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1

Gradient-free microfluidic flow labeling using thin magnetic films and remotely detected MRI  

Science.gov (United States)

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) may be employed as noninvasive measurements yielding detailed information about the chemical and physical parameters that define microscale flows. Despite these advantages, magnetic resonance has been difficult to combine with microfluidics, largely due to its low sensitivity when detecting small sample volumes and the difficulty of efficiently addressing individual flow pathways for parallel measurements without utilizing large electric currents to create pulsed magnetic field gradients. Here, we demonstrate that remotely-detected MRI (RD-MRI) employing static magnetic field gradients produced by thin magnetic films can be used to encode flow and overcome some of these limitations. We show how flow path and history can be selected through the use of these thin film labels and through the application of synchronized, frequency-selective pulses. This obviates the need for large electric currents to produce pulsed magnetic field gradients and may allow for further application of NMR and MRI experiments on microscale devices.

Halpern-Manners, Nicholas W.; Kennedy, Daniel J.; Trease, David R.; Teisseyre, Thomas Z.; Malecek, Nicolas S.; Pines, Alexander; Bajaj, Vikram S.

2014-12-01

2

Auxiliary probe design adaptable to existing probes for remote detection NMR, MRI, and time-of-flight tracing.  

Science.gov (United States)

A versatile, detection-only probe design is presented that can be adapted to any existing NMR or MRI probe with the purpose of making the remote detection concept generally applicable. Remote detection suggests freeing the NMR experiment from the confinement of using the same radio frequency (RF) coil and magnetic field for both information encoding and signal detection. Information is stored during the encoding step onto a fluid sensor medium whose magnetization is later measured in a different location. The choice of an RF probe and magnetic field for encoding can be made based solely on the size and characteristics of the sample and the desired information quality without considering detection sensitivity, as this aspect is dealt with by a separate detector. While early experiments required building probes that included two resonant circuits, one for encoding and one for detection, a modular approach with a detection-only probe as presented here can be used along with any existing NMR probe of choice for encoding. The design of two different detection-only probes is presented, one with a saddle coil for milliliter-sized detection volumes, and the other one with a microsolenoid coil for sub-microliter fluid quantities. As example applications, we present time-of-flight (TOF) tracing of hyperpolarized (129)Xe spins in a gas mixture through coiled tubing using the microsolenoid coil detector and TOF flow imaging through a nested glass container where the gas flow changes its direction twice between inlet and outlet using the saddle coil detector. PMID:16875855

Han, Songi; Granwehr, Josef; Garcia, Sandra; McDonnell, Erin E; Pines, Alexander

2006-10-01

3

Remote detection system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A newly designed remote detection system has been developed at Los Alamos that allows the collection of high-resolution gamma-ray spectra and neutron data from a remote location. The system consists of the remote unit and a command unit. The remote unit collects data in a potentially hostile environment while the operator controls the unit by either radio or wire link from a safe position. Both units are battery powered and are housed in metal carrying cases

4

SQUID-detected microtesla MRI  

Science.gov (United States)

We have developed a system to detect nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signals in magnetic fields of 1-100 microtesla. At such low fields, the very small nuclear polarization and the frequency dependence of conventional Faraday detection would lead to extremely weak signals. To overcome these problems we use a combination of prepolarization and frequency-independent detection with an untuned superconducting gradiometer coupled to a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID). We demonstrate narrow linewidths in NMR spectra of nuclei in liquids and in spectra of J-coupled nuclei in molecules. Our MRI system operates at 132 ?T (proton Larmor frequency 5.6 kHz), uses a prepolarizing field up to 150 mT and has a magnetic field noise below 1 fT/Hz^1/2. This system demonstrates submillimeter in-plane resolution of phantoms, and can acquire in vivo images of the human forearm, wrist and fingers. In high-field MRI, the susceptibility difference between tissue and, for example, a medical implant, can cause severe image distortion. We show that such artifacts are absent at microtesla fields, so that this technique could enable distortion-free MRI of patients with medical implants. Furthermore, microtesla MRI displays a greatly enhanced T1-weighted contrast between different concentrations of agarose gel (T1 is the longitudinal relaxation time). Preliminary experiments on ex vivo prostate specimens containing normal and cancerous tissue demonstrate similarly enhanced contrast, suggesting that this technique could be used to image tumors.

Mößle, Michael

2007-03-01

5

Role of MRI in prostate cancer detection.  

Science.gov (United States)

The standard approach for the detection of prostate cancer--prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening followed by transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS)-guided biopsy--has low sensitivity and provides limited information about the true extent and aggressiveness of the cancer. Improved methods are needed to assess the extent and aggressiveness of the cancer and to identify patients who will benefit from therapy. In recent years, there has been tremendous development of acquisition and processing tools for physiological and metabolic MRI techniques which play a potential role in the detection, localization and characterization of prostate cancer, such as dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI), diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) and/or proton MR spectroscopic imaging ((1)H MRSI). The standard protocol for prostate MRI without the use of a contrast agent involves multi-planar T1 -weighted MRI, T2 -weighted MRI and DW-MRI. This review discusses the potential role of MRI in the detection of prostate cancer, specifically describing the status of MRI as a tool for guiding targeted prostate biopsies and for detecting cancer in the untreated and treated gland. In addition, future areas of MRI research are briefly discussed. Groups conducting clinical trials should consider the recommendations put forward by the European Consensus Meeting, which state that the minimum requirements for prostate MRI are T1 -weighted MRI, T2 -weighted MRI, DCE-MRI (which involves the use of a contrast agent) and DW-MRI with a pelvic phased-array coil and propose the use of transperineal template mapping biopsies as the optimal reference standard. PMID:23495081

Shukla-Dave, Amita; Hricak, Hedvig

2014-01-01

6

MRI for troubleshooting detection of prostate cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in males. Men aged 50 and older are recommended to undergo an annual digital rectal examination (DRE) and determination of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in serum for early detection. However, prostate biopsies guided by transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) come up negative for cancer in many patients despite having PSA levels above 4 ng/ml. T2-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is able to represent the prostate including the surrounding anatomy and depict suspicious areas of low intensity within a high-intensity peripheral zone. MRI has a higher sensitivity for detecting prostate carcinomas than DRE and TRUS in patients having an elevated PSA value and a negative core biopsy. However, its specificity is poor since other abnormalities such as prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), prostatitis, scars, or haemmorrhage have a similar MRI appearance. The use of additional techniques such as MR spectroscopy and contrast-enhanced dynamic MRI improves sensitivity, but in particular it improves the specificity of tumor detection. Newly developed biopsy devices enable the performance of targeted biopsies in areas that appear suspicious in the MRI. (orig.)

7

Whole-body MRI (WB-MRI) versus axial skeleton MRI (AS-MRI) to detect and measure bone metastases in prostate cancer (PCa)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To compare whole-body MRI (WB-MRI) and axial skeleton MRI (AS-MRI) in detecting and measuring bone metastases in patients with prostate cancer (PCa). WB-MRI and AS-MRI examinations were performed in 60 patients with PCa at high risk of metastases. Two radiologists separately categorised the AS-MRI and WB-MRI as negative or positive for metastases, and measured focal metastases using the ''Response evaluation criteria in solid tumours'' (RECIST) criteria transposed to bone. One radiologist reviewed all examinations 2 months later. Inter- and intraobserver agreements in establishing the presence/absence of metastases were calculated. Bland-Altman plots were used to assess measurement agreement between AS-MRI and WB-MRI. Strong to perfect inter- and intraobserver agreements were found between AS-MRI and WB-MRI in defining the presence/absence of bone metastases. There were no patients with isolated ''peripheral'' metastases at WB-MRI, missed at AS-MRI. There was no difference in lesion count between the two radiologists. AS-MRI and WB-MRI provided statistically equivalent RECIST values for one radiologist and slightly lower values at AS-MRI for the other. In our series of PCa patients, AS-MRI and WB-MRI were equivalent in determining the presence/absence of bone metastases and provided similar evaluation of the metastatic burden. (orig.)

8

Whole-body MRI (WB-MRI) versus axial skeleton MRI (AS-MRI) to detect and measure bone metastases in prostate cancer (PCa)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To compare whole-body MRI (WB-MRI) and axial skeleton MRI (AS-MRI) in detecting and measuring bone metastases in patients with prostate cancer (PCa). WB-MRI and AS-MRI examinations were performed in 60 patients with PCa at high risk of metastases. Two radiologists separately categorised the AS-MRI and WB-MRI as negative or positive for metastases, and measured focal metastases using the ''Response evaluation criteria in solid tumours'' (RECIST) criteria transposed to bone. One radiologist reviewed all examinations 2 months later. Inter- and intraobserver agreements in establishing the presence/absence of metastases were calculated. Bland-Altman plots were used to assess measurement agreement between AS-MRI and WB-MRI. Strong to perfect inter- and intraobserver agreements were found between AS-MRI and WB-MRI in defining the presence/absence of bone metastases. There were no patients with isolated ''peripheral'' metastases at WB-MRI, missed at AS-MRI. There was no difference in lesion count between the two radiologists. AS-MRI and WB-MRI provided statistically equivalent RECIST values for one radiologist and slightly lower values at AS-MRI for the other. In our series of PCa patients, AS-MRI and WB-MRI were equivalent in determining the presence/absence of bone metastases and provided similar evaluation of the metastatic burden. (orig.)

Lecouvet, F.E.; Simon, M.; Berg, B.C.V.; Simoni, P. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Cliniques Universitaires St Luc, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Brussels (Belgium); Tombal, B. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Cliniques Universitaires St Luc, Department of Urology, Brussels (Belgium); Jamart, J. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Clinique Universitaire de Mont-Godinne, Center of Biostatistics and Medical Documentation, Yvoir (Belgium)

2010-12-15

9

MRI for the detection of anorectal fistulas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

MRI is accepted as one of the major diagnostic tools for the detection of anorectal fistulas and abscesses. Noninvasiveness and high accuracy are advantageous hallmarks of this technique. In general, the purpose of imaging anal fistulas is to reduce the risk of recurrence, incontinence and non-healing. To achieve these goals, the applied method must provide the proctologist with detailed information. In this context, MRI acts as a guide for surgeons to accurately plan fistula operations. Another aspect is the follow-up of conservatively treated patients with fistulizing Crohn's disease. In 2000, subtraction MR fistulography was introduced as new imaging technique. This review provides an overview of the entire spectrum of diagnostic modalities for anorectal fistulas with emphasis on subtraction MR fistulography. (orig.)

10

??????????????????MRI?????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ???????????????????????????????????????????????????——????MRI??(??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????“?????”???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????

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2013-12-01

11

Website Detection Using Remote Traffic Analysis  

CERN Document Server

Recent work in traffic analysis has shown that traffic patterns leaked through side channels can be used to recover important semantic information. For instance, attackers can find out which website, or which page on a website, a user is accessing simply by monitoring the packet size distribution. We show that traffic analysis is even a greater threat to privacy than previously thought by introducing a new attack that can be carried out remotely. In particular, we show that, to perform traffic analysis, adversaries do not need to directly observe the traffic patterns. Instead, they can gain sufficient information by sending probes from a far-off vantage point that exploits a queuing side channel in routers. To demonstrate the threat of such remote traffic analysis, we study a remote website detection attack that works against home broadband users. Because the remotely observed traffic patterns are more noisy than those obtained using previous schemes based on direct local traffic monitoring, we take a dynamic...

Gong, Xun; Schear, Nabíl; Borisov, Nikita

2011-01-01

12

Feasibility of detecting pulmonary embolism using noncontrast MRI.  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of detecting pulmonary emboli utilizing noncontrast magnetic resonance imaging techniques in patients with known pulmonary embolism. Materials and Methods. Eleven patients were enrolled in a study to evaluate right ventricular function by cardiac MRI in patients diagnosed with acute pulmonary embolism on CT pulmonary angiogram. Cardiac MRI was performed as soon as possible following pulmonary embolism detection. Two independent observers reviewed the precontrast portion of each MRI, scoring right, left, and lobar arteries as positive or negative for PE. The CTs were reviewed and interpreted in the same manner. Results. MRI was obtained on average of 40 hours after the CT. Forty-eight vessels were affected by PE on CT, 69% of which were identified on MRI. All eight pulmonary emboli located in the right or left pulmonary arteries were detected on MRI. Of the 15 pulmonary emboli that were not detected on MRI, 7 were subsegmental, 6 were segmental, and 2 were located in a branch not included in the MRI field of view. Conclusions. Most pulmonary emboli detected on CT were identified on noncontrast MRI, even though our MRI protocol was not optimized for pulmonary artery visualization. PMID:24967277

Mudge, C S; Healey, T T; Atalay, M K; Pezzullo, J A

2013-01-01

13

Noise-resilient edge detection algorithm for brain MRI images.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper we introduce a noise-resilient edge detection algorithm for brain MRI images. Also, an improved edge detection based on Canny edge detection algorithm is proposed. Computer simulations show that the proposed algorithm is resilient to impulsive noise which makes up for the disadvantages of Canny algorithm, and can detect more edges of MRI brain images effectively. Also, the concept of images fusion is utilized for effective edge detection. PMID:19965004

Agaian, Sos; Almuntashri, Ali

2009-01-01

14

Role of MRI for detection and characterization of pulmonary nodules  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to physical and technical limitations, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has hitherto played only a minor role in image-based diagnostics of the lungs. However, as a consequence of important methodological developments during recent years, MRI has developed into a technically mature and clinically well-proven method for specific pulmonary questions. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview on the currently available sequences and techniques for assessment of pulmonary nodules and analyzes the clinical significance according to the current literature. The main focus is on the detection of lung metastases, the detection of primary pulmonary malignancies in high-risk individuals and the differentiation between pulmonary nodules of benign and malignant character. The MRI technique has a sensitivity of approximately 80 % for detection of malignant pulmonary nodules compared to the reference standard low-dose computed tomography (CT) and is thus somewhat inferior to CT. Advantages of MRI on the other hand are a higher specificity in differentiating malignant and benign pulmonary nodules and the absence of ionizing radiation exposure. A systematic use of MRI as a primary tool for detection and characterization of pulmonary nodules is currently not recommended due to insufficient data. The diagnostic potential of MRI for early detection and staging of malignant pulmonary diseases, however, seems promising. Therefore, further evaluation of MRI as a secondary imaging modality in clinical trials is highly warranted. (orig.)

15

MRI detection of single particles for cellular imaging  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is rapid growth in the use of MRI for molecular and cellular imaging. Much of this work relies on the high relaxivity of nanometer-sized, ultrasmall dextran-coated iron oxide particles. Typically, millions of dextran-coated ultrasmall iron oxide particles must be loaded into cells for efficient detection. Here we show that single, micrometer-sized iron oxide particles (MPIOs) can be detected by MRI in vitro in agarose samples, in cultured cells, and in mouse embryos. Experiments studyin...

Shapiro, Erik M.; Skrtic, Stanko; Sharer, Kathryn; Hill, Jonathan M.; Dunbar, Cynthia E.; Koretsky, Alan P.

2004-01-01

16

[A review on polarization information in the remote sensing detection].  

Science.gov (United States)

Polarization is one of the inherent characteristics. Because the surface of the target structure, internal structure, and the angle of incident light are different, the earth's surface and any target in atmosphere under optical interaction process will have their own characteristic nature of polarization. Polarimetric characteristics of radiation energy from the targets are used in polarization remote sensing detection as detective information. Polarization remote sensing detection can get the seven-dimensional information of targets in complicated backgrounds, detect well-resolved outline of targets and low-reflectance region of objectives, and resolve the problems of atmospheric detection and identification camouflage detection which the traditional remote sensing detection can not solve, having good foreground in applications. This paper introduces the development of polarization information in the remote sensing detection from the following four aspects. The rationale of polarization remote sensing detection is the base of polarization remote sensing detection, so it is firstly introduced. Secondly, the present researches on equipments that are used in polarization remote sensing detection are particularly and completely expatiated. Thirdly, the present exploration of theoretical simulation of polarization remote sensing detection is well detailed. Finally, the authors present the applications research home and abroad of the polarization remote sensing detection technique in the fields of remote sensing, atmospheric sounding, sea surface and underwater detection, biology and medical diagnosis, astronomical observation and military, summing up the current problems in polarization remote sensing detection. The development trend of polarization remote sensing detection technology in the future is pointed out in order to provide a reference for similar studies. PMID:20545168

Gong, Jie-Qiong; Zhan, Hai-Gang; Liu, Da-Zhao

2010-04-01

17

Management of breast lesions detectable only on MRI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Breast MR imaging has become established as the most sensitive imaging method for diagnosing breast cancer. As a result of the increasing examination volume and improved image quality, the number of breast lesions detected only on MRI and requiring further clarification has risen in recent years. According to the S3-guideline 'Diagnosis, Therapy, and Follow-Up of Breast Cancer' as revised in July 2012, institutions performing breast MRI should provide the option of an MRI-guided intervention for clarification. This review describes the indications, methods and results of MRI-guided interventions for the clarification of breast lesions only visible on MRI. Recent guidelines and study results are also addressed and alternative methods and pitfalls are presented. (orig.)

18

SQUID-detected ultra-low field MRI.  

Science.gov (United States)

MRI remains the premier method for non-invasive imaging of soft-tissue. Since the first demonstration of ULF MRI the trend has been towards ever higher magnetic fields. This is because the signal, and efficiency of Faraday detectors, increases with ever higher magnetic fields and corresponding Larmor frequencies. Nevertheless, there are many compelling reasons to continue to explore MRI at much weaker magnetic fields, the so-called ultra-low field or (ULF) regime. In the past decade many excellent proof-of-concept demonstrations of ULF MRI have been made. These include combined MRI and magnetoencephalography, imaging in the presence of metal, unique tissue contrast, and implementation in situations where a high magnetic field is simply impractical. These demonstrations have routinely used pulsed pre-polarization (at magnetic fields from ?10 to 100mT) followed by read-out in a much weaker (1-100?T) magnetic fields using the ultra-sensitive Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) sensor. Even with pre-polarization and SQUID detection, ULF MRI suffers from many challenges associated with lower magnetization (i.e. signal) and inherently long acquisition times compared to conventional >1T MRI. These are fundamental limitations imposed by the low measurement and gradient fields used. In this review article we discuss some of the techniques, potential applications, and inherent challenges of ULF MRI. PMID:23333456

Espy, Michelle; Matlashov, Andrei; Volegov, Petr

2013-03-01

19

Molecular MRI enables early and sensitive detection of brain metastases.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Metastasis to the brain is a leading cause of cancer mortality. The current diagnostic method of gadolinium-enhanced MRI is sensitive only to larger tumors, when therapeutic options are limited. Earlier detection of brain metastases is critical for improved treatment. We have developed a targeted MRI contrast agent based on microparticles of iron oxide that enables imaging of endothelial vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). Our objectives here were to determine whether VCAM-1 is up-reg...

Serres, S.; Soto, Ms; Hamilton, A.; Mcateer, Ma; Carbonell, Ws; Robson, Md; Ansorge, O.; Khrapitchev, A.; Bristow, C.; Balathasan, L.; Weissensteiner, T.; Anthony, Dc; Choudhury, Rp; Muschel, Rj; Sibson, Nr

2012-01-01

20

Tumor-detecting capacity and clinical usefulness of SPIO-MRI in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The tumor-detecting capacity and clinical usefulness of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were examined in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. The tumor detection rate of SPIO-MRI (64.5%) was comparable to those of dynamic computed tomography (CT) and plain MRI, but lower than that for Gd dynamic MRI (93.5%; p<0.01%). A combination of Gd dynamic MRI and SPIO-MRI improved the detection rate; further, the tumor stage with respect to tumor blood-flow pattern was predicted by combining plain MRI with SPIO-MRI. This combination procedure may also be useful for selecting therapeutic strategies. (author)

Nakamura, Hiroshi; Mizokami, Yuji; Matsuoka, Takeshi [Tokyo Medical Coll., Ami, Ibaraki (Japan). Kasumigaura Hospital; Ito, Naoki; Kotake, Fumio

2000-11-01

 
 
 
 
21

Tumor-detecting capacity and clinical usefulness of SPIO-MRI in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tumor-detecting capacity and clinical usefulness of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were examined in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. The tumor detection rate of SPIO-MRI (64.5%) was comparable to those of dynamic computed tomography (CT) and plain MRI, but lower than that for Gd dynamic MRI (93.5%; p<0.01%). A combination of Gd dynamic MRI and SPIO-MRI improved the detection rate; further, the tumor stage with respect to tumor blood-flow pattern was predicted by combining plain MRI with SPIO-MRI. This combination procedure may also be useful for selecting therapeutic strategies. (author)

22

Remote detection of rhizomania in sugar beets.  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT As a prelude to remote sensing of rhizomania, hyper-spectral leaf reflectance and multi-spectral canopy reflectance were used to study the physiological differences between healthy sugar beets and beets infested with Beet necrotic yellow vein virus. This study was conducted over time in the presence of declining nitrogen levels. Total leaf nitrogen was significantly lower in symptomatic beets than in healthy beets. Chlorophyll and carotenoid levels were reduced in symptomatic beets. Vegetative indices calculated from leaf spectra showed reductions in chlorophyll and carotenoids in symptomatic beets. Betacyanin levels estimated from leaf spectra were decreased at the end of the 2000 season and not in 2001. The ratio of betacyanins to chlorophyll, estimated from canopy spectra, was increased in symptomatic beets at four of seven sampling dates. Differences in betacyanin and carotenoid levels appeared to be related to disease and not nitrogen content. Vegetative indices calculated from multi-spectral canopy spectra supported results from leaf spectra. Logistic regression models that incorporate vegetative indices and reflectance correctly predicted 88.8% of the observations from leaf spectra and 87.9% of the observations for canopy reflectance into healthy or symptomatic classes. Classification was best in August with a gradual decrease in accuracy until harvest. These results indicate that remote sensing technologies can facilitate detection of rhizomania. PMID:18943059

Steddom, K; Heidel, G; Jones, D; Rush, C M

2003-06-01

23

DETECTION OF TUMOR IN MRI USING VECTOR QUANTIZATION SEGMENTATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI is the state-of-the-art medical imaging technology which allows cross sectional view of the body with unprecedented tissue contrast. MRI plays an important role in assessing pathological conditions of the ankle, foot and brain. It has rapidly evolved into an accepted modality for medical imaging ofdisease processes in the musculoskeletal system, especially the foot and brain due to the use of non-ionizing radiation. MRI provides a digital representation of tissue characteristic that can be obtained in any tissue plane. The images produced by an MRI scanner are best described as slices through the brain. MRI has the added advantage ofbeing able to produce images which slice through the brain in both horizontal and vertical planes. This paper presents a vector quantization segmentation method to detect cancerous mass from MRI images. In order to increase radiologist’s diagnostic performance, computer-aided diagnosis (CAD scheme have been developed to improve the detection of primary signatures of this disease: masses and microcalcifications.

Dr. H. B. Kekre

2010-08-01

24

Detecting representations of recent and remote autobiographical memories in vmPFC and hippocampus  

Science.gov (United States)

How autobiographical memories are represented in the human brain and whether this changes with time are questions central to memory neuroscience. Two regions in particular have been consistently implicated, the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and the hippocampus, although their precise contributions are still contested. The key question in this debate, when reduced to its simplest form, concerns where information about specific autobiographical memories is located. Here we availed ourselves of the opportunity afforded by multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) to provide an alternative to conventional neuropsychological and fMRI approaches, by detecting representations of individual autobiographical memories in patterns of fMRI activity. We examined whether information about specific recent (two weeks old) and remote (ten years old) autobiographical memories was represented in vmPFC and hippocampus, and other medial temporal and neocortical regions. vmPFC contained information about recent and remote autobiographical memories, although remote memories were more readily detected there, indicating that consolidation or a change of some kind had occurred. Information about both types of memory was also present in the hippocampus, suggesting it plays a role in the retrieval of vivid autobiographical memories regardless of remoteness. Interestingly, we also found that while recent and remote memories were both represented within anterior and posterior hippocampus, the latter nevertheless contained more information about remote memories. Thus, like vmPFC, the hippocampus too respected the distinction between recent and remote memories. Overall, these findings clarify and extend our view of vmPFC and hippocampus while also informing systems-level consolidation and providing clear targets for future studies. PMID:23175849

Bonnici, Heidi M.; Chadwick, Martin J.; Lutti, Antoine; Hassabis, Demis; Weiskopf, Nikolaus; Maguire, Eleanor A.

2012-01-01

25

Automated detection of multiple sclerosis lesions in serial brain MRI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a serious disease typically occurring in the brain whose diagnosis and efficacy of treatment monitoring are vital. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is frequently used in serial brain imaging due to the rich and detailed information provided. Time-series analysis of images is widely used for MS diagnosis and patient follow-up. However, conventional manual methods are time-consuming, subjective, and error-prone. Thus, the development of automated techniques for the detection and quantification of MS lesions is a major challenge. This paper presents an up-to-date review of the approaches which deal with the time-series analysis of brain MRI for detecting active MS lesions and quantifying lesion load change. We provide a comprehensive reference source for researchers in which several approaches to change detection and quantification of MS lesions are investigated and classified. We also analyze the results provided by the approaches, discuss open problems, and point out possible future trends. Lesion detection approaches are required for the detection of static lesions and for diagnostic purposes, while either quantification of detected lesions or change detection algorithms are needed to follow up MS patients. However, there is not yet a single approach that can emerge as a standard for the clinical practice, automatically providing an accurate MS lesion evolution quantification. Future trends will focus on combining the lesion detection in sins on combining the lesion detection in single studies with the analysis of the change detection in serial MRI. (orig.)

26

Automated detection of multiple sclerosis lesions in serial brain MRI  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a serious disease typically occurring in the brain whose diagnosis and efficacy of treatment monitoring are vital. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is frequently used in serial brain imaging due to the rich and detailed information provided. Time-series analysis of images is widely used for MS diagnosis and patient follow-up. However, conventional manual methods are time-consuming, subjective, and error-prone. Thus, the development of automated techniques for the detection and quantification of MS lesions is a major challenge. This paper presents an up-to-date review of the approaches which deal with the time-series analysis of brain MRI for detecting active MS lesions and quantifying lesion load change. We provide a comprehensive reference source for researchers in which several approaches to change detection and quantification of MS lesions are investigated and classified. We also analyze the results provided by the approaches, discuss open problems, and point out possible future trends. Lesion detection approaches are required for the detection of static lesions and for diagnostic purposes, while either quantification of detected lesions or change detection algorithms are needed to follow up MS patients. However, there is not yet a single approach that can emerge as a standard for the clinical practice, automatically providing an accurate MS lesion evolution quantification. Future trends will focus on combining the lesion detection in single studies with the analysis of the change detection in serial MRI. (orig.)

Llado, Xavier; Ganiler, Onur; Oliver, Arnau; Marti, Robert; Freixenet, Jordi [University of Girona, Computer Vision and Robotics Group, Girona (Spain); Valls, Laia [Dr. Josep Trueta University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Girona (Spain); Vilanova, Joan C. [Girona Magnetic Resonance Center, Girona (Spain); Ramio-Torrenta, Lluis [Dr. Josep Trueta University Hospital, Institut d' Investigacio Biomedica de Girona, Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroimmunology Unit, Girona (Spain); Rovira, Alex [Vall d' Hebron University Hospital, Magnetic Resonance Unit, Department of Radiology, Barcelona (Spain)

2012-08-15

27

Remote detection and diagnosis of thunderstorm turbulence  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes how operational radar, satellite and lightning data may be used in conjunction with numerical weather model data to provide remote detection and diagnosis of atmospheric turbulence in and around thunderstorms. In-cloud turbulence is measured with the NEXRAD Turbulence Detection Algorithm (NTDA) using extensively qualitycontrolled, ground-based Doppler radar data. A real-time demonstration of the NTDA includes generation of a 3-D turbulence mosaic covering the CONUS east of the Rocky Mountains, a web-based display, and experimental uplinks of turbulence maps to en-route commercial aircraft. Near-cloud turbulence is inferred from thunderstorm morphology, intensity, growth rate and environment data provided by (1) satellite radiance measurements, rates of change, winds, and other derived features, (2) lightning strike measurements, (3) radar reflectivity measurements and (4) weather model data. These are combined via a machine learning technique trained using a database of in situ turbulence measurements from commercial aircraft to create a predictive model. This new capability is being developed under FAA and NASA funding to enhance current U.S. and international turbulence decision support systems, allowing rapid-update, highresolution, comprehensive assessments of atmospheric turbulence hazards for use by pilots, dispatchers, and air traffic controllers. It will also contribute to the comprehensive 4-D weather information database for NextGen.

Williams, John K.; Sharman, Robert; Craig, Jason; Blackburn, Gary

2008-08-01

28

Directly detected (55)Mn MRI: Application to phantoms for human hyperpolarized (13)C MRI development.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work we demonstrate for the first time directly detected manganese-55 ((55)Mn) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a clinical 3T MRI scanner designed for human hyperpolarized (13)C clinical studies with no additional hardware modifications. Due to the similar frequency of the (55)Mn and (13)C resonances, the use of aqueous permanganate for large, signal-dense, and cost-effective "(13)C" MRI phantoms was investigated, addressing the clear need for new phantoms for these studies. Due to 100% natural abundance, higher intrinsic sensitivity, and favorable relaxation properties, (55)Mn MRI of aqueous permanganate demonstrates dramatically increased sensitivity over typical (13)C phantom MRI, at greatly reduced cost as compared with large (13)C-enriched phantoms. A large sensitivity advantage (22-fold) was demonstrated. A cylindrical phantom (d=8cm) containing concentrated aqueous sodium permanganate (2.7 M) was scanned rapidly by (55)Mn MRI in a human head coil tuned for (13)C, using a balanced steady state free precession acquisition. The requisite penetration of radiofrequency magnetic fields into concentrated permanganate was investigated by experiments and high frequency electromagnetic simulations, and found to be sufficient for (55)Mn MRI with reasonably sized phantoms. A sub-second slice-selective acquisition yielded mean image signal-to-noise ratio of ~60 at 0.5cm(3) spatial resolution, distributed with minimum central signal ~40% of the maximum edge signal. We anticipate that permanganate phantoms will be very useful for testing HP (13)C coils and methods designed for human studies. PMID:25179135

von Morze, Cornelius; Carvajal, Lucas; Reed, Galen D; Swisher, Christine Leon; Tropp, James; Vigneron, Daniel B

2014-12-01

29

Detection and Quantification of Magnetically Labeled Cells by Cellular MRI  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Labeling cells with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles, paramagnetic contrast agent (gadolinium) or perfluorocarbons allows for the possibility of tracking single or clusters of labeled cells within target tissues following either direct implantation or intravenous injection. This review summarizes the practical issues regarding detection and quantification of magnetically labeled cells with various MRI contrast agents with a focus on SPIO nanoparticles.

Liu, Wei; Frank, Joseph A.

2009-01-01

30

Detection and quantification of magnetically labeled cells by cellular MRI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Labeling cells with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles, paramagnetic contrast agent (gadolinium) or perfluorocarbons allows for the possibility of tracking single or clusters of labeled cells within target tissues following either direct implantation or intravenous injection. This review summarizes the practical issues regarding detection and quantification of magnetically labeled cells with various MRI contrast agents with a focus on SPIO nanoparticles.

31

Stress cine MRI for detection of coronary artery disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Stress testing is the cornerstone in the diagnosis of patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). Stress echocardiography has become a well-established modality for the detection of ischemia-induced wall motion abnormalities. However, display and reliable interpretation of stress echocardiography studies are user-dependent, the test reproducibility is low, and 10 to 15% of patients yield suboptimal or non-diagnostic images. Due to its high spatial and contrast resolution, MRI is known to permit an accurate determination of left ventricular function and wall thickness at rest. Early stress MRI studies provided promising results with respect to the detection of CAD. However, the clinical impact was limited due to long imaging time and problematic patient monitoring in the MRI environment. Recent technical improvements - namely ultrafast MR image acquisition - led to a significant reduction of imaging time and improved patient safety. Stress can be induced by physical exercise or pharmacologically by administration of a beta1-agonist (dobutamine) or vasodilatator (dipyridamole and adenosine). The best developed and most promising stress MRI technique is a high-dose dobutamine/atropine stress protocol (10, 20, 30, 40 ?g/kg/min; optionally 0.25-mg fractions of atropine up to maximal dose 1 mg). Severe complications (myocardial infarction, ventricular fibrillation and sustained tachycardia, cardiogenic shock) may be expected in 0.25% of patients. Curray be expected in 0.25% of patients. Currently, data of three high-dose dobutamine stress MRI studies are available, revealing a good sensitivity (83 - 87%) and specificity (83 - 86%) in the assessment of CAD. The direct comparison between echocardiography and MRI for the detection of stress-induced wall motion abnormalities yielded better results for dobutamine-MRI in terms of sensitivity (86.2% vs. 74.3%; p < 0.05) and specificity (85.7% vs. 69.8% p < 0.05) as compared to dobutamine stress echocardiography. The superior results of MRI can mainly be explained by the better image quality with sharp delineation of the endocardial and epicardial borders. Currently, stress MRI is already a realistic clinical alternative for the non-invasive assessment of CAD in patients with impaired image quality in echocardiography. (orig.)

32

Semiparametric detection of significant activation for brain fMRI  

CERN Document Server

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) aims to locate activated regions in human brains when specific tasks are performed. The conventional tool for analyzing fMRI data applies some variant of the linear model, which is restrictive in modeling assumptions. To yield more accurate prediction of the time-course behavior of neuronal responses, the semiparametric inference for the underlying hemodynamic response function is developed to identify significantly activated voxels. Under mild regularity conditions, we demonstrate that a class of the proposed semiparametric test statistics, based on the local linear estimation technique, follow $\\chi^2$ distributions under null hypotheses for a number of useful hypotheses. Furthermore, the asymptotic power functions of the constructed tests are derived under the fixed and contiguous alternatives. Simulation evaluations and real fMRI data application suggest that the semiparametric inference procedure provides more efficient detection of activated brain areas than ...

Zhang, Chunming

2008-01-01

33

Squid detected NMR and MRI at ultralow fields  

Science.gov (United States)

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signals are detected in microtesla fields. Prepolarization in millitesla fields is followed by detection with an untuned dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer. Because the sensitivity of the SQUID is frequency independent, both signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and spectral resolution are enhanced by detecting the NMR signal in extremely low magnetic fields, where the NMR lines become very narrow even for grossly inhomogeneous measurement fields. MRI in ultralow magnetic field is based on the NMR at ultralow fields. Gradient magnetic fields are applied, and images are constructed from the detected NMR signals.

Clarke, John (Berkeley, CA); Pines, Alexander (Berkeley, CA); McDermott, Robert F. (Monona, WI); Trabesinger, Andreas H. (London, GB)

2008-12-16

34

Multi-flux-transformer MRI detection with an atomic magnetometer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, anatomical ultra-low field (ULF) MRI has been demonstrated with an atomic magnetometer (AM). A flux-transformer (FT) has been used for decoupling MRI fields and gradients to avoid their negative effects on AM performance. The field of view (FOV) was limited because of the need to compromise between the size of the FT input coil and MRI sensitivity per voxel. Multi-channel acquisition is a well-known solution to increase FOV without significantly reducing sensitivity. In this paper, we demonstrate twofold FOV increase with the use of three FT input coils. We also show that it is possible to use a single atomic magnetometer and single acquisition channel to acquire three independent MRI signals by applying a frequency-encoding gradient along the direction of the detection array span. The approach can be generalized to more channels and can be critical for imaging applications of non-cryogenic ULF MRI where FOV needs to be large, including head, hand, spine, and whole-body imaging. PMID:25462946

Savukov, Igor; Karaulanov, Todor

2014-10-18

35

Multi-flux-transformer MRI detection with an atomic magnetometer  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, anatomical ultra-low field (ULF) MRI has been demonstrated with an atomic magnetometer (AM). A flux-transformer (FT) has been used for decoupling MRI fields and gradients to avoid their negative effects on AM performance. The field of view (FOV) was limited because of the need to compromise between the size of the FT input coil and MRI sensitivity per voxel. Multi-channel acquisition is a well-known solution to increase FOV without significantly reducing sensitivity. In this paper, we demonstrate twofold FOV increase with the use of three FT input coils. We also show that it is possible to use a single atomic magnetometer and single acquisition channel to acquire three independent MRI signals by applying a frequency-encoding gradient along the direction of the detection array span. The approach can be generalized to more channels and can be critical for imaging applications of non-cryogenic ULF MRI where FOV needs to be large, including head, hand, spine, and whole-body imaging.

Savukov, Igor; Karaulanov, Todor

2014-12-01

36

White matter injury detection in neonatal MRI  

Science.gov (United States)

Early detection of white matter injury in premature newborns can facilitate timely clinical treatments reducing the potential risk of later developmental deficits. It was reported that there were more than 5% premature newborns in British Columbia, Canada, among which 5-10% exhibited major motor deficits and 25-50% exhibited significant developmental and visual deficits. With the advancement of computer assisted detection systems, it is possible to automatically identify white matter injuries, which are found inside the grey matter region of the brain. Atlas registration has been suggested in the literature to distinguish grey matter from the soft tissues inside the skull. However, our subjects are premature newborns delivered at 24 to 32 weeks of gestation. During this period, the grey matter undergoes rapid changes and differs significantly from one to another. Besides, not all detected white spots represent injuries. Additional neighborhood information and expert input are required for verification. In this paper, we propose a white matter feature identification system for premature newborns, which is composed of several steps: (1) Candidate white matter segmentation; (2) Feature extraction from candidates; (3) Validation with data obtained at a later stage on the children; and (4) Feature confirmation for automated detection. The main challenge of this work lies in segmenting white matter injuries from noisy and low resolution data. Our approach integrates image fusion and contrast enhancement together with a fuzzy segmentation technique to achieve promising results. Other applications, such as brain tumor and intra-ventricular haemorrhage detection can also benefit from our approach.

Cheng, Irene; Hajari, Nasim; Firouzmanesh, Amirhossein; Shen, Rui; Miller, Steven; Poskitt, Ken; Basu, Anup

2013-02-01

37

MRI  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scan (MRI) Introduction An MRI scan, or magnetic resonance imaging scan, is a test that provides very clear pictures of structures inside the body. Doctors may recommend an MRI ...

38

MRI  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scan (MRI) Introduction An MRI scan, or magnetic resonance imaging scan, is a test that provides very ... and risks of this procedure. Test A Magnetic Resonance Imaging scan, known as an MRI scan or ...

39

MRI-detected bone marrow edema in early rheumatoid arthritis.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The availability of therapeutics, such as biologics targeting TNF, has enabled marked inhibition of structural damage previously thought to be unavoidable in many patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The importance of physicians being able to reliably identify patients at the greatest risk of disease progression is, therefore, increasing. Many prognostic markers, including MRI-detected pathology at the wrist, have been known for some time to correlate with radiographic RA disease progress...

Taylor, Pc

2008-01-01

40

Automatic probe artifact detection in MRI-guided cryoablation  

Science.gov (United States)

Probe or needle artifact detection in 3D scans gives an approximate location for the tools inserted, and is thus crucial in assisting many image-guided procedures. Conventional needle localization algorithms often start with cropped images, where unwanted parts of raw scans are cropped either manually or by applying pre-defined masks. In cryoablation, however, the number of probes used, the placement and direction of probe insertion, and the portions of abdomen scanned differs significantly from case to case, and probes are often constantly being adjusted during the Probe Placement Phase. These features greatly reduce the practicality of approaches based on image cropping. In this work, we present a fully Automatic Probe Artifact Detection method, APAD, that works directly on uncropped raw MRI images, taken during the Probe Placement Phase in 3Tesla MRI-guided cryoablation. The key idea of our method is to first locate an initial 2D line strip within a slice of the MR image which approximates the position and direction of the 3D probes bundle, noting that cryoprobes or biopsy needles create a signal void (black) artifact in MRI with a bright cylindrical border. With the initial 2D line, standard approaches to detect line structures such as the 3D Hough Transform can be applied to quickly detect each probe's axis. By comparing with manually labeled probes, the analysis of 5 patient treatment cases of kidney cryoablation with varying probe placements demonstrates that our algorithm combined with standard 3D line detection is an accurate and robust method to detect probe artifacts.

Liu, Xinyang; Tuncali, Kemal; Wells, William M.; Zientara, Gary P.

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
41

Ex vivo MRI evaluation of breast tumors: a novel tool for verifying resection of nonpalpable only MRI detected lesions.  

Science.gov (United States)

A fundamental question in surgery of only magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-detected breast lesions is to ensure their removal when they are not palpable by clinical examination and surgical exploration. This is especially relevant in the case of small tumors, carcinoma in situ or lobular carcinoma. Thirty-nine patients were enrolled in the study, 21 patients with breast lesions detected by both conventional imaging and breast MRI (bMRI) and 18 patients with bMRI findings only. Preoperative bMRI allowed staging the disease and localizing the lesion. In the operating theater, contrast medium was injected 1 minute before skin incision. After removal, surgical specimens were submitted to ex vivo MRI, performed using a dedicated surface coil and Spair inversion recovery sequences for suppression of fat signal intensity. All MRI enhancing lesions were completely included within the surgical specimen and visualized by ex vivo MRI. In the first 21 patients, bMRI was able to visualize branching margins or satellite nodules around the core lesion, and allowed for better staging of the surrounding in situ carcinoma; in the last 18 patients, eight of whom were breast cancer type 1 susceptibility protein (BRCA) mutation carriers, bMRI identified 12 malignant tumors, otherwise undetectable, that were all visualized by ex vivo MRI. This is the first description of a procedure that re-enhances breast lesions within a surgical specimen, demonstrating the surgical removal of nonpalpable breast lesions diagnosed only with bMRI. This new strategy reproduces the morphology and the entire extension of the primary lesion on the specimen, with potentially better local surgical control, reducing additional unplanned surgery. PMID:24102850

Agresti, Roberto; Trecate, Giovanna; Ferraris, Cristina; Valeri, Barbara; Maugeri, Ilaria; Pellitteri, Cristina; Martelli, Gabriele; Migliavacca, Silvana; Carcangiu, Maria Luisa; Bohm, Silvia; Maffioli, Lorenzo; Vergnaghi, Daniele; Panizza, Pietro

2013-01-01

42

Target Detection: Remote Sensing Techniques for Defence applications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The tremendous development in remote sensing technology in the recent past has opened up new challenges in defence applications. On important area of such applications is in target detection. This paper describes both classical and newly developed approaches to detect the targets by using remotely-sensed digital images. The classical approach includes statistical classification methods and image processing techniques. The new approach deals with a relatively new sensor technology, namely, synthetic aperture radar (SAR systems and fast developing tools, like neural networks and multisource data integration for analysis and interpretation. With SAR images, it is possible to detect targets or features of a target that is otherwise not possible. Neural networks and multisource data integration tools also have a great potential in analysing and interpreting remote sensing data for target detection.

B.B. Chaudhuri

2013-04-01

43

MRI  

...MRI magnetic MRI Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce an image that is dependent on the ...Pulse oximeters Ultrasound scans X-ray imaging Electrocardiograms Gamma camera PET MRI MRI Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses magnetic fields and radio waves ... Hydrogen atoms are magnetic due to the intrinsic spin of their nuclei, a property that can be utilised by placing the patient ...at the centre of a superconducting electromagnet.  Under the influence of the strong magnetic field slightly more of the hydrogen nuclei become aligned ...

44

MRI  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... field and different radio frequencies allow a specialized computer to generate excellent pictures of the inside of ... Complications MRI scans are very safe. Because MRI technology is relatively recent, the very long-term effects ...

45

MRI  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... undergo an MRI. Patients who have had a stent placed within 6 weeks of the MRI should ... healthcare professional or a recommendation for any particular treatment plan. Like any printed material, it may become ...

46

MRI  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Complications MRI scans are very safe. Because MRI technology is relatively recent, the very long-term effects ... can help avoid potentially deadly complications. Because medical technology is continuously improving, biomedical companies are manufacturing more ...

47

Modelling and interpretation of gas detection using remote laser pointers.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We have developed a quantitative model of the performance of laser pointer style gas leak detectors, which are based on remote detection of backscattered radiation. The model incorporates instrumental noise limits, the reflectivity of the target background surface and a mathematical description of gas leak dispersion in constant wind speed and turbulence conditions. We have investigated optimum instrument performance and limits of detection in simulated leak detection situations. We predict t...

Hodgkinson, Jane; Well, Ben; Padgett, Miles; Pride, Russ D.

2006-01-01

48

FDG-PET Lacks Sufficient Sensitivity to Detect Myxoid Liposarcoma Spinal Metastases Detected by MRI  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose. To document a case of myxoid liposarcoma in which PET scan was less sensitive than MRI in detecting spinal metastasis. Materials and Methods. The case of a 65-year-old female with a history of myxoid liposarcoma (MLS of the thigh resected 5 years previously and now presenting with low back pain is presented. Her medical oncologist ordered an FDG-PET scan to evaluate distant recurrence. Subsequently, an MRI of her spine was obtained by her surgeon. Results. The FDG-PET scan was obtained 1 week prior to the MRI, and it did not show increased glucose uptake in the spine. Her MRI did show increased signal intensity in her lumbar spine. CT needle biopsy confirmed the lesion to be metastatic MLS. Conclusion. FDG-PET scans are utilized to detect distant recurrence of cancerous lesions. Myxoid liposarcoma has a unique propensity to metastasize to the spine. Previous reports have documented the unreliability of bone scintigraphy to diagnose these metastases. Our report demonstrates that FDG-PET may also lack the sensitivity needed to detect these lesions. We advocate total spine MRI when screening for metastases in this population when they present with back pain.

Joseph H. Schwab

2007-05-01

49

MRI  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scan (MRI) Introduction An MRI scan, or magnetic resonance imaging scan, is a test that provides very clear ... benefits and risks of this procedure. Test A Magnetic Resonance Imaging scan, known as an MRI scan or just ...

50

Differential Geometric Approach to Change Detection Using Remotely Sensed Images  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Change Detection using multi-temporal satellite images of same area is an established as well as actively pursued research problem. Most of the change detection techniques use algebraic or transform methods to do a pixel by pixel comparison of change detection. These techniques heavily depend upon the correct choice of threshold value to segregate the real changed pixels from the apparent changed ones. Also all these techniques can only compute the two dimensional change of the terrain surface from remotely sensed data. In this paper we propose a differential geometry approach to detect changes from remotely sensed images, which can detect the change using the geometric property of the pixels with respect to its surroundings. It can compute and filter the changed pixels having high curvature from that of flat (2D changed pixels.

N Panigrahi

2011-08-01

51

Methods and systems for remote detection of gases  

Science.gov (United States)

Novel systems and methods for remotely detecting at least one constituent of a gas via infrared detection are provided. A system includes at least one extended source of broadband infrared radiation and a spectrally sensitive receiver positioned remotely from the source. The source and the receiver are oriented such that a surface of the source is in the field of view of the receiver. The source includes a heating component thermally coupled to the surface, and the heating component is configured to heat the surface to a temperature above ambient temperature. The receiver is operable to collect spectral infrared absorption data representative of a gas present between the source and the receiver. The invention advantageously overcomes significant difficulties associated with active infrared detection techniques known in the art, and provides an infrared detection technique with a much greater sensitivity than passive infrared detection techniques known in the art.

Johnson, Timothy J

2012-09-18

52

Computer-aided detection of prostate cancer in MRI.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prostate cancer is one of the major causes of cancer death for men in the western world. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is being increasingly used as a modality to detect prostate cancer. Therefore, computer-aided detection of prostate cancer in MRI images has become an active area of research. In this paper we investigate a fully automated computer-aided detection system which consists of two stages. In the first stage, we detect initial candidates using multi-atlas-based prostate segmentation, voxel feature extraction, classification and local maxima detection. The second stage segments the candidate regions and using classification we obtain cancer likelihoods for each candidate. Features represent pharmacokinetic behavior, symmetry and appearance, among others. The system is evaluated on a large consecutive cohort of 347 patients with MR-guided biopsy as the reference standard. This set contained 165 patients with cancer and 182 patients without prostate cancer. Performance evaluation is based on lesion-based free-response receiver operating characteristic curve and patient-based receiver operating characteristic analysis. The system is also compared to the prospective clinical performance of radiologists. Results show a sensitivity of 0.42, 0.75, and 0.89 at 0.1, 1, and 10 false positives per normal case. In clinical workflow the system could potentially be used to improve the sensitivity of the radiologist. At the high specificity reading setting, which is typical in screening situations, the system does not perform significantly different from the radiologist and could be used as an independent second reader instead of a second radiologist. Furthermore, the system has potential in a first-reader setting. PMID:24770913

Litjens, Geert; Debats, Oscar; Barentsz, Jelle; Karssemeijer, Nico; Huisman, Henkjan

2014-05-01

53

Motion Detection in Diffusion MRI via Online ODF Estimation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The acquisition of high angular resolution diffusion MRI is particularly long and subject motion can become an issue. The orientation distribution function (ODF) can be reconstructed online incrementally from diffusion-weighted MRI with a Kalman filtering framework. This online reconstruction provides real-time feedback throughout the acquisition process. In this article, the Kalman filter is first adapted to the reconstruction of the ODF in constant solid angle. Then, a method called STAR (STatistical Analysis of Residuals) is presented and applied to the online detection of motion in high angular resolution diffusion images. Compared to existing techniques, this method is image based and is built on top of a Kalman filter. Therefore, it introduces no additional scan time and does not require additional hardware. The performance of STAR is tested on simulated and real data and compared to the classical generalized likelihood ratio test. Successful detection of small motion is reported (rotation under 2°) with no delay and robustness to noise. PMID:23509445

Caruyer, Emmanuel; Aganj, Iman; Lenglet, Christophe; Sapiro, Guillermo; Deriche, Rachid

2013-01-01

54

Hemorrhage detection in MRI brain images using images features  

Science.gov (United States)

The abnormalities appear frequently on Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) of brain in elderly patients presenting either stroke or cognitive impairment. Detection of brain hemorrhage lesions in MRI is an important but very time-consuming task. This research aims to develop a method to extract brain tissue features from T2-weighted MR images of the brain using a selection of the most valuable texture features in order to discriminate between normal and affected areas of the brain. Due to textural similarity between normal and affected areas in brain MR images these operation are very challenging. A trauma may cause microstructural changes, which are not necessarily perceptible by visual inspection, but they could be detected by using a texture analysis. The proposed analysis is developed in five steps: i) in the pre-processing step: the de-noising operation is performed using the Daubechies wavelets; ii) the original images were transformed in image features using the first order descriptors; iii) the regions of interest (ROIs) were cropped from images feature following up the axial symmetry properties with respect to the mid - sagittal plan; iv) the variation in the measurement of features was quantified using the two descriptors of the co-occurrence matrix, namely energy and homogeneity; v) finally, the meaningful of the image features is analyzed by using the t-test method. P-value has been applied to the pair of features in order to measure they efficacy.

Moraru, Luminita; Moldovanu, Simona; Bibicu, Dorin; Stratulat (Visan), Mirela

2013-11-01

55

Diagnostic value of a breast MRI score for the prediction of malignancy of breast lesions detected solely with MRI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: to determine whether lesion scoring allows valid BI-RADS registered classification and prediction of malignancy of breast lesions detectable solely with MRI. Materials and methods: retrospective analysis of 86 patients who underwent MRI-guided localization and excisional biopsy of 100 breast lesions detectable only with MRI. Breast MRI was performed at 1.5 Tesla by means of a T1w dynamic GE sequence. The positive predictive value (PPV) for malignancy was calculated for each score criterion separately, for the total score, and for corresponding BI-RADS registered classes. The PPV was correlated with histology. Results: 31% (31/100) of breast lesions detectable only with MRI were malignant. Of the single score criteria only the lesion morphology criterion was significantly correlated with malignancy. The malignancy rate according to the breast MRI score was 0% for score 3, 18.2% for score 4, 32.1% for score 5 and each 50% for lesions of score 6 and 7. After translation into BI-RADS registered the malignancy rates were 0% for BI-RADS registered 3, 24.6% for BI-RADS registered 4 and 48.5% for BI-RADS registered 5 lesions. The thus defined BI-RADS registered classes were significantly correlated with malignancy. (orig.)

56

PERFORMANCE OF IMPULSE NOISE DETECTION METHODS IN REMOTE SENSING IMAGES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Remote sensing (RS) images are affected by different types of noises like Gaussian noise, speckle noise and impulse noise. These noises are introduced into the RS images during acquisition or transmission process. The main challenge in impulse noise removal is to suppress the noise as well as to preserve the details (edges). Removal ofthe impulse noise is done by two stages: detection of noisy pixel and replacement of that pixel. Detecting and Removing or reducing impulse noise is a very acti...

Mrs.V.RADHIKA,; Padmavathi, Dr G.

2010-01-01

57

Two-Dimensional Change Detection Methods Remote Sensing Applications  

CERN Document Server

Change detection using remotely sensed images has many applications, such as urban monitoring, land-cover change analysis, and disaster management. This work investigates two-dimensional change detection methods. The existing methods in the literature are grouped into four categories: pixel-based, transformation-based, texture analysis-based, and structure-based. In addition to testing existing methods, four new change detection methods are introduced: fuzzy logic-based, shadow detection-based, local feature-based, and bipartite graph matching-based. The latter two methods form the basis for a

Ilsever, Murat

2012-01-01

58

SQUID-Detected In Vivo MRI at Microtesla Magnetic Fields  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We use a low transition temperature (T{sub c}) Super-conducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) to perform in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at magnetic fields around 100 microtesla, corresponding to proton Larmor frequencies of about 5 kHz. In such low fields, broadening of the nuclear magnetic resonance lines due to inhomogeneous magnetic fields and susceptibility variations of the sample are minimized, enabling us to obtain high quality images. To reduce environmental noise the signal is detected by a second-order gradiometer, coupled to the SQUID, and the experiment is surrounded by a 3-mm thick Al shield. To increase the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), we prepolarize the samples in a field up to 100 mT. Three-dimensional images are acquired in less than 6 minutes with a standard spin-echo phase-encoding sequence. Using encoding gradients of {approx}100 {micro}T/m we obtain three-dimensional images of bell peppers with a resolution of 2 x 2 x 8 mm{sup 3}. Our system is ideally suited to acquiring images of small, peripheral parts of the human body such as hands and arms. In vivo images of an arm, acquired at 132 {micro}T, show 24-mm sections of the forearm with a resolution of 3 x 3 mm{sup 2} and a SNR of 10. We discuss possible applications of MRI at these low magnetic fields.

