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Sample records for reduced glyphosate sensitivity

  1. Resposta de cultivares de algodoeiro a subdoses de glyphosate Response of cotton cultivars to reduced rates of glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.M. Yamashita

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a resposta de nove cultivares de algodoeiro, de importância econômica no Estado do Mato Grosso, quanto à intoxicação causada por subdoses de glyphosate. Os cultivares de algodoeiro utilizados foram Fabrika, Makina, ITA-90, FM 986, FM 966, Delta Opal, BRS Facual, Antares e Coodetec 407. As plantas foram cultivadas em tubetes preenchidos com substrato de solo e mantidas em casa telada, tendo recebido a aplicação do glyphosate aos 20 dias após a emergência, época em que apresentavam quatro folhas verdadeiras. As subdoses de glyphosate, simulando deriva, foram de 270 e 540 g ha-1. Também foi utilizada testemunha, sem aplicação do herbicida, para efeito de comparação. Foram realizadas avaliações semanais até 42 dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos (DAA, período em que também foi tomada a altura das plantas. Os sintomas visuais de intoxicação iniciaram-se aos 3 DAA, caracterizados pelo amarelecimento das pontas das folhas mais novas, seguido de murchamento do ápice das plantas. Na dose de 270 g ha-1 esses sintomas foram de baixa intensidade, mas a 540 g ha-1 causaram, na maioria dos casos, toxidez "preocupante" a "muito alta". Os cultivares BRS Facual e FM 986 mostraram-se os mais suscetíveis. A altura das plantas foi mais afetada quando se aplicou a menor dose de glyphosate. Houve recuperação de todos os cultivares tratados com 270 g ha-1 de glyphosate até os 42 DAA. Quando tratados com 540 g ha-1 de glyphosate, os cultivares Fabrika, Coodetec 407, BRS-Facual e ITA-90 foram mais sensíveis, apresentando redução de altura entre 84 e 90% aos 42 DAA. Os cultivares menos sensíveis na dose de 270 g ha-1 de glyphosate não foram os mesmos para a dose de 540 g ha-1.The response of nine cotton cultivars economically important in the state of Mato Grosso was evaluated in relation to the toxicity caused by reduced rates of glyphosate. The cotton cultivars used were Fabrika, Makina, ITA-90, FM 986, FM 966, Delta Opal, BRS Facual, Antares and Coodetec 407. The plants were cultivated in plastic pots filled with soil substratum and kept under greenhouse conditions. Glyphosate application was performed 20 days post emergence, at which time they presented four true leaves. Reduced rates of glyphosate, simulating drift, ranged from 270 and 540 g. A control was also used, without herbicide application to compare the effects. Weekly evaluations were accomplished up to 42 days after application (DAA. During this period, plant height was also measured. Visual symptoms began 3 DAA, with the appearance of yellow spots at the tips of the youngest leaves, followed by withering at the apex of the plants. At the rate of 270 g ha-1, these symptoms showed low intensity but at the rate of 540 g ha-1 the symptoms caused "worrisome" to "very high'' toxicity, in most of the cases. BRS Facual and FM 986 were the most susceptible. Plant height was the most affected when the lowest glyphosate dose was applied. All cultivars treated with 270 g ha-1 glyphosate rate until 42 DAA were recovered. Fabrika, Coodetec 407, BRS Facual and ITA-90 cultivars, when treated with 540 g ha-1 glyphosate were more sensitive, presenting a height reduction between 84 and 90% 42 DAA. The less sensitive cultivars at the rate of 270 g ha-1 glyphosate were not the same at the 540 g ha-1 rate.

  2. Glyphosate spray drift in Coffea arabica - sensitivity of coffee plants and possible use of shikimic acid as a biomarker for glyphosate exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrbbers, Lars C; Valverde, Bernal E; Srensen, Jens C; Cedergreen, Nina

    2014-10-01

    Glyphosate is widely used in coffee plantations to control weeds. Lacking selectivity, glyphosate spray drift is suspected to cause adverse effects in coffee plants. Symptoms caused by glyphosate can be similar to those produced by other stress factors. However, shikimic acid accumulation should be a useful biomarker for glyphosate exposure as shown for other crops. The aim of this study was to assess the sensitivity of coffee plants towards glyphosate on different biological response variables and to evaluate the use of shikimic acid as biomarker. Dose-response experiments yielded ED50 values (50% effect dose) in the range of 38-550 ga.e.ha(-1) depending on the quantitative or qualitative variable monitored. The frequency of plants showing symptoms was the most sensitive variable. The best sampling time for shikimic acid accumulation was 1-2 weeks after glyphosate application, depending on experimental conditions. The highest shikimic acid accumulation was observed in young leaves. Shikimic acid is a suitable biomarker for a glyphosate exposure in coffee, using only young leaves for the analysis. Young coffee plants are susceptible to glyphosate damage. If symptoms are absent the risk of severe crop damage or yield loss is low. PMID:25307461

  3. Addition of pH reducers and rates of glyphosate in the weeds desiccation

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    Miriam Hiroko Inoue

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the influence from the addition of pH reducers and rates of glyphosate in the spray mix to Euphorbia heterophylla and Glycine max control. The treatments were arranged in a factorial scheme (4 x 2 + 1, randomized blocks design and four replications. Each experiment used a pH reducer (pH Fs ou Redumax, four rates of reducer (0, 50, 75 and 100% of the rate recommended, two rates of glyphosate (450 and 900 g ha-1 and an untreated check. The weed control was evaluated at 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 days after application (DAA of treatments, in visual scale from 0 to 100% of control. In both experiments, 450 g ha-1 glyphosate, the addition of reducers in the spray mix provided greater weed control in relation to only glyphosate. There was no difference in 50, 75 and 100% of the rate recommended of reducers. With the use of adjuvant has a satisfactory control with half the recommended rate of glyphosate at 14 DAA. These results demonstrate the possibility of reduced rates of glyphosate when used these adjuvants in the spray mix.

  4. Addition of pH reducers and rates of glyphosate in the weeds desiccation

    OpenAIRE

    Miriam Hiroko Inoue; Roberto Akitoshi Komatsu; Roberto Marins Guerreiro; Rivanildo Dallacort; Diogo Carneiro Santana; Cleverton Carneiro Santana

    2007-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the influence from the addition of pH reducers and rates of glyphosate in the spray mix to Euphorbia heterophylla and Glycine max control. The treatments were arranged in a factorial scheme (4 x 2) + 1, randomized blocks design and four replications. Each experiment used a pH reducer (pH Fs ou Redumax), four rates of reducer (0, 50, 75 and 100% of the rate recommended), two rates of glyphosate (450 and 900 g ha-1) and an untreated check. The weed co...

  5. Anatomia foliar de Lolium multiflorum sensvel e resistente ao glyphosate / Leaf anatomy of Lolium multiflorum sensitive and resistant to glyphosate

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J., Galvani; M.A., Rizzardi; C.M., Carneiro; M.A, Bianchi.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o intuito de contribuir para o conhecimento anatmico da espcie Lolium multiflorum e, a partir disso, observar possveis alteraes que possam elucidar o mecanismo que confere resistncia ao herbicida glyphosate. Para isso, realizou-se um experimento com quatro bi [...] tipos dessa espcie com distinta sensibilidade ao herbicida glyphosate, sendo um sensvel (B1S) e trs resistentes (B2R, B3R e B4R). As anlises ocorreram a partir de seces transversais e longitudinais dos rgos vegetativos de plantas no estdio de afilhamento. Anatomicamente, o azevm caracteriza-se por apresentar grande quantidade de estmatos e de clulas buliformes, bem como mesofilo homogneo constitudo apenas de clulas palidicas compactamente distribudas. Comparativamente, no ocorrem diferenas morfolgicas evidentes que possam ser usadas para diferir bitipos sensveis de resistentes, no entanto, nota-se que bitipos resistentes, especialmente B3R e B4R, apresentaram maior densidade estomtica em relao aos demais. Ainda, os bitipos resistentes apresentaram maior quantidade de espaos intercelulares no mesofilo e feixes vasculares com menor quantidade de floema em relao ao xilema, o que, por suas funes na planta, pode colaborar para a menor sensibilidade ao herbicida. Abstract in english This work aimed to contribute to the anatomical knowledge of the species Lolium multiflorum and to observe possible changes that may elucidate the mechanism that confers its resistance to the herbicide glyphosate. Thus, an experiment was conducted using four biotypes of this species with distinct se [...] nsitivities to the herbicide glyphosate: one susceptible (B1S) and three resistant biotypes (B2R, B3R and B4R). Analyses were conducted on the transverse and longitudinal sections of the vegetative organs of the plants at the tillering stage. Anatomically, ryegrass is characterized as having a large number of stomata and buliform cells as well as homogeneous mesophylls constituted only of palisade cells compactly distributed. Comparatively, no evident morphological differences occur that can be used to distinguish sensitive from resistant biotypes; however, the resistant biotypes, especially B3R B4R, presented higher stomatal density, compared to the others. Still, the resistant biotypes had a higher amount of intercellular spaces in the mesophyll and vascular bundles with a smaller amount of phloem compared to the xylem, which, because of their functions in the plants, may contribute to the lower sensitivity to the herbicide.

  6. Influncia de doses reduzidas do glyphosate no tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum Influence of reduced glyphosate rates on tomato plant (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.

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    S.S. Fiqueredo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum cultivado em todas as regies do Brasil devido ampla utilizao na culinria, tanto in natura quanto industrializado. A deriva do glyphosate vem sendo citada como um dos fatores que interferem negativamente sobre as culturas hortcolas, cultivadas nas adjacncias das lavouras de arroz. Objetivou-se com esse verificar os efeitos de doses reduzidas do glyphosate sobre a cultura do tomateiro. O glyphosate foi aplicado a 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 e 90% da dose de 1.260 g ha-1, aos 30, 50 e 70 dias aps o transplante (DAT da cultura. As variveis analisadas foram fitotoxicidade, altura e nmero de cachos florais, flores e frutos por planta. Os dados experimentais foram submetidos anlise da varincia e, sendo significativos, os efeitos de poca de aplicao foram comparados pelo teste de Tukey, e os efeitos do fator dose, analisados por regresso. A aplicao do glyphosate, a partir de 378 g ha-1, afetou o desenvolvimento do tomateiro, independentemente do estdio de desenvolvimento.Tomato plant (Lycopersicon esculentum is grown in all regions in Brazil since it is widely used in cooking, processed or fresh. Glyphosate drift has been found rcited as one of the factors interfering negatively in vegetables cultivated in areas adjacent to rice plantations. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of reduced rates of glyphosate on tomato plants, applied at of 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90% of the commercial dose (1.260 g ha-1 30, 50 and 70 days after transplanting (DAT the tomato plants. The variables analyzed were: phytotoxicity, plant height, number of flowering clusters, and flower and fruits/plant. The data were submitted to analysis of variance, the Tukey test and regression. Glyphosate application at rates higher than 378 g ha-1 affected the growth of the tomato plants negatively, regardless of their development stage.

  7. Efeito de doses reduzidas de glyphosate e paraquat simulando deriva na cultura do milho Effect of reduced rates of glyphosate and paraquat simulating drift in corn crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. Magalhes

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available A aplicao de herbicidas, seja para a dissecao de culturas ou para o controle de plantas daninhas, vem crescendo, devido a expanso da fronteira agrcola brasileira. Esse fato aumenta os riscos de ocorrncia de deriva acidental em culturas vizinhas suscetveis. As perdas em produtividade so desconhecidas em muitas situaes de ocorrncia de deriva de herbicidas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a possvel toxicidade causada pela deriva de doses reduzidas de dois herbicidas (glyphosate e paraquat no perodo inicial de desenvolvimento da cultura do milho. Foram utilizadas cinco doses simulando deriva - 2, 4, 6, 8 e 12% da dose recomendada (1.440 g ha-1 de glyphosate e 400 g ha-1 de paraquat - sobre o cultivar de milho hbrido triplo BRS 3123. No florescimento, foram avaliados altura da planta, rea foliar, peso da matria seca, teor de clorofila e sintomas visuais de injria. Na colheita, avaliaram-se estande final, peso de espigas, peso de 1.000 gros e produo de gros. A altura das plantas, a rea foliar e o peso da matria seca no foram afetados pelo efeito das derivas nos dois anos agrcolas (1996/97 e 1997/98, exceto pela rea foliar, que em 1997/98 sofreu reduo, sobretudo no tratamento com 12% da dose normal de glyphosate. De maneira geral, os resultados obtidos para as demais caractersticas foram semelhantes nos dois anos de conduo do ensaio. O teor de clorofila nas folhas e o estande final no foram afetados pelas doses reduzidas. O grau de toxicidade, avaliado por meio de plantas injuriadas pela deriva, aos 7, 14 e 21 dias aps a aplicao dos herbicidas, apresentou diferenas significativas. Os maiores danos foram observados com a maior subdose simulando deriva dos herbicidas. O peso de 1.000 gros no foi afetado, ao passo que a produo de espigas e de gros foi severamente prejudicada. Observou-se que a deriva simulada dos herbicidas em altas concentraes afetou o desenvolvimento das plantas e reduziu a produo de gros. J a aplicao em baixas concentraes (2 a 4% no afetou o desenvolvimento das plantas nem tampouco a produtividade.Herbicide application has increased considerably in the Brazilian agriculture over the last years, either for weed management or crop desiccation. The intensive use of herbicide shas brought risks of drift in sensitive neighbor crops. Drift effects on crops susceptible to herbicides is not well quantified in several situations. The objective of this study was to evaluate the injuries caused by simulated herbicide drift on the initial phase of growth of the maize crop. Two herbicides with five concentrations of simulated drift were used: 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12% of the recommended rate (1,440 g ha-1 of glyphosate and 400 g ha-1 of paraquat, sprayed over the top foliage of the maize triple hybrid BRS 3123. Plant height, leaf area, dry weight, leaf chlorophyll content and visual symptoms of injury were evaluated at flowering time. Final stand, ear weight, 1,000 grains weight and grain production. Plant height, leaf area, leaf chlorophyll content and dry weight were not affected by simulated drifts in both years (1996/97 and 1997/98, except the leaf area in 1997/98, which had a reduction especially in the treatment where 12% of the glyphosate rate was used. In general, the results for the other traits were similar in both years in which the trials were carried out. At harvesting time, final stand and weight of 1,000 grains were not affected by simulated drifts, whereas ear weight and grain production were severely affected. The degree of visual injuries evaluated through percentage of plants injured by drift at 7, 14 and 21 days after herbicide application showed significant differences. The major damages were observed with the greater dosage of simulated drift. Weight of 1,000 grains was not affected, whereas ears and grain production were severely affected. Herbicide drift in high concentrations affected the plant development and reduced grain production while application of glyphosate and paraqu

  8. Resposta de varjo (Parkia multijuga a subdoses de glyphosate Response of varjo (Parkia multijuga seedlings to reduced glyphosate rates

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    O.M. Yamashita

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available O consumo de madeira no Brasil e no mundo apresenta demanda crescente. Em confronto com a presso ambientalista de manuteno das florestas nativas, h necessidade de se estabelecerem reas de reflorestamento para suprir o aumento da demanda de madeira, com a utilizao de formas de manejo e tratos culturais que permitam o pleno crescimento das essncias florestais. Um dos principais problemas do manejo de reflorestamento a interferncia das plantas daninhas aps o plantio das mudas no campo, sendo o uso de herbicidas a principal forma de manejo. Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar a eficincia de doses crescentes de glyphosate em mudas de varjo em condies de ambiente protegido. Foram avaliadas as doses de 0, 90, 180, 360 e 720 g ha-1 de glyphosate em plantas com quatro meses de idade, observando a intoxicao das plantas, altura, dimetro do caule e nmero de folhas. O varjo, nas condies do experimento, apresentou tolerncia e recuperao ao glyphosate at a dose de 360 g ha-1. Doses superiores a esta retardaram o crescimento da planta. O prejuzo causado pela deriva de glyphosate nessas plantas foi diretamente proporcional ao aumento da dose. Os sintomas evoluram para queda de folhas, comprometendo o crescimento das plantas.Wood consumption has significantly increased in Brazil and worldwide.The environmental pressure to preserve native forest led to the need to establish reforestation areas to meet the increasing wood demand by applying cultural practices and management allowing a total growth of forest trees. One of the main problems in reforestation management is weed competition after seedling planting, with herbicide use being the main form of management. The objective of this work was to evaluate the phytotoxic effect of increasing rates of glyphosate on Varjo seedlings, under greenhouse conditions. Concentrations of 90, 180, 360 and 720 g ha-1 of glyphosate were evaluated in four-month-old plants by observing plant toxicity, plant height, stem diameter, and leaf number. A control was also used without herbicide application to compare the effects. Under the conditions of this experiment, Varjo presented tolerance to and ability to recover from glyphosate up to the rate of 360 g ha-1. Higher rates delayed plant development. The damage caused by glyphosate drift in these plants was directly proportional to rate increase. The symptoms included leaf fall, compromising plant growth.

  9. Glyphosate poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradberry, Sally M; Proudfoot, Alex T; Vale, J Allister

    2004-01-01

    Glyphosate is used extensively as a non-selective herbicide by both professional applicators and consumers and its use is likely to increase further as it is one of the first herbicides against which crops have been genetically modified to increase their tolerance. Commercial glyphosate-based formulations most commonly range from concentrates containing 41% or more glyphosate to 1% glyphosate formulations marketed for domestic use. They generally consist of an aqueous mixture of the isopropylamine (IPA) salt of glyphosate, a surfactant, and various minor components including anti-foaming and colour agents, biocides and inorganic ions to produce pH adjustment. The mechanisms of toxicity of glyphosate formulations are complicated. Not only is glyphosate used as five different salts but commercial formulations of it contain surfactants, which vary in nature and concentration. As a result, human poisoning with this herbicide is not with the active ingredient alone but with complex and variable mixtures. Therefore, It is difficult to separate the toxicity of glyphosate from that of the formulation as a whole or to determine the contribution of surfactants to overall toxicity. Experimental studies suggest that the toxicity of the surfactant, polyoxyethyleneamine (POEA), is greater than the toxicity of glyphosate alone and commercial formulations alone. There is insufficient evidence to conclude that glyphosate preparations containing POEA are more toxic than those containing alternative surfactants. Although surfactants probably contribute to the acute toxicity of glyphosate formulations, the weight of evidence is against surfactants potentiating the toxicity of glyphosate. Accidental ingestion of glyphosate formulations is generally associated with only mild, transient, gastrointestinal features. Most reported cases have followed the deliberate ingestion of the concentrated formulation of Roundup (The use of trade names is for product identification purposes only and does not imply endorsement.) (41% glyphosate as the IPA salt and 15% POEA). There is a reasonable correlation between the amount ingested and the likelihood of serious systemic sequelae or death. Advancing age is also associated with a less favourable prognosis. Ingestion of >85 mL of the concentrated formulation is likely to cause significant toxicity in adults. Gastrointestinal corrosive effects, with mouth, throat and epigastric pain and dysphagia are common. Renal and hepatic impairment are also frequent and usually reflect reduced organ perfusion. Respiratory distress, impaired consciousness, pulmonary oedema, infiltration on chest x-ray, shock, arrythmias, renal failure requiring haemodialysis, metabolic acidosis and hyperkalaemia may supervene in severe cases. Bradycardia and ventricular arrhythmias are often present pre-terminally. Dermal exposure to ready-to-use glyphosate formulations can cause irritation and photo-contact dermatitis has been reported occasionally; these effects are probably due to the preservative Proxel (benzisothiazolin-3-one). Severe skin burns are very rare. Inhalation is a minor route of exposure but spray mist may cause oral or nasal discomfort, an unpleasant taste in the mouth, tingling and throat irritation. Eye exposure may lead to mild conjunctivitis, and superficial corneal injury is possible if irrigation is delayed or inadequate. Management is symptomatic and supportive, and skin decontamination with soap and water after removal of contaminated clothing should be undertaken in cases of dermal exposure. PMID:15862083

  10. Efeito de doses reduzidas de glyphosate e paraquat simulando deriva na cultura do milho / Effect of reduced rates of glyphosate and paraquat simulating drift in corn crop

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P.C., Magalhes; J.B., Silva; F.O.M., Dures; D., Karam; L.S., Ribeiro.

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available A aplicao de herbicidas, seja para a dissecao de culturas ou para o controle de plantas daninhas, vem crescendo, devido a expanso da fronteira agrcola brasileira. Esse fato aumenta os riscos de ocorrncia de deriva acidental em culturas vizinhas suscetveis. As perdas em produtividade so desc [...] onhecidas em muitas situaes de ocorrncia de deriva de herbicidas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a possvel toxicidade causada pela deriva de doses reduzidas de dois herbicidas (glyphosate e paraquat) no perodo inicial de desenvolvimento da cultura do milho. Foram utilizadas cinco doses simulando deriva - 2, 4, 6, 8 e 12% da dose recomendada (1.440 g ha-1 de glyphosate e 400 g ha-1 de paraquat) - sobre o cultivar de milho hbrido triplo BRS 3123. No florescimento, foram avaliados altura da planta, rea foliar, peso da matria seca, teor de clorofila e sintomas visuais de injria. Na colheita, avaliaram-se estande final, peso de espigas, peso de 1.000 gros e produo de gros. A altura das plantas, a rea foliar e o peso da matria seca no foram afetados pelo efeito das derivas nos dois anos agrcolas (1996/97 e 1997/98), exceto pela rea foliar, que em 1997/98 sofreu reduo, sobretudo no tratamento com 12% da dose normal de glyphosate. De maneira geral, os resultados obtidos para as demais caractersticas foram semelhantes nos dois anos de conduo do ensaio. O teor de clorofila nas folhas e o estande final no foram afetados pelas doses reduzidas. O grau de toxicidade, avaliado por meio de plantas injuriadas pela deriva, aos 7, 14 e 21 dias aps a aplicao dos herbicidas, apresentou diferenas significativas. Os maiores danos foram observados com a maior subdose simulando deriva dos herbicidas. O peso de 1.000 gros no foi afetado, ao passo que a produo de espigas e de gros foi severamente prejudicada. Observou-se que a deriva simulada dos herbicidas em altas concentraes afetou o desenvolvimento das plantas e reduziu a produo de gros. J a aplicao em baixas concentraes (2 a 4%) no afetou o desenvolvimento das plantas nem tampouco a produtividade. Abstract in english Herbicide application has increased considerably in the Brazilian agriculture over the last years, either for weed management or crop desiccation. The intensive use of herbicide shas brought risks of drift in sensitive neighbor crops. Drift effects on crops susceptible to herbicides is not well quan [...] tified in several situations. The objective of this study was to evaluate the injuries caused by simulated herbicide drift on the initial phase of growth of the maize crop. Two herbicides with five concentrations of simulated drift were used: 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12% of the recommended rate (1,440 g ha-1 of glyphosate and 400 g ha-1 of paraquat), sprayed over the top foliage of the maize triple hybrid BRS 3123. Plant height, leaf area, dry weight, leaf chlorophyll content and visual symptoms of injury were evaluated at flowering time. Final stand, ear weight, 1,000 grains weight and grain production. Plant height, leaf area, leaf chlorophyll content and dry weight were not affected by simulated drifts in both years (1996/97 and 1997/98), except the leaf area in 1997/98, which had a reduction especially in the treatment where 12% of the glyphosate rate was used. In general, the results for the other traits were similar in both years in which the trials were carried out. At harvesting time, final stand and weight of 1,000 grains were not affected by simulated drifts, whereas ear weight and grain production were severely affected. The degree of visual injuries evaluated through percentage of plants injured by drift at 7, 14 and 21 days after herbicide application showed significant differences. The major damages were observed with the greater dosage of simulated drift. Weight of 1,000 grains was not affected, whereas ears and grain production were severely affected. Herbicide drift in high concentrations affected the plant development and reduced grain production w

  11. TREATABILITY STUDIES OF PESTICIDE MANUFACTURING WASTEWATERS: GLYPHOSATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of subjecting various combinations of glyphosate production wastestreams to biological treatment following lime-pretreatment to reduce high levels of glyphosate. Bench-scale biological treatment demonstrated that glyphosate did not appear to interfere wit...

  12. Birch (Betula spp.) wood biochar is a potential soil amendment to reduce glyphosate leaching in agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagner, Marleena; Hallman, Sanna; Jauhiainen, Lauri; Kemppainen, Riitta; Rm, Sari; Tiilikkala, Kari; Setl, Heikki

    2015-12-01

    Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine), a commonly used herbicide in agriculture can leach to deeper soil layers and settle in surface- and ground waters. To mitigate the leaching of pesticides and nutrients, biochar has been suggested as a potential soil amendment due to its ability to sorb both organic and inorganic substances. However, the efficiency of biochar in retaining agro-chemicals in the soil is likely to vary with feedstock material and pyrolysis conditions. A greenhouse pot experiment, mimicking a crop rotation cycle of three plant genera, was established to study the effects of pyrolysis temperature on the ability of birch (Betula sp.) wood originated biochar to reduce the leaching of (i) glyphosate, (ii) its primary degradation product AMPA and (iii) phosphorus from the soil. The biochar types used were produced at three different temperatures: 300C (BC300), 375C (BC375) and 475C (BC475). Compared to the control treatment without biochar, the leaching of glyphosate was reduced by 81%, 74% and 58% in BC300, BC375 and BC475 treated soils, respectively. The respective values for AMPA were 46%, 39% and 23%. Biochar had no significant effect on the retention of water-soluble phosphorus in the soil. Our results corroborate earlier findings on pesticides, suggesting that biochar amendment to the soil is a promising way to reduce also the leaching of glyphosate. Importantly, the ability of biochar to adsorb agro-chemicals depends on the temperature at which feedstock is pyrolysed. PMID:26342266

  13. In-Crop and Autumn-Applied Glyphosate Reduced Purple Nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus)Density in No-Till Glyphosate-Resistant Corn and Soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 3-yr field study was conducted from 2005 to 2007 at Stoneville, MS to determine efficacy of in-crop and fall-applied glyphosate on purple nutsedge density and yield of no-till glyphosate-resistant (GR) corn and GR soybean. Separate experiments were conducted in GR corn and GR soybean in areas main...

  14. Sensitivity of imidazolinone-resistant red rice (Oryza sativa L.) to glyphosate and glufosinate / Sensibilidade de arroz-vermelho (Oryza sativa L.) resistente s imidazolinonas, aos herbicidas glyphosate e glufosinate

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Guilherme Vestena, Cassol; Luis Antonio de, Avila; Carla Rejane, Zemolin; Andrey, Piveta; Dirceu, Agostinetto; Aldo, Merotto Jnior.

    Full Text Available Curvas de dose-resposta foram conduzidas para avaliar a sensibilidade de arroz-vermelho resistente s imidazolinonas para herbicidas no-seletivos, comumente utilizados em reas de rotao soja-arroz irrigado no Rio Grande do Sul. Dois bitipos de arroz-vermelho, previamente identificados como susce [...] tvel e resistente s imidazolinonas, foram aspergidos com imazapyr+imazapic, glyphosate e glufosinate sob nove concentraes herbicidas. Utilizou-se anlise de regresso no linear do tipo log-logstica para estimar a concentrao herbicida que proporcionou 50% de controle e reduo na massa de matria seca da parte area (GR50) de arroz-vermelho. O bitipo de arroz-vermelho resistente s imidazolinonas demonstrou maior GR50, quando comparado ao bitipo suscetvel para imazapyr+imazapic. Valores similares de GR50 foram observados para ambos os bitipos tratados com glyphosate e glufosinate. Esses resultados indicam que os herbicidas glyphosate e glufosinate controlam efetivamente bitipos de arroz-vermelho resistente s imidazolinonas em doses recomendadas para controlar bitipos suscetveis s imidazolinonas. No entanto, prticas integradas de manejo devem ser utilizadas para retardar a evoluo da resistncia de arroz-vermelho aos herbicidas glyphosate e glufosinate na rotao soja-arroz irrigado Abstract in english Dose-response experiments were carried out to evaluate the sensitivity of imidazolinone-resistant red rice to nonselective herbicides currently used in rice-soybean rotation in Rio Grande do Sul. Two red rice biotypes previously identified as resistant and susceptible to the imidazolinone herbicides [...] were treated with imazapic plus imazapic, glyphosate and glufosinate under nine herbicide rates. A non-linear log-logistic analysis was used to estimate the herbicide rate that provided 50% red rice control and dry weight reduction (GR50). Imidazolinone-resistant red rice exhibited greater GR50 values than imidazolinone-susceptible biotype for imazapyr plus imazapic. In contrast, both imidazolinone-resistant and susceptible red rice showed similar GR50 values for glyphosate and glufosinate. These results indicate that glyphosate and glufosinate effectively control imidazolinone-resistant red rice at similar herbicide rates used to control imidazolinone-susceptible; however, integrated weed management practices must be adopted in rice-soybean rotation to delay resistance evolution of red rice populations to glyphosate and glufosinate

  15. Technical performance of some commercial glyphosate-resistant crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pline-Srnic, Wendy

    2005-03-01

    Glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops have been sold commercially in the USA since 1996. The use of glyphosate alone or with conventional pre- and post-emergence herbicides with different modes of action gives growers many options for affordable, safe, easy, effective wide-spectrum weed control. Despite the overwhelming popularity of this technology, technical issues have surfaced from time to time as US growers adopt these crops for use on their farms. The types of concern raised by growers vary from year to year depending on the crop and the environment, but include perceptions of increased sensitivity to diseases, increased fruit abortion, reduced pollination efficiency, increased sensitivity to environmental stress, and differences in yield and agronomic characteristics between transgenic and sister conventional varieties. Although several glyphosate-resistant crops are commercially available, maize, soybean and cotton constitute the largest cultivated acreage and have likewise been associated with the highest number of technical concerns. Because glyphosate is rapidly translocated to and accumulates in metabolic sink tissues, reproductive tissues and roots are particularly vulnerable. Increased sensitivity to glyphosate in reproductive tissues has been documented in both glyphosate-resistant cotton and maize, and results in reduced pollen production and viability, or increased fruit abortion. Glyphosate treatments have the potential to affect relationships between the GR crop, plant pathogens, plant pests and symbiotic micro-organisms, although management practices can also have a large impact. Despite these potential technical concerns, this technology remains popular, and is a highly useful tool for weed control in modern crop production. PMID:15662723

  16. Evaluation of 2,4-D Amine, Glyphosate, 2,4-D Amine plus Glyphosate DMA and 2,4-D Choline/Glyphosate DMA for Their Efficacy on Glyphosate Susceptible and Resistant Canada Fleabane Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Ford; Nader Soltani; Robinson, Darren E.; Robert E. Nurse; Allan McFadden; Peter H. Sikkema

    2014-01-01

    The 2,4-D choline/glyphosate DMA formulation has reduced drift and volatility compared to the amine or ester formulation of 2,4-D and therefore is advantageous compared to a tank mix of 2,4-D amine or ester with glyphosate. The objective of this research was to compare the control of glyphosate susceptible and glyphosate resistant Canada fleabane with 2,4-D choline/glyphosate DMA with 2,4-D amine, glyphosate, and a tank mix of 2,4-D amine and glyphosate. Ten rates of 2,...

