs in their target markets.

NONE

2012-04-15

258

The potential of the Slovakian ground-water as sources of renewable energy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the most favourable energetic sources of heat is represented by ground-water, which can be found in the Earth crust in twoforms as common water and as geothermal water. It is well-known, that Slovakia disposes by great potential of this kind of renewable energysource. For the evaluation, it is necessary to take into account also the regional demands of the ground-water utilisation as renewableenergy source. This paper evaluate the occurence, quality and possibilities of explotiation of these sources.

Ladislav Tometz; Dušan Dugá?ek

2010-01-01

259

Renewables | Energies renouvelables  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available World Energy Generated for Commercial Use by Type*Production mondiale d’énergie destinée ŕ des applications commerciales, par type*­Main ProducersPrincipaux producteurs* Renewables also include biomass, yet most of it is used for energy generation for non-commercial purposes. | Les énergies renouvelables incluent la biomasse, mais celle-ci sert essentiellement ŕ générer de l’énergie qui ne rentre pas dans les circuits commerciaux.Source: British Petroleum, BP Statistical Review of World Energ...

2012-01-01

260

Latin American electricity markets and renewable energy sources: The Argentinean and Chilean cases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From the mid eighties on, most of Latin American Countries reformed their energy systems. The impact of these reforms over electricity markets was different in each case. However, in the majority of these cases there was a shift to private participation, instead of State, and a convergence of electricity systems to hydro and thermal technologies. This is the case of Argentina and Chile. In this context, the aim of this paper is to discuss the current situation of renewable energies in Chilean and Argentinean electric markets and the potential to increase their share in total energy supply. To this purpose, we firstly study electricity deregulation process and its current situation. Secondly, we analyze renewable energy share in these electricity systems comparatively to worldwide situation. Finally, we briefly present the policy instruments used in each country. (author)

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Latin American electricity markets and renewable energy sources: The Argentinean and Chilean cases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

From the mid eighties on, most of Latin American Countries reformed their energy systems. The impact of these reforms over electricity markets was different in each case. However, in the majority of these cases there was a shift to private participation, instead of State, and a convergence of electricity systems to hydro and thermal technologies. This is the case of Argentina and Chile. In this context, the aim of this paper is to discuss the current situation of renewable energies in Chilean and Argentinean electric markets and the potential to increase their share in total energy supply. To this purpose, we firstly study electricity deregulation process and its current situation. Secondly, we analyze renewable energy share in these electricity systems comparatively to worldwide situation. Finally, we briefly present the policy instruments used in each country. (author)

Guzowski, C. [Department of Economy, Universidad Nacional del Sur, 12 de Octubre y San Juan, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Recalde, M. [CONICET - Department of Economy, Universidad Nacional del Sur, 12 de Octubre y San Juan, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina)

2010-06-15

262

Renewable energies. Italy is mobilizing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] About 3 quarter of the Italian electric power comes from fossil fuel power plants. The rest is generated from hydropower, few comes from biomass and wind energy and a very few from geothermal energy (2% of the national production). However, the situation is changing and geothermal energy, with only 5 TWh, makes Italy the European leader in this domain and the world number 4 behind USA, Philippines and Mexico. The renewable sources represent 18.5% of the total Italian energy production. During the last five years, the renewable energy sources have developed rapidly: +80% per year for the wind energy, +32% per year for biomass and about +3% per year for geothermal energy. Moreover, the Italian government is implementing incentives for the development of renewable energy sources. This article gives an overview of the situation. (J.S.)

2005-01-01

263

Renewable energy sources and their contribution to the domestic energy production and consumption in Italy in the year 1995; Il contributo delle fonti rinnovabili in Italia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The overall electricity demand reached 261 TWh from 253.6 TWh, reflecting the 3.0% growth of the gross domestic product recorded over the same period. The contribution of renewable energy sources (hydroelectricity, geothermal energy, biomasses, solar, wind) to the national energy consumption in 1995 has been 12.8 Mtoe. It represented 7.4% of the gross energy consumption.

Menna, P. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Portici, Naples (Italy). Dipt. Energia

1997-12-01

264

Regional income effects and renewable fuels. Increased usage of renewable energy sources in Danish rural areas and its impact on regional incomes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

CO{sub 2}-emission is a world wide problem and in the attempt to reduce these emissions, renewable energy sources may be considered serious alternatives to the present usage of fossil fuels. As part of a research programme financed by The Danish Energy Agency, data concerning the different heating technologies based on oil and wood fuels have been collected. Private and social costs are estimated and these economic data are used when analysing regional income effects of increased consumption of fuels (e.g. wood) locally produced. The impacts on income and tax revenues are calculated from multiplier expressions, constructed with rights to the measurement of local effects. (au) 10 refs.

Bentzen, J.; Smith, V. [Aarhus School of Business, Dept. of Economics (Denmark); Dilling-Hansen, M. [Univ. of Aarhus, Dept. of Management (Denmark)

1996-12-31

265

Regional income effects and renewable fuels. Increased usage of renewable energy sources in Danish rural areas and its impact on regional incomes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] CO2-emission is a world wide problem and in the attempt to reduce these emissions, renewable energy sources may be considered serious alternatives to the present usage of fossil fuels. As part of a research programme financed by The Danish Energy Agency, data concerning the different heating technologies based on oil and wood fuels have been collected. Private and social costs are estimated and these economic data are used when analysing regional income effects of increased consumption of fuels (e.g. wood) locally produced. The impacts on income and tax revenues are calculated from multiplier expressions, constructed with rights to the measurement of local effects. (au) 10 refs

1996-01-01

266

Renewable energy opportunities for buildings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of non-depleting natural resources, such as wind, water, sun, biomass, and the earth to meet energy needs, are discussed with reference to the heating and cooling of buildings. Passive solar heating, ground source heat pumps, biomass heating, solar air heating, solar water heating, photovoltaics, wind energy, small hydro, and cogeneration technologies, applications and markets are some of the topics reviewed. NRCan's activities to promote the deployment of renewable energy systems in federal government facilities are outlined, among them the Federal Buildings Initiative ( FBI), the Renewable Energy Deployment Initiative (REDI) and the Renewable Energy Capacity Building Program (RECAP). Experiences to date with on-site generation in federal facilities (off-grid and building integrated), proposed high visibility applications in buildings such as museums and visitors' centres in national parks, efforts to encourage the deployment of emerging renewable electricity sources through purchases by federal government departments, and existing initiatives in these areas are also summarized.

Godin, R. [Natural Resources Canada, Renewable and Electrical Energy Division, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Monarque, A.; Ayoub, J. [Natural Resources Canada, CANMET Energy Diversification Laboratory, Varennes, PQ (Canada)

2001-07-01

267

Bolivia renewable energy development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author summarizes changes which have occurred in Bolivia in the past year which have had an impact on renewable energy source development. Political changes have included the privatization of power generation and power distribution, and resulted in a new role for state level government and participation by the individual. A National Rural Electrification Plan was adopted in 1996, which stresses the use of GIS analysis and emphasizes factors such as off grid, economic index, population density, maintenance risk, and local organizational structure. The USAID program has chosen to stress economic development, environmental programs, and health over village power programs. The national renewables program has adopted a new development direction, with state projects, geothermal projects, and private sector involvement stressed.

Smith, P.

1997-12-01

268

Protocol Monitoring Renewable Energy. Method to record and calculate the contribution of renewable energy sources in the Netherlands; Protocol Monitoring Duurzame Energie. Methodiek voor het registreren en berekenen van de bijdrage van duurzame energiebronnen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An overview is given of methods and information sources by means of which the contribution of renewable and sustainable energy sources to the energy supply in the Netherlands can be recorded and calculated. This the third, updated, version. [Dutch] Een overzicht wordt gegeven van methoden en informatiebronnen waarmee de bijdrage van duurzame energiebronnen aan de energievoorziening in Nederland kan worden vastgelegd en berekend. Dit is de derde, geactualiseerde, versie.

Abeelen, C.; Bosselaar, L.; Nieuwenhuis, R.

2004-12-01

269

Renewable Energy Monitoring Protocol. Methodology for calculating and recording amounts of energy produced from renewable sources in the Netherlands. Update 2006; Protocol Monitoring Duurzame Energie. Methodiek voor het registreren en berekenen van de bijdrage van duurzame energiebronnen. Update 2006  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An overview is given of methods and information sources by means of which the contribution of renewable and sustainable energy sources to the energy supply in the Netherlands can be recorded and calculated. This the fourth, updated, version. [Dutch] Een overzicht wordt gegeven van methoden en informatiebronnen waarmee de bijdrage van duurzame energiebronnen aan de energievoorziening in Nederland kan worden vastgelegd en berekend. Dit is de vierde, geactualiseerde, versie.

Bosselaar, L.; Gerlagh, T.

2006-12-15

270

Progress in renewable energy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper provides an overview of some of the key technological and market developments for leading renewable energy technologies--wind, wave and tidal, photovoltaics (PV) and biomass energy. Market growth, innovation and policy are closely interrelated in the development of renewables and the key issues in each area are explored for each of the main types of renewable energy technology. This enables the prospects for future development and cost reduction to be considered in detail. Key issues for policy are outlined.

Gross R; Leach M; Bauen A

2003-04-01

271

Renewable energies in the EU  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On January 23, 2008, the European Commission presented proposals in the form of a directive in an effort to give more specific shape to the objective adopted in the spring, i.e. to increase to 20% by 2020 the share of renewable energies in energy consumption in the Community. The proposal was to include legally binding goals for the overall share of renewable energy sources and the share of biofuels in the transport sector. The proposed directive on 'promoting the use of energy from renewable sources' calls upon each member state to ensure that its share of energy from renewable sources in the total energy consumption in 2020 at least corresponds to the target mentioned in Annex I Part A. In addition to the targets, the EU Commission charted a tentative course towards a minimum increase in the share of renewable energies in the period between 2011 and 2020. Finally, the member states are obliged to adopt national action plans. Unfortunately, the EU is missing an important target in its proposed directive: It should establish a framework for harmonized conditions promoting the use of renewable energies. One aspect to be welcomed is the introduction of a system of certificates of origin. It represents the entry, in principle, into a trading system with certificates of origin. The Green Package incorporates a wealth of new approaches. They will have to be tested and, if necessary, supplemented. Something else is evident, however: The directive established the foundations of a vast number of new regulations and red tape. (orig.)

272

An overview of the EU Member States support schemes for the promotion of renewable energy sources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this work, an overview of the European Union (EU) Member States support schemes for the promotion of renewable energy sources (RES) is provided. In particular, the status of the electricity generation capacity as well as the RES mixture in the Member States is described. Moreover, the different support schemes such as, investment support, feed-in tariffs (FiTs), tradable green certificates, and fiscal and financial measures which the Member States have adopted for the promotion of RES technologies are discussed in detail. Some Member States are implementing a single support scheme for the promotion of RES for power generation (RES-E), e.g., seven Member States use FiTs, or implement a hybrid support scheme by combining all or some of the four categories of the RES-E supporting schemes. Although, these support schemes have increased the penetration of the RES-E technologies in the Member States, still there is a long way in order to achieve the 2020 target. The reason for this may be that the way these schemes have been used so far, i.e., either as single support schemes or in combination of FiTs or tradable green certificates with investment support and fiscal and financial measures, has been ineffective. A more effective combination could be a hybrid scheme consisting of FiTs with tradable green certificates measures, as in the case of Italy and United Kingdom, that will increase the RES-E penetration and eliminate the possible technical problems which will arise from this increased penetration and have an effect in the stability of the power system.

Poullikkas, Andreas; Kourtis, George; Hadjipaschalis, Ioannis [Electricity Authority of Cyprus, P.O. Box 24506, 1399 Nicosia (Cyprus)

2012-07-01

273

An overview of the EU Member States support schemes for the promotion of renewable energy sources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this work, an overview of the European Union (EU) Member States support schemes for the promotion of renewable energy sources (RES) is provided. In particular, the status of the electricity generation capacity as well as the RES mixture in the Member States is described. Moreover, the different support schemes such as, investment support, feed-in tariffs (FiTs), tradable green certificates, and fiscal and financial measures which the Member States have adopted for the promotion of RES technologies are discussed in detail. Some Member States are implementing a single support scheme for the promotion of RES for power generation (RES-E), e.g., seven Member States use FiTs, or implement a hybrid support scheme by combining all or some of the four categories of the RES-E supporting schemes. Although, these support schemes have increased the penetration of the RES-E technologies in the Member States, still there is a long way in order to achieve the 2020 target. The reason for this may be that the way these schemes have been used so far, i.e., either as single support schemes or in combination of FiTs or tradable green certificates with investment support and fiscal and financial measures, has been ineffective. A more effective combination could be a hybrid scheme consisting of FiTs with tradable green certificates measures, as in the case of Italy and United Kingdom, that will increase the RES-E penetration and eliminate the possible technical problems which will arise from this increased penetration and have an effect in the stability of the power system.

Andreas Poullikkas, George Kourtis, Ioannis Hadjipaschalis

2012-01-01

274

Investigation of the costs of power generation renewable energy sources; Studie Stromgestehungskosten Erneuerbare Energien  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors of the contribution under consideration analyze the actual costs of power generation for the renewable energy technologies: photovoltaics, solar thermal power plants and wind power plants. For this, technology-specific system configurations and system prices for the second quarter of 2012 are used. The difference in cost developments of these technologies are compared. The authors model the future development of the costs on the basis of the observed historical market growth and competitiveness of each technology.