Moble, Michael; Myers, Whittier R; Lee, SeungKyun; Kelso, Nathan; Hatridge, Michael; Pines, Alexander; Clarke, John

2005-06-01

59

Comparison of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and superparamagnetic iron oxide-enhanced MRI for the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aim: To compare the diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Materials and methods: Eighty-nine patients (118 HCCs) who underwent three-dimensional gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and SPIO-enhanced MRI with a mean interval of 4.7 days (range 3-7 days), were included in this study. Two observers reviewed the gadoxetic acid set (unenhanced, early dynamic, 10 and 20 min hepatocyte-phase images) and SPIO set [unenhanced and ferucarbotran-enhanced T1-, T2-turbo spin-echo (TSE), and T2* weighted imaging (WI)] in consensus. Diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity were evaluated using the alternative-free response receiver operator characteristic (ROC) method. Results: The area under ROC curve (Az value) and sensitivity of the gadoxetic acid set (Az 0.964; sensitivity 90.7%) were significantly higher than those of the SPIO set (Az 0.830; sensitivity 84.7%; p < 0.05). There were 14 and seven lesions that were verified only on the gadoxetic acid set and only on the SPIO set, respectively. Four HCCs were clearly revealed as hypointense only on gadoxetic acid-enhanced hepatocyte phase imaging, but were occult on other sequences, including the SPIO set. Conclusion: Gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI is better than SPIO-enhanced MRI for the detection of HCCs.

Kim, Y.K., E-mail: jmyr@dreamwiz.co [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Research Institute of Clinical Medicine, Chonbuk National University Hospital and Medical School, Keum Am Dong, JeonJu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, C.S.; Han, Y.M.; Park, G.; Hwang, S.B. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Research Institute of Clinical Medicine, Chonbuk National University Hospital and Medical School, Keum Am Dong, JeonJu (Korea, Republic of); Yu, H.C. [Department of General Surgery, Chonbuk National University Hospital and Medical School, Keum Am Dong, JeonJu (Korea, Republic of)

2010-05-15

60

Receiving antenna system for remote detection of nuclear quadrupole resonance signals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The design of receiving antenna system for remote detection of nuclear quadrupole resonance signals is described. The results of the receiver system application for the remote detection of the NGR signals in hexamethylenetetramine are presented

 
 
 
 
61

MRI  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... MRI scan or just MRI, does NOT use x-rays. This document is for informational purposes and is ... body, let the technologists know. They can take x-rays of these areas to This document is for ...

62

PERFORMANCE OF IMPULSE NOISE DETECTION METHODS IN REMOTE SENSING IMAGES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Remote sensing (RS images are affected by different types of noises like Gaussian noise, speckle noise and impulse noise. These noises are introduced into the RS images during acquisition or transmission process. The main challenge in impulse noise removal is to suppress the noise as well as to preserve the details (edges. Removal ofthe impulse noise is done by two stages: detection of noisy pixel and replacement of that pixel. Detecting and Removing or reducing impulse noise is a very active research area in image processing. In this paper three different existing detection methods are discussed with the intension of developing a new one.

Mrs.V.RADHIKA,

2010-09-01

63

Comparison of AMI-25 enhanced MRI and helical dynamic CT in the detection of hepatic lesions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We performed AMI-25 enhanced MRI and helical dynamic CT in 12 cases of hepatic lesions. Nine of these were hepatocellular carcinomas. Two cases were metastatic liver tumors (the primary lesion was gastric in one and the other was gallbladder cancer). One case was suspected to be adenomatous hyperplasia. Thirty-two lesions were detected in T2-weighted SE images before AMI-25 administration, while 46 lesions were detected in AMI-25 enhanced MRI images. In particular, AMI-25 enhanced MRI was superior to plain MRI in lesions less than 10 mm in size. A total of 48 lesions were detected in helical dynamic CT. Although AMI-25 enhanced MRI almost equaled helical dynamic CT in the detection of liver tumors, helical dynamic CT was slightly superior to AMI-25 enhanced MRI in the detection of subphrenic lesions. It was possible to know the hemodynamics in each hepatic lesion by helical dynamic CT. AMI-25 enhanced MRI was useful to know the inclusion of reticuloendothelial system, and that yielded different diagnoses in adenomatous hyperplasia and well differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma. Helical dynamic CT was useful for qualitative diagnosis. Both AMI-25 enhanced MRI and helical dynamic CT contributed to the detection of liver tumor and qualitative diagnosis. (author)

64

MRI breast screening in high-risk women: cancer detection and survival analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Women with a genetic predisposition to breast cancer tend to develop the disease at a younger age with denser breasts making mammography screening less effective. The introduction of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for familial breast cancer screening programs in recent years was intended to improve outcomes in these women. We aimed to assess whether introduction of MRI surveillance improves 5- and 10-year survival of high-risk women and determine the accuracy of MRI breast cancer detection compared with mammography-only or no enhanced surveillance and compare size and pathology of cancers detected in women screened with MRI + mammography and mammography only. We used data from two prospective studies where asymptomatic women with a very high breast cancer risk were screened by either mammography alone or with MRI also compared with BRCA1/2 carriers with no intensive surveillance. 63 cancers were detected in women receiving MRI + mammography and 76 in women receiving mammography only. Sensitivity of MRI + mammography was 93 % with 63 % specificity. Fewer cancers detected on MRI were lymph node positive compared to mammography/no additional screening. There were no differences in 10-year survival between the MRI + mammography and mammography-only groups, but survival was significantly higher in the MRI-screened group (95.3 %) compared to no intensive screening (73.7 %; p = 0.002). There were no deaths among the 21 BRCA2 carriers receiving MRI. There appears to be benefit from screening with MRI, particularly in BRCA2 carriers. Extended follow-up of larger numbers of high-risk women is required to assess long-term survival. PMID:24687378

Evans, D Gareth; Gareth, Evans D; Kesavan, Nisha; Nisha, Kesavan; Lim, Yit; Yit, Lim; Gadde, Soujanye; Soujanye, Gadde; Hurley, Emma; Emma, Hurley; Massat, Nathalie J; Maxwell, Anthony J; Ingham, Sarah; Sarah, Ingham; Eeles, Rosalind; Rosalind, Eeles; Leach, Martin O; Howell, Anthony; Anthony, Howell; Duffy, Stephen W; Stephen, Duffy

2014-06-01

65

Research on Remote Network Bidirectional Detect and Control Model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Remote network bidirectional detect and control technologies are the key factors to solve local network allopatry expansibility and management. With studying gateway integration technology, bidirectional VPN technology, identity authentication technology and dynamic host management technology can be integrated into gateway. Thus, bidirectional connect and control among allopatry local networks based on Internet can be solved. Whole area expansibility of local network is realized. With experim...

Hongyao Ju; Xin Wang; Fei Luo

2013-01-01

66

Automatic brain tumor detection in MRI: methodology and statistical validation  

Science.gov (United States)

Automated brain tumor segmentation and detection are immensely important in medical diagnostics because it provides information associated to anatomical structures as well as potential abnormal tissue necessary to delineate appropriate surgical planning. In this work, we propose a novel automated brain tumor segmentation technique based on multiresolution texture information that combines fractal Brownian motion (fBm) and wavelet multiresolution analysis. Our wavelet-fractal technique combines the excellent multiresolution localization property of wavelets to texture extraction of fractal. We prove the efficacy of our technique by successfully segmenting pediatric brain MR images (MRIs) from St. Jude Children"s Research Hospital. We use self-organizing map (SOM) as our clustering tool wherein we exploit both pixel intensity and multiresolution texture features to obtain segmented tumor. Our test results show that our technique successfully segments abnormal brain tissues in a set of T1 images. In the next step, we design a classifier using Feed-Forward (FF) neural network to statistically validate the presence of tumor in MRI using both the multiresolution texture and the pixel intensity features. We estimate the corresponding receiver operating curve (ROC) based on the findings of true positive fractions and false positive fractions estimated from our classifier at different threshold values. An ROC, which can be considered as a gold standard to prove the competence of a classifier, is obtained to ascertain the sensitivity and specificity of our classifier. We observe that at threshold 0.4 we achieve true positive value of 1.0 (100%) sacrificing only 0.16 (16%) false positive value for the set of 50 T1 MRI analyzed in this experiment.

Iftekharuddin, Khan M.; Islam, Mohammad A.; Shaik, Jahangheer; Parra, Carlos; Ogg, Robert

2005-04-01

67

MRI  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... a test that provides very clear pictures of structures inside the body. Doctors may recommend an MRI ... dye given through the vein to help visualize structures better inside the body. This dye is relatively ...

68

MRI  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... to get with your device. Patients with cerebral aneurysm clips should NOT have an MRI unless the patient has proof that the aneurysm clip is compatible with magnets. Patients with metallic ...

69

MRI  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... This is usually done with a blood test. Risks and Complications MRI scans are very safe. Because ... except when the benefits clearly outweigh the potential risk to the unborn child. Allergic reactions to the ...

70

MRI  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... watch, beepers, credit cards, and other magnet-sensitive devices from the effects of the MRI machine. You ... are NOT allowed near the machine. Some newer devices may be compatible with certain types of MRIs. ...

71

DETECTION OF TUMOR IN MRI USING VECTOR QUANTIZATION SEGMENTATION  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is the state-of-the-art medical imaging technology which allows cross sectional view of the body with unprecedented tissue contrast. MRI plays an important role in assessing pathological conditions of the ankle, foot and brain. It has rapidly evolved into an accepted modality for medical imaging ofdisease processes in the musculoskeletal system, especially the foot and brain due to the use of non-ionizing radiation. MRI provides a digital representation of tis...

Kekre, Dr H. B.; Dr.Tanuja Sarode; Ms.Kavita Raut

2010-01-01

72

Detection of rotator cuff tears: the value of MRI following ultrasound  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To evaluate the need for additional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) following ultrasound (US) in patients with shoulder pain and/or disability and to compare the accuracy of both techniques for the detection of partial-thickness and full-thickness rotator cuff tears (RCT). In 4 years, 5,216 patients underwent US by experienced musculoskeletal radiologists. Retrospectively, patient records were evaluated if MRI and surgery were performed within 5 months of US. US and MRI findings were classified into intact cuff, partial-thickness and full-thickness RCT, and were correlated with surgical findings. Additional MR imaging was performed in 275 (5.2%) patients. Sixty-eight patients underwent surgery within 5 months. US and MRI correctly depicted 21 (95%) and 22 (100%) of the 22 full-thickness tears, and 8 (89%) and 6 (67%) of the 9 partial-thickness tears, respectively. The differences in performance of US and MRI were not statistically significant (p = 0.15). MRI following routine shoulder US was requested in only 5.2% of the patients. The additional value of MRI was in detecting intra-articular lesions. In patients who underwent surgery, US and MRI yielded comparably high sensitivity for detecting full-thickness RCT. US performed better in detecting partial-thickness tears, although the difference was not significant. (orig.)

Rutten, Matthieu J.C.M.; Spaargaren, Gert-Jan; Jager, Gerrit J. [Jeroen Bosch Ziekenhuis, Department of Radiology, NL' s-Hertogenbosch (Netherlands); Loon, Ton van [Jeroen Bosch Ziekenhuis, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, NL' s-Hertogenbosch (Netherlands); Waal Malefijt, Maarten C. de [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Kiemeney, Lambertus A.L.M. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics and HTA, Geert Grooteplein Noord 21, P.O. Box 9101, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

2010-02-15

73

Detection of rotator cuff tears: the value of MRI following ultrasound  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate the need for additional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) following ultrasound (US) in patients with shoulder pain and/or disability and to compare the accuracy of both techniques for the detection of partial-thickness and full-thickness rotator cuff tears (RCT). In 4 years, 5,216 patients underwent US by experienced musculoskeletal radiologists. Retrospectively, patient records were evaluated if MRI and surgery were performed within 5 months of US. US and MRI findings were classified into intact cuff, partial-thickness and full-thickness RCT, and were correlated with surgical findings. Additional MR imaging was performed in 275 (5.2%) patients. Sixty-eight patients underwent surgery within 5 months. US and MRI correctly depicted 21 (95%) and 22 (100%) of the 22 full-thickness tears, and 8 (89%) and 6 (67%) of the 9 partial-thickness tears, respectively. The differences in performance of US and MRI were not statistically significant (p = 0.15). MRI following routine shoulder US was requested in only 5.2% of the patients. The additional value of MRI was in detecting intra-articular lesions. In patients who underwent surgery, US and MRI yielded comparably high sensitivity for detecting full-thickness RCT. US performed better in detecting partial-thickness tears, although the difference was not significant. (orig.)

74

MRI at 132 ?T for the Detection of Tumors  

Science.gov (United States)

We are investigating the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), typically at 132 ?T, with enhanced longitudinal-relaxation-time (T1)-weighted contrast to detect tumors. We have measured T1 of healthy and cancerous prostate tissue specimens--within a few hours of their surgical removal--from approximately 20 patients. The measurements involve a field-cycling imaging technique in which we prepolarize protons in fields up to 150 mT. After this field has been ramped down, the image of each pair of samples is encoded using magnetic field gradients, and the proton nuclear magnetic resonance signal is measured using a SQUID coupled to an untuned, second-derivative gradiometer. The observed T1 contrast is significantly greater than that at (say) 1.5 T, suggesting that one may be able to distinguish tumors from healthy tissue without a contrast agent: average T1 values at 132 ?T for healthy and cancerous prostate tissue are 60 and 46 ms. We describe a 150-mT prepolarizing coil that will allow the system to be reconfigured in a geometry suitable for in vivo imaging of human prostates.

Busch, Sarah; Mößle, Michael; Hatridge, Michael; Lee, In Hwan; Chew, Kevin; Simko, Jeff; Pines, Alex; Clarke, John

2010-03-01

75

Comparison of MDCT and MRI in the detection and sizing of acute and chronic myocardial infarcts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: This study compared ability of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) to detect and size the myocardial infarctions (MI) with MRI. Materials and methods: Eighty examination sets of MDCT and MRI of 63 consecutive patients in the acute stage (average 6.3 days, n = 40) and/or chronic stage (average, 11.8 months; n = 40) of reperfused MI were examined in this study. The first-pass and delayed MRI was performed using a 1.5 T scanner with an injection of Gd-DTPA to assess the extent of MI. Within 24 h after MRI, MDCT was performed at the arterial phase around 25 s with a 10-min delay using one of the following scanners: 4-slice, 16-slice, and 40-slice. The volume of the MI over the total myocardial volume was calculated from the MRI and CT images. Results: MDCT revealed MI lesions in all cases except for one (1.3%) on the early phase images. The percentage volume of the lesion on the MDCT images correlated with that of the MR images. The correlation coefficient between perfusion MRI and early CT was 0.62 (p 0.05), but there was significant difference between the 5-min delay MRI (25.9 ± 12.1%) and late CT (22.8 ± 11.8%) (p < 0.001). Conclusion: MDCT produces comparable results to MRI in the detection and sizing of acute ann the detection and sizing of acute and chronic MI

76

Underwater remote detection and monitoring of spilled Orimulsion using sonar  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An accidental spill of Orimulsion on water presents special challenges because the Orimulsion will go into suspension as microscopic surfactant coated bitumen particles in the first 2-3 metres below the water surface. This makes it difficult to detect and monitor the plume. Fleming Co. Environmental examined the potential use of sonar for the underwater remote detection and monitoring of spilled Orimulsion in a small-scale saltwater tank test in Denmark. For the test, a sonar was placed 0.75 m below the water surface at one end of the tank. Acoustic measurements showed that a gradually spreading cloud containing only 5.6 liters of hydrocarbon particles could be detected from 17 meters away in a body of 180,000 liters, even when the sonar was functioning at only 6 per cent of its full power. These positive results may lead to further tank testing or offshore testing in Venezuela. 4 refs., 9 figs

77

Detection and Demarcation of Tumor using Vector Quantization in MRI images  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Segmenting a MRI images into homogeneous texture regions representing disparate tissue types is often a useful preprocessing step in the computer-assisted detection of breast cancer. That is why we proposed new algorithm to detect cancer in mammogram breast cancer images. In this paper we proposed segmentation using vector quantization technique. Here we used Linde Buzo-Gray algorithm (LBG) for segmentation of MRI images. Initially a codebook of size 128 was generated for MR...

Dr. H B Kekre,; Sarode, Ms Tanuja K.; Gharge, Ms Saylee M.

2010-01-01

78

Preoperative detection of colorectal liver metastases in fatty liver: MDCT or MRI?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To compare the diagnostic value of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the preoperative detection of colorectal liver metastases in diffuse fatty infiltration of the liver, associated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Materials and methods: Twenty preoperative tri-phasic MDCT (4-64-row, Siemens) and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (1.5 T or 3.0 T, Siemens) examinations of patients with colorectal cancer and liver metastases in diffuse steatosis were retrospectively evaluated. All patients underwent surgical resection for liver metastases (time interval 1-60 days). The amount of fatty infiltration of the liver was determined histopathologically by semi-quantitative percent-wise estimation and ranged from 25 to 75%. Results: Overall, 51 metastases were found by histopathology of the resected liver segments/lobes. The size of the metastases ranged from 0.4 to 13 cm, with 18 (35%) being up to 1 cm in diameter. In the overall rating, MDCT detected 33/51 lesions (65%), and MRI 45/51 (88%). For lesions up to 1 cm, MDCT detected only 2/18 (11%) and MRI 12/18 (66%). One false positive lesion was detected by MDCT. Statistical analysis showed that MRI is markedly superior to MDCT, with a statistically significant difference (p 1 cm. Conclusion: For the detectioons > 1 cm. Conclusion: For the detection of colorectal liver metastases after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and consecutive diffuse fatty infiltration of the liver, MRI is superior to MDCT, especially for the detection of small lesions.

79

Detection of intraplaque hemorrhage with use of screening black-blood MRI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The evaluation of plaque characteristics as well as the degree of luminal narrowing is important in the management of carotid stenosis. Several reports have shown that intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH), which plays a pivotal role in plaque vulnerability, emits high signal intensity on T1-weighted images of high-resolution black-blood (BB) MRIs. When an MRI is used to screen for vulnerable plaque, a short scanning duration and a simple MRI protocol are required. This study assessed the utility of screening BB-MRI to detect IPH. Ninety-three consecutive cases with atherosclerotic carotid stenosis scheduled for carotid endarterectomy (CEA) or carotid artery stenting between January 2005 and December 2007 were included. High-resolution BB-MRI scans were obtained with 2D double-inversion recovery fast spin-echo sequences with cardiac gating. Screening BB-MRIs were performed with 3D gradient-echo sequences suppressing blood flow signals by radiofrequency wave spatial saturation over the scanning field of 3D time-of-flight MR angiography (MRA). The relative overall plaque signal intensities with reference to the sternocleidomastoid muscle were calculated, and the correlation of intensities on T1-weighted images between high-resolution BB-MRI and screening BB-MRI was investigated. We excluded 50 cases because of restenosis following CEA, use of a pacemaker, a long interval (>10 days) between high-resolution and screening BB-MRI examinations, or poor-quality images. Among the 43 cas, or poor-quality images. Among the 43 cases included, the relative overall plaque signal intensity of high-resolution BB-MRI and screening BB-MRI were closely correlated (r=0.568, p<0.001). Screening BB-MRI can be an alternative to high-resolution BB-MRI in the assessment of IPH and may be a useful tool for detection of vulnerable plaque. (author)

80

Direct MRI detection of the neuronal magnetic field: the effect of the dendrite branch  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In recent years, neuronal current MRI (nc-MRI) was proposed as a new imaging method to directly map the magnetic field change caused by neuronal activity. Nc-MRI could offer improved spatial and temporal resolution compared to blood hemodynamics-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In this paper, with a finite current dipole as the model of dendrite or dendrite branch, we investigated the spatial distribution of the magnetic field generated by synchronously activated neurons to evaluate the possibility of nc-MRI. Our simulations imply that the existence of a dendrite branch may not only increase the strength of the neuronal magnetic field (NMF), but also raise the non-uniform and unsymmetry of the NMF; therefore, it can enhance the detectability of the neuronal current magnetic field by MRI directly. The results show that the signal phase shift is enlarged, but it is unstable and is still very small, <<1 radian, while the magnitude signal may be strong enough for a typical MRI voxel to be detected. We suggest making further efforts to measure the magnitude signal which may induce a large effect in an nc-MRI experiment.

Huang Yingling; Xiong Hongchuan; Yao Dezhong, E-mail: dyao@uestc.edu.c [Key Laboratory for NeuroInformation of Ministry of Education, School of Life Science and Technology, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054, Sichuan (China)

2010-09-21

 
 
 
 
81

Comparison of Ultrasound and MRI in Detecting Fetal Anomalies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction & Background: Ultrasound (US and MRI are considered complementary technologies, and MRI is utilized as an adjunct to US in the evaluation of fetal anomalies. Overall ultrasound remains the prime mo-dality for evaluating disorders of the fetus and pregnancy. Ultrasound continues to have several obvious advan-tages over MRI. It is safe and relatively inexpensive and is widely available It also allows for real-time imaging. However, US does have important limitations. First, it is uniquely operator-and interpreter-dependent. In ad-dition, compared to MRI, US provides a smaller field-of-view, and the resolution of US images is restricted by penetration through soft tissues and bone. Thus, the sensitivity of US in evaluating the fetus is reduced in obese patients and in women whose pregnancies are complicated by low amniotic fluid volume. There is a growing body of literature on the use of MRI and has documented its usefulness in confirming or expanding upon US findings. On the contrary, MRI visualization of the fetus is not significantly limited by maternal obe-sity, fetal position, or oligohydramnios, and visualization of the brain is not restricted by the ossified skull. It provides superior soft-tissue contrast resolution and the ability to distinguish individual structures such as lung, liver, kidney, bowel, and gray and white matter. Patients & Methods: In this study, patients in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy were recruited on the basis of abnormal fetal US results within 2 days of MR imaging by another radiologist. Results: In some cases such as anencephaly which is associated with polyhydraminous or in multicystic dys-plastic kidney disease, MRI added no more information to ultrasonography; but in the following cases MRI had more data. In a fetus with bilateral hydronephrosis, MRI could differentiate PUV from UPJ stenosis by visualizing distention of the ureters. MRI allowed better depiction of complex anomalies which are associated with omphalocele, such as a small thorax and rudimentary cervical spine. MRI could differentiate cystic hy-groma from meningocele with showing no defect in the occipital bone. Conclusion: Although US remains the examination of choice for evaluating the fetus, obstetric MR imaging serves as a useful adjuvant study. With the development of faster MR imaging sequences, greater anatomic de-tail of the fetus is visualized. Thus, a clear understanding of MR imaging techniques and fetal anatomy is cru-cial for optimal examination and image interpretation.

R. Abdi

2005-08-01

82

Motion Detection in Diffusion MRI via Online ODF Estimation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The acquisition of high angular resolution diffusion MRI is particularly long and subject motion can become an issue. The orientation distribution function (ODF) can be reconstructed online incrementally from diffusion-weighted MRI with a Kalman filtering framework. This online reconstruction provides real-time feedback throughout the acquisition process. In this article, the Kalman filter is first adapted to the reconstruction of the ODF in constant solid angle. Then, a method called STAR (S...

Caruyer, Emmanuel; Aganj, Iman; Lenglet, Christophe; Sapiro, Guillermo; Deriche, Rachid

2013-01-01

83

Can breast MRI computer-aided detection (CAD) improve radiologist accuracy for lesions detected at MRI screening and recommended for biopsy in a high-risk population?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aim: To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) computer-aided detection (CAD) for breast MRI screen-detected lesions recommended for biopsy in a high-risk population. Material and methods: Fifty-six consecutive Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) 3-5 lesions with histopathological correlation [nine invasive cancers, 13 ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and 34 benign] were retrospectively evaluated using a breast MRI CAD prototype (CAD-Gaea). CAD evaluation was performed separately and in consensus by two radiologists specializing in breast imaging, blinded to the histopathology. Thresholds of 50, 80, and 100% and delayed enhancement were independently assessed with CAD. Lesions were rated as malignant or benign according to threshold and delayed enhancement only and in combination. Sensitivities, specificities, and negative predictive values (NPV) were determined for CAD assessments versus pathology. Initial MRI BI-RADS interpretation without CAD versus CAD assessments were compared using paired binary diagnostic tests. Results: Threshold levels for lesion enhancement were: 50% to include all malignant (and all benign) lesions; and 100% for all invasive cancer and high-grade DCIS. Combined use of threshold and enhancement patterns for CAD assessment was best (73% sensitivity, 56% specificity and 76% NPV for all cancer). Sensitivities and NPV were better for invasive cancer (100%/100%) than for all malignancies (54%/760%/100%) than for all malignancies (54%/76%). Radiologists' MRI interpretation was more sensitive than CAD (p = 0.05), but less specific (p = 0.001) for cancer detection. Conclusion: The breast MRI CAD system used could not improve the radiologists' accuracy for distinguishing all malignant from benign lesions, due to the poor sensitivity for DCIS detection.

84

Supercooled large drop detection with NASA's Icing Remote Sensing System  

Science.gov (United States)

In-flight icing occurs when aircraft impact supercooled liquid drops. The supercooled liquid freezes on contact and the accreted ice changes a plane's aerodynamic characteristics, which can lead to dangerous loss of control. NASA's Icing Remote Sensing System consists of a multi-channel radiometer, a laser ceilometer and a vertically-pointing Kaband radar, whos fields are merged with internal software logic to arrive at a hazard classification for in-flight icing. The radiometer is used to derive atmospheric temperature soundings and integrated liquid water and the ceilometer and radar are used to define cloud boundaries. The integrated liquid is then distributed within the determined cloud boundaries and layers to arrive at liquid water content profiles, which if present below freezing are categorized as icing hazards. This work outlines how the derived liquid water content and measured Ka-band reflectivity factor profiles can be used to derive a vertical profile of radar-estimated particle size. This is only possible because NASA's system arrives at independent and non-correlated measures of liquid water and reflectivity factor for a given range volume. The size of the drops significantly effect the drop collection efficiency and the location that icing accretion occurs on the craft's superstructure and thus how a vehicle's performance is altered. Large drops, generally defined as over 50 ?m in diameter, tend to accrete behind the normal ice protected areas of the leading edge of the wing and other control surfaces. The NASA Icing Remote Sensing System was operated near Montreal, Canada for the Alliance Icing Research Study II in 2003 and near Cleveland, Ohio from 2006 onward. In this study, we present case studies to show how NASA's Icing Remote Sensing System can detect and differentiate between no icing, small drop and large drop in-flight icing hazards to aircraft. This new product provides crucial realtime hazard detection capabilities which improve avaiation safety in the near-airport environment with cost-effective, existing instrumentation technologies.

Serke, David J.; Reehorst, Andrew L.; Politovich, Marcia K.

2010-10-01

85

Pathophysiological changes detected by MRI within 24 hours after head injury  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report concerns the evaluation of the usefulness of high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the diagnosis and prognosis of patients with head injuries. For this purpose we compared the CT and MRI results obtained on 48 such patients. MRI of all cases was taken within 24 hours after head injury using a 1.5-Tesla unit. The sensitivity of the two modalities in the detection of small traumatic lesions was compared. Traumatic lesions of 23 patients (47.9%) were not detected by CT, but they were demonstrated on MRI. Overall, MRI was significantly more sensitive than CT in detecting early and/or subtle traumatic changes of the brain parenchyma (P1-WI and T2-WI. (B) Corpus callosum lesions with hyperintensity on T2-WI were in fact hemorrhagic contusions by signal changes on sequential MRI. The follow-up of chronological changes of a given corpus callosum lesion was essential for confirmation of its pathology. (C) In one case, scratch-like lesions with strong hypointensity on T1-WI and hyperintensity on T2-WI were clearly demonstrated in the white matter. Tharly demonstrated in the white matter. These observations appeared to indicate axonal damages. (D) Even if initial GCS score is low (2-WI and subsequently disappeared completely. We conclude that performing MRI in the early stage of a head injury is of utility for the understanding of pertinent pathophysiological changes and for predicting outcome. (author)

86

Constructing Carbon Fiber Motion-Detection Loops for Simultaneous EEG–fMRI  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the most significant impediments to high-quality EEG recorded in an MRI scanner is subject motion. Availability of motion artifact sensors can substantially improve the quality of the recorded EEG. In the study of epilepsy, it can also dramatically increase the confidence that one has in discriminating true epileptiform activity from artifact. This is due both to the reduction in artifact and the ability to visually inspect the motion sensor signals when reading the EEG, revealing whether or not head motion is present. We have previously described the use of carbon fiber loops for detecting and correcting artifact in EEG acquired simultaneously with MRI. The loops, attached to the subject’s head, are electrically insulated from the scalp. They provide a simple and direct measure of specific artifact that is contaminating the EEG, including both subject motion and residual artifact arising from magnetic field gradients applied during MRI. Our previous implementation was used together with a custom-built EEG–fMRI system that differs substantially from current commercially available EEG–fMRI systems. The present technical note extends this work, describing in more detail how to construct the carbon fiber motion-detection loops, and how to interface them with a commercially available simultaneous EEG–fMRI system. We hope that the information provided may help those wishing to utilize a motion-detection/correction solution to improve the quality of EEG recorded within an MRI scanner.

Abbott, David F.; Masterton, Richard A. J.; Archer, John S.; Fleming, Steven W.; Warren, Aaron E. L.; Jackson, Graeme D.

2015-01-01

87

T1-weighted MRI for the detection of coronary artery plaque haemorrhage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hyperintense areas in atherosclerotic plaques on pre-contrast T1-weighted MRI have been shown to correlate with intraplaque haemorrhage. We evaluated the presence of T1 hyperintensity in coronary artery plaques in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients and correlated results with multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) findings. Fifteen patients with CAD were included. Plaques detected by MDCT were categorised based on their Hounsfield number. T1-weighted inversion recovery (IR) MRI prepared coronary MRI for the detection of plaque and steady-state free-precession coronary MR-angiography for anatomical correlation was performed. After registration of MDCT and MRI, regions of interest were defined on MDCT-visible plaques and in corresponding vessel segments acquired with MRI. MDCT density and MR signal measurement were performed in each plaque. Forty-three plaques were identified with MDCT. With IR-MRI 5/43 (12%) plaques were hyperintense, 2 of which were non-calcified and 3 mixed. Average signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios of hyperintense plaques were 15.7 and 9.1, compared with 5.6 and 1.2 for hypointense plaques. Hyperintense plaques exhibited a significantly lower CT density than hypointense plaques (63.6 vs. 140.8). There was no correlation of plaque signal intensity with degree of stenosis. T1-weighted IR-MRI may be useful for non-invasive detection and characterisation of intraplaque haemorrhage in coronary artery plaques. (orig.)rtery plaques. (orig.)

88

Comparative study of whole-body MRI and bone scintigraphy for the detection of bone metastases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aim: To assess and compare the diagnostic accuracy of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and bone scintigraphy in the detection of metastases to bone. Material and methods: Forty randomly selected patients with known malignant tumours were prospectively studied using bone scintigraphy and whole-body MRI. Two patients were excluded. Symptoms of bone metastasis were present in 29 (76%) patients and absent in nine (24%). Findings were classified into four categories according to the probability of bone metastasis: (1) negative, (2) probably negative, (3) probably positive, and (4) positive. Diagnostic accuracy was determined according to the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The definitive diagnosis was reached using other imaging techniques, biopsy, or 12 months clinical follow-up. Results: Metastases were present in 18 patients. The sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy were 94, 90, and 92%, respectively, for whole-body MRI and 72, 75, and 74%, respectively, for bone scintigraphy. Diagnostic accuracy measured by the area under the ROC curve was significantly higher for whole-body MRI (96%) than for bone scintigraphy (77%; p<0.05). Interobserver agreement measured by the kappa index was significantly higher for whole-body MRI (0.895) than for bone scintigraphy (0.524; p<0.05). Whole-body MRI detected lesions in tissues other than bone in 17 (45%) patients. Conclusions: Whole-body MRI is more accurate and more objective thMRI is more accurate and more objective than bone scintigraphy for the detection of bone metastases. Whole-body MRI can also detect lesions in tissues other than bone.

89

Management of breast lesions detectable only on MRI; Abklaerung ausschliesslich MRT-detektierbarer Mammalaesionen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Breast MR imaging has become established as the most sensitive imaging method for diagnosing breast cancer. As a result of the increasing examination volume and improved image quality, the number of breast lesions detected only on MRI and requiring further clarification has risen in recent years. According to the S3-guideline 'Diagnosis, Therapy, and Follow-Up of Breast Cancer' as revised in July 2012, institutions performing breast MRI should provide the option of an MRI-guided intervention for clarification. This review describes the indications, methods and results of MRI-guided interventions for the clarification of breast lesions only visible on MRI. Recent guidelines and study results are also addressed and alternative methods and pitfalls are presented. (orig.)

Siegmann-Luz, K.C.; Bahrs, S.D.; Preibsch, H.; Hattermann, V.; Claussen, C.D. [Universitaetsklinikum Tuebingen (Germany). Abt. Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie

2014-01-15

90

Sensitive change detection for remote sensing monitoring of nuclear treaties  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Triggered in part by the advent of high resolution commercial optical satellites, the analysis of open-source satellite imagery has now established itself as an important tool for monitoring nuclear activities throughout the world (Chitumbo et al 2001). Whereas detection of land cover and land use change is a commonplace application in remote sensing, the detection of anthropogenic changes associated with nuclear activities, whether declared or clandestine, presents a difficult challenge. It is necessary to discriminate subtle, often weak signals of interest on a background of irrelevant or uninteresting changes, see e.g. (Canty and Schlittenhardt 2001). In our contribution we focus attention on the use of conventional multispectral earth observation satellite platforms with moderate ground resolution (Landsat TM, ASTER, SPOT) to detect changes over wide areas which are relevant to nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament treaties. The analysis is based upon the multivariate alteration detection (MAD) algorithm proposed by Nielsen et al. 1998 with the inclusion of a recent refinement which puts weight on difficult observations (Nielsen to be published). The multispectral data are pre-processed by orthorectification, illumination angle correction, image registration to sub-pixel accuracy and, where appropriate, wavelet-based panchromatic sharpening. We illustrate the techniques with a number of case studies involving the location of underground nuclear explosions and detection of uranium mining sites. In the former case the change signals are compared with existing seismic data, which include explosion times, locations, yields and depths of burial as well as data about surface collapse (subsidence) phenomena like e.g. crater depth and diameter and test surface-collapse times. The work has been carried out within the framework of the Global Monitoring for Security and Stability Network of Excellence (GMOSS) initiated by the European Commission. Chitumbo, K., Robb, S., Bunney, J. and Lev\\$\\backslash\\$'e, G., IAEA Satellite imagery and the Department of Safeguards, Proceedings of the Symposium on International Safeguards, Vienna 2001 IAEA-SM-367/16/08) on CD-ROM. Canty, M. J., Schlittenhardt, J., Locating the 1998 Indian nuclear tests, Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union 82(3), 2001, pp. 25--29. Nielsen, A. A., Conradsen, K. and Simpson, J. J., Multivariate alteration detection (MAD) and MAF processing in multispectral, bitemporal image data: New approaches to change detection studies, Remote Sens. Environ. 64(1), 1998, pp. 1--19. Nielsen, A. A., Iteratively re-weighted multivariate alteration detection in multi- and hyperspectral data, to be published.

Canty, Morton J.; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

2005-01-01

91

Detection of Myocardial Infarct Region Using PET and MRI Images  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Development of novel myocardial imaging techniques and preclinical testing of cardiovascular radiopharmaceuticals require an in vivo heart model of small animals such as rats. Cardiac disease research relies increasingly on small animal models and non-invasive imaging methods such as PET/CT and MRI. PET is the most reliable non-invasive tool for the identification of myocardial viability and myocardial perfusion. MRI provides high resolution anatomical images that allow accurate evaluation of ventricular structure. However, a direct comparison among multimodal image for characterization of perfusion, viability, and infarct size is lacking. The aim of this study was to improve quantitative assessment of rat myocardial infarct (MI) size using attenuation corrected PET polar map with gated CT image and MRI polarmap

Woo, Sang Keun; Lee, Yong Jin; Lee, Won Ho [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2010-10-15

92

Comparision the value of detecting myocardial viability between low dose dobutamine stress MRI and echocardiography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To Compare the diagnostic value between low dose dobutamine stress transthrotic echocardiography and low dose dobutamine stress MRI in detecting myocardial viability of chronic myocardial infarction. Methods: Rest and low dose dobutamine (5, 10 ?g·kg-1·min-1) stress transthrotic echocardiography and cine-MRI were performed in 30 patients with chronic myocardial infarction. 24 patients underwent successful revascularization and 10 of them underwent another rest cine-MRI study to assess segmental myocardial functional recovery. Left ventricular were divided into 16 segments, the criteria of viability in different techniques is: MRI: dobutamine induced systolic wall thickening was ?2 mm in akinetic or diskinetic segments at rest; Echocardiography: wall motion score reduced at least 1 after dobutamine stress in akinetic or' diskinetic segments at rest. Results: One hundren and eight segments showed wall motion abnormalities of 30 patients, 65 and 56 segments shows positive reaction, 43 and 52 segments shows negativereaction in MRI and echocardiography after dobutamine stress respectively. Kappa value of the two techniques is 0.75, concordance in both techniques is 88%. Twenty-four segments showed functional recovery, 14 segments remained dysfunction 3-6 months after revascularization, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of detecting myocardial viability in chronic myocardial infarction in MRI and echocardiography is 95.8% vs 79. and echocardiography is 95.8% vs 79.2% (P>0.05), 85.7% vs 85.7% (P>0.05), 92.1% vs 81.6% (P>0.05) respectively. The sensitivity and accuracy of MRI is a little higher. Conclusion: The ability of detecting myocardial viability by both low dose dobutamine stress transthrotic echocardiography and low dose dobutamine stress MRI is similer, the sensitivity and accuracy of MRI is a little higher. (authors)

93

MRI in the evaluation of spina bifida patients in the remote period after meningomyelocele repair  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

MRI was performed on 22 patients ranging in age from 3 months to 16 years who had closure of their meningomyelocele shortly after birth. These patients had developed new clinical findings suggestive of spinal cord dysfunction. MRI showed low placement of the spinal cord in all 22. Six patients had lipomas, five had diastematomyelia and six had hydromyelia. Four patients had an obviously dysplastic terminal cord. (orig.)

94

MRI in the evaluation of spina bifida patients in the remote period after meningomyelocele repair  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

MRI was performed on 22 patients ranging in age from 3 months to 16 years who had closure of their meningomyelocele shortly after birth. These patients had developed new clinical findings suggestive of spinal cord dysfunction. MRI showed low placement of the spinal cord in all 22. Six patients had lipomas, five had diastematomyelia and six had hydromyelia. Four patients had an obviously dysplastic terminal cord. (orig.).

Williamson, M.R.; Glasier, C.M.; Chadduck, W.M.; Angtuaco, E.J.C.; Binet, E.F.

1989-07-01

95

A Review on Automated Brain Tumor Detection and Segmentation from MRI of Brain  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tumor segmentation from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data is an important but time consuming manual task performed by medical experts. Automating this process is a challenging task because of the high diversity in the appearance of tumor tissues among different patients and in many cases similarity with the normal tissues. MRI is an advanced medical imaging technique providing rich information about the human soft-tissue anatomy. There are different brain tumor detection...

Roy, Sudipta; Nag, Sanjay; Maitra, Indra Kanta; Bandyopadhyay, Samir Kumar

2013-01-01

96

MRI Brain Tumor Segmentation and Necrosis Detection Using Adaptive Sobolev Snakes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Brain tumor segmentation in brain MRI volumes is used in neurosurgical planning and illness staging. It is important to explore the tumor shape and necrosis regions at different points of time to evaluate the disease progression. We propose an algorithm for semi-automatic tumor segmentation and necrosis detection. Our algorithm consists of three parts: conversion of MRI volume to a probability space based on the on-line learned model, tumor probability density estimation, and adaptive segment...

Nakhmani, Arie; Kikinis, Ron; Tannenbaum, Allen

2014-01-01

97

Remote detection of organics using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is an ideal technique for remote detection of organic emissions. There is an atmospheric window in the 1200 to 800 cm-1 region, which corresponds to the ''fingerprint'' region for organic molecules. Virtually all organic molecules have a unique absorption/emission pattern in the fingerprint region. A remote-passive FTIR relies on ambient emission of infrared energy from organics to obtain spectra. The instrumentation consists of inlet optics, and interferometer, a mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) detector, and an on-board computer. The transportable unit measures 40 cm by 50 cm and has been used to collect data while mounted on a helicopter or ground vehicle. Through the use of this FTIR combined with least squares software, it is possible to analyze qualitatively and quantitatively for organic vapors from either the air or ground. The data presented will include quantitative releases of common organics present in incinerator stacks, hazardous wastes, and illegal laboratories. Data will be presented for pure compounds, mixtures, and target analytes in the presence of interfering compounds. The sensitivity, reproducibility, and the potential of the technique will be discussed. 1 ref., 8 figs., 6 tabs

98

Incident and Traffic-Bottleneck Detection Algorithm in High-Resolution Remote Sensing Imagery  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One of the most important methods to solve traffic congestion is to detect the incident state of a roadway. This paper describes the development of a method for road traffic monitoring aimed at the acquisition and analysis of remote sensing imagery. We propose a strategy for road extraction, vehicle detection and incident detection from remote sensing imagery using techniques based on neural networks, Radon transform for angle detection and traffic-flow measurements. Traffic-bottleneck detect...

Kahaki, S. M. M.; Md. Jan Nordin; Amir Hossein Ashtari

2012-01-01

99

Fast spin echo MRI and bone scintigraphy in the detection of skeletal metastases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Twenty-one patients with a suspicion of carcinomatous bone metastases were evaluated with both conventional T1 weighted (T1w), T2 weighted (T2w) and fast T2w SE (FSE) sequences (thoraco-lumbar spine and pelvis) and whole body bone scintigraphy. Conventional and fast T2w SE sequences detected the same number of lesions while bone scintigraphy detected only 70% of the lesions seen on MRI. However, more importantly, in 11 of the 21 patients bone scintigraphy detected lesions outside the MR field of view, lying in the ribs, skull, scapulae and extremities and in 4 of them, MRI was negative. Our results suggest first that fast SE MRI can replace conventional SE MRI when looking for carcinomatous bone metastases in the axial skeleton, with the advantage of a four to six times reduced acquisition time for fast T2w sequences. However, the limited field of view still limits the usefulness of MRI and whole body bone scintigraphy remains the screening modality for bone metastases. Fast MRI plays an important complementary role. (orig.)

100

Preoperative detection of colorectal liver metastases in fatty liver: MDCT or MRI?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Objective: To compare the diagnostic value of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the preoperative detection of colorectal liver metastases in diffuse fatty infiltration of the liver, associated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Materials and methods: Twenty preoperative tri-phasic MDCT (4-64-row, Siemens) and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (1.5 T or 3.0 T, Siemens) examinations of patients with colorectal cancer and liver metastases in diffuse steatosis were retrospectively evaluated. All patients underwent surgical resection for liver metastases (time interval 1-60 days). The amount of fatty infiltration of the liver was determined histopathologically by semi-quantitative percent-wise estimation and ranged from 25 to 75%. Results: Overall, 51 metastases were found by histopathology of the resected liver segments/lobes. The size of the metastases ranged from 0.4 to 13 cm, with 18 (35%) being up to 1 cm in diameter. In the overall rating, MDCT detected 33/51 lesions (65%), and MRI 45/51 (88%). For lesions up to 1 cm, MDCT detected only 2/18 (11%) and MRI 12/18 (66%). One false positive lesion was detected by MDCT. Statistical analysis showed that MRI is markedly superior to MDCT, with a statistically significant difference (p < .001), particularly for the detection of small lesions ({<=}1 cm; p < .004). There was no significant difference between the two modalities in the detection of lesions > 1 cm. Conclusion: For the detection of colorectal liver metastases after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and consecutive diffuse fatty infiltration of the liver, MRI is superior to MDCT, especially for the detection of small lesions.

Kulemann, Vanessa, E-mail: vanessa.kulemann@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Schima, Wolfgang [KH Goettlicher Heiland, Vienna (Austria); Tamandl, Dietmar; Kaczirek, Klaus; Gruenberger, Thomas [Department of Surgery, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Wrba, Friedrich [Department of Pathology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Weber, Michael; Ba-Ssalamah, Ahmed [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria)

2011-08-15

 
 
 
 
101

Bladder cancer: utility of MRI in detection of occult muscle-invasive disease  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Background. The presence of muscularis propria invasion by bladder cancer is a key factor in prognosis and treatment decisions, although may be missed by biopsy due to sampling error. MRI has shown potential for detection of muscle invasion but has not specifically been evaluated for this purpose in the setting of bladder cancer patients without evidence of muscle invasion on initial biopsy. Purpose. To evaluate the role of MRI in detection of muscularis propria invasion by bladder cancer following a pathologic diagnosis of non-invasive tumor. Material and Methods. This retrospective study included 23 patients who underwent pelvic MRI following a pathologic diagnosis of bladder cancer without muscularis propria invasion and in whom additional histologic evaluation was performed following MRI. Two radiologists in consensus reviewed T2-weighted images to identify those cases suspicious for muscle invasion on MRI. The radiologists identified whether cases suspicious for invasion demonstrated disruption of the T2-hypointense muscularis layer of the bladder wall, peri-vesical fat stranding, and peri-vesical soft tissue nodularity. Findings were compared with pathologic results obtained after MRI. Results. Suspicion was raised for muscle invasion in eight of 23 cases, four of which exhibited invasion on follow-up pathology. No case without suspicion on MRI exhibited invasion on follow-up pathology. Therefore, sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 79%, respectively. Among individual findings, muscularis disruption on T2WI exhibited sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 79%, peri-vesical fat stranding exhibited sensitivity and specificity of 50% and 84%, and peri-vesical soft tissue nodularity exhibited sensitivity and specificity of 25% and 100%. Conclusion. MRI demonstrated high sensitivity for detection of muscle invasion in cases of bladder cancer without invasion on initial histologic assessment. Muscularis disruption on T2WI appeared to exhibit a better combination of sensitivity and specificity than did peri-vesical changes.

Rosenkrantz, Andrew B. [Dept. of Radiology, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York (United States)], E-mail: Andrew.rosenkrantz@nyumc.org; Mussi, Thais C. [Dept. of Radiology, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York (United States); Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Melamed, Jonathan [Dept. of Pathology, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York (United States); Taneja, Samir S.; Huang, William C. [Dept. of Urology, Div. of Urologic Oncology, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York (United States)

2012-07-15

102

Bladder cancer: utility of MRI in detection of occult muscle-invasive disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background. The presence of muscularis propria invasion by bladder cancer is a key factor in prognosis and treatment decisions, although may be missed by biopsy due to sampling error. MRI has shown potential for detection of muscle invasion but has not specifically been evaluated for this purpose in the setting of bladder cancer patients without evidence of muscle invasion on initial biopsy. Purpose. To evaluate the role of MRI in detection of muscularis propria invasion by bladder cancer following a pathologic diagnosis of non-invasive tumor. Material and Methods. This retrospective study included 23 patients who underwent pelvic MRI following a pathologic diagnosis of bladder cancer without muscularis propria invasion and in whom additional histologic evaluation was performed following MRI. Two radiologists in consensus reviewed T2-weighted images to identify those cases suspicious for muscle invasion on MRI. The radiologists identified whether cases suspicious for invasion demonstrated disruption of the T2-hypointense muscularis layer of the bladder wall, peri-vesical fat stranding, and peri-vesical soft tissue nodularity. Findings were compared with pathologic results obtained after MRI. Results. Suspicion was raised for muscle invasion in eight of 23 cases, four of which exhibited invasion on follow-up pathology. No case without suspicion on MRI exhibited invasion on follow-up pathology. Therefore, sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 79%, respectively. Amoncity were 100% and 79%, respectively. Among individual findings, muscularis disruption on T2WI exhibited sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 79%, peri-vesical fat stranding exhibited sensitivity and specificity of 50% and 84%, and peri-vesical soft tissue nodularity exhibited sensitivity and specificity of 25% and 100%. Conclusion. MRI demonstrated high sensitivity for detection of muscle invasion in cases of bladder cancer without invasion on initial histologic assessment. Muscularis disruption on T2WI appeared to exhibit a better combination of sensitivity and specificity than did peri-vesical changes

103

Vehicle Accident Automatic Detection and Remote Alarm Device  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Rapid growth of  technology and infrastructure has made our lives more easy . The advent of technology has also increased the traffic hazards and the  road  accident take place frequently which causes huge loss of life and property because of the poor emergency facilities. Our project will provide an optimum solution to this draw back. An accelerometer can be used in a car alarm application so that dangerous driving can be detected . It can be used as a crash or rollover detector of the vehicle during and after a crash. With signals from an accelerometer, a severe accident can be recognized. According to this project when a vehicle meets with an accident immediately Vibration sensor will detect the signal or if a car rolls over, an Micro electro mechanical system(MEMS sensor will detects the signal and sends it to ARM controller. Microcontroller sends the alert message through the GSM MODEM including the location to police control room or a rescue team. So the police can immediately trace the location through the GPS MODEM, after receiving the information. Then after conforming the location necessary action will be taken. If the person meets with a small accident or if there is no serious threat to anyone`s life, then the alert message can be terminated by the driver by a switch provided in order to avoid wasting the valuable time of the medical rescue team. This paper is useful in detecting the accident precisely by means of both vibration sensor and Micro electro Mechanical system(MEMS or accelerometer. As there is a scope for improvement and as a future implementation we can add a wireless webcam for capturing the images which will help in providing driver`s assistance. Keywords - Accident ,Automatic Detection, Micro electro Mechanical system , Remote Alarm Device, Vehicle

Varsha Goud

2012-06-01

104

Asparagine in plums detected by CEST-MRI.  

Science.gov (United States)

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) relies on the topological distribution of the intense water NMR signal and may be used to report about changes in the internal structures of fruits associated to ripening, storing, pathogen infection. Herein the use of CEST-MRI (chemical exchange saturation transfer) is introduced to show that in addition to structural information, insights into the presence in the fruits of specific chemicals may be gained. Asparagine is present in plums at relatively high concentration (?10-20mM) and owns two amide protons (at 2.1 and 2.8ppm down field from water) in slow exchange with water protons. By irradiating the amide resonances with a proper rf-field it is possible to transfer saturated magnetization to the "bulk" water signal. The attained change in signal intensity reflects the extent of prototropic exchange between amide and water protons that is modulated by the local pH. PMID:25236190

Podda, Rachele; Delli Castelli, Daniela; Digilio, Giuseppe; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Aime, Silvio

2015-02-15

105

Remote-excitation and remote-detection of single quantum dot using propagating surface plasmons on silver nanowire  

CERN Document Server

Using propagating surface plasmons (SPs) on silver nanowire (NW), we demonstrate that focused laser light at the end of silver nanowire can excite single quantum dot (QD) microns away from the excitation spot. The QD-NW interaction allows the excited QD convert part of its energy into propagating SPs which then can be detected at the remote sites. Simultaneous multi-QDs remote-excitation and detection are also realized. Furthermore, the tight confinement of propagating SPs around the NW surface enables selective excitation of QDs very close in space, which cannot be realized under conventional excitation condition. This remote excitation and detection approach may find applications in optical imaging and sensing of chemical and biological systems.

Li, Qiang; Xu, Hong-Xing

2014-01-01

106

REMOTE DETECTION OF RADIOACTIVE PLUMES USING MILLIMETER WAVE TECHNOLOGY  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel, a common method for manufacturing weapons-grade special nuclear materials, is accompanied by the release of fi ssion products trapped within the fuel. One of these fi ssion products is a radioactive isotope of Krypton (Kr-85); a pure ?- emitter with a half-life of 10.72 years. Due to its chemical neutrality and relatively long half life, nearly all of the Kr-85 is released into the surrounding air during reprocessing, resulting in a concentration of Kr-85 near the source that is several orders of magnitude higher than the typical background (atmospheric) concentrations. This high concentration of Kr-85 is accompanied by a proportionately high increase in air ionization due to the release of beta radiation from Kr-85 decay. Millimeter wave (MMW) sensing technology can be used to detect the presence of Kr-85 induced plumes since a high concentration of ions in the air increases the radar cross section due to a combination of atmospheric phenomena. Possible applications for this technology include the remote sensing of reprocessing activities across national borders bolstering global anti-proliferation initiatives. The feasibility of using MMW radar technology to uniquely detect the presence of Kr-85 can be tested using commercial ion generators or sealed radioactive sources in the laboratory. In this paper we describe our work to derive an ion dispersion model that will describe the spatial distribution of ions from Kr-85 and other common lab sources. The types and energies of radiation emitted by isotopes Co-60 and Cs-137 were researched, and these parameters were incorporated into these dispersion models. Our results can be compared with the results of MMW detection experiments in order to quantify the relationship between radar cross section and air ionization as well as to further calibrate the MMW detection equipment.

Barnowski, R.; Chien; H.; Gopalsami, N.