  17. Glyphosate-based herbicides reduce the activity and reproduction of earthworms and lead to increased soil nutrient concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaupp-Berghausen, Mailin; Hofer, Martin; Rewald, Boris; Zaller, Johann G

    2015-01-01

    Herbicide use is increasing worldwide both in agriculture and private gardens. However, our knowledge of potential side-effects on non-target soil organisms, even on such eminent ones as earthworms, is still very scarce. In a greenhouse experiment, we assessed the impact of the most widely used glyphosate-based herbicide Roundup on two earthworm species with different feeding strategies. We demonstrate, that the surface casting activity of vertically burrowing earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) almost ceased three weeks after herbicide application, while the activity of soil dwelling earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa) was not affected. Reproduction of the soil dwellers was reduced by 56% within three months after herbicide application. Herbicide application led to increased soil concentrations of nitrate by 1592% and phosphate by 127%, pointing to potential risks for nutrient leaching into streams, lakes, or groundwater aquifers. These sizeable herbicide-induced impacts on agroecosystems are particularly worrisome because these herbicides have been globally used for decades. PMID:26243044

  18. Glyphosate-resistant goosegrass. Identification of a mutation in the target enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baerson, Scott R; Rodriguez, Damian J; Tran, Minhtien; Feng, Yongmei; Biest, Nancy A; Dill, Gerald M

    2002-07-01

    The spontaneous occurrence of resistance to the herbicide glyphosate in weed species has been an extremely infrequent event, despite over 20 years of extensive use. Recently, a glyphosate-resistant biotype of goosegrass (Eleusine indica) was identified in Malaysia exhibiting an LD(50) value approximately 2- to 4-fold greater than the sensitive biotype collected from the same region. A comparison of the inhibition of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) activity by glyphosate in extracts prepared from the resistant (R) and sensitive (S) biotypes revealed an approximately 5-fold higher IC(50)(glyphosate) for the (R) biotype. Sequence comparisons of the predicted EPSPS mature protein coding regions from both biotypes revealed four single-nucleotide differences, two of which result in amino acid changes. One of these changes, a proline to serine substitution at position 106 in the (R) biotype, corresponds to a substitution previously identified in a glyphosate-insensitive EPSPS enzyme from Salmonella typhimurium. Kinetic data generated for the recombinant enzymes suggests that the second substitution identified in the (R) EPSPS does not contribute significantly to its reduced glyphosate sensitivity. Escherichia coli aroA- (EPSPS deficient) strains expressing the mature EPSPS enzyme from the (R) biotype exhibited an approximately 3-fold increase in glyphosate tolerance relative to strains expressing the mature EPSPS from the (S) biotype. These results provide the first evidence for an altered EPSPS enzyme as an underlying component of evolved glyphosate resistance in any plant species. PMID:12114580

  19. Glyphosate effects on photosynthesis, nutrient accumulation, and nodulation in glyphosate-resistant soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies demonstrated that the photosynthesis of some cultivars of first (GR1) and second generation (GR2) glyphosate-resistant soybean was reduced by glyphosate. The reduction in photosynthesis caused by glyphosate might affect nutrient uptake and lead to lower plant biomass production and ...

  20. Variabilidade gentica e sensibilidade de acessos de Pistia stratiotes ao herbicida glyphosate Genetic variability and sensitivity of Pistia stratiotes accesses to glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A.S. Ccero

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A alface-d'gua (Pistia stratiotes uma das principais entre as macrfitas aquticas que causam problemas em corpos hdricos no Brasil e so consideradas como plantas daninhas. O presente trabalho foi realizado com os objetivos de conhecer melhor a variabilidade gentica dessa macrfita e relacionar essa variabilidade com a resposta aplicao do herbicida glyphosate. Para isso, foram coletados indivduos em 12 corpos hdricos em diferentes cidades do territrio nacional (Americana, Cambaratiba, Curitiba, Itapura, Jaboticabal, Lagoa Santa, Pira, Rio Grande, Rubinia, Salto Grande, Santa Gertrudes e Trs Lagoas. Os acessos foram caracterizados pelo uso de marcadores RAPD (DNA Polimrfico Amplificado ao Acaso, que permitiram, com o auxlio de iniciadores aleatrios, a caracterizao dos locos polimrficos identificados por uma matriz de ausncia e presena de bandas. Utilizando essa matriz, a anlise de agrupamento permitiu ntida classificao dos acessos em trs grupos com diferenas genticas entre eles. Um ensaio de controle qumico, com plantas mantidas em vasos plsticos (5 L e pulverizadas com o herbicida glyphosate nas concentraes de 0,0, 0,6, 1,2, 1,8 e 2,4 kg ha-1, identificou, utilizando avaliaes aos 7, 14 e 21 dias aps aplicao, que as duas maiores doses promoveram melhor efeito herbicida. Foi verificado tambm que os acessos de Curitiba e Cambaratiba apresentaram menor suscetibilidade ao herbicida glyphosate. No houve correspondncia entre a estrutura de grupos dos acessos pela anlise multivariada de agrupamento com a tcnica RAPD e a suscetibilidade da alface-d'gua ao glyphosate.Water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes is one the most important macrophytes, classified as weed and causing serious problems in watercourses in Brazil. The aim of this research was to evaluate the genetic variability of water lettuce and its relationship with this plant's susceptibility to glyphosate. Plant samples were collected in 12 water bodies in different regions in Brazil (Americana-AMC, Cambaratiba-CBT, Curitiba-CRB, Itapura-ITP, Jaboticabal-JBT, Lagoa Santa-LST, Pira-PRI, Rio Grande-RGD, Rubinia-RBN, Salto Grande-SGD, Santa Gertrudes-SGT and Trs Lagoas-TLG. The accesses were characterized by the use of RAPD markers (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA, whose unspecific starters allowed the analysis of polymorphic loci, which evidenced the distribution of the accesses into two groups, with high genetic similarity inside the sub-groups, but with high genetic divergence between them. The use of the RAPD technique evidenced the existence of genetic differences between the accesses. Plants growing in plastic pots (5 L were sprayed with glyphosate at the concentrations of 0.0, 0.6, 1.2, 1.8, 2.4 kg ha-1. Herbicide effects were evaluated on the 7th, 14th, and 21st days after application (DAA with control note attributions (0% without control and 100% leading to the complete death of the plants. No correspondence was observed between the structure of the access groups by the grouping multi-varied analysis using the RAPD technique and water lettuce susceptibility to glyphosate.

  1. Variabilidade gentica e sensibilidade de acessos de Pistia stratiotes ao herbicida glyphosate / Genetic variability and sensitivity of Pistia stratiotes accesses to glyphosate

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E.A.S., Ccero; R.A., Pitelli; J.A.D., Sena; A.S., Ferraudo.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A alface-d'gua (Pistia stratiotes) uma das principais entre as macrfitas aquticas que causam problemas em corpos hdricos no Brasil e so consideradas como plantas daninhas. O presente trabalho foi realizado com os objetivos de conhecer melhor a variabilidade gentica dessa macrfita e relacion [...] ar essa variabilidade com a resposta aplicao do herbicida glyphosate. Para isso, foram coletados indivduos em 12 corpos hdricos em diferentes cidades do territrio nacional (Americana, Cambaratiba, Curitiba, Itapura, Jaboticabal, Lagoa Santa, Pira, Rio Grande, Rubinia, Salto Grande, Santa Gertrudes e Trs Lagoas). Os acessos foram caracterizados pelo uso de marcadores RAPD (DNA Polimrfico Amplificado ao Acaso), que permitiram, com o auxlio de iniciadores aleatrios, a caracterizao dos locos polimrficos identificados por uma matriz de ausncia e presena de bandas. Utilizando essa matriz, a anlise de agrupamento permitiu ntida classificao dos acessos em trs grupos com diferenas genticas entre eles. Um ensaio de controle qumico, com plantas mantidas em vasos plsticos (5 L) e pulverizadas com o herbicida glyphosate nas concentraes de 0,0, 0,6, 1,2, 1,8 e 2,4 kg ha-1, identificou, utilizando avaliaes aos 7, 14 e 21 dias aps aplicao, que as duas maiores doses promoveram melhor efeito herbicida. Foi verificado tambm que os acessos de Curitiba e Cambaratiba apresentaram menor suscetibilidade ao herbicida glyphosate. No houve correspondncia entre a estrutura de grupos dos acessos pela anlise multivariada de agrupamento com a tcnica RAPD e a suscetibilidade da alface-d'gua ao glyphosate. Abstract in english Water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes) is one the most important macrophytes, classified as weed and causing serious problems in watercourses in Brazil. The aim of this research was to evaluate the genetic variability of water lettuce and its relationship with this plant's susceptibility to glyphosate. P [...] lant samples were collected in 12 water bodies in different regions in Brazil (Americana-AMC, Cambaratiba-CBT, Curitiba-CRB, Itapura-ITP, Jaboticabal-JBT, Lagoa Santa-LST, Pira-PRI, Rio Grande-RGD, Rubinia-RBN, Salto Grande-SGD, Santa Gertrudes-SGT and Trs Lagoas-TLG). The accesses were characterized by the use of RAPD markers (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA), whose unspecific starters allowed the analysis of polymorphic loci, which evidenced the distribution of the accesses into two groups, with high genetic similarity inside the sub-groups, but with high genetic divergence between them. The use of the RAPD technique evidenced the existence of genetic differences between the accesses. Plants growing in plastic pots (5 L) were sprayed with glyphosate at the concentrations of 0.0, 0.6, 1.2, 1.8, 2.4 kg ha-1. Herbicide effects were evaluated on the 7th, 14th, and 21st days after application (DAA) with control note attributions (0% without control and 100% leading to the complete death of the plants). No correspondence was observed between the structure of the access groups by the grouping multi-varied analysis using the RAPD technique and water lettuce susceptibility to glyphosate.

  2. Fluorescence enhancement of CdTe/CdS quantum dots by coupling of glyphosate and its application for sensitive detection of copper ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Glyphosate (Glyp) had been used to modify the surface of CdTe/CdS QDs, resulting in the enhancement of fluorescence intensity. The Glyp-functionalized QDs fluorescent probe offers good sensitivity and selectivity for detecting Cu2+ based on the fluorescence quenching. Highlights: ? Water soluble CdTe/CdS quantum dots capped with glyphosate were firstly synthesized. ? The fluorescence of the Glyp-functionalized QDs was quenched by copper ion. ? A new fluorescent sensor for copper ion was developed based on the prepared QDs. ? The sensor exhibited high sensitivity and good selectivity for copper ion. - Abstract: A novel fluorescent probe for Cu2+ determination based on the fluorescence quenching of glyphosate (Glyp)-functionalized quantum dots (QDs) was firstly reported. Glyp had been used to modify the surface of QDs to form Glyp-functionalized QDs following the capping of thioglycolic acid on the coreshell CdTe/CdS QDs. Under the optimal conditions, the response was linearly proportional to the concentration of Cu2+ between 2.4 10?2 ?g mL?1 and 28 ?g mL?1, with a detection limit of 1.3 10?3 ?g mL?1 (3?). The Glyp-functionalized QDs fluorescent probe offers good sensitivity and selectivity for detecting Cu2+. The fluorescent probe was successfully used for the determination of Cu2+ in environmental samples. The mechanism of reaction was also discussed.

  3. Using vegetative index and modified derivative for early detection of soybean plant injury from glyphosate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyphosate is a non-selective, systemic herbicide highly toxic to sensitive plant species, and its use has seen a significant increase due to the increased adoption of genetically modified glyphosate-resistant crops since the mid-1990s. Glyphosate application for weed control in glyphosate-resistant...

  4. Fluorescence enhancement of CdTe/CdS quantum dots by coupling of glyphosate and its application for sensitive detection of copper ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Zhengqing; Liu Shaopu; Yin Pengfei [Key Laboratory on Luminescence and Real-Time Analysis, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); He Youqiu, E-mail: heyq@swu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory on Luminescence and Real-Time Analysis, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)

    2012-10-01

    Graphical abstract: Glyphosate (Glyp) had been used to modify the surface of CdTe/CdS QDs, resulting in the enhancement of fluorescence intensity. The Glyp-functionalized QDs fluorescent probe offers good sensitivity and selectivity for detecting Cu{sup 2+} based on the fluorescence quenching. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Water soluble CdTe/CdS quantum dots capped with glyphosate were firstly synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fluorescence of the Glyp-functionalized QDs was quenched by copper ion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new fluorescent sensor for copper ion was developed based on the prepared QDs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sensor exhibited high sensitivity and good selectivity for copper ion. - Abstract: A novel fluorescent probe for Cu{sup 2+} determination based on the fluorescence quenching of glyphosate (Glyp)-functionalized quantum dots (QDs) was firstly reported. Glyp had been used to modify the surface of QDs to form Glyp-functionalized QDs following the capping of thioglycolic acid on the core-shell CdTe/CdS QDs. Under the optimal conditions, the response was linearly proportional to the concentration of Cu{sup 2+} between 2.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} {mu}g mL{sup -1} and 28 {mu}g mL{sup -1}, with a detection limit of 1.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} {mu}g mL{sup -1} (3{delta}). The Glyp-functionalized QDs fluorescent probe offers good sensitivity and selectivity for detecting Cu{sup 2+}. The fluorescent probe was successfully used for the determination of Cu{sup 2+} in environmental samples. The mechanism of reaction was also discussed.

  5. Cover Crops Reduce Water, Sediment, and Herbicide Loss in Acreage Requiring Tillage to Control Glyphosate-Resistant Weeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyphosate-resistant crops (GRCs) facilitated the adoption of no-tillage cropping systems. No-tillage, that is, omitting all tilling, disking, or harrowing operations, promotes crop residue accumulation on the soil surface. Crop residues protect the soil surface from rainfall impact, impede surfac...

  6. REDUCED TRANSLOCATION IS THE CAUSE OF ANTAGONISM OF GLYPHOSATE BY MSMA IN BROWNTOP MILLET (BRACHIARIA RAMOSE) AND PALMER AMARANTH (AMARANTHUS PALMER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were conducted in growth chambers to characterize absorption and translocation of 14C-glyphosate applied alone or in mixture with MSMA in browntop millet and Palmer amaranth. MSMA antagonized activity of glyphosate in both weed species. Absorption of 14C-glyphosate in Palmer amaranth was r...

  7. Glyphosate Accumulation and Detrimental Effects on Coffea Arabica : Chemical Analysis and Biological Effect Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrbbers, Lars Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most popular beverages worldwide and a highly traded commodity. In order to maintain a high yield of the perennial crop, weed competition for resources needs to be reduced. For this purpose herbicides are commonly applied, with glyphosate being one of the most prominent herbicides in coffee fields. Glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine], the active ingredient in Roundup, is characterized as systemic, non-selective, with a broad weed spectrum, inhibiting the enzyme 5-enolpyruvyl shikimate 3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS). The inhibition leads to an accumulation of shikimic acid. In coffee plantations glyphosate symptoms are commonly observed, probably caused by an unintentional spray drift. Root uptake represents an additional uptake route. Glyphosate can be applied several times per year thus a potential accumulation within the plant would lead to higher tissue concentrations than from single applications. The aim of this PhD thesis was to investigate the interaction of glyphosate with the coffee plant. An optimized coffee production, by minimizing the risk for a potential yield loss, is important due to the high commercial value of the crop. However, only limited data is available on the interaction of glyphosate with coffee trees and perennial crops in general; especially with respect to extended time periods after the exposure and multiple applications within the commercial life span of the individual plant. In order to determine glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), the main glyphosate metabolite, in leaf material a method using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was developed. Variations of the method were tested using a full or simplified sample clean-up procedure with single quadrupole MS detection. Additionally the simplified sample treatment was further developed by the use of ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to a triple quadrupole MS/MS system. All tested variations showed sufficient accuracy (recovery: 80-120%) and precision (? 20 relative standard deviation in percentage, RSD%). The full method and the MS/MS system provided a limit of quantification (LOQ) below 0.1 mg/kg; the commonly used maximum residue limit (MRL) for glyphosate in plant derived food products. Glyphosate was found in all samples analyzed from different coffee fields, regardless of management practices. AMPA was not detected above the LOQ in any greenhouse or field sample analyzed. Glyphosate levels seemed to increase in leaf material with multiple applications, indicating the risk for an accumulation in the coffee tree. In an experimental field trial glyphosate was, however, not detected after several applications. The biological response of young coffee plants to single glyphosate applications was evaluated using doseresponse curves (DRC) and shikimic acid levels. Furthermore the effect of multiple exposures on the viii severity of plant damage was investigated. The DRC revealed the presence of glyphosate symptoms to be the most sensitive response variable evaluated. Consequently, when symptoms are absent the risk for plant damage and yield loss is low. The field rate used in the greenhouse study, causing symptoms in 50% of the plants was realistic for field exposure scenarios. When symptoms are present, presumably caused by glyphosate, shikimic acid accumulation can be used for confirmation purposes. The best sampling time was 1 to 2 weeks after treatment, using only the youngest leaves of the plant. Shikimic acid levels were correlated with glyphosate levels 14 to 28 days after treatment (DAT). Earlier and later sampling did not show this correlation within the greenhouse study. A negative effect of glyphosate on the yield, correlated to plant leaf coverage was observed. The yield reduction was only observed for the first application carried out and not distinctively related to the number of applications or field rate. Most likely because of the plant age, possible other reasons are discussed. Biological response variables were not significantly increased by

  8. Assessing crop injury caused by aerially applied glyphosate drift using spray sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crop injury caused by off-target drift of aerially applied glyphosate is of great concern to farmers and aerial applicators. An experiment was conducted in 2009 to determine the extent of injury due to near-field glyphosate drift from aerial application to glyphosate-sensitive cotton, corn and soybe...

  9. Efecto del glifosato sobre el crecimiento y acumulacin de azcares libres en dos biotipos de lolium perenne de distinta sensibilidad al herbicida Glyphosate effects on the growth and free sugar accumulation of two lolium perenn e biotypes with different herbicide sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yanniccari

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available El movimiento sistmico del glifosato est determinado por el transporte de fotoasimilados. A su vez, la capacidad de un destino de consumir los asimilados est condicionada por su actividad metablica. Pese a su importancia, la relacin entre el glifosato y la sntesis de azcares en hojas fuente ha sido poco abordada. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar los efectos del glifosato sobre el crecimiento y la acumulacin de azcares libres en dos biotipos de Lolium perenne de baja y alta sensibilidad al herbicida. Se trabaj con clones de ambos tipos de plantas, en macollaje, tratados con 1.440 g e.a. ha-1 de glifosato y sin tratamiento herbicida como controles. Se evalu peridicamente el efecto del glifosato sobre el rebrote de hojas hasta las 50 horas post-aplicacin y sobre los niveles de azcares libres totales, reductores y no reductores en hojas a 1, 2, 3 y 5 das post-aplicacin. A partir de las 25 horas post-aplicacin, el glifosato provoc una disminucin del crecimiento del 58% en el biotipo susceptible, con una acumulacin de azcares libres superior al 90% con relacin al control, desde el primer da post-aplicacin en adelante. La inhibicin del crecimiento, inducida por el glifosato en plantas susceptibles, no depende de la limitacin del traslado de fotoasimilados desde la parte area. Por tanto, la acumulacin de azcares libres en hojas podra explicarse por la cada en la tasa de crecimiento. En el biotipo de baja sensibilidad, en el que no se detect inhibicin del crecimiento, estos efectos fueron limitados.The systemic movement of glyphosate is determined by the transport of photoassimilates. In turn, the capacity of a destination to consume assimilates is conditioned by their metabolic activity. Despite its importance, the relationship between the glyphosate and the sugar synthesis from source leaves has been little studied. The aim of this work was to determine the effect of glyphosate on the growth and free sugar accumulation of two Lolium perenne biotypes of low and high glyphosate sensitivity. It was worked with clones of both types, in tillering, sprayed with 1,440 g a.e. ha-1 of glyphosate as treatments and without herbicide as controls. The glyphosate effects on the regrowth of leaves was studied until 50 hours post-application and on total free sugar, reducing free sugar and nonreducing free sugar from leaves to 1, 2, 3 and 5 days post-application were periodically evaluated. From 25 hours after glyphosate application, it caused on the susceptible biotype a growth decrease of 58% and an accumulation of free sugar above 90% compared to controls. In susceptible biotypes, growth inhibition does not depend on a reduced photoassimilate translocation from the overground part. Therefore, the free sugar accumulation in leaves could be explained by the fall in the rate of growth. These effects are limited in the low sensitivity biotype, where growth inhibition has not been detected.

  10. Efecto del glifosato sobre el crecimiento y acumulacin de azcares libres en dos biotipos de lolium perenne de distinta sensibilidad al herbicida / Glyphosate effects on the growth and free sugar accumulation of two lolium perenn e biotypes with different herbicide sensitivity

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M., Yanniccari; C., Istilart; D.O., Gimnez; H., Acciaresi; A.M, Castro.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available El movimiento sistmico del glifosato est determinado por el transporte de fotoasimilados. A su vez, la capacidad de un destino de consumir los asimilados est condicionada por su actividad metablica. Pese a su importancia, la relacin entre el glifosato y la sntesis de azcares en hojas fuente h [...] a sido poco abordada. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar los efectos del glifosato sobre el crecimiento y la acumulacin de azcares libres en dos biotipos de Lolium perenne de baja y alta sensibilidad al herbicida. Se trabaj con clones de ambos tipos de plantas, en macollaje, tratados con 1.440 g e.a. ha-1 de glifosato y sin tratamiento herbicida como controles. Se evalu peridicamente el efecto del glifosato sobre el rebrote de hojas hasta las 50 horas post-aplicacin y sobre los niveles de azcares libres totales, reductores y no reductores en hojas a 1, 2, 3 y 5 das post-aplicacin. A partir de las 25 horas post-aplicacin, el glifosato provoc una disminucin del crecimiento del 58% en el biotipo susceptible, con una acumulacin de azcares libres superior al 90% con relacin al control, desde el primer da post-aplicacin en adelante. La inhibicin del crecimiento, inducida por el glifosato en plantas susceptibles, no depende de la limitacin del traslado de fotoasimilados desde la parte area. Por tanto, la acumulacin de azcares libres en hojas podra explicarse por la cada en la tasa de crecimiento. En el biotipo de baja sensibilidad, en el que no se detect inhibicin del crecimiento, estos efectos fueron limitados. Abstract in english The systemic movement of glyphosate is determined by the transport of photoassimilates. In turn, the capacity of a destination to consume assimilates is conditioned by their metabolic activity. Despite its importance, the relationship between the glyphosate and the sugar synthesis from source leaves [...] has been little studied. The aim of this work was to determine the effect of glyphosate on the growth and free sugar accumulation of two Lolium perenne biotypes of low and high glyphosate sensitivity. It was worked with clones of both types, in tillering, sprayed with 1,440 g a.e. ha-1 of glyphosate as treatments and without herbicide as controls. The glyphosate effects on the regrowth of leaves was studied until 50 hours post-application and on total free sugar, reducing free sugar and nonreducing free sugar from leaves to 1, 2, 3 and 5 days post-application were periodically evaluated. From 25 hours after glyphosate application, it caused on the susceptible biotype a growth decrease of 58% and an accumulation of free sugar above 90% compared to controls. In susceptible biotypes, growth inhibition does not depend on a reduced photoassimilate translocation from the overground part. Therefore, the free sugar accumulation in leaves could be explained by the fall in the rate of growth. These effects are limited in the low sensitivity biotype, where growth inhibition has not been detected.

  11. 76 FR 19701 - Glyphosate (N-

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ...found in rats or mice. In a chronic toxicity study in dogs, no systemic effects were found. Acceptable...N-acetyl glyphosate. N- acetyl glyphosate is found in genetically modified (GMO) glyphosate- resistant commodities,...

  12. Effects of Glyphosate Application on Seed Iron and Root Ferric (III) Reductase in Soybean Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research demonstrated that nitrate assimilation and nitrogen fixation were significantly reduced by glyphosate (Gly) drift in glyphosate-susceptible (GS) soybean, but soybean had the ability to recover from the physiological stress caused by glyphosate drift. The objective of this study was...

  13. Decisions reduce sensitivity to subsequent information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronfman, Zohar Z; Brezis, Noam; Moran, Rani; Tsetsos, Konstantinos; Donner, Tobias; Usher, Marius

    2015-07-01

    Behavioural studies over half a century indicate that making categorical choices alters beliefs about the state of the world. People seem biased to confirm previous choices, and to suppress contradicting information. These choice-dependent biases imply a fundamental bound of human rationality. However, it remains unclear whether these effects extend to lower level decisions, and only little is known about the computational mechanisms underlying them. Building on the framework of sequential-sampling models of decision-making, we developed novel psychophysical protocols that enable us to dissect quantitatively how choices affect the way decision-makers accumulate additional noisy evidence. We find robust choice-induced biases in the accumulation of abstract numerical (experiment 1) and low-level perceptual (experiment 2) evidence. These biases deteriorate estimations of the mean value of the numerical sequence (experiment 1) and reduce the likelihood to revise decisions (experiment 2). Computational modelling reveals that choices trigger a reduction of sensitivity to subsequent evidence via multiplicative gain modulation, rather than shifting the decision variable towards the chosen alternative in an additive fashion. Our results thus show that categorical choices alter the evidence accumulation mechanism itself, rather than just its outcome, rendering the decision-maker less sensitive to new information. PMID:26108628

  14. Efeitos de diferentes formulaes comerciais de glyphosate sobre estirpes de Bradyrhizobium Effects of different glyphosate commercial formulations on Bradyrhizobium strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.B. Santos

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar efeitos de formulaes comerciais de glyphosate sobre estirpes de Bradyrhizobium, em condies de laboratrio. As formulaes foram aplicadas na concentrao de 43,2 g L-1 do equivalente cido. As bactrias foram inoculadas em meio de cultura base de manitol e extrato de levedura (YM. O efeito do herbicida no crescimento das estirpes de Bradyrhizobium foi avaliado mediante leitura da densidade tica em espectrofotmetro. Avaliou-se o crescimento das estirpes de B. japonicum SEMIA 5079 e de B. elkanii SEMIA 5019 e SEMIA 587 sob efeito de nove formulaes de glyphosate: Zapp Qi, Roundup, Roundup Multiao, Roundup Transorb, Roundup WG, Trop, Agrisato, glyphosate tcnico [padro de N-(phosphonomethyl glycina] e controle sem adio de herbicida (testemunha para as estirpes. Foram utilizadas seis repeties. Confeccionaram-se curvas de crescimento para cada estirpe. Pelos resultados, pde-se observar que todas as formulaes de glyphosate causaram efeitos diferenciados sobre as estirpes de Bradyrhizobium SEMIA 5019, SEMIA 5079 e SEMIA 587. Constatou-se que a formulao Zapp Qi foi a menos txica s estirpes de Bradyrhizobium avaliadas. A maior toxicidade foi observada para Roundup Transorb, que provocou redues no crescimento acima de 94% para todas as estirpes de Bradyrhizobium estudadas. No se observou correlao entre o tipo de sal - isopropilamina, amnio ou potssico, presentes na formulao herbicida - e o grau de inibio no crescimento das estirpes. SEMIA 587 foi a estirpe menos tolerante maioria das formulaes testadas, porm SEMIA 5019 foi a mais sensvel ao glyphosate padro, sem adio de sais ou de outros aditivos.This work aimed to evaluate the effects of glyphosate commercial formulations on Bradyrhizobium strains under laboratory conditions. The formulations were applied in the concentration of 43.2 g L-1 of the a.e. and the strains were inoculated in yeast extract manitol (YM. Herbicide effect on the growth of the Bradyrhizobium strains was assessed by optic density reading in a spectrophotometer. Twenty seven treatments arranged in a factorial design were evaluated and consisted of one strain of B. japonicum: SEMIA 5079; and two strains of B. elkanii: SEMIA 5019 and SEMIA 587, under the effect of nine glyphosate formulations: Zapp QI, Roundup, Roundup Multiao, Roundup Transorb, Roundup WG, Trop, Agrisato, technical glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl glycine] and control without herbicide addition (as the strain control treatment, with six replications. A growth curve was established for each strain. It could be observed that the different glyphosate formulations Zapp Qi, Roundup, Roundup Multiao, Roundup transorb, Roundup WG, Trop and Agrisato caused differentiated effects on the strains of Bradyrhizobium SEMIA 5019, SEMIA 5079 and SEMIA 587. It was verified that the Zapp Qi formulation was the least toxic to the strains. The highest toxicity was observed for Roundup Transorb, which reduced growth over 94% for all the strains assessed. Correlation was not observed among the type of salt, isopropylamine, ammonium or potassic, present in the formulation herbicides, and the toxicity degree to the strains. The strain SEMIA 587 was the least tolerant to most formulations while SEMIA 5019 was the most sensitive to the control treatment N- (phosphonomethyl glycine, without salts or other additives.

  15. Glyphosate and fungicide effects on Cercospora leaf spot in four glyphosate-resistant sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyphosate has been shown to reduce foliar diseases in soybean and wheat. In fact, currently there is a patent application for a synergistic combination of glyphosate and a fungicide for disease management. Cercospora leaf spot (Cercospora beticola) is one of the most significant foliar disease prob...