Kost, Christoph; Schlegl, Thomas; Thomsen, Jessica; Nold, Sebastian; Mayer, Johannes

2012-05-30

275

New energy making money. Vaillant for the installation of renewable sources of current business  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The government, individuals and companies should consider the lowering of energy consumption and moving into renewable resources. This is a phrase which a person would expect from an environmental activist or a rock singer with a Messianic tendency. If the managers of an industry concern say it - known mainly as a producer of gas boilers and air conditioning units - with a slight cynicism we could think of this as the company's social responsibility side. But it came out from the mouths of the Vaillant managers in connection with business. On one side they admit that the crisis affecting the construction industry damaged their sales. But they add right away that this is the era when it is possible to support technological development, and government support of effective energy devices including the usage of renewable resources are helping them to maintain business without further damage. 'Because we specialize in innovative energy devices and we continue with development,' Dieter Mueller, the executive director of the group, describes Vaillant's expansion of their business model. The company which he leads settled in Slovakia with two factories. For Vaillant business, energy devices using renewable resources are not the future. In June last year the concern started producing solar collectors in the German Gelsenkirchene's factory. Solar panels with a 370,000 square meter area come from a line with a capacity to produce 150,000 collectors every year. Groups interested in solar devices and technology for all renewable resources don't have to wonder. The firm noted its historically highest numbers: above 2.4 billion euros. At the slowing down of sales of traditional boilers, so-called 'green' devices were growing, and little by little they are climbing up to a 200 million euro mark. The numbers for the installation of solar heat devices alone added to the group's numbers 60% more than the previous year. (authors)

2009-08-20

276

Renewable Energy in Alaska  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report examines the opportunities, challenges, and costs associated with renewable energy implementation in Alaska and provides strategies that position Alaska's accumulating knowledge in renewable energy development for export to the rapidly growing energy/electric markets of the developing world.

2013-03-01

277

Renewable Energy Technology  

Science.gov (United States)

In many ways the field of renewable energy technology is being introduced to a society that has little knowledge or background with anything beyond traditional exhaustible forms of energy and power. Dotson (2009) noted that the real challenge is to inform and educate the citizenry of the renewable energy potential through the development of…

Daugherty, Michael K.; Carter, Vinson R.

2010-01-01

278

Renewable energies in France 1970-2002  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The energy observatory presents in this 2004 edition today data concerning the thermal renewable energies and the new energetic accounting method for the electric renewable energies. The following energy sources are concerned: hydroelectric power, wind power, photovoltaic, geothermal energy, biomass, wood fuels, domestic wastes, heat pumps, biogas, the thermal solar and biofuels. The energy production by renewable sources from 1970 to 2002, is also provided. (A.L.B.)

279

POSITIVE ECONOMIC INCENTIVES: THE PROMOTION OF THE USE OF ENERGY FROM RENEWABLE SOURCES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper is focused on positive economic incentives for environmentalprotection, particularly on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sourceswhich should be in accordance with the concept of sustainable development. Firstly,functions and types of economic incentives for environmental protection aredescribed. Next, legislation on the promotion of the use of energy from renewablesources (which follows the Directives of the European Union) is analyzed; approachesto its amendments in the Czech Republic and Germany are compared. Finally, relevantproblems are discussed in addition to their possible solutions.

HELENA DOLEŽALOVÁ

2011-01-01

280

Renewable Energy Association  

Science.gov (United States)

As the trade association for the UK bioenergy industry, British Biogen's mission is to promote and coordinate the commercial development of biomass as a renewable fuel resource for energy production. British Biogen has merged with the Renewable Power Association. By clicking on the Renewable Energy tab, users will find information on the different subject areas. REA adds new information based upon what we discover and updates these subject fields.

2007-06-11

 
 
 
 
281

Renewable energy export network  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Renewable Energy Exporters Network (REEN) has recently been established, following a meeting of renewable energy exporters and government agencies on 30 October 2000. REEN will assist the Australian renewable energy industry to take advantage of the opportunities offered by the burgeoning global market for renewable energy goods and services. Recent estimates of the significant potential global growth is renewable energy demand have reinforced the industry and Government's view that, in the medium to long-term, growth in the Australian renewable energy industry will largely depend on capturing export market share. Expanding the export market was identified as a crucial component in the Renewable Energy Action Agenda, developed jointly by industry and Government and released in June 2000. It was estimated that, for the industry to achieve its vision of sales of $4 billion per year by 2010, exports would need to comprise approximately 50% of the forecast growth in sales. As such, the need for a specific export strategy for the Australian renewable energy industry was recognised in the Action Agenda, and the establishment of the REEN is one of the first initiatives undertaken as part of the Renewable Energy Export Strategy. The REEN comprises approximately 50 export-ready renewable energy companies, the Department of Industry, Science and Resources, Austrade, and Stage Government agencies such as NSW's Sustainable Energy Development Authority. The Export Network will operate electronically, with face-to-face meetings held as appropriate. The Department of Industry, Science and Resources will facilitate the Export Network and has published a website at www.isr.gov.au/industry/reen. The site includes: a members directory; a discussion forum; information on opportunities to showcase Australian renewable; energy products and services; and Iinks to sites containing information that may be useful to renewable energy exporters. Other actions that are being undertaken as part of the Renewable Energy Export Strategy include: identifying the size, location and accessibility of potential export markets; identifying Australian export capabilities including successful exporters and export-ready companies; implementing a mechanism to disseminate information to industry on export markets and opportunities; showcasing Australian export capabilities; identifying export barriers and developing a mechanism for addressing these; and strengthening and broadening the focus of the Electric Energy Industry Export Council on renewable energy exports

2000-10-30

282

The promotional impacts of green power products on renewable energy sources: direct and indirect eco-effects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Green power products may be seen as a means of fostering renewable energy sources because they create and channel consumer demand for environmentally sound power generation. They can therefore be evaluated on a par with other support instruments regarding their effectiveness to connect new capacity to the grid. Apart from this direct effect however, green power products confer a much more active role for customers and utilities. Thus, learning processes, which foster eco-oriented decisions beyond the construction of new renewable generation capacity, may be induced. In the present paper, we provide an encompassing review of the ecological consequences of green electricity products. We examine the direct eco-effects by comparing five European countries in their endeavor to increase electricity generation from renewable energy. The results show that the impact of green power on increasing renewable generation capacity is rather limited. In a second step, we analyze the contribution of green power in stimulating eco-oriented learning. It turns out that green power has particular potential in facilitating simultaneous learning processes involving power producers, traders, suppliers and consumers. We conclude that green electricity can be a crucial complement to governmental energy policies in the mid term. A precondition for reaping this potential is the careful policy design to create synergies in the interaction of regulatory support schemes and the green power market.

Markard, Jochen [Centre for Innovation Research in the Utility Sector (CIRUS), Swiss Federal Institute for Environmental Science and Technology (EAWAG), CH-6047 Kastanienbaum (Switzerland)] e-mail: jochen.markard@eawag.ch; Truffer, Bernhard [Centre for Innovation Research in the Utility Sector (CIRUS), Swiss Federal Institute for Environmental Science and Technology (EAWAG), CH-6047 Kastanienbaum (Switzerland)

2006-02-01

283

The renewable energies in France: the main results in 2004  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This note takes stock on the renewable energies in France. It provides data and analyses the electric power production for the different renewable energy sources and the consumption of thermal renewable energies. (A.L.B.)

2005-01-01

284

Hybrid systems of renewable sources for electric energy production in autonomous electric systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper presents several realized projects for optimal calculations for hybrid systems for decentralized systems electricity production, using photovoltaic conversion and wind energy. The paper considers the construction of a system with proper connections of the different sources and optimization of the management of the energy flows, as well as the optimization of the cost of the produced energy.

2004-01-01

285

The EIB and the financing of renewable energy sources; La BEI et le financement des energies renouvelables  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As a financial institution o the European Union, The European Investment Bank is working and to add substance to the commitments made by the Union and its Member States at Kyoto and subsequently at Johannesburg. Over the last two years, renewable energy sources have attracted funding of more than 1.1 billion from the bank, equivalent to 14% of the total loans granted to the energy sector 7.8 billion), compared to an average o 7.9 % over the previous five years. In order to obviate the detrimental characteristics presented by these investments from a financial viewpoint, in March, 2004 the bank set up a 'CCFF' (Climate Change Financing Facility) of 500 million. Additionally, along with the other financial institutions, the EIB is looking into he possibility of supporting the establishment of European carbon credit trading hubs. Where the economic assessment of these projects is concerned, the bank has decided to take account of external environmental and technological factors when calculating the internal profitability levels for renewable energy projects. Moreover, in order to deal with the problem of who exactly should bear the related risks, the bank is able to offer structured financing. For projects located outside the European Union, venture capital and technical assistance instruments make it possible to promote the emergence of innovative projects. Although we are witnessing the sustained growth of loans from the EIB in this sector, additional efforts still need to be made by the legislature in order to strengthen the framework for such projects including emissions quotas, mechanisms for ensuring the solvency of environmental on-costs and international trading rules adapted to take account of the possible distortion of competition, etc. (author)

Marty-Gauque, H. [Groupe BEI, 75 - Paris (France)

2004-10-01

286

Renewable Energy Technology Certificate  

Science.gov (United States)

The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) has provided this framework for a renewable energy certificate. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

2011-05-27

287

Renewable energy in Antarctica  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Australian Antarctic Division is attempting the largest renewable energy installation of any nation in Antarctica. It has been investigating the potential of renewable energy sources to supplement existing fuel-generated energy supplies since 1993. In 1995, a 10 kW Vergnet turbine was installed at Casey station to investigate the operational aspects of using wind turbines in Antarctica. By the end of 1996, research had revealed that the suitability of using wind power was greater at some of Australia's stations than others. Maw-son station has the most suitable wind profile, with an annual average wind of 11 m/sec. Macquarie Island's profile is also suitable. Casey has less potential, with a major issue being strong wind gusts of 81 m/sec and long periods of calm weather. Davis has much less wind and limited potential. Further wind resource research was undertaken before feasibility studies commenced for large wind turbines at Mawson and Macquarie Island in 1999. The studies concluded that commercial turbines with minimal modifications should be suitable for the stations. This, however, was only the first step

2002-01-01

288

Potential role of Romanian environment NGOs in renewable energy sources promotion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Renewable Energy Resources (RES) promotion in Romania can be accelerated with the support of local Non-government organizations (NGOs). This is illustrated by two very interesting RES sectors, solar energy and small-hydro. The most important recommendations for RES use in Romania are potential applications and market for Renewable Energy Technology (RET), identification of pilot projects to be launched in the short term, preparation of a legal, organizational and institutional framework for the use of RES and promotion of RET, preparation of a financial framework for RES and RET and elaboration of an RES strategy for the next 15 years, public awareness through RES campaigns, and special programs for rural electrification. Environment and social requirements which need consideration, and the respective advantages of these are discussed. RET market development is a most important part of the approach proposed. It is concluded that with all approaches regarding RES promotion by NGOs in Romania, the reliability of the equipment combined with good design should be top priority. The contribution of local NGOs, as well as the co-operation with other European and non-European NGOs could represent an important component of RES promotion. (author). 6 refs.

Fara, L. [Romanian Solar Energy Society, Bucharest, (Romania)

1995-12-31

289

Renewable energy education for ASEAN  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the last decade, the growth in ASEAN`s economic sector has increased tremendously. Thus, resulting in the increases in the energy demand. The need to have sustainable development, environmentally friendly and continuously supply of energy for development in ASEAN led to a scenario in which renewable energy education becomes imperative at all levels and in all walks of life. In this paper, the authors have suggested the renewable energy curriculum for higher educational institutions in order to facilitate the proper use of the energy sources. (Author)

Othman, Mohd Yusof; Sopian, Kamaruzzaman [Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Solar Energy Research Group, Bangi (Malaysia)

1999-01-01

290

Problems of the Act on Power Generation from Renewable Energy Sources at new buildings; Probleme des EEWaermeG bei Neubauten  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The increased energetic modernization of buildings is a substantial request of an effective climate policy. An important component is the Act on Power Generation from Renewable Energy Sources for the promotion of the renewable energy in the range of heat. The contribution under consideration concerns actual questions of the Act on Power Generation from Renewable Energy Sources with emphasis on new buildings as well as local heat supply grids and long-distance heating grids. Specific problems of the bio energy which cannot be solved by means of criteria of sustainability play a substantial role. In addition, some problems of the climatic protection-legal mix of instruments become clear.

Ekardt, Felix; Heitmann, Christian [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Umweltrecht und Rechtsphilosophie

2009-12-15

291

The case for renewable energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The 25-year history of ISES ( International Solar Energy Society)-UK and the development of renewable energy sources was recalled. The renewables business was said to have been of scientific interest in the 1970s (when ISES-UK apparently played a role in solar energy), to engineering interest in the 80s (the time of competition for the largest wind and solar plants) to the present day situation of a sound manufacturing and marketing environment and a multi-billion dollar market. Some important milestones in the progress of the development of renewables are discussed - they include: the era of low oil prices and large fossil reserves, concern for carbon dioxide emissions, trade in green certificates, technological innovations and de-privatisation. The future for renewables and the possible role of the International Energy Agency are discussed briefly.

Lysen, E.H. [Utrecht Centre for Energy Research (UCE) (Netherlands)

1999-07-01

292

Renewable energy technologies  

CERN Document Server

This book deals with the emerging generation of renewable energy technologies, covering solar energy (photovoltaic, thermal and thermodynamic energy conversion), wind energy, marine energy, small hydropower, geothermal energy, biofuels, biogas and the use of wood as a substitute for fossil fuels.