2009-01-01

107

Whole body MRI for detecting metastatic bone tumor. Comparison with bone scintigrams  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of whole body MRI (WB-MRI [magnetic resonance imaging]) and bone scintigram (BS) at detecting bone metastasis. WB-MRI was performed on 16 patients for detecting bone metastasis (6 breast carcinoma, 7 prostatic carcinoma, 1 renal cell carcinoma [RCC], 1 hepatocellular carcinoma [HCC], and 1 primary unknown). BS was also performed in all cases. Patients were placed on a table top extender (Philips Medical Systems). The maximal longitudinal field of view (FOV) was 200 cm. At first, the total spine was imaged in the sagittal plane with a three-station approach for two image sets (fast spin-echo [SE] T1-weighted images [T1WI] and short tau inversion recovery [STIR] images). The whole body was then imaged in the coronal plane with a seven-station approach for two image sets (fast field echo [FFE] T1WI and STIR). Total examination time, including patient positioning, was within 40 min. Three independent radiologists interpreted the imaging data. WB-MRI identified 5 cases of 24 lesions as bone metastasis, while BS identified 3 cases of 25 lesions. Concordance between WB-MRI and BS was seen in 3 cases of 22 lesions (81%). For two cases of 2 lesions, which were identified only with WB-MRI, the lesions were located in the sacrum and thoracic spine. For one case of 3 lesions, which was identified only with BS, the lesions were located in the skull and rib. WB-MRI was an excellent method foand rib. WB-MRI was an excellent method for screening bone metastasis, especially the vertebral body. (author)

108

MRI for troubleshooting detection of prostate cancer; MRT zur Problemloesung beim Nachweis des Prostatakarzinoms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in males. Men aged 50 and older are recommended to undergo an annual digital rectal examination (DRE) and determination of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in serum for early detection. However, prostate biopsies guided by transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) come up negative for cancer in many patients despite having PSA levels above 4 ng/ml. T2-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is able to represent the prostate including the surrounding anatomy and depict suspicious areas of low intensity within a high-intensity peripheral zone. MRI has a higher sensitivity for detecting prostate carcinomas than DRE and TRUS in patients having an elevated PSA value and a negative core biopsy. However, its specificity is poor since other abnormalities such as prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), prostatitis, scars, or haemmorrhage have a similar MRI appearance. The use of additional techniques such as MR spectroscopy and contrast-enhanced dynamic MRI improves sensitivity, but in particular it improves the specificity of tumor detection. Newly developed biopsy devices enable the performance of targeted biopsies in areas that appear suspicious in the MRI. (orig.)

Beyersdorff, D.; Hamm, B. [Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Charite Mitte (Germany)

2005-06-01

109

Comparison of detection pattern of HCC by ferumoxide-enhanced MRI and intratumoral blood flow pattern  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We compared the detection rate and pattern of ferumoxide-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (Fe-MRI) with the intratumoral blood flow pattern determined by CT angiography (CTA) and CT portography (CTAP) in 124 nodes (34 cases) diagnosed as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or borderline HCC, based on the clinical course. Sequences to obtain a T1-weighted images (T1W), proton density-weighted images (PDW), T2-weighted images (T2W), T2*-weighted images (T2*W) were used in Fe-MRI. In nodes shown to be hypervascular on CTA, the detection rate by Fe-MRI was 69.7%. In nodes shown to be avascular by CTAP, the detection rate by Fe-MRI was 67.3%. These rates were higher than with other flow patterns. In nodes showing high signal intensity (HSI) on any sequences, arterial blood flow was increased and portal blood flow decreased in comparison with nodes without high signal intensity. All nodes showing HSI, both on Fe-MRI T2W and T2*W, were hypervascular on CTA, and portal blood flow was absent on CTAP. Nodes showing HSI on both T2*W and T2W were considered to have greater arterial blood flow and decreased portal blood flow compared with nodes appearing as HSI on T2*W, but only as iso- or low signal intensity on T2W (Mann-Whitney U-test; p<0.05). (author)

Itou, Naoki; Kotake, Fumio [Tokyo Medical Coll., Ami, Ibaraki (Japan). Kasumigaura Hospital; Saitou, Kazuhiro; Abe, Kimihiko

2000-08-01

110

Comparison of detection pattern of HCC by ferumoxide-enhanced MRI and intratumoral blood flow pattern  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We compared the detection rate and pattern of ferumoxide-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (Fe-MRI) with the intratumoral blood flow pattern determined by CT angiography (CTA) and CT portography (CTAP) in 124 nodes (34 cases) diagnosed as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or borderline HCC, based on the clinical course. Sequences to obtain a T1-weighted images (T1W), proton density-weighted images (PDW), T2-weighted images (T2W), T2*-weighted images (T2*W) were used in Fe-MRI. In nodes shown to be hypervascular on CTA, the detection rate by Fe-MRI was 69.7%. In nodes shown to be avascular by CTAP, the detection rate by Fe-MRI was 67.3%. These rates were higher than with other flow patterns. In nodes showing high signal intensity (HSI) on any sequences, arterial blood flow was increased and portal blood flow decreased in comparison with nodes without high signal intensity. All nodes showing HSI, both on Fe-MRI T2W and T2*W, were hypervascular on CTA, and portal blood flow was absent on CTAP. Nodes showing HSI on both T2*W and T2W were considered to have greater arterial blood flow and decreased portal blood flow compared with nodes appearing as HSI on T2*W, but only as iso- or low signal intensity on T2W (Mann-Whitney U-test; p<0.05). (author)

111

Detection of focal epileptic activity using combined simultaneous electroencephalogram-functional MRI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To observe the brain activation of interictal epiletiform discharges (IEDs) and to localize the epileptogenic foci of epilepsy. Methods: The electroencephalogram (EEG) and functional MRI data of 12 focal epileptic patients were acquired using a combination of EEG and functional MRI simultaneously. The IEDs onset time detected with EEG were set as the time parameters in an event- related paradigm of functional MRI analysis. The spatial and temporal characters of IEDs activation were analyzed in detail. In order to confirm the consistency of this method, all patients were scanned repeatedly and the results were correlated with clinical evaluation. Results: Of the 12 patients, valid data from EEG- fMRI were obtained from 10 patients in a total of 18 sessions. Compared with the structural foci, the epileptic foci localization results of eleven sessions were good, five sessions were fairly good, and two sessions were poor. The results obtained from six patients in two separate sessions were concordant, respectively. Moreover, thalamic activation was detected in ten sessions, cerebellar activation was detected in all sessions, and the deactivation was found in the default mode loci in nine sessions. Conclusion: The method of performing EEG and fMRI simultaneously can potentially be a useful tool in epilepsy research. (authors)

112

SISCOM technique with a variable Z score improves detectability of focal cortical dysplasia. A comparative study with MRI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is one of the causes of epilepsy, but its diagnosis by MRI remains difficult. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of subtraction ictal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) coregistered to MRI (SISCOM) and MRI to detect the epileptogenic focus in patients with FCD. MRI and SISCOM findings of 20 patients with pathologically proven FCD were retrospectively reviewed. MRI was visually assessed for detecting FCD. SISCOM was evaluated by a new method selecting a higher standard deviation (Z score) area as the epileptogenic focus. We scored the detectability in both SISCOM and MRI while referring to the pathology. Sixteen patients agreed with pathology on SISCOM and 14 patients on MRI. Although MRI could not point out foci in two cases of FCD type I, SISCOM could do so in both of them. A combined diagnosis of SISCOM and MRI agreed with the pathology in 18 patients. Narrowing the target by elevating the Z score on SISCOM seems to be an appropriate method to detect the foci without the need for expertise of radiologists. We recommend this combined method of SISCOM and MRI for presurgical evaluation in patients with FCD. (author)

113

Ultra-low-field MRI for the detection of liquid explosives  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recently it has become both possible and practical to use magnetic resonance (MR) at magnetic fields in the range from ?T to mT, the so-called ultra-low-field (ULF) regime. SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) sensor technology allows for ultra-sensitive detection while pulsed pre-polarizing fields greatly enhance the signal. The instrumentation allows for unprecedented flexibility in signal acquisition sequences and simplified MRI instrumentation. Here we present results for a new application of ULF MRI and relaxometry for the detection and characterization of liquids. We briefly describe the motivation and advantages of the ULF MR approach, and present recent results from a seven-channel ULF MRI/relaxometer system constructed to non-invasively inspect liquids at a security checkpoint for the presence of hazardous material. The instrument was deployed at the Albuquerque International Airport in December 2008, and results from that endeavor are also presented.

114

Detection and Demarcation of Tumor using Vector Quantization in MRI images  

CERN Document Server

Segmenting a MRI images into homogeneous texture regions representing disparate tissue types is often a useful preprocessing step in the computer-assisted detection of breast cancer. That is why we proposed new algorithm to detect cancer in mammogram breast cancer images. In this paper we proposed segmentation using vector quantization technique. Here we used Linde Buzo-Gray algorithm (LBG) for segmentation of MRI images. Initially a codebook of size 128 was generated for MRI images. These code vectors were further clustered in 8 clusters using same LBG algorithm. These 8 images were displayed as a result. This approach does not leads to over segmentation or under segmentation. For the comparison purpose we displayed results of watershed segmentation and Entropy using Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix along with this method.

Kekre, H B; Gharge, Saylee M

2010-01-01

115

Detection of recurrent rectal cancer with CT, MRI and PET/CT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) all have the potential to directly visualize local and distant relapse of colorectal cancer (CRC). Nevertheless, the role of diagnostic imaging for routine follow-up of CRC patients remains controversial. Although MRI and PET have advantages over CT in the detection of local recurrence, until now only a few surveillance programs recommend the use of annual CT for routine follow-up. The objective of this review is to elucidate the current status of diagnostic imaging for the detection of recurrent rectal cancer based on the recent literature and our own experience. Furthermore, an insight into contemporary surveillance programs and an outlook concerning a novel technical approach to moving-table MRI at 1.5 Tesla for staging purposes are given. (orig.)

116

Magnetic resonance imaging goes postmortem: noninvasive detection and assessment of myocardial infarction by postmortem MRI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To investigate the performance of postmortem magnetic resonance imaging (pmMRI) in identification and characterization of lethal myocardial infarction in a non-invasive manner on human corpses. Before forensic autopsy, 20 human forensic corpses were examined on a 1.5-T system for the presence of myocardial infarction. Short axis, transversal and longitudinal long axis images (T1-weighted; T2-weighted; PD-weighted) were acquired in situ. In subsequent autopsy, the section technique was adapted to short axis images. Histological investigations were conducted to confirm autopsy and/or radiological diagnoses. Nineteen myocardial lesions were detected and age staged with pmMRI, of which 13 were histologically confirmed (chronic, subacute and acute). Six lesions interpreted as peracute by pmMRI showed no macroscopic or histological finding. Five of the six peracute lesions correlated well to coronary pathology, and one case displayed a severe hypertrophic alteration. pmMRI reliably demonstrates chronic, subacute and acute myocardial infarction in situ. In peracute cases pmMRI may display ischemic lesions undetectable at autopsy and routine histology. pmMRI has the potential to substantiate autopsy and to counteract the loss of reliable information on causes of death due to the recent disappearance of the clinical autopsy. (orig.)

117

Prospective, intraindividual comparison of MRI versus MDCT for endoleak detection after endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study compares MRI and MDCT for endoleak detection after endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms (EVAR). Forty-three patients with previous EVAR underwent both MRI (2D T1-FFE unenhanced and contrast-enhanced; 3D triphasic contrast-enhanced) and 16-slice MDCT (unenhanced and biphasic contrast-enhanced) within 1 week of each other for endoleak detection. MRI was performed by using a high-relaxivity contrast medium (gadobenate dimeglumine, MultiHance registered). Two blinded, independent observers evaluated MRI and MDCT separately. Consensus reading of MRI and MDCT studies was defined as reference standard. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were calculated and Cohen's k statistics were used to estimate agreement between readers. Twenty endoleaks were detected in 18 patients at consensus reading (12 type II and 8 indeterminate endoleaks). Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for endoleak detection were 100%, 92%, and 96%, respectively, for reader 1 (95%, 81%, 87% for reader 2) for MRI and 55%, 100%, and 80% for reader 1 (60%, 100%, 82% for reader 2) for MDCT. Interobserver agreement was excellent for MDCT (k = 0.96) and good for MRI (k = 0.81). MRI with the use of a high-relaxivity contrast agent is significantly superior in the detection of endoleaks after EVAR compared with MDCT. MRI may therefore become the preferred technique for patient follow-up after EVAR. (orig.)

Alerci, Mario; Wyttenbach, Rolf [Ospedale San Giovanni Bellinzona (EOC), Department of Radiology, Bellinzona (Switzerland); Oberson, Michel; Gallino, Augusto [Ospedale San Giovanni Bellinzona (EOC), Department of Cardiology, Bellinzona (Switzerland); Fogliata, Antonella [Ospedale San Giovanni Bellinzona (EOC), Department of Medical Physics, Bellinzona (Switzerland); Vock, Peter [Inselspital, University of Berne, Department of Radiology, Berne (Switzerland)

2009-05-15

118

Utility of vaginal and rectal contrast medium in MRI for the detection of deep pelvic endometriosis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To study the sensitivity of MRI performed utilising vaginal and rectal opacification with ultrasound gel in the detection of deep pelvic endometriosis. This was a prospective monocentric study. All patients evaluated by the gynaecologist for pelvic pain, endometriosis or infertility were included. Axial and sagittal T2-weighted images were performed both with and without vaginal and rectal opacification with ultrasound gel. Three radiologists, all blinded, interpreted the images with a minimum of 15 days between the two readings. MRI performance with and without vaginal and rectal opacification was evaluated by calculating sensitivity, specificity and both positive and negative predictive values. Seventy-eight patients were included. Among these, 31 patients had deep pelvic endometriosis of which 24 were confirmed by laparoscopy. Seventy-six locations of deep pelvic endometriosis were discovered on MRI. For the three reviewers there was a significant improvement in sensitivity between pre- and post-contrast MRI (p < 0.0002). Opacification of the vagina and rectum significantly improved the sensitivity of MRI for the detection of deep pelvic endometriosis by expanding the vagina and rectum, thus allowing better delineation of the pelvic organs. This was especially apparent for lesions localised to the vagina and rectovaginal septum. (orig.)

Chassang, M.; Novellas, S.; Bloch-Marcotte, C.; Chevallier, P. [Hopital Archet 2, Service d' Imagerie Diagnostique et Interventionnelle, Centre Hospitalier Regional et Universitaire de Nice, 151 route de Saint Antoine de Ginestiere, B.P. 3079, Nice Cedex 3 (France); Delotte, J.; Bongain, A. [Hopital Archet 2, Service de Gynecologie-Obstetrique, Centre Hospitalier Regional et Universitaire de Nice, 151 route de Saint Antoine de Ginestiere, B.P. 3079, Nice Cedex 3 (France); Toullalan, O. [Hopital de Cannes, Service de Gynecologie, 15 avenue des Broussailles, B.P. 264, Cannes Cedex (France)

2010-04-15

119

Involvement patterns in myotilinopathy and desminopathy detected by a novel neuromuscular whole-body MRI protocol  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Whole-body MRI (WB-MRI) has been successfully applied for oncologic and cardiovascular diagnostics, whereas imaging in myopathies usually employs dedicated protocols restricted to areas of specific interest. In this study, we propose a comprehensive neuromuscular WB-MRI protocol. Eighteen patients with degenerative and inflammatory muscle diseases were included. Whole-body imaging was performed on a 1.5-T MR system using parallel imaging. Examination time was 41:26 min. Coronal and axial T1-weighted and coronal short tau inversion recovery (STIR) sequences of the whole body were acquired. Images were analysed by two radiologists. With this protocol we could detect characteristic involvement patterns in different myofibrillar myopathies (MFMs): Patients with myotilinopathy showed frequent involvement of the rhomboid muscles (4/5), the erector spinae (5/5), the biceps femoris and the semimembranosus (5/5), while the semitendinosus was relatively spared (2/5). In contrast, in desminopathy patients the ilipsoas (3/4), the sartorius, (3/4), the gracilis (3/4) and the semitendinosus (3/4) were frequently involved, while the semimembranosus was spared (1/4). As shown for MFMs, WB-MRI is an appropriate modality to detect fatty infiltration and oedema in skeletal muscles. WB-MRI could be more useful than dedicated examinations for differential diagnosis, muscle biopsy planning and noninvasive follow-up examinations. (orig.)

Schramm, Nicolai; Born, Christine; Weckbach, Sabine; Reiser, Maximilian F. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Reilich, Peter; Walter, Maggie C. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Friedrich-Baur-Institute, Department of Neurology, Munich (Germany)

2008-12-15

120

MRI for the detection of ureteral opening and ipsilateral kidney in children with single ectopic ureter  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To assess the usefulness of MRI in the detection of a single ectopic ureteral opening and the location and dysplastic change of ipsilateral kidney. Nine patients (mean age; 4.8 years, M:F=3:6) in whom a single ectopic ureter was suspected clinically and sonographically underwent conventional radiologic studies (IVP, VCUG, 99mTc-DM-SA scan, as well as US) and MRI. We evaluated images of the point of the ectopic ureteral opening and the location and dysplastic or hydronephrotic change of the ipsilateral kidney, and compared those findings with the endoscopic, surgical, and pathological findings. Eight patients had a unilateral single ectopic ureter and one had bilateral lesions. Seven normally positioned kidneys in six patients showed dysplastic (n=3) or hydronephrotic (n=4) change. In two patients an ectopic dysplastic kidney was located in the pelvis and one had ipsilateral renal agenesis. Conventional radiologic studies failed to reveal two ectopic dysplastic kidneys, one renal agenesis, and eight ectopic ureteral openings. In all patients, MRI clearly demonstrated the location of the kidney and ectopic ureteral opening, and dysplastic or hydronephrotic change of the kidney, and in one patient, uterine duplication. Except in two patients whose ectopic ureteral opening was not found on endoscopy, MRI findings were concordant with endoscopic and surgical findings. MRI was useful for the detection of a single ectopic ureteral opening and for demonstrating the location and dysplastic change of ipsilateral kidney.

Kim, Myung Joon; Lim, Joon Seok; Yoon, Choon Sik; Han, Sang Won [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1999-06-01

 
 
 
 
121

MRI for the detection of ureteral opening and ipsilateral kidney in children with single ectopic ureter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To assess the usefulness of MRI in the detection of a single ectopic ureteral opening and the location and dysplastic change of ipsilateral kidney. Nine patients (mean age; 4.8 years, M:F=3:6) in whom a single ectopic ureter was suspected clinically and sonographically underwent conventional radiologic studies (IVP, VCUG, 99mTc-DM-SA scan, as well as US) and MRI. We evaluated images of the point of the ectopic ureteral opening and the location and dysplastic or hydronephrotic change of the ipsilateral kidney, and compared those findings with the endoscopic, surgical, and pathological findings. Eight patients had a unilateral single ectopic ureter and one had bilateral lesions. Seven normally positioned kidneys in six patients showed dysplastic (n=3) or hydronephrotic (n=4) change. In two patients an ectopic dysplastic kidney was located in the pelvis and one had ipsilateral renal agenesis. Conventional radiologic studies failed to reveal two ectopic dysplastic kidneys, one renal agenesis, and eight ectopic ureteral openings. In all patients, MRI clearly demonstrated the location of the kidney and ectopic ureteral opening, and dysplastic or hydronephrotic change of the kidney, and in one patient, uterine duplication. Except in two patients whose ectopic ureteral opening was not found on endoscopy, MRI findings were concordant with endoscopic and surgical findings. MRI was useful for the detection of a single ectopic ureteral opening and for demonstrating the location aening and for demonstrating the location and dysplastic change of ipsilateral kidney

122

Utility of vaginal and rectal contrast medium in MRI for the detection of deep pelvic endometriosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To study the sensitivity of MRI performed utilising vaginal and rectal opacification with ultrasound gel in the detection of deep pelvic endometriosis. This was a prospective monocentric study. All patients evaluated by the gynaecologist for pelvic pain, endometriosis or infertility were included. Axial and sagittal T2-weighted images were performed both with and without vaginal and rectal opacification with ultrasound gel. Three radiologists, all blinded, interpreted the images with a minimum of 15 days between the two readings. MRI performance with and without vaginal and rectal opacification was evaluated by calculating sensitivity, specificity and both positive and negative predictive values. Seventy-eight patients were included. Among these, 31 patients had deep pelvic endometriosis of which 24 were confirmed by laparoscopy. Seventy-six locations of deep pelvic endometriosis were discovered on MRI. For the three reviewers there was a significant improvement in sensitivity between pre- and post-contrast MRI (p < 0.0002). Opacification of the vagina and rectum significantly improved the sensitivity of MRI for the detection of deep pelvic endometriosis by expanding the vagina and rectum, thus allowing better delineation of the pelvic organs. This was especially apparent for lesions localised to the vagina and rectovaginal septum. (orig.)

123

The accuracy of MRI in the detection of Lumbar Disc Containment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background MRI has proven to be an extremely valuable tool in the assessment of normal and pathological spinal anatomy. Accordingly, it is commonly used to assess containment of discal material by the outer fibers of the anulus fibrosus and posterior longitudinal ligaments. Determination of such containment is important to determine candidacy for intradiscal techniques and has prognostic significance. The accuracy of MRI in detecting containment has been insufficiently documented. Methods The MRI's of fifty consecutive patients undergoing open lumbar microdiscectomy were prospectively evaluated for disc containment by a neuroradiologist and senior spinal surgeon using criteria available in the literature and the classification of Macnab/McCulloch. An independent surgeon then performed the surgery and documented the actual containment status using the same methods. Statistical evaluation of accuracy was undertaken. Results MRI was found to be 72% sensitive, 68% specific, and 70% accurate in detecting containment status of lumbar herniated discs. Conclusion MRI may be inaccurate in assessing containment status of lumbar disc herniations in 30% of cases. Given the importance of containment for patient selection for indirect discectomy techniques and intradiscal therapies, coupled with prognostic significance; other methods to assess containment should be employed to assess containment when such alternative interventions are being considered.

Weiner Bradley K

2008-10-01

124

Diagnostic value of CT and MRI in the detection of paratracheal lymph node metastasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The presence of paratracheal lymph node (PTLN) metastasis harbours a worse prognosis. Uniform guidelines on PTLN dissection are missing, mainly because of the value of diagnostic techniques for the detection of PTLN metastasis are not clear. This study is performed to identify CT and MRI criteria for detection of PTLN metastasis. 149 patients who underwent laryngectomy and a PTLN dissection between 1990 and 2010 were included. Patient, tumour, treatment and follow up data were collected. On computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) different test criteria were examined. Considering PTLN with a maximal axial diameter of ?5 mm as positive predicts PTLN metastasis best: sensitivity and specificity 70% and 36% (CT) and 50% and 71% (MRI). Other risk factors for PTLN metastasis were subglottic extension of the tumour (sensitivity is 45%) and clinical positive neck status (sensitivity is 59%). When at least one of these risk factors was present and the status of PTLN was considered positive, a high sensitivity (90% for CT and 100% for MRI) and a lower specificity (19% for CT and 32% for MRI) was found. If at least one of the risk factors such as subglottic extension, clinical positive neck and PTLN with a maximal axial diameter of ?5 mm is present, sensitivity and negative predictive value for the prediction of PTLN metastasis are high, but the specificity is low. These risk factors can be used to select laryngectomy patients for PTLN dissection. PMID:22226512

Peters, Thomas T A; Castelijns, Jonas A; Ljumanovic, Redina; Witte, Birgit I; Leemans, C René; de Bree, Remco

2012-05-01

125

Comparison of MRI (including SS SE-EPI and SPIO-enhanced MRI) and FDG-PET/CT for the detection of colorectal liver metastases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fluoro-18-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), including unenhanced single-shot spin-echo echo planar imaging (SS SE-EPI) and small paramagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) enhancement, were compared prospectively for detecting colorectal liver metastases. Twenty-four consecutive patients suspected for metastases underwent MRI and FDG-PET/CT. Fourteen patients (58%) had previously received chemotherapy, including seven patients whose chemotherapy was still continuing to within 1 month of the PET/CT study. The mean interval between PET/CT and MRI was 10.2±5.2 days. Histopathology (n=18) or follow-up imaging (n=6) were used as reference. Seventy-seven metastases were detected. In nine patients, MRI and PET/CT gave concordant results. Sensitivities for unenhanced SS SE-EPI, MRI without SS SE-EPI and FDG-PET/CT were, respectively, 100% (p=9 x 10-10 vs PET, p=8 x 10-3 vs MRI without SS SE-EPI), 90% (p=2 x 10-7 vs PET) and 60%. PET/CT sensitivity dropped significantly with decreasing size, from 100% in lesions larger than 20 mm (identical to MRI), over 54% in lesions between 10 and 20 mm (p=3 x 105 versus unenhanced SS SE-EPI), to 32% in lesions under 10 mm (p=6 x 10-5 versus unenhanced SS SE-EPI). Positive predictive value of PET was 100% (identical to MRI). MRI, particularly unenhanced SS SE-EPI, has good sensitivity and positive predictive value for divity and positive predictive value for detecting liver metastases from colorectal carcinoma. Its sensitivity is better than that of FDG-PET/CT, especially for small lesions. (orig.)

126

Natural gas leaks detection by spatial-resolvable-CW-laser-based remote monitoring  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The opportunities of spatial-resolvable atmosphere monitoring and atmospheric pollutions remote chemical analysis based on the CW-laser radiants are investigated. A frequency-responsive processing peculiarities of atmosphere remote sensing signals are described. Application of the mentioned approach for the limited hydrocarbons remote detection and sensing is discussed. The requirements to the CW-LIDAR receiving and radiating systems parameters are formulated. The evaluations of the system sensitivity limit, measurement accuracy and accuracy increase ways are presented.

Agishev, R.R.; Bajazitov, R.A.; Galeyev, M.M.; Ismagilow, Z.B. [Kazan State Technical Univ., Tatarstan (Russian Federation). Dept. of Radioelectronic and Quantum Systems

1996-12-31

127

Rapid and Robust Damage Detection using Radar Remote Sensing  

Science.gov (United States)

Under ARIA (Advanced Rapid Imaging and Analysis) project at JPL and Caltech, we developed a prototype algorithm and data system to rapidly detect surface change caused by natural or man-made damage using a radar remote sensing technique of InSAR coherence. We tested the algorithm with a building demolition site in the City of Pasadena, California. The results show clear signal at the demolition site, with about 150% SNR improvement compared to conventional approach. Out of fourteen strongest detected signals, we confirmed that at least eleven of them were associated with real demolition and construction projects. We applied the algorithm to the February 2011 M6.3 Christchurch earthquake in New Zealand, which killed 185 people and caused financial damage of US $16-24 billion. We produced a damage proxy map (DPM) using radar data from ALOS satellite (Figure A), where red pixels identify regions where there may have been earthquake induced building damage, landslides, and liquefaction. The distribution of the red regions agrees well with the post-earthquake assessment performed on the ground by inspectors from the New Zealand government and summarized in their damage assessment zone map (Figure B). The DPM was derived from radar data acquired 3 days after the earthquake, whereas the ground truth zone map was first published 4 months after the earthquake. In addition to all-weather and day-and-night capability of radar, the sensitivity of radar signal to surface property change is high enough for reliable damage assessment. Current and future satellite and airborne missions should keep the expected composite data acquisition latency within a day. Rapidly produced accurate damage assessment maps will help saving people, assisting effective prioritization of rescue operations at early stage of response, and significantly improve timely situational awareness for emergency management and national / international assessment for response and recovery.

Yun, S.; Fielding, E. J.; Simons, M.; Webb, F.; Rosen, P. A.; Owen, S. E.

2012-12-01

128

Investigating Machine Learning Techniques for Detection of Depression Using Structural MRI Volumetric Features  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Structural MRI offers anatomical details and high sensitivity to pathological changes. It can demonstrate certain patterns of brain changes present at a structural level. Research to date has shown that volumetric analysis of brain regions has importance in depression detection. However, such analysis has had very minimal use in depression detection studies at individual level. Optimally combining various brain volumetric features/attributes, and summarizing the data into a distinctive set of variables remain difficult. This study investigates machine learning algorithms that automatically identify relevant data attributes for depression detection. Different machine learning techniques are studied for depression classification based on attributes extracted from structural MRI (sMRI data. The attributes include volume calculated from whole brain, white matter, grey matter and hippocampus. Attributes subset selection is performed aiming to remove redundant attributes using three filtering methods and one hybrid method, in combination with ranker search algorithms. The highest average classification accuracy, obtained by using a combination of both SVM-EM and IG-Random Tree algorithms, is 85.23%. The classification approach implemented in this study can achieve higher accuracy than most reported studies using sMRI data, specifically for detection of depression.

Kuryati Kipli

2013-08-01

129

Detection of epileptic activity in fMRI without recording the EEG  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

EEG–fMRI localizes epileptic foci by detecting cerebral hemodynamic changes that are correlated to epileptic events visible in EEG. However, scalp EEG is insensitive to activity restricted to deep structures and recording the EEG in the scanner is complex and results in major artifacts that are difficult to remove.

Lopes, R.; Lina, J. M.; Fahoum, F.; Gotman, J.

2012-01-01

130

SQUID-Detected Microtesla MRI in the presence of Metal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed at fields of 1 T and above, the presence of a metal insert can distort the image because of susceptibility differences within the sample and modification of the radiofrequency fields by screening currents. Furthermore, it is not feasible to perform nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy or acquire a magnetic resonance image if the sample is enclosed in a metal container. Both problems can be overcome by substantially lowering the NMR frequency. Using a microtesla imaging system operating at 2.8 kHz, with a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) as the signal detector, we have obtained distortion-free images of a phantom containing a titanium bar and three-dimensional images of an object enclosed in an aluminum can; in both cases high-field images are inaccessible.

Moessle, Michael; Han, Song-I.; Myers, Whittier; Lee, Seung-Kyun; Kelso, Nathan; Hatridge, Michael; Pines, Alexander; Clarke, John

2006-09-06

131

Further studies on the remote detection of submerged Orimulsion with a range-gated laser fluorosensor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study was conducted to evaluate the capabilities of range-gated laser fluorosensors for the remote, subsurface detection of heavy oils and other products such as Orimulsion. The series of studies initiated by Environment Canada and the Canadian Coast Guard are continuing. They were designed to develop technologies capable of real-time remote detection of neutrally buoyant and/or submerged fuels in the marine environment. In this paper, the authors presented the results of the second phase of the study into the remote detection of submerged Orimulsion with a range-gated fluorosensor. 13 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

132

Further studies on the remote detection of submerged Orimulsion with a range-gated laser fluorosensor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study was conducted to evaluate the capabilities of range-gated laser fluorosensors for the remote, subsurface detection of heavy oils and other products such as Orimulsion. The series of studies initiated by Environment Canada and the Canadian Coast Guard are continuing. They were designed to develop technologies capable of real-time remote detection of neutrally buoyant and/or submerged fuels in the marine environment. In this paper, the authors presented the results of the second phase of the study into the remote detection of submerged Orimulsion with a range-gated fluorosensor. 13 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

Brown, C.E.; Marois, R.; Gamble, R.L.; Fingas, M.F. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science Div

2003-07-01

133

Hyperspectral remote sensing techniques for early detection of plant diseases  

Science.gov (United States)

Hyperspectral remote sensing is an emerging, multidisciplinary field with diverse applications in Earth observation. Nowadays spectral remote sensing techniques allow presymptomatic monitoring of changes in the physiological state of plants with high spectral resolution. Hyperspectral leaf reflectance and chlorophyll fluorescence proved to be highly suitable for identification of growth anomalies of cultural plants that result from the environmental changes and different stress factors. Hyperspectral technologies can find place in many scientific areas, as well as for monitoring of plants status and functioning to help in making timely management decisions. This research aimed to detect a presence of viral infection in young pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.) caused by Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV) by using hyperspectral reflectance and fluorescence data and to assess the effect of some growth regulators on the development of the disease. In Bulgaria CMV is one of the widest spread pathogens, causing the biggest economical losses in crop vegetable production. Leaf spectral reflectance and fluorescence data were collected by a portable fibre-optics spectrometer in the spectral ranges 450÷850 nm and 600-900 nm. Greenhouse experiment with pepper plants of two cultivars, Sivria (sensitive to CMV) and Ostrion (resistant to CMV) were used. The plants were divided into six groups. The first group consisted of healthy (control) plants. At growth stage 4-6 expanded leaf, the second group was inoculated with CMV. The other four groups were treated with growth regulators: Spermine, MEIA (beta-monomethyl ester of itaconic acid), ??? (benzo(1,2,3)thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid-S-methyl ester) and Phytoxin. On the next day, the pepper plants of these four groups were inoculated with CMV. The viral concentrations in the plants were determined by the serological method DAS-ELISA. Statistical, first derivative and cluster analysis were applied and several vegetation indices were calculated for assessment the differences between the spectral data of healthy and injured (stressed) plants of two cultivars. The averaged reflectance spectra for all groups were analyzed in the most informative for green plants spectral ranges: green, red, red edge, and near infrared. Fluorescence spectra were analyzed at five characteristic wavelengths located at the maximums of the emitted radiation and at the forefronts and rear slopes. On the 7th day no visual changes in the leaves occurred but a decrease of spectral reflectance was established in the green and red ranges for all cases of two cultivars. On the 14th day an increase of the number of statistically significant differences between spectral reflectance of healthy and treated plants was observed. A shift of the red edge position to the blue region was observed for the case of treatment only with CMV. The growth regulator MEIA is with the best preventing action on the leaves. The correlation of the results from spectral analyses and the DAS-ELISA findings for presence of CMV demonstrates the efficiency and sensitivity of these remote sensing techniques for reliable diagnosis of viral infection and injuries of the plants.

Krezhova, Dora; Maneva, Svetla; Zdravev, Tomas

134

19F MRI Detection of Acute Allograft Rejection with In Vivo Perfluorocarbon Labeling of Immune Cells  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Current diagnosis of organ rejection following transplantation relies on tissue biopsy, which is not ideal due to sampling limitations and risks associated with the invasive procedure. We have previously shown that cellular MRI of iron-oxide labeled immune-cell infiltration can provide a non-invasive measure of rejection status by detecting areas of hypointensity on T2*-weighted images. In the current study, we tested the feasibility of using a fluorine-based cellular tracer agent to detect m...

Hitchens, T. Kevin; Ye, Qing; Eytan, Danielle F.; Janjic, Jelena M.; Ahrens, Eric T.; Ho, Chien

2011-01-01

135

Attentional Modulation in the Detection of Irrelevant Deviance: A Simultaneous ERP/fMRI Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Little is known about the neural mechanisms that control attentional modulation of deviance detection in the auditory modality. In this study, we manipulated the difficulty of a primary task to test the relation between task difficulty and the detection of infrequent, task-irrelevant deviant (D) tones (1300 Hz) presented among repetitive standard (S) tones (1000 Hz). Simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)/event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 21 subjects perfor...

Sabri, M.; Liebenthal, E.; Waldron, E. J.; Medler, D. A.; Binder, J. R.

2006-01-01

136

Detection of cranial meningiomas: comparison of 68Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT and contrast-enhanced MRI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

PET imaging with somatostatin receptor ligands, such as 68Ga-DOTATOC, is a well-established method for detection and target volume definition of meningiomas prior to radiotherapy. Since DOTATOC PET delivers a higher contrast between meningiomas and surrounding tissues than MRI, we conducted a retrospective analysis to compare the diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced MRI (CE-MRI) with 68Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT in patients with cranial meningiomas prior to radiotherapy. Over a period of 6 years, 134 patients (20-82 years of age, 107 women and 27 men) underwent cranial CE-MRI and 68Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT. To compare the two methods, the lesions considered typical of meningiomas visually were counted and analysed with respect to their location and SUVmax. In the 134 patients investigated by both modalities, 190 meningiomas were detected by 68Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT and 171 by CE-MRI. With knowledge of the PET/CT data, the MRI scans were reinvestigated, which led to the detection of 4 of the 19 incidental meningiomas, resulting in an overall detection rate of 92 % of the meningioma lesions that were found by PET/CT. Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT demonstrated an improved sensitivity in meningioma detection when compared to CE-MRI. Tumours adjacent to the falx cerebri, located at the skull base or obscured by imaging artefacts or calcification are particularly difficult to detect by MRI. Therefore 68Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT may provide additional inforOTATOC PET/CT may provide additional information in patients with uncertain or equivocal results on MRI or could help to confirm a diagnosis of meningioma based on MRI or could help to confirm MRI-based diagnosis of meningiomas in cases of biopsy limitations. It is possible that not only radiotherapy and surgical planning, but also follow-up strategies would benefit from this imaging modality. (orig.)

137

Intrinsically radiolabelled [59Fe]-SPIONs for dual MRI/radionuclide detection  

Science.gov (United States)

Towards the development of iron oxide nanoparticles with intrinsically incorporated radionuclides for dual Positron Emission Tomography/Magnetic Resonance Imaging (PET/MRI) and more recently of Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography/Magnetic Resonance Imaging (SPECT/MRI), we have developed intrinsically radiolabeled [59Fe]-superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles ([59Fe]-SPIONs) as a proof of concept for an intrinsic dual probe strategy. 59Fe was incorporated into Fe3O4 nanoparticle crystal lattice with 92±3% efficiency in thermal decomposition synthesis. Multidentate poly(acrylic acid)-dopamine-poly(ethylene-glycol-2000) (PAA-DOP-PEG) ligands were designed and synthesized based on facile EDC chemistry and utilized to functionalize the [59Fe]-SPIONs. The transverse relaxivity of [59Fe]-SPIONs (97±3 s-1mM-1) was characterized and found to be similar to non-radioactive SPIONs (72±10 s-1mM-1), indicating that 59Fe incorporation does not alter the SPIONs’ MRI contrast properties. [59Fe]-SPIONs were used to evaluate the nanoparticle biodistribution by ex vivo gamma counting and MRI. Nude mice (n=15) were injected with [59Fe]-SPIONs and imaged at various time points with 7T small animal MRI scanner. Ex vivo biodistribution was evaluated by tissue-based gamma counting. MRI signal contrast qualitatively correlates with the %ID/g of [59Fe]-SPIONs, with high contrast in liver (45±6%), medium contrast in kidneys (21±5%), and low contrast in brain (4±6%) at 24 hours. This work demonstrates the synthesis and in vivo application of intrinsically radiolabeled [59Fe]-SPIONs for bimodal detection and provides a proof of concept for incorporation of both gamma- and positron-emitting inorganic radionuclides into the core of metal based MRI contrast agent nanoparticles. PMID:25250204

Hoffman, David; Sun, Minghao; Yang, Likun; McDonagh, Philip R; Corwin, Frank; Sundaresan, Gobalakrishnan; Wang, Li; Vijayaragavan, Vimalan; Thadigiri, Celina; Lamichhane, Narottam; Zweit, Jamal

2014-01-01

138

Landmark detection for fusion of fundus and MRI toward a patient-specific multimodal eye model.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ophthalmologists typically acquire different image modalities to diagnose eye pathologies. They comprise, e.g., Fundus photography, optical coherence tomography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Yet, these images are often complementary and do express the same pathologies in a different way. Some pathologies are only visible in a particular modality. Thus, it is beneficial for the ophthalmologist to have these modalities fused into a single patient-specific model. The goal of this paper is a fusion of Fundus photography with segmented MRI volumes. This adds information to MRI that was not visible before like vessels and the macula. This paper contributions include automatic detection of the optic disc, the fovea, the optic axis, and an automatic segmentation of the vitreous humor of the eye. PMID:25265602

De Zanet, Sandro I; Ciller, Carlos; Rudolph, Tobias; Maeder, Philippe; Munier, Francis; Balmer, Aubin; Cuadra, Meritxell Bach; Kowal, Jens H

2015-02-01

139

Development of Remote Control Laboratory for Radiation Detection via Internet  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The role of experiments in science education is essential for understanding the natural phenomena and principle related to a subject. Therefore, the remote control experiment via Internet is one of key solution for distance learners in science education. The remote experiments are also necessary for the time-consuming experiment which takes several days, collaborative experiment between distance learners, expensive laboratory equipment which is not usually available to students, experimental procedure which is dangerous, etc. In this study, we have developed a general method for a remote control laboratory system using internet and interface techniques. It is possible for students to learn the nuclear physics to control the real instruments and conduct physics experimentation with internet techniques. We proposed the remote control radiation measurement system as a sample application. This system could be useful for the monitoring near a nuclear power plants in order to improve the environment data credibility to the public

140

Multiparametric MRI of the prostate. Method for early detection of prostate cancer?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Current approaches for the early detection of prostate cancer are controversially discussed because the disease is characterized by a high incidence rate with a relatively low morbidity rate, availability of only limited prognostic markers, and continued therapy-related morbidity. Conventional morphological MRI does not play a role in early detection since small tumor foci cannot be delineated. However, if there is clinical suspicion for prostate cancer, multiparametric MRI is currently the most accurate method for detecting and characterizing suspicious lesions in the prostate. The potential to identify the so-called 'index lesion', i.e., the tumor area that is most aggressive and determines treatment, is particularly important. This information can increase the accuracy of prostate biopsy and serve as a biomarker for follow-up during active surveillance. The method may considerably contribute to the urgently required separation of clinically significant from clinically insignificant prostate cancers. (orig.)

 
 
 
 
141

Towards Targeted MRI: New MRI Contrast Agents for Sialic Acid Detection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The detection of sialic acid in living systems is of importance for the diagnosis of several types of malignancy. We have designed and synthesized two new lanthanide ion ligands (L-1 and L-2) that are capable of molecular recognition of sialic acid residues. The basic structure of these ligands consists of a DTPA-bisamide (DTPA, diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid) whose amide moieties each bear both a boronic function for interaction with the diol groups in the side chain of sialic acid, and...

Frullano, Luca; Rohovec, Jan; Aime, Silvio; Maschmeyer, Thomas; Prata, M. Isabel; Lima, J. J. Pedroso; Geraldes, Carlos F. G. C.; Peters, Joop A.

2004-01-01

142

A Method of Target Detection in Remote Sensing Image Captured based for Sensor Network  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A refined energy constrained minimization method is developed for target detection in hyperspectral remote sensing images captured by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs during their surveillance missions, which has been tested in the experiment under this paper. The experiment result proves, in the detection process, this method can effectively restrain noises so far as the spectral characteristics of any potential target are known, and find sub-pixel targets out effectively from the hyperspectral remote sensing image in unknown background spectrum

Hai Jin

2012-02-01

143

The efficacy of plain films vs MRI in the detection of scaphoid fractures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An investigation was carried out to determine whether or not professionals perceived plain film radiography to be the 'gold-standard' in the detection of scaphoid fractures. Literature highlighted that plain film radiography was an unreliable method for detecting such fractures and that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) should now be regarded as the new 'gold-standard'. Using a quantitative method, a total of 100 postal questionnaires were sent out to radiologists in 20 different imaging departments throughout the United Kingdom (UK) asking them their opinion on this controversial subject. In addition, the investigation looked into the use of MRI within each department in trying to determine whether or not it was surpassing plain film radiography as an established practice for detecting scaphoid fractures. Of the 100 questionnaires that were sent out, a total of 45 were returned from a total of 13 different departments. The results of this investigation conclude that plain film radiography is still used as a primary imaging modality to detect scaphoid fractures in all departments. There was much support for the use of plain film radiography with the modality being praised time and time again for its ease, 24-h availability, low cost and reproducibility. MRI was acknowledged as being superior in its capability to detect scaphoid fractures in comparison to plain films; its current use, however, is limited owing to high costs, lack of availability and long waiting lists. k of availability and long waiting lists. It would appear from this study that MRI is regarded as a useful modality in cases whereby plain film radiography fails to detect the presence or absence of a fracture in clinically positive patients, with great future potential

144

Intraoperative MRI electrical noise and monitor ECG filters affect arrhythmia detection and identification.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most electrical equipment in the modern operating room (OR) radiates electrical noise (EN) that can interfere with patient monitors. We have described the EN that an intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) system emits and have shown that this high-energy EN diminishes the quality of the ECG waveform during iMRI scans in our neurosurgical OR. We have also shown that the ECG signal filters in our iMRI-compatible patient monitor reduce this interference but, in the process, disturb the true morphology of the displayed waveform. This simulation study evaluates how iMRI-generated EN affects the ability of the anesthetist to detect and identify ECG arrhythmias and whether the patient monitor's ECG signal filters can improve arrhythmia recognition. Using an ECG simulator, we generated Lead II and V5 ECG signal segments that contained either no arrhythmia or one of four common cardiac arrhythmias. We filtered the ECG segments with four filters available on our iMRI-compatible monitor (Veris MR, MEDRAD Inc., Indianola, PA USA). We then digitized the segments and mixed simulated iMRI EN into the resultant tracings. With institutional approval and written informed consent, board-certified anesthesiologists reviewed the tracings, determined if an arrhythmia was present and identified the arrhythmia. We conducted the study anonymously. We reported the data as percent correct arrhythmia detection and correct arrhythmia identification. Thirty-one anesthesiologists completed the study. Overall, the participants correctly detected 79.5% (95% CI: 77.2, 81.7%) of the arrhythmias and correctly identified 62.5% (95% CI: 59.8, 65.3%) of the arrhythmias, regardless of EN presence. Although the proportions among monitor noise filters studied were not significant, the manufacturer-designated MR5 Veris MR filter optimized arrhythmia detection and arrhythmia identification for our participants, regardless if EN was present in the ECG tracings. In the neurosurgical OR, the anesthetist must be able to effectively monitor a patient in the presence of iMRI-generated EN. Depending on the OR design, the patient may be out of the anesthetist's direct view during a scan procedure. The anesthetist must rely on monitored physiologic parameters to assess patient status during this time. He/she should be familiar with his/her monitor's filtering capabilities and routinely adjust the ECG filters to achieve the best compromise between minimized EN effects and maximized displayed ECG signal quality. PMID:22389138

Bailey, Melissa; Kirchen, Gwynne; Bonaventura, Bridget; Rosborough, Kelly; Abdel-Rasoul, Mahmoud; Dzwonczyk, Roger

2012-06-01

145

Object-oriented classification of remote sensing data for change detection  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper introduces a method regarding the remote sensing data for change detection by using GIS database. The concept of object-oriented has been used in this method to classify the remote sensing data. The objects of the classification not only can be single pixels of image but also can be pixel sets that represent GIS objects. The remote sensing data are classified with a supervised maximum likelihood classification. In order to reduce the workload and avoid the dependence on operator's experiences, the training areas are generated from the GIS database. Experiments show the method is effective on detecting the change of area objects.

Chen, Yang; Chen, Ying; Lin, Yi

2006-10-01

146

Detection of Spontaneous Schwannomas by MRI in a Transgenic Murine Model of Neurofibromatosis Type 2  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Spontaneous schwannomas were detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in a transgenic murine model of neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2 expressing a dominant mutant form of merlin under the Schwann cell-specific PO promoter. Approximately 85% of the investigated mice showed putative tumors by 24 months of age. Specifically, 21% of the mice showed tumors in the intercostal muscles, 14% in the limb muscles, 7% in the spinal cord and spinal ganglia, 7% in the external ear, 14% in the muscle of the abdominal region, and 7% in the intestine; 66% of the female mice had uterine tumors. Multiple tumors were detected by MRI in 21% of mice. The tumors were isointense with muscle by T1-weighted MRI, showed strong enhancement following administration of gadolinium-DTPA, and were markedly hyperintense by T2-weighted MRI, all hallmarks of the clinical manifestation. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemistry indicated that the tumors consisted of schwannomas and Schwann cell hyperplasias. The lesions stained positively for S-100 protein and a marker antigen for the mutated transgenic NF2 protein, confirming that the imaged tumors and areas of hyperplasia were of Schwann cell origin and expressed the mutated NF2 protein. Tumors were highly infectable with a recombinant herpes simplex virus type 1 vector, hrR3, which contains the reporter gene, lacZ. The ability to develop schwannoma growth with a noninvasive imaging technique will allow assessment of therapeutic interventions.

S.M. Messerli

2002-01-01

147

Armor-piercing bullet: 3-T MRI findings and identification by a ferromagnetic detection system.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this project was to evaluate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) issues at 3 T for an armor-piercing bullet and to determine if this item could be identified using a ferromagnetic detection system. An armor-piercing bullet (.30 caliber, 7.62 × 39, copper-jacketed round, steel core; Norinco) underwent evaluation for magnetic field interactions, heating, and artifacts using standardized techniques. Heating was assessed with the bullet in a gelled-saline-filled phantom with MRI performed using a transmit/receive radio frequency body coil at a whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate of 2.9 W/kg for 15 minutes. Artifacts were characterized using T1-weighted spin echo and gradient echo pulse sequences. In addition, a special ferromagnetic detection system (Ferroguard Screener; Metrasens, Lisle, Illinois) was used in an attempt to identify this armor-piercing bullet. The findings indicated that the armor-piercing bullet showed substantial magnetic field interactions. Heating was not excessive. Artifacts were large and may create diagnostic problems if the area of interest is close to this bullet. The ferromagnetic detection system yielded a positive result. We concluded that this armor-piercing bullet is MR unsafe. Importantly, this ballistic item was identified using the particular ferromagnetic detection system utilized in this investigation, which has important implications for MRI screening and patient safety. PMID:23707130

Karacozoff, Alexandra M; Pekmezci, Murat; Shellock, Frank G

2013-03-01

148

Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI improves accuracy for detecting focal splenic involvement in children and adolescents with Hodgkin disease  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Accurate assessment of splenic disease is important for staging Hodgkin lymphoma. The purpose of this study was to assess T2-weighted imaging with and without dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI for evaluation of splenic Hodgkin disease. Thirty-one children with Hodgkin lymphoma underwent whole-body T2-weighted MRI with supplementary DCE splenic imaging, and whole-body PET-CT before and following chemotherapy. Two experienced nuclear medicine physicians derived a PET-CT reference standard for splenic disease, augmented by follow-up imaging. Unaware of the PET-CT, two experienced radiologists independently evaluated MRI exercising a locked sequential read paradigm (T2-weighted then DCE review) and recorded the presence/absence of splenic disease at each stage. Performance of each radiologist was determined prior to and following review of DCE-MRI. Incorrect MRI findings were ascribed to reader (lesion present on MRI but missed by reader) or technical (lesion not present on MRI) error. Seven children had splenic disease. Sensitivity/specificity of both radiologists for the detection of splenic involvement using T2-weighted images alone was 57%/100% and increased to 100%/100% with DCE-MRI. There were three instances of technical error on T2-weighted imaging; all lesions were visible on DCE-MRI. T2-weighted imaging when complemented by DCE-MRI imaging may improve evaluation of Hodgkin disease splenic involvement. (orig.)

Punwani, Shonit; Taylor, Stuart A.; Halligan, Steve [University College London, Centre for Medical Imaging, London (United Kingdom); University College London Hospital, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Cheung, King Kenneth; Skipper, Nicholas [University College London, Centre for Medical Imaging, London (United Kingdom); Bell, Nichola; Humphries, Paul D. [University College London Hospital, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Bainbridge, Alan [University College London, Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, London (United Kingdom); Groves, Ashley M.; Hain, Sharon F.; Ben-Haim, Simona [University College Hospital, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Shankar, Ananth; Daw, Stephen [University College London Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, London (United Kingdom)

2013-08-15

149

Mapping litter decomposition by remote-detected indicators  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Leaf litter decomposition is a key process for the functioning of natural ecosystems. An important limiting factor for this process is detritus availability, which we have estimated by remote sensed indices of canopy green biomass (NDVI. Here, we describe the use of multivariate geostatistical analysis to couple in situ measures with hyper-spectral and multi-spectral remote-sensed data for producing maps of litter decomposition. A direct relationship between the decomposition rates in four different CORINE habitats and NDVI, calculated at different scales from Landsat ETM+ multi-spectral data and MIVIS hyper-spectral data was found. Variogram analysis was used to evaluate the spatial properties of each single variable and their common interaction. Co-variogram and co-kriging analysis of the two variables turned out to be an effective approach for decomposition mapping from remote-sensed spatial explicit data.

L. Rossi

2006-06-01

150

Late widespread skeletal metastases from myxoid liposarcoma detected by MRI only  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Myxoid liposarcoma is the second most commonly occurring sub-type of liposarcomas. In contrast to other soft tissue sarcomas, it is known to have a tendency to spread toward extrapulmonary sites, such as soft tissues, retroperitoneum, and the peritoneal surface. Bony spread, however, is not as common. Case presentation We report an unusual case of diffuse skeletal metastases from myxoid liposarcoma occurring 13 years after treatment of the primary tumour in the left lower limb. The skeletal spread of the disease was demonstrated on MRI only after other imaging modalities (plain radiography, CT and TC99 bone scans had failed to detect these metastases. Conclusion MRI is an extremely sensitive and specific screening tool in the detection of skeletal involvement in these types of sarcomas, and therefore, should be a part of the staging process.

O'Donnell Paul

2008-06-01

151

Detection of osseous metastases of the spine: Comparison of high resolution multi-detector-CT with MRI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: The aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of multi-slice-computed tomography (MDCT) for the detection of vertebral metastases in comparison to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and methods: In a retrospective analysis, 639 vertebral bodies of 41 patients with various histologically confirmed primary malignancies were analysed. The MDCT-images were acquired on a 16/64-row-MDCT scanner (Siemens Somatom Sensation 16/64). MRI was performed on 1.5 T scanners (SIEMENS Symphony/Sonata). The MDCT- and MRI-images were evaluated separately by two experienced radiologists in a consensus reading. The combination of MDCT and MRI in an expert reading including follow-up examinations and/or histology as well as clinical data served as the gold standard. Results: 201/639 vertebral bodies were defined as metastatically affected by the gold standard. In MDCT 133/201 lesions, in MRI 198/201 lesions were detected. 68 vertebral bodies were false negative in MDCT, whereas 3 false negatives were found in MRI. 3 false positive results were obtained in MDCT, 5 in MRI. Sensitivity was significantly lower for MDCT (66.2%) than for MRI (98.5%) (p < 0.0001). Specificity was not significantly different for both methods (MDCT: 99.3%; MRI: 98.9%). The diagnostic accuracy resulted in 88.8% for MDCT and 98.7% for MRI. Conclusion: Although 16/64-row-MDCT provides excellent image quality and a high spatial resolution in the assessment of bony structures, metastatic assessment of bony structures, metastatic lesions without significant bone destruction may be missed. The diagnostic accuracy of MRI proved to be significantly superior to 16/64-row-MDCT for the detection of osseous metastases.