  16. Glyphosate in northern ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helander, Marjo; Saloniemi, Irma; Saikkonen, Kari

    2012-10-01

    Glyphosate is the main nonselective, systemic herbicide used against a wide range of weeds. Its worldwide use has expanded because of extensive use of certain agricultural practices such as no-till cropping, and widespread application of glyphosate-resistant genetically modified crops. Glyphosate has a reputation of being nontoxic to animals and rapidly inactivated in soils. However, recent evidence has cast doubts on its safety. Glyphosate may be retained and transported in soils, and there may be cascading effects on nontarget organisms. These processes may be especially detrimental in northern ecosystems because they are characterized by long biologically inactive winters and short growing seasons. In this opinion article, we discuss the potential ecological, environmental and agricultural risks of intensive glyphosate use in boreal regions. PMID:22677798

  17. Reduced taste sensitivity in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagnon, Lea; Kupers, Ron; Ptito, Maurice

    2013-01-01

    Sight is undoubtedly not only important for food identification and selection but also for the modulation of gustatory sensitivity. We can, therefore, assume that taste sensitivity and eating habits are affected by visual deprivation from birth. We measured taste detection and identification thresholds of the 5 basic tastants in 13 congenitally blind and 13 sighted control subjects. Participants also answered several eating habits questionnaires, including the Food Neophobia Scale, the Food Vari...

  18. Glyphosate-Resistant Goosegrass from Mississippi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay K. Nandula

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A suspected glyphosate-resistant goosegrass [Eleusine indica (L. Gaertn.] population, found in Washington County, Mississippi, was studied to determine the level of resistance and whether the resistance was due to a point mutation, as was previously identified in a Malaysian population. Whole plant dose response assays indicated a two- to four-fold increase in resistance to glyphosate. Leaf disc bioassays based on a glyphosate-dependent increase in shikimate levels indicated a five- to eight-fold increase in resistance. Sequence comparisons of messenger RNA for epsps, the gene encoding the enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase, from resistant and sensitive goosegrass, revealed a cytosine to thymine nucleotide change at position 319 in the resistant accessions. This single nucleotide polymorphism causes a proline to serine amino acid substitution at position 106 in 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase. A real-time polymerase chain reaction assay using DNA probes specific for the nucleotide change at position 319 was developed to detect this polymorphism. Goosegrass from 42 locations were screened, and the results indicated that glyphosate-resistant goosegrass remained localized to where it was discovered. Pendimethalin, s-metolachlor, clethodim, paraquat and fluazifop controlled resistant goosegrass 93% to 100%, indicating that several control options for glyphosate-resistant goosegrass are available.

  19. Effects of additives on glyphosate activity in purple nutsedge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of additives on 14 C-glyphosate penetration into purple nutsedge leaves were examined in the laboratory and efficacy of glyphosate for purple nutsedge control was studied in the greenhouse and field. The addition of (NH4)2 SO4 at 1.0% (v/v) + diesel oil at 1,0% (v/v) + Tendal at 1.0% (v/v) increased 14C-glyphosate penetration into nutsedge leaves more than the addition of either one alone. (NH4)2SO4 at 1.0% + diesel oil at 1.0% + Tendal at 0.12 or 0.25% increased the phytotoxicity of glyphosate at 0.5 and 0.75 kg, a.e./ha on nutsedge plants in the greenhouse but not in the field. Additives did not enhance glyphosate activity by reducing the number of nutsedae tubers. (author)

  20. Effect of glyphosate on carrot and tobacco cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haderlie, L C; Widholm, J M; Slife, F W

    1977-07-01

    The growth of suspension-cultured carrot (Daucus carota L.) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Xanthi) cells was inhibited by glyphosate (N-[phosphonomethyl]glycine). This inhibition was reversed by adding combinations of phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan or casein hydrolysate. Casein hydrolysate and phenylalanine + tyrosine + tryptophan were the most effective treatments. Reversal of glyphosate-induced inhibition occurred only if the aromatic amino acids were added during the first 8 days of glyphosate incubation. Glyphosate uptake was not reduced when the aromatic amino acids or casein hydrolysate were added.Even though phenylalanine biosynthesis is a suggested site for glyphosate action, inhibitory levels of glyphosate did not lower free phenylalanine concentrations in carrot cells within 10 days. (14)C-Phenylalanine studies indicated that the metabolic pool size was, likewise, not decreased.In carrot cells total free amino acids increased within 6 hours after glyphosate addition. Cell protein levels declined within 48 hours following glyphosate treatment.Studies on (14)C-thymidine and (14)C-uridine incorporation were complicated by rapid metabolism of these compounds to (14)CO(2). PMID:16660038

  1. Reduced taste sensitivity in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagnon, Lea; Kupers, Ron; Ptito, Maurice

    2013-01-01

    Sight is undoubtedly not only important for food identification and selection but also for the modulation of gustatory sensitivity. We can, therefore, assume that taste sensitivity and eating habits are affected by visual deprivation from birth. We measured taste detection and identification...... thresholds of the 5 basic tastants in 13 congenitally blind and 13 sighted control subjects. Participants also answered several eating habits questionnaires, including the Food Neophobia Scale, the Food Variety Seeking Tendency Scale, the Intuitive Eating Scale, and the Body Awareness Questionnaire. Our...... further indicate that blind subjects more strongly rely on internal hunger and satiety cues, instead of external contextual or emotional cues, to decide when and what to eat. We suggest that the lower taste sensitivity observed in congenitally blind individuals is due to various blindness...

  2. Estdio de desenvolvimento e superfcie foliar reduzem a eficincia de chlorimuron-ethyl e glyphosate em Conyza sumatrensis / Developmental stage and leaf surface reduce the efficiency of chlorimuron-ethyl and glyphosate in Conyza sumatrensis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    F.M., Santos; L., Vargas; P.J., Christoffoleti; D., Agostinetto; T.N., Martin; Q., Ruchel; J.A., Fernando.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nos Estados do Rio Grande do Sul e do Paran, h frequentes relatos de falhas de controle de Conyza sumatrensis com chlorimuron-ethyl em lavouras de soja. Assim, os objetivos deste trabalho foram caracterizar morfologicamente as folhas de Conyza sumatrensis e avaliar o controle com herbicidas aplica [...] dos em bitipos dessa planta daninha em trs estdios de desenvolvimento. Foram realizados dois estudos, com experimentos em casa de vegetao, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro repeties. No primeiro estudo, os bitipos de buva foram coletados e identificados; j no segundo estudo avaliou-se a resposta de bitipos aos herbicidas, doses e estdios de desenvolvimento. As doses de herbicidas foram: 0,0; 6,25; 12,5; 25; 50; 100; 200; e 400, representadas em porcentagem da dose de registro dos herbicidas chlorimuron-ethyl (20 g ha-1) e glyphosate (720 g e.a. ha-1), aplicadas de modo isolado ou associadas em trs estdios de desenvolvimento dos quatro bitipos (2, 5, 17 e 20) de Conyza sumatrensis (altura de 0,5-1 cm e 3-4 folhas; altura 1-2 cm e 6-7 folhas; e altura de 10-12 cm e 12-14 folhas). As variveis analisadas foram controle, fitomassa seca da parte area e as densidades tricomtica e estomtica da superfcie foliar dos bitipos em diferentes estdios de desenvolvimento. Os resultados demonstram que os estdios de desenvolvimento alteram a eficcia dos herbicidas, e aplicaes em estdios avanados de desenvolvimento diminuem a eficcia de controle. A exceo foi o bitipo 5 de Conyza sumatrensis, que demonstrou resistncia ao glyphosate, independentemente do estdio de desenvolvimento no momento da aplicao do herbicida. Houve variao no nmero de tricomas entre os bitipos em todos os estdios de desenvolvimento, e o nmero de estmatos diminuiu com o desenvolvimento dos bitipos. Abstract in english In the states of Rio Grande do Sul and Paran, there are frequent reports of failure to control Conyza sumatrensis with chlorimuron-ethyl in soybean crops. Thus, the objectives of this study were to characterize Conyza sumatrensis leaves morphologically and evaluate herbicide control in biotypes of [...] this weed at three stages. Two studies were conducted, with experiments in a greenhouse in a completely randomized design with four replications. In the first study, horseweed biotypes were collected and identified, and the second study evaluated the responses of herbicide rates and development stages. The herbicide rates were: 0.0, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, 200 and 400, represented as a percentage of the dose registry of herbicides chlorimuronethyl (20 g ha-1) and glyphosate (720 g e.a. ha-1) applied in isolation or associated at three developmental stages of four Conyza sumatrensis (2, 5, 17 and 20) biotypes (height = 0.5-1 cm and 3-4 leaves, height = 1-2 cm and 6-7 leaves, height = 10-12 cm, 12-14 leaves). The variables analyzed were control, shoot dry weight and trichome and stomatal densities biotypes of the leaf surface at different stages of development. The results obtained demonstrate that the developmental stages affect the effectiveness of the herbicides, and applications at advanced stages of development decrease the effectiveness of control. The exception was biotype 5 of Conyza sumatrensis, which shows resistance to glyphosate, regardless of stage of development at the time of herbicide application. There was variation in the number of trichomes among biotypes at all stages of development, and the number of stomata decreased with the development of biotypes.

  3. Reduced taste sensitivity in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagnon, Lea; Kupers, Ron

    2013-01-01

    Sight is undoubtedly not only important for food identification and selection but also for the modulation of gustatory sensitivity. We can, therefore, assume that taste sensitivity and eating habits are affected by visual deprivation from birth. We measured taste detection and identification thresholds of the 5 basic tastants in 13 congenitally blind and 13 sighted control subjects. Participants also answered several eating habits questionnaires, including the Food Neophobia Scale, the Food Variety Seeking Tendency Scale, the Intuitive Eating Scale, and the Body Awareness Questionnaire. Our behavioral results showed that compared with the normal sighted, blind subjects have increased thresholds for taste detection and taste identification. This finding is at odds with the superior performance of congenitally blind subjects in several tactile, auditory and olfactory tasks. Our psychometric data further indicate that blind subjects more strongly rely on internal hunger and satiety cues, instead of external contextual or emotional cues, to decide when and what to eat. We suggest that the lower taste sensitivity observed in congenitally blind individuals is due to various blindness-related obstacles when shopping for food, cooking and eating out, all of which contribute to underexpose the gustatory system to a larger variety of taste stimuli.

  4. Reduced Baroreflex Sensitivity in Cluster Headache Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barloese, Mads C J; Mehlsen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE AND BACKGROUND: Important elements of cluster headache (CH) pathophysiology may be seated in the posterior hypothalamus. Cranial autonomic features are inherent, but involvement of systemic autonomic control is still debated. We aimed to characterize autonomic function as investigated by baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) in CH patients. METHODS: Twenty-six active CH patients and an equal number of age-, sex-, and BMI-matched controls underwent head-up tilt table test and BRS was determined by the sequence method. RESULTS: Compared with controls, patients exhibited a blunted reactivity of RR intervals in response to falls and increases in systolic blood pressure (SBP) (15.3 vs 20.0?ms/mmHg, P?=?.0041) in the supine position. Also, compared with controls, BRS was lower in patients having suffered an attack within the past 12 hours (n?=?13, 12.5 vs 22.3?ms/mmHg, P?=?.0091), opposed to those patients who had not (n?=?13, 16.0?ms/mmHg, P?=?.1523). In the tilted position, the drop in SBP at the carotid sinuses was higher in patients who had recently suffered an attack. Despite this, they exhibited a less marked shortening of RR intervals when compared with patients who had been attack free for longer. CONCLUSIONS: CH patients exhibit a subclinical blunting of BRS that may be affected by the attacks themselves. The fast RR interval fluctuations used in this method reflects cardiovagal responses, thus the blunted responses are suggestive of dysfunction in the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system or in the central relay of impulses from the baroreceptors.

  5. Hormesis with glyphosate depends on coffee growth stage

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    LEONARDO B. DE, CARVALHO; PEDRO L.C.A., ALVES; STEPHEN O., DUKE.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Os sistemas de manejo de plantas daninhas em quase todos os pomares de caf do Brasil permitem que o herbicida pulverizado sofra deriva sobre a cultura. Com objetivo de avaliar se h algum efeito do glyphosate, herbicida mais comumente utilizado em pomares de caf, sobre as plantas de caf, uma ampl [...] a faixa de doses do herbicida foi aplicada diretamente sobre plantas de caf em dois distintos estdios de crescimento da planta. Embora o crescimento de ambas as plantas novas e velhas tenha sido reduzido em doses mais altas de glyphosate, baixas doses no causaram efeitos sobre caractersticas de crescimento de plantas novas e estimularam o crescimento das mais velhas. Portanto, o efeito hormtico do glyphosate dependente do estdio de crescimento da planta de caf no momento da aplicao do herbicida. Abstract in english Weed management systems in almost all Brazilian coffee plantations allow herbicide spray to drift on crop plants. In order to evaluate if there is any effect of the most commonly used herbicide in coffee production, glyphosate, on coffee plants, a range of glyphosate doses were applied directly on c [...] offee plants at two distinct plant growth stages. Although growth of both young and old plants was reduced at higher glyphosate doses, low doses caused no effects on growth characteristics of young plants and stimulated growth of older plants. Therefore, hormesis with glyphosate is dependent on coffee plant growth stage at the time of herbicide application.

  6. Nontarget mechanims involved in glyphosate tolerance found in Canavalia ensiformis plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Hipolito, Hugo; Osuna, Maria D; Heredia, Antonio; Ruiz-Santaella, Juan Pedro; De Prado, Rafael

    2009-06-10

    A glyphosate-tolerant population of Canavalia ensiformis was collected in a cover crop in citrus orchards in Veracruz (Mexico), where glyphosate had been used for the first time. A susceptible Amaranthus hybridus L. population was collected from a nearby field that had never been treated with glyphosate. Dose-response experiments indicated a glyphosate tolerance ratio [ED(50)(C. ensiformis)/ED(50) (A. hybridus)] of 7.7. The hypothesis of a high level of glyphosate tolerance was provisionally corroborated on the basis of shikimate accumulation in both species. The susceptible population accumulated 6 times more shikimic acid in leaf tissue 96 h after glyphosate application than the tolerant leguminous crop. Two different physiological factors were involved in the glyphosate tolerance of this C. ensiformis population, which were confirmed by [(14)C]glyphosate, being a lack of penetration of glyphosate through the cuticle of the leguminous plants and an impaired herbicide translocation to the roots and the rest of shoots. This paper reports that two different nontarget site-based mechanisms, limited absorption and reduced translocation, contribute to the glyphosate tolerance found in C. ensiformis. PMID:19432449

  7. The herbicide Glyphosate affects nitrification in the Elbe estuary, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Tina; Lassen, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    The Elbe River is one of the biggest European rivers discharging into the North Sea. It also transports high amounts of nutrients and pollutants like pesticides. Important source regions of both nutrients and pollutants are located within the river catchment, which is dominated by agricultural land-use. From these agricultural soils, pesticides can be carried via the river and estuary into the North Sea. Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine) is the most commonly used herbicide worldwide and mainly used to regulate unwanted plant growth and for the expedition of crop ripening. In Germany, ~ 6000 tons of glyphosate are applied yearly in agriculture and private use. Glyphosate is degradable by microorganisms and has a half-life in water of 35 to 60 days. This herbicide specifically inhibits 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS), an enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of essential aromatic amino acids in plants, fungi, and bacteria. Nitrifying bacteria, which play an important role in the internal nitrogen cycling in the Elbe estuary, also possess this enzyme. The aim of our study was to quantify the concentration of glyphosate in water and sediment samples of the Elbe to get an overview about relevant environmental levels and to assess the impact of glyphosate on inhibition of nitrifying activities. To quantify the effect of glyphosate on nitrification activity, natural samples as well as pure cultures of Nitrosomonas europea (strain Nm50) were incubated with different concentrations of glyphosate over a period of some weeks. The nitrifying activity was determined according to changes of the nitrite and nitrate concentration as well as the cell number. Glyphosate was detectable in water and sediment samples in the Elbe estuary with up to 5 ppb mainly in the Port of Hamburg region. In both incubation experiments an inhibiting effect of glyphosate on nitrification could be shown. The incubated natural water sample was affected by a glyphosate concentration that was 1000 fold higher than the measured natural levels. The pure culture Nitrosomonas europaea (Nm 50) was more sensitive and was already inhibited by concentrations 10 to 100 fold above the in-situ concentrations. Overall, we find that glyphosate is apparently not as easily degradable as expected, as it can be detected in the water column and sediment of the Elbe estuary in spring and summer. Our results indicate that especially during bacterial growth, the natural nitrifying community can be affected if glyphosate concentrations in the water column increase.

  8. Root-Zone Glyphosate Exposure Adversely Affects Two Ditch Species

    OpenAIRE

    Lyndsay E. Saunders; Koontz, Melissa B.; Reza Pezeshki

    2013-01-01

    Glyphosate, one of the most applied herbicides globally, has been extensively studied for its effects on non-target organisms. In the field, following precipitation, glyphosate runs off into agricultural ditches where it infiltrates into the soil and thus may encounter the roots of vegetation. These edge-of-field ditches share many characteristics with wetlands, including the ability to reduce loads of anthropogenic chemicals through uptake, transformation, and retention. Different species wi...

  9. Spray droplet size, drift potential, and risks to nontarget organisms from aerially applied glyphosate for coca control in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Andrew J; Solomon, Keith R; Marshall, E J P

    2009-01-01

    A wind tunnel atomization study was conducted to measure the emission droplet size spectra for water and Glyphos (a glyphosate formulation sold in Colombia) + Cosmo-flux sprays for aerial application to control coca and poppy crops in Colombia. The droplet size spectra were measured in a wind tunnel for an Accu-Flo nozzle (with 16 size 0.085 [2.16 mm] orifices), under appropriate simulated aircraft speeds (up to 333 km/h), using a laser diffraction instrument covering a dynamic size range for droplets of 0.5 to 3,500 microm. The spray drift potential of the glyphosate was modeled using the AGDISP spray application and drift model, using input parameters representative of those occurring in Colombia for typical aerial application operations. The droplet size spectra for tank mixes containing glyphosate and Cosmo-Flux were considerably finer than water and became finer with higher aircraft speeds. The tank mix with 44% glyphosate had a D(v0.5) of 128 microm, while the value at the 4.9% glyphosate rate was 140 microm. These are classified as very fine to fine sprays. Despite being relatively fine, modeling showed that the droplets would not evaporate as rapidly as most similarly sized agricultural sprays because the nonvolatile proportion of the tank mix (active and inert adjuvant ingredients) was large. Thus, longer range drift is small and most drift that does occur will deposit relatively close to the application area. Drift will only occur downwind and, with winds of velocity less than the modeled maximum of 9 km/h, the drift distance would be substantially reduced. Spray drift potential might be additionally reduced through various practices such as the selection of nozzles, tank mix adjuvants, aircraft speeds, and spray pressures that would produce coarser sprays. Species sensitivity distributions to glyphosate were constructed for plants and amphibians. Based on modeled drift and 5th centile concentrations, appropriate no-spray buffer zones (distance from the end of the spray boom as recorded electronically +/-5%) for protection of sensitive plants were 50-120 m for coca spray scenarios and considerably lower for poppy spray scenarios. The equivalent buffer zone for amphibia was 5 m. The low toxicity of glyphosate to humans suggests that these aerial applications are not a concern for human health. PMID:19672760

  10. Use of Fe/Al drinking water treatment residuals as amendments for enhancing the retention capacity of glyphosate in agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuanyuan; Wendling, Laura A; Wang, Changhui; Pei, Yuansheng

    2015-08-01

    Fe/Al drinking water treatment residuals (WTRs), ubiquitous and non-hazardous by-products of drinking water purification, are cost-effective adsorbents for glyphosate. Given that repeated glyphosate applications could significantly decrease glyphosate retention by soils and that the adsorbed glyphosate is potentially mobile, high sorption capacity and stability of glyphosate in agricultural soils are needed to prevent pollution of water by glyphosate. Therefore, we investigated the feasibility of reusing Fe/Al WTR as a soil amendment to enhance the retention capacity of glyphosate in two agricultural soils. The results of batch experiments showed that the Fe/Al WTR amendment significantly enhanced the glyphosate sorption capacity of both soils (pglyphosate desorbed from the non-amended soils, and the Fe/Al WTR amendment effectively decreased the proportion of glyphosate desorbed. Fractionation analyses further demonstrated that glyphosate adsorbed to non-amended soils was primarily retained in the readily labile fraction (NaHCO3-glyphosate). The WTR amendment significantly increased the relative proportion of the moderately labile fraction (HCl-glyphosate) and concomitantly reduced that of the NaHCO3-glyphosate, hence reducing the potential for the release of soil-adsorbed glyphosate into the aqueous phase. Furthermore, Fe/Al WTR amendment minimized the inhibitory effect of increasing solution pH on glyphosate sorption by soils and mitigated the effects of increasing solution ionic strength. The present results indicate that Fe/Al WTR is suitable for use as a soil amendment to prevent glyphosate pollution of aquatic ecosystems by enhancing the glyphosate retention capacity in soils. PMID:26257356

  11. Glyphosate accumulation, translocation, and biological effects in Coffea arabica after single and multiple exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrübbers, Lars Christoph; Valverde, Bernal E.; Strobel, Bjarne W.; Cedergreen, Nina

    2016-01-01

    In perennial crops like coffee, glyphosate drift exposure can occur multiple times during its commercial life span. Due to limited glyphosate degradation in higher plants, a potential accumulation of glyphosate could lead to increased biological effects with increased exposure frequency. In this...... study, we investigated glyphosate translocation over time, and its concentration and biological effects after single and multiple simulated spray-drift exposures. Additionally, shikimic acid/glyphosate ratios were used as biomarkers for glyphosate binding to its target enzyme.Four weeks after the...... application, however, was more important regarding biological effects than the number of applications both in the greenhouse and in the field. In the field, berry yield, the most important biological response variable, was reduced 26% by the first out of four sequential applications of glyphosate at 64 g a...

  12. Antagonismo na associao de glyphosate e triazinas Antagonism with glyphosate and triazine combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Vidal

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available No sistema de semeadura direta, h a necessidade de realizar o controle da vegetao existente na rea antes da semeadura da cultura e tambm de utilizar herbicidas residuais para evitar a infestao de plantas daninhas no perodo inicial do desenvolvimento da cultura. interesse dos agricultores utilizar herbicidas dessecantes e residuais simultaneamente, a fim de economizar tempo e recursos financeiros. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a compatibilidade de glyphosate e triazinas quando associados no tanque do pulverizador. O experimento foi realizado em campo, na safra de crescimento 2001-2002. Utilizou-se como planta reagente o sorgo, hbrido Dekalb 865, semeado em novembro de 2001. Os tratamentos herbicidas foram aplicados 60 dias aps a semeadura, quando as plantas estavam com 1,0 m, no incio do emborrachamento. Os tratamentos consistiram de glyphosate nas doses de 540, 720 e 900 g ha-1, aplicado isoladamente ou associado a simazine + atrazine (Primatop SC nas doses de 1.750 + 1.750 g ha-1. Tambm foram testados um tratamento sem herbicidas e outro apenas com o herbicida residual. As avaliaes de controle e de teores de clorofila indicaram efeitos antagnicos para as trs doses de glyphosate. Os efeitos antagnicos da associao dos herbicidas reduzem de intensidade com o aumento da dose do glyphosate ou com o decorrer do tempo.The no-tillage system requires herbicide spraying before planting to eliminate the existing weeds in the area and residual herbicides to prevent new weed infestation during the crop cycle. Farmers tend to spray both groups of herbicide simultaneously to reduce costs and application time. The objective of this work was to verify the compatibility of glyphosate and triazine as a tank mix. An experiment was conducted under field conditions during the 2001-2002 growing season, using sorghum as a model to evaluate the herbicide mixture compatibility. Sorghum hibrid Dekalb 865 was planted in November 2001 and the treatments were sprayed 60 days after planting, when the plants were 100 cm tall and at the boot stage. Treatments consisted of glyphosate at 540, 720 and 900 g ha-1, sprayed alone or in mixture with simazine + atrazine (Primatop SC at 1750 + 1750 g ha-1. Treatments also included an untreated control and the residual herbicides used alone. The results of plant control and chlorophyll content indicated a severe antagonism in the glyphosate and triazine combination. Herbicide antagonism reduced with increment of glyphosate rate or at late assessment periods.

  13. Antagonismo na associao de glyphosate e triazinas / Antagonism with glyphosate and triazine combinations

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R.A., Vidal; M., Machry; G.C., Hernandes; N.G., Fleck.

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available No sistema de semeadura direta, h a necessidade de realizar o controle da vegetao existente na rea antes da semeadura da cultura e tambm de utilizar herbicidas residuais para evitar a infestao de plantas daninhas no perodo inicial do desenvolvimento da cultura. interesse dos agricultores u [...] tilizar herbicidas dessecantes e residuais simultaneamente, a fim de economizar tempo e recursos financeiros. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a compatibilidade de glyphosate e triazinas quando associados no tanque do pulverizador. O experimento foi realizado em campo, na safra de crescimento 2001-2002. Utilizou-se como planta reagente o sorgo, hbrido Dekalb 865, semeado em novembro de 2001. Os tratamentos herbicidas foram aplicados 60 dias aps a semeadura, quando as plantas estavam com 1,0 m, no incio do emborrachamento. Os tratamentos consistiram de glyphosate nas doses de 540, 720 e 900 g ha-1, aplicado isoladamente ou associado a simazine + atrazine (Primatop SC) nas doses de 1.750 + 1.750 g ha-1. Tambm foram testados um tratamento sem herbicidas e outro apenas com o herbicida residual. As avaliaes de controle e de teores de clorofila indicaram efeitos antagnicos para as trs doses de glyphosate. Os efeitos antagnicos da associao dos herbicidas reduzem de intensidade com o aumento da dose do glyphosate ou com o decorrer do tempo. Abstract in english The no-tillage system requires herbicide spraying before planting to eliminate the existing weeds in the area and residual herbicides to prevent new weed infestation during the crop cycle. Farmers tend to spray both groups of herbicide simultaneously to reduce costs and application time. The objecti [...] ve of this work was to verify the compatibility of glyphosate and triazine as a tank mix. An experiment was conducted under field conditions during the 2001-2002 growing season, using sorghum as a model to evaluate the herbicide mixture compatibility. Sorghum hibrid Dekalb 865 was planted in November 2001 and the treatments were sprayed 60 days after planting, when the plants were 100 cm tall and at the boot stage. Treatments consisted of glyphosate at 540, 720 and 900 g ha-1, sprayed alone or in mixture with simazine + atrazine (Primatop SC) at 1750 + 1750 g ha-1. Treatments also included an untreated control and the residual herbicides used alone. The results of plant control and chlorophyll content indicated a severe antagonism in the glyphosate and triazine combination. Herbicide antagonism reduced with increment of glyphosate rate or at late assessment periods.

  14. Weed control and yield comparisons of glyphosate- and glufosinate-resistant corn grown in rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 6-yr field study was conducted from 2004 to 2009 at Stoneville, MS to examine the effects of rotating glyphosate-resistant and glufosinate-resistant corn (Zea mays L.) under reduced tillage conditions on weed control, soil weed seedbank, and yield. The four rotation systems were glyphosate-resista...

  15. Sustained mild hypergravity reduces spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagida, Ryo; Ogawa, Yojiro; Ueda, Kaname; Aoki, Ken; Iwasaki, Ken-ichi

    2014-10-01

    Head-to-foot gravitational force >1G (+Gz hypergravity) augments venous pooling in the lower body and reduces central blood volume during exposure, compared with 1Gz. Central hypovolemia has been reported to reduce spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity. However, no investigations have examined spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity during exposure to sustained mild +Gz hypergravity. We therefore hypothesized that mild +Gz hypergravity would reduce spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity, compared with 1Gz. To test this hypothesis, we examined spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity in 16 healthy men during exposure to mild +Gz hypergravity using a short-arm centrifuge. Beat-to-beat arterial blood pressure (tonometry) and R-R interval (electrocardiography) were obtained during 1Gz and 1.5Gz exposures. Spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity was assessed by sequence slope and transfer function gain. Stroke volume was calculated from the arterial pressure waveform using a three-element model. All indices of spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity decreased significantly (up slope: 18.6±2.3→12.7±1.6ms/mmHg, P<0.001; down slope: 19.0±2.5→13.2±1.3ms/mmHg, P=0.002; transfer function gain in low frequency: 14.4±2.2→10.1±1.1ms/mmHg, P=0.004; transfer function gain in high frequency: 22.2±7.5→12.4±3.5ms/mmHg, P<0.001). Stroke volume decreased significantly (88±5→80±6ml, P=0.025). Moreover, although systolic arterial pressure variability increased, R-R interval variability did not increase. These results suggest that even mild +Gz hypergravity reduces spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity, increasing the risk of cardiovascular disturbance during the exposure. PMID:25156804

  16. Impact of the invasive mussel Limnoperna fortunei on glyphosate concentration in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fiori, Eugenia; Pizarro, Hayde; dos Santos Afonso, Mara; Cataldo, Daniel

    2012-07-01

    The use of glyphosate has increased dramatically during the past years around the world. Microbial communities are altered when glyphosate reaches water bodies. The freshwater golden mussel Limnoperna fortunei is an invasive species that has rapidly dispersed since it was introduced in Argentina two decades ago. Mussels alter aquatic conditions through their filtrating activity by increasing water clarity and nutrient recycling. We aim to evaluate the potential capacity of the golden mussel to reduce glyphosate concentration in water, in laboratory conditions. Firstly, the evasive response of mussels to glyphosate (10, 20, and 40 mg l?) was evaluated and a toxicity test was carried out for these concentrations. A three-week experiment was then performed to assess glyphosate variation under mussel presence for two mussel sizes. Finally, mussels' role on glyphosate concentration was evaluated considering different mussel parts (living organisms and empty shells) through another three-week experiment. Laboratory experiments were performed in triplicate using 2-l microcosms. An initial glyphosate concentration between 16 and 19 mg l? was used, and when mussels or valvae were added, 20 organisms per aquaria were used. Samples were obtained at days 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 14, and 21. Glyphosate decreased by 40% under large mussel presence in both experiments, and was reduced by 25% in empty shell treatments. We believe that part of the herbicide that disappears from the water column is adsorbed in valvae surface, while another proportion is being mineralized by microbial communities in shells' biofilm. The mechanisms by which living mussels increase glyphosate dissipation would be degradation, possibly mediated by bacteria associated to mussel's metabolism. Glyphosate half-life depended on mussel and valvae presence and varied with mussel size. L. fortunei presence (either alive or as empty valvae) alters glyphosate concentration in water. We provide preliminary observations from laboratory experiments, with strong potential ecological consequences, about two stressors that could be acting jointly on the environment. PMID:22595085

  17. Uptake of Glyphosate by an Arthrobacter sp

    OpenAIRE

    Pipke, Rdiger; Schulz, Arno; Amrhein, Nikolaus

    1987-01-01

    The uptake of glyphosate (N-[phosphonomethyl]glycine) by an Arthrobacter sp. which can utilize this herbicide as its sole source of phosphorus was investigated. Orthophosphate suppressed the expression of the uptake system for glyphosate and also competed with glyphosate for uptake. The Km for glyphosate uptake was 125 ?M, and the Ki for orthophosphate was 24 ?M. Organophosphonates as well as organophosphates inhibited glyphosate uptake, but only organophosphates and orthophosphate suppressed...