Sabonnadi?re, Jean-Claude

2010-01-01

293

Renewable Energy Living Lab: Energy Experts  

Science.gov (United States)

Students use real-world data to evaluate various renewable energy sources and the feasibility of implementing these sources. Working in small groups, students use data from the Renewable Energy Living Lab to describe and understand the way the world works. The data is obtained through observation and experimentation. Using the living lab gives students and teachers the opportunity to practice analyzing data to solve problems or answer questions, in much the same way that scientists and engineers do every day.

Civil And Environmental Engineering Department

294

Energy conservation in ethanol production from renewable resources and non-petroleum energy sources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The dry milling process for the conversion of grain to fuel ethanol is reviewed for the application of energy conservation technology, which will reduce the energy consumption to 70,000 Btu per gallon, a reduction of 42% from a distilled spirits process. Specific energy conservation technology applications are outlined and guidelines for the owner/engineer for fuel ethanol plants to consider in the selection on the basis of energy conservation economics of processing steps and equipment are provided. The process was divided into 5 sections and the energy consumed in each step was determined based on 3 sets of conditions; a conventional distilled spirits process; a modern process incorporating commercially proven energy conservation; and a second generation process incorporating advanced conservation technologies which have not yet been proven. Steps discussed are mash preparation and cooking, fermentation, distillation, and distillers dried grains processing. The economics of cogeneration of electricity on fuel ethanol plants is also studied. (MCW)

1981-03-01

295

Financing renewable energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article focuses on the financing of renewable energy and initiatives to bridge the gap between renewable energy and financing. Details are given of the discussions held at the Photovoltaic Finance Forum which highlighted the poor awareness of the financial institutions for potential opportunities in the photovoltaic industry; the discussions at the Wind Finance Forum supported by the EU's ALTENER programme on investment incentives; and the discussions at the Financing Solar Energy's international symposium held in India into the problems due to commercial bank's lack of interest in the small size of loans required for renewable energy schemes.

Cameron, M.; Stierstorfer, J. [WIP, Muenchen (Germany); Chiaramonti, D. [ETA, Firenze (Italy)

1999-09-01

296

Renewable Energy Sources, Energy Efficiency and Reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions as Main Sources Development of 'Green Economy' in Croatia until 2050  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Most countries will need a shift in their energy strategies in order to limit the increase in global warming and to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases. It is worrying that while technologies with little or no greenhouse gas emissions exist, and are used for a couple of decades now, the increase of their market share is extremely low and the investments and subsidies in fossil fuels are substantially larger on a world wide scale. For changes to accrue it is necessary to carefully plan both the energy consumption and supply. A correct and rational prediction of future energy consumption is the basic assumption for the advanced analysis and modelling of energy systems and it will, as an input, have a profound influence on them. In this paper a bottom up approach was selected because it is the most suitable methodology to describe the legal, economic or purely technical mechanisms. Scenarios for the energy supply in 100% renewable systems in 2050 and the possibility to create a low-carbon society were simulated using the EnergyPLAN model for energy system analysis. Comparison of the necessary useful energy for space heating in 2050 shows a difference greater than 16% for different rates of renovation of the existing buildings in the residential sector of 1% and 3% annually. The electrification of road transport for passenger cars in combination with increased requirements for energy efficiency of internal combustion engines can reduce the energy consumption in the transport sector by 30% in comparison to the reference scenario for 2050. It is possible to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases by 82% in the period 2030-2050 and the use of renewable energy sources and the production of synthetic fuels can enable a transition to a 100% renewable energy system in Croatia in 2050. Doing so would create 192000 jobs in plant maintenance and fuel production alone, increase the security of energy supply and reduce the expenditure for the purchase of fossil fuels by 4-5 billion EUR according to the results of the simulation.(author)

2012-01-01

297

Economic evaluation of renewable energy sources in a green power market  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Biomass- and biogas technologies will at present not be able to compete with wind turbines. A possible solution is to split the market for renewable energies into separate markets, e.g. one for the wind turbine electricity and another one for bio electricity. Some of the analysed straw- and wood-chip fired plants have good economy. It is characteristic that the technology, which has most operation experiences has the worst economy. Existing cooperative biogas plants are expected to keep or obtain an acceptable economic. For new cooperative plants, which are established before 2002, a subsidy of almost 20% is required, before an economic balance is made. For cooperative plants, which is established after 2002, an economic balance will be difficult to make, even though renewable energy should get the maximal value 27 oere every kWh. It is the same with farm systems. Investors will not establish photovoltaic plants in several years for economic reasons. The large hydro-electric power plants generally have a good economy based on the present operational conditions and on present subsidies. With unchanged operations the plants will need subsidy for the power production of 0 to 26 oere/kWh. (EHS)

1999-01-01

298

Renewable energy sources and higher efficiencies. Supportive measures on trial; Regenerative Energien und Effizienzverbesserungen. Foerderinstrumente auf dem Pruefstand  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The discussion over efficient strategies for promoting renewable energy sources and energy conservation must take account of the liberalisation of the European internal market for energy and of the changes in national power supply legislation which will result in more competition-oriented supply structures in Germany. In view of this free market orientation, any proposals for state interventions should be refused. According to the authors, state dirigism can also be neglected in the promotion of investments for higher energy efficiencies and renewable energy sources. Instead, they suggest a correction of the energy-political boundary conditions and the establishment of new institutions, e.g. a standing commission for better coordination, optimisation and documentation of supportive measures as well as new concepts like voluntary obligation, green pricing models, and contracting. (orig.) [Deutsch] Zielfuehrende Ueberlegungen zu effizienten Foerderinstrumenten fuer regenerative Energien und Energieeinsparungen muessen angesichts der Liberalisierung des europaeischen Energiebinnenmarktes und der nationalen Energierechtsreform die zu erwartenden staerker wettbewerbsorientierten Versorgungsstrukturen in Deutschland beruecksichtigen. Damit werden auch in der leitungsgebundenen Energiewirtschaft marktwirtschaftliche Ordnungsprinzipien staerker als bislang zur Anwendung gelangen. Abzulehnen sind daher alle Vorschlaege zugunsten einer groesseren staatlichen Einflussnahme und staerkerer Interventionen. Auch die Foerderung energieeffizienzsteigernder Investitionen und der regenerativen Energietraeger erfordert keine dirigistischen Ansaetze. Vielmehr sind bei entsprechender Korrektur der energiepolitischen Rahmenbedingungen neue Institutionen wie eine staendige Kommission zur besseren Koordination, Optimierung und Dokumentation von Foerdermassnahmen sowie neue Konzepte wie Selbstverpflichtungen, Green-Pricing-Modelle und Contracting-Angebote zu erproben bzw. umzusetzen. (orig.)

Marcus, P. [Rheinische Energie AG, Koeln (Germany); Knott, G. [Verbundnetz-Gas AG, Leipzig (Germany). Bereich Energiepolitik

1997-04-01

299

Economic aspects of electricity generation from renewable sources in Orissa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The agency for renewable energy projects in the state of Orissa is the Orissa Renewable Energy Development Agency (OREDA). OREDA is trying to develop and propogate renewable energy sources such as biogas, solar photovoltaic power, wind power and small hydropower. The progress made so far and future plans are described. Costs of various conventional and non-conventional sources of energy are compared. (M.G.B.) 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

1991-01-01

300

General concept relating to renewable energy sources of the Bundeministerium fuer Ernaehrung, Landwirtschaft und Forsten. Gesamtkonzeption Nachwachsende Rohstoffe des Bundesministeriums fuer Ernaehrung, Landwirtschaft und Forsten  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of renewable energy sources for fossil fuel substitution is discussed from the point of view of agricultural policy, competition and marketing, research programs, plant breeding, wood production, bioconversion and process development.

1983-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Commonwealth renewable energy initiatives  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Australian Government believes that a fair, open and competitive renewable energy industry market is the best approach in the long term. This paper describes the Australian Government`s role in putting renewable energy programs in place to address market failures and barriers. The programs consist of several components, addressing research, development and demonstration, promotion, trialing of innovative financing schemes and facilitation of international marketing links. Over the past two years, the Government has announced a series of new initiatives designed to take renewable energy technology out of the laboratory and into the market place. These initiatives which form part of the Greenhouse Response Strategy, are designed to address a range of market failures which are preventing renewable energy and energy efficient technologies from reaching their economic potential.

Fisher, W.L. [Department of Primary Industries and Energy, Canberra, ACT (Australia)

1994-12-31

302

Renewable energy projects in small island countries funded under the United Nation trust found for new and renewable source of energy (NRSE)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The NRSE trust fund established with financial support from the Italian Government has succeeded in catalyzing a number of energy projects in small island developing countries. These projects have elicited a great deal of interest by local communities and opened up prospects for further utilization of locally available energy resources. The projects have created a positive impact on the quality of life of people in dispersed locations in small island developing countries by focusing on provision of renewable energy based electricity services such as solar PV lighting for homes, schools, and hospitals; radio, TV, VCR as well as medicine refrigerators. Thus it has become evident that renewable energy technologies such as solar and wind systems can have an important role to play in improving the quality of life of people in these small island countries. Market potential for these technologies is indeed substantial. However constraints and barriers still exist. One of the principal barriers is still the high initial cost of solar devices. Innovative financing including microcredit facilities needs to be explored. Efforts are also needed to strengthen local capacity to undertake assembly of components and systems, and also in the installation, maintenance, and service of renewable energy devices. Entrepreneurial activities need to be fostered through further strengthening of skills in this area. (EHS)

1999-01-01

303

Renewable energy projects in small island countries funded under the United Nation trust found for new and renewable source of energy (NRSE)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The NRSE trust fund established with financial support from the Italian Government has succeeded in catalyzing a number of energy projects in small island developing countries. These projects have elicited a great deal of interest by local communities and opened up prospects for further utilization of locally available energy resources. The projects have created a positive impact on the quality of life of people in dispersed locations in small island developing countries by focusing on provision of renewable energy based electricity services such as solar PV lighting for homes, schools, and hospitals; radio, TV, VCR as well as medicine refrigerators. Thus it has become evident that renewable energy technologies such as solar and wind systems can have an important role to play in improving the quality of life of people in these small island countries. Market potential for these technologies is indeed substantial. However constraints and barriers still exist. One of the principal barriers is still the high initial cost of solar devices. Innovative financing including microcredit facilities needs to be explored. Efforts are also needed to strengthen local capacity to undertake assembly of components and systems, and also in the installation, maintenance, and service of renewable energy devices. Entrepreneurial activities need to be fostered through further strengthening of skills in this area. (EHS)

Gururaja, J. [Energy and Transport Branch, Division for Sustainabel Development, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations, NY (United States)

1999-11-01

304

Renewable energy source contribution to energy supplies in developing countries. Example: Tanzania  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Tanzania like many other developing countries is affected by two forms of energy crisis: lack of wood and petroleum. For the prevailing part of population the lack of wood presents the greatest problem. As wood is burnt with very poor efficiency, the primary task would be to introduce better combustion methods. The most feasible alternative to wood-combustion seems to be biogas production from cow manure. Wind turbines can be used in the program of water supply development. Oil is used mainly in the transport sector and no immediate alternative to substitute oil consumption is available.

Boldt, J.

1981-07-01

305

The wood, renewable energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document evaluates the french forest situation and its future. Indeed, the wood energy constitutes in France the first renewable energy after the hydraulic. It presents the today situation of the french forest providing statistical data, evaluation of the energy estimation, the carbon fixation, the resources, the perspectives wood energy for 2050, the biofuels and an economic analysis. (A.L.B.)

306

European Network on Education and Training in Renewable Energy Sources (EURONETRES)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The EURONETRES has been planned as a regional voluntary cooperative framework, uniting academic institutions of the European countries, interested in the capacity building on RES1 at national and regional levels and in particular, in education and training of specialists in RES for the extended use of RES in Europe as well as in other regions of the World. EURONETRES has been foreseen as an integral part of the Global Renewable Energy Education and Training (GREET) Programme of UNESCO, which is a priority area of the Organization's actions in the field of engineering sciences and RES as approved by the 32nd Session of the UNESCO's General Conference, which took place in September-October, 2003 in Paris, France. The Network will be sponsored by UNESCO through the UNESCO Office in Venice - Regional Bureau for Science in Europe (ROSTE). (orig.)

Kyritsis, S. [University of Agriculture of Athens (Greece)

2004-09-01

307

Renewable energy in power systems  

CERN Document Server

Renewable Energy (RE) sources differ from conventional sources in that, generally they cannot be scheduled, they are much smaller than conventional power stations and are often connected to the electricity distribution system rather than the transmission system.  The integration of such time variable 'distributed' or 'embedded' sources into electricity networks requires special consideration.  This new book addresses these special issues and covers the following:The characteristics of conventional and RE generators with particular reference to the variable nature of RE

Freris, Leon

2008-01-01

308

Project financing renewable energy schemes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The viability of many Renewable Energy projects is critically dependent upon the ability of these projects to secure the necessary financing on acceptable terms. The principal objective of the study was to provide an overview to project developers of project financing techniques and the conditions under which project finance for Renewable Energy schemes could be raised, focussing on the potential sources of finance, the typical project financing structures that could be utilised for Renewable Energy schemes and the risk/return and security requirements of lenders, investors and other potential sources of financing. A second objective is to describe the appropriate strategy and tactics for developers to adopt in approaching the financing markets for such projects. (author)

1993-01-01

309

2008 Renewable Energy Data Book  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2008 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar energy, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investments.