152

Detection of cerebral microvascular lesions using 7 T MRI in patients with neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) is speculated to be caused by disturbed microcirculation of the central nervous system. However, characteristic imaging findings of NPSLE have not been established. Hence, we investigated whether high-resolution images obtained using ultrahigh field MRI at 7 T can detect microcerebrovascular lesions in patients with NPSLE that have never been detected by conventional MRI. We prospectively examined 20 patients with SLE, including five with NPSLE, using a 7 T MRI scanner. High-resolution two-dimensional T2-weighted images and high-resolution three-dimensional T1-weighted images (T1WIs) before and after the administration of contrast agents were obtained. On the high-resolution T1WIs obtained at 7 T, minute punctate/linear hyperintense lesions in subcortical and/or cortical areas were found in four (80%) NPSLE patients and one (7%) non-NPSLE patient. Further, the minute punctate enhanced lesions in these areas were found on contrast-enhanced T1WIs in only three (60%) NPSLE patients. These findings suggesting microvascular thrombi or inflammation were significantly more frequent in NPSLE than in non-NPSLE patients (P=0.001). In contrast, other imaging findings, laboratory findings, and clinical characteristics were not different between the two groups. High-resolution T1WIs obtained at 7 T can detect minute lesions, indicating intracerebral microvascular lesions in patients with NPSLE. PMID:25426827

Murata, Okinori; Sasaki, Nobuhito; Sasaki, Makoto; Kowada, Koko; Ninomiya, Yukari; Oikawa, Yuka; Kobayashi, Hitoshi; Nakamura, Yutaka; Yamauchi, Kohei

2015-01-01

153

Computer assisted early detection of liver metastases from fMRI maps  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present a new method for computer-aided early detection of liver metastases tumors. The method characterized colorectal hepatic metastases and follows their early hemodynamical changes using an fMRI-based statistical model. The changes in hepatic hemodynamics are evaluated from T2W fMRI images acquired during breathing of air, air-CO2, and carbogen. A classification model is build to help radiologists differentiate tumor from healthy tissue. The model is built from 132 well-validated fMRI samples of tumors and healthy tissue. For each sample, a histogram-based features-vector is constructed. The model is then generated from the data with an SVM classifier. To test the model, 32 non-validated fMRI samples were used. A total of 22 samples proved to be healthy tissue and 11 samples proved to be tumors. Nine samples were judged as tumors by the naked eye, but proved to be healthy tissue later. Our classification model yields accuracy of 78.12% with 66.67% precision on the test set. (orig.)

154

Detection of rheumatoid arthritis bone erosions by two different dedicated extremity MRI units and conventional radiography  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Objectives: To compare the ability of two different dedicated extremity MRI (E-MRI) units and conventional radiography (CR) for identifying bone erosions in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) metacarpophalangeal (MCP) and wrist joints. Methods: CR and two MRI examinations (using 0.2 T Esaote Artoscan and 0.2 T portable MagneVu MV1000 units) of 418 bones in the dominant wrist and second to fifth MCP joints of 15 patients with RA and 4 healthy controls were performed and evaluated blindly for bones being visible and for erosions. Results: In MCP joints, MagneVu visualised 18.5% of bones entirely and 71.1% were 67-99% visualised. In wrists, MagneVu visualised 1.5% of bones entirely, 39.8% were 67-99% visualised and 19% were not visualised at all. Artoscan and CR visualised all bones entirely. Artoscan, MagneVu and CR found 22, 19 and 15 bones with erosions in MCP joints and 66, 40 and 13 bones with erosions in wrist joints, respectively. With the previously validated Artoscan unit as standard reference, MagneVu and CR had sensitivities of 0.82 and 0.55, respectively, in MCP joint bones and 0.41 and 0.14 in wrist bones. Specificities of CR and MagneVu were comparable (0.82-0.99). The MagneVu unit was particularly more sensitive than CR for metacarpal heads and carpal bones. MagneVu MRI and CR detected 100% and 89%, respectively, of large erosions (Outcome Measures in Rheumatoid Arthritis Clinical Trials-Rheumatoid Arthritis MRI Scoring System (OMERACT-RAMRIS) score >1 on Artoscan) in MCP joints and 69% and 15.8% of large erosions in wrists. Conclusions: Both E-MRI units detected more erosions than CR, in particular due to a higher sensitivity in metacarpal heads and carpal bones. The MagneVu unit detected fewer erosions than the Artoscan unit due to a lower average image quality and a smaller proportion of bones being visualised Udgivelsesdato: 2008/7

Duer-Jensen, A.; Vestergaard, A.

2008-01-01

155

Modeling Chemical Detection Sensitivities of Active and Passive Remote Sensing Systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During nearly a decade of remote sensing programs under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), LLNL has developed a set of performance modeling codes--called APRS--for both Active and Passive Remote Sensing systems. These codes emphasize chemical detection sensitivity in the form of minimum detectable quantities with and without background spectral clutter and in the possible presence of other interfering chemicals. The codes have been benchmarked against data acquired in both active and passive remote sensing programs at LLNL and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The codes include, as an integral part of the performance modeling, many of the data analysis techniques developed in the DOE's active and passive remote sensing programs (e.g., ''band normalization'' for an active system, principal component analysis for a passive system).

Scharlemann, E T

2003-07-28

156

Research on an Edge Detection Algorithm of Remote Sensing Image Based on Wavelet Enhancement and Morphology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

According to the basic features of high resolution remote sensing images, a novel edge detection algorithm based on wavelet enhancement and mathematical morphology is proposed. First, the remote sensing image is decomposed by a wavelet transform to get the low frequency part and high frequency part. Then a Laplacian sharpening operation is doing on the low frequency part to enhance the edge information. At the same time, the edge information of high frequency part is enhanced by means of line...

Yu Xiong; Jun Li 4; Xiaoqing Zuo; Zhenting Chen

2014-01-01

157

Automatic Cloud Detection and Removal Algorithm for MODIS Remote Sensing Imagery  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cloud is one of the most common interferers in Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrum-radiometer (MODIS) remote sensing imagery. Because of cloud interference, much important and useful information covered by cloud cannot be recovered well. How to detect and remove cloud from MODIS imagery is an important issue for wide application of remote sensing data. In general, cloud can be roughly divided into two types, namely, thin cloud and thick cloud. In order to effectively dete...

Lingjia Gu; Ruizhi Ren; Shuang Zhang

2011-01-01

158

Stress Detection in Crops with Hyperspectral Remote Sensing and Physical Simulation Models  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Progress made on the detection of stress in heterogeneous crop canopies with hyperspectral remote sensing imagery is presented. High-spatial resolution multispectral remote sensing imagery was collected in 2002, 2003 and 2004 over vineyard and olive orchards in Spain. Imagery acquired with the Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI) and the Reflective Optics System Imaging Spectrometer (ROSIS) in the visible and near infrared wavelength regions 400-950 nm at 1 m resolution, ...

Zarco-tejada, Pablo J.; Berjo?n, A.; Miller, J. R.

2004-01-01

159

Crop stress detection and classification using hyperspectral remote sensing  

Science.gov (United States)

Agricultural production has observed many changes in technology over the last 20 years. Producers are able to utilize technologies such as site-specific applicators and remotely sensed data to assist with decision making for best management practices which can improve crop production and provide protection to the environment. It is known that plant stress can interfere with photosynthetic reactions within the plant and/or the physical structure of the plant. Common types of stress associated with agricultural crops include herbicide induced stress, nutrient stress, and drought stress from lack of water. Herbicide induced crop stress is not a new problem. However, with increased acreage being planting in varieties/hybrids that contain herbicide resistant traits, herbicide injury to non-target crops will continue to be problematic for producers. With rapid adoption of herbicide-tolerant cropping systems, it is likely that herbicide induced stress will continue to be a major concern. To date, commercially available herbicide-tolerant varieties/hybrids contain traits which allow herbicides like glyphosate and glufosinate-ammonium to be applied as a broadcast application during the growing season. Both glyphosate and glufosinate-ammonium are broad spectrum herbicides which have activity on a large number of plant species, including major crops like non-transgenic soybean, corn, and cotton. Therefore, it is possible for crop stress from herbicide applications to occur in neighboring fields that contain susceptible crop varieties/hybrids. Nutrient and moisture stress as well as stress caused by herbicide applications can interact to influence yields in agricultural fields. If remotely sensed data can be used to accurately identify specific levels of crop stress, it is possible that producers can use this information to better assist them in crop management to maximize yields and protect their investments. This research was conducted to evaluate classification of specific crop stresses utilizing hyperspectral remote sensing. Key words: crop stress, herbicide drift, remote sensing

Irby, Jon Trenton

160

Detection of hippocampal atrophy in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy: a 3-Tesla MRI shape.  

Science.gov (United States)

In patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE), brain MRI often detects hippocampal sclerosis (HS). Almost half of patients with MTLE do not show any hippocampal damage on visual or volumetric assessment. Here, we wished to prospectively assess 65 patients with MTLE (41 women, mean age: 39±10years, range: 21-69; right (12/65 patients) (MRI-negative) nMTLE; right (14/65 patients) (MRI-positive with HS) pMTLE; left (24/65 patients) nMTLE; and left (15/65 patients) pMTLE) using shape analysis (SA). There were significant differences among pMTLE versus nMTLE for age at seizure onset (20.2±12.8 vs. 31.8±16.7years; p=.0029), duration of epilepsy (14.6±12.7 vs. 21.3±9.6years; p=.0227), risk of refractoriness (p=.0067), frequency of antecedent febrile convulsions (FCs) (pMTLE, SA detects hippocampal damage that lateralizes with the epileptogenic area. Such damage is most prominent in the CA1 subregion and subiculum that are crucial in the pathogenesis of MTLE. PMID:23892579

Mumoli, Laura; Labate, Angelo; Vasta, Roberta; Cherubini, Andrea; Ferlazzo, Edoardo; Aguglia, Umberto; Quattrone, Aldo; Gambardella, Antonio

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
161

Activatable (19) F MRI Nanoparticle Probes for the Detection of Reducing Environments.  

Science.gov (United States)

(19) F magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) probes that can detect biological phenomena such as cell dynamics, ion concentrations, and enzymatic activity have attracted significant attention. Although perfluorocarbon (PFC) encapsulated nanoparticles are of interest in molecular imaging owing to their high sensitivity, activatable PFC nanoparticles have not been developed. In this study, we showed for the first time that the paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) effect can efficiently decrease the (19) F NMR/MRI signals of PFCs in silica nanoparticles. On the basis of the PRE effect, we developed a reduction-responsive PFC-encapsulated nanoparticle probe, FLAME-SS-Gd(3+) (FSG). This is the first example of an activatable PFC-encapsulated nanoparticle that can be used for in vivo imaging. Calculations revealed that the ratio of fluorine atoms to Gd(3+) complexes per nanoparticle was more than approximately 5.0×10(2) , resulting in the high signal augmentation. PMID:25413833

Nakamura, Tatsuya; Matsushita, Hisashi; Sugihara, Fuminori; Yoshioka, Yoshichika; Mizukami, Shin; Kikuchi, Kazuya

2014-11-20

162

MRI for the detection of anorectal fistulas; MRT in der Diagnostik anorektaler Fisteln  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

MRI is accepted as one of the major diagnostic tools for the detection of anorectal fistulas and abscesses. Noninvasiveness and high accuracy are advantageous hallmarks of this technique. In general, the purpose of imaging anal fistulas is to reduce the risk of recurrence, incontinence and non-healing. To achieve these goals, the applied method must provide the proctologist with detailed information. In this context, MRI acts as a guide for surgeons to accurately plan fistula operations. Another aspect is the follow-up of conservatively treated patients with fistulizing Crohn's disease. In 2000, subtraction MR fistulography was introduced as new imaging technique. This review provides an overview of the entire spectrum of diagnostic modalities for anorectal fistulas with emphasis on subtraction MR fistulography. (orig.)

Schaefer, A.O.; Baumann, T.; Langer, M. [Abt. Roentgendiagnostik, Universitaetsklinikum Freiburg (Germany)

2006-11-15

163

A pooled analysis of MRI in the detection of bone marrow infiltration in patients with malignant lymphoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aim: To explore the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in detecting bone marrow infiltration of malignant lymphoma through a systematic review and meta-analysis. Materials and methods: Studies that evaluated the diagnostic performance of MRI in detecting bone marrow infiltration of malignant lymphoma were acquired from the MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cancerlit, and Cochrane Library database, from February 1987 to May 2012. Pooled estimation and subgroup analysis data were obtained by statistical analysis. Results: A total of 13 studies involving 634 patients who fulfilled all of the inclusion criteria were considered for the analysis. No publication bias was found (p = 0.70). The pooled sensitivity of MRI was 0.82 [95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.70–0.90] and the pooled specificity was 0.79 (95% CI: 0.72–0.84). Overall, positive likelihood ratios (LR+) was 3.9 (95% CI: 2.8–5.4) and negative likelihood ratios (LR?) was 0.23 (95% CI: 0.13–0.41). In patients with high pre-test probabilities, MRI enabled confirmation of bone marrow involvement; in patients with low pre-test probabilities, MRI enabled exclusion of bone marrow involvement. Worst-case-scenario (pre-test probability, 50%) post-test probabilities were 80% and 18% for positive and negative MRI results, respectively. In subgroup analysis, MRI performed with 1.5 T devices had higher pooled specificity (0.80, 95% CI: 0.71–0.88) than the MRI with ?1 T (0.78, 95% CI: 0.71–0.85; p < 0.05). The pooled sensitivity of MRI with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) was 0.65 (95% CI: 0.39–0.92) and the pooled specificity was 0.83 (95% CI: 0.69–0.97). The sensitivity and specificity of MRI without DWI was 0.85 (95% CI: 0.76–0.94) and 0.79 (95% CI: 0.72–0.85), respectively. Conclusion: A limited number of small studies indicate that MRI can serve as a valuable tool for detecting bone marrow infiltration of malignant lymphoma. Results were most promising when performing MRI using high field strength devices. MRI with DWI is shown to be more specific than conventional MRI techniques. This deserves further investigation in future studies

164

Detection of emission sources using passive-remote Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The detection and identification of toxic chemicals released in the environment is important for public safety. Passive-remote Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometers can be used to detect these releases. Their primary advantages are their small size and ease of setup and use. Open-path FTIR spectrometers are used to detect concentrations of pollutants from a fixed frame of reference. These instruments detect plumes, but they are too large and difficult to aim to be used to track a plume to its source. Passive remote FTIR spectrometers contain an interferometer, optics, and a detector. They can be used on tripods and in some cases can be hand-held. A telescope can be added to most units. We will discuss the capability of passive-remote FTIR spectrometers to detect the origin of plumes. Low concentration plumes were released using a custom-constructed vaporizer. These plumes were detected with different spectrometers from different distances. Passive-remote spectrometers were able to detect small 10 cm on a side chemical releases at concentration-pathlengths at the low parts per million-meter (ppm-m) level

165

Supervised methods for detection and segmentation of tissues in clinical lumbar MRI.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lower back pain (LBP) is widely prevalent all over the world and more than 80% of the people suffer from LBP at some point of their lives. Moreover, a shortage of radiologists is the most pressing cause for the need of CAD (computer-aided diagnosis) systems. Automatic localization and labeling of intervertebral discs from lumbar MRI is the first step towards computer-aided diagnosis of lower back ailments. Subsequently, for diagnosis and characterization (quantification and localization) of abnormalities like disc herniation and stenosis, a completely automatic segmentation of intervertebral discs and the dural sac is extremely important. Contribution of this paper towards clinical CAD systems is two-fold. First, we propose a method to automatically detect all visible intervertebral discs in clinical sagittal MRI using heuristics and machine learning techniques. We provide a novel end-to-end framework that outputs a tight bounding box for each disc, instead of simply marking the centroid of discs, as has been the trend in the recent past. Second, we propose a method to simultaneously segment all the tissues (vertebrae, intervertebral disc, dural sac and background) in a lumbar sagittal MRI, using an auto-context approach instead of any explicit shape features or models. Past work tackles the lumbar segmentation problem on a tissue/organ basis, and which tend to perform poorly in clinical scans due to high variability in appearance. We, on the other hand, train a series of robust classifiers (random forests) using image features and sparsely sampled context features, which implicitly represent the shape and configuration of the image. Both these methods have been tested on a huge clinical dataset comprising of 212 cases and show very promising results for both disc detection (98% disc localization accuracy and 2.08mm mean deviation) and sagittal MRI segmentation (dice similarity indices of 0.87 and 0.84 for the dural sac and the inter-vertebral disc, respectively). PMID:24746606

Ghosh, Subarna; Chaudhary, Vipin

2014-10-01

166

Presumptive subarticular stress reactions of the knee: MRI detection and association with meniscal tear patterns  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

MRI detects subchondral marrow findings in painful knees which bear resemblance to spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee (SONK). Gathering evidence suggests that the primary or predominant pathogenesis of these lesions is physical stress. This study analyzes the patient characteristics and meniscal pathology associated with these lesions - herein referred to as ''presumptive subarticular stress related'' (PSSR) lesions. All patients were scanned using a standardized imaging protocol. The criterion for a PSSR lesion was a subchondral marrow edema pattern encompassing a more focal, low-signal zone adjacent to or contiguous with the subchondral cortex. Patients were identified using an electronic database search of cases reported by one experienced musculoskeletal radiologist. Twenty-five PSSR lesions were identified among 1,948 MRI evaluations of the knee. Twenty-one PSSR lesions occurred in the medial compartment, and four occurred in the lateral compartment. There was no sex predilection. Patients with PSSR lesions were older than other patients undergoing MRI evaluation (mean 66 years versus 52 years, P<0.001). Meniscal tears occurred more commonly in cases with PSSR lesions than in the group as a whole (76% versus 45%, P<0.001). Radial and posterior root tears were more common in knees with PSSR lesions than in other knees with meniscal tears (53% versus 26%, P<0.01). PSSR lesions are associated with meniscal tears and, more specifically, with meniscal tear patterns specifically, with meniscal tear patterns that dramatically increase contact forces across the knee joint. This observation supports the hypothesis that mechanical stress is important in the pathogenesis of these subarticular lesions that are detected by MRI. (orig.)

167

[Predictive value of MRI for detecting and characterizing vascular compression in cranial nerve hyperactivity syndromes (trigeminal and facial nerves)].  

Science.gov (United States)

MRI detects vascular compression of the cranial nerve in the majority of the cases. High-resolution 3D-T1 and 3D-T2 MRI gives detailed images, particularly the 3D-T2 MRI sequences, with good contrast between cerebrospinal fluid and vascular and nerve structures. TOF-AMR (native sequence and vertebrobasilar reconstruction) shows the vascular structures in hypersignal and therefore differentiates the vessels from the cranial nerves. The 3D-T1 sequence with gadolinium reinforces the signal of the venous structures. Thus, preoperative MRI makes it possible to predict the existence of a vascular compression. The correlation study between imaging data and intraoperaitive anatomical findings showed a sensitivity of MRI of 97% and a specificity of 100%. In addition, it can specify the type and the degree of the compression. This information may help in selecting the most appropriate surgical method. PMID:19298977

Leal, P R L; Froment, J-C; Sindou, M

2009-04-01

168

Detection of bone marrow and extramedullary involvement in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma by whole-body MRI: comparison with bone and 67Ga scintigraphies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic potential of whole-body MRI (WB-MRI) for the detection of bone marrow and extramedullary involvement in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. WB-MRI, which was performed on 34 patients, consisted of the recording of T1-weighted spin-echo images and a fast STIR sequence covering the entire skeleton. The WB-MRI findings for bone marrow and extramedullary involvement were compared with those from 67Ga and bone scintigraphies and bone marrow biopsy results. Two MRI specialists reviewed the WB-MRI results and two expert radiologists in the field of nuclear medicine reviewed the bone and 67Ga scintigraphy findings. Bone marrow and extramedullary involvement of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were confirmed by follow-up radiographs and CT and/or a histological biopsy. The detection rate of WB-MRI was high. More bone marrow involvement was detected by biopsy, and more lesions were detected by scintigraphies. In total, 89 lesions were detected by WB-MRI, whereas 15 were found by biopsy, 5 by 67Ga scintigraphy, and 14 by bone scintigraphy. WB-MRI could also detect more extramedullary lesions than 67Ga scintigraphy; i.e., 72 lesions were detected by WB-MRI, whereas 54 were discovered by 67Ga scintigraphy. WB-MRI is useful for evaluating the involvement of bone marrow and extramedullary lesions throughout the skeleton in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. (orig.)dgkin's lymphoma. (orig.)

169

Frequency Modulation Spectroscopy Modeling for Remote Chemical Detection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Frequency modulation (FM) spectroscopy techniques show promise for active infrared remote chemical sensing. FM spectroscopy techniques have reduced sensitivity to optical and electronic noise, and are relatively immune to the effects of various electronic and mechanical drifts. FM systems are responsive to sharp spectral features and can therefore reduce the effects of spectral clutter due to interfering chemicals in the plume or in the atmosphere. The relatively high modulation frequencies used for FM also reduces the effects of albedo (reflectance) and plume variations. Conventional differential absorption lidar (DIAL) systems are performance limited by the noise induced by speckle. Analysis presented in this report shows that FM based sensors may reduce the effects of speckle by one to two orders of magnitude. This can result in reduced dwell times and faster area searches, as well as reducing various forms of spatial clutter. FM systems will require a laser system that is continuously tunable at relatively high frequencies (0.1 to 20 MHz). One promising candidate is the quantum-cascade (QC) laser [1, 2]. The QC laser is potentially capable of power levels on the order of 1 Watt and frequency tuning on the order of 3 - 6 GHz, which is the performance level required for FM spectroscopy based remote sensing. In this report we describe a high-level numerical model for an FM spectroscopy based remote sensing system, and application to two unmanned airborne vehicle (UAV) scenarios. A Predator scenario operating at a slant range of 6.5 km with a 10 cm diameter telescope, and a Global Hawk scenario operating at a range of 30 km with a 20 cm diameter telescope, has been assumed to allow estimation of the performance of potential FM systems.

Sheen, David M.

2000-09-30

170

Detection of Gypsy Moth Defoliation--Remote Sensing Lesson  

Science.gov (United States)

This module uses satellite remote sensing images to identify the forest defoliation caused by Gypsy Moth Larva. The continued annual defoliation causes the trees to die and results in a significant loss in the value of the forests. The project study area covers the highland mountain areas of Virginia and West Virginia in the 2001 growing season, as both satellite images and other proof of defoliation are available for that year. The educational materials are available for download in PDF, ZIP and RAR format.

171

Pulse Artifact Detection in Simultaneous EEG-fMRI Recording Based on EEG Map Topography.  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the major artifact corrupting electroencephalogram (EEG) acquired during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is the pulse artifact (PA). It is mainly due to the motion of the head and attached electrodes and wires in the magnetic field occurring after each heartbeat. In this study we propose a novel method to improve PA detection by considering the strong gradient and inversed polarity between left and right EEG electrodes. We acquired high-density EEG-fMRI (256 electrodes) with simultaneous electrocardiogram (ECG) at 3 T. PA was estimated as the voltage difference between right and left signals from the electrodes showing the strongest artifact (facial and temporal). Peaks were detected on this estimated signal and compared to the peaks in the ECG recording. We analyzed data from eleven healthy subjects, two epileptic patients and four healthy subjects with an insulating layer between electrodes and scalp. The accuracy of the two methods was assessed with three criteria: (i) standard deviation, (ii) kurtosis and (iii) confinement into the physiological range of the inter-peak intervals. We also checked whether the new method has an influence on the identification of epileptic spikes. Results show that estimated PA improved artifact detection in 15/17 cases, when compared to the ECG method. Moreover, epileptic spike identification was not altered by the correction. The proposed method improves the detection of pulse-related artifacts, particularly crucial when the ECG is of poor quality or cannot be recorded. It will contribute to enhance the quality of the EEG increasing the reliability of EEG-informed fMRI analysis. PMID:25307731

Iannotti, Giannina R; Pittau, Francesca; Michel, Christoph M; Vulliemoz, Serge; Grouiller, Frédéric

2015-01-01

172

Agricultural practices in grasslands detected by spatial remote sensing.  

Science.gov (United States)

The major decrease in grassland surfaces associated with changes in their management that has been observed in many regions of the earth during the last half century has major impacts on environmental and socio-economic systems. This study focuses on the identification of grassland management practices in an intensive agricultural watershed located in Brittany, France, by analyzing the intra-annual dynamics of the surface condition of vegetation using remotely sensed and field data. We studied the relationship between one vegetation index (NDVI) and two biophysical variables (LAI and fCOVER) derived from a series of three SPOT images on one hand and measurements collected during field campaigns achieved on 120 grasslands on the other. The results show that the LAI appears as the best predictor for monitoring grassland mowing and grazing. Indeed, because of its ability to characterize vegetation status, LAI estimated from remote sensing data is a relevant variable to identify these practices. LAI values derived from the SPOT images were then classified based on the K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) supervised algorithm. The results points out that the distribution of grassland management practices such as grazing and mowing can be mapped very accurately (Kappa index?=?0.82) at a field scale over large agricultural areas using a series of satellite images. PMID:25182683

Dusseux, Pauline; Vertès, Françoise; Corpetti, Thomas; Corgne, Samuel; Hubert-Moy, Laurence

2014-12-01

173

Breast MRI in detecting primary malignancy of patients presenting with axillary metastases and negative X-ray mammography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To evaluate the role of breast MRI in detecting the primary malignancy in patients presenting solely with axillary lymph node metastases. Methods: Thirty-three patients with axillary lymph node metastases but negative findings on either physical examination or mammography underwent breast MRI to identify occult breast carcinoma. MRI of the breast was assessed according to BI-RADS criteria. The pathologic diagnosis was made according to the standard criteria by the WHO Classification of' Tumor. Results: Among 33 patients presenting solely with axillary metastases, 30 patients underwent modified radical mastectomy. Primary breast carcinoma was proven in 17 patients. MRI detected lesions in 16 patients, including 10 masses and 6 non-mass lesions. Size of the masses ranged from 0.5 to 2.6 cm (mean 1.5 cm). Six lesions were smaller than 1.5 cm in size. Non-mass lesions showed ductal enhancement in 4 cases and segmental enhancement in 2 cases. One patient with tumor detected by histopathology showed no abnormal enhancement on MRI. No tumor was found at mastectomy in the other 13 women, and negative MR findings were revealed in 9. Four cases with suspicious enhancement on MRI had no corresponding primary foci on pathology. Three patients didn't undergo surgical procedure, The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of MRI in the diagnosis of the primary malignancy were 94.1%, 69.2%, and 83.3%, respectively. Conclusions: Small size of mass and ductal or segmental enhancement of non-mass lesion were common MR features of occult malignancy. MRI showed high sensitivity and accuracy in diagnosing occult breast carcinoma. Breast MRI should be taken in search of occult malignancy in patients with axillary metastases. (authors)

174

Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography versus MRI: Initial results in the detection of breast cancer and assessment of tumour size  

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To compare mammography (MG), contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the detection and size estimation of histologically proven breast cancers using postoperative histology as the gold standard. After ethical approval, 80 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer underwent MG, CESM, and MRI examinations. CESM was reviewed by an independent experienced radiologist, and the maximum dimension of suspicious lesions was measured. For MG and MRI, routine clinical reports of breast specialists, with judgment based on the BI-RADS lexicon, were used. Results of each imaging technique were correlated to define the index cancer. Fifty-nine cases could be compared to postoperative histology for size estimation. Breast cancer was visible in 66/80 MG, 80/80 CESM, and 77/79 MRI examinations. Average lesion largest dimension was 27.31 mm (SD 22.18) in MG, 31.62 mm (SD 24.41) in CESM, and 27.72 mm (SD 21.51) in MRI versus 32.51 mm (SD 29.03) in postoperative histology. No significant difference was found between lesion size measurement on MRI and CESM compared with histopathology. Our initial results show a better sensitivity of CESM and MRI in breast cancer detection than MG and a good correlation with postoperative histology in size assessment. (orig.)

Fallenberg, E.M.; Renz, D.M. [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Clinic of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Dromain, C. [Institut Gustave Roussy, Department of Radiology, Villejuif cedex (France); Diekmann, F. [St. Joseph-Stift Bremen, Department of Medical Imaging, Bremen (Germany); Engelken, F.; Krohn, M.; Singh, J.M.; Bick, U. [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Ingold-Heppner, B. [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Institute of Pathology, Berlin (Germany); Winzer, K.J. [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Breast Center, Department of Gynecology, Berlin (Germany)

2014-01-15

175

Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography versus MRI: Initial results in the detection of breast cancer and assessment of tumour size  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To compare mammography (MG), contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the detection and size estimation of histologically proven breast cancers using postoperative histology as the gold standard. After ethical approval, 80 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer underwent MG, CESM, and MRI examinations. CESM was reviewed by an independent experienced radiologist, and the maximum dimension of suspicious lesions was measured. For MG and MRI, routine clinical reports of breast specialists, with judgment based on the BI-RADS lexicon, were used. Results of each imaging technique were correlated to define the index cancer. Fifty-nine cases could be compared to postoperative histology for size estimation. Breast cancer was visible in 66/80 MG, 80/80 CESM, and 77/79 MRI examinations. Average lesion largest dimension was 27.31 mm (SD 22.18) in MG, 31.62 mm (SD 24.41) in CESM, and 27.72 mm (SD 21.51) in MRI versus 32.51 mm (SD 29.03) in postoperative histology. No significant difference was found between lesion size measurement on MRI and CESM compared with histopathology. Our initial results show a better sensitivity of CESM and MRI in breast cancer detection than MG and a good correlation with postoperative histology in size assessment. (orig.)

176

Computer-aided detection in breast MRI: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To evaluate the additional value of computer-aided detection (CAD) in breast MRI by assessing radiologists' accuracy in discriminating benign from malignant breast lesions. A literature search was performed with inclusion of relevant studies using a commercially available CAD system with automatic colour mapping. Two independent researchers assessed the quality of the studies. The accuracy of the radiologists' performance with and without CAD was presented as pooled sensitivity and specificity. Of 587 articles, 10 met the inclusion criteria, all of good methodological quality. Experienced radiologists reached comparable pooled sensitivity and specificity before and after using CAD (sensitivity: without CAD: 89%; 95% CI: 78-94%, with CAD: 89%; 95%CI: 81-94%) (specificity: without CAD: 86%; 95% CI: 79-91%, with CAD: 82%; 95% CI: 76-87%). For residents the pooled sensitivity increased from 72% (95% CI: 62-81%) without CAD to 89% (95% CI: 80-94%) with CAD, however, not significantly. Concerning specificity, the results were similar (without CAD: 79%; 95% CI: 69-86%, with CAD: 78%; 95% CI: 69-84%). CAD in breast MRI has little influence on the sensitivity and specificity of experienced radiologists and therefore their interpretation remains essential. However, residents or inexperienced radiologists seem to benefit from CAD concerning breast MRI evaluation. (orig.)

Dorrius, Monique D.; Weide, Marijke C.J. der; Ooijen, Peter M.A. van; Pijnappel, Ruud M.; Oudkerk, Matthijs [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Radiology, Center for Medical Imaging, Hanzeplein 1, PO box 30.001, Groningen (Netherlands)

2011-08-15

177

Hepatic MRI with SPIO: detection and characterization of focal liver lesions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A variety of parenterally administered iron oxides have been developed for contrast-enhanced MRI of the liver. Two different classes of iron oxides are currently clinically approved or in phase 3 trials: superparamagnetic iron oxides (SPIO) with a high R2/R1 relaxivity ratio and short blood half-life (AMI-25 and SH U 555 A), and ultrasmall paramagnetic iron oxides (USPIO) with a lower R2/R1 relaxivity ratio and longer blood half-life (AMI-227). All iron oxides significantly increase tumor-to-liver contrast and allow detection of more lesions than unenhanced MRI on T2-weighted images at a field strength of 0.2-1.5 T. Malignant lesions without phagocytic cells exhibit constant signal on T2-weighted accumulation phase images with all three iron oxides. All iron oxides cause a signal decrease of benign lesions with either phagocytic cells or a significant blood pool on T2-weighted accumulation phase images. The signal decrease of benign lesions is proportional to the Kupffer cell activity or tumor vascularity and is useful for lesion characterization. Another enhancement feature for the differentiation of benign from malignant lesions is ring enhancement of malignant lesions (metastases) on T1-weighted enhanced images either during the perfusion phase with SH U 555 A or during the accumulation phase with AMI-227, which is attributed to the blood pool effects of the compounds. Differentiation of lesions and vessels is easier on enhanced images with angiographic effects thaanced images with angiographic effects than on unenhanced images. Iron oxides improve the quality of two-dimensional MR angiography techniques of the portal venous system by decreasing background signal (liver tissue with all iron oxides) and increasing intravascular signal (AMI-227). The use of iron oxides for hepatic MRI provides an alternative to the existing multistep diagnosis with CT, CT portography, MRI and biopsy. (orig.)

178

Beyond blood brain barrier breakdown – in vivo detection of occult neuroinflammatory foci by magnetic nanoparticles in high field MRI  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND: Gadopentate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA) enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is widely applied for the visualization of blood brain barrier (BBB) breakdown in multiple sclerosis and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Recently, the potential of magnetic nanoparticles to detect macrophage infiltration by MRI was demonstrated. We here investigated a new class of very small superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (VSOP) as novel contrast medium in murine ...

Tysiak, E.; Asbach, P.; Aktas, O.; Waiczies, H.; Smyth, M.; Schnorr, J.; Taupitz, M.; Wuerfel, J.

2009-01-01

179

Detection of Focal Cortical Dysplasia Lesions in MRI Using Textural Features  

Science.gov (United States)

Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is a frequent cause of medically refractory partial epilepsy. The visual identification of FCD lesions on magnetic resonance images (MRI) is a challenging task in standard radiological analysis. Quantitative image analysis which tries to assist in the diagnosis of FCD lesions is an active field of research. In this work we investigate the potential of different texture features, in order to explore to what extent they are suitable for detecting lesional tissue. As a result we can show first promising results based on segmentation and texture classification.

Loyek, Christian; Woermann, Friedrich G.; Nattkemper, Tim W.

180

Diffusion-weighted and conventional MRI in detection of Multiple Sclerosis lesions in brain: a comparative study  

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Full Text Available Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic disease that begins most commonly in young adults and is characterized pathologically by multiple areas of central nervous system (CNS white matter inflammation, demyelination, and glial scarring. The most valuable aid for diagnosis is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. New type of MRI has been developed on the basis of molecular diffusion which capable of detecting acute and active lesions. Early diagnosis and treatment is possible to stop or slow down progression of disease. The aim of this study is to compare the findings of conventional and diffusion- weighted (DW MRI in detection cerebral lesions of MS. Methods: Thirty patients with clinically definite MS and 30 healthy volunteers were studied in a descriptive-prospective survey over a twelve-month period of time. Conventional and DW MRI were used in both groups. Total number, morphology, location and the mean size of the intra-cerebral plaques of MS were compared between group. The sensitivity and the specificity of both imaging methods in detecting these plaques were determined. Results: Thirty patients with MS with the mean age of 32.76±8.79 years and 30 healthy individuals with the mean age of 32.75± 9.23 years were enrolled. Plaque within the brain was significantly higher by the conventional method (P< 0.05. Ovoid lesions were greater in number in the conventional method group. More lesions were detected by the conventional method in the areas of periventricle, centrum semiovale and corpus callosum. Regarding the size of plaque, the minimum measurement was significantly lower in the conventional method group. The sensitivity of both methods was 100%. The specificity of conventional and DW MRI was 86.6% and 96.6%, respectively. Conclusion: In our study the sensitivity of both methods was the same but the specificity of DW MRI was higher. DW MRI may detect lesions which are not detectable by the routine methods.

"Z. Miabi

2006-07-01

 
 
 
 
181

A nano-sized PARACEST-fluorescence imaging contrast agent facilitates & validates in vivo CEST MRI detection of glioma  

Science.gov (United States)

Aim The authors have investigated the usefulness of in vivo chemical exchange saturation transfer MRI for detecting gliomas using a dual-modality imaging contrast agent. Materials & methods A paramagnetic chemical exchange saturation transfer MRI contrast agent, Eu-1,4,7,10-tetraazacclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid-Gly4 and a fluorescent agent, DyLight® 680, were conjugated to a generation 5 polyamidoamine dendrimer to create the dual-modality, nano-sized imaging contrast agent. Results The agent was detected with in vivo chemical exchange saturation transfer MRI in an U87 glioma model. These results were validated using in vivo and ex vivo fluorescence imaging. Conclusion This study demonstrated the merits of using a nano-sized imaging contrast agent for detecting gliomas and using a dual-modality agent for detecting gliomas at different spatial scales. PMID:22891866

Ali, Meser M; Bhuiyan, Mohammed PI; Janic, Branislava; Varma, Nadimpalli RS; Mikkelsen, Tom; Ewing, James R; Knight, Robert A; Pagel, Mark D; Arbab, Ali S

2012-01-01

182

Multimodal image registration of ex vivo 4 Tesla MRI with whole mount histology for prostate cancer detection  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper we present novel methods for registration and subsequent evaluation of whole mount prostate histological sections to corresponding 4 Tesla ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) slices to complement our existing computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for detection of prostatic adenocarcinoma from high resolution MRI. The CAD system is trained using voxels labeled as cancer on MRI by experts who visually aligned histology with MRI. To address voxel labeling errors on account of manual alignment and delineation, we have developed a registration method called combined feature ensemble mutual information (COFEMI) to automatically map spatial extent of prostate cancer from histology onto corresponding MRI for prostatectomy specimens. Our method improves over intensity-based similarity metrics (mutual information) by incorporating unique information from feature spaces that are relatively robust to intensity artifacts and which accentuate the structural details in the target and template images to be registered. Our registration algorithm accounts for linear gland deformations in the histological sections resulting from gland fixing and serial sectioning. Following automatic registration of MRI and histology, cancer extent from histological sections are mapped to the corresponding registered MRI slices. The manually delineated cancer areas on MRI obtained via manual alignment of histological sections and MRI are compared with corresponding cancer extent obtained via COFEMI by a novel registration evaluation technique based on use of non-linear dimensionality reduction (locally linear embedding (LLE)). The cancer map on MRI determined by COFEMI was found to be significantly more accurate compared to the manually determined cancer mask. The performance of COFEMI was also found to be superior compared to image intensity-based mutual information registration.

Chappelow, Jonathan; Madabhushi, Anant; Rosen, Mark; Tomaszeweski, John; Feldman, Michael

2007-03-01

183

Improved detection of localized prostate cancer using co-registered MRI and {sup 11}C-acetate PET/CT  

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Objectives: We aimed to study the ability of contrast enhanced MRI at 1.5 T and {sup 11}C-acetate PET/CT, both individually and using fused data, to detect localized prostate cancer. Methods: Thirty-six men with untreated prostate cancer and negative for metastatic disease on pelvic CT and bone scan were prospectively enrolled. A pelvic {sup 11}C-acetate PET/CT scan was performed in all patients, and a contrast enhanced MRI scan in 33 patients (6 examinations using both endorectal coil and surface coils, and 27 examinations using surface coils only). After the imaging studies 10 patients underwent prostatectomy and 26 were treated by image guided external beam radiation treatment. Image fusion of co-registered PET and MRI data was performed based on anatomical landmarks visible on CT and MRI using an advanced in-house developed software package. PET/CT, MRI and fused PET/MRI data were evaluated visually and compared with biopsy findings on a lobar level, while a sextant approach was used for patients undergoing prostatectomy. Results: When using biopsy samples as method of reference, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for visual detection of prostate cancer on a lobar level by contrast enhanced MRI was 85%, 37%, 73% and that of {sup 11}C-acetate PET/CT 88%, 41%, 74%, respectively. Fusion of PET with MRI data increased sensitivity, specificity and accuracy to 90%, 72% and 85%, respectively. Conclusions: Fusion of sequentially obtained PET/CT and MRI data for the localization of prostate cancer is feasible and superior to the performance of each individual modality alone.

Jambor, Ivan, E-mail: ivjamb@utu.fi [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Turku, Turku (Finland); 2nd Department of Radiology, Comenius University and St. Elisabeth Oncology Institute, Bratislava (Slovakia); Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, Turku (Finland); Borra, Ronald, E-mail: ronald.borra@tyks.fi [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Turku, Turku (Finland); Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, Turku (Finland); Medical Imaging Centre of Southwest Finland, Turku University Hospital, Turku (Finland); Kemppainen, Jukka, E-mail: Jukka.Kemppainen@tyks.fi [Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, Turku (Finland); Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Turku (Finland); Lepomaeki, Virva, E-mail: Virva.Lepomaki@tyks.fi [Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, Turku (Finland); Parkkola, Riitta, E-mail: Riitta.Parkkola@tyks.fi [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Turku, Turku (Finland); Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, Turku (Finland); Medical Imaging Centre of Southwest Finland, Turku University Hospital, Turku (Finland); Dean, Kirsti, E-mail: Kirsti.Dean@tyks.fi [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Turku, Turku (Finland); Medical Imaging Centre of Southwest Finland, Turku University Hospital, Turku (Finland); Alanen, Kalle, E-mail: Kalle.Alanen@tyks.fi [Department of Pathology, Turku University Hospital, Turku (Finland); Arponen, Eveliina, E-mail: Eveliina.Arponen@utu.fi [Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, Turku (Finland); Nurmi, Martti, E-mail: Martti.Nurmi@tyks.fi [Department of Surgery, Division of Urology, Turku University Hospital, Turku (Finland); Aronen, Hannu J., E-mail: Hannu.Aronen@tyks.fi [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Turku, Turku (Finland); Medical Imaging Centre of Southwest Finland, Turku University Hospital, Turku (Finland); and others

2012-11-15

184

Improved detection of localized prostate cancer using co-registered MRI and 11C-acetate PET/CT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objectives: We aimed to study the ability of contrast enhanced MRI at 1.5 T and 11C-acetate PET/CT, both individually and using fused data, to detect localized prostate cancer. Methods: Thirty-six men with untreated prostate cancer and negative for metastatic disease on pelvic CT and bone scan were prospectively enrolled. A pelvic 11C-acetate PET/CT scan was performed in all patients, and a contrast enhanced MRI scan in 33 patients (6 examinations using both endorectal coil and surface coils, and 27 examinations using surface coils only). After the imaging studies 10 patients underwent prostatectomy and 26 were treated by image guided external beam radiation treatment. Image fusion of co-registered PET and MRI data was performed based on anatomical landmarks visible on CT and MRI using an advanced in-house developed software package. PET/CT, MRI and fused PET/MRI data were evaluated visually and compared with biopsy findings on a lobar level, while a sextant approach was used for patients undergoing prostatectomy. Results: When using biopsy samples as method of reference, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for visual detection of prostate cancer on a lobar level by contrast enhanced MRI was 85%, 37%, 73% and that of 11C-acetate PET/CT 88%, 41%, 74%, respectively. Fusion of PET with MRI data increased sensitivity, specificity and accuracy to 90%, 72% and 85%, respectively. Conclusions: Fusion of sequentially obtained PET/CT and MRI data for the localization of prostate cancer is feasible and superior to the performance of each individual modality alone.

185

Feasibility study of contaminant detection for food with ULF-NMR/MRI system using HTS-SQUID  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: •Feasibility of application of ultra-low field (ULF) NMR/MRI was studied. •ULF-NMR/MRI system utilized HTS-rf-SQUID and permanent magnet of 1.1 T. •Magnetic contaminants in water were successfully detected by NMR measurements. •Non-magnetic contaminants in water were distinguished by 1D-MRI measurements. -- Abstract: We have developed an ultra-low frequency (ULF) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system utilizing an HTS-SQUID for an application of contaminant detection in food and drink. In the system, a permanent magnet of 1.1 T was used to pre-polarize protons in a water sample. We measured NMR signals from water samples with or without various contaminants, such as stainless steel (SUS304), aluminum, and glass balls using the system. In the case that the contaminant was the SUS304 ball, the NMR signal intensity was reduced compared to that from the sample without the contaminant due to the remnant field of the contaminant. One-dimensional (1D) MRIs of the samples were also acquired to detect non-magnetic contaminants. In the 1D MRIs, changes of the MRI spectra were detected, corresponding to positions of the contaminants. These results show that the feasibility of the system to detect various contaminants in foods.

Hatsukade, Yoshimi, E-mail: hatukade@ens.tut.ac.jp; Tsunaki, Shingo; Yamamoto, Masaaki; Abe, Takayuki; Hatta, Junichi; Tanaka, Saburo

2013-11-15

186

Generation and remote detection of THz sound using semiconductor superlattices  

CERN Document Server

The authors introduce a novel approach to study the propagation of high frequency acoustic phonons in which the generation and detection involves two spatially separated superlattices $\\sim 1 {\\rm \\mu m}$ apart. Propagating modes of frequencies up to $\\sim 1 {\\rm THz}$ escape from the superlattice where they are generated and reach the second superlattice where they are detected. The measured frequency spectrum reveals finite size effects, which can be accounted for by a continuum elastic model.

Trigo, M; Wahlstrand, J K; Merlin, R; Reason, M; Goldman, R S

2007-01-01

187

Relayed coherence transfer spectroscopy of heteronuclear systems: detection of remote nuclei in NMR  

Science.gov (United States)

Heteronuclear two-dimensional NMR experiments are presented which allow the correlation of nuclei that are not directly coupled but belong to a common coupling network. The techniques involve two or more consecutive coherence transfer steps. The applications discussed include the indirect observation of remote proton signals through phosphorus-31 and carbon-13 detection.

Bolton, Philip H.; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey

1982-06-01

188

An integrated remote sensing and GIS approach in the detection of changes in Beijing  

Science.gov (United States)

Beijing is the center of politics, economy and culture in China. In recent years, the rapid development has been taking place in the city, especially, after the successful application for 2008 Olympic Games. In order to know and control the city development it is necessary to monitor the changes. Timely and accurate change detection of the city is important for the administrant departments to promote better decision making. Given the current techniques available, remote sensing provides the most feasible approach to regional and larger scale land surface change detection. A critical step of many change detection methods is to select an appropriate threshold value to extract change information. In the paper, an adaptive determination method based on polygon area fit rate is brought forward. A method based on the integration of remote sensing and GIS is presented to analyze the change types. We apply this method in the change detection practical project of Beijing city and get good result.

Zhang, Xiaodong; Li, Deren; Gong, Jianya; Qin, Qianqing

2005-10-01

189

Morphological MRI criteria improve the detection of lymph node metastases in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: multivariate logistic regression analysis of MRI features of cervical lymph nodes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim was to evaluate whether morphological criteria in addition to the size criterion results in better diagnostic performance of MRI for the detection of cervical lymph node metastases in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Two radiologists evaluated 44 consecutive patients in which lymph node characteristics were assessed with histopathological correlation as gold standard. Assessed criteria were the short axial diameter and morphological criteria such as border ...

Bondt, R. B. J.; Nelemans, P. J.; Bakers, F.; Casselman, J. W.; Peutz-kootstra, C.; Kremer, B.; Hofman, P. A. M.; Beets-tan, R. G. H.

2009-01-01

190

Progress in the Development of Practical Remote Detection of Icing Conditions  

Science.gov (United States)

The NASA Icing Remote Sensing System (NIRSS) has been under definition and development at NASA Glenn Research Center since 1997. The goal of this development activity is to produce and demonstrate the required sensing and data processing technologies required to accurately remotely detect and measure icing conditions aloft. As part of that effort NASA has teamed with NCAR to develop software to fuse data from multiple instruments into a single detected icing condition product. The multiple instrument approach utilizes a X-band vertical staring radar, a multifrequency microwave, and a lidar ceilometer. The radar data determine cloud boundaries, the radiometer determines the sub-freezing temperature heights and total liquid water content, and the ceilometer refines the lower cloud boundary. Data is post-processed with a LabVIEW program with a resultant supercooled liquid water profile and aircraft hazard depiction. Ground-based, remotely-sensed measurements and in-situ measurements from research aircraft were gathered during the international 2003-2004 Alliance Icing Research Study (AIRS II). Comparisons between the remote sensing system s fused icing product and the aircraft measurements are reviewed here. While there are areas where improvement can be made, the cases examined suggest that the fused sensor remote sensing technique appears to be a valid approach.

Reehorst, Andrew; Politovich, Marcia K.; Zednik, Stephan; Isaac, George A.; Cober, Stewart

2006-01-01

191

Zero-field remote detection of NMR with a microfabricated atomic magnetometer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We demonstrate remote detection of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with a microchip sensor consisting of a microfluidic channel and a microfabricated vapor cell (the heart of an atomic magnetometer). Detection occurs at zero magnetic field, which allows operation of the magnetometer in the spin-exchange relaxation-free (SERF) regime and increases the proximity of sensor and sample by eliminating the need for a solenoid to create a leading field. We achieve pulsed NMR linewidths of 26 Hz, lim...

Ledbetter, M. P.; Savukov, I. M.; Budker, D.; Shah, V.; Knappe, S.; Kitching, J.; Michalak, D. J.; Xu, S.; Pines, A.

2008-01-01

192

Apparatus for the remote detection of sounds caused by leaks  

Science.gov (United States)

Two laser beams derived from a laser pass through a furnace and are superposed in a laser spot to produce interference fringes having the same pitch as that of a Ronchi grating printed on a retroreflecting screen. Minute fluctuations of the laser beams caused by sound waves from leaks result in intensity fluctuations of the laser spot when the laser fringes move past the fixed grating. A telescope and photocell arrangement detects the light variations to produce an electrical signal which is amplified and filtered to detect the sound of leaks. This non-contact laser Schlieren microphone is sensitive to sounds all along the path of the beams.

Shakkottai, Parthasarathy (Inventor); Alwar, Vijayaraghavan (Inventor)

1990-01-01

193

Single (19)F Probe for Simultaneous Detection of Multiple Metal Ions Using miCEST MRI.  

Science.gov (United States)

The local presence and concentration of metal ions in biological systems has been extensively studied ex vivo using fluorescent dyes. However, the detection of multiple metal ions in vivo remains a major challenge. We present a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based method for noninvasive detection of specific ions that may be coexisting, using the tetrafluorinated derivative of the BAPTA (TF-BAPTA) chelate as a (19)F chelate analogue of existing optical dyes. Taking advantage of the difference in the ion-specific (19)F nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shift offset (??) values between the ion-bound and free TF-BAPTA, we exploited the dynamic exchange between ion-bound and free TF-BAPTA to obtain MRI contrast with multi-ion chemical exchange saturation transfer (miCEST). We demonstrate that TF-BAPTA as a prototype single (19)F probe can be used to separately visualize mixed Zn(2+) and Fe(2+) ions in a specific and simultaneous fashion, without interference from potential competitive ions. PMID:25523816

Bar-Shir, Amnon; Yadav, Nirbhay N; Gilad, Assaf A; van Zijl, Peter C M; McMahon, Michael T; Bulte, Jeff W M

2015-01-14

194

Heart beats brain: The problem of detecting alpha waves by neuronal current imaging in joint EEG-MRI experiments.  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been suggested recently that the influence of the neuro-magnetic field should make electrical brain activity directly detectable by MRI. To test this hypothesis, we performed combined EEG-MRI experiments which aim to localize the neuronal current sources of alpha waves (8-12 Hz), one of the most prominent EEG phenomena in humans. A detailed analysis of cross-spectral coherence between simultaneously recorded EEG and MRI time series revealed no sign of alpha waves. Instead the EEG-MRI approach was found to be hampered by artefacts due to cardiac pulsation, which extend into the frequency band of alpha waves. Separate brain displacement mapping experiments confirmed that not only the EEG but also the MRI signal is confounded by harmonics of the cardiac frequency even at 10 Hz and beyond. This well-known ballistocardiogram artefact cannot be avoided or eliminated entirely by available signal processing techniques. Therefore we must conclude that current EEG-MRI methodology based on correlation analysis lacks not only the sensitivity but also the specificity required for the reliable detection of alpha waves. PMID:17544703

Mandelkow, H; Halder, P; Brandeis, D; Soellinger, M; de Zanche, N; Luechinger, R; Boesiger, P

2007-08-01

195

Detection of suspected placental invasion by MRI: Do the results depend on observer’ experience?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic value of previously described MR features used for detecting suspected placental invasion according to observers’ experience. Materials and methods: Our population included 25 pregnant women (mean age 35.16) investigated by prenatal MRI (1.5 T, T1- and T2-weighted MR-sequences without i.v. contrast), among them 12 with histopathologically proven placental invasion and 13 women (52%) without placental invasion used as control group. Two senior and two junior radiologists blindly and independently reviewed MR-examinations in view of 6 previously defined MR-features indicating presence and degree of placental invasion (placenta increta, accreta or percreta). For each reader the sensibility, specificity, and receiver operating curve (ROC) were calculated. Interobserver agreements between senior and junior readers were determined. Stepwise logistic regression was performed including the 6 MR-features predictive of placental invasion. Results: Demographics between both groups were statistically equivalent. Overall sensitivity and specificity for placental invasion was 90.9% and 75.0% for seniors and 81.8% and 61.8% for juniors, respectively. The best single MR-feature indicating placental invasion was T2-hypointense placental bands (r{sup 2} = 0.28), followed by focally interrupted myometrial border, infiltration of pelvic organs and tenting of the bladder (r{sup 2} = 0.36). Interobserver agreement for detecting placental invasion was 0.64 for seniors and 0.41 for juniors, thus substantial and moderate, respectively. Seniors detected placental invasion and depth of infiltration with significantly higher diagnostic certitude than juniors (p = 0.0002 and p = 0.0282, respectively). Conclusion: MRI can be a reliable and reproducible tool for the detection of suspected placental invasion, but the diagnostic value significantly depends on observers’ experience.