  18. Crop response to glyphosate trimesium sulphosate

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlovic, Danijela; Sava VRBNICANIN; Carl REINHARDT

    2013-01-01

    Glyphosate may cause injury to non-target plants. The first detectable symptom after glyphosate treatment is the growth inhibition, followed by noticeable yellowing (chlorosis) of the treated tissue. Five to ten days after the treatment, the chlorosis turns into necrosis and the plants begin to die. Greenhouse research was conducted in 2007 to investigate the response of glyphosate resistant (GR) soybeans PAN 520 line and non-glyphosate resistant EGRET line of soybeans to glyphosate trimesium...

  19. DIFFERENTIAL RESPONSE OF CLONES OF EUCALYPT TO GLYPHOSATE1 / RESPOSTA DIFERENCIAL DE CLONES DE EUCALIPTO A GLYPHOSATE

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leonardo Bianco de, Carvalho; Pedro Luis da Costa Aguiar, Alves; Flvia Regina da, Costa.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available O controle de plantas daninhas comumente feito com roadas na entrelinha associada a aplicaes dirigidas de glyphosate na linha de plantio de culturas arbreas, acarretando risco de deriva ou aplicao acidental do herbicida, que pode afetar a cultura de interesse. O objetivo foi avaliar a respos [...] ta dos clones C219, GG100, I144 e I224 de eucalipto (Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla) a doses de glyphosate de 0, 18, 36, 72, 180, 360 e 720 g de equivalente cido por hectare. Os clones apresentaram padres de crescimento distintos no que se refere a altura da planta, nmero de folhas, massa seca do caule, taxa de crescimento relativo, taxa de assimilao lquida e taxa de crescimento foliar relativo. Os clones I144 e GG100 foram mais suscetveis ao glyphosate, sendo as doses necessrias para reduzir a massa seca em 50% de 113,4 e 119,6 g ea ha-1, respectivamente. Os clones C219 e I224 foram menos suscetveis ao glyphosate, sendo as doses necessrias para reduzir a massa seca em 50% de 237,5 e 313,5 gae ha-1, respectivamente. Clones de eucalipto respondem diferentemente exposio ao glyphosate, e entre I224, C219, GG100 e I144 a suscetibilidade aumentada. Abstract in english Weed control is commonly performed by the inter-row mechanical weeding associated to intrarow glyphosate directed spraying, causing a risk for drift or accidental herbicide application, that can affect the crop of interest. The objective was to evaluate the response of clones C219, GG100, I144, and [...] I224 of eucalypt (Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla) to glyphosate doses of 0, 18, 36, 72, 180, 360, and 720 g of acid equivalent per hectare. The clones showed different growth patterns with regard to height, leaf number, stem dry weight, relative growth rate, net assimilation rate, and relative leaf growth rate. The clones I144 and GG100 were more susceptible to glyphosate, showing the doses required to reduce dry weight by 50% of 113.4 and 119.6 g acid equivalent per hectare, respectively. The clones C219 and I224 were less susceptible to glyphosate, showing the doses required to reduce dry weight by 50% of 237.5 and 313.5 g acid equivalent per hectare, respectively. Eucalyptus clones respond differently to glyphosate exposure, so that among I224, C219, GG100, and I144, the susceptibility to the herbicide is increasing.

  20. Meeting the UK driving vision standards with reduced contrast sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, S; Latham, K; Katsou, M F

    2016-01-01

    PurposeThe visual standard to hold a UK driver's license since 2012 includes visual acuity (VA) measured indoors and the ability to read a car numberplate outdoors. Individuals with reduced contrast sensitivity may have greater visual difficulties outdoors. The agreement between the two tests in the presence of combined reduction in contrast sensitivity and VA was investigated.MethodsSimulation glasses ('sim-specs') were used to reduce both high-contrast VA and contrast sensitivity (CS). Following evaluation of the influence of sim-specs on VA and CS, levels 2 to 4 were chosen to give a range of VAs on either side of the driving standard of 6/12. Sixty-two participants wearing sim-specs then had VA tested with Snellen and ETDRS charts indoors, and ability to read a numberplate assessed outdoors as per DVLA regulations.ResultsSim-specs reduced VA and CS by ~0.10 logMAR VA per 0.10 logCS. The sensitivity of test chart VA vision standards, which likely occurs as the VA test is performed indoors and the numberplate test outdoors. The increased likelihood of failing the numberplate test even though VA is 6/12 or better needs to be considered when advising patients on fitness to drive who have ocular disease such as cataract. PMID:26471119

  1. Selection and characterization of glyphosate tolerance in birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) was tolerant to glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine], Canada thistle [Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop.] and other dicot weeds could be selectively controlled in certified seed production fields. Glyphosate tolerance in birdsfoot trefoil was identified in plants from the cultivar Leo, plants regenerated from tolerant callus, and selfed progeny of plants regenerated from callus. Plants from the three sources were evaluated in field studies for tolerance to glyphosate at rates up to 1.6 kg ae/ha. Plants of Leo selected for tolerance exhibited a twofold range in the rate required to reduce shoot weight 50% (I50s from 0.6 to 1.2 kg/ha glyphosate). Plants regenerated from tolerant callus had tolerance up to 66% greater than plants regenerated from unselected callus. Transgressive segregation for glyphosate tolerance was observed in the selfed progeny of two regenerated plants that both had I50s of 0.7 kg/ha glyphosate. The selfed progeny ranged from highly tolerant (I50 of 1.5 kg/ha) to susceptible (I50 of 0.5 kg/ha). Spray retention, 14C-glyphosate absorption and translocation did not account for the differential tolerance of nine plants that were evaluated from the three sources. The specific activity of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate (EPSP) synthase ranged from 1.3 to 3.5 nmol/min sm-bullet mg among the nine plants and was positively correlated with glyphosate tolerance. Leo birdsfoot trefoil was found to have significant variation in glyphosate tolerance which made it possible to initiate a recurrent selection program to select for glyphosate tolerance in birdsfoot trefoil. Two cycles of selection for glyphosate tolerance were practiced in three birdsfoot trefoil populations, Leo, Norcen, and MU-81

  2. Glyphosate e nitrgnio no controle de Brachiaria decumbens Stapf em capineiras estabelecidas Glyphosate and nitrogen in the control of Brachiaria decumbens Stapf in established elephant grass stocking piles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joadil Gonalves de Abreu

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do experimento foi avaliar a eficincia de utilizao do herbicida glyphosate associado com adubao nitrogenada no controle de Brachiaria decumbens Stapf em capineiras estabelecidas. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com dezessete tratamentos e trs repeties. Os tratamentos foram arranjados em esquema fatorial 4 x 4 + 1, sendo quatro doses de glyphosate (0, 720, 1440 e 2160 g/ha/aplicao, quatro doses de nitrognio (0, 75, 150 e 225 kg/ha/ano e um tratamento adicional (testemunha com capina. As aplicaes do nitrognio e glyphosate, nas respectivas doses, foram realizadas imediatamente aps o corte do capim-elefante. A associao entre o herbicida glyphosate (2160 g/ha/aplicao e nitrognio (225 kg/ha/ano foi eficiente no controle de capim-braquiria em capineiras estabelecidas. A aplicao do herbicida glyphosate (2160 g/ha/aplicao reduziu o tamanho do banco de sementes de capim-braquiria no solo em 64%.The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the efficiency of the use of the herbicide glyphosate associated with nitrogen fertilization in the control of Brachiaria decumbens Stapf in elephant grass stocking piles. The experimental design used was a randomized blocks with 17 treatments and three replications. The treatments were arranged in 4x4+1 factorial scheme, namely four doses of glyphosate (0, 720, 1440 e 2160 g/ha/application, four doses of nitrogen (0, 75, 150 e 225 kg/ha/ano and one additional treatment (control with a hoeing. The application of the nitrogen and glyphosate, in the respective doses were performed immediately after the cutting of elephant grass. The association between glyphosate (2160 g/ha/application and nitrogen (225 kg/ha/ano was efficient in the control brachiaria grass in established elephant grass stocking piles. The application of the glyphosate (2160 g/ha/application reduced the size of the bank of brachiaria grass seeds in the soil in 64%.

  3. Study on a new synthesis approach of glyphosate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ji; Li, Jian; An, Ran; Yuan, Hua; Yu, Faquan

    2012-06-27

    On the basis of glycine-dimethyl phosphite synthesis of glyphosate, a new synthesis approach of glyphosate, without using triethylamine and the establishment of triethylamine recovery equipment, was designed in the laboratory. The environmental pollutants were reduced. The influences of reactant amount (mol), reaction temperature (C), and reaction time (min) on the glyphosate yield and purity were investigated. The results showed that the glyphosate yield and purity could be 80.12 and 86.31 wt %, respectively, under the optimum scheme for glyphosate yield (glycine consumption, 0.1 mol; dimethyl phosphite consumption, 0.12 mol; condensation reaction temperature, 50 C; hydrochloric acid consumption in hydrolysis reaction, 0.35 mol; temperature of acidification with hydrochloric acid, 10 C; adjusting hydrolysis product pH value, 1.0; time of dropping esterifying liquid into hydrochloric acid in hydrolysis reaction, 80 min; hydrolysis reaction temperature, 120 C; and vacuum distillation time, 90 min), and the glyphosate yield and purity could be 77.92 and 94.94 wt %, respectively, under the optimum scheme for glyphosate purity (glycine consumption, 0.1 mol; dimethyl phosphite consumption, 0.1 mol; condensation reaction temperature, 50 C; hydrochloric acid consumption in hydrolysis reaction, 0.35 mol; temperature of acidification with hydrochloric acid, 10 C; adjusting hydrolysis product pH value, 1.5; time of dropping esterifying liquid into hydrochloric acid in hydrolysis reaction, 60 min; hydrolysis reaction temperature, 110 C; and vacuum distillation time, 90 min). The product structures under the two schemes were confirmed by means of FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) and (1)H NMR ((1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy). PMID:22676441

  4. DIFFERENTIAL RESPONSE OF CLONES OF EUCALYPT TO GLYPHOSATE1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Bianco de Carvalho

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Weed control is commonly performed by the inter-row mechanical weeding associated to intrarow glyphosate directed spraying, causing a risk for drift or accidental herbicide application, that can affect the crop of interest. The objective was to evaluate the response of clones C219, GG100, I144, and I224 of eucalypt (Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla to glyphosate doses of 0, 18, 36, 72, 180, 360, and 720 g of acid equivalent per hectare. The clones showed different growth patterns with regard to height, leaf number, stem dry weight, relative growth rate, net assimilation rate, and relative leaf growth rate. The clones I144 and GG100 were more susceptible to glyphosate, showing the doses required to reduce dry weight by 50% of 113.4 and 119.6 g acid equivalent per hectare, respectively. The clones C219 and I224 were less susceptible to glyphosate, showing the doses required to reduce dry weight by 50% of 237.5 and 313.5 g acid equivalent per hectare, respectively. Eucalyptus clones respond differently to glyphosate exposure, so that among I224, C219, GG100, and I144, the susceptibility to the herbicide is increasing.

  5. Influence of glyphosate in planktonic and biofilm growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Schneider Lima

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the impact of different concentrations of glyphosate (Rondup on planktonic and biofilm growth of P. aeruginosa. Aerobic and anaerobic cultures of P. aeruginosa ATCC15442 inoculated in MHB + glyphosate (0.845 ppm, 1.690 ppm, 8.45 ppm, 16.90 ppm, 84.50 ppm, 169 ppm, 845 ppm, and 1690 ppm and cultured in normoxia and anoxia, following their OD560nm every hour for 24 h. Biofilms of adapted cells were formed in the presence of glyphosate (0.845 to 1690 ppm in normoxia and anoxia for 36 h. Glyphosate at concentrations higher than 84.5 ppm reduces the cell density of planktonic aerobic cultures (p 0.05, and more pronounced over 169 ppm. Anaerobic biofilms have their growth more readily favored (p < 0.05, regardless of concentration. In a concentration-dependent manner, glyphosate interferes with the growth ability of P. aeruginosa ATCC15442.

  6. Adio simultnea de sulfato de amnio e ureia calda de pulverizao do herbicida glyphosate Simultaneous addition of ammonium sulfate and urea to glyphosate spray solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.J.P. Carvalho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram desenvolvidos em casa de vegetao, com o objetivo de avaliar a eficcia do herbicida glyphosate sobre plantas de Digitaria insularis quando solues de ureia (U; 5 g L-1, sulfato de amnio (SA; 15 g L-1 ou U+SA (2,5 + 7,5 g L-1 foram utilizadas como veculo de pulverizao. Aos 28 dias aps aplicao, de acordo com as curvas de dose-resposta (primeiro experimento, foram necessrios 409 g ha-1 de glyphosate para atingir 50% de controle da planta daninha (C50 quando gua sem adjuvantes foi usada como veculo de pulverizao. Para obteno dos mesmos 50% de controle, as doses de glyphosate foram reduzidas para 373, 208 e 189 g ha-1; quando o herbicida foi pulverizado utilizando soluo de U, SA ou U+SA, respectivamente. A reduo na dose oriunda da combinao de glyphosate e U+SA tambm foi observada para controles de 80% (C80. No segundo experimento, a adio de U+SA calda elevou o controle obtido com a menor dose de glyphosate (360 g ha-1, igualando-o aplicao da maior dose (720 g ha-1 sem adjuvantes. Esses resultados evidenciam efeito complementar de U e SA em elevar a eficcia do glyphosate para controle de D. insularis.Two trials were carried out under greenhouse conditions to evaluate the efficacy of glyphosate on Digitaria insularis plants when urea (U; 5 g L-1; ammonium sulfate (AMS; 15 g L-1 or U+AMS (2.5 + 7.5 g L-1 were used as spray solutions. At 28 days after application, according to dose-response curves (first trial, 409 g ha-1 of glyphosate application were necessary to obtain 50% of weed control (C50 when water without adjuvants was used as spray solution. To reach the same 50% of weed control, glyphosate rates were reduced to 373, 208 and 189 g ha-1, when the herbicide was sprayed using a solution of U, AMS or U+AMS, respectively. Reduction in the dose of glyphosate combined with U+AMS was also observed for controls of 80% (C80. In the second trial, the addition of U+SA to glyphosate spray solution increased the control obtained at the lowest glyphosate rate (360 g ha-1, leveling it to the highest rate application (720 g ha-1 without adjuvants. These results show the complementary action of U and AMS to increase glyphosate efficacy to control D. insularis.

  7. Adio simultnea de sulfato de amnio e ureia calda de pulverizao do herbicida glyphosate / Simultaneous addition of ammonium sulfate and urea to glyphosate spray solution

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S.J.P., Carvalho; A.C.R., Dias; G.M., Shiomi; P.J., Christoffoleti.

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram desenvolvidos em casa de vegetao, com o objetivo de avaliar a eficcia do herbicida glyphosate sobre plantas de Digitaria insularis quando solues de ureia (U; 5 g L-1), sulfato de amnio (SA; 15 g L-1) ou U+SA (2,5 + 7,5 g L-1) foram utilizadas como veculo de pulveriza [...] o. Aos 28 dias aps aplicao, de acordo com as curvas de dose-resposta (primeiro experimento), foram necessrios 409 g ha-1 de glyphosate para atingir 50% de controle da planta daninha (C50) quando gua sem adjuvantes foi usada como veculo de pulverizao. Para obteno dos mesmos 50% de controle, as doses de glyphosate foram reduzidas para 373, 208 e 189 g ha-1; quando o herbicida foi pulverizado utilizando soluo de U, SA ou U+SA, respectivamente. A reduo na dose oriunda da combinao de glyphosate e U+SA tambm foi observada para controles de 80% (C80). No segundo experimento, a adio de U+SA calda elevou o controle obtido com a menor dose de glyphosate (360 g ha-1), igualando-o aplicao da maior dose (720 g ha-1) sem adjuvantes. Esses resultados evidenciam efeito complementar de U e SA em elevar a eficcia do glyphosate para controle de D. insularis. Abstract in english Two trials were carried out under greenhouse conditions to evaluate the efficacy of glyphosate on Digitaria insularis plants when urea (U; 5 g L-1); ammonium sulfate (AMS; 15 g L-1) or U+AMS (2.5 + 7.5 g L-1) were used as spray solutions. At 28 days after application, according to dose-response curv [...] es (first trial), 409 g ha-1 of glyphosate application were necessary to obtain 50% of weed control (C50) when water without adjuvants was used as spray solution. To reach the same 50% of weed control, glyphosate rates were reduced to 373, 208 and 189 g ha-1, when the herbicide was sprayed using a solution of U, AMS or U+AMS, respectively. Reduction in the dose of glyphosate combined with U+AMS was also observed for controls of 80% (C80). In the second trial, the addition of U+SA to glyphosate spray solution increased the control obtained at the lowest glyphosate rate (360 g ha-1), leveling it to the highest rate application (720 g ha-1) without adjuvants. These results show the complementary action of U and AMS to increase glyphosate efficacy to control D. insularis.

  8. Yield of glyphosate-resistant sugar beets and efficiency of weed management systems with glyphosate and conventional herbicides under German and Polish crop production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichterlein, Henrike; Matzk, Anja; Kordas, Leszek; Kraus, Josef; Stibbe, Carsten

    2013-08-01

    In sugar beet production, weed control is one of the most important and most expensive practices to ensure yield. Since glyphosate-resistant sugar beets are not yet approved for cultivation in the EU, little commercial experience exists with these sugar beets in Europe. Experimental field trials were conducted at five environments (Germany, Poland, 2010, 2011) to compare the effects of glyphosate with the effects of conventional weed control programs on the development of weeds, weed control efficiency and yield. The results show that the glyphosate weed control programs compared to the conventional methods decreased not only the number of herbicide applications but equally in magnitude decreased the dosage of active ingredients. The results also showed effective weed control with glyphosate when the weed covering was greater and sugar beets had a later growth stage of four true leaves. Glyphosate-resistant sugar beets applied with the glyphosate herbicide two or three times had an increase in white sugar yield from 4 to 18% in comparison to the high dosage conventional herbicide systems. In summary, under glyphosate management sugar beets can positively contribute to the increasingly demanding requirements regarding efficient sugar beet cultivation and to the demands by society and politics to reduce the use of chemical plant protection products in the environment. PMID:23271374

  9. Confidence intervals for sensitivity indices using reduced-basis metamodels

    CERN Document Server

    Janon, Alexandre; Prieur, Clmentine

    2011-01-01

    Global sensitivity analysis is often impracticable for complex and time demanding numerical models, as it requires a large number of runs. The reduced-basis approach provides a way to replace the original model by a much faster to run code. In this paper, we are interested in the information loss induced by the approximation on the estimation of sensitivity indices. We present a method to provide a robust error assessment, hence enabling significant time savings without sacrifice on precision and rigourousness. We illustrate our method with an experiment where computation time is divided by a factor of nearly 6. We also give directions on tuning some of the parameters used in our estimation algorithms.

  10. Glyphosate loss by runoff and its relationship with phosphorus fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasal, Mara Carolina; Demonte, Luisina; Cislaghi, Andrea; Gabioud, Emmanuel A; Oszust, Jos D; Wilson, Marcelo G; Michlig, Nicols; Beldomnico, Horacio R; Repetti, Mara Rosa

    2015-05-13

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between glyphosate and phosphate fertilizer application and their contribution to surface water runoff contamination. The study was performed in Aquic Argiudoll soil (Tezanos Pinto series). Four treatments were assessed on three dates of rainfall simulation after fertilizer and herbicide application. The soluble phosphorus in runoff water was determined by a colorimetric method. For the determination of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), a method based on fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl (FMOC) group derivatization, solid phase extraction (SPE) purification, and ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was employed. The application of phosphorus fertilizer resulted in an increased loss of glyphosate by runoff after 1 day of application. These results suggest the need for further study to understand the interactions and to determine appropriate application timing with the goal of reducing the pollution risk by runoff. PMID:25775388

  11. Glyphosate resistance: state of knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Sammons, Robert Douglas; Gaines, Todd A

    2014-01-01

    Studies of mechanisms of resistance to glyphosate have increased current understanding of herbicide resistance mechanisms. Thus far, single-codon non-synonymous mutations of EPSPS (5-enolypyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase) have been rare and, relative to other herbicide mode of action target-site mutations, unconventionally weak in magnitude for resistance to glyphosate. However, it is possible that weeds will emerge with non-synonymous mutations of two codons of EPSPS to produce an enzym...

  12. Influence of late emerging weeds in glyphosate-resistant corn

    OpenAIRE

    Nader Soltani; Robert E. Nurse; Eric Page; Wesley J. Everman; Christy L. Sprague; Peter H. Sikkema

    2013-01-01

    Fifteen field trials were conducted from 2009 to 2011 in Ontario, Canada and Michigan, USA to determine how long glyphosate-resistant corn needs to be kept weed-free after emergence to prevent yield loss. Data were separated into two environments based on when yield loss first occurred after glyphosate application. In Environment 1 (4/15 sites) yield was not reduced when corn was kept weed-free until the 4-leaf stage. However, in Environment 2 (11/15 sites) there was no yield loss when corn ...

  13. Micromorfologia foliar na anlise da fitotoxidez por glyphosate em Eucalyptus grandis Leaf micromorphology in the analysis of glyphosate toxicity in Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.D. Tuffi Santos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados os efeitos da deriva de formulaes comerciais de glyphosate sobre a superfcie foliar e o crescimento de clones de eucalipto. Mudas de seis clones foram submetidas a 129,6 g ha-1 de glyphosate das formulaes comerciais Scout, Roundup NA, Roundup transorb e Zapp QI. Entre os clones no foram identificadas diferenas quanto tolerncia ao glyphosate. Plantas expostas deriva simulada de Roundup transorb e Zapp QI apresentaram, respectivamente, a maior e menor porcentagem de intoxicao. Observou-se menor massa seca em plantas expostas ao glyphosate, independentemente da formulao, e menor altura naquelas expostas ao Scout e ao Roundup transorb. As caractersticas quantitativas da superfcie foliar no foram afetadas pelo glyphosate. As alteraes micromorfolgicas ocorreram na ausncia de danos visveis e foram observadas em ambas as faces da epiderme, em todos os clones avaliados. Danos como eroso e aspecto amorfo das ceras epicuticulares e infestao por hifas fngicas ocorreram, independentemente da formulao utilizada. A avaliao anatmica da superfcie foliar foi relevante para descrio e interpretao dos danos causados pelo glyphosate. Os dados de crescimento e de intoxicao indicam o Zapp QI como a formulao de menor risco para a cultura do eucalipto quanto aos efeitos indesejveis da deriva.The effects of commercial glyphosate drift on the leaf surface and growth of eucalypt clones were evaluated. Seedlings of six clones were submitted to 129.6 g ha-1 sub-rate of commercial glyphosate formulations Scout, Roundup NA, Roundup transorb and Zapp QI. No differences in tolerance to glyphosate were observed among the clones. Plants exposed to simulated drift of Roundup transorb and Zapp QI presented the highest and lowest intoxication percentages, respectively. Plants exposed to glyphosate reduced dry biomass, regardless of the formulation, and also reduced height of the plants exposed to Scout and Roundup transorb. Leaf surface characteristics were not affected by glyphosate application. However, the micromorphological damages occurred prior to the appearance of visible symptoms, and were observed on both faces of the epidermis, in all clones tested. Damages such as erosion and amorphous aspect of epicuticular waxes and infestation of fungal hyphae occurred, independently of the formulation used. The anatomical evaluation of the leaf surface effectively described the damages caused by glyphosate. The growth and intoxication data indicate Zapp QI formulation as presenting the lowest risk to eucalypt culture, in relation to the undesirable herbicide drift effects.

  14. Photosynthetic activity of coffee after application of glyphosate subdoses / Atividade fotossinttica do cafeeiro aps aplicao de subdoses de glyphosate

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Felipe Paolinelli de, Carvalho; Andr Cabral, Frana; Vincius Teixeira, Lemos; Evander Alves, Ferreira; Jos Barbosa dos, Santos; Antonio Alberto da, Silva.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Para o controle de plantas daninhas em lavouras cafeeiras, os produtores utilizam herbicidas no-seletivos, como o glyphosate, empregado em aplicaes dirigidas. Apesar de todos os cuidados com a aplicao, so constatados casos de intoxicao em plantas, sendo de fundamental importncia o conhecime [...] nto dos efeitos sobre os processos fotossintticos. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar as caractersticas associadas atividade fotossinttica entre cultivares de cafeeiro submetidos a doses de glyphosate. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetao utilizando-se trs cultivares de cafeeiro (Coffea arabica): Acai (MG-6851), Catuca Amarelo (2 SL) e Topzio (MG-1190) e, trs subdoses do glyphosate (0,0; 115,2 e 460,8 g ha-1), em esquema fatorial 3 x 3. Em funo da aplicao do herbicida observou-se reduo de carbono interno, razo carbono interno e do ambiente, consumo de carbono e taxa fotossinttica, aos 15 DAA na quarta folha. Na mesma folha aos 45 DAA, constatou-se menor consumo de carbono pelos cultivares. Na ltima folha apesar de inferiores concentraes de carbono, no obteve-se diferena no consumo e taxa fotossinttica. O glyphosate resulta em danos metablicos com efeitos transitrios sobre a atividade fotossinttica, sendo o cultivar Acai o mais tolerante. Este efeito transitrio pode resultar em danos prolongados e irreversveis no crescimento da cultura. Abstract in english Farmers use non-selective herbicides, such as glyphosate, in directed applications to control weeds in coffee crops. Despite the precautions used during the application of herbicides, there are usually reports of poisoning in plantation areas. Moreover, it is fundamental to understand the effects of [...] glyphosate on photosynthetic processes. The present study aimed to evaluate the characteristics associated with the photosynthetic activity in coffee cultivars subjected to doses of glyphosate. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse using three varieties of coffee (Coffea arabica), including Acai (MG-6851), Catuca Amarelo (2 SL) and Topzio (MG-1190), and three subdoses of glyphosate (0.0, 115.2 and 460.8 g ha-1) in a 3 x 3 factorial scheme. Herbicide application led to reduced internal carbon, ratio between internal and environmental carbon, carbon consumption and photosynthetic rate at 15 days after application (DAA) in the fourth leaf. In the same leaf at 45 DAA, the carbon consumption of the cultivars was even less. Despite low carbon concentrations, no difference in consumption and photosynthetic rate was observed in the last leaf. Glyphosate caused metabolic damage with transitory effects on the photosynthetic rate; the Acai cultivar was the most tolerant. These transitory effects may result in irreversible and prolonged damage to crop growth.

  15. 75 FR 17768 - Glyphosate From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ...COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-1178 (Preliminary)] Glyphosate From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission...is materially retarded, by reason of imports from China of glyphosate, provided for in subheadings 2931.00.90 and...

  16. 75 FR 24969 - Glyphosate From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ...COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-1178 (Preliminary)] Glyphosate From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission...gives notice that its antidumping investigation concerning glyphosate from China (investigation No. 731-TA-1178...

  17. THE REMOVAL OF GLYPHOSATE FROM DRINKING WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effectiveness of granulated activated carbon (GAC), packed activated carbon (PAC), conventional treatment, membranes, and oxidation for removing glyphosate from natural waters is evaluated. Results indicate that GAC and PAC are not effective in removing glyphosate, while oxid...

  18. 75 FR 24969 - Glyphosate From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Glyphosate From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice of... gives notice that its antidumping investigation concerning glyphosate from China (investigation No....

  19. Glyphosate inhibits rust diseases in glyphosate-resistant wheat and soybean

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Paul C. C.; Baley, G. James; Clinton, William P.; Bunkers, Greg J.; Alibhai, Murtaza F.; Paulitz, Timothy C.; Kidwell, Kimberlee K.

    2005-01-01

    Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum herbicide used for the control of weeds in glyphosate-resistant crops. Glyphosate inhibits 5-enolpyruvyl shikimate 3-phosphate synthase, a key enzyme in the synthesis of aromatic amino acids in plants, fungi, and bacteria. Studies with glyphosate-resistant wheat have shown that glyphosate provided both preventive and curative activities against Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici and Puccinia triticina, which cause stripe and leaf rusts, respectively, in wheat. ...