2009-07-01

310

The role of renewable energy in energy management and conservation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy is a crucial issue for sustainable developments. Conventional energy sources will remain the main supply of energy for the world. The importance of renewable energy sources and their current advances are discussed with a special emphasis on energy conservation policy. The paper will focus briefly on various techniques of integrated renewable with existing energy systems. It is concluded that renewable will partially contribute to energy demand and support the energy conservation strategy. (Author)

Elani, U.A.; Alawaji, S.H.; Hasnain, S.M. [King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Energy Research Institute

1996-09-01

311

Development of Innovative Heating and Cooling Systems Using Renewable Energy Sources for Non-Residential Buildings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Industrial and commercial areas are synonymous with high energy consumption, both for heating/cooling and electric power requirements, which are in general associated to a massive use of fossil fuels producing consequent greenhouse gas emissions. Two pilot systems, co-funded by the Italian Ministry for the Environment, have been created to upgrade the heating/cooling systems of two existing buildings on the largest industrial estate in Umbria, Italy. The upgrade was specifically designed to improve the system efficiency and to cover the overall energy which needs with renewable energy resources. In both cases a solar photovoltaic plant provides the required electric power. The first system features a geothermal heat pump with an innovative layout: a heat-storage water tank, buried just below ground level, allows a significant reduction of the geothermal unit size, hence requiring fewer and/or shorter boreholes (up to 60%–70%). In the other system a biomass boiler is coupled with an absorption chiller machine, controlling the indoor air temperature in both summer and winter. In this case, lower electricity consumption, if compared to an electric compression chiller, is obtained. The first results of the monitoring of summer cooling are presented and an evaluation of the performance of the two pilot systems is given.

Elisa Moretti; Emanuele Bonamente; Cinzia Buratti; Franco Cotana

2013-01-01

312

Price control for electricity supplied to the grid from renewable energy sources. Preisaufsicht bei der Einspeisung regenerativer Energien  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The law governing the supply of electricity generated by renewable energy sources to the public grid regulates the purchase and payment by public utilities of electricity exclusively generated from such sources as hydropower, wind power, solar energy, landfill gas or sewage gas, or from biomass produced in agriculture and forestry or derived and processed in waste treatment systems. The author discusses aspects and issues hitherto left unconsidered by publications or by the jurisdiction and puts them into the context of a review of recent legislation, addressing in particular the following aspects: (1) The place of the Act on Supply of Electricity from Renewable Sources to the Public Grid within the legal framework of price controls. (2) Limits to be set by price control activities in accordance with Para. 12, sub-section 2 BTO Elt and with Para. 11, sub-section 1, sentence 3 BTO Elt. (3) Limits set to price controls due to Para. 12, sub-section 2 BTO Elt. (4) The conflict of purposes arising from price controls. (orig./HP)

Immenga, U.

1994-02-20

313

Microgrids project. Part 2. Design of an electrification kit with high content of renewable energy sources in Senegal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Senegal is one of the less developed countries in the world (position 158 in a list of 174 countries). 85% of its rural population does not have access to electricity and there's no doubt that this is an important barrier for socio-economic development. In this context, the project Microgrids aims at contributing to solve this problem. This project is part of the Intelligent Energy - Europe Programme supported by the European Commission. Its objective is the promotion and dissemination of the use of micro-grids with high content of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) for the electrification of villages far away from the grid in Senegal. One of the results of the project was the analysis of rural electrification needs, which is described in another paper [Camblong H, Sarr J, Niang AT, Curea O, Alzola JA, Sylla EH, Santos M. Microgrids project, part 1: analysis of rural electrification with high content of renewable energy sources in Senegal. Renewable Energy, submitted for publication.]. This paper presents the design of an electrification kit based on the information provided by that analysis [Analyse des besoins locaux pour l'electrification de zones rurales au Senegal. Technical report of Microgrids project; 2007. Available from: http://www.microgrids-eie.com.]. After identifying necessary previous conditions for the sustainability of any electrification project, a methodology is proposed for the design of the electrification kit. This methodology is applied to a typical village and results are extended to differently sized villages in the areas of Thies, Fatick and Kaolack. Economic considerations are also included to establish the relationship between electrification costs and paying capability of the communities. Now the Microgrids' consortium hopes to set-up a new project to apply the designed kit on some rural non-electrified villages. (author)

Alzola, J.A.; Santos, M. [Robotiker Tecnalia, Parque Tecnologico, Edificio 202, 48170 Zamudio (Spain); Vechiu, I. [ESTIA Recherche Technopole Izarbel, 64210 Bidart (France); Camblong, H. [ESTIA Recherche Technopole Izarbel, 64210 Bidart (France); Electrical Engineering Department, University of the Basque Country (E.U.P.-D), Europa Plaza 1, 20018 Donostia - San Sebastian (Spain); Sall, M. [Centre d' Etudes et de Recherches sur les Energies Renouvelables (UCAD) (Senegal); Sow, G. [Laboratoire des Energies Renouvelables (LER), Ecole Sup. Polytechnique, Dakar (Senegal)

2009-10-15

314

Contribution of Renewable Energy Sources to the Sustainable Development of Islands: An Overview of the Literature and a Research Agenda  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Renewable energy sources (RES) have significant potential to contribute to the economic, social and environmental energy sustainability of small islands. They improve access to energy for most of the population, they also reduce emissions of local and global pollutants and they may create local socioeconomic development opportunities. The aim of this paper is to provide a review of the theoretical and empirical literature on the contribution of RES to the energy sustainability of islands, focusing on the main results and the methodologies used. Papers are classified according to their coverage of the three dimensions of the triangular approach to sustainability (economic, environmental and social). The review also takes into account whether and how the procedural sustainability has been tackled in those papers. It is acknowledged that although several topics have been covered by the existing literature, there are promising avenues for future research on several fronts, both thematic and methodological.

Loraima Jaramillo-Nieves; Pablo del Río

2010-01-01

315

Photon Science for Renewable Energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Our current fossil-fuel-based system is causing potentially catastrophic changes to our planet. The quest for renewable, nonpolluting sources of energy requires us to understand, predict, and ultimately control matter and energy at the electronic, atomic, and molecular levels. Light-source facilities - the synchrotrons of today and the next-generation light sources of tomorrow - are the scientific tools of choice for exploring the electronic and atomic structure of matter. As such, these photon-science facilities are uniquely positioned to jump-start a global revolution in renewable and carbonneutral energy technologies. In these pages, we outline and illustrate through examples from our nation's light sources possible scientific directions for addressing these profound yet urgent challenges.

2010-01-01

316

Photon Science for Renewable Energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Our current fossil-fuel-based system is causing potentially catastrophic changes to our planet. The quest for renewable, nonpolluting sources of energy requires us to understand, predict, and ultimately control matter and energy at the electronic, atomic, and molecular levels. Light-source facilities - the synchrotrons of today and the next-generation light sources of tomorrow - are the scientific tools of choice for exploring the electronic and atomic structure of matter. As such, these photon-science facilities are uniquely positioned to jump-start a global revolution in renewable and carbonneutral energy technologies. In these pages, we outline and illustrate through examples from our nation's light sources possible scientific directions for addressing these profound yet urgent challenges.

Hussain, Zahid; Tamura, Lori; Padmore, Howard; Schoenlein, Bob; Bailey, Sue

2010-03-31

317

Pigs, peas, and...power? Farmers soon may grow a renewable energy source  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Biomass, grown in an economically and environmentally sustainable manner, realistically could be used to supply 50,000 MW (5 Quads) of electric capacity by 2010 and probably twice that amount by 2030. During the past year, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the US Department of Energy each have been evaluating the potential for biomass to become a major renewable energy resource over the next four decades, able to offset some of the US dependency on imported fossil fuels while offering environmental and economic benefits. EPRI's conclusion that biomass could become a truly important feedstock for electric generation in the near term grew out of a series of workshops attended by experts from government, academia, and industry. These experts did not conclude that significant biomass resource development would take place, but rather that it could take place in an economically profitable and environmentally acceptable manner. They identified two major barriers to biomass resource development: a lack of assurance that a reliable market exists for a dedicated biomass energy crop (significantly influenced by the current costs of both coal and natural gas); and current federal agricultural policies, particularly those dealing with price supports for some types of crops and the present constraints on the use of the more than 54 million acres of agricultural reserve program lands. Moreover, the very limited federal budget and program support for biomass energy within both the US Departments of Energy and Agriculture over the past 12 years has exacerbated the risks facing farmers making biomass/biofuels resource decisions and electric utilities considering using biomass resources. A third barrier is the general lack of consensus as to what criteria should be used for the environmentally sound development of biomass.

1993-01-01

318

Wind energy renewable energy and the environment  

CERN Multimedia

Due to the mounting demand for energy and increasing population of the world, switching from nonrenewable fossil fuels to other energy sources is not an option-it is a necessity. Focusing on a cost-effective option for the generation of electricity, Wind Energy: Renewable Energy and the Environment covers all facets of wind energy and wind turbines. The book begins by outlining the history of wind energy, before providing reasons to shift from fossil fuels to renewable energy. After examining the characteristics of wind, such as shear, power potential, and turbulence, it discusses the measurem

Nelson, Vaughn

2009-01-01

319

Integration of renewable sources in the electric system using virtual renewable power plants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The concept of “Virtual Renewable Power Plants - VRPP” enables several positive factors for the electric integration of Renewable Energy Sources (RES), namely (a) the smoothing of time based fluctuation of the power delivered by the RES, (b) the use of the natural complementary of renewable resource...

Rodrigues, Luis C.; Estanqueiro, Ana

320

Optimizing the performance of renewable sources using virtual renewable power plants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The concept of “Virtual Renewable Power Plants - VRPP” enables several positive factors for the electric integration of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) and enables the optimization of its technical and economic performance by using the natural complementary of renewable resources availability. Moreov...

Rodrigues, Luis C.; Estanqueiro, Ana

 
 
 
 
321

Renewable energies for Amapa's sustainable development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The generation of energy requires huge quantities of fuels which produce significant amounts of waste that are given back to the environment, causing remarkable damage. In order to avoid or at least reduce this damage, society is devoting research to other means of energy generation, free from that king of consequences - renewable energies. The article overviews of Amapa, Brazilian state, energy renewable sources

1999-12-02

322

Renewable energy sources, a big market for sliding and roller bearings; Erneuerbare Energien als grosser Markt fuer Gleit- und Waelzlager  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The exit from nuclear energy promotes the rearrangement on renewable energies. Thus, in the coming years, alternative forms of energy increase in importance more and more - an ever greater market for rolling bearings and plain bearings. Energy efficiency plays a major role. In industrial production and in the use of renewable energies rolling bearings must be reliable and have a long life in utilization. The installed roller bearings have a great responsibility to guarantee a smooth energy supply to the municipalities.

Neuhaus, Michael [LFD Waelzlager GmbH, Dortmund (Germany)

2011-10-17

323

The renewable energies in Uruguay  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report is about the energetic politc and its strong commitment with the incorporation of autochthonous sources and renewable energy. The objective and the main lines of action in Uruguay are: provide electric power, wind, biomass, bioethanol, biodiesel, solar and hydroelectric power

2011-01-01

324

The economic impact of renewable energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This report summarises the findings of a project investigating the economic impact of renewable energy. The background to the study is traced, and potential sources of public finance for renewable projects, sensitivity analysis of the employment estimates , estimates of demand met by renewable energy technologies, the expenditures involved in investment in renewable energy; and sectoral linkages are examined. Wealth creation through investment in renewable energy, and the economic and employment impacts are explored. Plant retirement and replacement analysis, and input-output models are considered in appendices

1998-01-01

325

The economic impact of renewable energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarises the findings of a project investigating the economic impact of renewable energy. The background to the study is traced, and potential sources of public finance for renewable projects, sensitivity analysis of the employment estimates , estimates of demand met by renewable energy technologies, the expenditures involved in investment in renewable energy; and sectoral linkages are examined. Wealth creation through investment in renewable energy, and the economic and employment impacts are explored. Plant retirement and replacement analysis, and input-output models are considered in appendices.

NONE

1998-02-01

326

Projection of the possible use of renewable energy sources including energy saving in North-Rhine Westphalia. 11. technical report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Eleventh Technical Report prepared within the framework of the investigation 'Analysis of Possibilities of Solar Power Supply and its Development in Nordrhein-Westfalen' includes the projection of important results describing the present and possible future Power Supply for the state Nordrhein-Westfalen. In the first part of this report the structure of the conventional Power Supply and the CO2 emissions are described and discussed. As a consequence of the strong coupling of the use of renewable energy supply systems in combination with energy saving, a possible contribution of energy saving is quantified. In the second part of this report the combined installation of different renewable energy supply systems maximizing the energy output under technical and economical conditions are analyzed reflecting on the 'area rivalry'. Furthermore, strategies for least cost renewable energy supply systems for maximum CO2 reduction or maximum energy output are developed. Summarizing, a comparative assessment of both strategies is given at the end of this report. (orig.)