Alamo, Leonor, E-mail: leonor.alamo@chuv.ch [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne (Switzerland); Anaye, Anass; Rey, Jannick; Denys, Alban [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne (Switzerland); Bongartz, Georg [Universitätsspital Basel (Switzerland); Terraz, Sylvain [Hôpitaux Universitaires Genève (Switzerland); Artemisia, Simona; Meuli, Reto; Schmidt, Sabine [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne (Switzerland)

2013-02-15

196

Diagnostic performance of MRI for detection of intestinal fistulas in patients with complicated inflammatory bowel conditions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detection of intestinal fistulas, other than perianal, in patients with known complicated inflammatory bowel conditions (CIBC) was investigated. Our study group consisted of 20 patients (12 women, mean age 43 years) with CIBC, including Crohn's disease (n=13), colonic diverticulitis (n=3), colitis after radiotherapy (n=3) and of postoperative origin (n=1). Eleven surgically proven enteral fistulas were known in ten (50%) of these patients, being of enterovesical (n=3), enterocolic (n=2), enteroenteral (n=2), rectovaginal (n=2), rectovaginovesical (n=1) and of entercutaneous (n=1) localisation. The other ten patients (50%), used as the control group, showed MR features of CIBC, although without any fistulous tract. Multiplanar T1- and T2-weighted sequences had been performed, including gadolinium-enhanced acquisition with fat saturation (1.5 T). MR findings were independently blindly and retrospectively reviewed by three radiologists for the presence and etiology of any fistula, as well as visualization and characterization of the fistulous tract. Results were compared with surgical findings (n=16) and clinical evolution (n=4). Interobserver agreement was calculated. Interobserver agreement kappa for fistula detection was 0.71. Overall sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for fistula detection were 78.6%, 75% and 77.2%, respectively. Sensitivity for fistula characterization was 80.6%, with visualization of the fistulous tract in all cases, whereby T1-weighted gadolinium-enhanced fat-saturated images were considered the most useful sequences. Gadolinium-enhanced MRI is a reliable and reproducible tool for detection of enteral fistulas secondary to inflammatory conditions. (orig.)

Schmidt, S.; Meuwly, J.Y.; Meuli, R.; Schnyder, P.; Denys, A. [Universitaire Vaudois - CHUV, Service de radiodiagnostic et radiologie interventionnelle, Centre Hospitalier, Lausanne (Switzerland); Chevallier, P. [Hopital Archet II, Imagerie Medicale, Nice (France); Bessoud, B. [Hopital Kremlin-Bicetre, Radiologie Generale, Kremlin-Bicetre (France); Felley, C. [University Hospital, CHUV, Service de Gastroenterologie, Lausanne (Switzerland)

2007-11-15

197

Diagnostic performance of MRI for detection of intestinal fistulas in patients with complicated inflammatory bowel conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detection of intestinal fistulas, other than perianal, in patients with known complicated inflammatory bowel conditions (CIBC) was investigated. Our study group consisted of 20 patients (12 women, mean age 43 years) with CIBC, including Crohn's disease (n=13), colonic diverticulitis (n=3), colitis after radiotherapy (n=3) and of postoperative origin (n=1). Eleven surgically proven enteral fistulas were known in ten (50%) of these patients, being of enterovesical (n=3), enterocolic (n=2), enteroenteral (n=2), rectovaginal (n=2), rectovaginovesical (n=1) and of entercutaneous (n=1) localisation. The other ten patients (50%), used as the control group, showed MR features of CIBC, although without any fistulous tract. Multiplanar T1- and T2-weighted sequences had been performed, including gadolinium-enhanced acquisition with fat saturation (1.5 T). MR findings were independently blindly and retrospectively reviewed by three radiologists for the presence and etiology of any fistula, as well as visualization and characterization of the fistulous tract. Results were compared with surgical findings (n=16) and clinical evolution (n=4). Interobserver agreement was calculated. Interobserver agreement kappa for fistula detection was 0.71. Overall sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for fistula detection were 78.6%, 75% and 77.2%, respectively. Sensitivity for fistula characterization was 80.6%, with visualizatioracterization was 80.6%, with visualization of the fistulous tract in all cases, whereby T1-weighted gadolinium-enhanced fat-saturated images were considered the most useful sequences. Gadolinium-enhanced MRI is a reliable and reproducible tool for detection of enteral fistulas secondary to inflammatory conditions. (orig.)

198

Detection of suspected placental invasion by MRI: Do the results depend on observer’ experience?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic value of previously described MR features used for detecting suspected placental invasion according to observers’ experience. Materials and methods: Our population included 25 pregnant women (mean age 35.16) investigated by prenatal MRI (1.5 T, T1- and T2-weighted MR-sequences without i.v. contrast), among them 12 with histopathologically proven placental invasion and 13 women (52%) without placental invasion used as control group. Two senior and two junior radiologists blindly and independently reviewed MR-examinations in view of 6 previously defined MR-features indicating presence and degree of placental invasion (placenta increta, accreta or percreta). For each reader the sensibility, specificity, and receiver operating curve (ROC) were calculated. Interobserver agreements between senior and junior readers were determined. Stepwise logistic regression was performed including the 6 MR-features predictive of placental invasion. Results: Demographics between both groups were statistically equivalent. Overall sensitivity and specificity for placental invasion was 90.9% and 75.0% for seniors and 81.8% and 61.8% for juniors, respectively. The best single MR-feature indicating placental invasion was T2-hypointense placental bands (r2 = 0.28), followed by focally interrupted myometrial border, infiltration of pelvic organs and tenting of the bladder (r2 = 0.36). Interobserver agreement for detecting placental invasion was 0.64 for seniors and 0.41 for juniors, thus substantial and moderate, respectively. Seniors detected placental invasion and depth of infiltration with significantly higher diagnostic certitude than juniors (p = 0.0002 and p = 0.0282, respectively). Conclusion: MRI can be a reliable and reproducible tool for the detection of suspected placental invasion, but the diagnostic value significantly depends on observers’ experience

199

Remote Mine Detection Technologies for Land and Water Environments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The detection of mines, both during and after hostilities, is a growing international problem. It limits military operations during wartime and unrecovered mines create tragic consequences for civilians. From a purely humanitarian standpoint an estimated 100 million or more unrecovered mines are located in over 60 countries worldwide. This paper presents an overview of some of the technologies currently being investigated by Sandia National Laboratories for the detection and monitoring of minefields in land and water environments. The three technical areas described in this paper are: 1) the development of new mathematical techniques for combining or fusing the data from multiple sources for enhanced decision-making; 2) an environmental fate and transport (EF&T) analysis approach that is central to improving trace chemical sensing technique; and 3) the investigation of an underwater range imaging device to aid in locating and characterizing mines and other obstacles in coastal waters.

Hoover, Eddie R.

1999-05-11

200

Remote Detection of Explosive Molecules by a Microfluidic SERS Device  

Science.gov (United States)

Free-surface microfluidics (FSF) is combined with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to detect trace explosives vapors at room temperature and pressure. A free surface, with a large surface to volume ratio, is created using an open microchannel. Since surface tension is a dominant force at the microscale, it can be used to confine the fluid in the microchannel and create a pressure gradient to drive the flow with velocities ranging from ˜ 1um/s - 1mm/s. The curvature of the free surface is measured by confocal microscopy in order to determine the local Laplace pressure in the free-surface microchannel flow. The system has been used for the molecular-specific detection of vapor emanated from explosives such as DNT, TNT and picric acid. The system does not show signs of performance degradation from common interferents such as saturated gasoline vapor and perfume.

Piorek, Brian; Lee, Seung Joon; Moskovits, Martin; Banerjee, Sanjoy; Meinhart, Carl

2007-11-01

 
 
 
 
201

Vehicle Accident Automatic Detection and Remote Alarm Device  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Rapid growth of  technology and infrastructure has made our lives more easy . The advent of technology has also increased the traffic hazards and the  road  accident take place frequently which causes huge loss of life and property because of the poor emergency facilities. Our project will provide an optimum solution to this draw back. An accelerometer can be used in a car alarm application so that dangerous driving can be detected . It can be used as a crash or rollover detector of...

Varsha Goud

2012-01-01

202

Incident and Traffic-Bottleneck Detection Algorithm in High-Resolution Remote Sensing Imagery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the most important methods to solve traffic congestion is to detect the incident state of a roadway. This paper describes the development of a method for road traffic monitoring aimed at the acquisition and analysis of remote sensing imagery. We propose a strategy for road extraction, vehicle detection and incident detection from remote sensing imagery using techniques based on neural networks, Radon transform for angle detection and traffic-flow measurements. Traffic-bottleneck detection is another method that is proposed for recognizing incidents in both offline and real-time mode. Traffic flows and incidents are extracted from aerial images of bottleneck zones. The results show that the proposed approach has a reasonable detection performance compared to other methods. The best performance of the learning system was a detection rate of 87% and a false alarm rate of less than 18% on 45 aerial images of roadways. The performance of the traffic-bottleneck detection method had a detection rate of 87.5%.

S.M.M. Kahaki

2012-09-01

203

AIRBORNE, OPTICAL REMOTE SENSNG OF METHANE AND ETHANE FOR NATURAL GAS PIPELINE LEAK DETECTION  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ophir Corporation was awarded a contract by the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory under the Project Title ''Airborne, Optical Remote Sensing of Methane and Ethane for Natural Gas Pipeline Leak Detection'' on October 14, 2002. The scope of the work involved designing and developing an airborne, optical remote sensor capable of sensing methane and, if possible, ethane for the detection of natural gas pipeline leaks. Flight testing using a custom dual wavelength, high power fiber amplifier was initiated in February 2005. Ophir successfully demonstrated the airborne system, showing that it was capable of discerning small amounts of methane from a simulated pipeline leak. Leak rates as low as 150 standard cubic feet per hour (scf/h) were detected by the airborne sensor.

Jerry Myers

2005-04-15

204

Blink Reflex as a Complementary Test to MRI in Early Detection of Brainstem Infarctions: Comparison of Blink Reflex Abnormalities in Anterior Versus Posterior Circulation Strokes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Early detection of vertebro-basilar insufficiency is of paramount importance. Brain MRI was the only method of diagnosis for many years, but in addition to high cost and delay in report, it may not detect all brain stem lesions. In this study Blink reflex (BR) was evaluated as a complementary test to MRI. Methods: Fifty-four patients were studied [27 anterior circulation stroke patients (ACSP) and 27 posterior circulation stroke patients (PCSP)]. MRI was performed within the first...

Basiri, K.; Zareh, M.; Khosravi, S.

2004-01-01

205

Brain MRI segmentation and lesion detection using generalized Gaussian and Rician modeling  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper we propose a mixed noise modeling so as to segment the brain and to detect lesion. Indeed, accurate segmentation of multimodal (T1, T2 and Flair) brain MR images is of great interest for many brain disorders but requires to efficiently manage multivariate correlated noise between available modalities. We addressed this problem in1 by proposing an entirely unsupervised segmentation scheme, taking into account multivariate Gaussian noise, imaging artifacts,intrinsic tissue variation and partial volume effects in a Bayesian framework. Nevertheless, tissue classification remains a challenging task especially when one addresses the lesion detection during segmentation process2 as we did. In order to improve brain segmentation into White and Gray Matter (resp. WM and GM) and cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF), we propose to fit a Rician (RC) density distribution for CSF whereas Generalized Gaussian (GG) models are used to fit the likelihood between model and data corresponding to WM and GM. In this way, we present in this paper promising results showing that in a multimodal segmentation-detection scheme, this model fits better with the data and increases lesion detection rate. One of the main challenges consists in being able to take into account various pdf (Gaussian and non- Gaussian) for correlated noise between modalities and to show that lesion-detection is then clearly improved, probably because non-Gaussian noise better fits to the physic of MRI image acquisition.

Wu, Xuqiang; Bricq, Stéphanie; Collet, Christophe

2011-03-01

206

AOTF Raman spectrometer for remote detection of explosives  

Science.gov (United States)

A spectrometer based on acousto-optic tunable filters is developed for use in measuring Raman spectra as part of a detection system that is low-cost, reliable, and field-portable. The system is coupled with a fiber optic bundle to carry the excitation laser light to the sample and to collect the Raman scattered light. Spectra of the explosives trinitrotoluene (TNT), cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX), cyclotetramethylenetetranitramine (HMX) and nitroguanidine (NQ) were obtained in very short times and are in good agreement with those taken with conventional Fourier transform Raman spectrometers. Spectra of mixtures of explosives were also obtained and show no overlap of their characteristic Raman bands.

Gupta, N.; Dahmani, R.

2000-07-01

207

Applying Mean-Shift - Clustering for 3D object detection in remote sensing data  

Science.gov (United States)

The timely warning and forecasting of high-impact weather events is crucial for life, safety and economy. Therefore, the development and improvement of methods for detection and nowcasting / short-term forecasting of these events is an ongoing research question. A new 3D object detection and tracking algorithm is presented. Within the project "object-based analysis and seamless predictin (OASE)" we address a better understanding and forecasting of convective events based on the synergetic use of remotely sensed data and new methods for detection, nowcasting, validation and assimilation. In order to gain advanced insight into the lifecycle of convective cells, we perform an object-detection on a new high-resolution 3D radar- and satellite based composite and plan to track the detected objects over time, providing us with a model of the lifecycle. The insights in the lifecycle will be used in order to improve prediction of convective events in the nowcasting time scale, as well as a new type of data to be assimilated into numerical weather models, thus seamlessly bridging the gap between nowcasting and NWP.. The object identification (or clustering) is performed using a technique borrowed from computer vision, called mean-shift clustering. Mean-Shift clustering works without many of the parameterizations or rigid threshold schemes employed by many existing schemes (e. g. KONRAD, TITAN, Trace-3D), which limit the tracking to fully matured, convective cells of significant size and/or strength. Mean-Shift performs without such limiting definitions, providing a wider scope for studying larger classes of phenomena and providing a vehicle for research into the object definition itself. Since the mean-shift clustering technique could be applied on many types of remote-sensing and model data for object detection, it is of general interest to the remote sensing and modeling community. The focus of the presentation is the introduction of this technique and the results of its application on our remote-sensing composite.

Simon, Jürgen-Lorenz; Diederich, Malte; Troemel, Silke

2013-04-01

208

Use of MRI and 31P NMR for detection of bone and other foreign objects within meat  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Concern for the safety and quality of food products has been continuously increasing. The meat industry has been particularly concerned with the presence of foreign objects in meat products. Preliminary studies involving the use of MRI for detection of foreign objects demonstrated that objects could be easily distinguished from the meat. However, the objects were indistinguishable from air pockets within the meat, limiting detection to the size of the void spaces within the sample. For detect...

Bellmer, Danielle D.

1996-01-01

209

Detection of hepatocellular carcinoma in gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and diffusion-weighted MRI with respect to the severity of liver cirrhosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background As gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) have been widely used for the evaluation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), it is clinically relevant to determine the diagnostic efficacy of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and DWI for detection of HCCs with respect to the severity of liver cirrhosis. Purpose To compare the diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and DWI for detection of HCCs with respect to the severity of liver cirrhosis. Material and Methods A total of 189 patients with 240 HCCs (?3.0 cm) (Child-Pugh A, 81 patients with 90 HCCs; Child-Pugh B, 65 patients with 85 HCCs; Child-Pugh C, 43 patients with 65 HCCs) underwent DWI and gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI at 3.0 T. A gadoxetic acid set (dynamic and hepatobiliary phase plus T2-weighted image) and DWI set (DWI plus unenhanced MRIs) for each Child-Pugh class were analyzed independently by two observers for detecting HCCs using receiver-operating characteristic analysis. The diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity were calculated. Results There was a trend toward decreased diagnostic accuracy for gadoxetic acid and DWI set with respect to the severity of cirrhosis (Child-Pugh A [mean 0.974, 0.961], B [mean 0.904, 0.863], C [mean 0.779, 0.760]). For both observers, the sensitivities of both image sets were highest in Child-Pugh class A (mean 95.6%, 93.9%), followed by class B (mean 83.0%, 77.1%), and class C (mean 60.6%, 60.0%) 77.1%), and class C (mean 60.6%, 60.0%) (P < 0.05). Conclusion In HCC detection, the diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity for gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and DWI were highest in Child-Pugh class A, followed by Child-Pugh class B, and Child-Pugh class C, indicating a tendency toward decreased diagnostic capability with the severity of cirrhosis

210

Laser generation and detection of ultrasound for remote inspection of AGR graphite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Laser-based systems for the generation and detection of ultrasound possess important advantages over conventional ultrasonic techniques. Foremost amongst these is the completely non-contact nature of the technique, which should enable measurements to be made at distances of the order of metres, allowing the remote examination of, for example, hot, radioactive or awkwardly shaped structures. The technique is considered here with particular reference to the problem of in-situ inspection of AGR graphite bricks. Other possible applications include crack detection, the measurement of oxide layer thicknesses on corroded samples, and detection of wall thinning in AGR fuel pins. (author)

211

Computer-aided detection (CAD) for breast MRI: evaluation of efficacy at 3.0 T  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of the study was to evaluate the accuracy of 3.0-T breast MRI interpretation using manual and fully automated kinetic analyses. Manual MRI interpretation was done on an Advantage Workstation. Retrospectively, all examinations were processed with a computer-aided detection (CAD) system. CAD data sets were interpreted by two experienced breast radiologists and two residents. For each lesion automated analysis of enhancement kinetics was evaluated at 50% and 100% thresholds. Forty-nine malignant and 22 benign lesions were evaluated. Using threshold enhancement alone, the sensitivity and specificity of CAD were 97.9% and 86.4%, respectively, for the 50% threshold, and 97.9% and 90%, respectively, for the 100% threshold. Manual interpretation by two breast radiologists showed a sensitivity of 84.6% and a specificity of 68.8%. For the same two radiologists the mean sensitivity and specificity for CAD-based interpretation was 90.4% (not significant) and 81.3% (significant at p < 0.05), respectively. With one-way ANOVA no significant differences were found between the two breast radiologists and the two residents together, or between any two readers separately. CAD-based analysis improved the specificity compared with manual analysis of enhancement. Automated analysis at 50% and 100% thresholds showed a high sensitivity and specificity for readers with varying levels of experience. (orig.)

212

Non-contact biopotential sensor for remote human detection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes a new low-cost, low-noise displacement current sensor developed for non-contact measurements of human biopotentials and well suited for detection of human presence applications. The sensor employs a simple, improvised transimpedance amplifier that eliminates the need for ultra high values resistors normally needed in current amplifiers required for this type of measurements. The sensor provides an operational bandwidth of 0.5 - 250 Hz, and a noise level of 7.8{mu}V{radical}Hz at 1 Hz down to 30nV/{radical}Hz at 1 kHz. Reported experimental results demonstrate the sensor's capability in measuring heart related biopotentials within 0.5m off-body distance, and muscle related biopotentials within 10m no obstacles off-body distance, and 5m off-body distance with a concrete wall in between.

Mahdi, A E [Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Limerick, Limerick (Ireland); Faggion, L, E-mail: hussain.mahdi@ul.ie, E-mail: lorenzo.faggion@jrc.ec.europa.eu [Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Institute for the Protection and Safety of the Citizen, Ispra (Italy)

2011-08-17

213

Non-contact biopotential sensor for remote human detection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes a new low-cost, low-noise displacement current sensor developed for non-contact measurements of human biopotentials and well suited for detection of human presence applications. The sensor employs a simple, improvised transimpedance amplifier that eliminates the need for ultra high values resistors normally needed in current amplifiers required for this type of measurements. The sensor provides an operational bandwidth of 0.5 - 250 Hz, and a noise level of 7.8?V?Hz at 1 Hz down to 30nV/?Hz at 1 kHz. Reported experimental results demonstrate the sensor's capability in measuring heart related biopotentials within 0.5m off-body distance, and muscle related biopotentials within 10m no obstacles off-body distance, and 5m off-body distance with a concrete wall in between.

214

Detection of rheumatoid arthritis bone erosions by 2 different dedicated extremity MRI units and conventional radiography.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVES: To compare the ability of 2 different dedicated extremity magnetic resonance imaging (E-MRI) units and conventional radiography (CR) for identifying bone erosions in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) metacarpophalangeal (MCP) and wrist joints. METHODS: CR and 2 MRI-examinations (on 0.2T Esaote Artoscan and 0.2T portable MagneVu MV1000 units) of 418 bones in the dominant wrist and 2.-5. MCP-joints of 15 RA patients and 4 healthy controls were performed and blindedly evaluated for bones being visible and for erosions. RESULTS: In MCP-joints, MagneVu visualized 18.5% of bones entirely and 71.1% were 67-99% visualized. In wrists, MagneVu visualized 1.5% of bones entirely, 39.8% were 67-99% visualized and 19% were not visualized at all. Artoscan and CR visualized all bones entirely. Artoscan/MagneVu/CR found 22/19/15 bones with erosions in MCP-joints and 66/40/13 in wrist joints. With the previously validated Artoscan-unit as standard reference, MagneVu and CR had sensitivities of 0.82 and 0.55, respectively, in MCP-joint bones and 0.41 and 0.14 in wrist bones. Specificities of CR and MagneVu were comparable (0.82-0.99). MagneVu was particularly more sensitive than CR in metacarpal heads and carpal bones. MagneVu and CR detected 100% and 89%, respectively, of large erosions (OMERACT-RAMRIS-score > 1 on Artoscan) in MCP-joints, and 69% and 15.8% of large erosions in wrists. CONCLUSIONS: Both E-MRI units detected more erosions than CR, particularly due to a higher sensitivity in metacarpal heads and carpal bones. The MagneVu detected fewer erosions than the Artoscan, due to a lower average image quality and a smaller proportion of bones being visualized. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Nov-16

Duer, Anne; Vestergaard, Aage

2008-01-01

215

MnDPDP-enhanced MRI vs dual-phase spiral CT in the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives of this study were twofold: (a) to assess safety and tolerability of the hepatobiliary MR contrast agent MnDPDP; and (b) to investigate the sensitivity of MnDPDP-enhanced MRI, in comparison with dual-phase spiral CT, in the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in cirrhosis. Fifty patients with liver cirrhosis and histologically proven HCC were enrolled in a prospective phase-IIIB clinical trial. All patients underwent evaluation with dual-phase spiral CT and pre-contrast and post-contrast MRI at 1.5 T. The MR examination protocol included spin-echo (SE) and gradient-recalled-echo (GRE) T1-weighted images acquired before and 60-120 min after administration of 0.5 micromol/kg (0.5 ml/kg) MnDPDP (Teslascan, Nycomed Amersham, Oslo, Norway); and fast T2-weighted SE images obtained solely before contrast injection. Gold standard was provided by findings at Lipiodol CT in combination with follow-up spiral CT studies, which were repeated at 4-month intervals over a 10- to 27-month (mean +/- SD 20.1 +/- 5.1 months) follow-up period. No serious adverse event occurred. Eighty tumors ranging 0.8-9.1 cm in diameter (mean +/- SD 3.2 +/- 2.4 cm) were detected by Lipiodol CT or confirmed as cancerous foci by follow-up CT studies. Pre-contrast MRI detected 38 of 80 lesions (48%); MnDPDP-enhanced MRI, 65 of 80 lesions (81%); pre-contrast plus post-contrast MRI, 69 of 80 lesions (86%); and dual-phase spiral CT, 64 of 80 lesions (80%). The difference between unenhanced and MnDPDP-enhanced MRI was statistically significant (p MRI (pre-contrast plus post-contrast) and dual-phase spiral CT was not statistically significant (p = 0.33). The confidence in the final diagnosis, however, was significantly higher for MRI as compared with spiral CT (phepatobiliary MR contrast agent. Magnetic resonance imaging with use of MnDPDP is significantly more sensitive than unenhanced MRI and as good as dual-phase spiral CT for detection of HCC in cirrhosis. PMID:11097390

Bartolozzi, C; Donati, F; Cioni, D; Crocetti, L; Lencioni, R

2000-01-01

216

MnDPDP-enhanced MRI vs dual-phase spiral CT in the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objectives of this study were twofold: (a) to assess safety and tolerability of the hepatobiliary MR contrast agent MnDPDP; and (b) to investigate the sensitivity of MnDPDP-enhanced MRI, in comparison with dual-phase spiral CT, in the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in cirrhosis. Fifty patients with liver cirrhosis and histologically proven HCC were enrolled in a prospective phase-IIIB clinical trial. All patients underwent evaluation with dual-phase spiral CT and pre-contrast and post-contrast MRI at 1.5 T. The MR examination protocol included spin-echo (SE) and gradient-recalled-echo (GRE) T1-weighted images acquired before and 60-120 min after administration of 0.5 ?mol/kg (0.5 ml/kg) MnDPDP (Teslascan, Nycomed Amersham, Oslo, Norway); and fast T2-weighted SE images obtained solely before contrast injection. Gold standard was provided by findings at Lipiodol CT in combination with follow-up spiral CT studies, which were repeated at 4-month intervals over a 10- to 27-month (mean ± SD 20.1 ± 5.1 months) follow-up period. No serious adverse event occurred. Eighty tumors ranging 0.8-9.1 cm in diameter (mean ± SD 3.2 ± 2.4 cm) were detected by Lipiodol CT or confirmed as cancerous foci by follow-up CT studies. Pre-contrast MRI detected 38 of 80 lesions (48 %); MnDPDP-enhanced MRI, 65 of 80 lesions (81 %); pre-contrast plus post-contrast MRI, 69 of 80 lesions (86 %); and dual-phase spiral CT, 64 of 80 lesions (80 %). The difference between unenhanced%). The difference between unenhanced and MnDPDP-enhanced MRI was statistically significant (p < 0.001). The difference between MRI (pre-contrast plus post-contrast) and dual-phase spiral CT was not statistically significant (p = 0.33). The confidence in the final diagnosis, however, was significantly higher for MRI as compared with spiral CT (p < 0.001). MnDPDP is a safe and well-tolerated hepatobiliary MR contrast agent. Magnetic resonance imaging with use of MnDPDP is significantly more sensitive than unenhanced MRI and as good as dual-phase spiral CT for detection of HCC in cirrhosis. (orig.)

217

A simple and objective method for reproducible resting state network (RSN) detection in fMRI  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Spatial Independent Component Analysis (ICA) decomposes the time by space functional MRI (fMRI) matrix into a set of 1-D basis time courses and their associated 3-D spatial maps that are optimized for mutual independence. When applied to resting state fMRI (rsfMRI), ICA produces several spatial independent components (ICs) that seem to have biological relevance - the so-called resting state networks (RSNs). The ICA problem is well posed when the true data generating process ...

Pendse, Gautam V.; Borsook, David; Becerra, Lino

2011-01-01

218

Detection of brown adipose tissue and thermogenic activity in mice by hyperpolarized xenon MRI.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in human weight regulation has been constrained by the lack of a noninvasive tool for measuring this tissue and its function in vivo. Existing imaging modalities are nonspecific and intrinsically insensitive to the less active, lipid-rich BAT of obese subjects, the target population for BAT studies. We demonstrate noninvasive imaging of BAT in mice by hyperpolarized xenon gas MRI. We detect a greater than 15-fold increase in xenon uptake by BAT during stimulation of BAT thermogenesis, which enables us to acquire background-free maps of the tissue in both lean and obese mouse phenotypes. We also demonstrate in vivo MR thermometry of BAT by hyperpolarized xenon gas. Finally, we use the linear temperature dependence of the chemical shift of xenon dissolved in adipose tissue to directly measure BAT temperature and to track thermogenic activity in vivo. PMID:25453088

Branca, Rosa Tamara; He, Ting; Zhang, Le; Floyd, Carlos S; Freeman, Matthew; White, Christian; Burant, Alex

2014-12-16

219

Detection of renal artery stenoses using MRI with surface shaded display. Interest in azotemic patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Forty-three patients with renal artery stenoses were examined with time of flight MR angiography using maximum intensity projection and surface shaded rendering, and with digital substraction angiography. Sensitivity and specificity were 0.83 and 0.78 for main and secondary arteries, 0.87 and 0.84 for main arteries. In azotemic patients, the positive predictive value was estimated at 40 %-70 % and the negative predictive value at 95 %- 98 %, while the prevalence of renal artery stenoses varied from 10 % to 30 %. These results validate MRI for the detection of renal artery stenoses in this population. Surface shaded display was more accurate than maximum intensity projection to reconstruct time of flight sequences and to grade renal artery stenoses. (authors)

220

Does the degree of background enhancement in breast MRI affect the detection and staging of breast cancer?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of background enhancement on the detection and staging of breast cancer using MRI as an adjunct to mammography or ultrasound. One hundred forty-six bilateral breast MRI examinations were evaluated to assess the extent of a known primary tumour and to problem solve after mammography or ultrasound without adjusting for the phase in the patients' menstrual cycle. The background enhancement was classified into four categories by visual evaluation: minimal, mild, moderate and marked. In total, 131 histologically confirmed abnormal cases (104 malignant and 27 benign) and 15 normal cases were included in the analysis. There was no tumour size-related bias between the groups (p = 0.522). For the primary index tumour, the sensitivities of MRI with minimal/mild and moderate/marked background enhancement were 100% and 76% (p = 0.001), respectively. Thus, the degree of background enhancement did not affect the specificity. For evaluating tumour extent (n = 104), the accuracy of MRI with moderate/marked background enhancement (52%) was significantly lower than that with minimal/mild background enhancement (84%; p = 0.002). The degree of background enhancement affected the detection and staging of breast cancer using MRI. (orig.)

Uematsu, Takayoshi [Shizuoka Cancer Center Hospital, Breast Imaging and Breast Intervention Section, Shizuoka (Japan); Kasami, Masako [Shizuoka Cancer Center Hospital, Department of Pathology, Naga-izumi, Shizuoka (Japan); Watanabe, Junichiro [Shizuoka Cancer Center Hospital, Division of Medical Oncology, Naga-izumi, Shizuoka (Japan)

2011-11-15

 
 
 
 
221

Comparison of gadolinium-EOB-DTPA-enhanced and diffusion-weighted liver MRI for detection of small hepatic metastases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To compare the accuracy of gadolinium ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced MRI with that of diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) in the detection of small hepatic metastases (2 cm or smaller). Forty-five patients underwent abdominal MRI at 3 T, including T1-weighted imaging (T1WI), T2-weighted imaging (T2WI), heavily T2WI (HASTE), DWI with a b-value of 500 s/mm2 and contrast-enhanced MRI with Gd-EOB-DTPA. Two groups were assigned and compared: group A (T1WI, T2WI, HASTE and contrast-enhanced study with Gd-EOB-DTPA), and group B (T1WI, T2WI, HASTE and DWI). Two observers independently interpreted the images obtained in a random order. For all hepatic metastases, the diagnostic performance using each imaging set was evaluated by receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. A total of 51 hepatic metastases were confirmed. The area under the ROC curve (Az) of group A was larger than that of group B, and the difference in the mean Az values between the two image sets was statistically significant, whereas, there were three metastases that lay near thin vessels or among multiple cysts and were better visualised in group B than in group A. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI showed higher accuracy in the detection of small metastases than DWI. (orig.)

222

Remote protein homology detection and fold recognition using two-layer support vector machine classifiers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Remote protein homology detection and fold recognition refer to detection of structural homology in proteins where there are small or no similarities in the sequence. To detect protein structural classes from protein primary sequence information, homology-based methods have been developed, which can be divided to three types: discriminative classifiers, generative models for protein families and pairwise sequence comparisons. Support Vector Machines (SVM) and Neural Networks (NN) are two popular discriminative methods. Recent studies have shown that SVM has fast speed during training, more accurate and efficient compared to NN. We present a comprehensive method based on two-layer classifiers. The 1st layer is used to detect up to superfamily and family in SCOP hierarchy using optimized binary SVM classification rules. It used the kernel function known as the Bio-kernel, which incorporates the biological information in the classification process. The 2nd layer uses discriminative SVM algorithm with string kernel that will detect up to protein fold level in SCOP hierarchy. The results obtained were evaluated using mean ROC and mean MRFP and the significance of the result produced with pairwise t-test was tested. Experimental results show that our approaches significantly improve the performance of remote protein homology detection and fold recognition for all three different version SCOP datasets (1.53, 1.67 and 1.73). We achieved 4.19% improvements in term of mean ROC in SCOP 1.53, 4.75% in SCOP 1.67 and 4.03% in SCOP 1.73 datasets when compared to the result produced by well-known methods. The combination of first layer and second layer of BioSVM-2L performs well in remote homology detection and fold recognition even in three different versions of datasets. PMID:21704312

Muda, Hilmi M; Saad, Puteh; Othman, Razib M

2011-08-01

223

Continuously moving table MRI with sliding multislice for rectal cancer staging: Image quality and lesion detection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To determine image quality and lesion detection of sliding multislice (SMS), a recently developed moving table MRI technique, in patients with rectal cancer. Materials and methods: Twenty-seven paired SMS (Avanto, Siemens Medical Solutions) and MDCT (Sensation 64, Siemens Medical Solutions) examinations of abdomen and pelvis were performed in patients with rectal cancer and compared for detection of liver, lymph node and bone metastases by two independent observers. A contrast-enhanced, fat saturated 2D gradient echo sequence (TE, 2.0 ms; TR, 102 ms; slice, 5 mm) was acquired with SMS and a standard contrast-enhanced protocol (100 ml 2.5 ml/s; slice, 5 mm) was used for abdominal MDCT. Standard of reference consisted of a consensus evaluation of SMS, MDCT, and all available follow-up examinations after a period of 6 months. Artifact burden and image quality of SMS was assessed in comparison to stationary gradient echo sequences obtained in an age-matched group of 27 patients. Results: Whereas SMS achieved a mean quality score of 3.65 (scale, 0-4) for the liver, representing very good diagnostic properties, strong breathing artifacts in the intestinal region were observed in 19 cases by both observers. The retroperitoneum still achieved a mean quality score of 3.52, although breathing artifacts were noted in 12 and 15 cases (observers 1 and 2, respectively). The sensitivities of SMS to detect hepatic metastases were 91.2% and 94.1% for both observers, respectiv2% and 94.1% for both observers, respectively, compared to 98.5%/98.5% for MDCT. The sensitivities for lymph node metastases were 87.5%/81.3% for SMS compared to 78.1%/81.3% for MDCT. The sensitivities for bone metastases were 91.7%/100% for SMS compared to 8.3%/16.7% for MDCT. Conclusion: With slightly reduced image quality in the intestinal region, SMS exhibits equal detection of lymph node and liver metastases compared to MDCT. SMS MRI proved to be superior to MDCT in detection of bone metastases.

224

Continuously moving table MRI with sliding multislice for rectal cancer staging: Image quality and lesion detection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: To determine image quality and lesion detection of sliding multislice (SMS), a recently developed moving table MRI technique, in patients with rectal cancer. Materials and methods: Twenty-seven paired SMS (Avanto, Siemens Medical Solutions) and MDCT (Sensation 64, Siemens Medical Solutions) examinations of abdomen and pelvis were performed in patients with rectal cancer and compared for detection of liver, lymph node and bone metastases by two independent observers. A contrast-enhanced, fat saturated 2D gradient echo sequence (TE, 2.0 ms; TR, 102 ms; slice, 5 mm) was acquired with SMS and a standard contrast-enhanced protocol (100 ml 2.5 ml/s; slice, 5 mm) was used for abdominal MDCT. Standard of reference consisted of a consensus evaluation of SMS, MDCT, and all available follow-up examinations after a period of 6 months. Artifact burden and image quality of SMS was assessed in comparison to stationary gradient echo sequences obtained in an age-matched group of 27 patients. Results: Whereas SMS achieved a mean quality score of 3.65 (scale, 0-4) for the liver, representing very good diagnostic properties, strong breathing artifacts in the intestinal region were observed in 19 cases by both observers. The retroperitoneum still achieved a mean quality score of 3.52, although breathing artifacts were noted in 12 and 15 cases (observers 1 and 2, respectively). The sensitivities of SMS to detect hepatic metastases were 91.2% and 94.1% for both observers, respectively, compared to 98.5%/98.5% for MDCT. The sensitivities for lymph node metastases were 87.5%/81.3% for SMS compared to 78.1%/81.3% for MDCT. The sensitivities for bone metastases were 91.7%/100% for SMS compared to 8.3%/16.7% for MDCT. Conclusion: With slightly reduced image quality in the intestinal region, SMS exhibits equal detection of lymph node and liver metastases compared to MDCT. SMS MRI proved to be superior to MDCT in detection of bone metastases.

Baumann, Tobias [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Freiburg, Hugstetter Strasse 49, 79095 Freiburg (Germany)], E-mail: tobias.baumann@uniklinik-freiburg.de; Ludwig, Ute [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Medical Physics, University Hospital Freiburg, Hugstetter Strasse 49, 79095 Freiburg (Germany); Pache, Gregor [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Freiburg, Hugstetter Strasse 49, 79095 Freiburg (Germany); Fautz, Hans-Peter [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Medical Physics, University Hospital Freiburg, Hugstetter Strasse 49, 79095 Freiburg (Germany); Kotter, Elmar; Langer, Mathias; Schaefer, Oliver [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Freiburg, Hugstetter Strasse 49, 79095 Freiburg (Germany)

2010-03-15

225

A comparison of profile hidden Markov model procedures for remote homology detection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Profile hidden Markov models (HMMs) are amongst the most successful procedures for detecting remote homology between proteins. There are two popular profile HMM programs, HMMER and SAM. Little is known about their performance relative to each other and to the recently improved version of PSI-BLAST. Here we compare the two programs to each other and to non-HMM methods, to determine their relative performance and the features that are important for their success. The quality of the multiple seq...

Madera, Martin; Gough, Julian

2002-01-01

226

Remote thermal IR surveying to detect abandoned mineshafts in former mining areas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In former mining areas it is critical to locate unknown, abandoned mineshafts prior to the development of a site. Abandoned mineshafts are ground disturbances that have very localized effects on the morphology and the physical, chemical, drainage and moisture properties of the surface geological materials and thus thermo-physical properties. Remotely sensed thermal IR surveys provide the potential for a rapid, inexpensive and non-intrusive technique for mineshaft detection. The key parameters...

Gunn, David; Marsh, Stuart; Gibson, Andrew; Ager, Gisela; Mcmanus, K. B.; Caunt, S.; Culshaw, Martin

2008-01-01

227

Joint Change Detection and Image Registration for Optical Remote Sensing Images  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this letter, a novel method is proposed for jointly unsupervised change detection and image registration over multi-temporal optical remote sensing images. An iterative energy minimization scheme is employed to extract the pixel opacity. Specifically, we extract the consistent points which provide the initial seed nodes and the feature nodes for random walker image segmentation and image registration, respectively. And the seed nodes will be updated according to the analysis of the changed...

Wang Luo; Hongliang Li; Guanghui Liu

2012-01-01

228

Evolution of Coral Rubble Deposits on a Reef Platform as Detected by Remote Sensing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An investigation into the evolution of coral rubble deposits on a coral reef platform is assessed using high-resolution remote sensing data and geospatial analysis. Digital change detection analysis techniques are applied to One Tree Reef in the southern Great Barrier Reef by analysing aerial photographs and satellite images captured between 1964 and 2009. Two main types of rubble deposits were identified: (1) rubble flats that are featureless mass accumulations of coral rubble; and, (2) rubb...

Ana Vila-Concejo; Webster, Jody M.; Power, Hannah E.; Shannon, Amelia M.

2012-01-01

229

Remotely sensed pre- and post-disaster images for damage detection  

Science.gov (United States)

This study proposes a method to utilize the satellite, aerial and other remotely sensed pre- and post-disaster imagery data to perform geometric modeling and correlational analysis on the reconstructed models in order to detect the change associated, for example, with major regional and/or individual structural damage. Correlational analysis often fails to detect structural damage when only input images are utilized, especially if images are acquired under different illumination conditions. In fact, automatic detection in such cases becomes extremely challenging since making distinction of change due to structural damage from that associated with the difference in the illumination condition is extremely difficult. Many researchers have tackled this difficulty and proposed some methods of solutions including recursive hypothesis testing procedure. Although these methods provide a very useful basis for change detection, their applications are not universally successful for a variety of reasons. In order to achieve the required level of accuracy for the proposed application and locate the site of detected damage, it is proposed to use available GIS maps to register remotely sensed images. It is further necessary that a user-assisted three-dimensional model be reconstructed and correlational analysis performed. The algorithm performs successfully for change detection. However, issue of occlusion remains as a challenge that requires further investigation.

Shinozuka, Masanobu; Rejaie, S. Ali

2000-04-01

230

Initial studies on the remote detection of submerged Orimulsion with a range-gated laser fluorosensor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Tests are being conducted to determine the capabilities of active sensors such as the laser fluorosensor used to detect heavy oils under the water surface. Submerged and neutrally buoyant oils and other petroleum products such as Orimulsion are very difficult to detect using conventional sensors. Environment Canada and the Canadian Coast Guard have initiated a series of studies to develop technologies capable of real-time remote detection of submerged spills in the marine environment. This paper presented the preliminary results of remote detection testing of submerged Orimulsion with laser-induced fluorescence. Laser fluorosensors are airborne sensors used to detect, classify and map oils and other petroleum products in both marine and terrestrial environments. Modern laser fluorosensors have range-gated detection systems which turn on the detector at the exact moment when a fluorescence spectral return is expected. The detector can be range-gated to look into the water column to observe fluorescence emitted from a submerged target. The clarity of the water and the emission of the wavelength from the laser determine the depth to which the technique can be used. Overlying water changes the fluorescence signature of the submerged target due to wavelength-dependent absorption. 15 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

Brown, C.E.; Marois, R.; Myslicki, G.; Fingas, M.F. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

2002-07-01

231

An Optimized Clustering Approach for Automated Detection of White Matter Lesions in MRI Brain Images  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Settings White Matter lesions (WMLs are small areas of dead cells found in parts of the brain. In general, it is difficult for medical experts to accurately quantify the WMLs due to decreased contrast between White Matter (WM and Grey Matter (GM. The aim of this paper is to
automatically detect the White Matter Lesions which is present in the brains of elderly people. WML detection process includes the following stages: 1. Image preprocessing, 2. Clustering (Fuzzy c-means clustering, Geostatistical Possibilistic clustering and Geostatistical Fuzzy clustering and 3.Optimization using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO. The proposed system is tested on a database of 208 MRI images. GFCM yields high sensitivity of 89%, specificity of 94% and overall accuracy of 93% over FCM and GPC. The clustered brain images are then subjected to Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO. The optimized result obtained from GFCM-PSO provides sensitivity of 90%, specificity of 94% and accuracy of 95%. The detection results reveals that GFCM and GFCMPSO better localizes the large regions of lesions and gives less false positive rate when compared to GPC and GPC-PSO which captures the largest loads of WMLs only in the upper ventral horns of the brain.

M. Anitha

2012-04-01

232

Sensitive technique for detecting outer defect on tube with remote field eddy current testing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the remote field eddy current testing, we proposed the method of enhancing the magnetic flux density in the vicinity of an exciter coil by controlling the magnetic flux direction for increasing the sensitivity of detecting outer defects on a tube and used the flux guide made of a magnetic material for the method. The optimum structural shape of the flux guide was designed by the magnetic field analysis. On the experiment with the application of the flux guide, the magnetic flux density increased by 59% and the artificial defect detection signal became clear. We confirmed the proposed method was effective in a high sensitivity. (author)

233

Prostate cancer transrectal HIFU ablation: detection of local recurrences using T2-weighted and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective was to evaluate T2-weighted (T2w) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI in detecting local cancer recurrences after prostate high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation. Fifty-nine patients with biochemical recurrence after prostate HIFU ablation underwent T2-weighted and DCE MRI before transrectal biopsy. For each patient, biopsies were performed by two operators: operator 1 (blinded to MR results) performed random and colour Doppler-guided biopsies (''routine biopsies''); operator 2 obtained up to three cores per suspicious lesion on MRI (''targeted biopsies''). Seventy-seven suspicious lesions were detected on DCE images (n=52), T2w images (n=2) or both (n=23). Forty patients and 41 MR lesions were positive at biopsy. Of the 36 remaining MR lesions, 20 contained viable benign glands. Targeted biopsy detected more cancers than routine biopsy (36 versus 27 patients, p=0.0523). The mean percentages of positive cores per patient and of tumour invasion of the cores were significantly higher for targeted biopsies (p<0.0001). The odds ratios of the probability of finding viable cancer and viable prostate tissue (benign or malignant) at targeted versus routine biopsy were respectively 3.35 (95% CI 3.05-3.64) and 1.38 (95% CI 1.13-1.63). MRI combining T2-weighted and DCE images is a promising method for guiding post-HIFU biopsy towards areas containing recurrent cancer and viable prostate tissue. (orig.)

234

Prostate cancer transrectal HIFU ablation: detection of local recurrences using T2-weighted and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective was to evaluate T2-weighted (T2w) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI in detecting local cancer recurrences after prostate high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation. Fifty-nine patients with biochemical recurrence after prostate HIFU ablation underwent T2-weighted and DCE MRI before transrectal biopsy. For each patient, biopsies were performed by two operators: operator 1 (blinded to MR results) performed random and colour Doppler-guided biopsies ("routine biopsies"); operator 2 obtained up to three cores per suspicious lesion on MRI ("targeted biopsies"). Seventy-seven suspicious lesions were detected on DCE images (n = 52), T2w images (n = 2) or both (n = 23). Forty patients and 41 MR lesions were positive at biopsy. Of the 36 remaining MR lesions, 20 contained viable benign glands. Targeted biopsy detected more cancers than routine biopsy (36 versus 27 patients, p = 0.0523). The mean percentages of positive cores per patient and of tumour invasion of the cores were significantly higher for targeted biopsies (p < 0.0001). The odds ratios of the probability of finding viable cancer and viable prostate tissue (benign or malignant) at targeted versus routine biopsy were respectively 3.35 (95% CI 3.05-3.64) and 1.38 (95% CI 1.13-1.63). MRI combining T2-weighted and DCE images is a promising method for guiding post-HIFU biopsy towards areas containing recurrent cancer and viable prostate tissue. PMID:19690866

Rouvière, Olivier; Girouin, Nicolas; Glas, Ludivine; Ben Cheikh, Alexandre; Gelet, Albert; Mège-Lechevallier, Florence; Rabilloud, Muriel; Chapelon, Jean-Yves; Lyonnet, Denis

2010-01-01

235

Ship Detection of Remote Sensing Image on FRHT and Multi-Points Curvature Based Polygon Approximation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the most difficult tasks of ship detection is detecting the ship which is docking at the port in remote sensing image. Traditional methods of automatic detection cannot be used to detect the land/waterboundaries, because both the gray values and textural features of a port are similar to those of the ships which are docking at the port. Therefore, ships cannot be accurately detected in this case. In this study, a novel method of land/water-boundaries detection is proposed, which is based on a polygon approximation method by incorporating two techniques, i.e., Fuzzy Randomized Hough Transform (FRHT and Multi-Points Curvature (MPC. The method considered the feature of human vision that the straight-line of the land/water-boundaries can be detected more accurately and rapidly. With the detection result of land/water-boundaries, ships docking at the port can be accurately detected. The experiment results demonstrate that this method can achieve good result of ship detection.

Wang Luo

2012-08-01

236

Effect of spectral/spatial transformation on remote sensing image for NDVI-based drought detection analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Remote sensing image have been known to be an important part for environmental analysis. Drought early warning system is one of the few example of remote sensing image applications. One of the oldest tool in remote sensing studies, NDVI is often used for drought detection. Although very essential, remote sensing image requires large storage requirement. A large image data may cause network congestion which certainly affects the aptitude of the drought detection system. An image compression may be used as an approach to this issue. However, this would lead to another issue, image quality. This article emphasize on the effect of image compression through transformation towards remote sensing image. Analysis is conducted through NDVI pixel threshold as well as other complimentary error metric method. Hybrid methods of transformation are presented here for the image transformation process. The experiments performed on test images shows that hybrid transformation is capable of reducing image data and preserving sufficient quality.

Akbar, Fikri; Suryana, Nanna; Hussin, Burairah

2011-10-01

237

Detecting functional connectivity change points for single-subject fMRI data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recently in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies there has been an increased interest in understanding the dynamic manner in which brain regions communicate with one another, as subjects perform a set of experimental tasks or as their psychological state changes. Dynamic Connectivity Regression (DCR is a data-driven technique used for detecting temporal change points in functional connectivity between brain regions where the number and location of the change points are unknown a priori. After finding the change points, DCR estimates a graph or set of relationships between the brain regions for data that falls between pairs of change points. In previous work, the method was predominantly validated using multi-subject data. In this paper, we concentrate on single-subject data and introduce a new DCR algorithm. The new algorithm increases accuracy for individual subject data with a small number of observations and reduces the number of false positives in the estimated undirected graphs. We also introduce a new Likelihood Ratio test for comparing sparse graphs across (or within subjects; thus allowing us to determine whether data should be combined across subjects. We perform an extensive simulation analysis on vector autoregression (VAR data as well as to an fMRI data set from a study (n=23 of a state anxiety induction using a socially evaluative threat challenge. The focus on single-subject data allows us to study the variation between individuals and may provide us with a deeper knowledge of the workings of the brain.

IvorCribben

2013-10-01

238

Role of MRI for detection and characterization of pulmonary nodules; Rolle der MRT zur Detektion und Abklaerung pulmonaler Rundherde  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Due to physical and technical limitations, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has hitherto played only a minor role in image-based diagnostics of the lungs. However, as a consequence of important methodological developments during recent years, MRI has developed into a technically mature and clinically well-proven method for specific pulmonary questions. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview on the currently available sequences and techniques for assessment of pulmonary nodules and analyzes the clinical significance according to the current literature. The main focus is on the detection of lung metastases, the detection of primary pulmonary malignancies in high-risk individuals and the differentiation between pulmonary nodules of benign and malignant character. The MRI technique has a sensitivity of approximately 80 % for detection of malignant pulmonary nodules compared to the reference standard low-dose computed tomography (CT) and is thus somewhat inferior to CT. Advantages of MRI on the other hand are a higher specificity in differentiating malignant and benign pulmonary nodules and the absence of ionizing radiation exposure. A systematic use of MRI as a primary tool for detection and characterization of pulmonary nodules is currently not recommended due to insufficient data. The diagnostic potential of MRI for early detection and staging of malignant pulmonary diseases, however, seems promising. Therefore, further evaluation of MRI as a secondary imaging modality in clinical trials is highly warranted. (orig.) [German] Mit den technischen Weiterentwicklungen in den vergangenen Jahren hat sich die MRT zu einem methodisch ausgereiften und fuer spezifische pulmonale Fragestellungen bereits auch klinisch bewaehrten Untersuchungsverfahren entwickelt. Ohne Strahlenexposition kombiniert sie morphologische und funktionelle Diagnostik und ergaenzt das Spektrum der etablierten Verfahren fuer die bildgebende Diagnostik der Lunge. Diese Arbeit gibt einen Ueberblick ueber die aktuell verwendeten Sequenzen und Techniken zur Darstellung pulmonaler Rundherde und analysiert deren klinischen Stellenwert anhand der aktuellen Studienlage. In Zentrum stehen dabei die Detektion pulmonaler Metastasen, die Detektion primaer pulmonaler Malignome bei Personen mit Risikoprofil und die Abklaerung pulmonaler Rundherde hinsichtlich ihrer Dignitaet. Die MRT besitzt im Vergleich zum Referenzstandard Niedrigdosis-CT eine Sensitivitaet von ca. 80 % fuer die Detektion maligner pulmonaler Rundherde und ist der CT damit etwas unterlegen. Vorteile der MRT gegenueber der Niedrigdosis-CT sind andererseits die hoehere Spezifitaet bei der Differenzierung maligner und benigner pulmonaler Rundherde sowie die fehlende Strahlenexposition. Ausserhalb von Studien kann ein breiter Einsatz der MRT als Screeningverfahren zur Detektion und Abklaerung pulmonaler Rundherde aufgrund der noch ungenuegenden Datenlage derzeit noch nicht empfohlen werden. Das diagnostische Potenzial der MRT fuer die Frueherkennung und das Staging pulmonaler Malignome rechtfertigt aber die weitere Evaluation der MRT als sekundaere Modalitaet im Rahmen von Studien. (orig.)

Sommer, G. [Universitaetsspital Basel, Klinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Basel (Switzerland); Koenigkam-Santos, M. [University Hospital of the School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto - University of Sao Paulo, Department of Radiology, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Biederer, J. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany); Puderbach, M. [Hufeland-Klinikum GmbH, Abteilung fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Bad Langensalza (Germany)

2014-05-15

239

A robust anomaly based change detection method for time-series remote sensing images  

Science.gov (United States)

Time-series remote sensing images record changes happening on the earth surface, which include not only abnormal changes like human activities and emergencies (e.g. fire, drought, insect pest etc.), but also changes caused by vegetation phenology and climate changes. Yet, challenges occur in analyzing global environment changes and even the internal forces. This paper proposes a robust Anomaly Based Change Detection method (ABCD) for time-series images analysis by detecting abnormal points in data sets, which do not need to follow a normal distribution. With ABCD we can detect when and where changes occur, which is the prerequisite condition of global change studies. ABCD was tested initially with 10-day SPOT VGT NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) times series tracking land cover type changes, seasonality and noise, then validated to real data in a large area in Jiangxi, south of China. Initial results show that ABCD can precisely detect spatial and temporal changes from long time series images rapidly.

Shoujing, Yin; Qiao, Wang; Chuanqing, Wu; Xiaoling, Chen; Wandong, Ma; Huiqin, Mao

2014-03-01

240

Determination of Change Detection of Lanscape of the Kucuk Menderes Delta Using GIS and the Remote Sensing Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Remote sensing and GIS offers an important means of detecting and analyzing temporal changes occurring in the earth surface. This research used remote sensing and GIS to quantify landscape changes at the Kucuk Menderes Basin, Izmir, Turkey. In this study, we concentrated on determining the geomorphology of the with time of the coastal strip and the coastal part of the Kucuk Menderes Basin towards terrestrial formation using aerial photographs and satellite images involving remote sensing techniques. Making use of satellite images of 2001, topographic maps and aerial photographs of previous years, were used to determine geomorphological aspects of change detection and geomorphology of the region.