  20. Glyphosate drift affects arbuscular mycorrhizal association in coffee / Deriva de glyphosate afeta a associao micorrzica arbuscular em cafeeiro

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    F.P., Carvalho; B.P., Souza; A.C., Frana; E.A., Ferreira; M.H.R., Franco; M.C.M., Kasuya; F.A., Ferreira.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A associao micorrzica favorece o estabelecimento, a sobrevivncia no campo e a nutrio da planta hospedeira, levando por consequncia, a maior crescimento e produtividade. Todavia, o manejo de plantas daninhas no cafeeiro pode interferir nessa associao, podendo o emprego incorreto do glyphosat [...] e influenciar nesses benefcios da associao. Avaliou-se neste trabalho efeito da deriva do herbicida glyphosate no crescimento e estado nutricional de plantas de caf arbica (Catua Vermelho IAC 99) inoculadas com fungos micorrzicos arbusculares (FMAs). Para isso, utilizou-se esquema fatorial 2 x 5, sendo mudas inoculadas ou no inoculadas com FMAs e cinco subdoses de glyphosate (0; 57,6; 115,2; 230,4; e 460,8 g ha-1 de glyphosate), em delineamento de blocos casualizados com cinco repeties. A inoculao foi efetuada na fase de produo de muda, com uma mistura de FMAs, Rhizophagus clarus e Gigaspora margarita; posteriormente ao transplantio, quando as plantas estavam com sete pares de folhas, aplicaram-se as subdoses de glyphosate. O herbicida causou fitointoxicao de at 60% em plantas no inoculadas e de 45% em plantas inoculadas com aplicao da maior dose de 460,8 g e.a. ha-1. Verificou-se efeito negativo no crescimento das plantas de caf e do teor de fsforo delas com o aumento das doses de glyphosate, independentemente da inoculao. O herbicida reduziu o crescimento de plantas colonizadas pelos FMAs testados, bem como de fungos nativos, afetando negativamente a colonizao micorrzica das plantas tratadas com o glyphosate. Abstract in english Mycorrhizal association promotes better survival and nutrition of colonized seedling on field, and consequently, increasing of productivity. However, the weed management can interfere on this association, due to incorrect use of glyphosate. This work has assessed the effects of glyphosate drift on t [...] he growth and nutrition of arabica coffee plants (Catua Vermelho - IAC 99) colonized with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). The experiment was conducted in 2 x 5 factorial scheme, and included inoculated and non-inoculated plants, and five glyphosate subdoses (0.0, 57.6, 115.2, 230.4, and 460.8 g ha-1 of glyphosate), in randomized blocks with five replication. The inoculation was carried during the greenhouse phase of seedlings production with a mixture of Rhizophagus clarus and Gigaspora margarita, and after to transplanting, when the plants had seven pairs of leaves, glyphosate subdoses were applied. The product caused intoxication in up to 60% of non-inoculated and 45% on inoculated plants, when the highest dose of 460.8 g a.e. ha-1 was applied. A negative effect was noted on the growth and phosphorus content of coffee plants, this effect increased depending on glyphosate subdose, but regardless of inoculation. Glyphosate drift reduces the growth and nutrition of plants colonized by species of AMF and native fungi, negatively affecting root colonization of plants treated.

  1. Selectivity of glyphosate tank mixtures for RR soybean / Seletividade de glyphosate em misturas em tanque para soja RR

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    D.G, Alonso; J, Constantin; R.S, Oliveira Jr; J.G.Z, Arantes; S.D, Cavalieri; G, Santos; F.A, Rios; L.H.M, Franchini.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A mistura de ingredientes ativos de diferentes mecanismos de ao uma ferramenta essencial para prevenir ou manejar reas com plantas daninhas resistentes. No entanto importante que tais associaes forneam adequada seletividade para a cultura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a seletivida [...] de do glyphosate a soja RR, e verificar tambm, se existe seletividade a misturas com outros ingredientes ativos, aplicados em ps-emergncia, visando novas estratgias de controle que podero ser empregadas no cultivo da soja RR. Os herbicidas e respectivas doses (g ha-1) avaliadas foram: glyphosate isolado (720, 960, 1.200 e 1.440) e as misturas de glyphosate (960) com cloransulam-methyl (30,24), fomesafen (125), lactofen (72), chlorimuron-ethyl (12,5), flumiclorac-pentyl (30), bentazon (480) e imazethapyr (80). Todos os tratamentos foram aplicados em dose nica em ps-emergncia quando a soja estava no estdio V2 a V3. Tratamentos com glyphosate isolado ou em mistura com herbicidas ps-emergentes aplicados em dose nica promoveram efeitos visuais de fitointoxicao quando aplicados na soja resistente ao glyphosate. Efeitos como reduo na altura das plantas, no fechamento da cultura, no nmero de vagens por planta e na massa de cem gros puderam ser observados. Entretanto, os efeitos relatados ao desenvolvimento das plantas foram na sua maioria transientes, no persistindo durante todo ciclo da cultura. Dentre os tratamentos estudados, somente a mistura entre glyphosate e lactofen no apresentou seletividade cultura, promovendo efeitos negativos na maioria das caractersticas estudadas e consequentemente reduzindo a produtividade de gros. Abstract in english An active ingredients mixture of different action mechanisms is an essential tool to prevent or manage areas with resistant weeds. However, it is important that such a mixture provides adequate selectivity to the crop. The aim of this work was to evaluate glyphosate selectivity to glyphosate-resista [...] nt (RR) soybean, and also verify if there is selectivity in mixtures with other active ingredients applied postemergence aimed at new control strategies, which might be used in RR soybean cultivation. The herbicides and respective rates (g ha-1) evaluated were: glyphosate (720, 960, 1,200, and 1,440), and the mixtures of glyphosate (960) with cloransulam-methyl (30.24), fomesafen (125), lactofen (72), chlorimuron-ethyl (12.5), flumiclorac-pentyl (30), bentazon (480), or imazethapyr (80). All treatments were applied in postemergence when the soybean crop was at V2 to V3 stage. Treatments with glyphosate or in mixtures with postemergent herbicides showed visual effects of phytotoxicity when applied to the glyphosate-resistant soybean. Effects such as reduction in plant height, crop closure, number of pods per plant, and hundred grain weight could be observed. However, the effects related to plant development were mostly transient and did not persist during the crop cycle. Among the studied treatments, only the mixture of glyphosate and lactofen was not selective to the crop, promoting negative effects on most characteristics analyzed and consequently reducing grain yield.

  2. Selectivity of glyphosate tank mixtures for RR soybean Seletividade de glyphosate em misturas em tanque para soja RR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.G Alonso

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available An active ingredients mixture of different action mechanisms is an essential tool to prevent or manage areas with resistant weeds. However, it is important that such a mixture provides adequate selectivity to the crop. The aim of this work was to evaluate glyphosate selectivity to glyphosate-resistant (RR soybean, and also verify if there is selectivity in mixtures with other active ingredients applied postemergence aimed at new control strategies, which might be used in RR soybean cultivation. The herbicides and respective rates (g ha-1 evaluated were: glyphosate (720, 960, 1,200, and 1,440, and the mixtures of glyphosate (960 with cloransulam-methyl (30.24, fomesafen (125, lactofen (72, chlorimuron-ethyl (12.5, flumiclorac-pentyl (30, bentazon (480, or imazethapyr (80. All treatments were applied in postemergence when the soybean crop was at V2 to V3 stage. Treatments with glyphosate or in mixtures with postemergent herbicides showed visual effects of phytotoxicity when applied to the glyphosate-resistant soybean. Effects such as reduction in plant height, crop closure, number of pods per plant, and hundred grain weight could be observed. However, the effects related to plant development were mostly transient and did not persist during the crop cycle. Among the studied treatments, only the mixture of glyphosate and lactofen was not selective to the crop, promoting negative effects on most characteristics analyzed and consequently reducing grain yield.A mistura de ingredientes ativos de diferentes mecanismos de ao uma ferramenta essencial para prevenir ou manejar reas com plantas daninhas resistentes. No entanto importante que tais associaes forneam adequada seletividade para a cultura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a seletividade do glyphosate a soja RR, e verificar tambm, se existe seletividade a misturas com outros ingredientes ativos, aplicados em ps-emergncia, visando novas estratgias de controle que podero ser empregadas no cultivo da soja RR. Os herbicidas e respectivas doses (g ha-1 avaliadas foram: glyphosate isolado (720, 960, 1.200 e 1.440 e as misturas de glyphosate (960 com cloransulam-methyl (30,24, fomesafen (125, lactofen (72, chlorimuron-ethyl (12,5, flumiclorac-pentyl (30, bentazon (480 e imazethapyr (80. Todos os tratamentos foram aplicados em dose nica em ps-emergncia quando a soja estava no estdio V2 a V3. Tratamentos com glyphosate isolado ou em mistura com herbicidas ps-emergentes aplicados em dose nica promoveram efeitos visuais de fitointoxicao quando aplicados na soja resistente ao glyphosate. Efeitos como reduo na altura das plantas, no fechamento da cultura, no nmero de vagens por planta e na massa de cem gros puderam ser observados. Entretanto, os efeitos relatados ao desenvolvimento das plantas foram na sua maioria transientes, no persistindo durante todo ciclo da cultura. Dentre os tratamentos estudados, somente a mistura entre glyphosate e lactofen no apresentou seletividade cultura, promovendo efeitos negativos na maioria das caractersticas estudadas e consequentemente reduzindo a produtividade de gros.

  3. Atrazine and glyphosate dynamics in a lotic ecosystem: the common snapping turtle as a sentinel species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douros, Derrick L; Gaines, Karen F; Novak, James M

    2015-03-01

    Atrazine and glyphosate are two of the most common pesticides used in the US Midwest that impact water quality via runoff, and the common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) is an excellent indicator species to monitor these pesticides especially in lotic systems. The goals of this study were to (1) quantify atrazine, the atrazine metabolite diaminochlorotriazine (DACT), and glyphosate burdens in common snapping turtle tissue from individuals collected within the Embarras River in Illinois; (2) quantify atrazine, DACT, and glyphosate loads in water from the aquatic habitats in which common snapping turtles reside; and (3) investigate tissue loads based on turtle morphology and habitat choice. Concentrations of atrazine, DACT, and glyphosate in tissue did not show any relationship with lake habitat, carapace length, width, or mass. Both atrazine and glyphosate tissue samples varied as a function of site (river vs. lake), but DACT did not. Atrazine and glyphosate concentrations in water samples showed a linear effect on distance from the reservoir spillway and a deviation from linearity. Water column concentrations of all three contaminants varied across capture sites, but atrazine water concentration did not influence DACT water concentration nor did it exhibit a site interaction. Water atrazine and glyphosate concentrations were greater than tissue concentrations, whereas DACT water and tissue concentrations did not differ. This study showed that turtles are useful in long-term pesticide monitoring, and because DACT as a metabolite is less sensitive to variation, it should be considered as a preferred biomarker for pesticide runoff. PMID:25678354

  4. Transcutaneous spinal DC stimulation reduces pain sensitivity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Frieem, C H; Haag, L M; Schmidt-Wilcke, T; Magerl, W; Pogatzki-Zahn, E M; Tegenthoff, M; Zahn, P K

    2015-03-01

    Non-invasive approaches to pain management are needed to manage patient pain escalation and to providing sufficient pain relief. Here, we evaluate the potential of transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) to modulate pain sensitivity to electrical stimuli and mechanical pinpricks in 24 healthy subjects in a sham-controlled, single-blind study. Pain ratings to mechanical pinpricks and electrical stimuli were recorded prior to and at three time points (0, 30, and 60min) following 15min of anodal tsDCS (2.5mA, "active" electrode centered over the T11 spinous process, return electrode on the left posterior shoulder). Pain ratings to the pinpricks of the highest forces tested (128, 256, 512mN) were reduced at 30min and 60min following anodal tsDCS. These findings demonstrate that pain sensitivity in healthy subjects can be suppressed by anodal tsDCS and suggest that tsDCS may provide a non-invasive tool to manage mechanically-induced pain. PMID:25596439

  5. Micromorfologia foliar na anlise da fitotoxidez por glyphosate em Eucalyptus grandis / Leaf micromorphology in the analysis of glyphosate toxicity in Eucalyptus grandis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L.D., Tuffi Santos; B.F., Sant' Anna-Santos; R.M.S.A., Meira; F.A., Ferreira; R.A.S.T., Tiburcio; E.C.F., Silva.

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados os efeitos da deriva de formulaes comerciais de glyphosate sobre a superfcie foliar e o crescimento de clones de eucalipto. Mudas de seis clones foram submetidas a 129,6 g ha-1 de glyphosate das formulaes comerciais Scout, Roundup NA, Roundup transorb e Zapp QI. Entre os clo [...] nes no foram identificadas diferenas quanto tolerncia ao glyphosate. Plantas expostas deriva simulada de Roundup transorb e Zapp QI apresentaram, respectivamente, a maior e menor porcentagem de intoxicao. Observou-se menor massa seca em plantas expostas ao glyphosate, independentemente da formulao, e menor altura naquelas expostas ao Scout e ao Roundup transorb. As caractersticas quantitativas da superfcie foliar no foram afetadas pelo glyphosate. As alteraes micromorfolgicas ocorreram na ausncia de danos visveis e foram observadas em ambas as faces da epiderme, em todos os clones avaliados. Danos como eroso e aspecto amorfo das ceras epicuticulares e infestao por hifas fngicas ocorreram, independentemente da formulao utilizada. A avaliao anatmica da superfcie foliar foi relevante para descrio e interpretao dos danos causados pelo glyphosate. Os dados de crescimento e de intoxicao indicam o Zapp QI como a formulao de menor risco para a cultura do eucalipto quanto aos efeitos indesejveis da deriva. Abstract in english The effects of commercial glyphosate drift on the leaf surface and growth of eucalypt clones were evaluated. Seedlings of six clones were submitted to 129.6 g ha-1 sub-rate of commercial glyphosate formulations Scout, Roundup NA, Roundup transorb and Zapp QI. No differences in tolerance to glyph [...] osate were observed among the clones. Plants exposed to simulated drift of Roundup transorb and Zapp QI presented the highest and lowest intoxication percentages, respectively. Plants exposed to glyphosate reduced dry biomass, regardless of the formulation, and also reduced height of the plants exposed to Scout and Roundup transorb. Leaf surface characteristics were not affected by glyphosate application. However, the micromorphological damages occurred prior to the appearance of visible symptoms, and were observed on both faces of the epidermis, in all clones tested. Damages such as erosion and amorphous aspect of epicuticular waxes and infestation of fungal hyphae occurred, independently of the formulation used. The anatomical evaluation of the leaf surface effectively described the damages caused by glyphosate. The growth and intoxication data indicate Zapp QI formulation as presenting the lowest risk to eucalypt culture, in relation to the undesirable herbicide drift effects.

  6. Alteration in the cytokine levels and histopathological damage in common carp induced by glyphosate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junguo; Li, Xiaoyu

    2015-06-01

    Glyphosate is one of the most frequently used herbicides, and it has been demonstrated to generate a series of toxicological problems in animals and humans. However, relatively little is known about the effects of glyphosate on the immune system of fish. In the present study, the acute toxicity of glyphosate on common carp was first determined; then, the contents of interferon-? (IFN-?), interleukin-1? (IL-1?), and tumor necrosis factor -? (TNF-?) and histopathological alterations in the liver, kidneys, and spleen of common carp exposed to 52.08 or 104.15 mg L(-1) of glyphosate for 168 h were also determined and evaluated. The results of the acute toxicity tests showed that the 96 h LC50 of glyphosate for common carp was 520.77 mg L(-1). Moreover, sub-acute exposure of glyphosate altered the contents of IFN-?, IL-1?, and TNF-? in fish immune organs. For example, there was a remarkable increase in the IFN-? content in the kidneys, while there was a decrease in the liver and spleen. The IL-1? content increased in liver and kidneys, but it decreased in the spleen, and TNF-? mainly increased in the fish liver, kidneys, and spleen. In addition, glyphosate-exposure also caused remarkable histopathological damage in the fish liver, kidneys, and spleen. These results suggest that glyphosate-caused cytokine alterations may result in an immune suppression or excessive activation in the treated common carp as well as may cause immune dysfunction or reduced immunity. In conclusion, glyphosate has immunotoxic effects on common carp. PMID:25747155

  7. The current status and environmental impacts of glyphosate-resistant crops: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdeira, Antonio L; Duke, Stephen O

    2006-01-01

    Glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine]-resistant crops (GRCs), canola (Brassica napus L.), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), maize (Zea mays L.), and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] have been commercialized and grown extensively in the Western Hemisphere and, to a lesser extent, elsewhere. Glyphosate-resistant cotton and soybean have become dominant in those countries where their planting is permitted. Effects of glyphosate on contamination of soil, water, and air are minimal, compared to some of the herbicides that they replace. No risks have been found with food or feed safety or nutritional value in products from currently available GRCs. Glyphosate-resistant crops have promoted the adoption of reduced- or no-tillage agriculture in the USA and Argentina, providing a substantial environmental benefit. Weed species in GRC fields have shifted to those that can more successfully withstand glyphosate and to those that avoid the time of its application. Three weed species have evolved resistance to glyphosate in GRCs. Glyphosate-resistant crops have greater potential to become problems as volunteer crops than do conventional crops. Glyphosate resistance transgenes have been found in fields of canola that are supposed to be non-transgenic. Under some circumstances, the largest risk of GRCs may be transgene flow (introgression) from GRCs to related species that might become problems in natural ecosystems. Glyphosate resistance transgenes themselves are highly unlikely to be a risk in wild plant populations, but when linked to transgenes that may impart fitness benefits outside of agriculture (e.g., insect resistance), natural ecosystems could be affected. The development and use of failsafe introgression barriers in crops with such linked genes is needed. PMID:16899736

  8. Contrast Sensitivity Is Reduced in Children with Infantile Spasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabella, Giuseppe; Morong, Sharon; Buncic, J. Raymond; Snead, O. Carter; Logan, William J.; Weiss, Shelly K.; Abdolell, Mohamed; Westall, Carol A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To investigate whether visual deficits in children with infantile spasm (IS) are the result of seizure activity or of treatment with the anticonvulsant drug vigabatrin (VGB). Methods Vision function was determined in three experiments by determining peak contrast sensitivity (CS) and grating acuity (GA) with the sweep visual evoked potential. Cross-sectional study A: 34 children, including 11 patients with childhood epilepsy with exposure to VGB for at least 6 months, 10 with childhood epilepsy exposed to antiepileptic drugs other than VGB, and 13 normally developing children. Cross-sectional study B: 32 children, including 16 with IS nave to VGB and 16 normally developing children. Longitudinal study: seven children with IS nave to VGB, with subsequent follow-up 5 to 10 months after starting VGB. Results In cross-sectional study A, the median CS was reduced by 0.5 log units (P = 0.025) in children with epilepsy exposed to VGB compared with those exposed to other antiepileptic drugs and normally developing children. In cross-sectional study B, the median CS was reduced by 0.25 log units (P = 0.0015) in children with IS (VGB nave) compared with normally developing children. Longitudinal assessment showed no decrease in CS in children with IS who were followed up 5 to 10 months after starting VGB. There was no difference in GA among groups in any of the experiments. Conclusions Patients with IS have CS deficits, but a sparing of GA. This deficit is present before VGB treatment and does not worsen with treatment onset. Results suggest that visual dysfunction is largely the result of the seizures themselves. PMID:17652730

  9. Glyphosate catabolism by Pseudomonas sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pathway for the degradation of glyphosate (N-phosphonomethylglycine) by Pseudomonas sp. PG2982 has been determined using metabolic radiolabeling experiments. Radiorespirometry experiments utilizing [3-14C] glyphosate revealed that approximately 50-59% of the C3 carbon was oxidized to CO2. Fractionation of stationary phase cells labeled with [3-14C]glyphosate revealed that from 45-47% of the assimilated C3 carbon is distributed to proteins and that amino acids methionine and serine are highly labeled. The nucleic acid bases adenine and guanine received 90% of the C3 label that was incorporated into nucleic acids, and the only pyrimidine base labeled was thymine. Pulse labeling of PG2982 cells with [3-14C]glyphosate revealed that [3-14C]sarcosine is an intermediate in glyphosate degradation. Examination of crude extracts prepared from PG2982 cells revealed the presence of an enzyme that oxidizes sarcosine to glycine and formaldehyde. These results indicate that the first step in glyphosate degradation by PG2982 is cleavage of the carbon-phosphorus bond, resulting in the release of sarcosine and a phosphate group. The phosphate group is utilized as a source of phosphorus, and the sarcosine is degraded to glycine and formaldehyde. Phosphonate utilization by Pseudomonas sp. PG2982 was investigated. Each of the ten phosphonates tested were utilized as a sole source of phosphorus by PG2982. Representative compounds tested included alkylphosphonates, 1-amino-substituted alkylphosphonates, amino-terminal phosphonates, and an arylphosphonate. PG2982 cultures degraded phenylphosphonate to benzene and produced methane from methylphosphonate. The data indicate that PG2982 is capable of cleaving the carbon-phosphorus bond of several structurally different phosphonates

  10. Control of glyphosate resistant giant ragweed in soybean with preplant herbicides

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Follings; Nader Soltani; Robinson, Darren E.; Franois J. Tardif; Mark B. Lawton; Peter H. Sikkema

    2013-01-01

    Giant ragweed was the first glyphosate resistant weed identified in Canada. It is a very competetive weed in row crop production and has been found to drastically reduce yields of soybean; therefore, control of this competitive weed is essential. The objective of this study was to determine effective control options for glyphosate resistant giant ragweed in soybean with herbicides applied preplant. Eighteen herbicide combinations were evaluated in field studies conducted in 2011 and 2012 at ...

  11. Effects of Glyphosate on Metabolism of Phenolic Compounds: V. l-alpha-AMINOOXY-beta-PHENYLPROPIONIC ACID AND GLYPHOSATE EFFECTS ON PHENYLALANINE AMMONIA-LYASE IN SOYBEAN SEEDLINGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, S O; Hoagland, R E; Elmore, C D

    1980-01-01

    The phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) inhibitor l-alpha-aminooxy-beta-phenylpropionic acid (AOPP) was root-fed to light-exposed soybean seedlings alone or with glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] to test further the hypothesis that PAL activity is involved in the mode of action of glyphosate. Extractable PAL activity was increased by 0.01 and 0.1 millimolar AOPP. AOPP reduced total soluble hydroxyphenolic compound levels and increased phenylalanine and tyrosine levels, indicating that in vivo PAL activity was inhibited by AOPP. The increase in extractable PAL caused by AOPP may be a result of decreased feedback inhibition of PAL synthesis by cinnamic acid and/or its derivatives. AOPP alone had no effect on growth (fresh weight and elongation) at either concentration, but at 0.1 millimolar it slightly alleviated growth (fresh weight) inhibition caused by 0.5 millimolar glyphosate after 4 days. Reduction of the free pool of phenylalanine by glyphosate was reversed by AOPP. These results indicate that glyphosate exerts some of its effects through reduction of aromatic amino acid pools through increases in PAL activity and that not all growth effects of glyphosate are due to reductions of aromatic amino acids. PMID:16661135

  12. Reduced sensitivity of older adults to affective mismatches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yang; Vagnini, Victoria; Clark, Jessica; Zhang, Qin

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigated age-related differences in emotional processing by using a paradigm of affective priming. Eighteen, right-handed, younger (mean age 22) and 15 older (mean age 68) subjects pressed buttons to indicate pleasantness of target words. The valence of each prime-target pair was congruent (e.g., win-love), incongruent (e.g., love-loss), or neutral (time-flower). Two sets of 720 prime-target pairs used either affective words or pictures as primes, and affect words as targets. We included well-matched positive and negative valence pairs in all congruent, neutral, and incongruent conditions, and controlled for possible contamination by semantic meaning, word frequency, and repetition effects. The response time (RT) results revealed that young participants responded faster to the targets in affectively congruent conditions than in incongruent conditions. In older participants, the responses to target words were indifferent to all valence congruency conditions. The age effect in affective priming largely reflects reduced sensitivity to affective mismatches among older adults. Intriguingly, emotional Stroop effect and some perceptual priming have been linked to increased interferences and mismatches in older adults. The age-related changes in affective, perceptual, and semantic processes are discussed. PMID:17619749

  13. Ananas erectifolius Growth Under Effect of Glyphosate Low Doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber Daniel de Goes Maciel

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Amazonian native plant, Ananas erectifolius has been a specie of great interest for automobile industry, due to the fibers contained in its leaves that show resistance, softness and reduced weight. Some studies about simulation of glyphosate drift have been demonstrating the occurrence of tolerance and/or incentives of dossel growth of some vegetable species. This way, with the objective of evaluating the effects of glyphosate subdoses application in growth, development and yield of Ananas erectifolius an experiment was conducted in field conditions at Fazenda Pematec Triangel do Brasil Ltda, Santarm County, PA State. Studied treatments were constituted by glyphosate application in the concentrations of 0.0; 11.2; 22.5; 45.0; 90.0; 180.0; 360.0 g a.e. ha-1 and a hoe check. Ananas erectifolius plants presented low tolerance to glyphosate herbicide, and superior subdoses to 45.0 g a.e. ha-1 promoted the most significant reductions of benefitted leaves yield when applied in post-emergency. None of the studied subdoses promoted incentive or increase of Ananas erectifolius plants vegetative development.

  14. Glyphosate herbicide affects belowground interactions between earthworms and symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi in a model ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaller, Johann G.; Heigl, Florian; Ruess, Liliane; Grabmaier, Andrea

    2014-07-01

    Herbicides containing glyphosate are widely used in agriculture and private gardens, however, surprisingly little is known on potential side effects on non-target soil organisms. In a greenhouse experiment with white clover we investigated, to what extent a globally-used glyphosate herbicide affects interactions between essential soil organisms such as earthworms and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). We found that herbicides significantly decreased root mycorrhization, soil AMF spore biomass, vesicles and propagules. Herbicide application and earthworms increased soil hyphal biomass and tended to reduce soil water infiltration after a simulated heavy rainfall. Herbicide application in interaction with AMF led to slightly heavier but less active earthworms. Leaching of glyphosate after a simulated rainfall was substantial and altered by earthworms and AMF. These sizeable changes provide impetus for more general attention to side-effects of glyphosate-based herbicides on key soil organisms and their associated ecosystem services.

  15. The effect of glyphosate on import into a sink leaf of sugar beet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basis for glyphosate inducted limitation of carbon import into developing leaves was studied in sugar beet. To separate the effects of the herbicide on export from those on import, glyphosate was supplied to a developing leaf from two exporting source leaves which fed the sink leaf. Carbon import into the sink leaf was determined by supplying 14CO2 to a third source leaf which also supplies carbon to the monitored sink leaf. Import into the sink leaf decreased within 2 to 3 h after glyphosate application, even though photosynthesis and export in the source leaf supplying 14C were unaffected. Reduced import into the sink leaf was accompanied by increased import by the tap root. Elongation of the sink leaf was only slightly decreased following arrival of glyphosate. Photosynthesis by the sink leaf was not inhibited. The results to data support the view that import is slowed by the inhibition of synthesis of structural or storage compounds in the developing leaves

  16. Influence of glyphosate in planktonic and biofilm growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ilana Schneider, Lima; Nicole Carmo, Baumeier; Rosimeire Takaki, Rosa; Patrcia Maria Stuelp, Campelo; Edvaldo Antonio Ribeiro, Rosa.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the impact of different concentrations of glyphosate (Rondup) on planktonic and biofilm growth of P. aeruginosa. Aerobic and anaerobic cultures of P. aeruginosa ATCC15442 inoculated in MHB + glyphosate (0.845 ppm, 1.690 ppm, 8.45 ppm, 16.90 ppm, 84.50 ppm, 169 ppm, 845 ppm, an [...] d 1690 ppm) and cultured in normoxia and anoxia, following their OD560nm every hour for 24 h. Biofilms of adapted cells were formed in the presence of glyphosate (0.845 to 1690 ppm) in normoxia and anoxia for 36 h. Glyphosate at concentrations higher than 84.5 ppm reduces the cell density of planktonic aerobic cultures (p 0.05), and more pronounced over 169 ppm. Anaerobic biofilms have their growth more readily favored (p

  17. Glyphosate Accumulation and Detrimental Effects on Coffea Arabica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrübbers, Lars Christoph

    . The biological response of young coffee plants to single glyphosate applications was evaluated using doseresponse curves (DRC) and shikimic acid levels. Furthermore the effect of multiple exposures on the viii severity of plant damage was investigated. The DRC revealed the presence of glyphosate......Coffee is one of the most popular beverages worldwide and a highly traded commodity. In order to maintain a high yield of the perennial crop, weed competition for resources needs to be reduced. For this purpose herbicides are commonly applied, with glyphosate being one of the most prominent...... herbicides in coffee fields. Glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine], the active ingredient in Roundup®, is characterized as systemic, non-selective, with a broad weed spectrum, inhibiting the enzyme 5-enolpyruvyl shikimate 3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS). The inhibition leads to an accumulation of shikimic...

  18. Glyphosate translocation in herbicide tolerant plants Translocao do glyphosate em plantas tolerantes ao herbicida

    OpenAIRE

    L Galon; E.A. Ferreira; I. Aspiaz; G. Conceno; A.F Silva; Silva, A. A.; L. VARGAS

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate glyphosate translocation in glyphosate-tolerant weed species (I. nil, T. procumbens and S. latifolia) compared to glyphosate-susceptible species (B. pilosa). The evaluations of 14C-glyphosate absorption and translocation were performed at 6, 12, 36 and 72 hours after treatment (HAT) in I. nil and B. pilosa, and only at 72 HAT in the species T. procumbens and S. latifolia. The plants were collected and fractionated into application leaf, other leaves...

  19. GLYPHOSATE REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Activated-carbon, oxidation, conventional-treatment, filtration, and membrane studies are conducted to determine which process is best suited to remove the herbicide glyphosate from potable water. Both bench-scale and pilot-scale studies are completed. Computer models are used ...