1994-01-01

327

Biogas as a potential renewable energy source: A Ghanaian case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The associated harmful environmental, health and social effects with the use of traditional biomass and fossil fuel has enhanced the growing interest in the search for alternate cleaner source of energy globally. Ghana, a developing country depends heavy on woodfuel as a source of fuel contributing about 72% of the primary energy supply with crude oil and hydro making up the rest. Biogas generation has simply been seen as a by-product of anaerobic digestion of organic waste. Having proven to be a practicable and promising technology, it has been very successful and a very reliable and clean source of energy when proper management programmes are followed. There are vast biomass resources including organic waste in Ghana that have the potential for use as feedstock for biogas production to reduce the over reliance of woodfuel and fossil fuel, and to help reduce the it would reduce greenhouse gas emissions which may be affecting climate change. Ghana having the technical potential of constructing about 278,000 biogas plants, only a little over 100 biogas plants has so far been established. This paper presents the energy situation and the status of the biogas technology and utilization in Ghana. It also presents the potential benefits, prospects and challenges of the biogas technology. (author)

2011-01-01

328

Biogas as a potential renewable energy source: A Ghanaian case study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The associated harmful environmental, health and social effects with the use of traditional biomass and fossil fuel has enhanced the growing interest in the search for alternate cleaner source of energy globally. Ghana, a developing country depends heavy on woodfuel as a source of fuel contributing about 72% of the primary energy supply with crude oil and hydro making up the rest. Biogas generation has simply been seen as a by-product of anaerobic digestion of organic waste. Having proven to be a practicable and promising technology, it has been very successful and a very reliable and clean source of energy when proper management programmes are followed. There are vast biomass resources including organic waste in Ghana that have the potential for use as feedstock for biogas production to reduce the over reliance of woodfuel and fossil fuel, and to help reduce the it would reduce greenhouse gas emissions which may be affecting climate change. Ghana having the technical potential of constructing about 278,000 biogas plants, only a little over 100 biogas plants has so far been established. This paper presents the energy situation and the status of the biogas technology and utilization in Ghana. It also presents the potential benefits, prospects and challenges of the biogas technology. (author)

Arthur, Richard; Baidoo, Martina Francisca [Department of Energy Systems Engineering, Koforidua Polytechnic, Koforidua, Box KF 981, Koforidua (Ghana); Antwi, Edward [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kumasi Polytechnic, Box 854, Kumasi (Ghana)

2011-05-15

329

Use of Oil Palm Waste as a Renewable Energy Source and Its Impact on Reduction of Air Pollution in Context of Malaysia  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy supply to supplement the increasing energy demand and reducing environment pollution is renewable energy resources. Malaysia is currently the world's second largest producer and exporter of palm oil and 47% of the world's supply of palm oil is produced by this country. Nearly 80 million tonnes of Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB) are processed annually in 406 palm oil mills and are generating approximately 54 million tonnes of palm oil mill effluent (POME), known to generate biogas consisting of methane – a Green House Gas (GHG) identifiable to cause global warming. This is 21 times more potent GHG than CO2. These two major oil palm wastes are a viable renewable energy (RE) source for production of electricity. If the two sources are used in harnessing the renewable energy potential the pollution intensity from usage of non-renewable sources can also be reduced significantly. This study focused on the pollution mitigation potential of biogas as biogas is a renewable energy. Utilization of this renewable source for the production of electricity is believed to reduce GHG emissions to the atmosphere.

Begum, Shahida; P, Kumaran; M, Jayakumar

2013-06-01

330

RENEWABLE ENERGY BETWEEN AGRICULTURE AND INDUSTRY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper aims to present the evolution of renewable energy in the entire world, including Moldova and Romania as states that tend to reach their micro- and macro-economic objectives. One of the most important goal remains thedevelopment of renewable energy from agricultural waste and so the energy coming from natural sources such assolar, wind or water without air pollution. As a conclusion, the solution to obtain this renewable energy is to attractfinancial resources from EU or USA investors.

Diana GROSU

2013-01-01

331

Renewable Energy Opportunities at Fort Hood, Texas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The document provides an overview of renewable resource potential at Fort Hood based primarily upon analysis of secondary data sources supplemented with limited on-site evaluations. The effort was funded by the U.S. Army Installation Management Command (IMCOM) as follow-on to the 2005 DoD Renewables Assessment. This effort focuses on grid-connected generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and also ground source heat pumps for heating and cooling buildings, as directed by IMCOM.

Chvala, William D.; Warwick, William M.; Dixon, Douglas R.; Solana, Amy E.; Weimar, Mark R.; States, Jennifer C.; Reilly, Raymond W.

2008-06-30

332

Integrating renewable energy sources in the Portuguese power system. New generation adequacy indicators  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The penetration of intermittent energy sources in the Portuguese power system is growing significantly. The identification of possible solutions to maintain the operational reserve levels is necessary to preserve flexibility and security of electricity supply. In this context, the development of probabilistic tools is essential to calculate new generation adequacy indicators associated with the analysis of the operational reserve. In this paper, the mathematical model RESERVAS, is briefly described and is used to analyse the impact of integrating high levels of intermittent energy sources in the Portuguese power system. The presented results allow us to conclude that the electricity adequacy evaluation should be done using probabilistic indicators, which reflect the power system performance in the following areas: (i) Adequacy (evaluation of the available power to face the hourly electricity demand) and (ii) Security (evaluation of the operational reserve requirements through the deviations in the demand-supply balance that occur among all elementary periods). (orig.)

Martins, Nuno; Santos, Joana; Damas, Manuela [Redes Energeticas Nacionais (REN), Porto (Portugal). Studies and Innovation Dept.

2012-07-01

333

Local sustainable energy sources - the possibilities of using renewables in farms; Paikallista kestaevaeae energiaa - uusiutuvan energian mahdollisuudet maatiloilla  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present energy consumption and the possibilities to increase the use of renewable energy in farms were studied. The emphasis was on energy producing farms and the study was conducted in the central of Finland. The material was collected through questionnaires, the return percent being 50 %. The results focused on barriers for using renewable energy as well as on the development of rural energy systems.

Huttunen, S.

2004-07-01

334

Governmental interventions in the energy market. Study of the Dutch level playing field for fossil fuels, renewable sources, nuclear energy and energy conservation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This study has made an inventory of 53 governmental interventions in the Dutch energy market. Moreover, the consequences for the playing field for fossil fuels, renewable sources, nuclear energy and energy saving have been quantified. It shows that the government still stimulates the use of energy and fossil fuels more than it stimulates use of renewable energy sources. Policy that focuses on decreasing the price differences between sustainable and fossil should therefore focus on the phase-out of this support and subsequently on bridging the remaining financial gap.[nl] In deze studie zijn 53 overheidsinterventies op de Nederlandse energiemarkt geinventariseerd. Daarnaast zijn de consequenties voor het speelveld voor fossiele brandstoffen, hernieuwbare bronnen, kernenergie en energiebesparing gekwantificeerd. Hieruit blijkt dat de overheid het gebruik van energie en fossiele brandstoffen nog altijd sterker stimuleert dan hernieuwbare energiebronnen. Beleid gericht op het verkleinen van prijsverschillen tussen duurzaam en fossiel moet zich dus richten op het uitfaseren van deze steun en vervolgens het overbruggen van de resterende 'onrendabele top'.

2011-01-01

335

Ways to achieve 100 percent power supply from renewable energy sources. Special expert opinion, January 2011; Wege zur 100% erneuerbaren Stromversorgung. Sondergutachten Januar 2011  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is shown that the only really sustainable power supply is based 100 percent on renewable energy sources. It can be implemented at acceptable cost until 2050. The transition is possible without longer operating times of nuclear power plants and without new coal power plants. However, what is required is a far-reaching consensus in energy policy. Germany is one of the world's first industrialized countries that is moving towards power supply completely based on renewables. The expert opinion of the SRU (Sachverstaendigenrat fuer Umweltfragen, Expert Council for Environmental Problems) developed an encouraging blueprint for this. On the basis of different scenarios, the SRU shows various options for achieving completely renewable power supply until 2050. It makes suggestions for further development of the political, economic and legal boundary conditions, especially for a faster expansion of power grids and energy stores, and for the further development of the production of renewable energy sources. (orig.)

NONE

2011-07-01

336

Funding for Renewable Energy  

Science.gov (United States)

On May 25, 1999, the House and Senate appropriation committees cut funding for renewable energy and energy efficiency programs, while at the same time increasing funding for nuclear and fossil fuel programs. This move runs counter to the opinions of most Americans, according to a recent survey commissioned by the Sustainable Energy Coalition. According to the survey, Americans believe renewable energy and energy efficiency funding should be prioritized, while nuclear power and fossil fuel spending should be reduced. Following the budget changes, President Clinton issued an executive order for federal agencies to cut energy consumption by 35 percent of 1985 levels by 2010, as the federal government is the largest consumer of energy. Clinton also urged Congress to reevaluate and approve the 2000 budget funding requests for research to help American businesses use energy-saving technology. This week's In The News examines the recent federal decisions regarding energy use and technology; the eight resources listed provide background information on this important issue.

Schultz, Jennifer J.

337

A Hybrid System for Power Refrigerate & Air Conditioning System By Renewable Source of Energy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A state of the art review is presented of different technologies that are available to deliver refrigeration from solar energy. The review covers solar electric, wind mill and some new emerging technologies. In this paper, a technique is used to run the refrigerator as well as air conditioner through the use of heat generated from refrigerator simultaneously. Thus the entire process is highly efficient as it minimize losses of the whole system. The use of relay in this technique of multi energy source refrigerator is that when the required power is not provided from solar, it will trip the circuit to wind energy and if both are inadequate the power will be supplied from electricity. In this system, refrigerator will operate with two panel and the panel movement is controlled by using PLC controller through the stepper motor and rotate the panel in the direction of maximum intensity of sun .In this paper a relay driver circuit (Logic switching) is used to trip the source which are generating maximum power at normal conditions. A Z- source inverter is connected to charge controller which converts DC into flexible and flexible AC to run the refrigerator. A variety of combined or hybrid system have also been investigated. Solar refrigeration can also inexpensive it would give the electric grid much relief mostly in summer days.

Venkatesh Kumar Sharma; Raj Kumar; Rahul Kumar; Vidhan Kumar; Jyoti Ranjan

2012-01-01

338

Potential of renewable energy systems in China  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Along with high-speed economic development and increasing energy consumption, the Chinese Government faces a growing pressure to maintain the balance between energy supply and demand. In 2009, China has become both the largest energy consumer and CO2 emitting country in the world. In this case, the inappropriate energy consumption structure should be changed. As an alternative, a suitable infrastructure for the implementation of renewable energy may serve as a long-term sustainable solution. The perspective of a 100% renewable energy system has been analyzed and discussed in some countries previously. In this process, assessment of domestic renewable energy sources is the first step. Then appropriate methodologies are needed to perform energy system analyses involving the integration of more sustainable strategies. Denmark may serve as an example of how sustainable strategies can be implemented. The Danish system has demonstrated the possibility of converting into a 100% renewable energy system. This paper discusses the perspective of renewable energy in China firstly, and then analyses whether it is suitable to adopt similar methodologies applied in other countries as China approaches a renewable energy system. The conclusion is that China’s domestic renewable energy sources are abundant and show the possibility to cover future energy demand; the methodologies used to analyse a 100% renewable energy system are applicable in China. Therefore, proposing an analysis of a 100% renewable energy system in China is not unreasonable.

Liu, Wen; Lund, Henrik

2011-01-01

339

Energy and durable development: the place of the renewable energies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 29 may 2000, took place at the UNESCO, a colloquium on the place of the renewable energies facing the economic development. This document presents the opening presentation of A. Antolini and L. Jospin and the colloquium papers and debates in the following four domains: the energy challenges of the durable development, the renewable energies sources facing the european directive, the thermal renewable energies (solar, geothermics and biomass) and the greenhouse effect, the world market of the renewable energies. (A.L.B.)

340

Renewable Energy Education Set  

Science.gov (United States)

Kit demonstrates an entire miniature renewable energy system. Set includes a wind turbine kit, solar photovoltaic panel, an electrolyzer, a PEM fuel cell, and a hydrogen storage system. Helps students visualize the workings of clean energy principles. For grades 4-12.

1900-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

United Nations conference on new and renewable sources of energy (UNCNRSE) and US delegation participation. Report submitted to the Committee on Foreign Affairs, US House of Representatives  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The United Nations Conference on New and Renewable Sources of Energy (UNCNRSE) assessed the technology and economic validity of 10 sources of new and renewable energy: biomass, solar, fuel wood, hydropower, wind power, tar sands and oil shale, ocean thermal, geothermal, peat, and draught animals. The purpose was to identify constraints on their use as well as measures to enhance their use, and thereby facilitate the energy transition from excessive dependence on fossil fuels to a diversified mix of energy that includes non-fossil fuels. The report discussed conference preparation, proceedings, and results. The appendices contain relevant US and UN documents.

1982-01-01

342

Renewable energy resources in Asean  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper, from the ''Research Notes and Discussion' series, looks at future utilization of local, renewable energy resources by the developing countries in ASEAN. The author examines the after-effect of the oil crisis and consequent rise in prices during the '70's, and looks at the various patterns of energy demand management which followed. The author then studies the problems that are particular to developing countries: lack of capital; higher energy coefficients; low efficiency of energy transformation technology; little diversification of energy resources; and the resubstitution, of more traditional energy sources which may be environmentally unsafe. Against this backdrop the author highlights the growing emphasis, by ASEAN countries, on utilizing local and renewable energy resources, and examines their availability and potential.

Steiger, J.

1988-01-01

343

The renewable energies: a topical issue  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This document analyzes the situation of the renewable energies in the french energy sector. The first part presents the part of the renewable energies in the energy production and consumption, their interest in the fight against the climatic change and in the employment creation. The second part details for each renewable energy source the government policy in favor their development and the legislative framework. The third part provides data on cost, CO2 emissions, life cycle and employments to illustrate the analysis. The last part presents the government objectives of the renewable energies development for 2010. (A.L.B.)