Mustafa Bolca

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Manganese-enhanced MRI detection of impaired calcium regulation in a mouse model of cardiac hypertrophy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to use manganese (Mn)-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) to detect changes in calcium handling associated with cardiac hypertrophy in a mouse model, and to determine whether the impact of creatine kinase ablation is detectable using this method. Male C57BL/6 (C57, n?=?11) and male creatine kinase double-knockout (CK-M/Mito(-/-) , DBKO, n?=?12) mice were imaged using the saturation recovery Look-Locker T1 mapping sequence before and after the development of cardiac hypertrophy. Hypertrophy was induced via subcutaneous continuous 3-day infusion of isoproterenol, and sham mice not subjected to cardiac hypertrophy were also imaged. During each scan, the contrast agent Mn was administered and the resulting change in R1 (=1/T1 ) was calculated. Two anatomical regions of interest (ROIs) were considered, the left-ventricular free wall (LVFW) and the septum, and one ROI in an Mn-containing standard placed next to the mouse. We found statistically significant (p?detected in the standard, and no statistically significant differences were found among the sham mice. Using a murine model, we successfully demonstrated that changes in Mn uptake as a result of cardiac hypertrophy are detectable using the functional contrast agent and calcium mimetic Mn. Our measurements showed a decrease in the relaxivity (R1 ) of the myocardium following cardiac hypertrophy compared with normal control mice. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25523065

Andrews, Martin; Giger, Maryellen L; Roman, Brian B

2015-02-01

242

Multiresolution analysis in fMRI: sensitivity and specificity in the detection of brain activation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Multiresolution analysis of fMRI studies using wavelets is a new approach, previously reported to yield higher sensitivity in the detection of activation areas. No data are available, however, in the literature on the analytic approach and wavelet bases that produce optimum results. The present study was undertaken to assess the performance of different wavelet decomposition schemes by making use of a "gold standard," a realistic computer-simulated phantom. As activation areas are then known "a priori," accurate assessments of sensitivity, specificity, ROC curve area and spatial resolution can be obtained. This approach has allowed us to study the effect of different factors: the size of the activation area, activity level, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), use of pre-smoothing, wavelet base function and order and resolution level depth. Activations were detected by performing t-tests in the wavelet domain and constructing the final image from those coefficients that passed the significance test at a given P-value threshold. In contrast to previously reported data, our simulation study shows that lower wavelet orders and resolution depths should be used to obtain optimum results (in terms of ROC curve area). The Gabor decomposition offers the maximum fidelity in preserving activation area shapes. No major differences were found between other wavelet bases functions. Data pre-smoothing increases ROC area for all but very small activation region sizes. PMID:11500987

Desco, M; Hernandez, J A; Santos, A; Brammer, M

2001-09-01

243

Optimization of Visual Tasks for Detecting Visual Cortex Activity in fMRI Studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: functional magnetic resonance imaging is a useful non-invasive technique for the evaluation and mapping of human brain, especially the visual cortex. One of the most important subjects in this background is optimizing visual stimuli in various forms of visual tasks for acquiring significant and ro-bust signals. Materials and methods: The effects of physical pa-rameters of visual stimuli on 14 healthy volunteers for detecting visual cortical activity were evaluated by functional magnetic resonance imaging. These pa-rameters were temporal frequency (TF, different pat-terns of activation including, square wave and sine wave grating, and two different states of rest includ-ing black and white screens. Results: The results showed that BOLD signal will be maximally in the TF of 8 Hz, and use the black screen in the rest state. However there was not significant difference between square-¬wave and sine-wave grat-ings in producing visual activation in the cortex. Conclusion: Physical parameters of visual tasks are effective in detecting visual cortical activity, and it is necessary to pay attention to them in order to get sig-nificant and robust signal. Visual tasks with TF of 8 Hz and one pattern of square-wave or sine-wave in activation state, and black screen in rest state are op-timally suitable for fMRI studies.

"A. Mirzajani

2005-08-01

244

Detectability of Her2 positive tumors using monoclonal antibody conjugated iron oxide nanoparticles in MRI.  

Science.gov (United States)

Detecting an imaging signal from a small number of cells is vital when a disease needs to be diagnosed in an early stage of development. Molecular and genetic information from cancer cell types provide a guide for specific imaging based on gene expression and their activities on the cell membrane. Various physical and biological parameters affect the capability of an imaging system to provide an efficient procedure for biomarker imaging. Iron oxide based magnetic nanoparticles conjugated to breast cancer monoclonal antibody (Her2) were used as a specific contrast agent for detection of the tumor cells in nude mice models. All processes for the nanoparticle synthesis, antibody development, and conjugation strategies were designed and evaluated in the current work. The final engineered product was found to be without precipitate containing 20 microg antibody/mg magnetic nanoparticles at 10 mg Fe/ml solution. This contrast agent has a high affinity for the BT474 breast cancer cells. MRI images of nude mice bearing tumor cells confirm this specific biomarker based imaging protocol. PMID:21770186

Oghabian, M A; Jeddi-Tehrani, M; Zolfaghari, A; Shamsipour, F; Khoei, S; Amanpour, S

2011-06-01

245

Dynamic MRI-based computer aided diagnostic systems for early detection of kidney transplant rejection: A survey  

Science.gov (United States)

Early detection of renal transplant rejection is important to implement appropriate medical and immune therapy in patients with transplanted kidneys. In literature, a large number of computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) systems using different image modalities, such as ultrasound (US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and radionuclide imaging, have been proposed for early detection of kidney diseases. A typical CAD system for kidney diagnosis consists of a set of processing steps including: motion correction, segmentation of the kidney and/or its internal structures (e.g., cortex, medulla), construction of agent kinetic curves, functional parameter estimation, diagnosis, and assessment of the kidney status. In this paper, we survey the current state-of-the-art CAD systems that have been developed for kidney disease diagnosis using dynamic MRI. In addition, the paper addresses several challenges that researchers face in developing efficient, fast and reliable CAD systems for the early detection of kidney diseases.

Mostapha, Mahmoud; Khalifa, Fahmi; Alansary, Amir; Soliman, Ahmed; Gimel'farb, Georgy; El-Baz, Ayman

2013-10-01

246

Comparison of MRI with US in the detection of ovarian masses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The value of MRI was compared with that of US with respect to noninvasiveness, indications, time of examination, artifacts, and potential of differential diagnosis of masses in 44 patients with surgery- or biopsy-proven ovarian masses. MRI was superior in the qualitative diagnosis of cystic masses because of high contrast resolution. It had more sensitivity to blood components than US. A major disadvantage of MRI was longer time required for examination. (Namekawa, K.)

247

Remote detection of radioactive materials via Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A sensible nonlinear optical method for remote detection of small quantities of radioactive materials such as deuterium, plutonium, uranium-235, uranium enriched in the isotopes of uranium-233 or uranium-235 with concentration >1 ppb at distances greater than 100 m is proposed. The proposed method is based on remote sensing of the chemo-nuclear by-products(O{sub 3}, HNO{sub 3}, HO{sub 2}NO{sub 2}, and NO{sub 2} with the molar fractions ? 5 10{sup -7}, 3 10{sup -7}, 2 10{sup -7} and 4 10{sup -7} correspondingly, produced by gamma and neutron radiation interacting with the surrounding atmosphere. The possibility of Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) registration from specific trace gases is discussed. (author)

Chalyk, A. [Passat Ltd., Concord, Ontario (Canada)

2011-07-01

248

Detection of environmental change using hyperspectral remote sensing at Olkiluoto repository site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this report methods related to hyperspectral monitoring of Olkiluoto repository site are described. A short introduction to environmental remote sensing is presented, followed by more detailed description of hyperspectral imaging and a review of applications of hyperspectral remote sensing presented in the literature. The trends of future hyperspectral imaging are discussed exploring the possibilities of long-wave infrared hyperspectral imaging. A detailed description of HYPE08 hyperspectral flight campaign at the Olkiluoto region in 2008 is presented. In addition, related pre-processing and atmospheric correction methods, necessary in monitoring use, and the quality control methods applied, are described. Various change detection methods presented in the literature are described, too. Finally, a system for hyperspectral monitoring is proposed. The system is based on continued hyperspectral airborne flight campaigns and precisely defined data processing procedure. (orig.)

249

Remote atmospheric breakdown for standoff detection by using an intense short laser pulse  

Science.gov (United States)

A remote atmospheric breakdown is a very rich source of UV and broadband visible light that could provide an early warning of the presence of chemical-biological warfare agents at extended standoff distances. A negatively chirped laser pulse propagating in air compresses in time and focuses transversely, which results in a rapid laser intensity increase and ionization near the focal region that can be located kilometers away from the laser system. Proof-of-principle laboratory experiments are performed on the generation of remote atmospheric breakdown and the spectroscopic detection of mock biological warfare agents. We have generated third harmonics at 267 nm and UV broadband radiation in air from the compression and focusing of femtosecond laser pulses. Fluorescence emission from albumin aerosols as they were illuminated by the femtosecond laser pulse has been observed.

Ting, Antonio; Alexeev, Ilya; Gordon, Daniel; Briscoe, Eldridge; Peñano, Joseph; Hubbard, Richard; Sprangle, Phillip; Rubel, Glenn

2005-09-01

250

Remote concealed threat detection by novel classification algorithms applied to multi-polarimetric UWB radar  

Science.gov (United States)

A method of effectively detecting remote concealed threats, particularly knives and guns, has been developed. This method uses multi-polarimetric ultra wide band active microwave radar to remotely scan a person under investigation. It has been shown that the radar signatures from such scans can be used to detect whether a person is carrying a concealed threat. A Principal Component Analysis (PCA) data reduction technique followed by a neural network (NN) is used to classify the information extracted from the radar signals. The technique combines the co, 45°, cross, and 135° polarized transceived radar signals into a single data set for classification. Illuminating the target with a range of polarizations, together with choosing a radar beam size commensurate with the targets in question, produces good discrimination between threat and non-threat items. Once collected, the data sets obtained are reduced via PCA, which significantly improves the correct classification rate at the NN stage and makes the technique more tolerant of variations in the threat objects orientation and better able to detect a wider range of threat types. Experimental results are presented which show that a detection rate of up to 80% for knives and guns can be achieved, with a false alarm rate as low as 4%.

O'Reilly, Dean; Bowring, Nicholas; Rezgui, Nacer Ddine; Andrews, David; Harmer, Stuart

2013-05-01

251

Using Biogenic Sulfur Gases as Remotely Detectable Biosignatures on Anoxic Planets  

Science.gov (United States)

We used one-dimensional photochemical and radiative transfer models to study the potential of organic sulfur compounds (CS2, OCS, CH3SH, CH3SCH3, and CH3S2CH3) to act as remotely detectable biosignatures in anoxic exoplanetary atmospheres. Concentrations of organic sulfur gases were predicted for various biogenic sulfur fluxes into anoxic atmospheres and were found to increase with decreasing UV fluxes. Dimethyl sulfide (CH3SCH3, or DMS) and dimethyl disulfide (CH3S2CH3, or DMDS) concentrations could increase to remotely detectable levels, but only in cases of extremely low UV fluxes, which may occur in the habitable zone of an inactive M dwarf. The most detectable feature of organic sulfur gases is an indirect one that results from an increase in ethane (C2H6) over that which would be predicted based on the planet's methane (CH4) concentration. Thus, a characterization mission could detect these organic sulfur gases - and therefore the life that produces them - ;if it could sufficiently quantify the ethane and methane in the exoplanet's atmosphere.

Domagal-Goldman, Shawn D.; Meadows, Victoria S.; Claire, Mark W.; Kasting, James F.

2011-06-01

252

Early detection of femoral head avascular necrosis by bone SPECT compared to MRI in renal allograft recipients  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The prevalence of avascular necrosis (AVN) of femoral head in patients who receive immunosuppresive agents after renal transplantation is reported to be 4-29%. Among patients who develop AVN after renal transplantation, 80% become symptomatic within 2 years after transplantation. As the number of renal transplantation has been increased recently, early detection of femoral head AVN is very important because early surgical core decompression of femoral head can prevent collapse of the head. MRI is known to be very sensitive to diagnose femoral head AVN. However in three cases we report here, bone SPECT showed early changes of femoral head AVN, whereas MRI showed no specific abnormality. Case 1. A 53-year-old female received an allograft kidney transplantation in 1994. Preoperative bone scan was normal. She complained of both hip pain on Mar. 18 1997. Bone SPECT showed cold defect in both femoral heads but MRI showed no abnormality. After 3 months, bone SPECT and MRI showed AVN of both femoral heads. She underwent bilateral total hip replacement arthroplasty. AVN of femoral heads was confirmed by microscopic examination. Case 2. A 38-year-old female received an allograft kidney transplantation in Feb. 27 1997. Preoperative bone scan was normal. She ran a fever and creatinine was elevated from 1.2 to 2.8 mg/dL. She took high dose methylprednisolone therapy for acute reanl rejection. After two days, she complained pain in both hip joints and knee joints. Bone SPECT showed cold defects in both femoral heads but MRI showed no abnormality. A follow-up bone SPECT and MRI 20 days later revealed AVN of both femoral heads. Case 3. A 50-year-old male received an allograft kidney transplantation on Jul. 12 1995. Preoperative bone scan was normal. He complained of right hip pain on Jul, 26 1995. His bone SPECT showed cold defects in both femoral heads while MRI showed only minimal hip joint effusion. He also complained of left hip pain on Oct. 2 1995. He was admitted on Mar 17 1996 because of both hip pain and fever. MRI showed advanced AVN of femoral heads was confirmed by microscopic examination. Bone SPECT can diagnose early AVN of femoral head in renal allograft recipients when MRI could be normal.

Kang, Do Young; Yang, Seoung Oh; Lee, Hee Kyung; Han, Duck Jong; Shin, Myung Jin [Asan Mecical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1997-07-01

253

Quantitative tissue pH measurement during cerebral ischemia using amine and amide concentration-independent detection (AACID) with MRI.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tissue pH is an indicator of altered cellular metabolism in diseases including stroke and cancer. Ischemic tissue often becomes acidic due to increased anaerobic respiration leading to irreversible cellular damage. Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) effects can be used to generate pH-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast, which has been used to delineate the ischemic penumbra after ischemic stroke. In the current study, a novel MRI ratiometric technique is presented to measure absolute pH using the ratio of CEST-mediated contrast from amine and amide protons: amine/amide concentration-independent detection (AACID). Effects of CEST were observed at 2.75 parts per million (p.p.m.) for amine protons and at 3.50 p.p.m. for amide protons downfield (i.e., higher frequency) from bulk water. Using numerical simulations and in vitro MRI experiments, we showed that pH measured using AACID was independent of tissue relaxation time constants, macromolecular magnetization transfer effects, protein concentration, and temperature within the physiologic range. After in vivo pH calibration using phosphorus ((31)P) magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31)P-MRS), local acidosis is detected in mouse brain after focal permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion. In summary, our results suggest that AACID represents a noninvasive method to directly measure the spatial distribution of absolute pH in vivo using CEST MRI. PMID:24496171

McVicar, Nevin; Li, Alex X; Gonçalves, Daniela F; Bellyou, Miranda; Meakin, Susan O; Prado, Marco Am; Bartha, Robert

2014-04-01

254

Reversible data hiding for tampering detection in remote sensing images using histogram shifting  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a reversible fragile data hiding scheme for tampering detection in remote sensing images based on the histogram shifting approach. The image to be protected is divided into blocks of a reduced size and a subset of the image bands are selected for embedding. Instead of using the histogram of each separate band, the shifting process is applied to the histogram of the maximum component (or infinity norm) of the vectors obtained with the selected bands. The proposed approach is reversible and thus, the original image can be fully recovered once it has been authenticated. The method is designed to detect specific forged blocks (areas) of the protected image and is shown to succeed to detect copy and replace attacks. In addition, the experimental results, presented for the Cuprite AVIRIS image, show that the method yields extremely high transparency, with PSNR larger than 100 dB prior to reversing the scheme and recovering the original image.

Serra-Ruiz, Jordi; Megias, David

2012-10-01

255

Remote detection of methane with a 1.66-microm diode laser.  

Science.gov (United States)

High-sensitivity real-time remote detection of methane in air with a 1.66-microm distributed-feedback diode laser operating at room temperature is demonstrated by laboratory simulations. The laser current was modulated at a high frequency of ~5 MHz, and the laser-center frequency was locked onto a methane-absorption line. The laser light directed toward the probed region was received after one-way transmission or further reflection from a topographic target. The methane absorption was detected by the second-harmonic component in the optical-power variation. The minimum-detectable concentration-path-length product in the transmission scheme was 0.3 part in 10(6) m for a signal averaging time of 1.3 s. In the reflection scheme, the amount of methane could be measured from the ratio of the fundamental and second-harmonic signal intensities independently of the received power. PMID:20720687

Uehara, K; Tai, H

1992-02-20

256

Active coherent laser spectrometer for remote detection and identification of chemicals  

Science.gov (United States)

Currently, there exists a capability gap for the remote detection and identification of threat chemicals. We report here on the development of an Active Coherent Laser Spectrometer (ACLaS) operating in the thermal infrared and capable of multi-species stand-off detection of chemicals at sub ppm.m levels. A bench top prototype of the instrument has been developed using distributed feedback mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers as spectroscopic sources. The instrument provides active eye-safe illumination of a topographic target and subsequent spectroscopic analysis through optical heterodyne detection of the diffuse backscattered field. Chemical selectivity is provided by the combination of the narrow laser spectral bandwidth (typically vibrational molecular absorption parameters was used in conjunction with a fitting algorithm to retrieve quantitative mixing ratio information on multiple absorbers.

MacLeod, Neil A.; Weidmann, Damien

2012-10-01

257

Cardiac MRI. Diagnostic gain of an additional axial SSFP chest sequence for the detection of potentially significant extracardiac findings in the cardiac MRI examination setting  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: Cardiac MRI (CMRI) is an effective method for imaging of the heart. The aim of our study was to assess whether an axial chest sequence in addition to the standard CMR examination setting has advantages in the detection of potentially significant extracardiac findings (PSEF). Materials and Methods: 400 consecutive patients were imaged at 1.5 T for clinical reasons. In addition to the standard long and short-axis views, an axial SSFP sequence was obtained covering the thorax from the lung apex to the diaphragm. All sequences were separately evaluated for PSEF. Results: A total of 25 PSEF were diagnosed in 400 patients, including 16 pleural effusions, a pulmonary fibrosis, a spondylodiscitis, ascites, lymphadenopathies, relapse of a mamma carcinoma, growth of adrenal glands metastases and diaphragmatic elevation. All 25 PSEF were detected by reading survey sequences. 24 of the 25 PSEF were detected by the additional SSFP chest sequence as well as the CINE sequences. Conclusion: In our study the additional axial SSFP chest sequence didn't show a benefit in the detection of PSEF. With the survey sequences we were able to detect all PSEF. We conclude that survey images should be assessed for additional findings. (orig.)

Roller, F.C.; Schneider, C.; Krombach, G.A. [University Hospital Giessen (Germany). Dept. Radiology; Schuhbaeck, A. [University Hospital Giessen (Germany). Dept. Cardiology; Rolf, A. [Kerckhoff Hospital Bad Nauheim (Germany). Dept. Cardiology

2014-01-15

258

Cardiac MRI. Diagnostic gain of an additional axial SSFP chest sequence for the detection of potentially significant extracardiac findings in the cardiac MRI examination setting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Cardiac MRI (CMRI) is an effective method for imaging of the heart. The aim of our study was to assess whether an axial chest sequence in addition to the standard CMR examination setting has advantages in the detection of potentially significant extracardiac findings (PSEF). Materials and Methods: 400 consecutive patients were imaged at 1.5 T for clinical reasons. In addition to the standard long and short-axis views, an axial SSFP sequence was obtained covering the thorax from the lung apex to the diaphragm. All sequences were separately evaluated for PSEF. Results: A total of 25 PSEF were diagnosed in 400 patients, including 16 pleural effusions, a pulmonary fibrosis, a spondylodiscitis, ascites, lymphadenopathies, relapse of a mamma carcinoma, growth of adrenal glands metastases and diaphragmatic elevation. All 25 PSEF were detected by reading survey sequences. 24 of the 25 PSEF were detected by the additional SSFP chest sequence as well as the CINE sequences. Conclusion: In our study the additional axial SSFP chest sequence didn't show a benefit in the detection of PSEF. With the survey sequences we were able to detect all PSEF. We conclude that survey images should be assessed for additional findings. (orig.)

259

Change detection monitoring of Khoramabad Region(IRAN) via remote sensing  

Science.gov (United States)

The importance of accurate and timely information describing the nature and extent of land resources and changes over time is increasing, especially in rapidly growing metropolitan areas. Change detection is a technique in remote sensing for detecting the changes which have occurred in the existing phenomena over two or more periods of time in a particular area. In this paper, Khoramabad a city in Lorestan province of Iran, was examined in a case study via three techniques of remote sensing: (1) NDVI comparison, (2) Principle Component Analysis, and (3) the Post Classification. To carry out these three techniques, TM and ETM+ data obtained from Landsat Satellite within the years 1991 to 2002was used to monitor environmental changes especially the physical development of the area and its devastating effects on the green space. In this research, one of the capabilities of Thematic Mapper of Landsat Satellite is presented which is oriented towards determining land use changes and methodology in comparison to the change detection techniques via the standard method.. The result presented here indicates that the farming land area decreased between 1991 and 2002 by 14% from 4975 to 3672 ha. Also the urban and non arable land area increased from 5376 to 6678 ha. We may conclude any land use/land cover change must be permitted by land management expert

Matinfar, Hamid Reza

2010-05-01

260

AIRBORNE, OPTICAL REMOTE SENSING OF METHANE AND ETHANE FOR NATURAL GAS PIPELINE LEAK DETECTION  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ophir Corporation was awarded a contract by the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory under the Project Title ''Airborne, Optical Remote Sensing of Methane and Ethane for Natural Gas Pipeline Leak Detection'' on October 14, 2002. This second six-month technical report summarizes the progress made towards defining, designing, and developing the hardware and software segments of the airborne, optical remote methane and ethane sensor. The most challenging task to date has been to identify a vendor capable of designing and developing a light source with the appropriate output wavelength and power. This report will document the work that has been done to identify design requirements, and potential vendors for the light source. Significant progress has also been made in characterizing the amount of light return available from a remote target at various distances from the light source. A great deal of time has been spent conducting laboratory and long-optical path target reflectance measurements. This is important since it helps to establish the overall optical output requirements for the sensor. It also reduces the relative uncertainty and risk associated with developing a custom light source. The data gathered from the optical path testing has been translated to the airborne transceiver design in such areas as: fiber coupling, optical detector selection, gas filters, and software analysis. Ophir will next, summarize the design progress of the transceiver hardware and software development. Finally, Ophir will discuss remaining project issues that may impact the success of the project.

Jerry Myers

2003-11-12

 
 
 
 
261

Oil spill detection and remote sensing : an overview with focus on recent events  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several offshore oil spills occurred during the period from November to December 2007 in various parts of the world, each highlighting the need of quickly detect oil spills in marine settings. Several factors must be considered in order to determine the best technical approach for successful detection and oil spill monitoring. These include the reason for detection or monitoring; the location of the spill; the scale of spatial coverage; availability of detection equipment and time to deploy; high specificity for petroleum oil; weather conditions at and above the spill site; and cost of the detection approach. This paper outlined some of the key attributes of several remote sensing options that are available today or being considered. The approaches used to enhance visualization or detection of spills include traditional electromagnetic spectrum-based approaches such as ultra violet (UV), visible, infra-red (IR), radar, and fluorescence-based systems. Analytical approaches such as chemical analysis for the detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) or monitoring of electrical conductivity of the water surface may also provide a warning that hydrocarbons have been released. 12 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs

262

A Dual-Mode UWB Wireless Platform with Random Pulse Length Detection for Remote Patient Monitoring  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper presents a dual-mode ultra-wideband platform for wireless Remote Patient Monitoring (RPM). Existing RPM solutions are typically based on two different hardware platforms; one responsible for medical-data monitoring and one to handle data transmission. The proposed RPM topology is based on a single hardware platform, but it is capable of both monitoring and data transmission. This is achieved by employing a new random pulse length detection method that allows data transmission by using a modulated monitoring signal. To prove the proposed concept a test system has been built, using commercial equipment, and satisfactory results are obtained.

Reyes, Carlos; Bisbe, Sergi

2013-01-01

263

Using Biogenic Sulfur Gases as Remotely Detectable Biosignatures on Anoxic Planets  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We used one-dimensional photochemical and radiative transfer models to study the potential of organic sulfur compounds (CS2, OCS, CH3SH, CH3SCH3, and CH3S2CH3) to act as remotely detectable biosignatures in anoxic exoplanetary atmospheres. Concentrations of organic sulfur gases were predicted for various biogenic sulfur fluxes into anoxic atmospheres and were found to increase with decreasing UV fluxes. Dimethyl sulfide (CH3SCH3, or DMS) and dimethyl disulfide (CH3S2CH3, or DMDS) concentratio...

Domagal-goldman, Shawn D.; Meadows, Victoria S.; Claire, Mark W.; Kasting, James F.

2011-01-01

264

Detection of a buried horizon with a high thermal diffusivity using thermal remote sensing  

Science.gov (United States)

A field investigation using thermal remote sensing was performed to test the feasibility of detecting the surface topography of granite bedrock beneath a thin cover of alluvium. Imagery of a region of the Mojave Desert were taken with an airborne multispectral scanner with thermal spectral bandwidths of 10.4 and 12.5 microns an instantaneous field of view of 2.5 mrad. It is suggested that a buried high thermal diffusivity horizon measurably lowers the surface temperature of the overlying lower diffusivity material during the peak of the annual heating cycle.

Nash, David B.

1988-01-01

265

Contextualizing Neuro-Collaborations: Reflections on a Transdisciplinary fMRI Lie Detection Experiment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent neuroscience initiatives (including the E.U.’s Human Brain Project and the U.S.’s BRAIN Initiative have reinvigorated discussions about the possibilities for transdisciplinary collaboration between the neurosciences, the social sciences, and the humanities. As STS scholars have argued for decades, however, such inter- and transdisciplinary collaborations are potentially fraught with tensions between researchers. This essay build on such claims by arguing that the tensions of transdisciplinary research also exist within researchers’ own experiences of working between disciplines – a phenomenon that we call ‘Disciplinary Double Consciousness’ (DDC. Building on previous work that has characterized similar spaces (and especially on the Critical Neuroscience literature, we argue that ‘neuro-collaborations’ inevitably engage researchers in DDC – a phenomenon that allows us to explore the useful dissonance that researchers can experience when working between a “home” discipline and a secondary discipline. Our case study is a five-year case study in fMRI lie detection involving a transdisciplinary research team made up of social scientists, a neuroscientist, and a humanist. In addition to theorizing neuro-collaborations from the inside-out, this essay presents practical suggestions for developing transdisciplinary infrastructures that could support future neuro-collaborations.

Melissa M. Littlefield

2014-03-01

266

An Assessment of Remote Visual Methods to Detect Cracking in Reactor Components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recently, the U.S. nuclear industry has proposed replacing current volumetric and/or surface examinations of certain components in commercial nuclear power plants, as required by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section XI, Inservice Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Components, with a simpler visual testing (VT) method. The advantages of VT are that these tests generally involve much less radiation exposure and time to perform the examination than do volumetric examinations such as ultrasonic testing. The issues relative to the reliability of VT in determining the structural integrity of reactor components were examined. Some piping and pressure vessel components in a nuclear power station are examined using VT as they are either in high radiation fields or component geometry precludes the use of ultrasonic testing (UT) methodology. Remote VT with radiation-hardened video systems has been used by nuclear utilities to find cracks in pressure vessel cladding in pressurized water reactors, core shrouds in boiling water reactors, and to investigate leaks in piping and reactor components. These visual tests are performed using a wide variety of procedures and equipment. The techniques for remote VT use submersible closed-circuit video cameras to examine reactor components and welds. PNNL conducted a parametric study that examined the important variables influencing the effectiveness of a remote visual test. Tested variables incl remote visual test. Tested variables included lighting techniques, camera resolution, camera movement, and magnification. PNNL also conducted a limited laboratory test using a commercial visual testing camera system to experimentally determine the ability of the camera system to detect cracks of various widths under ideal conditions. The results of these studies and their implications are presented in this paper

267

Technology Gap Analysis for the Detection of Process Signatures Using Less Than Remote Methods  

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Although remote sensing methods offer advantages for monitoring important illicit process activities, remote and stand-off technologies cannot successfully detect all important processes with the sensitivity and certainty that is desired. The main scope of the program is observables, with a primary focus on chemical signatures. A number of key process signatures elude remote or stand-off detection for a variety of reasons (e.g., heavy particulate emissions that do not propagate far enough for detection at stand-off distances, semi-volatile chemicals that do not tend to vaporize and remain in the environment near the source, etc.). Some of these compounds can provide persistent, process-specific information that is not available through remote techniques; however, the associated measurement technologies have their own set of advantages, disadvantages and technical challenges that may need to be overcome before additional signature data can be effectively and reliably exploited. The main objective of this report is to describe a process to identify high impact technology gaps for important less-than-remote detection applications. The subsequent analysis focuses on the technology development needed to enable exploitation of important process signatures. The evaluation process that was developed involves three interrelated and often conflicting requirements generation activities: • Identification of target signature chemicals with unique intelligence value and their associated attributes as mitigated by environmentally influenced fate and transport effects (i.e., what can you expect to actually find that has intelligence value, where do you need to look for it and what sensitivity and selectivity do you need to see it) • Identification of end-user deployment scenario possibilities and constraints with a focus on alternative detection requirements, timing issues, logistical consideration, and training requirements for a successful measurement • Identification of available measurement technology alternatives and their associated attributes (available off-the-shelf, in near-term development, likely longer-term development and research-phase possibilities). Assembling these requirements into attribute verses generic acceptance criteria level tables and then comparing related attributes between tables allows for rapid visualization of technology gaps and gross estimates of the gap size. By simply weighting the attributes and the requirements in various ways one can also derive the importance of the identified technology gaps. This output can provide the basis for both a near-term technology development roadmap and research focus as well as a decision support tool for selecting the “most likely to succeed” approach. The evaluation process as presented is generally applicable for the determination of measurement technology gaps for a broad range of applications [e.g., nuclear weapons process, chemical weapons production, biological weapons production as well as classical signature categories (e.g., chemical and radionuclide signatures)]. In this paper the method is applied to the specific case of detecting nuclear weapons production processes using semi-volatile chemical signatures as an illustration. This particular case selection allows the leveraging of significant prior knowledge and experience while still being highly relevant to current detection scenario needs.

Hartman, John S.; Atkinson, David A.; Lind, Michael A.; Maughan, A. D.; Kelly, James F.

2005-01-01

268

Impact of the joint detection-estimation approach on random effects group studies in fMRI  

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Inter-subject analysis of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) data relies on single intra-subject studies, which are usually conducted using a massively univariate approach. In this paper, we investigate the impact of an improved intra-subject analysis on group studies. basically the joint detection-estimation (JDE) framework [Makni et al, 2008; Vincent et al, 2010] where an explicit characterization of the Hemodynamic Response Function (HRF) is performed at a regional scale and a st...

Badillo, Solveig; Vincent, Thomas; Ciuciu, Philippe

2011-01-01

269

Abnormal cortical sensorimotor activity during "Target" sound detection in subjects with acute acoustic trauma sequelae: an fMRI study.  

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The most common consequences of acute acoustic trauma (AAT) are hearing loss at frequencies above 3 kHz and tinnitus. In this study, we have used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to visualize neuronal activation patterns in military adults with AAT and various tinnitus sequelae during an auditory “oddball” attention task. AAT subjects displayed overactivities principally during reflex of target sound detection, in sensorimotor areas and in emotion-related areas such as the ins...

Job, Agne?s; Pons, Yoann; Lamalle, Laurent; Jaillard, Assia; Buck, Karl; Segebarth, Christoph; Delon-martin, Chantal

2012-01-01

270

A progressive processing method for breast cancer detection via UWB based on an MRI-derived model  

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Ultra-wideband (UWB) microwave imaging is a promising method for breast cancer detection based on the large contrast of electric parameters between the malignant tumor and its surrounded normal breast organisms. In the case of multiple tumors being present, the conventional imaging approaches may be ineffective to detect all the tumors clearly. In this paper, a progressive processing method is proposed for detecting more than one tumor. The method is divided into three stages: primary detection, refocusing and image optimization. To test the feasibility of the approach, a numerical breast model is developed based on the realistic magnetic resonance image (MRI). Two tumors are assumed embedded in different positions. Successful detection of a 3.6 mm-diameter tumor at a depth of 42 mm is achieved. The correct information of both tumors is shown in the reconstructed image, suggesting that the progressive processing method is promising for multi-tumor detection.

Xiao, Xia; Song, Hang; Wang, Zong-Jie; Wang, Liang

2014-07-01

271

Remote monitoring of cardiovascular implantable devices in the pediatric population improves detection of adverse events.  

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With the exponential growth of cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) in pediatric patients, a new method of long-term surveillance, remote monitoring (RM), has become the standard of care. The purpose of this study was to determine the usefulness of RM as a monitoring tool in the pediatric population. A retrospective review was performed of 198 patients at the University of Iowa Children's Hospital who had CIEDs. Data transmitted by RM were analyzed. The following data were examined: patient demographics; median interval between transmissions; detection of adverse events requiring corrective measures, including detection of lead failure; detection of arrhythmias and device malfunctions independent of symptoms; time gained in the detection of events using RM versus standard practice; the validity of RM; and the impact of RM on data management. Of 198 patients, 162 submitted 615 RM transmissions. The median time between remote transmissions was 91 days. Of 615 total transmissions, 16 % had true adverse events with 11 % prompting clinical intervention. Of those events requiring clinical response, 61 % of patients reported symptoms. The median interval between last follow-up and occurrence of events detected by RM was 46 days, representing a gain of 134 days for patients followed-up at 6-month intervals and 44 days for patients followed-up at 3 month-intervals. The sensitivity and specificity of RM were found to be 99 and 72 %, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values were found to be 41 and 99 %, respectively. RM allows for early identification of arrhythmias and device malfunctions, thus prompting earlier corrective measures and improving care and safety in pediatric patients. PMID:23949666

Malloy, Lindsey E; Gingerich, Jean; Olson, Mark D; Atkins, Dianne L

2014-02-01

272

Beyond blood brain barrier breakdown – in vivo detection of occult neuroinflammatory foci by magnetic nanoparticles in high field MRI  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Gadopentate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is widely applied for the visualization of blood brain barrier (BBB breakdown in multiple sclerosis and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE. Recently, the potential of magnetic nanoparticles to detect macrophage infiltration by MRI was demonstrated. We here investigated a new class of very small superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (VSOP as novel contrast medium in murine adoptive-transfer EAE. Methods EAE was induced in 17 mice via transfer of proteolipid protein specific T cells. MR images were obtained before and after application of Gd-DTPA and VSOP on a 7 Tesla rodent MR scanner. The enhancement pattern of the two contrast agents was compared, and correlated to histology, including Prussian Blue staining for VSOP detection and immunofluorescent staining against IBA-1 to identify macrophages/microglia. Results Both contrast media depicted BBB breakdown in 42 lesions, although differing in plaques appearances and shapes. Furthermore, 13 lesions could be exclusively visualized by VSOP. In the subsequent histological analysis, VSOP was localized to microglia/macrophages, and also diffusely dispersed within the extracellular matrix. Conclusion VSOP showed a higher sensitivity in detecting BBB alterations compared to Gd-DTPA enhanced MRI, providing complementary information of macrophage/microglia activity in inflammatory plaques that has not been visualized by conventional means.

Schnorr Joerg

2009-08-01

273

Relationship between task execution time and detectability of activation in fMRI hand-grasp movement task  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To minimize patient requirement in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies, we investigated the relationship between hand grasp movement task execution time and detectability of activation. Using an fMRI time series consisting of 4 sets of rest and task periods (30 s each) as the basic data, we reduced task execution time (?) by decreasing the number of sets and removing volume from each cycle. We evaluated detectability of activation with different ? based on the number of activated voxels, Vn, in the primary motor area (MOT) and cerebellum (CER) in 11 healthy volunteers. The results showed that Vn in the MOT and CER decreased linearly with decreasing ?. In addition, the value of Vn was clearly smaller with 2 sets than 3 and 4 sets, which suggested that use of 2 sets was not a suitable means for shortening time. The proposed method is expected to be useful for evaluating the relationship between task execution time and detectability of activation, which may reduce task execution time depending on the clinical purpose and thus minimize patient requirement in fMRI studies. (author)

274

Comparison of abdominal MRI with diffusion-weighted imaging to 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT in detection of neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of the study was to evaluate contrast-enhanced MRI, diffusion-weighted MRI (DW MRI), and 68Ga-DOTATATE positron emission tomography (PET)/CT in the detection of intermediate to well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors (NET) of the pancreas. Eighteen patients with pathologically proven pancreatic NET who underwent MRI including DW MRI and PET/CT within 6 weeks of each other were included in this retrospective study. Two radiologists evaluated T2-weighted (T2w), T2w + DW MRI, T2w + contrast-enhanced T1-weighted (CE T1w) MR images, and PET/CT for NET detection. The sensitivity and level of diagnostic confidence were compared among modalities using McNemar's test and a Wilcoxon signed rank test. Apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) of pancreatic NETs and normal pancreatic tissue were compared with Student's t test. Of the NETs, 8/23 (34.8 %) and 9/23 (39.1 %) were detected on T2w images by observers 1 and 2, respectively. Detection rates improved significantly by combining T2w images with DW MRI (observer 1: 14/23 = 61 %; observer 2: 15/23 = 65.2 %; p -3 mm2/s) was statistically significantly lower than that of normal pancreatic tissue (1.48 ± 0.39 x 10-3 mm2/s). DW MRI is a valuable adjunct to T2w imaging and comparable to CE T1w imaging in pancreatic NET detection, quantitatively differentiating between NET and normal pancreatic tissue with ADC measurements. 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT is more sensitive than MRI in the detection of pancreatic NET. (orig.)

275

Remote Detection of Biological Particles and Chemical Plumes Using UV Fluorescence Lidar  

Science.gov (United States)

A lidar system based on ultraviolet (UV) laser induced fluorescence (LIF) was developed for the remote detection of atmospherically dispersed biological particles and chemical vapors. This UV fluorescence lidar has many potential applications for monitoring environmental pollution, industrial waste emission, agricultural insect control, illicit chemical processing, and military defense operations. The general goal of this work is to investigate the research issues associated with the long range detection and identification of chemicals, e.g. aromatic solvents and chemical precursors, and biological materials, e.g. bacillus thuringiensis (BT) and bacillus globiggi (BG). In the detection of biological particulates, we are particularly interested in extending the detection range of an existing solar-blind 248-nm lidar system. We are investigating the use of longer excitation laser wavelengths (i.e. lambda greater than 280-nm to have more favorable atmospheric light transmission characteristics) for improving detection range to better than 10 km. In the detection of chemical plumes, our main research objectives are to determine how accurately and sensitively a chemical plume can be located at range, and how well spectrally the chemical species can be measured to allow their identification.

Tiee, J. J.; Hof, D. E.; Karl, R. R.; Martinez, R. J.; Quick, C. R.; Cooper, D. I.; Eichinger, W. E.; Holtkamp, D. B.

1992-01-01

276

Contextual detection of fMRI activations and multimodal aspects of brain imaging  

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Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a non-invasive method which can be used to indirectly localize neuronal activations in the human brain. Functional MRI is based on changes in the blood oxygenation level near the activated tissue. In an fMRI experiment, a stimulus is given to a subject or the subject is asked to conduct a physical or cognitive task. During the experiment, a nuclear magnetic resonance signal is measured outside the head, and time series of three-dimensional image...

Salli, Eero

2002-01-01

277

An a contrario approach for the detection of activated brain areas in fMRI  

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BOLD functional MRI (fMRI) is now a widespread imaging technique to study task-related activity in the brain. However, getting the areas of activation at the individual subject level is still an open issue. The standard massively univariate statistical analysis is usually performed after smoothing the data and makes use of a single p-value for final thresholding of the results [1]. In group fMRI studies, the need for compensation of cross-subjects misregistrations clearly justifies the smooth...

Maumet, Camille; Maurel, Pierre; Ferre?, Jean-christophe; Barillot, Christian

2013-01-01

278

Cloud Detection Method Based on Feature Extraction in Remote Sensing Images  

Science.gov (United States)

In remote sensing images, the existence of the clouds has a great impact on the image quality and subsequent image processing, as the images covered with clouds contain little useful information. Therefore, the detection and recognition of clouds is one of the major problems in the application of remote sensing images. Present there are two categories of method to cloud detection. One is setting spectrum thresholds based on the characteristics of the clouds to distinguish them. However, the instability and uncertainty of the practical clouds makes this kind of method complexity and weak adaptability. The other method adopts the features in the images to identify the clouds. Since there will be significant overlaps in some features of the clouds and grounds, the detection result is highly dependent on the effectiveness of the features. This paper presented a cloud detection method based on feature extraction for remote sensing images. At first, find out effective features through training pattern, the features are selected from gray, frequency and texture domains. The different features in the three domains of the training samples are calculated. Through the result of statistical analysis of all the features, the useful features are picked up to form a feature set. In concrete, the set includes three feature vectors, respectively, the gray feature vector constituted of average gray, variance, first-order difference, entropy and histogram, the frequency feature vector constituted of DCT high frequency coefficient and wavelet high frequency coefficient, and the texture feature vector constituted of the hybrid entropy and difference of the gray-gradient co-occurrence matrix and the image fractal dimension. Secondly, a thumbnail will be obtained by down sampling the original image and its features of gray, frequency and texture are computed. Last but not least, the cloud region will be judged by the comparison between the actual feature values and the thresholds determined by the sample training process. Experimental results show that the clouds and ground objects can be separated efficiently, and our method can implement rapid clouds detection and cloudiness calculation.

Changhui, Y.; Yuan, Y.; Minjing, M.; Menglu, Z.

2013-05-01

279

A comparison of local and remote masking on tactile pulse detection using different masking patterns.  

Science.gov (United States)

Forward and backward masking functions were obtained for the detection of a 2-msec. tactile "test" pulse using two different masking patterns (5- or 10-pulse sequences) under conditions of both local and remote masking. Twelve ISIs (interval between "test" pulse and onset of the masking sequence) ranging from 10 to 76 msec. were used. A two-interval forced-choice (2-IFC) procedure was used in which observers were presented with two successive trains of tactile pulses, one having the "test" pulse at varying intervals prior (backward masking) to or after (forward masking) the masking sequence and one train having only a masking sequence. Observers were asked to report in which train of pulses they detected the "test" pulse. With local masking, i.e., when "test" pulse and masking sequence were presented to the same locus, there was substantially more forward than backward masking, and the 10-pulse sequence resulted in consistently greater amounts of masking than the 5-pulse mask. When the "test" pulse and masking sequence were delivered to different loci, i.e., the remote masking, the results were much less systematic. The data suggest that both peripheral and central factors contribute to the obtained masking functions and that both integration and interruption are producing the masking interference. PMID:3774438

Lechelt, E C

1986-10-01

280

Island Coastline Change Detection Based on Image Processing and Remote Sensing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As an island ecosystem, Djerba, a region of Tunisia located on the southern shore of the Mediterranean Sea, is characterized by limited natural resources and threatened by land degradation due to rapid socio-economic development and heavy human-induced changes to the landscape. The objective of this study is to build a system based on computer vision and remote sensing data for monitoring changes in the coastal zones of an island. We employed monthly Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM satellite images of the study area ranging from 1984 to 2009. The images were preprocessed using the Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF algorithm to superimpose remote sensing images at exactly the same coordinates. We then used two comparison techniques to auto-validate the detection of changes. The first technique is based on a window-to-window comparison of the coastal zones and the second technique compares shoreline changes using edge detection. Three highly affected regions were identified. The Bin El-Ouidiane (in the southeast and Rass Errmal (in the north regions underwent deposition during the study period, whereas the region of Rass El Kastil (in the north underwent high erosion.

Majed Bouchahma

2012-04-01

 
 
 
 
281

Protein Remote Homology Detection and Fold Recognition based on Features Extracted from Frequency Profiles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Protein remote homology detection and fold recognition are central problems in bioinformatics. Currently, discriminative methods based on support vector machine (SVM are the most effective and accurate methods for solving these problems. The performance of SVM depends on the method of protein vectorization, so a suitable representation of the protein sequence is a key step for the SVM-based methods. In this paper, two kinds of profile-level building blocks of proteins, binary profiles and N-nary profiles, have been presented, which contain the evolutionary information of the protein sequence frequency profile. The protein sequence frequency profiles calculated from the multiple sequence alignments outputted by PSI-BLAST are converted into binary profiles or N-nary profiles. The protein sequences are transformed into fixed-dimension feature vectors by the occurrence times of each binary profile or N-nary profile and then the corresponding vectors are inputted to support vector machines. The latent semantic analysis (LSA model, an efficient feature extraction algorithm, is adopted to further improve the performance of our methods. Experiments with protein remote homology detection and fold recognition show that the methods based on profile-level building blocks give better results compared to related methods.

Lei Lin

2011-02-01

282

Remote detection of mental workload changes using cardiac parameters assessed with a low-cost webcam.  

Science.gov (United States)

We introduce a new framework for detecting mental workload changes using video frames obtained from a low-cost webcam. Image processing in addition to a continuous wavelet transform filtering method were developed and applied to remove major artifacts and trends on raw webcam photoplethysmographic signals. The measurements are performed on human faces. To induce stress, we have employed a computerized and interactive Stroop color word test on a set composed by twelve participants. The electrodermal activity of the participants was recorded and compared to the mental workload curve assessed by merging two parameters derived from the pulse rate variability and photoplethysmographic amplitude fluctuations, which reflect peripheral vasoconstriction changes. The results exhibit strong correlation between the two measurement techniques. This study offers further support for the applicability of mental workload detection by remote and low-cost means, providing an alternative to conventional contact techniques. PMID:25150821

Bousefsaf, Frédéric; Maaoui, Choubeila; Pruski, Alain

2014-10-01

283

Prostate cancer transrectal HIFU ablation: detection of local recurrences using T2-weighted and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective was to evaluate T2-weighted (T2w) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI in detecting local cancer recurrences after prostate high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation. Fifty-nine patients with biochemical recurrence after prostate HIFU ablation underwent T2-weighted and DCE MRI before transrectal biopsy. For each patient, biopsies were performed by two operators: operator 1 (blinded to MR results) performed random and colour Doppler-guided biopsies (''routine biopsies''); operator 2 obtained up to three cores per suspicious lesion on MRI (''targeted biopsies''). Seventy-seven suspicious lesions were detected on DCE images (n=52), T2w images (n=2) or both (n=23). Forty patients and 41 MR lesions were positive at biopsy. Of the 36 remaining MR lesions, 20 contained viable benign glands. Targeted biopsy detected more cancers than routine biopsy (36 versus 27 patients, p=0.0523). The mean percentages of positive cores per patient and of tumour invasion of the cores were significantly higher for targeted biopsies (p<0.0001). The odds ratios of the probability of finding viable cancer and viable prostate tissue (benign or malignant) at targeted versus routine biopsy were respectively 3.35 (95% CI 3.05-3.64) and 1.38 (95% CI 1.13-1.63). MRI combining T2-weighted and DCE images is a promising method for guiding post-HIFU biopsy towards areas containing recurrent cancer and viable prostate tissue. (orig.)

Rouviere, Olivier; Lyonnet, Denis [Hopital Edouard Herriot, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Department of Urinary and Vascular Radiology, Lyon (France); Universite de Lyon, Lyon (France); Universite de Lyon 1, Faculte de medecine Lyon Nord, Lyon (France); Inserm, U556, Lyon (France); Girouin, Nicolas; Glas, Ludivine; Ben Cheikh, Alexandre [Hopital Edouard Herriot, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Department of Urinary and Vascular Radiology, Lyon (France); Universite de Lyon, Lyon (France); Universite de Lyon 1, Faculte de medecine Lyon Nord, Lyon (France); Gelet, Albert [Hopital Edouard Herriot, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Department of Urology, Lyon (France); Inserm, U556, Lyon (France); Mege-Lechevallier, Florence [Hopital Edouard Herriot, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Department of Pathology, Lyon (France); Rabilloud, Muriel [Hospices Civils de Lyon, Department of Biostatistics, Lyon (France); Universite de Lyon 1, UMR CNRS, Laboratoire Biostatistiques-Sante, Pierre-Benite (France); Chapelon, Jean-Yves [Inserm, U556, Lyon (France)

2010-01-15

284

Brain Switch for Reflex Micturition Control Detected by fMRI in Rats  

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The functions of the lower urinary tract are controlled by complex pathways in the brain that act like switching circuits to voluntarily or reflexly shift the activity of various pelvic organs (bladder, urethra, urethral sphincter, and pelvic floor muscles) from urine storage to micturition. In this study, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to visualize the brain switching circuits controlling reflex micturition in anesthetized rats. The fMRI images confirmed the hypothesis...

Tai, Changfeng; Wang, Jicheng; Jin, Tao; Wang, Ping; Kim, Seong-gi; Roppolo, James R.; Groat, William C.

2009-01-01

285

Noninvasive detection of neural progenitor cells in living brains by MRI  

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The presence of pericytes in brain regions undergoing repair is evident of the recruitment of bone marrow-derived multipotent regenerative cells to the neurovascular unit during angiogenesis. At present, post mortem sampling is the only way to identify them. Therefore, such cell typing is inadequate for preserving neural progenitor cells for any meaningful stem cell therapy. We aimed to target cerebral pericytes in vivo using dual gene transcript-targeted MRI (GT-tMRI) in male C57black6 mice ...

Liu, Christina H.; Ren, Jia Q.; You, Zerong; Yang, Jinsheng; Liu, Charng-ming; Uppal, Ritika; Liu, Philip K.

2012-01-01

286

Early Alzheimer Disease Detection by Bag of Visual Words and Hybrid Fusion on Structural Brain MRI  

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In this paper, we tackle the problem of recognition of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in structural MRI images using visual similarity. AD yields visible changes in the brain structures. We aim to recognize patient category such as AD, or prodromal stage of the AD called Mild Cognitive impairment (MCI), or normal control subject (NC).We use visual local descriptors and the bag of words approach on the most involved regions in AD (Hippocampus and PosteriorCingulate Cortex ) in MRI images. The Conten...

Ben Ahmed, Olfa; Benois-pineau, Jenny; Chokri Ben, Amar; Allard, Miche?le; Catheline, Gwenaelle

2013-01-01

287

Noninvasive Stem Cell Labeling Using USPIO Technique and their Detection with MRI  

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Background: To date, several imaging techniques to track stem cells are used such as positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), Bioluminescence imaging (BLI), fluorescence imaging, CT scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Although, overall sensitivity of MRI compared to SPECT and Bioluminescence techniques are lower, but due to high spatial resolution (~100 mm), long term three-dimensional imaging capability, in vivo quick access to images in ...

Ayoob Rostamzadeh; Arash Shabani; Reza Ahadi; Mohammad Farzizadeh; Alireza Gharib; Saber Miraki

2014-01-01

288

Evaluation and implementation of neural brain activity detection methods for fMRI  

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Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) is a neuroimaging technique used to study brain functionality to enhance our understanding of the brain. This technique is based on MRI, a painless, noninvasive image acquisition method without harmful radiation. Small local blood oxygenation changes which are reflected as small intensity changes in the MR images are utilized to locate the active brain areas. Radio frequency pulses and a strong static magnetic field are used to measure the correlat...

Breitenmoser, Sabina

2005-01-01

289

Mixture-Tuned, Clutter Matched Filter for Remote Detection of Subpixel Spectral Signals  

Science.gov (United States)

Mapping localized spectral features in large images demands sensitive and robust detection algorithms. Two aspects of large images that can harm matched-filter detection performance are addressed simultaneously. First, multimodal backgrounds may thwart the typical Gaussian model. Second, outlier features can trigger false detections from large projections onto the target vector. Two state-of-the-art approaches are combined that independently address outlier false positives and multimodal backgrounds. The background clustering models multimodal backgrounds, and the mixture tuned matched filter (MT-MF) addresses outliers. Combining the two methods captures significant additional performance benefits. The resulting mixture tuned clutter matched filter (MT-CMF) shows effective performance on simulated and airborne datasets. The classical MNF transform was applied, followed by k-means clustering. Then, each cluster s mean, covariance, and the corresponding eigenvalues were estimated. This yields a cluster-specific matched filter estimate as well as a cluster- specific feasibility score to flag outlier false positives. The technology described is a proof of concept that may be employed in future target detection and mapping applications for remote imaging spectrometers. It is of most direct relevance to JPL proposals for airborne and orbital hyperspectral instruments. Applications include subpixel target detection in hyperspectral scenes for military surveillance. Earth science applications include mineralogical mapping, species discrimination for ecosystem health monitoring, and land use classification.

Thompson, David R.; Mandrake, Lukas; Green, Robert O.

2013-01-01

290

Detection of hepatocellular carcinoma by Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced liver MRI: Comparison with triple phase 64 detector row helical CT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To compare the diagnostic performance of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI with that of triple phase 64-MDCT in the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Patients and methods: Thirty-four patients with 52 surgically proven lesions underwent Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI and triple phase 64-MDCT. Two observers independently evaluated MR and CT imaging on a lesion-by-lesion basis. Sensitivity, positive and negative predictive values and reproducibility were evaluated. The diagnostic accuracy of each modality was assessed with alternative-free response receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results: Both observers showed higher sensitivity in detecting lesions with MRI compared to CT, however, only the difference between the two imaging techniques for observer 2 was significant (P = 0.034). For lesions 1 cm or smaller, MRI and CT showed equal sensitivity (both 62.5%) with one observer, and MRI proved superior to CT with the other observer (MRI 75% vs. CT 56.3%), but the latter difference was not significant (P = 0.083). The difference in positive and negative predictive value between the two imaging techniques for each observer was not significant (P > 0.05). The areas under the ROC curve for each observer were 0.843 and 0.861 for MRI vs. 0.800 and 0.833 for CT and the differences were not significant. Reproducibility was higher using MRI for both observers, but the result was not significant (MRI 32/33 vs. CT 29/33, P = 0.083). Conclusion: Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhan P = 0.083). Conclusion: Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI tended to show higher diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity and reproducibility compared to triple phase 64-MDCT in the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma, however statistical significance was not achieved.