  20. Glyphosate induces neurotoxicity in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Nicole M; Carneiro, Bruno; Ochs, Jeremy

    2016-03-01

    Glyphosate based herbicides (GBH) like Roundup(®) are used extensively in agriculture as well as in urban and rural settings as a broad spectrum herbicide. Its mechanism of action was thought to be specific only to plants and thus considered safe and non-toxic. However, mounting evidence suggests that GBHs may not be as safe as once thought as initial studies in frogs suggest that GBHs may be teratogenic. Here we utilize the zebrafish vertebrate model system to study early effects of glyphosate exposure using technical grade glyphosate and the Roundup(®) Classic formulation. We find morphological abnormalities including cephalic and eye reductions and a loss of delineated brain ventricles. Concomitant with structural changes in the developing brain, using in situ hybridization analysis, we detect decreases in genes expressed in the eye, fore and midbrain regions of the brain including pax2, pax6, otx2 and ephA4. However, we do not detect changes in hindbrain expression domains of ephA4 nor exclusive hindbrain markers krox-20 and hoxb1a. Additionally, using a Retinoic Acid (RA) mediated reporter transgenic, we detect no alterations in the RA expression domains in the hindbrain and spinal cord, but do detect a loss of expression in the retina. We conclude that glyphosate and the Roundup(®) formulation is developmentally toxic to the forebrain and midbrain but does not affect the hindbrain after 24h exposure. PMID:26773362

  1. Early Detection of Crop Injury from Glyphosate on Soybean and Cotton Using Plant Leaf Hyperspectral Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhao

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we aim to detect crop injury from glyphosate, a herbicide, by both traditionally used spectral indices and newly extracted features with leaf hyperspectral reflectance data for non-Glyphosate-Resistant (non-GR soybean and non-GR cotton. The new features were extracted by canonical analysis technique, which could provide the largest separability to distinguish the injured leaves from the healthy ones. Spectral bands used for constructing these new features were selected based on the sensitivity analysis results of a physically-based leaf radiation transfer model (leaf optical PROperty SPECTra model, PROSPECT, which could help extend the effectiveness of these features to a wide range of leaf structures and growing conditions. This approach has been validated with greenhouse measured data acquired in glyphosate treatment experiments. Results indicated that glyphosate injury could be detected by NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, RVI (Ratio Vegetation Index, SAVI (Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index, and DVI (Difference Vegetation Index in 48 h After the Treatment (HAT for soybean and in 72 HAT for cotton, but the other spectral indices either showed little use for separation, or did not show consistent separation for healthy and injured soybean and cotton. Compared with the traditional spectral indices, the new features were more feasible for the early detection of glyphosate injury, with leaves sprayed with a higher rate of glyphosate solution having larger feature values. This trend became more and more pronounced with time. Leaves sprayed with different glyphosate rates showed some separability 24 HAT using the new features and could be totally distinguished at and beyond 48 HAT for both soybean and cotton. These findings demonstrated the feasibility of applying leaf hyperspectral reflectance measurements for the early detection of glyphosate injury using these newly proposed features.

  2. Beam-shaping element with reduced sensitivity to input variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y; Li, D; Sheng, Y

    1997-01-20

    We designed and fabricated a diffractive element for high-power laser beam shaping whose output is less sensitive to variations of input intensity and phase distributions. The choice of the initial solution is used as a degree of freedom to conduct the iterations to converge to a suboptimal solution that has the required property. We determined the initial phase by an aperture subdivision and stationary phase method, which is less sensitive to input variations. Experimental results are shown. PMID:18250708

  3. ADSORPTION OF GLYPHOSATE AND AMPAIN AGRICULTURAL SOILS

    OpenAIRE

    Nicola Rampazzo; Gorana Rampazzo Todorovic; Axel Mentler

    2013-01-01

    Immediately after application glyphosate is mostly adsorbed in the upper 2 cm of soils, and is then transported and adsorbed after few days in deeper soil horizons with concomitant increasing content of its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA). This work confirmed previous studies, where Fe-oxides seem to play a major role in the adsorption of glyphosate and AMPA in soils: the Chernozem featured lower contents of Fed and Feo, with consequently lower adsorption of glyphosate and AMPAa...

  4. Glyphosate-Resistant Goosegrass from Mississippi

    OpenAIRE

    Vijay K. Nandula; Wright, Alice A.; William T. Molin

    2013-01-01

    A suspected glyphosate-resistant goosegrass [Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.] population, found in Washington County, Mississippi, was studied to determine the level of resistance and whether the resistance was due to a point mutation, as was previously identified in a Malaysian population. Whole plant dose response assays indicated a two- to four-fold increase in resistance to glyphosate. Leaf disc bioassays based on a glyphosate-dependent increase in shikimate levels indicated a five- to eight...

  5. Water use efficiency by coffee arabica after glyphosate application / Eficincia do uso da gua pelo cafeeiro arbica aps aplicao de glyphosate

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Felipe Paolinelli de, Carvalho; Andr Cabral, Frana; Bruna Pereira de, Souza; Cntia Maria Teixeira, Fialho; Jos Barbosa dos, Santos; Antonio Alberto da, Silva.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Muitos cafeicultores utilizam o glyphosate em aplicaes dirigidas. Nessas aplicaes so constatados intoxicaes. Atravs do efeito negativo direto na fotossntese, ou indiretamente, reduzindo da taxa metablica da planta, acredita-se que possam influenciar a eficincia do uso da gua. Objetivou-s [...] e no trabalho averiguar as variveis relacionadas ao uso da gua entre cultivares de caf submetidos a aplicao de subdoses de glyphosate e os efeitos de cada dose. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetao utilizando-se trs cultivares de cafeeiro (Coffea arabica): Acai (MG-6851), Catuca Amarelo (2 SL) e Topzio (MG-1190) e, trs subdoses do glyphosate (0,0; 115,2 e 460,8 g ha-1 do equivalente cido), em esquema fatorial 3 x 3. Aos 15 DAA observou-se reduo da condutncia estomtica. Constatou-se menor taxa de transpirao e eficincia do uso da gua na quarta folha aos 15 dias aps a aplicao. 45 dias aps aplicao ocorreu queda da transpirao, sendo que, o Acai apresentou reduo com aplicao de 115,2 g ha-1. O glyphosate reduziu a eficincia do uso da gua, apresentando efeitos transitrios, mas que podem causar atraso no crescimento e produo do cafeeiro. O cultivar Acai foi o mais tolerante ao glyphosate, no alterando sua eficincia do uso da gua com aplicao do herbicida. Abstract in english Many coffee growers apply glyphosate in directed applications, but some phytotoxicity has been noted. It is believed some herbicides can exert a direct or indirect negative effect on photosynthesis by reducing the metabolic rate in a way that can affect the water use efficiency. The objective of thi [...] s study was to investigate the variables related to water use among coffee cultivars subjected to the application of glyphosate and the effects of each dose. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse using three varieties of coffee (Coffea arabica), Acai (MG-6851), Catuca Amarelo (2SL) and Topzio (MG-1190), and three doses of glyphosate (0.0, 115.2 and 460.8 g acid equivalent ha-1), in a factorial 3 x 3 design. At 15 days after application, a reduction in stomatal conductance was observed, and smaller transpiration rate and water use efficiency were found in the fourth leaf at 15 days after application. There was a decrease in the transpiration rate at 45 DAA, with the Acai cultivar showing reductions with 115.2 g ha-1. There was transitory reduction in water use efficiency with glyphosate application, but can affect the growth and production. The Acai cultivar showed the highest tolerance to glyphosate because the water use efficiency after herbicide application.

  6. Control of glyphosate resistant hairy fleabane (Conyza bonariensis) with dicamba and 2,4-D / Controle de buva (Conyza bonariensis) resistente ao glyphosate com dicamba e 2,4-D

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    D.J., Soares; W.S., Oliveira; R.F., Lpez-Ovejero; P.J, Christoffoleti.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Os herbicidas mimetizadores de auxinas como dicamba e 2,4-D so alternativas para o controle de buva resistente ao glyphosate. Com a possvel futura liberao comercial de culturas resistentes ao dicamba e 2,4-D, a aplicao destes herbicidas reguladores de crescimento ser uma provvel alternativa [...] de controle de buva resistente ao glyphosate. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi modelar por meio de curvas de dose-resposta a eficcia do dicamba e 2,4-D isolados e dicamba em associao com glyphosate para controle de uma populao de buva resistente. Um estudo de doseresposta em casa de vegetao foi conduzido em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, sendo que as doses utilizadas para a construo das curvas de dose-resposta foram de 0, 120, 240, 480, 720 e 960 g i.a. ha-1de para o dicamba e o 2,4-D isolados e dicamba associado com 540 g e.a. ha-1 de glyphosate. As doses utilizadas para o glyphosate isolado foram de 0, 180, 360, 540, 720 e 960 g e.a. ha-1. Os tratamentos herbicidas foram aplicados quando asplantas estavam no estdio vegetativo de 10 a 12 folhas e altura entre 12 e 15 cm. A buva apresentou baixa sensibilidade ao glyphosate, pois no foi controlada mesmo na dose de 960 g e.a. ha-1 de glyphosate. O dicamba e o 2,4-D foram eficazes no controle da populao de buva estudada. A buva responde de forma diferenciada ao 2,4-D e dicamba e ser importante determinaras doses apropriadas de cada herbicida para controle de buva resistente ao glyphosate em condies de campo. A associao de glyphosate e dicamba no foi antagnica no controle da buva e o glyphosate pode causar um efeito aditivo no controle, apesar da resistncia da populao. Abstract in english Auxyn type herbicides such as dicamba and 2,4-D are alternative herbicides that can be used to control glyphosate-resistant hairy fleabane. With the forthcoming possibility of releasing dicamba-resistant and 2,4-D-resistant crops, use of these growth regulator herbicides will likely be an alternativ [...] e that can be applied to the control of glyphosate resistant hairy fleabane (Conyza bonariensis). The objective of this research was to model the efficacy, through dose-response curves, of glyphosate, 2,4-D, isolated dicamba and glyphosatedicamba combinations to control a brazilian hairy fleabane population resistant to glyphosate. The greenhouse dose-response studies were conducted as a completely randomized experimental design, and the rates used for dose response curve construction were 0, 120, 240, 480, 720 and 960 g a.i. ha-1 for 2,4-D, dicamba and the dicamba combination, with glyphosate at 540 g a.e. ha-1. The rates for glyphosate alone were 0, 180, 360, 540, 720 and 960 g a.e. ha-1. Herbicides were applied when the plants were in a vegetative stage with 10 to 12 leaves and height between 12 and 15 cm. Hairy fleabane had low sensitivity to glyphosate, with poor control even at the 960 g a.e. ha-1 rate. Dicamba and 2,4-D were effective in controlling the studied hairy fleabane. Hairy fleabane responds differently to 2,4-D and dicamba. The combination of glyphosate and dicamba was not antagonistic to hairy fleabane control, and glyphosate may cause an additive effect on the control, despite the population resistance.

  7. Control of glyphosate resistant hairy fleabane (Conyza bonariensis with dicamba and 2,4-D Controle de buva (Conyza bonariensis resistente ao glyphosate com dicamba e 2,4-D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.J. Soares

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Auxyn type herbicides such as dicamba and 2,4-D are alternative herbicides that can be used to control glyphosate-resistant hairy fleabane. With the forthcoming possibility of releasing dicamba-resistant and 2,4-D-resistant crops, use of these growth regulator herbicides will likely be an alternative that can be applied to the control of glyphosate resistant hairy fleabane (Conyza bonariensis. The objective of this research was to model the efficacy, through dose-response curves, of glyphosate, 2,4-D, isolated dicamba and glyphosatedicamba combinations to control a brazilian hairy fleabane population resistant to glyphosate. The greenhouse dose-response studies were conducted as a completely randomized experimental design, and the rates used for dose response curve construction were 0, 120, 240, 480, 720 and 960 g a.i. ha-1 for 2,4-D, dicamba and the dicamba combination, with glyphosate at 540 g a.e. ha-1. The rates for glyphosate alone were 0, 180, 360, 540, 720 and 960 g a.e. ha-1. Herbicides were applied when the plants were in a vegetative stage with 10 to 12 leaves and height between 12 and 15 cm. Hairy fleabane had low sensitivity to glyphosate, with poor control even at the 960 g a.e. ha-1 rate. Dicamba and 2,4-D were effective in controlling the studied hairy fleabane. Hairy fleabane responds differently to 2,4-D and dicamba. The combination of glyphosate and dicamba was not antagonistic to hairy fleabane control, and glyphosate may cause an additive effect on the control, despite the population resistance.Os herbicidas mimetizadores de auxinas como dicamba e 2,4-D so alternativas para o controle de buva resistente ao glyphosate. Com a possvel futura liberao comercial de culturas resistentes ao dicamba e 2,4-D, a aplicao destes herbicidas reguladores de crescimento ser uma provvel alternativa de controle de buva resistente ao glyphosate. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi modelar por meio de curvas de dose-resposta a eficcia do dicamba e 2,4-D isolados e dicamba em associao com glyphosate para controle de uma populao de buva resistente. Um estudo de doseresposta em casa de vegetao foi conduzido em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, sendo que as doses utilizadas para a construo das curvas de dose-resposta foram de 0, 120, 240, 480, 720 e 960 g i.a. ha-1de para o dicamba e o 2,4-D isolados e dicamba associado com 540 g e.a. ha-1 de glyphosate. As doses utilizadas para o glyphosate isolado foram de 0, 180, 360, 540, 720 e 960 g e.a. ha-1. Os tratamentos herbicidas foram aplicados quando asplantas estavam no estdio vegetativo de 10 a 12 folhas e altura entre 12 e 15 cm. A buva apresentou baixa sensibilidade ao glyphosate, pois no foi controlada mesmo na dose de 960 g e.a. ha-1 de glyphosate. O dicamba e o 2,4-D foram eficazes no controle da populao de buva estudada. A buva responde de forma diferenciada ao 2,4-D e dicamba e ser importante determinaras doses apropriadas de cada herbicida para controle de buva resistente ao glyphosate em condies de campo. A associao de glyphosate e dicamba no foi antagnica no controle da buva e o glyphosate pode causar um efeito aditivo no controle, apesar da resistncia da populao.

  8. Identification of regulated genes conferring resistance to high concentrations of glyphosate in a new strain of Enterobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Yun-Yan; Gai, Jun-Yi; Zhao, Tuan-Jie

    2013-12-01

    Glyphosate is a widely used herbicide that inhibits 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) activity. Most plants and microbes are sensitive to glyphosate. However, transgenic-resistant crops that contain a modified epsps obtained from the resistant microbes have been commercially successful and therefore, new resistance genes and their adaptive regulatory mechanisms are of great interest. In this study, a soil-borne, glyphosate-resistant bacterium was selected and identified as Enterobacter. The EPSPS in this strain was found to have been altered to a resistant one. A total of 42 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the glyphosate were screened using microarray techniques. Under treatment, argF, sdhA, ivbL, rrfA-H were downregulated, whereas the transcripts of speA, osmY, pflB, ahpC, fusA, deoA, uxaC, rpoD and a few ribosomal protein genes were upregulated. Data were verified by quantitative real-time PCR on selected genes. All transcriptional changes appeared to protect the bacteria from glyphosate and associated osmotic, acidic and oxidative stresses. Many DEGs may have the potential to confer resistance to glyphosate alone, and some may be closely related to the shikimate pathway, reflecting the complex gene interaction network for glyphosate resistance. PMID:24237416

  9. Residual herbicides in weed management for glyphosate-resistant soybean in Brazil / Herbicidas residuais em manejo de plantas daninhas na soja resistente ao glyphosate no Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R.F., Lopes Ovejero; D.J., Soares; W.S., Oliveira; L.B., Fonseca; G.U., Berger; J.K., Soteres; P.J., Christoffoleti.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Em sistemas de produo agrcola onde a cultura da soja tolerante ao glyphosate (Glycine max) est inserida e onde no h a prtica de rotao de culturas com herbicidas alternativos, o uso exclusivo e contnuo do glyphosate tem levado ao surgimento de populaes de plantas daninhas resistentes, que [...] podem limitar ou comprometer os benefcios dessa tecnologia. Nesse sentido, a eficincia de programas de manejo que envolvem herbicidas residuais (sulfentrazone, flumioxazin, imazethapyr, diclosulam, chlorimuron e s-metolachlor) aplicados na pr-emergncia seguidos de glyphosate na ps-emergncia da cultura (PRE-POST) foi comparada de programas com apenas glyphosate na ps-emergncia ? POST. O estudo constituiu-se de nove experimentos realizados durante as safras agrcolas 2009/2010 e 2010/2011. Os programas PRE-POST foram eficientes no controle de Amaranthus viridis, Brachiaria plantaginea, Bidens pilosa, Commelina benghalensis, Eleusine indica, Euphorbia heterophylla e Raphanus raphanistrum, sendo semelhantes aos nveis de controle do programa com duas aplicaes de glyphosate POST. Alguns programas PRE-POST no foram eficientes para Cenchrus echinatus, Ipomoea hederifolia e Ipomoea triloba. Sulfentrazone e diclosulam PRE-POST melhoraram o controle de Ipomoea triloba em relao s aplicaes sequenciais de glyphosate. Quanto produtividade, no foram observadas diferenas significativas entre os tratamentos herbicidas. As aplicaes de herbicidas residuais em pr-emergncia seguidos da aplicao de glyphosate em ps-emergncia resultam em controles consistentes de plantas daninhas e evitam a competio inicial. Alm disso, estes programas utilizam pelo menos dois modos de ao que contribuem para a diversidade do uso de herbicidas que ser necessria para ficar frente de novos casos de resistncia, independentemente de quando as plantas daninhas possam aparecer. Abstract in english In agricultural production systems where the glyphosate-resistant soybean crop (Glycine max) is grown and the practice of crop rotation with alternative herbicides is not adopted, the exclusive and continuous use of glyphosate has led to the occurrence of resistant weed populations that may limit or [...] compromise the benefits of this technology. Thus, the efficacy of weed management programs, including the use of residual herbicides (sulfentrazone, flumioxazin, imazethapyr, diclosulan, chlorimuron and s-metolachlor) applied in preemergence and followed by in-crop postemergence applications of glyphosate (PRE-POST) were compared to glyphosate postemergence only programs - POST. The study was conducted across nine locations during the 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 growing seasons. PRE-POST programs were efficient in the control of Amaranthus viridis, Brachiaria plantaginea, Bidens pilosa, Commelina benghalensis, Eleusine indica, Euphorbia heterophylla and Raphanus raphanistrum, with the level of control being similar when comparing the program with two applications of glyphosate POST. Some PRE-POST programs were not efficient in controlling Cenchrus echinatus, Ipomoea hederifolia and Ipomoea triloba. Sulfentrazone and diclosulam PRE-POST programs improved the control of Ipomoea triloba compared to sequential applications of glyphosate alone. No significant differences in soybean yield were observed between any of the herbicide treatments or study locations. The use of residual herbicides in preemergence followed by glyphosate in-crop postemergence provides consistent weed control and reducing early season weed competition. Furthermore, these programs utilize at least two herbicide modes of action for herbicide use diversity, which will be needed to stay ahead of resistance build-up, regardless of when weeds may appear.

  10. Blocking facial mimicry reduces perceptual sensitivity for facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipser, Alberta; Cook, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Built on models of 'action understanding', motor theories of expression perception propose that facial simulation, a process similar to covert imitation, aids perception and interpretation of others' facial expressions. As predicted by these accounts, some reports suggest that blocking facial mimicry impairs expression recognition. However, these reports have been criticized and motor theories remain controversial. Crucially, it remains to be determined whether the labeling errors observed reflect a loss of perceptual sensitivity - a genuine perceptual phenomenon - or whether they are a product of response bias. The current study addressed this question using a novel psychophysical paradigm, where observers judged whether smiles drawn from a morph continuum were sincere or insincere. In Experiment 1, we confirmed that cues from both the eye and mouth regions contribute to sincerity judgments. Experiment 2 measured discrimination of smile sincerity across free-viewing and blocked-mimicry conditions. In the blocked-mimicry condition, participants pronounced vowel sounds during stimulus presentation, thereby loading the motor system and preventing mimicry. Each participant's responses were modeled by fitting psychometric functions. Sensitivity to changes in smile sincerity and bias were inferred from the slope and the point of subjective equality (PSE), respectively. Motor interference significantly decreased sensitivity relative to baseline, but did systematically affect bias. Experiment 3 examined whether the motor manipulation has similar effects on judgments of facial gender, a task equated for difficulty but which is not thought to recruit motor processes. Neither slope nor PSE estimates for gender judgments were affected, indicating that the loss of sensitivity seen in Experiment 2 is relatively specific to judgments of expression and does not reflect generic distraction. These findings accord with the view that judgments of facial expression benefit from motor contributions to perception. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26327064

  11. Glyphosate-Degrading Microorganisms from Industrial Activated Sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Balthazor, Terry M.; Hallas, Laurence E.

    1986-01-01

    A plating medium was developed to isolate N-phosphonomethylglycine (glyphosate)-degrading microorganisms, with glyphosate as the sole phosphorus source. Two industrial biosystems treating glyphosate wastes contained elevated microbial counts on the medium. One purified isolate metabolized glyphosate to aminomethylphosphonic acid, mineralizing this accumulating intermediate during log growth. This microorganism has been identified as a Flavobacterium species.

  12. Anlisis de la sensibilidad de biotipos de Lolium multiflorum a herbicidas inhibidores de la enzima ALS, ACCasa y Glifosato / Sensitivity analysis of Lolium multiflorum biotypes to Glyphosate, ACCase and ALS-inhibiting herbicides

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P., Diez De Ulzurrun; M.I., Leaden.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de los avances logrados en el control de las malezas con el uso de herbicidas, el manejo de las mismas no se simplific, sino que, al contrario, surgieron nuevos desafos, como la aparicin de resistencia a herbicidas. En 2007, se report en Lolium multiflorum el segundo caso de resistencia [...] a glifosato detectado en Argentina. En el sudeste de la provincia de Buenos Aires se registraron fallas de control a campo en poblaciones de Lolium multiflorum debido a su resistencia a distintos herbicidas de las familias de los inhibidores de ALS y de ACCasa y al herbicida glifosato. El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar el nivel de resistencia a ciertos herbicidas inhibidores de la ALS y de la ACCasa y al glifosato en una poblacin de L. multiflorum de Lobera (Bs As, Argentina) supuestamente resistente (LmR). Se realizaron bioensayos en cajas de Petri y se determin la GR50 mediante la variacin en la longitud de coleoptile. Las curvas de dosis-respuesta se obtuvieron por medio de la ecuacin log-logstica. El biotipo LmR present resistencia mltiple a herbicidas con tres modos de accin diferentes: glifosato, inhibidores de ALS y de ACCasa. Dicho ensayo demostr la aparicin de un biotipo de L. multiflorum con resistencia a mltiples principios activos. Abstract in english Despite progress in weed control using herbicides, management has not been simplified, but new challenges such as herbicides resistance have arisen. In 2007, a Lolium multiflorum population resistant to glyphosate was reported, as the second case of glyphosate resistant weeds in Argentina. In the so [...] utheast of Buenos Aires province, control failures in populations of L. multiflorum to different families of herbicide such as ALS and ACCase inhibitors and to glyphosate at field level have been registered. The aim of this study was to characterize the level of resistance to certain herbicides inhibitors of ALS, ACCase and glyphosate in a putatively resistant (LmR) population of L. multiflorum of Loberia (Buenos Aires, Argentina). Bioassays were conducted in Petri dishes and the GR50 was determined by the length of coleoptile. Curves dose-response were obtained using the log-logistic equation. The LmR biotype survived under multiple herbicides of three different modes of action, glyphosate, ALS and ACCase inhibitors. This test showed the appearance of a biotype of L. multiflorum with resistance to multiple active ingredients.

  13. Análisis de la sensibilidad de biotipos de Lolium multiflorum a herbicidas inhibidores de la enzima ALS, ACCasa y Glifosato Sensitivity analysis of Lolium multiflorum biotypes to Glyphosate, ACCase and ALS-inhibiting herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Diez De Ulzurrun

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de los avances logrados en el control de las malezas con el uso de herbicidas, el manejo de las mismas no se simplificó, sino que, al contrario, surgieron nuevos desafíos, como la aparición de resistencia a herbicidas. En 2007, se reportó en Lolium multiflorum el segundo caso de resistencia a glifosato detectado en Argentina. En el sudeste de la provincia de Buenos Aires se registraron fallas de control a campo en poblaciones de Lolium multiflorum debido a su resistencia a distintos herbicidas de las familias de los inhibidores de ALS y de ACCasa y al herbicida glifosato. El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar el nivel de resistencia a ciertos herbicidas inhibidores de la ALS y de la ACCasa y al glifosato en una población de L. multiflorum de Lobería (Bs As, Argentina supuestamente resistente (LmR. Se realizaron bioensayos en cajas de Petri y se determinó la GR50 mediante la variación en la longitud de coleoptile. Las curvas de dosis-respuesta se obtuvieron por medio de la ecuación log-logística. El biotipo LmR presentó resistencia múltiple a herbicidas con tres modos de acción diferentes: glifosato, inhibidores de ALS y de ACCasa. Dicho ensayo demostró la aparición de un biotipo de L. multiflorum con resistencia a múltiples principios activos.Despite progress in weed control using herbicides, management has not been simplified, but new challenges such as herbicides resistance have arisen. In 2007, a Lolium multiflorum population resistant to glyphosate was reported, as the second case of glyphosate resistant weeds in Argentina. In the southeast of Buenos Aires province, control failures in populations of L. multiflorum to different families of herbicide such as ALS and ACCase inhibitors and to glyphosate at field level have been registered. The aim of this study was to characterize the level of resistance to certain herbicides inhibitors of ALS, ACCase and glyphosate in a putatively resistant (LmR population of L. multiflorum of Loberia (Buenos Aires, Argentina. Bioassays were conducted in Petri dishes and the GR50 was determined by the length of coleoptile. Curves dose-response were obtained using the log-logistic equation. The LmR biotype survived under multiple herbicides of three different modes of action, glyphosate, ALS and ACCase inhibitors. This test showed the appearance of a biotype of L. multiflorum with resistance to multiple active ingredients.

  14. 78 FR 60707 - Glyphosate; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ...code 112). Food manufacturing...glyphosate to the genetically modified ``Optimum GLY...Determination of Safety Section 408(b...residue in or on a food) only if EPA...an international food safety standards-setting...of glyphosate to genetically modified ``Optimum...

  15. 76 FR 27268 - Glyphosate; Pesticide Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... with glyphosate follows. In the Federal Register of April 8, 2011 (76 FR 19701) (FRL-8866- 8), EPA... estimated aggregate risks resulting from use of glyphosate, as discussed in the April 8, 2011 (76 FR 19701...) 305-5805. II. Summary of Petitioned-For Tolerance In the Federal Register of February 4, 2011 (76...

  16. Glyphosate-resistant goosegrass from Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    A glyphosate resistant population of goosegrass (Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.) was documented near Stoneville, Mississippi, USA, in an area which had received multiple applications of glyphosate each year for the previous eleven years. Resistance ratios based on dose response growth reduction assays...

  17. 76 FR 27268 - Glyphosate; Pesticide Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ...World Health Organization food standards program, and it is recognized as an international food safety standards-setting...N-acetyl glyphosate is found in genetically modified (GMO) glyphosate-resistant...any pesticide residues in food. The Agency understands the...that the pesticide meets the safety standard imposed by...

  18. Influence of glyphosate and its formulation (Roundup[reg]) on the toxicity and bioavailability of metals to Ceriodaphnia dubia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examined the toxicological interaction between glyphosate (or its formulation, Roundup[reg]) and several heavy metals to a freshwater cladoceran, Ceriodaphnia dubia. We demonstrated that all binary combinations of Roundup[reg] and metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn) exhibited 'less than additive' mixture toxicity, with 48-h LC50 toxic unit>1. Addition of glyphosate alone could significantly reduce the acute toxicity of Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn (but not Hg and Se). The ratio between glyphosate and metal ions was important in determining the mitigation of metal toxicity by glyphosate. A bioaccumulation study showed that in the presence of glyphosate the uptake of some metals (e.g. Ag) was halted but that of others (e.g. Hg) was increased significantly. Therefore, our study strongly suggests that glyphosate and its commercial formulations can control the toxicity as well as the bioavailability of heavy metals in aquatic ecosystems where both groups of chemicals can co-occur. - Glyphosate can control the toxicity and bioavailability of many heavy metals in the aquatic environment

  19. Suscetibilidade de duas Gramas-boiadeiras a diferentes formulaes de glyphosate / Susceptibility of Cutgrass and Peruvian Watergrass to different glyphosate formulations

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ananda, Scherner; Luis Antonio de, Avila; Fbio, Schreiber; Nelson Diehl, Kruse; Dirceu, Agostinetto; Jesus Juares Oliveira, Pinto; Rodrigo Ribeiro, Pestana.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A utilizao do herbicida glyphosate para o controle qumico das espcies de gramas-boiadeiras nas lavouras orizcolas no tem se mostrado eficiente. Nesse contexto, a investigao do controle dessas espcies com o glyphosate torna-se de fundamental importncia, uma vez que no esto disponveis no [...] mercado herbicidas seletivos para o controle dessas em ps-emergncia na cultura do arroz irrigado. Em vista do exposto, o objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a suscetibilidade das gramas-boiadeiras a diferentes formulaes de glyphosate. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos em casa de vegetao em esquema fatorial. No primeiro experimento, o fator A constituiu-se de duas formulaes de glyphosate (sal potssico e isopropilamina) e o fator B de nove doses dos herbicidas (zero; 175; 350; 700; 1400; 2800; 5600; 11200; 22400g e.a. ha-1). No segundo experimento, o fator A constituiu-se de duas espcies de gramas-boiadeiras (Leersia hexandra e Luziola peruviana), o fator B de trs formulaes do glyphosate (sal amnio, potssico e isopropilamina) e o fator C de nove doses dos herbicidas (zero; 87,5; 175; 350; 700; 1400; 2800; 5600; 11200g e.a. ha-1). Com base nos resultados obtidos, foi possvel observar que as espcies apresentaram diferena de suscetibilidade ao herbicida glyphosate. Alm disso, Leersia hexandra foi mais sensvel em comparao a Luziola peruviana. As formulaes de glyphosate influenciaram na suscetibilidade das espcies ao controle, sendo que, Roundup Transorb R e Roundup Ultra proporcionam melhor controle das espcies de gramas-boiadeiras. Abstract in english The use of glyphosate to chemical control of Cutgrass and Peruvian Watergrass with the use of non-selective herbicides has not been efficient. In this context, the investigation of chemical control of these species to glyphosate is very important, since there are not available commercially selective [...] herbicides to control these species in post-emergence of irrigated rice. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility of Cutgrass and Peruvian Watergrass to different formulations of glyphosate. Two factorial experiments were conducted in a greenhouse, in the first the A factor were two formulations of glyhposate (potassium and isopropylamine salt) and the B factor were nine doses of the herbicide (zero; 175; 350; 700; 1400; 2800; 5600; 11200; 22400g a.e. ha-1). In the second experiment, the A factor were two species (Leersia hexandra and Luziola peruviana), the B factor were three formulations of glyphosate (amoniun, potassium e isopropylamine salt) and the C factor were nine doses of herbicides (zero; 87,5; 175; 350; 700; 1400; 2800; 5600; 11200g a.e. ha-1). Based on the results obtained, it was observed that these species exhibit differential susceptibility to glyphosate. Moreover, Leersia hexandra was more sensitive when compared to Luziola peruviana. Glyphosate formulation influenced control efficiency, where Transorb Roundup R and Roundup Ultra provided the best control of the two species.