2003-01-01

344

Micro-grids project. Part 1. Analysis of rural electrification with high content of renewable energy sources in Senegal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Africa is the poorest continent in the world and this poverty is linked to the lack of access to energy of its population. A big part of inhabitants live in rural zones where the lack of energy and in particular of electricity is still more flagrant. The aim of the Micro-grids project was to promote the electrification of rural regions of Senegal by the installation of micro-grids with high content of renewable energies. This paper presents some results of this project. Surveys have been carried out in three regions of Senegal to study the needs of electrical energy of non-electrified rural villages' households. These surveys have led to the estimation of electricity needs of the concerned households. The potential in renewable energies of the three regions has also been examined. It has been concluded that the solar energy potential is excellent while the wind energy potential can be interesting in some specific sites. The biomass could also be an efficient source if livestock farming was properly managed in the future. Moreover, many events have been carried out in the three regions to analyse the obstacles for the development of micro-grids in the Senegalese energy context, and to establish suitable solutions to overcome these obstacles. The results presented in this paper have been used to design a rural electrification kit which is described in another paper. Now the Micro-grids' consortium hopes to set up a new project to apply the designed kit on some rural non-electrified villages. (author)

Camblong, H. [ESTIA Recherche, Technopole Izarbel, 64210 Bidart (France); Electrical Engineering Department, University of the Basque Country (E.U.P.-D), Europa Plaza 1, 20018 Donostia, San Sebastian (Spain); Sarr, J. [GRTT-LASES, Faculte des Sciences de l' Universite Cheitk Anta DIOP de Dakar(UCAD), 5005 Dakar-Fann (Senegal); Niang, A.T. [CERER, Center of Studies and Research on Renewable Energies, Hann-Equipe, 476 Dakar (Senegal); Curea, O. [ESTIA Recherche, Technopole Izarbel, 64210 Bidart (France); Alzola, J.A.; Santos, M. [Robotiker, Parque Tecnologico, Edificio 202, 48170 Zamudio (Spain); Sylla, E.H. [LER, Ecole Superieure Polytechnique, 5085 Dakar Fann/ESP/UCAD (Senegal)

2009-10-15

345

Large renewables - Hydrogen energy systems: pipelines for gathering and transmission from windpower and other diffuse, dispersed energy sources, as hydrogen gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We need many large new transmission systems for gathering and delivering Earth's vast, diverse, dispersed, renewable energy resources. Both high voltage direct current electricity (HVDC) and gaseous hydrogen (GH2) pipeline are attractive, complementary, and competitive. New natural gas (NG) transmission pipeline systems may be built with line pipe capable of 100% GH2, for future conversion to 'renewables-hydrogen service' (RHS) at up to 100% GH2, to bring energy from windpower, biomass and other renewable sources to market as, and after, the NG is depleted. Sour-service X65 or composite reinforced line pipe (CRLP) may be well-suited. Since well-constructed and well-maintained pipelines have very long service lives, the increased investment required for construction with RHS-capable line pipe may be justified. These pipeline systems may be retrofitted with compressors, meters, valves and other fittings necessary for future RHS, for the nascent 'renewables-hydrogen economy'. Although industry has been safely pipelining GH2 for decades, these systems are not designed for frequently-varying pressure and for large-scale, long-distance, cross-country collection, from many dispersed nodes from diverse sources, as required by RHS. No pipelines for such service exist. The public is unfamiliar with hydrogen and anxious about its safety. Thus, a new pilot-scale R and D and demonstration pipeline system, an International Renewable Hydrogen Transmission Demonstration Facility (IRHTDF), is needed. (author)

2003-01-01

346

RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEM  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A renewable energy system and related process includes a biomass unit for receiving biomass energy sources, e.g., municipal wastes, used tires and wood waste. The biomass is fed to a power plant which produces electricity and steam which are fed to several units of the system. A bio-diesel unit uses the electricity to convert vegetable oil and animal fat into a bio-diesel fuel. An algae farm uses the electric power and steam in the form of heat to produce algae oil which is fed to the bio-diesel unit and which also is biomass. A corn unit and a corn stover unit produce ethanol. The corn unit also produces corn oil which is fed to the bio-diesel unit, and residue corn becomes dry distilled grains. A fermentation unit discharges carbon dioxide which along with that discharged by the power plant is distributed to the algae farm for growing algae. Also described is a method for converting carbon dioxide to oxygen through the use of algae.

STEINER CARL A

347

RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEM  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A renewable energy system and related process includes a biomass unit for receiving biomass energy sources, e.g., municipal wastes, used tires and wood waste. The biomass is fed to a power plant which produces electricity and steam which are fed to several units of the system. A bio-diesel unit uses the electricity to convert vegetable oil and animal fat into a bio-diesel fuel. An algae farm uses the electric power and steam in the form of heat to produce algae oil which is fed to the bio-diesel unit and which also is biomass. A corn unit and a corn stover unit produce ethanol. The corn unit also produces corn oil which is fed to the bio-diesel unit, and residue corn becomes dry distilled grains. A fermentation unit discharges carbon dioxide which along with that discharged by the power plant is distributed to the algae farm for growing algae.; Also described is a method for converting carbon dioxide to oxygen through the use of algae.

STEINER CARL A

348

Renewable energy in Africa; Les energies renouvelables en Afrique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Africa's vast renewable energy sources have been used with variable success rates. Although the area has potential for hydro, geothermal, biomass, solar and wind energy, these energy sources have not been largely exploited due to a lack of political interest and a lack of investment. Some of these renewable energy sources can meet part of the energy needs of African countries while offering additional advantages, such as decreasing air pollution at the local and regional levels. Development of renewable energy sources requires less capital than conventional energy systems. Renewable energy also provides clean energy to individuals and enterprises. However, the lack of promotion of renewable energy in Africa can be attributed to problems linked to poverty and to the already low greenhouse gas emissions in Africa. According to decision makers in Africa, arguments that favour the use of renewable energy for the purpose of environmental protection must be based on solid empirical facts regarding increasing oil prices; advantages of renewable energy; or, the reduction of risks associated with shortages of hydroelectricity during periods of drought. Other considerations that favour the use of renewable energy include job creation, energy consumption in the agroalimentary and forestry sectors, indoor air quality, and energy source development in rural areas, particularly for hospitals, schools and mission centres. This article commented on various types of renewable energy sources, such as hydro, solar, wind, biomass, and geothermal energy sources. Also, it explained which renewable energy sources have succeeded in Africa, and which types have less chance of succeeding. The obstacles encountered in the development and use of renewable energy sources in Africa were also discussed with reference to political, financial and human obstacles. The short and long term priorities were also addressed. It was concluded that certain types of renewable energies can reduce risks in the electricity sector. In addition to offering energy efficiency, they can address the needs of remote, isolated communities, and provide opportunities for the creation of jobs and small enterprises. 3 tabs., 2 figs.

Karekezi, S.; Kimani, J.; Wambile, A. [African Energy Policy Research Network, Nairobi (Kenya)

2007-04-15

349

Renewable energy and utility regulation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes the results of a joint project on renewable energy of the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) and the US DOE. NARUC'S Task Force on Renewable Energy conducted a review of the current state of renewable energy technologies to evaluate their potential and extract key policy lessons from experience already gained in deployment of these technologies in numerous states. The main focus of this effort has been to clarify how utility regulators affect the development of renewable energy resources. The goal of the project was twofold: (1) identify the factors that have led to success or failure or renewable energy technologies in various energy markets, and (2) to develop an agenda on renewable energy and utility regulation for NARUC and the DOE. This report consists of three sections: renewable energy contributions, costs and potential; factors affecting development of renewable energy resources; and a renewable energy agenda for NARUC.

1991-04-10

350

Renewable energy and utility regulation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes the results of a joint project on renewable energy of the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) and the US DOE. NARUC`S Task Force on Renewable Energy conducted a review of the current state of renewable energy technologies to evaluate their potential and extract key policy lessons from experience already gained in deployment of these technologies in numerous states. The main focus of this effort has been to clarify how utility regulators affect the development of renewable energy resources. The goal of the project was twofold: (1) identify the factors that have led to success or failure or renewable energy technologies in various energy markets, and (2) to develop an agenda on renewable energy and utility regulation for NARUC and the DOE. This report consists of three sections: renewable energy contributions, costs and potential; factors affecting development of renewable energy resources; and a renewable energy agenda for NARUC.

1991-04-10

351

Feasibility of anaerobic digestion of flotation skim and its potential as renewable energy source  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The high portions of organic and Greasy constituents of the Induced Air Flotation (IAF) unit skim that is typically land disposed or rendered have made it environmentally problematic for the receiving bodies due to its poor natural solubility and degradability. One solution for that was the use of anaerobic digestion. Five laboratory scale batch reactors (each of 10 L working volume) were used in this study to test the effect of different IAF skim to working volume ratios; namely 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 4.0, 5.0:10 (R1-R5), with the rest of working volume to be filled with livestock manure (as inoculums). These five reactors were operated at two different temperatures (25C and 45C), to determine the temperature effects on digestion performance. COD removal efficiencies of 72.6%, 68.6%, 60.1%, 52.1%, and 43.25% were achieved for R1-R5 respectively, at temperature of 25C. These removal efficiencies were significantly improved when operating these reactors at temperature of 45C, where efficiencies of 91.2%, 81.5%, 72.1%, 60.7% and about 50% were achieved for these reactors. In addition to the achievement of good removal efficiencies regarding the COD and TSS, very promising biogas production rates were determined to have average values of 4.5- 5.8 l/day at operation temperatures of 45C (compared with 3- 4 l/day at 25C) for the majority reactor life times. This achievement may compensate the treatment costs in addition to the supply of cheap renewable energy. Author would like to acknowledge the logistic and technical support of the Institute of International Education IIE, Scholars Rescue Fund SRF and Russ College of Engineering/ Ohio University. 

Salam J Bash AlMaliky

2010-01-01

352

DESIGN AND SIMULATION OF PWM FED TWO-PHASE INTERLEAVED BOOST CONVERTER FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recently dc-dc converters is serving many purposes and is usually required in any applications which has low output voltage such as Fuel cells, Batteries, photo voltaic cells. For designing high efficiency fuel cells which is a clean energy source and has a high energy storage capability, a suitable dc-dc converter is required. One of the challenges in designing the boost converter for high power application is to how to handle the high current at the input side. Among the various topologies IBC is a better solution for fuel cell systems due to its increased efficiency, reduced size, current sharing on high power applications, low input current ripple and improved reliability. The various parameters of the PWM based IBC are compared to a conventional boost converter. Simulation studies has been carried out using MATLAB/SIMULINK.

MOUNICA GANTA, PALLAMREDDY NIRUPA, THIMMADI AKSHITHA, R.SEYEZHAI

2013-01-01

353

Changes in the German law system, the role of banks and the effects on the contribution of renewable energy sources after the governmental changes in 1998 and 2005  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Effected by the party Bündnis 90 die Grünen, ruling together with the SPD for the first time as the Red-Green-coalition Germany from 1998 to 2005 and by the global efforts fighting climate change, renewable energy sources got more and more important during the last years. For Minister Sigmund Gabriel, sustainable usage and supply of energy belongs to the most important challenges of the 21st century.[1] During the last eight years, government undertook many efforts to improve the use of renewable energy sources. There are many studies about amendments and the effect of state promotion. The aim of this evaluation is to show in which years remarkable changes in the allocation of renewable energy sources took place. In a further step reasons therefore will be given.

Daniel Gerner; Pavol Rybár

2008-01-01

354

The macro economic relevance of renewable energy sources for Switzerland; Volkswirtschaftliche Bedeutung erneuerbarer Energien fuer die Schweiz  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study analyses the economic relevance of renewable energy in Switzerland. In 2010 the enterprises in the renewable energy sector generated a gross value added of 4.8 bn CHF (equalling 0.9% of Swiss GDP). Employment in this sector approximated 22,800 fulltime jobs (0.6% of total Swiss employment). Including supply chain companies, 1.5% of Swiss GDP and 1.2% of total employment can be related to the use of renewable energy. Exports of renewable energy related goods and services equalled 3.2 bn CHF. Since 2000 the Swiss renewable energy sector has experienced an above-average annual growth of more than 4%. Its potential development until the year 2020 was studied with two scenarios. In the policy scenario, that assumes additional policy measures for renewable energy promotion, direct value added of the renewable energy sector would amount to 6.4 bn CHF (+33%), direct employment would increase to 29,200 fulltime jobs (+28%, gross effects resp.). In the more conservative baseline scenario, growth would be much weaker, but still slightly stronger than anticipated for the average economy. (authors)

Nathani, C.; Schmid, C.; Rieser, A.; Ruetter, H. [Ruetter und Partner, Rueschlikon (Switzerland); Bernath, K.; Felten, N. von [Ernst Basler und Partner, Zollikon (Switzerland); Walz, R.; Marscheider-Weidemann, F. [Fraunhofer Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung, Karlsruhe (Germany)

2013-01-15

355

Earth energy, ground-source/geothermal heat pumps, geoexchange: no matter the name, the choice is the same: a cost-effective and environmentally friendly renewable energy system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Natural Resources Canada's Renewable Energy Deployment Initiative (REDI) was designed to encourage the use of renewable energy technologies for heating and cooling buildings. In addition to reducing a building's energy costs, renewable energy technologies contributes to a reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Since earth energy systems do not produce heat through combustion, they are considered to be among the most environmentally clean space heating systems available. Their use can reduce GHG emissions by two thirds compared to conventional heating and cooling systems. These systems, also known as ground-source heat pumps, GeoExchange{sup SM}, or geothermal heat pump systems, are also among the most energy-efficient and cost-effective space conditioning systems available. The systems transfer solar heat from the ground to heat water, and to either warm buildings in the winter or cool buildings in the summer. The system can be either a closed loop system which circulates a fluid mixture within a series of buried pipes, or an open-loop system which circulates water. REDI encourages the use of ground-source heat pump technology in the retrofitting and new construction of commercial buildings through the Federal Buildings Initiative, the Commercial Building Incentive Program, the Energy Innovators Initiative and the C-2000 Program. 2 figs.