291

[Case of renal cell carcinoma with intertrabecular vertebral metastases detected f-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and MRI].  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a case of renal cell carcinoma with intertrabecular vertebral metastases detected by F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)/computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The patient was a 40-year-old female, referred to our hospital for fever of ? 38°C, and loss of body weight. Examination showed anemia and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP). Abdominal enchanced CT showed a mass 3 cm in diameter, located on left kidney. She was diagnosed with left renal cell carcinoma (cT1aN0M0). Laparoscopic radical nephrectomy with a transabdominal approach was performed. Histological findings showed clear cell renal cell carcinoma G2?G3. Although after operation, she presented with fever of ?38°C, anemia, and elevated CRP and alkaline phosphatase. Systemic bone scan could not detect any bone metastases, but FDG-PET/CT and lumber MRI revealed cancer invasion to the bone of the whole body. Histological findings at bone biopsy showed clear cell carcinoma infiltrating the marrow space. We diagnosed the case as bone metastases of intertrabecular vertebral type. She was treated with temsirolimus,but died about five months after her first visit. Intertrabecular vertebral metastases that infiltrate the marrow space without trabecular bone alteration are not visible on radiographs or bone scans. FDG-PET/CT and MRI are more useful for diagnosis of intertrabecular vertebral metastases such as in this case. PMID:24594770

Yoneyama, Shuko; Yumura, Yasushi; Koizumi, Mitsuyuki; Hanai, Takahiro; Ishida, Hiroaki; Hattori, Yusuke; Teranishi, Jyunichi; Miyoshi, Yasuhide; Kondo, Keiichi; Noguchi, Kazumi

2014-01-01

292

Comparison of Technetium-99m-MIBI imaging with MRI for detection of spine involvement in patients with multiple myeloma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, radiopharmaceutical scanning with Tc-99m-MIBI was reported to depict areas with active bone disease in multiple myeloma (MM with both high sensitivity and specificity. This observation was explained by the uptake of Tc-99m-MIBI by neoplastic cells. The present investigation evaluates whether Tc-99m-MIBI imaging and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI perform equally well in detecting myelomatous bone marrow lesions. Methods In 21 patients with MM, MRIs of the vertebral region TH12 to S1 and whole body scans with Tc-99m-MIBI were done. Results Tc-99m-MIBI scanning missed bone marrow infiltration in 43 of 87 vertebrae (50.5% in which MRI showed neoplastic bone marrow involvement. In patients with disease stage I+II, Tc-99m-MIBI scanning was negative in all of 24 vertebrae infiltrated according to MRI. In patients with disease stage III, Tc-99m-MIBI scanning detected 44 of 63 (70% vertebrae involved by neoplastic disease. Conclusion Tc-99m-MIBI scanning underestimated the extent of myelomatous bone marrow infiltration in the spine, especially in patients with low disease stage.

Koehn Horst

2003-12-01

293

Global dust Detection Index (GDDI); a new remotely sensed methodology for dust storms detection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dust storm occurs frequently in arid and semi-arid areas of the world. This natural phenomenon, which is the result of stormy winds, raises a lot of dust from desert surfaces and decreases visibility to less than 1 km. In recent years the temporal frequency of occurrences and their spatial extents has been dramatically increased. West of Iran, especially in spring and summer, suffers from significant increases of these events which cause several social and economic problems. Detecting and recognizing the extent of dust storms is very important issue in designing warning systems, management and decreasing the risk of this phenomenon. As the process of monitoring and prediction are related to detection of this phenomenon and it's separation from other atmospheric phenomena such as cloud, so the main aim of this research is establishing an automated process for detection of dust masses. In this study 20 events of dust happened in western part of Iran during 2000-2011 have been recognized and studied. To the aim of detecting dust events we used satellite images of MODIS sensor. Finally a model based on reflectance and thermal infrared bands has been developed. The efficiency of this method has been checked using dust events. Results show that the model has a good performance in all cases. It also has the ability and robustness to be used in any dust storm forecasting and warning system. PMID:24406015

Samadi, Mehdi; Darvishi Boloorani, Ali; Alavipanah, Seyed Kazem; Mohamadi, Hossein; Najafi, Mohamad Saeed

2014-01-01

294

Conventional radiography requires a MRI-estimated bone volume loss of 20% to 30% to allow certain detection of bone erosions in rheumatoid arthritis metacarpophalangeal joints  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this study was to demonstrate the ability of conventional radiography to detect bone erosions of different sizes in metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as the standard reference. A 0.2 T Esaote dedicated extremity MRI unit was used to obtain axial and coronal T1-weighted gradient echo images of the dominant 2nd to 5th MCP joints of 69 RA patients. MR images were obtained and evaluated for bone erosions according to the OMERACT recommendations. Conventional radiographs of the 2nd to 5th MCP joints were obtained in posterior-anterior projection and evaluated for bone erosions. The MRI and radiography readers were blinded to each other's assessments. Grade 1 MRI erosions (1% to 10% of bone volume eroded) were detected by radiography in 20%, 4%, 7% and 13% in the 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th MCP joint, respectively. Corresponding results for grade 2 erosions (11% to 20% of bone volume eroded) were 42%, 10%, 60% and 24%, and for grade 3 erosions (21% to 30% of bone volume eroded) 75%, 67%, 75% and 100%. All grade 4 (and above) erosions were detected on radiographs. Conventional radiography required a MRI-estimated bone erosion volume of 20% to 30% to allow a certain detection, indicating that MRI is a better method for detection and grading of minor erosive changes in RA MCP joints.

Ejbjerg, B.; Vestergaard, Aage Steen

2006-01-01

295

Coal fires in Northwest China. Detection, monitoring, and prediction using remote sensing data  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Coal fires in China occur within a region that stretches over 5,000 km in the east- western part and 750 km. in the north-southern part. These fires cause an economic and environmental threat by making a significant contribution to the global CO2 budget. The studies made in this thesis can be divided into two parts. Part one is based on field work and laboratory analysis that includes the dating of the paleo coal fires; part two concerns remote sensing applications for the active coal fires. In Chapter 2, the evolution of the paleo coal fires in Toutunhe and Xinjiang areas are studied. Several age groups of burnt rock have been recognized and their relationships with the river terraces will be discussed. The causes of the paleo coal fires are addressed, and the areas of coal fires with different ages have been dated. In Chapter 3, the physical basis of thermal infrared remote sensing for the detection and measurement of coal fires are addressed with an emphasis on the spatial, spectral, and radiometric resolution. In Chapter 4, a method to reduce the effect of solar heating, the main factor of confusion when investigating the thermal anomalies of coal fires, is discussed with the help of a DEM. In Chapter 5, as the coal fires normally occupy only part of one pixel of the Landsat TM thermal channel data, the capability of sub pixel coal fire detection is addressed. In Chapter 6, the airborne data from different wavelengths acquired at different times are studied to anaired at different times are studied to analyze the spatial thermal characteristics of the coal fires. Spreading direction and different types of coal fires are studied. Chapter 7 presents, based on multi-sensor data fusion techniques, a hierarchical methodology for detection and monitoring of the coal fires. 120 refs

296

Remote detection of artificially triggered avalanches below a fixed avalanche control installation  

Science.gov (United States)

Avalanche control by explosives is widely used as a temporary preventive measure to reduce avalanche hazard. The goal is to artificially trigger smaller less destructive avalanches, by detonating charges either above or on the snow surface. Hand charges are most often used, whereby the explosives are deployed by manually hand tossing or lowering onto the snow slope. Given the inherent dangers and limitations of this type of avalanche control, fixed avalanche control installations are increasingly used. These consist of strategically placed remote controlled installations that generate an explosion above the snow pack in an avalanche starting zone. While fixed installations can be used at any time and minimize the risk to avalanche control personnel, visual confirmation is still required to verify if an avalanche released. In order to remotely detect artificially triggered avalanches, we therefore developed a low-cost seismic monitoring system. We deployed the monitoring system in a ski area above the town of Davos , in the eastern Swiss Alps, below a Gazex installation, a remote controlled installation that generates an air blast by detonating a fuel-air explosive above the snow pack. The monitoring system consists of three vertical component geophones inserted in the ground at approximately 14, 27 and 46 meters from the Gazex installation. Our results show that, despite the relatively low precision of the monitoring equipment, both the detonation and the resulting avalanches can clearly be identified in the seismic data. Specifically, detonations are characterized by short, high amplitude broadband signals, while avalanches generate much longer, low frequency signals. Furthermore, information on the size of the artificially triggered avalanches is also obtained as it directly relates to the duration of the generated seismic signal. The overall goal is to assess the effectiveness of the fixed avalanche control installation with regards to yield (i.e. number of avalanches triggered per explosion) and avalanche size.

van Herwijnen, Alec; Simioni, Stephan; Schweizer, Juerg

2014-05-01

297

Remote Pulsed Laser Raman Spectroscopy System for Detecting Qater, Ice, and Hydrous Minerals  

Science.gov (United States)

For exploration of planetary surfaces, detection of water and ice is of great interest in supporting existence of life on other planets. Therefore, a remote Raman spectroscopy system was demonstrated at NASA Langley Research Center in collaboration with University of Hawaii for detecting ice-water and hydrous minerals on planetary surfaces. In this study, a 532 nm pulsed laser is utilized as an excitation source to allow detection in high background radiation conditions. The Raman scattered signal is collected by a 4-inch telescope positioned in front of a spectrograph. The Raman spectrum is analyzed using a spectrograph equipped with a holographic super notch filter to eliminate Rayleigh scattering, and a holographic transmission grating that simultaneously disperses two spectral tracks onto the detector for higher spectral range. To view the spectrum, the spectrograph is coupled to an intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD), which allows detection of very weak Stokes line. The ICCD is operated in gated mode to further suppress effects from background radiation and long-lived fluorescence. The sample is placed at 5.6 m from the telescope, and the laser is mounted on the telescope in a coaxial geometry to achieve maximum performance. The system was calibrated using the spectral lines of a Neon lamp source. To evaluate the system, Raman standard samples such as calcite, naphthalene, acetone, and isopropyl alcohol were analyzed. The Raman evaluation technique was used to analyze water, ice and other hydrous minerals and results from these species are presented.

Garcia, Christopher S.; Abedin, M. Nuraul; Sharma, Shiv K.; Misra, Anupam K.; Ismail, Syed; Singh, Upendra; Refaat, Tamer F.; Elsayed-Ali, Hani; Sandford, Steve

2006-01-01

298

Survey of state-of-the-art technology in remote concealed weapon detection  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent advances in millimeter-wave (MMV), microwave, and infrared (IR) technologies provide the means to detect concealed weapons remotely through clothing and is some cases through walls. Since the developemnt of forward-looking infrared instruments, work has been ongoing in attempting to use these devices for concealed weapon detection based on temperatrue differences between metallic weapons and in the infrared has led to the development of techniques based on lower frequencies. Focal plane arrays operating MMW frequencies are becoming available which eliminate the need for a costly and slow mechanical scanner for generating images. These radiometric sensors also detect temperature differences between weapons and the human body background. Holographic imaging systems operating at both microwave and MMW frequencies have been developed which generate images of near photographic quality through clothing and through thin, nonmetallic walls. Finally, a real- aperture radar is useful for observing people and detecting weapons through walls and in the field under reduced visibility conditions. This paper will review all of these technologies and give examples of images generated by each type of sensor. An assessment of the future of this technology with regard to law enforcement applications will also be given.

Currie, Nicholas C.; Demma, Fred J.; Ferris, David D., Jr.; McMillan, Robert W.; Vannicola, Vincent C.; Wicks, Michael C.

1995-09-01

299

Intrusion detection capabilities of smart video: Collaborative efforts to improve remote monitoring for safeguards surveillance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Collaborative efforts between the International Projects Division (IPD) of the Department of Advanced Technology at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Aquila Technologies Group, Inc. (Aquila), and the General Physics Institute (GPI) in Moscow have developed object recognition technologies to provide real-time intrusion detection capabilities for Aquila''s GEMINI Digital Surveillance System. The research, development and testing for integrating enhanced surveillance capabilities into Aquila''s GEMINI system will receive support from the US Industry Coalition (USIC), an initiative funded by the Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (IPP), in the coming year. Oversight of the research and development effort is being provided by the IPD staff to ensure that the technical standards of safeguards systems for use by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) are met. The scientific expertise at GPI is providing breakthroughs in the realm of motion detection for surveillance. Aquila''s contribution to the project focuses on the integration of authenticated digital camera technology for front-end detection. This project illustrates how the application of technology can increase efficiency and reliability of remote monitoring, as well as the timely detection of Safeguards-significant events

300

A generic discriminative part-based model for geospatial object detection in optical remote sensing images  

Science.gov (United States)

Detecting geospatial objects with complex structure has been explored for years and it is still a challenging task in high resolution optical remote sensing images (RSI) interpretation. In this paper, we mainly focus on the problem of rotation variance in detecting geospatial objects and propose a generic discriminative part-based model (GDPBM) to build a practical object detection framework. In our model, a geospatial object with arbitrary orientation is divided into several parts and represented via three terms: the appearance features, the spatial deformation features and the rotation deformation features. The appearance features characterize the local patch appearance of the object and parts, and we propose a new kind of rotation invariant feature to represent the appearance using the local intensity gradients. The spatial deformation features capture the geometric deformation of parts by representing the relative displacements among parts. The rotation deformation features define the pose variances of the parts relative to the objects based on their dominant orientations. In generating the two deformation features, we introduce the statistic methods to encode the features in the category level. Concatenating the three terms of the features, a classifier based on the support vector machine is learned to detect geospatial objects. In the experiments, two datasets in optical RSI are used to evaluate the performance of our model and the results demonstrate its robustness and effectiveness.

Zhang, Wanceng; Sun, Xian; Wang, Hongqi; Fu, Kun

2015-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

An analysis of LULC change detection using remotely sensed data; A Case study of Bauchi City  

Science.gov (United States)

Bauchi is one of the cities in the north eastern part of Nigeria that has witnessed tremendous expansion as a result of rapid urbanization. For the past decade, the city has been known to be relatively small both in size and population. But today, Bauchi is one of the fastest growing cities in northern Nigeria. Therefore, it is paramount to detect the nature and magnitude of these changes in order to determine its direction of future expansion. To achieve that, Remotely Sensed data from Landsat 7 ETM+ and Landsat 8 were utilized for the purpose of LULC change detection in Bauchi city. Landsat 7 image of 2003 and Landsat 8 image of 2013 were obtained for the purpose of the study. Three change detection algorithms were used to detect areas of change. They include supervised, unsupervised and post classification comparison. While the unsupervised classification was found to be less effective, the supervised classification produced good results with overall accuracies of 93.5% and 89.7% for the 2003 and 2013 respectively. Finally, "from-to" change was obtained using the post classification comparism.

Kafi, K. M.; Shafri, H. Z. M.; Shariff, A. B. M.

2014-06-01

302

Hyperspectral remote sensing: A new approach for oil spill detection and analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Remote sensing technology is an important tool for monitoring, detecting, and analyzing oil spills. Researchers have explored the use of digital imagery acquired from airborne and spaceborne platforms for monitoring oil spills and for analyzing changes to oil spill thickness and contaminated areas. However, traditional digital imagery from multispectral scanners is subject to limitations of spatial and spectral resolution. A new type of remote sensing, known as "hyperspectral sensors," promises to revolutionize the use of remotely sensed data for a variety of applications including mapping and monitoring oil spills by eliminating the limitations of multispectral scanners. With hyperspectral sensors, it is possible to map oil spills of different types and thicknesses, as well as to detect subtle changes in oil-contaminated wetlands such as complex contaminated wet soil and vegetation. However, despite the great promise they offer, these sensors introduce a host of problems which must be addressed before they can be routinely used in oil spill applications. For example, statistical analysis techniques commonly used to process multispectral data are not suited to the amount and dimensionality of data present in a hyperspectral image. The large volume of data, along with the CPU-intensive algorithms required to derive information from hyperspectral data, make it difficult to extract useful information. This dissertation describes the spectral and spatial characteristics of hyperspectral data and the potential work of these data for oil spill detection and environmental applications. The advantages and disadvantages of these data for oil spills in fresh and sea water and contaminated wetlands are discussed. Furthermore, application of the Airborne Imaging Spectrometer for Applications (AISA) and the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imagery Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data for oil spill image classification is used. Two case studies are considered, the first focusing on the extraction of oil spill spectra and the region of interest (ROI) of oil-contaminated areas in Chesapeake Bay River, Maryland; the second is focusing on target identification for oil slick type and signature feature analysis for oil spill thickness in the sea at Santa Barbara, California. Results showed that the spectral features for oil spill on fresh water and sea water could be clearly identified; hence, that spills can be mapped. In addition, oil spill thickness and slick types at different stages could be identified by analyzing the spectral features of AVIRIS data.

Salem, Foudan Mohamed Fathy

303

Global dust Detection Index (GDDI); a new remotely sensed methodology for dust storms detection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dust storm occurs frequently in arid and semi-arid areas of the world. This natural phenomenon, which is the result of stormy winds, raises a lot of dust from desert surfaces and decreases visibility to less than 1 km. In recent years the temporal frequency of occurrences and their spatial extents has been dramatically increased. West of Iran, especially in spring and summer, suffers from significant increases of these events which cause several social and economic problems. Detecting and re...

Samadi, Mehdi; Darvishi Boloorani, Ali; Alavipanah, Seyed Kazem; Mohamadi, Hossein; Najafi, Mohamad Saeed

2014-01-01

304

Photonuclear Reaction Studies at HI?S: Developing the Science of Remote Detection of Nuclear Materials  

Science.gov (United States)

Development of gamma-ray beam interrogation technologies for remote detection of special nuclear materials and isotope analysis requires comprehensive databases of nuclear structure information and gamma-ray induced nuclear reaction observables. Relevant nuclear structure details include the energy, spin and parity of excited states that have significant probability for electromagnetic transition from the ground state, i.e, the angular momentum transferred in the reaction is ?l ? 2. This talk will report recent Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF) measurements to identify and characterize new low-spin states in actinide nuclei at energies from 1 to 4 MeV, which is the energy range most important for remote analysis methods. These measurements are carried out using the nearly mono-energetic linearly polarized gamma-ray beam at the High Intensity Gamma-ray Source (HI?S) at the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory. Also, studies of the (?, n) reaction on a variety of nuclei with linearly polarized beams at HI?S indicate that this reaction might be used to discern between fissile and non-fissile materials. This work will be described. In addition, an overview will be given of a concept for a next generation laser Compton-backing scattering gamma-ray source to be implemented as an upgrade to increase the beam intensity at HI?S by more than an order of magnitude.

Howell, C. R.

2015-10-01

305

A combined remote Raman and fluorescence spectrometer system for detecting inorganic and biological materials  

Science.gov (United States)

We have developed a combined remote telescopic Raman and laser-induced native fluorescence (LINF) spectrograph with 532 nm pulsed laser excitation and a gated CCD detector. With this system, we have measured time-resolved Raman and LINF spectral measurements at 9 m with 10-ns time resolution. A comparison of Raman spectra of calcite crystal and that of chicken eggshell show that the CaCO 3 in the chicken eggshell is arranged in a calcite structure. The strong LINF band in the spectrum of the calcite crystal has lifetime longer than 1 ?s, whereas the lifetime of LINF bands of the eggshell are in 10's of nano-sec (ns). The time-resolved Raman spectra of tomato and poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrimum) green leaves show resonance Raman features of carotenes. The time-resolved remote LINF spectrum of ruby crystals, and LINF spectra of tomato and poinsettia green leaves yield information that the LINF lifetime of ruby lines is much longer (in milliseconds (ms)) as compared with the fluorescence lifetime of the tomato and the poinsettia leaves (in 10s of ns). These results show that it will be possible to discriminate between inorganic and biogenic materials on the basis of LINF lifetimes even with 8 nano-sec laser pulses and gated detection.

Sharma, Shiv K.; Misra, Anupam K.; Lucey, Paul G.

2006-12-01

306

AIRBORNE, OPTICAL REMOTE SENSING OF METHANE AND ETHANE FOR NATURAL GAS PIPLINE LEAK DETECTION  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ophir Corporation was awarded a contract by the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory under the Project Title ''Airborne, Optical Remote Sensing of Methane and Ethane for Natural Gas Pipeline Leak Detection'' on October 14, 2002. The third six-month technical report contains a summary of the progress made towards finalizing the design and assembling the airborne, remote methane and ethane sensor. The vendor has been chosen and is on contract to develop the light source with the appropriate linewidth and spectral shape to best utilize the Ophir gas correlation software. Ophir has expanded upon the target reflectance testing begun in the previous performance period by replacing the experimental receiving optics with the proposed airborne large aperture telescope, which is theoretically capable of capturing many times more signal return. The data gathered from these tests has shown the importance of optimizing the fiber optic receiving fiber to the receiving optic and has helped Ophir to optimize the design of the gas cells and narrowband optical filters. Finally, Ophir will discuss remaining project issues that may impact the success of the project.

Jerry Myers

2004-05-12

307

Additional diffusion-weighted imaging in the detection of new, very small hepatocellular carcinoma lesions after interventional therapy compared with conventional 3 T MRI alone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aim: To evaluate the added value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) combined with conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the detection of new, very small hepatocellular carcinoma lesions (?1 cm) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma following interventional therapy compared to conventional MRI alone. Materials and methods: After interventional therapy, 45 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma underwent conventional MRI and DWI with a b-value of 0 and 700 s/mm2. Twenty-one new, small hepatocellular carcinoma lesions were confirmed in 16 patients at follow-up MRI. Two observers independently retrospectively analysed the two imaging sets in random order. The diagnostic performance using each imaging set was evaluated by received operating characteristic curve analysis. Results: Twenty-one new, very small hepatocellular carcinoma lesions found in 16 patients was confirmed as the final result. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the DWI/conventional MRI combination (observer 1, 0.952; observer 2, 0.976) and conventional MRI images alone (observer 1, 0.905; observer 2, 0.905) were statistically significant. The kappa value of the DWI/conventional MRI combination was 0.884, and that of conventional MRI was 0.722. Among the 21 lesions, 100% (21/21) of the lesions were both recognized by two independent reviewers on DWI, while only 76% (16/21) and 71% (15/21) of the lesions were regarded as very small hepatocellular carcinrded as very small hepatocellular carcinomas on conventional MRI. Conclusion: Due to the higher detection rate of new subcentimetre lesions in hepatocellular carcinoma patients following interventional therapy, DWI could be considered complementary to conventional MRI in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma.

308

Additional diffusion-weighted imaging in the detection of new, very small hepatocellular carcinoma lesions after interventional therapy compared with conventional 3 T MRI alone  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aim: To evaluate the added value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) combined with conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the detection of new, very small hepatocellular carcinoma lesions ({<=}1 cm) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma following interventional therapy compared to conventional MRI alone. Materials and methods: After interventional therapy, 45 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma underwent conventional MRI and DWI with a b-value of 0 and 700 s/mm{sup 2}. Twenty-one new, small hepatocellular carcinoma lesions were confirmed in 16 patients at follow-up MRI. Two observers independently retrospectively analysed the two imaging sets in random order. The diagnostic performance using each imaging set was evaluated by received operating characteristic curve analysis. Results: Twenty-one new, very small hepatocellular carcinoma lesions found in 16 patients was confirmed as the final result. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the DWI/conventional MRI combination (observer 1, 0.952; observer 2, 0.976) and conventional MRI images alone (observer 1, 0.905; observer 2, 0.905) were statistically significant. The kappa value of the DWI/conventional MRI combination was 0.884, and that of conventional MRI was 0.722. Among the 21 lesions, 100% (21/21) of the lesions were both recognized by two independent reviewers on DWI, while only 76% (16/21) and 71% (15/21) of the lesions were regarded as very small hepatocellular carcinomas on conventional MRI. Conclusion: Due to the higher detection rate of new subcentimetre lesions in hepatocellular carcinoma patients following interventional therapy, DWI could be considered complementary to conventional MRI in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma.

Qu, J.-R [Department of Radiology, Affiliated Cancer Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China); Li, H.-L, E-mail: doctor_hnchr@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Affiliated Cancer Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China); Shao, N.-N; Li, X. [Department of Radiology, Affiliated Cancer Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China); Yan, G.-L [Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Basic Medicine, Henan University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Zhengzhou (China); Zhang, H.-K; Luo, J.-P; Zhang, S.-N; Li, Y.-L; Liu, C.-C [Department of Radiology, Affiliated Cancer Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China)

2012-07-15

309

Morphological MRI criteria improve the detection of lymph node metastases in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: multivariate logistic regression analysis of MRI features of cervical lymph nodes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim was to evaluate whether morphological criteria in addition to the size criterion results in better diagnostic performance of MRI for the detection of cervical lymph node metastases in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Two radiologists evaluated 44 consecutive patients in which lymph node characteristics were assessed with histopathological correlation as gold standard. Assessed criteria were the short axial diameter and morphological criteria such as border irregularity and homogeneity of signal intensity on T2-weighted and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed: diagnostic odds ratios (DOR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) and areas under the curve (AUCs) of receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were determined. Border irregularity and heterogeneity of signal intensity on T2-weighted images showed significantly increased DORs. AUCs increased from 0.67 (95% CI: 0.61-0.73) using size only to 0.81 (95% CI: 0.75-0.87) using all four criteria for observer 1 and from 0.68 (95% CI: 0.62-0.74) to 0.96 (95% CI: 0.94-0.98) for observer 2 (p < 0.001). This study demonstrated that the morphological criteria border irregularity and heterogeneity of signal intensity on T2-weighted images in addition to size significantly improved the detection of cervical lymph nodes metastases. (orig.)

310

IMAGE PROCESSING AND REMOTE SENSING – A LULC CHANGE DETECTION USING REMOTELY SENSED DATA FOR COIMBATORE DISTRICT, INDIA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Land Use is clearly constrained by environmental factors like soil characteristics, climatic conditions, water sources and vegetation. Changes in Land Use and Land Cover is a dynamic process taking place on the earth surface, and the spatial distribution of the changes that have taken place over a period of time and space is of immense importance in many natural studies. Whether regional or local in scope, remote sensing offers a means of acquiring and presenting land cover data in timely man...

Dr K Thanushkodi, Y. Baby Kalpana

2012-01-01

311

EXTENDED PERFORMANCE HANDHELD AND MOBILE SENSORS FOR REMOTE DETECTION OF NATURAL GAS LEAKS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes work performed by Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) to advance the state-of-the-art of surveying for leaks of natural gas from transmission and distribution pipelines. The principal project goal was to develop means of deploying on an automotive platform an improved version of the handheld laser-based standoff natural gas leak detector previously developed by PSI and known as the Remote Methane Leak Detector or RMLD. A laser beam which interrogates the air for methane is projected from a spinning turret mounted upon a van. As the van travels forward, the laser beam scans an arc to the front and sides of the van so as to survey across streets and to building walls from a moving vehicle. When excess methane is detected within the arc, an alarm is activated. In this project, we built and tested a prototype Mobile RMLD (MRMLD) intended to provide lateral coverage of 10 m and one lateral scan for every meter of forward motion at forward speeds up to 10 m/s. Using advanced detection algorithms developed as part of this project, the early prototype MRMLD, installed on the back of a truck, readily detected simulated gas leaks of 50 liters per hour. As a supplement to the originally planned project, PSI also participated in a DoE demonstration of several gas leak detection systems at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC) during September 2004. Using a handheld RMLD upgraded with the advanced detection algorithms developed in this project, from within a moving vehicle we readily detected leaks created along the 7.4 mile route of a virtual gas transmission pipeline.

Michael B. Frish; B. David Green; Richard T. Wainner; Francesca Scire-Scappuzzo; Paul Cataldi; Matthew C. Laderer

2005-05-01

312

Methods and means of remote detection of oil pollutants of water. II. Active detection methods  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors discuss active methods for detecting oil pollutants of water, and they evaluate the practical use of these methods. Sensing of pollutants by the active method is based on the difference in the reflecting, scattering, or fluorescing properties of clean and oil-covered water. The methods for such active analysis involve radar and laser technology. The authors conclude that, although only the visual and photographic methods are now being used, it is expedient to introduce the radar, fluorescent, and active optical radar methods as the most promising alternatives.

Bogorodskii, V.V.; Kropotkin, M.A.

1985-07-01

313

Comparison of thallium-201 SPET and CT/MRI in the detection of residual/recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was designed to compare the effectiveness of thallium-201 single-photon emission tomography (SPET) and conventional imaging, comprising computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in the detection of residual/recurrent squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity. Thirty-two patients with clinically suspected recurrent SCC of the oral cavity were recruited. All patients underwent 201Tl SPET and CT or MRI within 2 weeks. The final diagnoses were based on the histology of the biopsy specimen. 201Tl SPET and CT/MRI both accurately detected 17 of 18 residual/recurrent tumours. CT/MRI yielded eight false-positive studies, whereas 201Tl SPET successfully excluded all tumours. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and accuracy of 201Tl SPET for the detection of recurrent oral SCC were 94%, 100%, 100%, 93% and 97%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and accuracy of CT/MRI for the detection of recurrent oral SCC were 94%, 43%, 68%, 86% and 72%, respectively. Thallium-201 SPET is more accurate than conventional imaging (CT or MRI) in differentiating residual/recurrent oral SCC from post-therapy changes. (orig.)

314

Method of remote powering and detecting multiple UWB passive tags in an RFID system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), tracking, powering apparatus/system and method using coded Ultra-wideband (UWB) signaling is introduced. The proposed hardware and techniques disclosed herein utilize a plurality of passive UWB transponders in a field of an RFID-radar system. The radar system itself enables multiple passive tags to be remotely powered (activated) at about the same time frame via predetermined frequency UWB pulsed formats. Once such tags are in an activated state, an UWB radar transmits specific "interrogating codes" to put predetermined tags in an awakened status. Such predetermined tags can then communicate by a unique "response code" so as to be detected by an UWB system using radar methods.

Dowla, Farid U. (Castro Valley, CA); Nekoogar, Faranak (San Ramon, CA); Benzel, David M. (Livermore, CA); Dallum, Gregory E. (Livermore, CA); Spiridon, Alex (Palo Alto, CA)

2012-05-29

315

Anomaly Detection Rudiments for the Application of Hyperspectral Sensors in Aerospace Remote Sensing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hyperspectral imaging differs from conventional techniques by exploiting the spectral dimensionality of remote scenes. This additional information promotes discrimination of image elements, especially anomalies that are dissimilar with respect to global features. Algorithms for anomaly detection are designed to overcome the inherent difficulty of analysing hypercubes, which are the higher-dimensional analogues of conventional broadband images. Such algorithms are prolific in their variety and design, which could become an obstacle in choice or application for the neophyte researcher in this field. This paper seeks to consolidate this plethora of algorithms into succinct categories for clarity of rudimentary decision making. A duplicate of article 012048 Snapshot hyperspectral imaging and practical applications was originally published here, in error, as article 012051. The present article replaced the duplicate and was published on 18 August 2009.

316

Multifocal epithelioid hemangioendothelioma of the lower limbs detected by 18F-FDG PET/MRI.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 38-year-old man underwent surgical excision of a 1.5-cm subcutaneous nodule of the left leg. Histologic evaluation demonstrated the presence of an epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE). The patient underwent 18F-FDG PET/MRI for staging. This examination demonstrated the presence of several soft tissue and bone lesions in the left lower limb without evidence of distant metastatic disease. The final diagnosis was multifocal EHE of the left lower limb. In this case, 18F-FDG PET/MRI has been very useful in the correct staging of this rare presentation of EHE of the lower limbs. PMID:24445271

Treglia, Giorgio; Ceriani, Luca; Paone, Gaetano; Rusca, Tiziana; Bongiovanni, Massimo; Giovanella, Luca

2014-09-01

317

Gadolinium enhancement: improved MRI detection of retinoblastoma extension into the optic nerve  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We performed T1-, T2-, proton density-weighted, and T1-weighted gadolinium-enhanced MRI on 24 patients with retinoblastoma, using a 1.5 T superconducting unit and head and orbital surface coil imaging. All patients underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination, including B-scan ultrasonography. CT was performed on 10 of 24 patients. Pathologic correlation was obtained in 18 patients who required enucleation. Contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MRI with fat suppression was the sequence most sensitive to optic nerve extension and provided the greatest differentiation between tumor and uninvolved extrascleral tissue. Retinoblastoma demonstrated contrast enhancement. (orig.). With 3 figs., 1 tab

318

A Matlab Toolbox for fMRI Data Analysis: Detection, Estimation and Brain Connectivity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) is one of the best techniques for neuroimaging and has revolutionized the way to understand the brain functions. It measures the changes in the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal which is related to the neuronal activity. Complexity of the data, presence of di?erent types of noises and the massive amount of data makes the fMRI data analysis a challenging one. It demands e?cient signal processing and statistical analysis methods.  The i...

Budde, Kiran Kumar

2012-01-01

319

MOVING OBSTACLE DETECTION AND REMOTE VIDEO MONITORING SYSTEM USING CORTEX-A8  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper the Detection of Moving obstacle and remote video monitoring and extracting the key frames from the captured video system based on high performance SAMSUNG S5PV210 CORTEX-A8 processor core is build and expanding peripheral devices using embedded Linux as the operating system. Today monitoring systems are either webcam based or simple motion detection based. Here we have interfaced both webcam and PIR sensor to the embedded system so that the user can get an immediate alert message and can take necessary steps. This system is based on the kernel of Cortex board with the GSM module being triggered by a Pyroelectric Infrared Sensor (PIR, which senses changes in the external temperature, especially in this case when an invader enters in to remote location and send SMS to the user. At the same time, by using a smart device or a PC, the user can link to the video streaming server constructed on the embedded board via the internet and browse the webpage to monitor the surveillance area, here the UVC driver and V4L programming is used to interface USB camera to the board to capture video information and then board will do two parallel works first one is transmits the processed captured video information using wireless network, which will be collected and monitored at client side using wireless network connection through the wireless device, second one is extracts the key frames from captured video using OpenCV and served on a server, the both provides an advantage to surveillance monitoring system.

V.PADMAJA, KAVITHA MAMINDLA

2013-11-01

320

AIRBORNE, OPTICAL REMOTE SENSING OF METHANE AND ETHANE FOR NATURAL GAS PIPELINE LEAK DETECTION  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ophir Corporation was awarded a contract by the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory under the Project Title ''Airborne, Optical Remote Sensing of Methane and Ethane for Natural Gas Pipeline Leak Detection'' on October 14, 2002. This six-month technical report summarizes the progress for each of the proposed tasks, discusses project concerns, and outlines near-term goals. Ophir has completed a data survey of two major natural gas pipeline companies on the design requirements for an airborne, optical remote sensor. The results of this survey are disclosed in this report. A substantial amount of time was spent on modeling the expected optical signal at the receiver at different absorption wavelengths, and determining the impact of noise sources such as solar background, signal shot noise, and electronic noise on methane and ethane gas detection. Based upon the signal to noise modeling and industry input, Ophir finalized the design requirements for the airborne sensor, and released the critical sensor light source design requirements to qualified vendors. Responses from the vendors indicated that the light source was not commercially available, and will require a research and development effort to produce. Three vendors have responded positively with proposed design solutions. Ophir has decided to conduct short path optical laboratory experiments to verify the existence of methane and absorption at the specified wavelength, prior to proceeding with the light source selection. Techniques to eliminate common mode noise were also evaluated during the laboratory tests. Finally, Ophir has included a summary of the potential concerns for project success and has established future goals.

Jerry Myers

2003-05-13

 
 
 
 
321

Detection, Identification, Location, and Remote Sensing using SAW RFID Sensor Tags  

Science.gov (United States)

In this presentation, we will consider the problem of simultaneous detection, identification, location estimation, and remote sensing for multiple objects. In particular, we will describe the design and testing of a wireless system capable of simultaneously detecting the presence of multiple objects, identifying each object, and acquiring both a low-resolution estimate of location and a high-resolution estimate of temperature for each object based on wireless interrogation of passive surface acoustic wave (SAW) radiofrequency identification (RFID) sensor tags affixed to each object. The system is being studied for application on the lunar surface as well as for terrestrial remote sensing applications such as pre-launch monitoring and testing of spacecraft on the launch pad and monitoring of test facilities. The system utilizes a digitally beam-formed planar receiving antenna array to extend range and provide direction-of-arrival information coupled with an approximate maximum-likelihood signal processing algorithm to provide near-optimal estimation of both range and temperature. The system is capable of forming a large number of beams within the field of view and resolving the information from several tags within each beam. The combination of both spatial and waveform discrimination provides the capability to track and monitor telemetry from a large number of objects appearing simultaneously within the field of view of the receiving array. In the presentation, we will summarize the system design and illustrate several aspects of the operational characteristics and signal structure. We will examine the theoretical performance characteristics of the system and compare the theoretical results with results obtained from experiments in both controlled laboratory environments and in the field.

Barton, Richard J.

2009-01-01

322

A suspicious breast lesion detected by dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI and pathologically confirmed as capillary hemangioma: A case report and literature review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Breast capillary hemangioma is a type of benign vascular tumor which is rarely seen. Little is known about its presentation on dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). Here, we describe a case of suspicious breast lesion detected by DCE-MRI and pathologically confirmed as capillary hemangioma. Our case indicates that a small mass with a superficial location, clear boundary, and homogeneous enhancement on DCE-MRI indicates the possible diagnosis of hemangioma, whereby even the lesion presents a washout type curve.

323

Image processing and classification for the UK remote minefield detection system infrared polarimetric camera  

Science.gov (United States)

The UK Remote Minefield Detection System (REMIDS) Technology Demonstration Programme (TDP) aims to demonstrate the applicability of emerging technologies in an integrated system for detecting mined areas from an airborne platform. The multi-sensor demonstrator is being managed by DERA on behalf of the UK MoD with an unmanned air vehicle (UAV) as the intended platform. The TDP is nearing the end of a five year programme that has developed a novel ultra wide band synthetic aperture radar (UWB SAR) and a MWIR time-parallel polarimetric IR camera (IRPC). A ground station processor has also been developed to fuse sensor outputs through a variety of detection and identification algorithms. An extensive series of data collection trials and analysis activities has been performed. This paper reports on the development by DERA of the algorithms required both to pre- process raw data from the IRPC into a useable form, and to discriminate mines from a variety of backgrounds. These algorithms are being integrated into ground station processing that will combine data from both sensors to identify mine areas and accurately delineate their boundaries. The top-level process architecture for this ground station, and how the IPRC fits within it, are also described in this paper.

Williams, John W.; Tee, Howard S.; Poulter, Mark A.

2001-10-01

324

Fluid motion and solute distribution around sinking aggregates II : Implications for remote detection by colonizing zooplankters  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Marine snow aggregates are colonized by copepods, and encounter rates inferred from observed abundances of colonizers are high. We examined the potential for hydromechanical and chemical remote detection. The fluid disturbance generated by a sinking aggregate was described by solving the Navier-Stokes' equation for a sinking sphere at Reynolds numbers typical of marine snow (up to 20). Fluid deformation rate, the component of the flow that can be perceived by copepods, attenuates rapidly, and detection distances estimated from knowledge of the hydromechanical sensitivity in copepods are insufficient to account for the observed abundances of colonizers. We next solved the advection-diffusion equation to describe the chemical trail left by a leaking and sinking aggregate. The plume is long and slender and may be detected by a horizontally cruising copepod. From the model of the plume and literature- based estimates of size-dependent aggregate leakage rates of amino acids, we estimate that a threshold sensitivity to amino acids of 0.4 x 10(-7) M is required to account for observed abundances of colonizers. This is consistent with knowledge of the amino acid concentrations needed to elicit behavioral responses in copepods.

KiØrboe, Thomas; Thygesen, Uffe HØgsbro

2001-01-01

325

Zero-field remote detection of NMR with a microfabricated atomic magnetometer.  

Science.gov (United States)

We demonstrate remote detection of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with a microchip sensor consisting of a microfluidic channel and a microfabricated vapor cell (the heart of an atomic magnetometer). Detection occurs at zero magnetic field, which allows operation of the magnetometer in the spin-exchange relaxation-free (SERF) regime and increases the proximity of sensor and sample by eliminating the need for a solenoid to create a leading field. We achieve pulsed NMR linewidths of 26 Hz, limited, we believe, by the residence time and flow dispersion in the encoding region. In a fully optimized system, we estimate that for 1 s of integration, 7 x 10(13) protons in a volume of 1 mm(3), prepolarized in a 10-kG field, can be detected with a signal-to-noise ratio of approximately 3. This level of sensitivity is competitive with that demonstrated by microcoils in 100-kG magnetic fields, without requiring superconducting magnets. PMID:18287080

Ledbetter, M P; Savukov, I M; Budker, D; Shah, V; Knappe, S; Kitching, J; Michalak, D J; Xu, S; Pines, A

2008-02-19

326

Remote detection of similar biological materials using femtosecond filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

We demonstrated the feasibility of remote detection and differentiation of some very similar agricultural-activity related bioaerosols, namely barley, corn, and wheat grain dusts, through nonlinear fluorescence of fragments induced by the high-intensity inside filaments of femtosecond laser pulses in air. The signals were detected in Lidar configuration with targets located at 4.7 m away from the detection system. All the species showed identical spectra, namely those from molecular C2 and CN bands, as well as atomic Si, C, Mg, Al, Na, Ca, Mn, Fe, Sr and K lines. These identical spectral bands and lines reveal similar chemical compositions; however, the relative intensities of the spectra are different showing different element abundances from these three bio-targets. The intensity ratios of different elemental lines were used to distinguish these three samples. Good reproducibility was obtained. We expect that this technique could be used at long distance and thus played as a sensor of similar biological hazards for public and defense security.

Xu, H. L.; Méjean, G.; Liu, W.; Kamali, Y.; Daigle, J.-F.; Azarm, A.; Simard, P. T.; Mathieu, P.; Roy, G.; Simard, J.-R.; Chin, S. L.

2007-03-01

327

Embedded DSP-Based Telehealth Radar System for Remote In-Door Fall Detection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Telehealth systems and applications are extensively investigated nowadays to enhance the quality-of-care and, in particular, to detect emergency situations and to monitor the well-being of elderly people, allowing them to stay at home independently as long as possible. In this paper, an embedded telehealth system for continuous, automatic, and remote monitoring of real-time fall emergencies is presented and discussed. The system, consisting of a radar sensor and base station, represents a cost-effective and efficient healthcare solution. The implementation of the fall detection data processing technique, based on the least-square support vector machines, through a digital signal processor and the management of the communication between radar sensor and base station are detailed. Experimental tests, for a total of 65 mimicked fall incidents, recorded with 16 human subjects (14 men and two women) that have been monitored for 320 min, have been used to validate the proposed system under real circumstances. The subjects' weight is between 55 and 90 kg with heights between 1.65 and 1.82 m, while their age is between 25 and 39 years. The experimental results have shown a sensitivity to detect the fall events in real time of 100% without reporting false positives. The tests have been performed in an area where the radar's operation was not limited by practical situations, namely, signal power, coverage of the antennas, and presence of obstacles between the subject and the antennas. PMID:25291803

Garripoli, Carmine; Mercuri, Marco; Karsmakers, Peter; Jack Soh, Ping; Crupi, Giovanni; Vandenbosch, Guy A E; Pace, Calogero; Leroux, Paul; Schreurs, Dominique

2015-01-01

328

Ultra-low field MRI of prostate cancer using SQUID detection  

Science.gov (United States)

In this dissertation, I investigate various applications of prepolarized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at ultralow fields, typically at 132 muT, detected with a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). One of the major advantages of working at ultralow fields is enhanced longitudinal-relaxation-time (T1)-weighted contrast. I measure T1 of healthy and cancerous prostate tissue specimens---within a few hours of their surgical removal--from approximately 50 patients. The measurements involve a field-cycling imaging technique in which I prepolarize protons in fields up to 150 mT. After this field turns off, the image of each pair of samples is encoded using magnetic field gradients, and the proton nuclear magnetic resonance signal is measured using a SQUID inductively coupled to an untuned, second-derivative gradiometer. The observed T1 contrast is significantly greater than that at (say) 1.5 T, suggesting that one may be able to distinguish tumors from healthy tissue without a contrast agent: on average I find that T1 of 100% tumor is 66% that of 100% normal prostate tissue. To make this imaging system suitable for in vivo imaging of human prostates, I integrate a 200-A, 150-mT prepolarizing coil that will adequately polarize the human prostate. Assuming a prepolarizing field of 150 mT at the prostate, and a noise of 0.2 fT Hz-1/2, we can acquire a T1 weighted contrast image of the prostate with resolution 2x2x3 mm3 in 22 minutes with a contrast-to-noise ratio of 4. Measurements of preliminary standard phantoms designed by NIST in Boulder, CO for measuring T1, proton density, and resolution are discussed. I also present calculations for a method of tuning the input coil of the SQUID at low frequencies (˜10 kHz) while adding minimal noise. This tuning would be useful to block very low frequency, high amplitude drifts of the ambient second-order gradient magnetic field while preserving the high balance of the gradiometer.

Busch, Sarah Elizabeth

329

Novel MRI methodology to detect human whole-brain connectivity changes after ingestion of fructose or glucose  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel MRI protocol has been developed to investigate the differential effects of glucose or fructose consumption on whole-brain functional brain connectivity. A previous study has reported a decrease in the fMRI blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal of the hypothalamus following glucose ingestion, but due to technical limitations, was restricted to a single slice covering the hypothalamus, and thus unable to detect whole-brain connectivity. In another previous study, a protocol was devised to acquire whole-brain fMRI data following food intake, but only after restricting image acquisition to an MR sampling or repetition time (TR) of 20s, making the protocol unsuitable to detect functional connectivity above 0.025Hz. We have successfully implemented a continuous 36-min, 40 contiguous slices, whole-brain BOLD acquisition protocol on a 3T scanner with TR=4.5s to ensure detection of up to 0.1Hz frequencies for whole-brain functional connectivity analysis. Human data were acquired first with ingestion of water only, followed by a glucose or fructose drink within the scanner, without interrupting the scanning. Whole-brain connectivity was analyzed using standard correlation methodology in the 0.01-0.1 Hz range. The correlation coefficient differences between fructose and glucose ingestion among targeted regions were converted to t-scores using the water-only correlation coefficients as a null condition. Results show a dramatic increase in the hypothalamic connectivity to the hippocampus, amygdala, insula, caudate and the nucleus accumben for fructose over glucose. As these regions are known to be key components of the feeding and reward brain circuits, these results suggest a preference for fructose ingestion.

Tsao, Sinchai; Wilkins, Bryce; Page, Kathleen A.; Singh, Manbir

2012-03-01

330

Integrated microchip incorporating atomic magnetometer and microfluidic channel for NMR and MRI  

Science.gov (United States)

An integral microfluidic device includes an alkali vapor cell and microfluidic channel, which can be used to detect magnetism for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Small magnetic fields in the vicinity of the vapor cell can be measured by optically polarizing and probing the spin precession in the small magnetic field. This can then be used to detect the magnetic field of in encoded analyte in the adjacent microfluidic channel. The magnetism in the microfluidic channel can be modulated by applying an appropriate series of radio or audio frequency pulses upstream from the microfluidic chip (the remote detection modality) to yield a sensitive means of detecting NMR and MRI.

Ledbetter, Micah P. (Oakland, CA); Savukov, Igor M. (Los Alamos, NM); Budker, Dmitry (El Cerrito, CA); Shah, Vishal K. (Plainsboro, NJ); Knappe, Svenja (Boulder, CO); Kitching, John (Boulder, CO); Michalak, David J. (Berkeley, CA); Xu, Shoujun (Houston, TX); Pines, Alexander (Berkeley, CA)

2011-08-09

331

IR/THz Double Resonance Spectroscopy Approach for Remote Chemical Detection at Atmospheric Pressure  

Science.gov (United States)

A remote sensing methodology based on infrared/terahertz (IR/THz) double resonance (DR) spectroscopy is shown to overcome limitations traditionally associated with either IR or THz spectroscopic approaches for detecting trace gases in an atmosphere. The applicability of IR/THz DR spectroscopy is explored by estimating the IR and THz power requirements for detecting a 100 part-per-million-meter cloud of methyl fluoride, methyl chloride, or methyl bromide at ranges up to 1km in three atmospheric windows below 0.3 THz. These prototypical molecules are used to ascertain the dependence of the DR signal-to-noise ratio on IR and THz beam power. A line-tunable CO_2 laser with 100 ps pulse duration generates a DR signature in four rotational transitions on a time scale commensurate with collisional relaxations caused by atmospheric N_2 and O_2. A continuous wave THz beam is frequency tuned to probe one of these rotational transitions so that laser-induced absorption variations in the analyte cloud are detected as temporal power fluctuations synchronized with the laser pulses. A combination of molecule-specific physics and scenario-dependent atmospheric conditions are used to predict the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for detecting an analyte as a function of cloud column density. A methodology is presented by which the optimal IR/THz pump/probe frequencies are identified. These estimates show the potential for low concentration chemical detection in a challenging atmospheric scenario with currently available or near term hardware components.

Tanner, Elizabeth A.; Phillips, Dane J.; De Lucia, Frank C.; Everitt, Henry O.

2013-06-01

332

Transient and sustained BOLD signal time courses affect the detection of emotion-related brain activation in fMRI.  

Science.gov (United States)

A tremendous amount of effort has been dedicated to unravel the functional neuroanatomy of the processing and regulation of emotion, resulting in a well-described picture of limbic, para-limbic and prefrontal regions involved. Studies applying functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) often use the block-wise presentation of stimuli with affective content, and conventionally model brain activation as a function of stimulus or task duration. However, there is increasing evidence that regional brain responses may not always translate to task duration and rather show stimulus onset-related transient time courses. We assume that brain regions showing transient responses cannot be detected in block designs using a conventional fMRI analysis approach. At the same time, the probability of detecting these regions with conventional analyses may be increased when shorter stimulus timing or a more intense stimulation during a block is used. In a within-subject fMRI study, we presented aversive pictures to 20 healthy subjects and investigated the effect of experimental design (i.e. event-related and block design) on the detection of brain activation in limbic and para-limbic regions of interest of emotion processing. In addition to conventional modeling of sustained activation during blocks of stimulus presentation, we included a second response function into the general linear model (GLM), suited to detect transient time courses at block onset. In the conventional analysis, several regions like the amygdala, thalamus and periaqueductal gray were activated irrespective of design. However, we found a positive BOLD response in the anterior insula (AI) in event-related but not in block-design analyses. GLM analyses suggest that this difference may result from a transient response pattern which cannot be captured by the conventional fMRI analysis approach. Our results indicate that regions with a transient response profile like the AI can be missed in block designs if analyses do not account for transient responses. This may bias conclusions from empirical reports and meta-analyses towards an underestimation of these regions and their role in emotion and emotion regulation. The cognitive processes underlying differential time courses are discussed. PMID:25204866

Paret, Christian; Kluetsch, Rosemarie; Ruf, Matthias; Demirakca, Traute; Kalisch, Raffael; Schmahl, Christian; Ende, Gabriele

2014-12-01

333

Clustering of Dependent Components: A New Paradigm for fMRI Signal Detection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Exploratory data-driven methods such as unsupervised clustering and independent component analysis (ICA are considered to be hypothesis-generating procedures and are complementary to the hypothesis-led statistical inferential methods in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Recently, a new paradigm in ICA emerged, that of finding “clusters” of dependent components. This intriguing idea found its implementation into two new ICA algorithms: tree-dependent and topographic ICA. For fMRI, this represents the unifying paradigm of combining two powerful exploratory data analysis methods, ICA and unsupervised clustering techniques. For the fMRI data, a comparative quantitative evaluation between the two methods, tree-dependent and topographic ICA, was performed. The comparative results were evaluated by (1 task-related activation maps, (2 associated time courses, and (3 ROC study. The most important findings in this paper are that (1 both tree-dependent and topographic ICA are able to identify signal components with high correlation to the fMRI stimulus, and that (2 topographic ICA outperforms all other ICA methods including tree-dependent ICA for 8 and 9 ICs. However for 16 ICs, topographic ICA is outperformed by tree-dependent ICA (KGV using as an approximation of the mutual information the kernel generalized variance. The applicability of the new algorithm is demonstrated on experimental data.

Helge Ritter

2005-11-01

334

Navigators for motion detection during real-time MRI-guided radiotherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An MRI-linac system provides direct MRI feedback and with that the possibility of adapting radiation treatments to the actual tumour position. This paper addresses the use of fast 1D MRI, pencil-beam navigators, for this feedback. The accuracy of using navigators was determined on a moving phantom. The possibility of organ tracking and breath-hold monitoring based on navigator guidance was shown for the kidney. Navigators are accurate within 0.5 mm and the analysis has a minimal time lag smaller than 30 ms as shown for the phantom measurements. The correlation of 2D kidney images and navigators shows the possibility of complete organ tracking. Furthermore the breath-hold monitoring of the kidney is accurate within 1.5 mm, allowing gated radiotherapy based on navigator feedback. Navigators are a fast and precise method for monitoring and real-time tracking of anatomical landmarks. As such, they provide direct MRI feedback on anatomical changes for more precise radiation delivery. (paper)

335

Dynamic gadolinium-enhanced MRI in the detection of spinal arteriovenous malformations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Arteriovenous fistulae and malformations (AVFs and AVMs) of the spinal cord are rare, potentially treatable causes of progressive disability. Although a variety of MRI abnormalities has been described, the diagnosis rests on the findings on selective spinal angiography. Collecting T2'-weighted MR images during the passage of a gadolinium bolus gives information about perfusion and blood volume. We carried out dynamic MRI in seven patients with vascular abnormalities (5 dural AVFs, 1 intramedullary AVM, 1 cryptic angioma) and in two patients without an AVM. High resolution T1- and T2-weighted sagittal images of the whole spinal cord were first obtained using a multiarray receiver coil. Sagittal radiofrequency spoilt gradient echo images (GE34/25, flip angle 10 ) were then obtained during bolus injection of gadolinium-DTPA. Abnormalities were seen in all seven patients with AVFs or AVMs. In the patient with an intramedullary AVM and four of the five with dural AVFs transient signal reduction was seen within the perimedullary venous plexus during passage of the bolus. The findings correlated well with those from selective spinal angiography. We conclude that dynamic MRI offers a useful adjunct to angiography and may localise an arteriovenous shunt when conventional MRI fails to do so. In combination with high-resolution imaging of the entire spinal cord the technique may make myelography redundant; it is simple, well tolerated and can be carried out without siolerated and can be carried out without significant time penalty. (orig.)