  20. Gene amplification confers glyphosate resistance in Amaranthus palmeri

    OpenAIRE

    Gaines, Todd A; Zhang, Wenli; Wang, Dafu; Bukun, Bekir; Chisholm, Stephen T.; Shaner, Dale L.; Nissen, Scott J; Patzoldt, William L.; Tranel, Patrick J.; Culpepper, A. Stanley; Grey, Timothy L.; Webster, Theodore M.; Vencill, William K.; Sammons, R Douglas; Jiang, Jiming

    2009-01-01

    The herbicide glyphosate became widely used in the United States and other parts of the world after the commercialization of glyphosate-resistant crops. These crops have constitutive overexpression of a glyphosate-insensitive form of the herbicide target site gene, 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS). Increased use of glyphosate over multiple years imposes selective genetic pressure on weed populations. We investigated recently discovered glyphosate-resistant Amaranthus palmer...

  1. Associao de glyphosate e imidazolinonas no controle de arroz-vermelho em arroz Clearfield / Association of glyphosate and imidazolinones on red rice control in Clearfield rice

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Valmir Gaedke, Menezes; Carlos Henrique Paim, Mariot; Augusto, Kalsing; Thais Fernanda Stella de, Freitas; Daniel Santos, Grohs; Felipe de Oliveira, Matzenbacher.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi o de avaliar os efeitos da utilizao de glyphosate e herbicidas imidazolinonas, em aplicaes isoladas ou associadas, sobre o controle de arroz-vermelho (Oryza sativa) e produtividade de gros de arroz Clearfield. O experimento foi conduzido a campo na safra 200 [...] 7/08, em Cachoeirinha, RS, Brasil, com delineamento em blocos ao acaso e tratamentos dispostos em arranjo fatorial (2x6), usando-se quatro repeties. O fator A constou de dois nveis do herbicida glyphosate, aplicados no subperodo semeadura-emergncia da cultura por ocasio do incio da emisso do coleptilo do arroz (ponto de agulha); o fator B constou de seis tratamentos com imazethapyr+imazapic, aplicados em associao ao glyphosate ou quando a cultura atingiu o estdio de trs folhas expandidas. As trs variveis explicativas analisadas foram a populao de plantas de arroz e arroz-vermelho, a eficcia do controle de arroz-vermelho e a produtividade de gros da cultura. O uso de glyphosate no ponto de agulha reduziu em 75% a populao do arroz-vermelho e aumentou em 40% a produtividade de gros de arroz, em relao testemunha. O uso isolado de herbicidas imidazolinonas e sua associao com o dessecante proporcionou controle eficaz do arroz-vermelho e incrementou a produtividade de gros, em comparao situao sem controle da infestante, independente da dose e do sistema de aplicao. Abstract in english The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of the utilization of glyphosate and imidazolinones herbicides, in isolated or associated applications, on the effectiveness of red rice (Oryza sativa) control and grain yield of Clearfield-rice. The experiment was conducted under field cond [...] itions in 2007/08, in Cachoeirinha, RS, Brazil, using a randomized block design in a two-factorial design 2x6, with four replicates. The factor A was composed by two levels of glyphosate, applied during the subperiod between sowing and crop emergence at the early coleoptile stage of the rice plants; and the factor B consisted of six treatments with imazethapyr+imazapic, applied in association with glyphosate or when the rice crop plants had three expanded leaves. The crop and weed populations, red rice control and grain yield of crop were evaluated. The results show that the glyphosate application at the early coleoptile stage of the crop reduced 75% the red rice population and increased 40% the grain yield, in relation to the situation without weed control. The use of imidazolinones and their association with glyphosate provided effective control of red rice and increased the grain yield, independent of rates and application system.

  2. Glyphosate influence on the physiological parameters of Conyza bonariensis biotypes / Influncia de glyphosate em parmetros fisiolgicos de bitipos de Conyza bonariensis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L., Vargas; D.R.O., Silva; D., Agostinetto; M.B., Matallo; F.M., Santos; S.D.B., Almeida; G., Chavarria; D.F.P., Silva.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho determinar alteraes na fotossntese e na inibio da EPSPs, com base no acmulo de cido chiqumico, em bitipos de buva resistente e suscetvel ao glyphosate. Foram realizados dois experimentos, conduzidos em esquema bifatorial. No primeiro, avaliaram-se bitipos de bu [...] va (um resistente e outro suscetvel ao glyphosate) e doses do herbicida (0 e 1.080ge.a.ha-1) aplicadas sobre a planta daninha. No segundo experimento, os bitipos de buva (resistente e suscetvel ao glyphosate) foram avaliados em cinco pocas: 0, 3, 7, 10 e 14 dias aps a aplicao do herbicida (DAH). Foram efetuadas determinaes da taxa fotossinttica, transpirao, eficincia da carboxilao e uso eficiente da gua, empregando analisador de gases no infravermelho (IRGA), e a concentrao de cido chiqumico, determinada por HPLC. A aplicao do glyphosate afetou negativamente os parmetros fotossintticos do bitipo suscetvel, causando total inibio da taxa fotossinttica, da taxa transpiratria, da eficincia da carboxilao e da eficincia do uso da gua, a partir dos 7DAH. J para o bitipo resistente, no se observou total inibio dos parmetros fotossintticos. Em ambos os bitipos ocorreu acmulo de cido chiqumico aps aplicao de glyphosate; contudo, o bitipo suscetvel apresentou as maiores concentraes, indicando maior sensibilidade da enzima EPSPs. O acmulo de cido chiqumico no bitipo resistente indica que o mecanismo de resistncia no est relacionado somente com a insensibilidade da EPSPs ao glyphosate e/ou que outros mecanismos de resistncia podem estar envolvidos. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to determine changes in gas exchange and inhibition of EPSPs, based on the accumulation of shikimic acid in horseweed biotypes resistant and sensitive to glyphosate. Two experiments were conducted in a factorial model. The first one evaluated horseweed biotypes (one r [...] esistant and one susceptible to glyphosate), and herbicide rates (0 and 1,080 g a.e. ha ) applied on the weed. In the second experiment, the horseweed biotypes (susceptible and resistant to glyphosate) were evaluated in five periods as following: 0, 3, 7, 10, and 14 days after herbicide application (DAH). The photosynthetic rate, transpiration, carboxylation efficiency, and water efficiency were determined using an infrared gas analyzer (IRGA), and shikimic acid concentration by HPLC. The application of glyphosate damaged the photosynthetic parameters of the susceptible biotype, causing complete inhibition of the photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, carboxylation efficiency and water use efficiency, starting from the 7 DAH. On the other hand, total inhibition of the photosynthetic parameters was not observed for the resistant biotype. Shikimic acid accumulation occurred in both biotypes after glyphosate application but the susceptible biotype had the highest concentrations, indicating greater sensitivity of the enzyme EPSPs. The accumulation of shikimic acid in the resistant biotype indicates that the mechanism of resistance is not related to the total insensitivity of the enzyme EPSPs to glyphosate and/or that other resistance mechanisms may be involved.

  3. The use of environmental metabolomics to determine glyphosate level of exposure in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metabolic profiling in plants can be used to differentiate between treatments and to search for biomarkers for exposure. A methodology for processing Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode-Array-Detection data is devised. This methodology includes a scheme for selecting informative wavelengths, baseline removal, retention time alignment, selection of relevant retention times, and principal component analysis (PCA). Plant crude extracts from rapeseed seedling exposed to sublethal concentrations of glyphosate are used as a study case. Through this approach, plants exposed to concentrations down to 5 ?M could be distinguished from the controls. The compounds responsible for this differentiation were partially identified and were different from those specific for high exposure samples, which suggests that two different responses to glyphosate are elicited in rapeseed depending on the level of exposure. The PCA loadings indicate that a combination of other metabolites could be more sensitive than the response of shikimate to detect glyphosate exposure. - Highlights: ? A method for processing UHPLC-DAD data for plant metabolic profiling is devised. ? The metabolic profiling approach is more sensitive to glyphosate exposure than shikimate. ? Plants exposed to concentrations down to 5 ?M can be distinguished from the controls. ? Two different responses to glyphosate may be elicited in rapeseed depending on the level of exposure. - A novel untargeted environmental metabololomic approach is used to detect low-level glyphosate exposure of rapeseed seedlings.

  4. The use of environmental metabolomics to determine glyphosate level of exposure in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Iben Lykke; Tomasi, Giorgio; Sorensen, Hilmer; Boll, Esther S.; Hansen, Hans Christian Bruun [Department of Basic Sciences and Environment, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, DK-1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark); Christensen, Jan H., E-mail: jch@life.ku.dk [Department of Basic Sciences and Environment, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, DK-1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark)

    2011-10-15

    Metabolic profiling in plants can be used to differentiate between treatments and to search for biomarkers for exposure. A methodology for processing Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode-Array-Detection data is devised. This methodology includes a scheme for selecting informative wavelengths, baseline removal, retention time alignment, selection of relevant retention times, and principal component analysis (PCA). Plant crude extracts from rapeseed seedling exposed to sublethal concentrations of glyphosate are used as a study case. Through this approach, plants exposed to concentrations down to 5 {mu}M could be distinguished from the controls. The compounds responsible for this differentiation were partially identified and were different from those specific for high exposure samples, which suggests that two different responses to glyphosate are elicited in rapeseed depending on the level of exposure. The PCA loadings indicate that a combination of other metabolites could be more sensitive than the response of shikimate to detect glyphosate exposure. - Highlights: > A method for processing UHPLC-DAD data for plant metabolic profiling is devised. > The metabolic profiling approach is more sensitive to glyphosate exposure than shikimate. > Plants exposed to concentrations down to 5 {mu}M can be distinguished from the controls. > Two different responses to glyphosate may be elicited in rapeseed depending on the level of exposure. - A novel untargeted environmental metabololomic approach is used to detect low-level glyphosate exposure of rapeseed seedlings.

  5. Herbicidas alternativos para controle de bitipos de Conyza bonariensis e C. canadensis resistentes ao glyphosate / Alternative herbicides to control glyphosate-resistant biotypes of Conyza bonariensis and C. canadensis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M.S., Moreira; M.S.C., Melo; S.J.P., Carvalho; M., Nicolai; P.J., Crhistoffoleti.

    Full Text Available Aps sucessivos anos, aplicaes do herbicida glyphosate em pomares de citros no Estado de So Paulo selecionaram bitipos resistentes de Conyza bonariensis e C. canadensis. Na ocorrncia de plantas daninhas resistentes em uma rea agrcola, tornam-se necessrias mudanas nas prticas de manejo para [...] obteno de adequado controle das populaes resistentes, bem como para a reduo da presso de seleo sobre outras espcies. Assim, este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de identificar herbicidas alternativos para controle de bitipos de Conyza spp. resistentes ao herbicida glyphosate, com aplicaes em diferentes estdios fenolgicos da planta daninha. Trs experimentos foram conduzidos em campo, em pomares de citros em formao, sobre plantas de buva em estdio fenolgico de dez folhas e no pr-florescimento. Para plantas no estdio de dez folhas, controle satisfatrio foi obtido com aplicaes de glyphosate + bromacil + diuron (1.440 + 1.200 + 1.200 g ha-1), glyphosate + atrazina (1.440 + 1.500 g ha-1) e glyphosate + diuron (1.440 + 1.500 g ha-1). Quando em estdio de pr-florescimento de Conyza spp., a aplicao do herbicida amnio-glufosinato, na dose de 400 g ha-1, isolado ou associado a MSMA, bromacil+diuron, metsulfuron, carfentrazone e paraquat, foi a alternativa vivel para controle dos bitipos resistentes ao glyphosate. Abstract in english After successive years, glyphosate applications on So Paulo-Brazil citrus orchards selected resistant biotypes of Conyza bonariensis and C. canadensis. The occurrence of herbicide-resistant weed biotypes at some agricultural area makes it necessary to change the management practices to reach effect [...] ive control of the selected resistant populations, as well as to reduce selection pressure on the other species. Thus, this work aimed to identify the alternative herbicides to control glyphosate-resistant biotypes of Conyza spp., with applications at different weed phenological stages. Three trials were developed under field conditions: in citrus orchards under formation, in plants with phenological stages of ten leaves and at pre-flowering. For plants at the ten leaf stage, satisfactory control was reached with applications of glyphosate + bromacil + diuron (1,440 + 1,200 + 1,200 g ha-1), glyphosate + atrazine (1,440 + 1,500 g ha-1) and glyphosate + diuron (1,440 + 1,500 g ha-1). For Conyza spp. plants at the pre-flowering stage, ammonium-glufosinate application, at the rate of 400 g ha-1, isolated or associated to MSMA, bromacil+diuron, metsulfuron, carfentrazone and paraquat, was a viable alternative to control glyphosate-resistant biotypes.

  6. Interao de glyphosate com carfentrazone-ethyl / Glyphosate - carfentrazone-ethyl interaction

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R.C., Werlang; A.A., Silva.

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi conduzido um experimento em condies controladas para determinar a interao do carfentrazone-ethyl em mistura no tanque com o herbicida glyphosate, no controle de seis espcies de plantas daninhas. Glyphosate aplicado isoladamente na dose de 720 g ha-1 foi eficaz no controle de Amaranthus hybr [...] idus (100%), Desmodium tortuosum (100%), Bidens pilosa (99%), Eleusine indica (96%), Digitaria horizontalis (100%) e Commelina benghalensis (93%) aos 21 DAA. Carfentrazone-ethyl aplicado isoladamente controlou eficazmente C. benghalensis. As misturas de glyphosate nas doses de 252 e 720 g ha-1 com carfentrazone-ethyl nas doses de 15 e 30 g ha demonstraram efeito aditivo no controle de A. hybridus, D. tortuosum e Bidens pilosa, exceo das misturas de glyphosate na dose de 252 g ha-1 com as doses de 15 e 30 g ha-1 de carfentrazone-ethyl, que proporcionam efeito sinergstico no controle de D. tortuosum. A adio das duas doses de carfentrazone-ethyl antagonizou o efeito de glyphosate na menor dose (252 g ha-1) no controle de E. indica, apresentando, no entanto, efeito aditivo com o glyphosate na maior dose (720 g ha-1). J para D. horizontalis, as misturas de carfentrazone-ethyl com glyphosate na menor dose (252 g ha-1) apresentaram efeito sinergstico no controle dessa espcie, demonstrando, ainda, efeito aditivo na mistura com glyphosate na dose de 720 g ha-1. A mistura de carfentrazone-ethyl com glyphosate proporcionou efeito aditivo no controle de C. benghalensis, independentemente das combinaes de doses avaliadas. Os resultados deste experimento indicam que carfentrazone-ethyl apresenta comportamento diferenciado quanto interao com glyphosate, dependendo da espcie de planta daninha e da dose dos herbicidas utilizados na mistura em tanque, sendo complementar na mistura em tanque com glyphosate, pois demonstrou efeito antagnico em poucas das combinaes estudadas, prevalecendo seu efeito aditivo na mistura com glyphosate, no controle das espcies avaliadas. Abstract in english Under evironmental controlled conditions experiments were conducted to determine the efficacy of carfentrazone-ethyl in tank mixture with glyphosate to control six weed species. Glyphosate alone at 720 g ha-1 was effective in controlling Amaranthus hybridus (100%), Desmodium tortuosum (100%), Bidens [...] pilosa (99%), Eleusine indica (96%), Digitaria horizontalis (100%) and Commelina benghalensis (93%) at 21 DAA. Carfentrazone-ethyl alone controlled only C. benghalensis. efficiently. Glyphosate mixtures (252 and 720 g ha-1) with carfentrazone-ethyl at 15 and 30 g ha showed an additive effect in controlling A. hybridus, D. tortuosum and Bidens pilosa, except for glyphosate mixture at 252 g ha-1 with carfentrazone-ethyl at 15 and 30 g ha-1, which showed synergism in controlling D. tortuosum. The addition of the two carfentrazone-ethyl doses antagonized the effect of the smallest dose (252 g ha-1) of glyphosate on E. indica control. However, the largest glyphosate dose (720 g ha-1) provided additive effect when mixed with both carfentrazone-ethyl doses. For D. horizontalis, carfentrazone-ethyl mixtures with glyphosate in the smallest dose (252 g ha-1) had a synergistic effect in the control of this species, also showing and additive effect in the mixture with glyphosate at 720 g ha-1. Carfentrazone-ethyl mixture with glyphosate provided an additive effect in C. benghalensis control, regardless of dose combinations. The results of this experiment indicate that carfentrazone-ethyl presents a differentiated behavior when interacting with glyphosate, depending on the weed species and the herbicide dose used in the tank mixtures, being complementary in tank-mix combinations with glyphosate, since it showed an antagonistic effect in few combinations, with its additive effect prevailing in the mixture with glyphosate for the control of the evaluated species.

  7. Interao de glyphosate com carfentrazone-ethyl Glyphosate - carfentrazone-ethyl interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C. Werlang

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi conduzido um experimento em condies controladas para determinar a interao do carfentrazone-ethyl em mistura no tanque com o herbicida glyphosate, no controle de seis espcies de plantas daninhas. Glyphosate aplicado isoladamente na dose de 720 g ha-1 foi eficaz no controle de Amaranthus hybridus (100%, Desmodium tortuosum (100%, Bidens pilosa (99%, Eleusine indica (96%, Digitaria horizontalis (100% e Commelina benghalensis (93% aos 21 DAA. Carfentrazone-ethyl aplicado isoladamente controlou eficazmente C. benghalensis. As misturas de glyphosate nas doses de 252 e 720 g ha-1 com carfentrazone-ethyl nas doses de 15 e 30 g ha demonstraram efeito aditivo no controle de A. hybridus, D. tortuosum e Bidens pilosa, exceo das misturas de glyphosate na dose de 252 g ha-1 com as doses de 15 e 30 g ha-1 de carfentrazone-ethyl, que proporcionam efeito sinergstico no controle de D. tortuosum. A adio das duas doses de carfentrazone-ethyl antagonizou o efeito de glyphosate na menor dose (252 g ha-1 no controle de E. indica, apresentando, no entanto, efeito aditivo com o glyphosate na maior dose (720 g ha-1. J para D. horizontalis, as misturas de carfentrazone-ethyl com glyphosate na menor dose (252 g ha-1 apresentaram efeito sinergstico no controle dessa espcie, demonstrando, ainda, efeito aditivo na mistura com glyphosate na dose de 720 g ha-1. A mistura de carfentrazone-ethyl com glyphosate proporcionou efeito aditivo no controle de C. benghalensis, independentemente das combinaes de doses avaliadas. Os resultados deste experimento indicam que carfentrazone-ethyl apresenta comportamento diferenciado quanto interao com glyphosate, dependendo da espcie de planta daninha e da dose dos herbicidas utilizados na mistura em tanque, sendo complementar na mistura em tanque com glyphosate, pois demonstrou efeito antagnico em poucas das combinaes estudadas, prevalecendo seu efeito aditivo na mistura com glyphosate, no controle das espcies avaliadas.Under evironmental controlled conditions experiments were conducted to determine the efficacy of carfentrazone-ethyl in tank mixture with glyphosate to control six weed species. Glyphosate alone at 720 g ha-1 was effective in controlling Amaranthus hybridus (100%, Desmodium tortuosum (100%, Bidens pilosa (99%, Eleusine indica (96%, Digitaria horizontalis (100% and Commelina benghalensis (93% at 21 DAA. Carfentrazone-ethyl alone controlled only C. benghalensis. efficiently. Glyphosate mixtures (252 and 720 g ha-1 with carfentrazone-ethyl at 15 and 30 g ha showed an additive effect in controlling A. hybridus, D. tortuosum and Bidens pilosa, except for glyphosate mixture at 252 g ha-1 with carfentrazone-ethyl at 15 and 30 g ha-1, which showed synergism in controlling D. tortuosum. The addition of the two carfentrazone-ethyl doses antagonized the effect of the smallest dose (252 g ha-1 of glyphosate on E. indica control. However, the largest glyphosate dose (720 g ha-1 provided additive effect when mixed with both carfentrazone-ethyl doses. For D. horizontalis, carfentrazone-ethyl mixtures with glyphosate in the smallest dose (252 g ha-1 had a synergistic effect in the control of this species, also showing and additive effect in the mixture with glyphosate at 720 g ha-1. Carfentrazone-ethyl mixture with glyphosate provided an additive effect in C. benghalensis control, regardless of dose combinations. The results of this experiment indicate that carfentrazone-ethyl presents a differentiated behavior when interacting with glyphosate, depending on the weed species and the herbicide dose used in the tank mixtures, being complementary in tank-mix combinations with glyphosate, since it showed an antagonistic effect in few combinations, with its additive effect prevailing in the mixture with glyphosate for the control of the evaluated species.

  8. Impact of glyphosate on the development, fertility and demography of Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae): ecological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, M I; Sanchez, N; Pineda, S; Chi, H; Ronco, A

    2009-09-01

    Few ecotoxicological studies have used life table analysis to evaluate the toxicity of pesticides on beneficial organisms. This study is the first report of the effect of the herbicide glyphosate on a predator insect, Chrysoperla externa, using a demographic approach. This predator is associated to soybean pests and has a potential role as a biological control agent in the Neotropical Region. The objective of this work was to evaluate the side-effects of glyphosate on the development, fertility and demography of C. externa, treated orally by ingestion of glyphosate-dipped eggs of Sitotroga cerealella in laboratory conditions. The data were analyzed using the age-stage, two-sex life table. Development from third larval instar to pupae and adult longevity were shorter in glyphosate-treatment than in the control. Adult pre-reproductive period was longer in glyphosate-treatment than in the control. Fecundity and fertility were deeply reduced, as well, being fertility greater affected. A high important reduction was registered in all population parameters. Most eggs from glyphosate-treated cohort looked abnormal, smaller than control, dehydrated and became black 2d after oviposition. In addition, adults developed tumours in the abdomen region at 20d after emergence, being the effect more drastic in females than males. It is beyond the scope of our study to speculate on the effects of this herbicide on C. externa field populations. However, it seems likely that populations under continuous use of glyphosate would be exposed at greater detrimental effects in the long term. PMID:19577273

  9. Sensitivity of Reliability Estimates in Partially Damaged RC Structures subject to Earthquakes, using Reduced Hysteretic Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwankiewicz, R.; Nielsen, Sren R. K.; Skjrbk, P. S.

    The subject of the paper is the investigation of the sensitivity of structural reliability estimation by a reduced hysteretic model for a reinforced concrete frame under an earthquake excitation.......The subject of the paper is the investigation of the sensitivity of structural reliability estimation by a reduced hysteretic model for a reinforced concrete frame under an earthquake excitation....

  10. A red and far-red light receptor mutation confers resistance to the herbicide glyphosate

    KAUST Repository

    Sharkhuu, Altanbadralt

    2014-06-01

    Glyphosate is a widely applied broad-spectrum systemic herbicide that inhibits competitively the penultimate enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) from the shikimate pathway, thereby causing deleterious effects. A glyphosate-resistant Arabidopsis mutant (gre1) was isolated and genetic analyses indicated that a dysfunctional red (R) and far-red (FR) light receptor, phytochrome B (phyB), caused this phenotype. This finding is consistent with increased glyphosate sensitivity and glyphosate-induced shikimate accumulation in low R:FR light, and the induction of genes encoding enzymes of the shikimate pathway in high R:FR light. Expression of the shikimate pathway genes exhibited diurnal oscillation and this oscillation was altered in the phyB mutant. Furthermore, transcript analysis suggested that this diurnal oscillation was not only dependent on phyB but was also due to circadian regulatory mechanisms. Our data offer an explanation of the well documented observation that glyphosate treatment at various times throughout the day, with their specific composition of light quality and intensity, results in different efficiencies of the herbicide.

  11. Physical Activity Reduces Salt Sensitivity of Blood Pressure: The Genetic Epidemiology Network of Salt Sensitivity Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rebholz, Casey M.; Gu, Dongfeng; Chen, Jing; Huang, Jian-Feng; Cao, Jie; Chen, Ji-chun; Li, Jianxin; Lu, Fanghong; Mu, Jianjun; Ma, Jixiang; Hu, Dongsheng; Ji, Xu; Bazzano, Lydia A; Liu, Depei; He, Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Salt sensitivity of blood pressure (BP) is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. A dietary feeding study was conducted from October 2003 to July 2005 that included a 7-day low-sodium intervention (51.3 mmol sodium/day) followed by a 7-day high-sodium intervention (307.8 mmol sodium/day) among 1,906 individuals who were 16 years of age or older and living in rural northern China. Salt sensitivity of BP was defined as mean BP change from the low-sodium intervention to the high-sodium...

  12. Rosiglitazone Reduces Blood Pressure in Female Dahl Salt-sensitive Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sartori-Valinotti, Julio C.; Venegas-Pont, Marcia R.; LaMarca, Babbette B.; Romero, Damian G.; Yanes, Licy L.; Racusen, Lorraine C.; Jones, Allison V.; Ryan, Michael J.; Reckelhoff, Jane F.

    2009-01-01

    Postmenopausal women (PMW) are at greater risk for salt-sensitive hypertension and insulin resistance than premenopausal women. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma (PPAR?) agonists reduce blood pressure (BP) and insulin resistance in humans. As in PMW, ovariectomy (OVX) increases salt sensitivity of BP and body weight in Dahl salt sensitive (DS) rats. This study addressed whether rosiglitazone (ROSI), a PPAR? agonist, attenuates salt-sensitive hypertension in intact (INT) and OVX...

  13. The toxicity of glyphosate alone and glyphosate-surfactant mixtures to western toad (Anaxyrus boreas) tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Kim; Davidson, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    Pesticide choice based on toxicity to nontarget wildlife is reliant on available toxicity data. Despite a number of recent studies examining the effects of glyphosate on amphibians, very few have aimed to understand the toxicological effects of glyphosate in combination with surfactants as it is commonly applied in the field. Land managers interested in making pesticide choices based on minimizing impacts to nontarget wildlife are hindered by a lack of published toxicity data. Short-term acute toxicity trials were conducted for glyphosate in the form of isopropylamine salt (IPA) alone and mixed with 2 surfactants: Agri-dex and Competitor with western toad (Anaxyrus [Bufo] boreas) tadpoles. Glyphosate IPA mixed with Competitor was 6 times more toxic than glyphosate IPA mixed with Agri-dex, and both mixtures were more toxic than glyphosate IPA alone. The median lethal concentrations reported for 24-h and 48-h exposures were 8279?mg/L (24?h) and 6392?mg/L (48?h) for glyphosate IPA alone; 5092?mg/L (24?h) and 4254?mg/L (48?h) for glyphosate IPA mixed with Agri-dex; and 853?mg/L (24?h) and 711?mg/L (48?h) for glyphosate IPA mixed with Competitor. The present study indicates that the toxicity of a tank mix may be greatly increased by the addition of surfactants and may vary widely depending on the specific surfactant. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:2791-2795. 2015 SETAC. PMID:26084619

  14. Identificao de bitipos de azevm (Lolium multiflorum resistentes ao herbicida glyphosate em pomares de ma Identification of glyphosate-resistant ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum biotypes in apple orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Vargas

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O glyphosate um herbicida de amplo espectro utilizado h mais de 15 anos em pomares de ma na regio de Vacaria-RS, para manejo da vegetao nas linhas da cultura. So realizadas, em geral, trs a quatro aplicaes por ciclo e a dose normalmente utilizada de 720 a 1.080 g e.a. ha-1 de glyphosate (2 a 3 L ha-1 do produto comercial. O azevm (Lolium multiflorum uma planta daninha comum em pomares e, tradicionalmente, sensvel ao glyphosate. Entretanto, nos ltimos anos a ocorrncia de plantas de azevm que, aps receberem o tratamento com glyphosate, no manifestam sintomas significativos de toxicidade sugere que elas adquiriram resistncia ao produto. Assim, com o objetivo de avaliar a resposta de uma populao de plantas de azevm ao glyphosate, foram realizados trs experimentos: um em campo e dois em casa de vegetao. No experimento em campo os tratamentos avaliados constaram de doses crescentes de glyphosate (0, 360, 720, 1.440, 2.880, 5.760 e 11.520 g e.a. ha-1, e os herbicidas paraquat, glufosinate, haloxyfop e diclofop foram empregados como produtos-padro, aplicados em dois estdios vegetativos do azevm. No experimento em casa de vegetao, os tratamentos constaram de doses crescentes de glyphosate (0, 360, 720, 1.440, 2.880 e 5.760 g e.a. ha-1 mais os herbicidas testemunhas, aplicados sobre plantas do bitipo considerado resistente e de um sensvel. No segundo experimento realizado em casa de vegetao foram avaliados tratamentos contendo glyphosate (720, 1.440, 2.880, 720 + 720 e 720 + 1.440 g e.a. ha-1, em aplicaes nicas e seqenciais, mais os herbicidas paraquat, glufosinate, haloxyfop, clethodim, sethoxydim, diclofop, fenoxaprop, fluazifop, paraquat + diuron, atrazine + simazine, trifluralin e metolachlor. A toxicidade dos tratamentos herbicidas foi avaliada aos 15, 30 e 45 DAT (dias aps tratamento. Os resultados obtidos nos experimentos em campo e em casa de vegetao, de forma geral, evidenciam que o bitipo sensvel facilmente controlado com o herbicida glyphosate e pelos demais herbicidas ps-emergentes avaliados, independentemente do estdio vegetativo. Demonstram, ainda, que o bitipo resistente apresenta-se, igualmente ao bitipo sensvel, altamente suscetvel aos herbicidas com mecanismo de ao distinto daquele do glyphosate. No entanto, o bitipo resistente apresenta baixa resposta ao herbicida glyphosate, mesmo se este for empregado em altas doses, evidenciando ter adquirido resistncia a esse produto.Glyphosate is a wide spectrum herbicide used for over 15 years in apple orchards in Vacaria-RS for weed control in rows of trees. Usually, 3 to 4 applications per year are made at a rate of 720 to 1080 g a.e. glyphosate ha-1 (2 to 3 L ha-1 of commercial product. Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum is a common weed in orchards and traditionally sensitive to glyphosate. However, in the last years, some ryegrass plants have not been found to show significant toxicity symptoms after treatment with glyphosate, suggesting that they acquired resistance to this product. To evaluate the response of a ryegrass plant population to glyphosate, one field and two greenhouse experiments were carried out. The field experiment treatments had increasing rates of glyphosate (0; 360; 720; 1,440; 2,880; 5,760 and 11,520 g a.e. ha-1, in addition to the herbicides paraquat, glufosinate-ammonium, haloxyfop and diclofop-methyl as standards, sprayed at two different vegetative growth stages of ryegrass. The greenhouse experiments had increasing rates of glyphosate (0; 360; 720; 1,440; 2,880 and 5,760 g a.e. ha-1 plus the above listed check herbicides sprayed on biotypes considered resistant and on plants of one susceptible biotype. In the second greenhouse experiment, glyphosate rates (720; 1,440; 2,880; 720 + 720 and 720 + 1,440 g a.e. ha-1 were sprayed in single and sequential applications, in addition to the herbicides paraquat, glufosinate-ammonium, haloxyfop, clethodim, sethoxydim, diclofop-methyl, fenoxaprop, fluazifop, paraquat + diuron,

  15. Sugarcane tolerance to ratoon eradication with glyphosate determined by physiological responses / Tolerncia da soqueira da cana-de-acar erradicao com glyphosate determinada por respostas fisiolgicas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M.A., Silva; M.T., Arantes; R., Oliver; M.C., Brunelli.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a tolerncia de cultivares de cana-de-acar erradicao de soqueiras com diferentes doses de glyphosate por meio de respostas fisiolgicas. Para isso, um ensaio foi desenvolvido no delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso em esquema fatorial 4 x [...] 4 (cultivares x doses), totalizando 16 tratamentos com quatro repeties. Foram utilizados os cultivares IAC91-5155, IACSP93-3046, IAC86-2480 e IAC87-3396 tratados com as doses de glyphosate 0, 1.920, 2.400, e 2.880gha-1. As variveis analisadas foram porcentagem de perfilhos mortos, eficincia quntica do FSII (Fv/Fm) e ndice SPAD. H diferenas entre cultivares de cana-de-acar quanto eliminao de perfilhos e a respostas fisiolgicas a diferentes doses de glyphosate. A dose de 2.880gha-1 foi a mais eficiente em eliminar perfilhos de cana-de-acar. Os cultivares IAC86-2480, IAC87-3396 e IACSP93-3046 foram os mais sensveis, e o IAC91-5155 tolerou por mais tempo os danos promovidos no aparato fotossinttico dessecao das soqueiras pelo glyphosate. Devido s respostas diferenciadas, manejos distintos devem ser considerados para a eliminao das soqueiras de diferentes cultivares. Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate the tolerance of sugarcane cultivars to ratoon eradication under different glyphosate rates by means of physiological responses. Therefore, a trial was carried out in randomized complete blocks with 4 x 4 factorial design (cultivars x rates) totaling 16 treatments with f [...] our replicates. The cultivars IAC91-5155, IACSP93-3046, and IAC86-2480 and IAC87-3396 and the glyphosate rates 0 g ha-1; 1,920 g ha-1; 2,400 g ha-1; 2,880 g ha-1 were tested. The variables analyzed were percentage of tiller mortality, quantum efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) and SPAD index. The results showed that there are differences among sugarcane cultivars for tiller eradication and for physiological responses with glyphosate different rates. The rate of 2,880 g ha-1 was the most efficient in eliminating sugarcane tillers. The cultivars IAC86-2480, IAC87-3396 and IACSP93-3046 were the most sensitive and the IAC91-5155 tolerated, for a longer period of time, the damage to the photosynthetic apparatus of the ratoons caused by glyphosate desiccation. Due to different responses, different managements should be considered for eliminating ratoons of different cultivars.