NONE

2001-07-01

356

Review of renewable energy use in Lithuania  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lithuania has very limited energy resources of its own. The main source of electricity production in Lithuania is Ignalina NPP. Over the last five years, it has generated 80-85% of the total electricity production. The anticipated closure of this nuclear power plant in 2010 will decrease the diversification of fuel supply and there is no huge potential for renewable energy use in Lithuania. Only biofuel, hydro and wind power can be considered as potential renewable energy sources in Lithuania. The share of renewable energy sources in the Lithuanian primary energy supply is the lowest among the three Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania), though the trends of development are positive. The Lithuanian national energy strategy adopted in 2002 sets the strategic priorities of Lithuanian energy sector development. One of the main strategic priorities is striving to achieve a share of renewable energy sources in primary energy supply of 12% by 2010. The strategy of development of the sector of indigenous renewable and waste energy resources states that in 2000, the share in the overall primary energy balance of indigenous, renewable and waste energy resources (indigenous crude oil excluded) amounted to about 9% in Lithuania. The target is to ensure that approximately 2 million tons of oil equivalent of the above resources are used per year by 2010. The article presents a review of the present renewable energy situation and assessed potential of renewable energy sources in Lithuania. The problem related to the use of renewable energy sources and polices to enhance the use of these sources are analysed in the article. (author)

Streimikiene, D.; Burneikis, J. [Lithuanian Energy Inst., Kaunas (Lithuania); Punys, P. [Lithuanian Univ. of Agriculture, Kaunas (Lithuania)

2005-02-01

357

Renewable Energy: Policy Considerations for Deploying Renewables  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This information paper accompanies the IEA publication Deploying Renewables 2011: Best and Future Policy Practice (IEA, 2011a). It provides more detailed data and analysis on policies for Deploying Renewables, and is intended to complement the main publication. It provides an account of the strategic drivers underpinning renewable energy (RE) technology deployment (energy security, economic development and environment protection) and assesses RE technologies with respect to these drivers, including an estimate of GHG emissions reductions due to RE technologies. The paper also explores the different barriers to deploying renewables at a given stage of market maturity and discusses what tools policy makers can avail of to succeed in removing deployment barriers. An additional topical highlight explores the challenges associated with accelerating the diffusion of RE technologies in developing countries.

NONE

2011-07-01

358

Australian renewable energy progress  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With some of the world's best solar and wind resources, Australia is a prime market for solar and wind energy. The growing renewable energy industry can take advantage of Australia's stable economy, good access to grid infrastructure and well organised financial and legal services. Although development has been slower than what was anticipated, but with the promises made by the new government, the renewable community hopes for a brighter future for solar and wind energy in Australia. The objective of this paper is to present an overview of the current status of solar and wind energy in Australia, then to take a closer look at solar and wind potential, current activities, and finally to discusses about Australian Government support and to predict the future outlook of solar and wind energy. (author)

2010-01-01

359

Australian renewable energy progress  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With some of the world's best solar and wind resources, Australia is a prime market for solar and wind energy. The growing renewable energy industry can take advantage of Australia's stable economy, good access to grid infrastructure and well organised financial and legal services. Although development has been slower than what was anticipated, but with the promises made by the new government, the renewable community hopes for a brighter future for solar and wind energy in Australia. The objective of this paper is to present an overview of the current status of solar and wind energy in Australia, then to take a closer look at solar and wind potential, current activities, and finally to discusses about Australian Government support and to predict the future outlook of solar and wind energy. (author)

Zahedi, A. [School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, James Cook University, Queensland (Australia)

2010-10-15

360

Integration of renewable energy with provincial utility  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In response to societal demands and business opportunities, progress is advancing at a rapid pace in the devices used for converting renewable energy to electricity. Many governments have mandated renewable energy to be 25 percent of their total energy portfolio which has led to the development of strategies for integrating renewable energy sources into the operation of large utilities. This presentation discussed independent system operators (ISO) and how they function. An ISO is an agency that schedules the purchase of energy from vendors on a competitive basis for its customers and delivers it through an open access transmission system. An ISO is guided by strict regulatory policies on reliability as set by the prevailing regulatory authority. The ISO resorts to scheduling this energy purchase and delivery for the next day through a complex day-ahead energy commitment process. The integration of renewable energy resources of a magnitude equalling 25 percent of total daily energy is particularly challenging because of the nature of renewable energy sources, such as forecasting errors; large ramp rates; unavailable reserve energy capacity; and intermittent characteristics such as large variability. The purpose of this study was to examine scheduling algorithms; develop methods to accommodate and integrate renewable energy sources in the day-ahead scheduling process; and mitigate the negative effects of renewable energy sources.

Venkatesh, B. [Ryerson Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
361

The potential of renewable energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On June 27 and 28, 1989, the US Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories were convened to discuss plans for the development of a National Energy Strategy (NES) and, in particular, the analytic needs in support of NES that could be addressed by the laboratories. As a result of that meeting, interlaboratory teams were formed to produce analytic white papers on key topics, and a lead laboratory was designated for each core laboratory team. The broad-ranging renewables assignment is summarized by the following issue statement from the Office of Policy, Planning and Analysis: to what extent can renewable energy technologies contribute to diversifying sources of energy supply What are the major barriers to greater renewable energy use and what is the potential timing of widespread commercialization for various categories of applications This report presents the results of the intensive activity initiated by the June 1989 meeting to produce a white paper on renewable energy. Scores of scientists, analysts, and engineers in the five core laboratories gave generously of their time over the past eight months to produce this document. Their generous, constructive efforts are hereby gratefully acknowledged. 126 refs., 44 figs., 32 tabs.

1990-03-01

362

The renewable energy sources/rational use of energy synergy: an efficient, cost effective and desirable solution for resolution of long term energy/environment problems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the advantages of a strategy using a combination of the clean production of Energy by Renewable Energy Sources (RES) and the Rational Use of this Energy (RUE), in order to participate to the reduction of global environmental problems. The ways to use this RES/RUE synergy at national levels, in industrialized and developing countries, and within the frame of international cooperation programs are described. Examples are given mainly for the electricity sector, at production and end-use levels. When extended to large number of applications and users, this strategy can be considered as a new way of clean production and consumption of energy which could be called 'the Telefusion/Dissemination Option'. (author). 13 figs

1994-01-01

363

Renewable Energy Essentials: Hydropower  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydropower is currently the most common form of renewable energy and plays an important part in global power generation. Worldwide hydropower produced 3 288 TWh, just over 16% of global electricity production in 2008, and the overall technical potential for hydropower is estimated to be more than 16 400 TWh/yr.

NONE

2010-07-01

364

Implementing Renewable Energy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The project has a focus on the implementation of the Renewable Energy Directive from 2009 in the European Member States. It studies the formal transposition and the practical implementation of the directive until 2012 and projects expected target fulfillment in 2020. The project aims at assessing th...

Damsř, Clara Baad Berkkan

365

Status of renewable energy in Nigeria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper provided conference participants with a common understanding of the status of renewable energy in Nigeria. It was developed upon review of scientific publications, a brief on the Jigawa State Solar Village-Electrification and the outcomes of two previous national meetings related to renewable energy. Several issues were addressed, including the potential for renewable energy in Nigeria; the level of political support for renewable energy in Nigeria; capacity development in Nigeria; current industry capacity; renewable energy project initiatives; future prospects for renewable energy; and barriers to renewable energy and priorities for action. Among 18 recommendations, it was recommended that an energy policy that emphasizes the development of renewable energy sources should be put in place immediately along with a resource survey and assessment that determines the total renewable energy potential in the country. It was also suggested that renewable energy projects would have a greater chance at success if they were implemented together with activities in other sectors such as agriculture, small scale industrial businesses and poverty alleviation. 18 refs., 10 tabs., 9 figs., 4 apps.

Ikuponisi, F.S. [Eco-Outreach, Port Harcourt (Nigeria)

2005-07-01

366

Renewable Energy Development in India  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

India has done a significant progress in the power generation in the country. The installed generation capacity was 1300 megawatt (MW) at the time of Independence i.e. about 60 years back. The total generating capacity anticipated at the end of the Tenth Plan on 31-03-2007, is 1, 44,520 MW which includes the generation through various sectors like Hydro, Thermal and Nuclear. Emphasis is given to the renewable energy programme towards gradual commercialization. This programme is looked after by the Ministry of Non-Conventional Sources of energy. Since the availability of fossil fuel is on the decline therefore, in this backdrop the norms for conventional or renewable sources of energy (RSE) is given importance not only in India but has attracted the global attention. The main items under RSE are as follows: (i) Hydro Power (ii) Solar Power (iii) Wind Power (iv) Bio-mass Power (v) Energy from waste (vi) Ocean energy, and (vii) Alternative fuel for surface transportation. Evolution of power transformer technology in the country during the past five decades is quite impressive. There are manufacturers in the country with full access to the latest technology at the global level. Some of the manufacturers have impressive R&D set up to support the technology. Renewable energy is very much promoted by the Chinese Government. At the same time as the law was passed, the Chinese Government set a target for renewable energy to contribute 10% of the country's gross energy consumption by 2020, a huge increase from the current 1%. It has been felt that there is rising demand for energy, food and raw materials by a population of 2.5 billion Chinese and Indians. Both these countries have large coal dominated energy systems in the world and the use of fossil fuels such as coal and oil releases carbon dioxide (CO2) into the air which adds to the greenhouse gases which lead to global warming. (auth)

Gupta, K.M.

2007-07-01

367

Renewable energy resources in Pakistan: status, potential and information systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper provides some details regarding the characteristic properties, potential and assessment of renewable energy compared with other forms of energy sources. It gives status of renewable energy sources in Pakistan. It also lights about the agencies providing technical information regarding renewable energy in Pakistan as well as suggestions and recommendations for the development of these resources, and over view the present status of renewable energy sources. (author)

1991-01-01

368

Local investment in renewable energies - European experiences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This booklet is realized within the framework of the european commission called PREDAC. This document have been conceived by a working group specialized on the local investment into renewable energies thematic. The objectives of this project are: to promote citizen participation in the financing of renewable energies projects in Europe; to make organizations, investor clubs and local government to be aware of this way of implication into renewable energies development; to examine more especially three renewable energy sources: biomass, photovoltaic and wind in Denmark, France, Germany, Greece and United Kingdom. (author)

2004-01-01

369

Renewable energy sources in the Niger - German-Nigerien cooperation. Pt. 5. Erneuerbare Energien im Niger - Deutsch-nigerische Zusammenarbeit. T. 5  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article is the fifth and last part of a series report about renewable energy sources in Niger which are supported by the GTZ. Different projects with solar pumps as well as other photovoltaic applications are presented. Finally a short overview of current solar energy projects is given and possibilities and limitations of a dissemination strategy for Niger are discussed. (BWI)

Hempel, C.

1993-10-01

370

Production of sugarcane and tropical grasses as renewable energy source. Third annual report, 1979-1980  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research continued on tropical grasses from Saccharum and related genera as sources of intensively-propagated fiber and fermentable solids. Candidate screening for short-rotation grasses was expanded to include six sorghum x Sudan grass hybrids developed by the Dekalb Company. Sugacane and napier grass yield trends in year 3 include: (1) Increased yields with delay of harvest frequency; (2) lack of response to close spacing; (3) a superiority of napier grass over sugarcane when harvested at intervals of six months or less; and (4) a general superiority of the sugarcane variety NCo 310 over varieties PR 980 and PR 64-1791. Delayed tasseling of a wild, early-flowering S. spontaneum hybrid enabled three crosses to be made in December using commercial hybrids as female parents. Approximately 1000 seedlings were produced. The first field-scale minimum tillage experiment was completed. Sordan 77 produced 2.23 OD tons/acre/10 weeks, with winter growing conditions and a total moisture input of 4.75 inches. Mechanization trials included successful planting of napier grass with a sugarcane planter, and the mowing, solar-drying, and round--baling of napier grass aged three to six months. Production-cost and energy-balance studies were initiated during year 3 using first-ratoon data for intensively propagated sugarcane. Preliminary cost estimates for energy cane (sugarcane managed for total biomass rather than sucrose) were in the order of $25.46/OD ton, or about $1.70/mm Btus.

1980-01-01

371

Alternative energy sources VII  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book presents the papers given at a conference on the economic aspects of renewable energy sources. Topics considered at the conference included socio-economic factors affecting energy source development, an economic evaluation of solar thermal energy systems, energy planning and management, alternative energy in developing countries, energy conservation, environmental policy, and energy education.

Veziroglu, T.N.

1985-01-01

372

Planning for renewable energy in Devon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of the Study was to examine the technical, planning and environmental factors, and the resource availability, which may affect the development of renewable energy schemes in Devon, with particular reference to West Devon. The study was undertaken to draw up a specimen planning policy framework for the development of renewable energy in Devon, looking at each major renewable energy source and at the relevant environmental and planning constraints; using this framework, to amplify the draft Structure Plan policy for renewable energy; to draw up draft guidance and specimen policies for a Local Plan covering renewable energy for a District Council, in this case, West Devon Borough; and to provide a pilot study for implementing the draft Planning Policy Guidance (PPG) on renewable energy. (author)

1993-01-01

373

Electricity production from renewables energies  

CERN Multimedia

Energy and environmental issues have caused a marked increase in electricity production from renewable energy sources since the beginning of the 21st Century. The concept of sustainable development and concern for future generations challenge us every day to produce new technologies for energy production, and new patterns of use for these energies. Their rapid emergence can make the understanding and therefore the perception of these new technologies difficult. This book aims to contribute to a better understanding of the new electricity generation technologies by addressing a diverse audie

Robyns, Benoit; Fran?ois, Bruno; Henneton, Antoine; Sprooten, Jonathan

2012-01-01

374

Economics of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration versus a Suite of Alternative Renewable Energy Sources for Electricity Generation in U.S., California and Illinois  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An equilibrium economic model for policy evaluation related to electricity generation at national and individual state level in U.S has been developed. The model takes into account the non-renewable and renewable energy sources, demand and supply factors and environmental constraints (CO2 emissions). Economic policy analysis experiments are carried out to determine the consequences of switching the sources of electricity generation under two scenarios: in first scenario, a switch from coal to renewable sources is made for 10% of electricity generation; in the second scenario, the switch is made for 10% of electricity generation from coal to coal with clean coal technology by employing CO2 capture and sequestration (CCS). The cost of electricity generation from various non-renewable and renewable sources is different and is taken into account in the model. The consequences of this switch on supply and demand, employment, wages, and emissions are obtained from the economic model under three scenarios: (1) energy prices are fully regulated, (2) energy prices are fully adjusted with electricity supply fixed, and (3) energy prices and electricity supply both are fully adjusted. The model is applied to the states of California and Illinois, and at national level.