336

Differential diagnosis of MRI detected intra cranial space occupying lesions (ICSOLS)-role of 99MTC tetrofosmin cerebral spect  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Discriminating the correct etiology of Intra Cranial Space Occupying Lesions (ICSOLs) detected by MRI is of paramount importance in deciding the right therapeutic approach. Functional imaging like 99m Tc Tetrofosmin cerebral SPECT (C SPECT) can be used to differentiate malignant from other benign cerebral pathologies. Objective: Our aim was to assess the efficacy of C SPECT in differentiating various etiologies (i.e. Infective / Inflammatory, Neoplastic and Post Radiotherapy changes) of MRI detected ICSOLs. We also aimed to assess the incremental value of quantitative uptake ratios in identifying the exact nature of ICSOLs. Method: 26 Patients (M:F=20:6), age range 28-76 yrs, mean 42±7 yrs were evaluated by 99mTc Tetrofosmin cerebral SPECT. 14/26 patients were HIV positive cases while remaining 12 were treated patients of intracerebral malignancies. All these patients had one or more discrete MRI detected ICSOLs. 6/4 patients with HIV and 4/12 patients in the non HIV group showed more than 1 discrete ICSOLs. 20 mci of 99mTc Tetrofosmin was injected IV .15 min (early) and 2 hrs (delayed) post injection C SPECT images were acquired on a dual head variable angle Gamma camera. After reconstruction, transverse, coronal and sagittal images were co- registered with DICOM online available MRI images using aco- registration software. Focal Tetrofosmin uptake in MRI detected ICSOL was interpreted as abnormal. Tetrofosmin uptake index (Ix) was calculated in early and delayed imx) was calculated in early and delayed images as ratio of counts in lesion to that of contra lateral region. A value of more than 1.3 was considered to be abnormal. Persistent Ix of more than 1.3 in initial and delayed images were considered to be malignant while Ix of more or less than 1.3 in initial but less than 1.3 in delayed images was considered to be benign in both groups. Results: In HIV group (14 pts), 4 patients showed an Ix of less than 1.3 in both early and delayed images and 7 patients showed an Ix of more than 1.3 in early but significant washout of Tetrofosmin in delayed images (Ix 1.3). So this 11/14 patients were diagnosed to have an infective / inflammatory SOL (etiology: TB / toxoplasmosis) and were followed up at least for 5 months.10/11 patients improved / did not show any deterioration while 1 patient deteriorated (93% specificity). Remaining 3 patients who showed significant tracer uptake in both images (more than 1.3 Ix) were diagnosed to have cerebral malignancy and underwent stereo tactic biopsy. All were proved to be positive for lymphoma (100 % sensitivity, specificity). In non HIV group (12pts), (i.e.tumour recurrence Vs Post Radiotherapy edema) 5/12 patients showed features of recurrence with a persistent Ix of more than 2.0. and 7/12 patients showed an Ix of more than 1.3 in early but significant washout of Tetrofosmin in delayed images (Ix less than 1.3) prompting a diagnosis of post radiotherapy edema. While benign etiology patients were followed up with conservative measures recurrent malignancy patients were subsequently taken up for radiotherapy. 1 patient in benign group deteriorated and was diagnosed to have a recurrence. (Specificity 85.7%) Conclusion: C SPECT is a very useful tool in further evaluating MRI detected ICSOLs both in HIV positive patients and in follow up patients of treated intra cranial malignancies. An uptake index of 1.3 seems to be a good cut off value while performing C SPECT. (authors)

337

PET/CT and 3-T whole-body MRI in the detection of malignancy in treated oropharyngeal and hypopharyngeal carcinoma  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We performed a prospective comparison of the diagnostic capability of integrated fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) (PET/CT), 3-T whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) and their combination in detecting malignancy in treated oropharyngeal or hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OHSCC). Seventy-nine OHSCC patients at a high risk of residual disease or suspected to have recurrence after the completion of chemoradiation were included in the study. All patients underwent PET/CT and WB-MRI within 10 days of each other. Histology and follow-up data were used as the reference standard. The McNemar test was used to compare sensitivity and specificity, while the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used for comparison of diagnostic capabilities. Twenty-nine patients (36.7%) had residual/recurrent tumours or second primary tumours. Overall, there was a trend towards increased sensitivity and diagnostic capability for PET/CT compared with WB-MRI (72.4 vs 55.2%, p = 0.13; 0.826 vs 0.753, p = 0.24, respectively). The diagnostic capability of combined interpretation of PET/CT and WB-MRI was similar to PET/CT alone (0.827 vs 0.826, p = 0.97) but was significantly higher than WB-MRI alone (0.827 vs 0.753, p = 0.04). PET/CT showed a trend towards higher diagnostic capability than 3-T WB-MRI in detecting residual/recurrent tumours or second primary tumours in OHSCC. The combined use of PET/CT and WB-MRI provided more added value to WB-MRI alone than to PET/CT alone. Additional PET/CT can be useful in patients with questionable MRI findings of malignancy. (orig.)

Ng, Shu-Hang; Ko, Sheung-Fat [Chang Gung University, Molecular Imaging Center, Taoyuan (China); Linkou Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan (China); Chang Gung University, Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Taoyuan (China); Chan, Sheng-Chieh; Yen, Tzu-Chen [Chang Gung University, Molecular Imaging Center, Taoyuan (China); Chang Gung University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taoyuan (China); Liao, Chun-Ta; Chang, Kai-Ping [Chang Gung University, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Taoyuan (China); Lin, Chin-Yu; Fan, Kang-Hsing [Chang Gung University, Department of Radiation Oncology, Taoyuan (China); Chang Gung University, Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Science, Taoyuan (China); Tung-Chieh Chang, Joseph [Chang Gung University, Department of Radiation Oncology, Taoyuan (China); Wang, Hung-Ming [Chang Gung University, Department of Medical Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan (China)

2011-06-15

338

Application of nonnegative matrix factorization to improve profile-profile alignment features for fold recognition and remote homolog detection  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) is a feature extraction method that has the property of intuitive part-based representation of the original features. This unique ability makes NMF a potentially promising method for biological sequence analysis. Here, we apply NMF to fold recognition and remote homolog detection problems. Recent studies have shown that combining support vector machines (SVM) with profile-profile alignments improves performance of fold recognition and remote homolog detection remarkably. However, it is not clear which parts of sequences are essential for the performance improvement. Results The performance of fold recognition and remote homolog detection using NMF features is compared to that of the unmodified profile-profile alignment (PPA) features by estimating Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) scores. The overall performance is noticeably improved. For fold recognition at the fold level, SVM with NMF features recognize 30% of homolog proteins at > 0.99 ROC scores, while original PPA feature, HHsearch, and PSI-BLAST recognize almost none. For detecting remote homologs that are related at the superfamily level, NMF features also achieve higher performance than the original PPA features. At > 0.90 ROC50 scores, 25% of proteins with NMF features correctly detects remotely related proteins, whereas using original PPA features only 1% of proteins detect remote homologs. In addition, we investigate the effect of number of positive training examples and the number of basis vectors on performance improvement. We also analyze the ability of NMF to extract essential features by comparing NMF basis vectors with functionally important sites and structurally conserved regions of proteins. The results show that NMF basis vectors have significant overlap with functional sites from PROSITE and with structurally conserved regions from the multiple structural alignments generated by MUSTANG. The correlation between NMF basis vectors and biologically essential parts of proteins supports our conjecture that NMF basis vectors can explicitly represent important sites of proteins. Conclusion The present work demonstrates that applying NMF to profile-profile alignments can reveal essential features of proteins and that these features significantly improve the performance of fold recognition and remote homolog detection. PMID:18590572

Jung, Inkyung; Lee, Jaehyung; Lee, Soo-Young; Kim, Dongsup

2008-01-01

339

Application of nonnegative matrix factorization to improve profile-profile alignment features for fold recognition and remote homolog detection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF is a feature extraction method that has the property of intuitive part-based representation of the original features. This unique ability makes NMF a potentially promising method for biological sequence analysis. Here, we apply NMF to fold recognition and remote homolog detection problems. Recent studies have shown that combining support vector machines (SVM with profile-profile alignments improves performance of fold recognition and remote homolog detection remarkably. However, it is not clear which parts of sequences are essential for the performance improvement. Results The performance of fold recognition and remote homolog detection using NMF features is compared to that of the unmodified profile-profile alignment (PPA features by estimating Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC scores. The overall performance is noticeably improved. For fold recognition at the fold level, SVM with NMF features recognize 30% of homolog proteins at > 0.99 ROC scores, while original PPA feature, HHsearch, and PSI-BLAST recognize almost none. For detecting remote homologs that are related at the superfamily level, NMF features also achieve higher performance than the original PPA features. At > 0.90 ROC50 scores, 25% of proteins with NMF features correctly detects remotely related proteins, whereas using original PPA features only 1% of proteins detect remote homologs. In addition, we investigate the effect of number of positive training examples and the number of basis vectors on performance improvement. We also analyze the ability of NMF to extract essential features by comparing NMF basis vectors with functionally important sites and structurally conserved regions of proteins. The results show that NMF basis vectors have significant overlap with functional sites from PROSITE and with structurally conserved regions from the multiple structural alignments generated by MUSTANG. The correlation between NMF basis vectors and biologically essential parts of proteins supports our conjecture that NMF basis vectors can explicitly represent important sites of proteins. Conclusion The present work demonstrates that applying NMF to profile-profile alignments can reveal essential features of proteins and that these features significantly improve the performance of fold recognition and remote homolog detection.

Lee Soo-Young

2008-07-01

340

Automated object-based change detection for forest monitoring by satellite remote sensing : applications in temperate and tropical regions/  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Forest ecosystems have recently received worldwide attention due to their biological diversity and their major role in the global carbon balance. Detecting forest cover change is crucial for reporting forest status and assessing the evolution of forested areas. However, existing change detection approaches based on satellite remote sensing are not quite appropriate to rapidly process the large volume of earth observation data. Recent advances in image segmentation have led to new opportunitie...

Descle?e, Baudouin

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Whole-body MRI for the detection of bone marrow involvement in lymphoma: prospective study in 116 patients and comparison with FDG-PET  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To assess and compare the value of whole-body MRI with FDG-PET for detecting bone marrow involvement in lymphoma. A total of 116 patients with newly diagnosed lymphoma prospectively underwent whole-body MRI and blind bone marrow biopsy (BMB) of the posterior iliac crest. Of 116 patients, 80 also underwent FDG-PET. Patient-based sensitivities of whole-body MRI for detecting bone marrow involvement were calculated using BMB as reference standard and compared with FDG-PET in aggressive and indolent lymphomas separately. Sensitivity of whole-body MRI in all lymphomas was 45.5 % [95 % confidence interval (CI): 29.8-62.0 %]. Sensitivity of whole-body MRI in aggressive lymphoma [88.9 % (95 % CI: 54.3-100 %)] was significantly higher (P = 0.0029) than that in indolent lymphoma [23.5 % (95 % CI: 9.1-47.8 %)]. Sensitivity of FDG-PET in aggressive lymphoma [83.3 % (95 % CI: 41.8-98.9 %)] was also significantly higher (P = 0.026) than that in indolent lymphoma [12.5 % (95 % CI: 0-49.2 %)]. There were no significant differences in sensitivity between whole-body MRI and FDG-PET (P = 1.00) Sensitivity of whole-body MRI for detecting lymphomatous bone marrow involvement is too low to (partially) replace BMB. Sensitivity of whole-body MRI is significantly higher in aggressive lymphoma than in indolent lymphoma and is equal to FDG-PET in both entities. (orig.)

342

Whole-body MRI for the detection of bone marrow involvement in lymphoma: prospective study in 116 patients and comparison with FDG-PET  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To assess and compare the value of whole-body MRI with FDG-PET for detecting bone marrow involvement in lymphoma. A total of 116 patients with newly diagnosed lymphoma prospectively underwent whole-body MRI and blind bone marrow biopsy (BMB) of the posterior iliac crest. Of 116 patients, 80 also underwent FDG-PET. Patient-based sensitivities of whole-body MRI for detecting bone marrow involvement were calculated using BMB as reference standard and compared with FDG-PET in aggressive and indolent lymphomas separately. Sensitivity of whole-body MRI in all lymphomas was 45.5 % [95 % confidence interval (CI): 29.8-62.0 %]. Sensitivity of whole-body MRI in aggressive lymphoma [88.9 % (95 % CI: 54.3-100 %)] was significantly higher (P = 0.0029) than that in indolent lymphoma [23.5 % (95 % CI: 9.1-47.8 %)]. Sensitivity of FDG-PET in aggressive lymphoma [83.3 % (95 % CI: 41.8-98.9 %)] was also significantly higher (P = 0.026) than that in indolent lymphoma [12.5 % (95 % CI: 0-49.2 %)]. There were no significant differences in sensitivity between whole-body MRI and FDG-PET (P = 1.00) Sensitivity of whole-body MRI for detecting lymphomatous bone marrow involvement is too low to (partially) replace BMB. Sensitivity of whole-body MRI is significantly higher in aggressive lymphoma than in indolent lymphoma and is equal to FDG-PET in both entities. (orig.)

Adams, Hugo J.A.; Kwee, Thomas C.; Vermoolen, Malou A.; Keizer, Bart de; Nievelstein, Rutger A.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands); Klerk, John M.H. de [Meander Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Adam, Judit A. [Academic Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Fijnheer, Rob [Meander Medical Center, Department of Hematology, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Kersten, Marie Jose [Academic Medical Center, Department of Hematology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Stoker, Jaap [Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

2013-08-15

343

Multisensor remote sensing information fusion for urban area classification and change detection  

Science.gov (United States)

Information extraction from multi-sensor remote sensing imagery is an important and challenging task for many applications such as urban area mapping and change detection. A special acquisition (orthogonal) geometry is of great importance for optical and radar data fusion. This acquisition geometry allows to minimize displacement effects due inaccuracy of Digital Elevation Model (DEM) used for data ortho-rectification and existence of unknown 3D structures in a scene. Final data spatial alignment is performed by recently proposed co-registration method based on a Mutual Information measure. For a combination of features originating from different sources, which are quite often noncommensurable, we propose an information fusion framework called INFOFUSE consisting of three main processing steps: feature fission (feature extraction aiming at complete description of a scene), unsupervised clustering (complexity reduction and feature representation in a common dictionary) and supervised classification realized by Bayesian or Neural networks. An example of urban area classification is presented for the orthogonal acquisition of space borne very high resolution WorldView-2 and TerraSAR-X Spotlight imagery over Munich city, South Germany. Experimental results confirm our approach and show a great potential also for other applications such as change detection.

Palubinskas, Gintautas; Makarau, Aliaksei; Reinartz, Peter

2011-05-01

344

Multispectral remote sensing for rainfall detection and estimation at the source of the Blue Nile River  

Science.gov (United States)

Most remote sensing based rainfall products have spatial resolutions ?0.25° and temporal resolutions ?1 day which are coarser than what is typically needed in hydrology. In this study, satellite data obtained from the precipitation radar (PR) of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) which acquires data at 5 km resolution once or twice a day and from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) of the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG-2) which acquires data at 3 km resolution at 15 min interval. We evaluated three MSG-2 channels for rainfall detection in the Upper Blue Nile area in Ethiopia by the following indices: (1) 10.8 ?m brightness temperature, (2) rate of change of the 10.8 ?m brightness temperature, (3) space gradient of the 10.8 ?m brightness temperature, (4) brightness temperature difference (BTD) at the 10.8 and 6.2 ?m and (5) BTD at the 10.8 and 12.0 ?m channels. The evaluation was made through categorical statistics that are bias, probability of detection, false alarm ratio and Heidke skill score. In this work also, an exponential model was developed for thermal infrared based rainfall estimation. The model was evaluated using observations from a rain gauge network that we installed at the source of the Blue Nile River in Ethiopia.

Haile, Alemseged Tamiru; Rientjes, Tom; Gieske, Ambro; Gebremichael, Mekonnen

345

Multiple change detection for multispectral remote sensing images via joint sparse representation  

Science.gov (United States)

We propose an approach for multiple change detection in multispectral remote sensing images based on joint sparse representation. The principal idea is that each change class lies in a low-dimensional space, in which the change vectors can be represented by a linear combination of a few representation atoms. Our method includes two stages: (1) in the learning stage, we learn a subdictionary for each change class from the training samples; and (2) in the reference stage, each change pixel vector is represented with respect to all subdictionaries and assigned to the class with minimum representation errors. Furthermore, taking into account the spatial contextual information, we propose a joint sparsity model to represent each pixel and its similar neighbors simultaneously, thereby enhancing the robustness of the representation to noise. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed method, we choose Shenzhen, China, as the study area in the context of fast urban growth. During the experiments, the proposed method achieves better results on two Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus images than does another state-of-the-art supervised change-detection method.

Song, Huihui; Wang, Guojie; Zhang, Kaihua

2014-12-01

346

Influence of imaging and histological factors on prostate cancer detection and localisation on multiparametric MRI: a prospective study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To assess factors influencing prostate cancer detection on multiparametric (T2-weighted, diffusion-weighted, and dynamic contrast-enhanced) MRI. One hundred and seventy-five patients who underwent radical prostatectomy were included. Pre-operative MRI performed at 1.5 T (n = 71) or 3 T (n = 104), with (n = 58) or without (n = 117) an endorectal coil were independently interpreted by two radiologists. A five-point subjective suspicion score (SSS) was assigned to all focal abnormalities (FAs). MR findings were then compared with whole-mount sections. Readers identified 192-214/362 cancers, with 130-155 false positives. Detection rates for tumours of <0.5 cc (cm{sup 3}), 0.5-2 cc and >2 cc were 33-45/155 (21-29 %), 15-19/35 (43-54 %) and 8-9/12 (67-75 %) for Gleason {<=}6, 17/27 (63 %), 42-45/51 (82-88 %) and 34/35 (97 %) for Gleason 7 and 4/5 (80 %), 13/14 (93 %) and 28/28 (100 %) for Gleason {>=}8 cancers respectively. At multivariate analysis, detection rates were influenced by tumour Gleason score, histological volume, histological architecture and location (P < 0.0001), but neither by field strength nor coils used for imaging. The SSS was a significant predictor of both malignancy of FAs (P < 0.005) and aggressiveness of tumours (P < 0.00001). Detection rates were significantly influenced by tumour characteristics, but neither by field strength nor coils used for imaging. The SSS significantly stratified the risk of malignancy of FAs and aggressiveness of detected tumours. (orig.)

Bratan, Flavie [Hopital Edouard Herriot, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Department of Urinary and Vascular Radiology, Lyon (France); Inserm, U1032, LabTau, Lyon (France); Niaf, Emilie [Inserm, U1032, LabTau, Lyon (France); CREATIS, CNRS UMR5220, Inserm U1044, INSA-Lyon, Villeurbanne (France); Melodelima, Christelle [Universite Joseph Fourier, Laboratoire d' Ecologie Alpine, CNRS UMR 5553, BP 53, Grenoble (France); Chesnais, Anne Laure; Mege-Lechevallier, Florence [Hopital Edouard Herriot, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Department of Pathology, Lyon (France); Souchon, Remi [Inserm, U1032, LabTau, Lyon (France); Colombel, Marc [Universite de Lyon, Lyon (France); Universite Lyon 1, Faculte de Medecine Lyon Est, Lyon (France); Hopital Edouard Herriot, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Department of Urology, Lyon (France); Rouviere, Olivier [Hopital Edouard Herriot, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Department of Urinary and Vascular Radiology, Lyon (France); Inserm, U1032, LabTau, Lyon (France); Universite de Lyon, Lyon (France); Universite Lyon 1, Faculte de Medecine Lyon Est, Lyon (France); Hopital E. Herriot, Service de Radiologie Urinaire et Vasculaire, Pavillon P, Lyon Cedex 03 (France)

2013-07-15

347

Influence of imaging and histological factors on prostate cancer detection and localisation on multiparametric MRI: a prospective study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To assess factors influencing prostate cancer detection on multiparametric (T2-weighted, diffusion-weighted, and dynamic contrast-enhanced) MRI. One hundred and seventy-five patients who underwent radical prostatectomy were included. Pre-operative MRI performed at 1.5 T (n = 71) or 3 T (n = 104), with (n = 58) or without (n = 117) an endorectal coil were independently interpreted by two radiologists. A five-point subjective suspicion score (SSS) was assigned to all focal abnormalities (FAs). MR findings were then compared with whole-mount sections. Readers identified 192-214/362 cancers, with 130-155 false positives. Detection rates for tumours of 3), 0.5-2 cc and >2 cc were 33-45/155 (21-29 %), 15-19/35 (43-54 %) and 8-9/12 (67-75 %) for Gleason ?6, 17/27 (63 %), 42-45/51 (82-88 %) and 34/35 (97 %) for Gleason 7 and 4/5 (80 %), 13/14 (93 %) and 28/28 (100 %) for Gleason ?8 cancers respectively. At multivariate analysis, detection rates were influenced by tumour Gleason score, histological volume, histological architecture and location (P < 0.0001), but neither by field strength nor coils used for imaging. The SSS was a significant predictor of both malignancy of FAs (P < 0.005) and aggressiveness of tumours (P < 0.00001). Detection rates were significantly influenced by tumour characteristics, but neither by field strength nor coils used for imaging. The SSS significantly stratified the risk of malignancy of FAs and aggressiveness of detected tumours. (orig.)

348

Diagnostic accuracy of stress myocardial perfusion MRI and late gadolinium-enhanced MRI for detecting flow-limiting coronary artery disease: a multicenter study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic performance of stress and rest perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and late gadolinium-enhanced (LGE) MRI for identifying patients with obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). A total of 50 patients with suspected CAD underwent stress-rest perfusion MRI, followed by LGE MRI with a 1.5-T system. Stress-rest perfusion MRI resulted in an area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.92 for observer 1 and 0.84 for observer 2 with sensitivity and specificity of 89% (32/36) and 79% (11/14) by observer 1, 83% (30/36) and 71% (10/14) by observer 2, respectively, showing a moderate interobserver agreement (Cohen's ? 0.49). While combination of stress-rest perfusion and LGE MRI did not result in improved accuracy for the prediction of flow-limiting obstructive CAD (AUC 0.81 for observer 1 and 0.80 for observer 2), the sensitivity was increased to 92% in both observers with a substantial interobserver agreement (? = 0.70). Stress-rest myocardial perfusion MRI is an accurate diagnostic test for identifying patients with obstructive CAD. (orig.)

349

Accuracy of abdominal ultrasound and MRI for detection of Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis in children  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Endoscopy is currently the primary diagnostic technique for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in children. To assess the accuracy of US and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI for diagnosing inflammatory bowel disease and for distinguishing Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis in comparison to a reference standard. Consecutive children with suspected IBD underwent diagnostic workup including ileocolonoscopy and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy as the reference standard, abdominal US, and MR enterography and colonography at 3 T. The protocol included a dynamic contrast-enhanced 3-D sequence. Sensitivity, specificity and kappa values were calculated for one ultrasonographer and two MRI observers. We included 28 children (15 boys) with mean age 14 years (range 10-17 years). The diagnosis was IBD in 23 children (72%), including 12 with Crohn disease, 10 with ulcerative colitis and 1 with indeterminate colitis. For the diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease the sensitivity was 55% for US and 57% (both observers) for MR entero- and colonography, and the specificity was 100% for US and 100% (observer 1) and 75% (observer 2) for MR entero- and colonography. Combined MRI and US had sensitivity and specificity of 70% and 100% (observer 1) and 74% and 80% (observer 2), respectively. With the addition of a dynamic contrast-enhanced MR sequence, the sensitivity increased to 83% and 87%. US and MRI could only distinguish between Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis when terminal ileum lesions were present. US and MR entero- and colonography have a high accuracy for diagnosing inflammatory bowel disease in children but cannot be used to distinguish Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis. (orig.)

Ziech, Manon L.W.; Smets, Anne M.J.B.; Lavini, Cristina; Caan, Matthan W.A.; Nederveen, Aart J.; Bipat, Shandra; Stoker, Jaap [Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hummel, Thalia Z.; Benninga, Marc A.; Kindermann, Angelika [Emma Children' s Hospital, Academic Medical Center, Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Nievelstein, Rutger A.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Roelofs, Joris J.T.H. [Academic Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

2014-11-15

350

Detection of multifocal osteonecrosis in an adolescent with dermatomyositis using whole-body MRI  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Osteonecrosis is a well-recognized complication of corticosteroid use resulting in significant morbidity, often requiring surgical intervention. Whole-body MRI is a promising method that allows imaging of the whole patient in a reasonable time without the use of ionizing radiation. This technique has the potential for evaluating nonmalignant multifocal skeletal disease like osteonecrosis. This case highlights the value of whole-body MR in an adolescent with dermatomyositis who developed multifocal osteonecrosis. (orig.)

Castro, Tania C.M.; Terreri, Maria Teresa A.; Hilario, Maria Odete E. [Federal University of Sao Paulo, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Allergy, Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lederman, Henrique [Federal University of Sao Paulo, Image Diagnosis Department, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Kaste, Sue C. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Radiological Sciences, Division of Diagnostic Imaging, Memphis, TN (United States)

2010-09-15

351

Clustering of Dependent Components: A New Paradigm for fMRI Signal Detection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Exploratory data-driven methods such as unsupervised clustering and independent component analysis (ICA) are considered to be hypothesis-generating procedures and are complementary to the hypothesis-led statistical inferential methods in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Recently, a new paradigm in ICA emerged, that of finding "clusters" of dependent components. This intriguing idea found its implementation into two new ICA algorithms: tree-dependent and topographic ICA. F...

Hurdal Monica K; Ritter Helge; Meyer-Bäse Anke; Lange Oliver

2005-01-01

352

MRI of prostate cancer using three different coil systems: image quality, tumor detection, and staging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To compare three MRI coil systems in terms of image quality, delineation of prostate cancer, and tumor staging. Materials and Methods: 49 patients with prostate cancer underwent MRI at 1.5 Tesla using a combination of an endorectal coil with a phased-array body coil (combination coil) prior to radical prostatectomy. Images were reconstructed from the data sets acquired with the endorectal coil alone and from those acquired with the combined coil. In addition, 19 patients of the study patients were examined with the body phased-array coil alone without the endorectal coil. The prostate was imaged at a slice thickness of 3 mm using axial and coronal T2-weighted sequences and an axial T1-weighted sequence. Preoperative analysis of all images acquired was done to determine the accuracy of MRI in local staging of prostate cancer. An additional retrospective analysis served to compare the different coil systems in terms of overall image quality, delineation and localization of the tumor, and criteria for local staging of prostate cancer. Results: Preoperative analysis showed MRI to have an accuracy of 59% in local tumor staging. Retrospective coil-by-coil analysis demonstrated image quality and tumor delineation to be best for the combination coil and the endorectal coil. Regarding the staging criteria for transcapsular tumor extension and infiltration of adjacent organs, a significant advantage of the combination coil compared to the endorect combination coil compared to the endorectal coil was identified only for the criterion of smooth bulging. In addition, the endorectal coil and the combination coil were found to be superior to the body phased-array coil in assessing 15 of 17 criteria for local tumor staging but the differences were not significant. Conclusion: In view of the achieved superior image quality, the combination coil or the endorectal coil is the preferred method for staging prostate cancer. (orig.)

353

Accuracy of abdominal ultrasound and MRI for detection of Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis in children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Endoscopy is currently the primary diagnostic technique for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in children. To assess the accuracy of US and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI for diagnosing inflammatory bowel disease and for distinguishing Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis in comparison to a reference standard. Consecutive children with suspected IBD underwent diagnostic workup including ileocolonoscopy and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy as the reference standard, abdominal US, and MR enterography and colonography at 3 T. The protocol included a dynamic contrast-enhanced 3-D sequence. Sensitivity, specificity and kappa values were calculated for one ultrasonographer and two MRI observers. We included 28 children (15 boys) with mean age 14 years (range 10-17 years). The diagnosis was IBD in 23 children (72%), including 12 with Crohn disease, 10 with ulcerative colitis and 1 with indeterminate colitis. For the diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease the sensitivity was 55% for US and 57% (both observers) for MR entero- and colonography, and the specificity was 100% for US and 100% (observer 1) and 75% (observer 2) for MR entero- and colonography. Combined MRI and US had sensitivity and specificity of 70% and 100% (observer 1) and 74% and 80% (observer 2), respectively. With the addition of a dynamic contrast-enhanced MR sequence, the sensitivity increased to 83% and 87%. US and MRI could only distinguish between Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis when terminal ileum lesions were present. US and MR entero- and colonography have a high accuracy for diagnosing inflammatory bowel disease in children but cannot be used to distinguish Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis. (orig.)

354

Diagnostic value of MRI in comparison to scintigraphy, PET, MS-CT and PET/CT for the detection of metastases of bone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The initial localization of metastases in the bone in patients with solid tumors has a relatively good prognosis in comparison with visceral metastasization. The early detection of bone marrow metastases allows for a rapid initiation of therapy and a subsequent reduction in the morbidity rate. Modern MRI is superior to the 30-year-old skeletal scintigraphy and bone marrow scintigraphy with respect to sensitivity, specificity, as well as the extent of osteal metastasis. MRI provides sustantial, therapy-relevant additional information. MSCT plays an important role in the management of cancer patients in clinical routine and gives an excellent survey of the axial skeleton by demonstrating osteolytic and osteoblastic metastases. Extensive comparative studies of MRI with 18F-FDG-PET and 18F-fluoride-PET have not yet been carried out. Whole body MRI is a very promising new staging method for the oncological diagnosis of solid tumors and the detection of osteal metastases. The adoption of 18F-FDG-PET and 18F-fluoride-PET FDG as well as the side by side PET-CT image fusion and the two in one PET/CT examinations appears to be slightly less sensitive to whole body MRI in the detection of osteal metastases. Larger, prospective multicenter studies are necessary to establish these as new, promising methods for the detection of osteal metastases

355

Radiographically occult femoral and pelvic fractures are not mutually exclusive: a review of fractures detected by MRI following low-energy trauma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to review the MRI examinations of a large group of low-energy trauma patients in whom pelvic MRI had detected radiographically occult fractures, in order to characterize prevailing fracture patterns and determine how often co-existing proximal femoral and pelvic fractures were observed. All patients having pelvic MRI over 5 years were identified. Word-search software selected 269 MRI reports containing the term 'fracture'. Further scrutiny identified 168 with diagnosis of fracture. MRI request and imaging record review identified 102 low-energy trauma cases that had MRI for clinical suspicion of fracture despite normal radiographs. Sixty-six cases were excluded for the following reasons: no expressed clinical suspicion of occult fracture; history suggesting high-energy trauma; skeletal co-morbidity hindering acute fracture identification; interval more than 2 weeks between radiographs and MRI. The 102 study MRI examinations, which employed a limited two-sequence protocol, were reviewed. Any fracture that had not been appreciated on radiographs was recorded and characterized as femoral, pelvic, or co-existing femoral and pelvic fractures. The 102 study cases had a median age of 82 years. The median interval between pelvic radiographs and MRI was 3 days. MRI showed undiagnosed femoral fracture in 48/102 cases (47.1%), sacral fracture in 41/102 (40.2%), and pubic fracture in 55/102 (53.9%). In 11/102 cases (10.8%), MRI showed undiagnosed fra cases (10.8%), MRI showed undiagnosed fractures of both proximal femur and pelvic ring (seven sacral, six pubic bone, two other site fractures). In 10/11 cases with co-existing femoral and pelvic fractures, the femoral fracture was incomplete. Limited pelvic MRI found a high prevalence of radiographically occult femoral and pelvic fractures in low-energy trauma patients, with clinical suspicion of fracture despite normal radiographs. Co-existing occult femoral and pelvic ring fractures were commonly observed, and in such cases, the femoral fracture was likely to be incomplete and multiple pelvic fractures were typically present. (orig.)

356

Adaptive signal processing algorithm for remote detection of heart rate (HR) using ultra-wideband waveforms based on principal component analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ultra-Wideband (UWB) technology provides a convenient approach for remote biomedical sensing and vital signs monitoring in humans. In this paper, a specific algorithm is proposed to improve the ability of Heart Rate (HR) detection. Unlike previous methods for remote HR detection, the proposed method provides an adaptive filter based on respiration and heart rate parameters obtained from UWB waveforms. The algorithm is capable of detecting heart rate by changing the adaptive filter parameters accordingly. The proposed method is employed on real life data collected by UWB transceiver. According to experiments, it is concluded that the proposed technique is able to handle remote detection of different heart rates accurately. PMID:19963914

Sharifahmadian, Ershad; Ahmadian, Alireza

2009-01-01

357

Remote-controlled robotic platform ORPHEUS as a new tool for detection of bacteria in the environment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Remote-controlled robotic systems are being used for analysis of various types of analytes in hostile environment including those called extraterrestrial. The aim of our study was to develop a remote-controlled robotic platform (ORPHEUS-HOPE) for bacterial detection. For the platform ORPHEUS-HOPE a 3D printed flow chip was designed and created with a culture chamber with volume 600 ?L. The flow rate was optimized to 500 ?L/min. The chip was tested primarily for detection of 1-naphthol by differential pulse voltammetry with detection limit (S/N = 3) as 20 nM. Further, the way how to capture bacteria was optimized. To capture bacterial cells (Staphylococcus aureus), maghemite nanoparticles (1 mg/mL) were prepared and modified with collagen, glucose, graphene, gold, hyaluronic acid, and graphene with gold or graphene with glucose (20 mg/mL). The most up to 50% of the bacteria were captured by graphene nanoparticles modified with glucose. The detection limit of the whole assay, which included capturing of bacteria and their detection under remote control operation, was estimated as 30 bacteria per ?L. PMID:24634313

Nejdl, Lukas; Kudr, Jiri; Cihalova, Kristyna; Chudobova, Dagmar; Zurek, Michal; Zalud, Ludek; Kopecny, Lukas; Burian, Frantisek; Ruttkay-Nedecky, Branislav; Krizkova, Sona; Konecna, Marie; Hynek, David; Kopel, Pavel; Prasek, Jan; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

2014-08-01

358

Detecting Land Cover Change by Trend and Seasonality of Remote Sensing Time Series  

Science.gov (United States)

Natural resource managers demand knowledge of information on the spatiotemporal dynamics of land use and land cover change, and detection and characteristics change over time is an initial step for the understanding of the mechanism of change. The propose of this research is the use the approach BFAST (Breaks For Additive Seasonal and Trend) for detects trend and seasonal changes within Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series. BFAST integrates the decomposition of time series into trend, seasonal, and noise components with methods for detecting change within time series without the need to select a reference period, set a threshold, or define a change trajectory. BFAST iteratively estimates the time and number of changes, and characterizes change by its magnitude and direction. The general model is of the form Yt = Tt + St + et (t= 1,2,3,…, n) where Yt is the observed data at time t, Tt is the trend component, St is the seasonal component, and et is the remainder component. In this study was used MODIS NDVI time series datasets (MOD13Q1) over 11 years (2000 - 2010) on an intensive agricultural area in Mato Grosso - Brazil. At first it was applied a filter for noise reduction (4253H twice) over spectral curve of each MODIS pixel, and subsequently each time series was decomposed into seasonal, trend, and remainder components by BFAST. Were detected one abrupt change from a single pixel of forest and two abrupt changes on trend component to a pixel of the agricultural area. Figure 1 shows the number of phonological change with base in seasonal component for study area. This paper demonstrated the ability of the BFAST to detect long-term phenological change by analyzing time series while accounting for abrupt and gradual changes. The algorithm iteratively estimates the dates and number of changes occurring within seasonal and trend components, and characterizes changes by extracting the magnitude and direction of change. Changes occurring in the seasonal component indicate phenological changes, while changes occurring in the trend component indicate gradual and abrupt change. BFAST can be used to analyze different types of remotely sensed time series and can be applied to other time series such as econometrics, climatology, and hydrology. The algorithm used in this study is available in BFAT package for R from CRAN (http://cran.r-project.org/package=bfast).; Figure 1 - Number of the phonological change with base in seasonal component.

Oliveira, J. C.; Epiphanio, J. N.; Mello, M. P.

2013-05-01

359

Novel 19F activatable probe for the detection of matrix metalloprotease-2 activity by MRI/MRS.  

Science.gov (United States)

Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) have been found to be highly expressed in a variety of malignant tumor tissues. Noninvasive visualization of MMP activity may play an important role in the diagnosis of MMP associated diseases. Here we report the design and synthesis of a set of fluorine-19 dendron-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) probes for real-time imaging of MMP-2 activity. The probes have the following features: (a) symmetrical fluorine atoms; (b) the number of fluorine atoms can be increased through facile chemical modification; (c) readily accessible peptide sequence as the MMP-2 substrate; (d) activatable (19)F signal (off/on mode) via paramagnetic metal ion incorporation. Following optimization for water solubility, one of the probes was selected to evaluate MMP-2 activity by (19)F magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Our results showed that the fluorine signal increased by 8.5-fold in the presence of MMP-2. The specific cleavage site was verified by mass spectrometry. The selected probe was further applied to detect secreted MMP-2 activity of living SCC7 squamous cell carcinoma cells. The fluorine signal was increased by 4.8-fold by MRS analysis after 24 h incubation with SCC7 cells. This type of fluorine probe can be applied to evaluate other enzyme activities by simply tuning the substrate structures. This symmetrical fluorine dendron-based probe design extends the scope of the existing (19)F MRI agents and provides a simple but robust method for real-time (19)F MRI application. PMID:25271556

Yue, Xuyi; Wang, Zhe; Zhu, Lei; Wang, Yu; Qian, Chunqi; Ma, Ying; Kiesewetter, Dale O; Niu, Gang; Chen, Xiaoyuan

2014-11-01

360

MRI at 3 Tesla detects no evidence for ischemic brain damage in intensively treated patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is considered a model disease for excessive plasma cholesterol levels. Patients with untreated homozygous FH have a markedly increased risk for premature atherosclerosis. The frequency and extent of ischemic brain damage detectable by high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after long-term intensive treatment are unknown. In a case control study, five patients with homozygous FH (one male and four females; mean age: 23.6 ± 9.2, range: 12-36 years; mean pre-treatment serum total cholesterol level: 26.9 ± 3.24 mmol/L; all patients with documented atherosclerotic plaques in the carotid arteries) and five age- and sex-matched healthy controls were studied. All patients had been on maximal lipid-lowering medication since early childhood, and four of them were also on treatment with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis at bi-weekly intervals. Brain MRI was performed at 3 Tesla field strength with fluid-attenuated T2-weighted inversion recovery and T1-weighted spin-echo MR pulse sequences and subsequently evaluated by two independent readers. The maximal lipid-lowering treatment reduced the total serum cholesterol by more than 50% in the patients, but their serum concentrations were still 3.6-fold higher than those found in the controls (11.9 ± 4.2 vs. 4.5 ± 0.5 mmol/L; p < 0.0047). No brain abnormality was observed in any of the patients with homozygous FH. Homozygous FH patients on intensive cholesterol-lowering theron intensive cholesterol-lowering therapy have no evidence of ischemic brain damage at 3 Tesla MRI despite the remaining high cholesterol levels. (orig.)

 
 
 
 
361

MRI at 3 Tesla detects no evidence for ischemic brain damage in intensively treated patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is considered a model disease for excessive plasma cholesterol levels. Patients with untreated homozygous FH have a markedly increased risk for premature atherosclerosis. The frequency and extent of ischemic brain damage detectable by high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after long-term intensive treatment are unknown. In a case control study, five patients with homozygous FH (one male and four females; mean age: 23.6 {+-} 9.2, range: 12-36 years; mean pre-treatment serum total cholesterol level: 26.9 {+-} 3.24 mmol/L; all patients with documented atherosclerotic plaques in the carotid arteries) and five age- and sex-matched healthy controls were studied. All patients had been on maximal lipid-lowering medication since early childhood, and four of them were also on treatment with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis at bi-weekly intervals. Brain MRI was performed at 3 Tesla field strength with fluid-attenuated T2-weighted inversion recovery and T1-weighted spin-echo MR pulse sequences and subsequently evaluated by two independent readers. The maximal lipid-lowering treatment reduced the total serum cholesterol by more than 50% in the patients, but their serum concentrations were still 3.6-fold higher than those found in the controls (11.9 {+-} 4.2 vs. 4.5 {+-} 0.5 mmol/L; p < 0.0047). No brain abnormality was observed in any of the patients with homozygous FH. Homozygous FH patients on intensive cholesterol-lowering therapy have no evidence of ischemic brain damage at 3 Tesla MRI despite the remaining high cholesterol levels. (orig.)

Schmitz, Stephan A.; O' Regan, Declan P.; Fitzpatrick, Julie; Hajnal, Joseph V. [Hammersmith Hospital Campus, Imaging Sciences Department, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Neuwirth, Clare; Potter, Elizabeth; Tosi, Isabella; Naoumova, Rossi P. [MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Clinical Research Facility, London (United Kingdom); Hammersmith Hospital, Lipid Clinic, London (United Kingdom)

2007-11-15

362

Detection of contralateral normal ovary in patients with large(>10 cm) unilateral ovarian mass by using MRI  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To assess the usefulness of MRI for determining the presence of a large (> 10 cm) unilateral ovarian tumor by detecting the existence of a normal contralateral ovary, and to establish the difference in detection rates between premenopausal and postmenopausal women, and benign and malignant tumors. Forty-two patients who underwent MR imaging and in whom the intraoperative gross and pathologic findings indicated the presence of a unilateral ovarian mass and a normal contralateral ovary were included in this study. The images obtained were retrospectively analyzed by two radiologists, who determined the detection rate of the normal contralateral ovary and whether this differed between premenopausal and postmenopausal women, and benign and malignant tumors. Contralateral normal ovaries were detected in 35 (83.3%) of 42 patients [22 of 23 ovaries (95.7%) in premenopausal women and 13 of 19 (68.4%) in postmenopausal women], with a statistically significant difference (p=0.018). Twelve of 16 of these ovaries (75%) were present in women with malignant tumors, and 23 (88.5%) of 26 in those with benign tumors, but the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.256). MR imaging is useful for detecting a normal contralateral ovary and for determining the site at which a large (> 10 cm) unilateral ovarian tumor originates, especially in premenopausal women.

Jung, Young Jin; Cho, Jae Ho; Park, Won Kyu [School of Medicine, Yeungnam Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Woon [Youngshin Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2004-02-01

363

Detection of contralateral normal ovary in patients with large(>10 cm) unilateral ovarian mass by using MRI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To assess the usefulness of MRI for determining the presence of a large (> 10 cm) unilateral ovarian tumor by detecting the existence of a normal contralateral ovary, and to establish the difference in detection rates between premenopausal and postmenopausal women, and benign and malignant tumors. Forty-two patients who underwent MR imaging and in whom the intraoperative gross and pathologic findings indicated the presence of a unilateral ovarian mass and a normal contralateral ovary were included in this study. The images obtained were retrospectively analyzed by two radiologists, who determined the detection rate of the normal contralateral ovary and whether this differed between premenopausal and postmenopausal women, and benign and malignant tumors. Contralateral normal ovaries were detected in 35 (83.3%) of 42 patients [22 of 23 ovaries (95.7%) in premenopausal women and 13 of 19 (68.4%) in postmenopausal women], with a statistically significant difference (p=0.018). Twelve of 16 of these ovaries (75%) were present in women with malignant tumors, and 23 (88.5%) of 26 in those with benign tumors, but the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.256). MR imaging is useful for detecting a normal contralateral ovary and for determining the site at which a large (> 10 cm) unilateral ovarian tumor originates, especially in premenopausal women

364

Spaceborne remote sensing for detection and impact assessment of coal fires in North China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

China has tremendous coal fields in its Northern regions. Many coal seams are reaching the surface and show self-ignited fires of considerable extension. Furthermore, fires occur in mines or in the underground. 56 areas of large fires are known to the Chinese authorities as well as numerous small ones. Spaceborne remote sensing offers important information such as digital elevation models (DEMs) as basic data for geologic formations and routes for access to burning areas, such as hot spot detection for fire assessment, such as land use classification and deposit estimation, such as estimation of environmentally harmful gases. Multitemporal measurements (e.g. differential SAR interferometry) offer a measure for ground subsidence and estimations of burned coal volumes. Furthermore, it is an efficient means for an early warning system of new fires. In the paper, examples of burning areas will be shown and some relevant computed DEMs. Furthermore, some land use data and some infrared data will be presented. The application of these data for other involved disciplines like modelling of the geologic vicinity surrounding the burning coal seams, analysis and modelling of the fire and its 3-dimensional propagation also based on ground and underground air (oxygen) supply (chimneys) are mentioned. Based on these models, the best method for extinguishing the fire under observation may be derived as well as methods to prevent new self ignition by oxidation processes.

Ottl, H.; Roth, A.; Voigt, S.; Mehl, H. [DLR, Wessling (Germany). German Aerospace Center

2002-11-01

365

A W-Band MMIC Radar System for Remote Detection of Vital Signs  

Science.gov (United States)

In medical and personal health systems for vital sign monitoring, contact-free remote detection is favourable compared to wired solutions. For example, they help to avoid severe pain, which is involved when a patient with burned skin has to be examined. Continuous wave (CW) radar systems have proven to be good candidates for this purpose. In this paper a monolithic millimetre-wave integrated circuit (MMIC) based CW radar system operating in the W-band (75-110 GHz) at 96 GHz is presented. The MMIC components are custom-built and make use of 100 nm metamorphic high electron mobility transistors (mHEMTs). The radar system is employing a frequency multiplier-by-twelve MMIC and a receiver MMIC both packaged in split-block modules. They allow for the determination of respiration and heartbeat frequency of a human target sitting in 1 m distance. The analysis of the measured data is carried out in time and frequency domain and each approach is shown to have its advantages and drawbacks.

Diebold, Sebastian; Ayhan, Serdal; Scherr, Steffen; Massler, Hermann; Tessmann, Axel; Leuther, Arnulf; Ambacher, Oliver; Zwick, Thomas; Kallfass, Ingmar

2012-12-01

366

Detection of cracks in multilayer aircraft structures with fasteners using remote field eddy current method  

Science.gov (United States)

The remote-field eddy-current (RFEC) technique has been shown to be highly sensitive to cracks and corrosion that are embedded deep in multi-layer aircraft structures. This paper shows the effectiveness of the approach in detecting cracks in double-layered specimens with fasteners, as well as corrosion specimens. The crack specimens, made by Lockheed George Company in 1980, had two layers held together with ten fasteners. The total thickness is 0.356' for Group A and 0.446' of Group B, respectively. Fatigue cracks were made on different layers and at different depths. The corrosion specimens are of 0.063' thick with 0.006' or 0.002' corrosion wall thinning. Another one or two much thicker plates of aluminum are placed on top of one corrosion specimen during a test. All tests were conducted using a newly developed RFEC system that includes a probe specified for inspecting thick plates. The effect of different parameters, such as excitation frequency, excitation to pick-up coil separation distance, and probe to fastener distance, were studied to determine the optimal test parameters. The system will be demonstrated along with the presentation.

Sun, Yushi; Ouyang, Tianhe

2000-05-01

367

The diagnostic performance of radiography for detection of osteoarthritis-associated features compared with MRI in hip joints with chronic pain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate the diagnostic performance of radiography for the detection of MRI-detected osteoarthritis-associated features in various articular subregions of the hip joint. Forty-four patients with chronic hip pain (mean age, 63.3 ± 9.5 years), who were part of the Hip Osteoarthritis MRI Scoring (HOAMS) cohort, underwent both weight-bearing anteroposterior pelvic radiography and 1.5 T MRI. The HOAMS study was a prospective observational study involving 52 subjects, conducted to develop a semiquantitative MRI scoring system for hip osteoarthritis features. In the present study, eight subjects were excluded because of a lack of radiographic assessment. On radiography, the presence of superior and medial joint space narrowing, superior and inferior acetabular/femoral osteophytes, acetabular subchondral cysts, and bone attrition of femoral head was noted. On MRI, cartilage, osteophytes, subchondral cysts, and bone attrition were evaluated in the corresponding locations. Diagnostic performance of radiography was compared with that of MRI, and the area under curve (AUC) was calculated for each pathological feature. Compared with MRI, radiography provided high specificity (0.76-0.90) but variable sensitivity (0.44-0.78) for diffuse cartilage damage (using JSN as an indirect marker), femoral osteophytes, acetabular subchondral cysts and bone attrition of the femoral head, and a low specificity (0.42 and 0.58) for acetabular osteophytes. The AUC of radiography for detecting overall diffuse cartilage damage, marginal osteophytes, subchondral cysts and bone attrition was 0.76, 0.78, 0.67, and 0.82, respectively. Diagnostic performance of radiography is good for bone attrition, fair for marginal osteophytes and cartilage damage, but poor for subchondral cysts. (orig.)

368

The diagnostic performance of radiography for detection of osteoarthritis-associated features compared with MRI in hip joints with chronic pain  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To evaluate the diagnostic performance of radiography for the detection of MRI-detected osteoarthritis-associated features in various articular subregions of the hip joint. Forty-four patients with chronic hip pain (mean age, 63.3 {+-} 9.5 years), who were part of the Hip Osteoarthritis MRI Scoring (HOAMS) cohort, underwent both weight-bearing anteroposterior pelvic radiography and 1.5 T MRI. The HOAMS study was a prospective observational study involving 52 subjects, conducted to develop a semiquantitative MRI scoring system for hip osteoarthritis features. In the present study, eight subjects were excluded because of a lack of radiographic assessment. On radiography, the presence of superior and medial joint space narrowing, superior and inferior acetabular/femoral osteophytes, acetabular subchondral cysts, and bone attrition of femoral head was noted. On MRI, cartilage, osteophytes, subchondral cysts, and bone attrition were evaluated in the corresponding locations. Diagnostic performance of radiography was compared with that of MRI, and the area under curve (AUC) was calculated for each pathological feature. Compared with MRI, radiography provided high specificity (0.76-0.90) but variable sensitivity (0.44-0.78) for diffuse cartilage damage (using JSN as an indirect marker), femoral osteophytes, acetabular subchondral cysts and bone attrition of the femoral head, and a low specificity (0.42 and 0.58) for acetabular osteophytes. The AUC of radiography for detecting overall diffuse cartilage damage, marginal osteophytes, subchondral cysts and bone attrition was 0.76, 0.78, 0.67, and 0.82, respectively. Diagnostic performance of radiography is good for bone attrition, fair for marginal osteophytes and cartilage damage, but poor for subchondral cysts. (orig.)

Xu, Li [Boston University School of Medicine, Quantitative Imaging Center, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, Department of Radiology, Beijing (China); Hayashi, Daichi; Guermazi, Ali [Boston University School of Medicine, Quantitative Imaging Center, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Hunter, David J. [University of Sydney, Department of Medicine, Sydney (Australia); Li, Ling [New England Baptist Hospital, Division of Research, Boston, MA (United States); Winterstein, Anton; Bohndorf, Klaus [Klinikum Augsburg, Department of Radiology, Augsburg (Germany); Roemer, Frank W. [Boston University School of Medicine, Quantitative Imaging Center, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Klinikum Augsburg, Department of Radiology, Augsburg (Germany); University of Erlangen, Department of Radiology, Erlangen (Germany)

2013-10-15

369

Radiographically occult femoral and pelvic fractures are not mutually exclusive: a review of fractures detected by MRI following low-energy trauma  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this study was to review the MRI examinations of a large group of low-energy trauma patients in whom pelvic MRI had detected radiographically occult fractures, in order to characterize prevailing fracture patterns and determine how often co-existing proximal femoral and pelvic fractures were observed. All patients having pelvic MRI over 5 years were identified. Word-search software selected 269 MRI reports containing the term 'fracture'. Further scrutiny identified 168 with diagnosis of fracture. MRI request and imaging record review identified 102 low-energy trauma cases that had MRI for clinical suspicion of fracture despite normal radiographs. Sixty-six cases were excluded for the following reasons: no expressed clinical suspicion of occult fracture; history suggesting high-energy trauma; skeletal co-morbidity hindering acute fracture identification; interval more than 2 weeks between radiographs and MRI. The 102 study MRI examinations, which employed a limited two-sequence protocol, were reviewed. Any fracture that had not been appreciated on radiographs was recorded and characterized as femoral, pelvic, or co-existing femoral and pelvic fractures. The 102 study cases had a median age of 82 years. The median interval between pelvic radiographs and MRI was 3 days. MRI showed undiagnosed femoral fracture in 48/102 cases (47.1%), sacral fracture in 41/102 (40.2%), and pubic fracture in 55/102 (53.9%). In 11/102 cases (10.8%), MRI showed undiagnosed fractures of both proximal femur and pelvic ring (seven sacral, six pubic bone, two other site fractures). In 10/11 cases with co-existing femoral and pelvic fractures, the femoral fracture was incomplete. Limited pelvic MRI found a high prevalence of radiographically occult femoral and pelvic fractures in low-energy trauma patients, with clinical suspicion of fracture despite normal radiographs. Co-existing occult femoral and pelvic ring fractures were commonly observed, and in such cases, the femoral fracture was likely to be incomplete and multiple pelvic fractures were typically present. (orig.)

Szewczyk-Bieda, Magdalena; Thomas, Naveena; Oliver, Thomas Barry [Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Department of Clinical Radiology, Dundee, Scotland (United Kingdom)

2012-09-15

370

The Italian multi-centre project on evaluation of MRI and other imaging modalities in early detection of breast cancer in subjects at high genetic risk.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report presents the preliminary results of the first phase (21 months) of a multi-centre, non-randomised, prospective study, aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), X-ray mammography (XM) and ultrasound (US) in early diagnosis of breast cancer (BC) in subjects at high genetic risk. This Italian national trial (coordinated by the Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome) so far recruited 105 women (mean age 46.0 years; median age 51.0; age range 25-77 years), who were either proven BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers or had a 1 in 2 probability of being carriers (40/105 with a previous personal history of BC). Eight cases of breast carcinomas were detected in the trial (mean age 55.3 years, median age 52.5; age range 35-70 years; five with previous personal history of BC). All trial-detected BC cases (8/8) were identified by MRI, while XM and US correctly classified only one. MRI