Ramesh Agarwal; Zheming Zhang; Lee Chusak

2012-01-01

375

Economics of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration and Mitigation versus a Suite of Alternative Renewable Energy Sources for Electricity Generation in U.S.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An equilibrium economic model for policy evaluation related to electricity generation in U.S has been developed; the model takes into account the non-renewable and renewable energy sources, demand and supply factors and environmental constraints. The non-renewable energy sources include three types of fossil fuels: coal, natural gas and petroleum, and renewable energy sources include nuclear, hydraulic, wind, solar photovoltaic, biomass wood, biomass waste and geothermal. Energy demand sectors include households, industrial manufacturing and non-manufacturing commercial enterprises. Energy supply takes into account the electricity delivered to the consumer by the utility companies at a certain price which maybe different for retail and wholesale customers. Environmental risks primarily take into account the CO2 generation from fossil fuels. The model takes into account the employment in various sectors and labor supply and demand. Detailed electricity supply and demand data, electricity cost data, employment data in various sectors and CO2 generation data are collected for a period of nineteen years from 1990 to 2009 in U.S. The model is employed for policy analysis experiments if a switch is made in sources of electricity generation, namely from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources. As an example, we consider a switch of 10% of electricity generation from coal to 5% from wind, 3% from solar photovoltaic, 1% from biomass wood and 1% from biomass waste. The model is also applied to a switch from 10% coal to 10% from clean coal technologies. It should be noted that the cost of electricity generation from different sources is different and is taken into account. The consequences of this switch on supply and demand, employment, wages, and emissions are obtained from the economic model under three scenarios: (1) energy prices are fully regulated, (2) energy prices are fully adjusted with electricity supply fixed, and (3) energy prices and electricity supply both are fully adjusted.

Ramesh Agarwal; Lee Chusak; Zheming Zhang

2011-01-01

376

Renewable and alternative energy  

CERN Document Server

With growing populations across the world consuming Earth's limited oil and natural gas reserves, the environmental and economic toll of energy dependence becomes an increasingly global concern. The development of renewable forms of energy-solar, wind, water, and geothermal, to name a few-offers alternatives to fossil fuels. Consumers are embracing these new modes of energy delivery and use. This extensive volume examines the possibility of a cleaner and more energy efficient future by detailing the historic and emerging technologies behind some the most promising alternative resources.

Curley, Robert

2011-01-01

377

Renewable energy policy in Lithuania  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The article outlines renewable energy (RE) resources according to the energy efficiency policy in Lithuania as well as practical experience of implementation of RE projects within the framework of the National Energy Efficiency Programme. The main goals of the programme are to reduce the import of energy resources, to improve environment conditions and to reduce the climate change impact. Analysis of implemented RE projects and forecasts for the future projects are also presented. The use of biomass (wood chips, processing wastes, sawdust, straw, etc.), biogas, as well as small-scale hydro energy sources is increasing in Lithuania. Quite a few plants utilising renewable energy resources were constructed within the framework of co-operation with European Union countries (Sweden, Denmark, Germany, etc.) along with the establishment of joint companies for production of equipment, facilities, etc. Recently a few pilot projects utilising geothermal, wind, solar and landfill gas energy have been started. Lithuania expected to make an important contribution to reach the goals set by the European Commission's White Paper on RES (increasing the share of renewables in the overall energy balance up to 12% by 2010). (Author)

Katinas, Vladislovas; Skema, Romualdas [Lithuanian Energy Inst., Kaunas (Lithuania)

2001-08-01

378

Renewable energy development in China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the resources availability, technologies development and their costs of renewable energies in China and introduces the programs of renewable energies technologies development and their adaptation for rural economic development in China. As the conclusion of this paper, renewable energies technologies are suitable for some rural areas, especially in the remote areas for both household energy and business activities energy demand. The paper looks at issues involving hydropower, wind energy, biomass combustion, geothermal energy, and solar energy.

Junfeng, Li

1996-12-31

379

Protocol Monitoring Renewable Energy; Protocol Monitoring Duurzame Energie  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An overview is given of methods and information sources by means of which the contribution of renewable and sustainable energy sources to the energy supply in the Netherlands can be recorded and calculated. 37 refs.

NONE

1999-09-01

380

Vascular plants for water pollution control and renewable sources of energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Vascular aquatic plants have demonstrated their ability to remove pollutants from domestic and chemical wastewaters. Plants such as the water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), duckweed (Lemna sp., Spirodela sp., and Wolffia sp.), and cattail (Typha sp.) thrive in nutrient-rich waters and produce tremendous quantities of biomass under favorable climatic conditions. This method of wastewater treatment is currently being used exclusively at NASA's National Space Technology Laboratories (NSTL) with water hyacinths and duckweed to treat daily over 759 m/sup 3/ of domestic wastewater and 114 m/sup 3/ of chemical wastewater in four separate systems. The harvested plants from these systems have been used in various biomass utilization projects over the past five years. In laboratory batch studies of digesting vascular plants with anaerobic filters, NASA has found that 140 to 280 liters methane per kg dry weight can be obtained in an average of 23 days. Current NASA projects at NSTL seek to expand the technology required to design energy systems which produce methane through bioconversion with anaerobic filters and use the mineral residue as a nutrient source for producing new biomass.

Wolverton, B.C.; McDonald, R.C.

1980-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Integration of renewable energy sources in dwelling. A proposal to the DG XVII - Thermie programme 1997  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A project has been submitted to the Thermie Programme of the European Commission based on the comparative study of four family dwellings. Three of them will be treated as `Solar Houses`, the fourth one being kept as `Check house`. Heating will be provided by a natural gas boiler in the check-house and by a `geothermal` heat pump, in the solar houses, taking its cold source energy from the environment in the ground surrounding the building. Emission will be designed in all houses by a radiant floor in order to obtain comparable comfort level. Domestic hot water will be provided, in the check-house, by an electric boiler, and, in the solar houses, by an innovative combined collector/storage one piece system working in the thermal diode mode with ethanol as the changing phase fluid. If the realizations are in conformity with these principles, a true scale comparative experience will be done the monitoring of which will demonstrates the options chosen. A data acquisition system will be provided by the budget. Anticipated results are: 6630 kG CO{sub 2} emission/year; 9861 kWh.thermal load/dwelling.year; 33 488 BEF financial savings/dwelling.year. (orig.)

Gillet, A.C. [World Renewable Energy Network, Grez-Doiceau (Belgium)

1997-12-31

382

Present state and prospects of the utilization of renewable energy sources in Germany; Stand und Perspektiven des Einsatzes erneuerbarer Energietraeger in Deutschland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An upward trend of renewable energy sources is observed in Germany. Their present contribution to power supply amounts to 4.7%. Hydroelectric power is the dominant renewable energy source. VDEW expects a growth of about 1.3% through 2005 provided that power generation based on renewable energy sources is increased by about 9 billion kWh, which is about 40% more than the present output. Wind power is expected to make the main contribution. At home, the expected development must be assisted by selective exchange, now and in the future, and by hydroelectric power imports from Scandinavia. In spite of an increased utilization, renewable energy sources will not be able to replace nuclear power and fossil fuels in the near future. All energy sources, i.e. coal, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear power, and renewable energy sources, will be required for sufficient, reliable, low-cost and low-pollution future power supplies. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Anteil der erneuerbaren Energien in Deutschland weist eine steigende Tendenz auf. Derzeit betraegt ihr Beitrag zur Stromversorgung 4,7%. Die Wasserkraft ist dabei der dominierende Energietraeger. Bis zum Jahr 2005 rechnet die VDEW mit einem Zuwachs bis auf rund 6%. Hierfuer ist die Stromerzeugung auf der Basis erneuerbarer Energie um etwa 9 Mrd. kWh, d.h. ueber 40% gegenueber heute zu steigern. Der groesste Teil des Anstiegs duerfte auf die Windkraft entfallen. Zu ergaenzen sind diese Perspektiven im Inland um die realisierten und in Planung befindlichen Moeglichkeiten des gezielten Austausches sowie Bezuges von Wasserkraftstrom aus Skandinavien. Die erneuerbaren Energien werden trotz verstaerkter Nutzung auf absehbare Zeit Kernkraftwerke und fossil befeuerte Anlagen nicht ersetzen koennen. Wir benoetigen als weiterhin alle Energietraeger, d.h. Kohle, Oel, Gas, Kernenergie und erneuerbare Energie, um eine ausreichende, sichere, preisguenstige und umweltvertraegliche Stromerzeugung auch zukuenftig gewaehrleisten zu koennen. (orig.)

Hoffmann, T. [Vereinigung Deutscher Elektrizitaetswerke - VDEW - e.V., Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Wagner, E. [Vereinigung Deutscher Elektrizitaetswerke - VDEW - e.V., Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

1995-12-31

383

Power Quality Assessment in Small Scale Renewable Energy Sources Supplying Distribution Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The impact of wind turbines and photovoltaic systems on network operation and power quality (harmonics, and voltage fluctuations) is very important. The capability of the power system to absorb this perturbation is dependent on the fault level at the point of common coupling. The paper deals with power quality case studies conducted on existing renewable resources-based systems. Voltage fluctuations determined by a 0.65 MVA wind turbine are analyzed. The impact of photovoltaic systems on steady state voltage variations and current harmonics is investigated. The correlation between the generated power and the main power quality indices is highlighted.

Nicolae Golovanov; George Cristian Lazaroiu; Mariacristina Roscia; Dario Zaninelli

2013-01-01

384

Renewable sources of electricity in the SWEB area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Following the privatisation of the Electricity Supply Industry, Regional Electricity Companies now have greater influence on the generation and supply of electricity, including power from renewable sources. The introduction of the Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation has also greatly assisted the development of electricity generation from renewables, culminating in around 260 MW of new renewables capacity by April 1993 in England and Wales, including 116 MW from windfarms. In view of the increased interest in renewables shown nationally and within the South West, SWEB and the Department of Trade and Industry agreed to conduct a study of the renewable energy technologies and their associated resource potential within the SWEB region. (author)

1993-01-01

385

Renewable energy project development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author presents this paper with three main thrusts. The first is to discuss the implementation of renewable energy options in China, the second is to identify the key project development steps necessary to implement such programs, and finally is to develop recommendations in the form of key issues which must be addressed in developing such a program, and key technical assistance needs which must be addressed to make such a program practical.

Ohi, J.

1996-12-31

386

Research funds and research programmes for renewable energy sources in Germany; Forschungsfoerderung und Forschungsprogramme fuer erneuerbare Energien in Deutschland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the 20th century the world's energy consumption increased dramatically and it still continues to do so. Such a development is clearly not sustainable as long as energy supply is based on nuclear and fossil fuels. In view of the challenges of climate protection, the German government set ambitious targets for renewable energy: At least 12,5% of electricity consumption in 2010 and 20% in 2020 should be based on renewable energy. Moreover, in 2050, renewables should supply 50% of total energy consumption. In order to reach these targets, further cost reductions for renewables are necessary. This holds in particular for photovoltaics. Therefore, research and development play a key role for the market development in this field. The Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Protection and Nuclear Safety increased the budget funds for R and D in the field of renewables substantially. Photovoltaic energy conversion accounts for almost half of the available funds. R and D-activities in the field of photovoltaics aim at cost reductions by increasing the efficiency of solar cells as well as the efficiency of the production process. Cooperation between firms and research institutions is encouraged. Every other year, the research strategy for photovoltaics is discussed with leading researchers and firms. (orig.)

Nick-Leptin, J. [Bundesministerium fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit, Berlin (Germany)

2005-07-01

387

A review of the potential of renewable energy sources for the State of Jammu and Kashmir (India)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The future economic development trajectory for India is likely to result in rapid and accelerated growth in energy demand, with expected shortages. Many of its current policies and strategies are aimed at the improvement and possible maximization of energy production from the renewable sector. It is also clear that while energy-conservation and energy-efficiency can make an important contribution in the national energy strategy, renewable energies will be essential to the solution and are likely to play an increasingly important role for the growth of grid power, providing energy access, reducing consumption of fossil fuels, and helping India pursue its low carbon progressive pathway. However, most of the states in India, like the northernmost State of Jammu and Kashmir (J and K), have experienced an energy crisis over a sustained period of time. As India intends to be one of the emerging powers of the 21st century, it has to embark upon with these pressing issues in a more sustainable manner and accordingly initiate various renewable energy projects within these states. This paper will provide a broad-spectrum view about the energy situation within J and K and will highlight the current policies along with future strategies for the optimal utilization of renewable energy resources. - Highlights: ? To present an overview of the current energy situation in the State of Jammu and Kashmir, India. ? To analyze the potential of the various renewable energy resources available in the State given the existing constraints. ? To state the challenges of the administration to incentivize the participation of private initiative in energy development.