  16. Monitoring glyphosate and AMPA concentrations in wells and drains using the sorbicell passive sampler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendelboe, Anders Lindblad; de Jonge, Hubert

    Glyphosate is one of the worlds most extensively used weed control agents. Glyphosate, and its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), are suspected to be hazardous to human health and the aquatic environment. In Denmark, the extensive use has resulted in an increasing number of occurrences in groundwater wells and tile drains, stressing the need for extensive monitoring of this compound in the environment. Traditionally, monitoring programs are based on grab sampling which is time consuming and expensive due to the need for frequent sampling events. Using a passive sampling device, the SorbiCell, will decrease the workload and number of samples freeing up funds for larger monitoring programs. When installed in a well the SorbiCell will continuously sample the water giving either a flux-weighed or time-weighted average measurement of the glyphosate/AMPA concentration throughout the sampling period. It may therefore be possible to measure lower concentrations as the glyphosate/AMPA sorbed in the SorbiCell is an accumulated measurement. Also, glyphosate/AMPA associated with sudden flush events will be detected by the SorbiCells, while such events may pass between two consecutive grab samples. To document the ability of the SorbiCell to capture glyphosate/AMPA, a series of laboratory flow experiments were carried out. Sorption and release from the flow cells is tested with two influent solutions (0.15 g/l and 5 g/l), one of demineralized water and the other with drain water from the Silstrup site (part of the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Program, PLAP), spiked with 14C marked glyphosate. Two different volumes of effluent were then eluted through Sorbicells with two different capacities. The concentration of glyphosate/AMPA was continuously measured in both the influent and effluent. The aim of the study is to test and verify if the glyphosate/AMPA sensitive SorbiCell is an efficient and reliable, and cost-effective technology for groundwater and drainwater monitoring of pesticides.

  17. Influence of glyphosate on the copper dissolution in phosphate buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, C. F. B.; Silva, M. O.; Machado, S. A. S.; Mazo, L. H.

    2007-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of copper microelectrode in phosphate buffer in the presence of glyphosate was investigated by electrochemical techniques. It was observed that the additions of glyphosate in the phosphate buffer increased the anodic current of copper microelectrode and the electrochemical dissolution was observed. This phenomenon could be associated with the Cu(II) complexation by glyphosate forming a soluble complex. Physical characterization of the surface showed that, in absence of glyphosate, an insoluble layer covered the copper surface; on the other hand, in presence of glyphosate, it was observed a corroded copper surface with the formation of glyphosate complex in solution.

  18. Associaes entre o herbicida glyphosate e inseticidas na cultura da soja Roundup Ready / Associations among glyphosate and insecticides in Roundup Ready soybean

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    F.A., Petter; S.O., Procpio; A., Cargnelutti Filho; A.L.L., Barroso; L.P., Pacheco; A.F., Bueno.

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da associao do herbicida glyphosate com 10 inseticidas de diferentes grupos qumicos sobre a cultura da soja Roundup Ready (cultivar Monsoy 8585 RR), o controle de plantas daninhas e o controle da lagarta-da-soja (Anticarsia gemmatalis). O expe [...] rimento foi realizado em lavoura no municpio de Nova Xavantina - MT, no perodo de novembro de 2005 a abril de 2006, em solo classificado como Latossolo Vermelho distrfico. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 11 x 2, sendo os fatores constitudos por 11 tratamentos inseticidas [lambdacyhalothrin (3,75 g ha-1); permethrin (12,50 g ha-1); methamidophos (300,00 g ha-1); chlorpyriphos (240,00 g ha-1); acephate (150,00 g ha-1); endosulfan (175,00 g ha-1); methomyl (107,50 g ha-1); lufenuron (7,50 g ha-1); triflumuron (14,40 g ha-1); spinosad (24,00 g ha-1); e testemunha sem inseticida], com ou sem a adio (mistura em tanque) de 960 g e.a. ha-1 de glyphosate, formando 22 tratamentos, conduzidos em quatro repeties. Os tratamentos foram aplicados 30 dias depois da emergncia da cultura. A mistura do herbicida glyphosate com o inseticida chlorpyriphos causou fitotoxicidade inicial cultura da soja RR. O controle das plantas daninhas Chamaesyce hirta, Alternanthera tenella, Euphorbia heterophylla e Cenchrus echinatus no foi afetado pelas misturas de glyphosate com todos os inseticidas avaliados. A adio do glyphosate calda de aplicao prejudicou a eficincia inicial dos inseticidas methomyl, methamidophos, chlorpyriphos e acephate no controle de Anticarsia gemmatalis, porm incrementou o controle dessa praga quando associado aos inseticidas spinosad, lambdacyhalothrin e lufenuron. A combinao de glyphosate com os inseticidas methamidophos, chlorpyriphos, lufenuron, triflumuron e spinosad proporcionou os maiores nveis de produtividade de gros da soja RR. Abstract in english This research aimed to evaluate the effects of the association of the herbicide glyphosate with 10 different insecticides of several chemical groups on Roundup Ready soybean (Monsoy 8585 RR), weeds, and on velvetbean caterpillar (Anticarsia gemmatalis). The experiment was carried out under field c [...] onditions at Nova Xavantina-MT, from November 2005 to April 2006 in soil classified as Dystrophic Red Latosol. Trial design was a factorial randomized complete block having 11 insecticide treatments: [lambdacyhalothrin (3,75 g ha-1); permethrin (12,50 g ha-1); methamidophos (300,00 g ha-1); chlorpyriphos (240,00 g ha-1); acephate (150,00 g ha-1); endosulfan (175,00 g ha-1); methomyl (107,50 g ha-1); lufenuron (7,50 g ha-1); triflumuron (14,40 g ha-1); spinosad (24,00 g ha-1); and untreated without insecticide] with and without addiction (tank mixture) of 960 g a.e. ha-1 of glyphosate, totalling 22 treatments. Each treatment had four replications. Treatments were applied 30 days after soybean emergence. Tank mixture of glyphosate and insecticide caused phytotoxicity to soybean. The control of the weeds Chamaesyce hirta, Alternathera tenella, Euphorbia heterophylla and Cenchrus echinatus was not affected by the glyphosate mixture. Tank mixture of glyphosate with the insecticides methomyl, methamidophos, chlorpyriphos and acephate reduced their control of Anticarsia gemmatalis. However, the control performance of the insecticides spinosad, lambdacyhalothrin and lufenuron was increased. The combination of glyphosate with the insecticides methamidophos, chlorpyriphos, lufenuron, triflumuron and spinosad provided the highest soybean yields.

  19. EFFECTS OF GLYPHOSATE AMMONIUM SALT ON THE BIOAVAILABLE PHOSPHORUS CONTENT AND THE ACTIVITY OF SELECTED PHOSPHATASES IN LOAMY SAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej P?atkowski

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effects of glyphosat? ammonium salt on the activity of some enzymes involved in the metabolism of phosphorus in the soil: acid phosphomonoeaterase (EC 3.1.3.2, alkaline phosphomonoeaterase (EC 3.1.3.1, phosphotrieaterase (EC 3.1.5.1, inorganic pyrophosphatase (EC 3.1.6.1, and a phosphorus content in a form available to plants. The experiment was carried out on loamy sand samples with organic carbon content 8.7 g kg-1. Into soil samples the aqueous solutions of Avans Premium 360 SC (360 g glyphosate ammonium salt in 1 dm3 were added. The amount of introduced glyphosate ammonium salt was 0 (control, 1, 10, 50 and 100 mgkg-1, on days 0 (1 hour after glyphosate application, 7, 14, 28 and 56 measured parameters were determined spectrophotometrically. The obtained results showed that the application of glyphosate ammonium salt resulted in changes of available phosphorus content and the activity of enzymes involved in the metabolism of this element in loamy sand. The effects glyphosate ammonium salt dosage and effect of day of experiment were ambiguous. Among the determined parameters the most sensitive to the presence of the glyphosate ammonium was alkaline phosphomonoesterase.

  20. Detection of the onset of glyphosate-induced soybean plant injury through chlorophyll fluorescence signal extraction and measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Feng; Guo, Yiqing; Huang, Yanbo; Reddy, Krishna N.; Zhao, Yanhua; Molin, William T.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) was used to detect the onset of soybean plant injury from treatment of glyphosate, the most widely used herbicide. Thirty-six pots of nonglyphosate-resistant soybean were randomly divided into three groups and treated with different doses of glyphosate solutions. The three treatment groups were control (CTRL) group (with no glyphosate treatment), 0.25X group (treated with 0.217 kg.ae/ha solution of glyphosate), and 0.5X group (treated with 0.433 kg.ae/ha solution of glyphosate). Three kinds of fluorescence measurements, steady-state fluorescence spectra, Kautsky effect parameters, and ChlF-related spectral indices were extracted and generated from the measurements in the glyphosate treatment experiment. The mean values of these fluorescence measurements for each of the CTRL group, the 0.25X group, and the 0.5X group were calculated. Glyphosate-induced leaf injury was then analyzed by examining the separability of these mean values at 6, 24, 48, and 72 hours after the treatment (HAT). Results indicate that the peak position of far-red ChlF shows an obvious blue shift for glyphosate-treated soybean, and peak values of steady-state fluorescence spectra for the three groups can be significantly distinguished from each other at 48 HAT and later. Four Kautsky effect parameters, Fv, Fv/Fm, Area, and PI, are parameters sensitive to glyphosate treatment, showing some differences between the CTRL group and treated groups at 24 HAT, and significant differences among the three groups at and beyond 48 HAT. Moreover, ChlF-related spectral indices, R6832/(R675.R690) and R690/R655, are also shown to be useful in detection of the glyphosate injury, though they are less effective than the steady-state fluorescence spectra and the Kautsky effect parameters. Based on the presented results, it can be concluded that glyphosate-induced soybean injury can be detected in a timely manner by the ChlF measurements, and this method has the potential to be further developed into practical use.

  1. Glyphosate as a tool to produce shikimic acid in plants / Glyphosate como ferramenta para produzir cido chiqumico em plantas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M.B., Matallo; S.D.B., Almeida; D.A.S., Franco; A.L., Cerdeira; D.L.P., Gazzeiro.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available O fosfato de oseltamivir, ingrediente ativo do antiviral Tamiflu, um potente inibidor viral produzido a partir do cido chiqumico e extrado da semente de Ilicium verum, sua mais importante fonte natural. Tendo como stio de ao a enzima 5 enolpiruvilchiquimato-3-fosfato sintase (EPSPs), o glyp [...] hosate o nico composto capaz de inibir a sua atividade, com o consequente acmulo do cido chiqumico nas plantas. Plantas de milho e soja foram pulverizadas com subdoses de glyphosate (0,0 a 230,4 ge.a.ha-1), determinando-se o teor de cido chiqumico na massa seca dessas plantas por HPLC aos 3,7 e 10 dias aps aplicao. Os resultados mostraram acmulo de cido chiqumico na massa seca dessas plantas, com aumento de at 969% no milho e 33.000% na soja, com picos de concentrao aos 3 DAT. A praticabilidade industrial do processo de obteno do cido chiqumico, aliada s condies edafoclimticas favorveis ao plantio de milho e soja em diversos pases, favorece o uso de subdoses de glyphosate na biossntese de cido chiqumico, com potencial para ser explorado como indutor na produo do fosfato de oseltamivir com baixo impacto ambiental. Abstract in english Oseltamivir phosphate is a potent viral inhibitor produced from shikimic acid extracted from seeds of Ilicium verum, the most important natural source. With the site of action 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSP), glyphosate is the only compound capable of inhibiting its activity with [...] the consequent accumulation of shikimic acid in plants. Corn and soybean plants were sprayed with reduced rates of glyphosate (0.0 to 230.4 g a.i. ha) and shikimic acid content in the dry mass was determined by HPLC 3, 7 and 10 days after application. Results showed shikimic acid accumulation in dry mass with increases of up to 969% in corn and 33,000% on soybeans, with peak concentrations 3 days after treatment (DAT). Industrial feasibility for shikimic acid production, combined with favorable climatic conditions for growing corn and soybean in virtually all over Brazil, favor the use of reduced rates of glyphosate in shikimic acid biosynthesis, with potential for use as an inducer in exploration of alternative sources for production of oseltamivir phosphate with low environmental impact.

  2. 75 FR 20862 - Glyphosate From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ..., the Commission established a schedule for the conduct of the subject investigation (75 FR 17768, April... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Glyphosate From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION:...

  3. Impact of phosphate on glyphosate uptake and toxicity in willow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Marcelo Pedrosa; Le Manac'h, Sarah Gingras; Moingt, Matthieu; Smedbol, Elise; Paquet, Serge; Labrecque, Michel; Lucotte, Marc; Juneau, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    Phosphate (PO4(3-)) has been shown to increase glyphosate uptake by willow, a plant species known for its phytoremediation potential. However, it remains unclear if this stimulation of glyphosate uptake can result in an elevated glyphosate toxicity to plants (which could prevent the use of willows in glyphosate-remediation programs). Consequently, we studied the effects of PO4(3-) on glyphosate uptake and toxicity in a fast growing willow cultivar (Salix miyabeana SX64). Plants were grown in hydroponic solution with a combination of glyphosate (0, 0.001, 0.065 and 1mgl(-1)) and PO4(3-) (0, 200 and 400mgl(-1)). We demonstrated that PO4(3-) fertilization greatly increased glyphosate uptake by roots and its translocation to leaves, which resulted in increased shikimate concentration in leaves. In addition to its deleterious effects in photosynthesis, glyphosate induced oxidative stress through hydrogen peroxide accumulation. Although it has increased glyphosate accumulation, PO4(3-) fertilization attenuated the herbicide's deleterious effects by increasing the activity of antioxidant systems and alleviating glyphosate-induced oxidative stress. Our results indicate that in addition to the glyphosate uptake, PO4(3-) is involved in glyphosate toxicity in willow by preventing glyphosate induced oxidative stress. PMID:26561751

  4. Identificao de bitipos de azevm (Lolium multiflorum) resistentes ao herbicida glyphosate em pomares de ma / Identification of glyphosate-resistant ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) biotypes in apple orchards

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L., Vargas; E.S., Roman; M.A., Rizzardi; V.C., Silva.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O glyphosate um herbicida de amplo espectro utilizado h mais de 15 anos em pomares de ma na regio de Vacaria-RS, para manejo da vegetao nas linhas da cultura. So realizadas, em geral, trs a quatro aplicaes por ciclo e a dose normalmente utilizada de 720 a 1.080 g e.a. ha-1 de glyphosat [...] e (2 a 3 L ha-1 do produto comercial). O azevm (Lolium multiflorum) uma planta daninha comum em pomares e, tradicionalmente, sensvel ao glyphosate. Entretanto, nos ltimos anos a ocorrncia de plantas de azevm que, aps receberem o tratamento com glyphosate, no manifestam sintomas significativos de toxicidade sugere que elas adquiriram resistncia ao produto. Assim, com o objetivo de avaliar a resposta de uma populao de plantas de azevm ao glyphosate, foram realizados trs experimentos: um em campo e dois em casa de vegetao. No experimento em campo os tratamentos avaliados constaram de doses crescentes de glyphosate (0, 360, 720, 1.440, 2.880, 5.760 e 11.520 g e.a. ha-1), e os herbicidas paraquat, glufosinate, haloxyfop e diclofop foram empregados como produtos-padro, aplicados em dois estdios vegetativos do azevm. No experimento em casa de vegetao, os tratamentos constaram de doses crescentes de glyphosate (0, 360, 720, 1.440, 2.880 e 5.760 g e.a. ha-1) mais os herbicidas testemunhas, aplicados sobre plantas do bitipo considerado resistente e de um sensvel. No segundo experimento realizado em casa de vegetao foram avaliados tratamentos contendo glyphosate (720, 1.440, 2.880, 720 + 720 e 720 + 1.440 g e.a. ha-1), em aplicaes nicas e seqenciais, mais os herbicidas paraquat, glufosinate, haloxyfop, clethodim, sethoxydim, diclofop, fenoxaprop, fluazifop, paraquat + diuron, atrazine + simazine, trifluralin e metolachlor. A toxicidade dos tratamentos herbicidas foi avaliada aos 15, 30 e 45 DAT (dias aps tratamento). Os resultados obtidos nos experimentos em campo e em casa de vegetao, de forma geral, evidenciam que o bitipo sensvel facilmente controlado com o herbicida glyphosate e pelos demais herbicidas ps-emergentes avaliados, independentemente do estdio vegetativo. Demonstram, ainda, que o bitipo resistente apresenta-se, igualmente ao bitipo sensvel, altamente suscetvel aos herbicidas com mecanismo de ao distinto daquele do glyphosate. No entanto, o bitipo resistente apresenta baixa resposta ao herbicida glyphosate, mesmo se este for empregado em altas doses, evidenciando ter adquirido resistncia a esse produto. Abstract in english Glyphosate is a wide spectrum herbicide used for over 15 years in apple orchards in Vacaria-RS for weed control in rows of trees. Usually, 3 to 4 applications per year are made at a rate of 720 to 1080 g a.e. glyphosate ha-1 (2 to 3 L ha-1 of commercial product). Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) is a c [...] ommon weed in orchards and traditionally sensitive to glyphosate. However, in the last years, some ryegrass plants have not been found to show significant toxicity symptoms after treatment with glyphosate, suggesting that they acquired resistance to this product. To evaluate the response of a ryegrass plant population to glyphosate, one field and two greenhouse experiments were carried out. The field experiment treatments had increasing rates of glyphosate (0; 360; 720; 1,440; 2,880; 5,760 and 11,520 g a.e. ha-1), in addition to the herbicides paraquat, glufosinate-ammonium, haloxyfop and diclofop-methyl as standards, sprayed at two different vegetative growth stages of ryegrass. The greenhouse experiments had increasing rates of glyphosate (0; 360; 720; 1,440; 2,880 and 5,760 g a.e. ha-1) plus the above listed check herbicides sprayed on biotypes considered resistant and on plants of one susceptible biotype. In the second greenhouse experiment, glyphosate rates (720; 1,440; 2,880; 720 + 720 and 720 + 1,440 g a.e. ha-1) were sprayed in single and sequential applications, in addition to the herbicides paraquat, glufosinate-ammonium, haloxyfop, clethodim, sethoxydim, diclofop-met

  5. Glyphosate surfactant herbicide poisoning and management

    OpenAIRE

    Mahendrakar, Kranthi; Venkategowda, Pradeep M.; Rao, S. Manimala; Mutkule, Dnyaneshwar. P.

    2014-01-01

    Glyphosate is a widely used herbicide in agriculture, forestry, industrial weed control and aquatic environments. Glyphosate potential as herbicide was first reported in 1971. It is a non-selective herbicide. It can cause a wide range of clinical manifestations in human beings like skin and throat irritation to hypotension, oliguria and death. We are reporting a case of a 35-year-old male patient who was admitted to our tertiary care hospital following intentional ingestion of around 200 ml o...

  6. RR2 corn and glyphosate: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Alfredo Junior Paiola Albrecht; Leandro Paiola Albrecht; Arthur Arrobas Martins Barroso; Ricardo Victória Filho

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of the Roundup Ready technology are expressive and the acceptance of this technology by farmers is undeniable, giving support to the rapid growth of RR2 corn. Recent studies indicate, however, that glyphosate applied in post-emergence in RR2 corn can eventually cause damage to plant development. Therefore, there are many speculations and questions that need to be clarified in the scientific and technical context glyphosate. Thus, it is necessary the search for information allowin...

  7. Skin toxicity from glyphosate-surfactant formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amerio, Paolo; Motta, Angela; Toto, Paola; Pour, Saman Mohammad; Pajand, Reza; Feliciani, Claudio; Tulli, Antonello

    2004-01-01

    Glyphosate (N-[phosphonomethyl]glycine) is a nonselective herbicide used in agriculture as a foliage spray for the control and the destruction of herbaceous plants. Adverse skin reactions due to contact with this compound have been rarely described. We report a case of a 78-year-old woman presenting with extensive chemical burns on her trunk and legs caused by accidental contact with a glyphosate-surfactant formulation. The lesions healed in four weeks without scarring. PMID:15362602

  8. Ion implantation reduces radiation sensitivity of metal oxide silicon /MOS/ devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    Implanting nitrogen ions improves hardening of silicon oxides 30 percent to 60 percent against ionizing radiation effects. Process reduces sensitivity, but retains stability normally shown by interfaces between silicon and thermally grown oxides.

  9. Privacy-Preserving Scanning of Big Content for Sensitive Data Exposure with MapReduce

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Fang; Shu, Xiaokui; Yao, Danfeng; Butt, Ali R.

    2015-01-01

    The exposure of sensitive data in storage and transmission poses a serious threat to organizational and personal security. Data leak detection aims at scanning content (in storage or transmission) for exposed sensitive data. Because of the large content and data volume, such a screening algorithm needs to be scalable for a timely detection. Our solution uses the MapReduce framework for detecting exposed sensitive content, because it has the ability to arbitrarily scale and utilize public reso...

  10. Glyphosate-resistant Palmer Amaranth in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops were commercialized, glyphosate has been extensively used to effectively and economically manage weeds. The adoption of GR technology also provided growers with the capabilities needed to rapidly adopt conservation tillage production systems. Selection pressure ...

  11. Molecular basis of glyphosate resistance: Different approaches through protein engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Pollegioni, Loredano; Schonbrunn, Ernst; Siehl, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Glyphosate (N-phosphonomethyl-glycine) is the most-used herbicide in the world: glyphosate-based formulations exhibit broad-spectrum herbicidal activity with minimal human and environmental toxicity. The extraordinary success of this simple small molecule is mainly due to the high specificity of glyphosate towards the plant enzyme enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase in the shikimate pathway leading to biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids. Starting in 1996, transgenic glyphosate-resistan...

  12. Differential response of two sourgrass populations to glyphosate

    OpenAIRE

    So Paulo State University, Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil; Bruna Pires da Silva; Paulo Roberto Fidelis Giancotti; Leonardo Bianco Carvalho; Pedro Luis da Costa Aguiar Alves

    2013-01-01

    The repetitive use of glyphosate may cause increase on the resistance of sourgrass (Digitaria insularis) through mechanisms of natural selection. The aim of this study was to verify the response of two populations of sourgrass (one collected from nonagricultural area and the other one from area suspected of glyphosate resistance) to increasing doses of glyphosate. The experimental design was completely randomized with four repetitions. For both populations, glyphosate was sprayed at 10 doses ...

  13. Severe adverse effects related to dermal exposure to a glyphosate-surfactant herbicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariager, T. P.; Madsen, P V

    2013-01-01

    This is a case of severe chemical burns following prolonged accidental exposure to a glyphosate-surfactant herbicide. The patient developed local swelling, bullae and exuding wounds. Neurological impairment followed affecting finger flexion and sensation with reduced nerve conduction. Imaging revealed oedema of the soft tissue and juxta-articular osteopenia, and a causal relationship to exposure is suggested.

  14. Severe adverse effects related to dermal exposure to a glyphosate-surfactant herbicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariager, T P; Madsen, P V; Ebbehj, N E; Schmidt, B; Juhl, A

    2013-01-01

    This is a case of severe chemical burns following prolonged accidental exposure to a glyphosate-surfactant herbicide. The patient developed local swelling, bullae and exuding wounds. Neurological impairment followed affecting finger flexion and sensation with reduced nerve conduction. Imaging rev...

  15. Response of Ranger Russet potato to simulated glyphosate drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field studies were conducted in 2008 at Ontario, OR, Paterson, WA, and Aberdeen, ID to determine the effect of simulated glyphosate drift on potato. Glyphosate was applied at 10-15cm height, stolon-hooking, tuber-initiation, and bulking stage. Glyphosate was applied at 0, 8.5, 54, 107, 215, and 423g...

  16. PHYSIOLOGY OF GLYPHOSATE-RESISTANT PALMER AMARANTH (AMARANTHUS PALMERI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Populations of Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) that have increased tolerance to glyphosate have been detected in Georgia. These populations are not controlled by glyphosate rates of four to ten times of that required to control glyphosate-susceptible biotypes. Laboratory studies were initiate...

  17. Adjoint design sensitivity analysis of reduced atomic systems using generalized Langevin equation for lattice structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min-Geun; Jang, Hong-Lae [National Creative Research Initiatives Center for Isogeometric Optimal Design and Department of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seonho, E-mail: secho@snu.ac.kr [National Creative Research Initiatives Center for Isogeometric Optimal Design and Department of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-01

    An efficient adjoint design sensitivity analysis method is developed for reduced atomic systems. A reduced atomic system and the adjoint system are constructed in a locally confined region, utilizing generalized Langevin equation (GLE) for periodic lattice structures. Due to the translational symmetry of lattice structures, the size of time history kernel function that accounts for the boundary effects of the reduced atomic systems could be reduced to a single atoms degrees of freedom. For the problems of highly nonlinear design variables, the finite difference method is impractical for its inefficiency and inaccuracy. However, the adjoint method is very efficient regardless of the number of design variables since one additional time integration is required for the adjoint GLE. Through numerical examples, the derived adjoint sensitivity turns out to be accurate and efficient through the comparison with finite difference sensitivity.

  18. Co-expression of G2-EPSPS and glyphosate acetyltransferase GAT genes conferring high tolerance to glyphosate in soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bingfu; Guo, Yong; Hong, Huilong; Jin, Longguo; Zhang, Lijuan; Chang, Ru-Zhen; Lu, Wei; Lin, Min; Qiu, Li-Juan

    2015-01-01

    Glyphosate is a widely used non-selective herbicide with broad spectrum of weed control around the world. At present, most of the commercial glyphosate tolerant soybeans utilize glyphosate tolerant gene CP4-EPSPS or glyphosate acetyltransferase gene GAT separately. In this study, both glyphosate tolerant gene G2-EPSPS and glyphosate degraded gene GAT were co-transferred into soybean and transgenic plants showed high tolerance to glyphosate. Molecular analysis including PCR, Sothern blot, qRT-PCR, and Western blot revealed that target genes have been integrated into genome and expressed effectively at both mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, the glyphosate tolerance analysis showed that no typical symptom was observed when compared with a glyphosate tolerant line HJ06-698 derived from GR1 transgenic soybean even at fourfold labeled rate of Roundup. Chlorophyll and shikimic acid content analysis of transgenic plant also revealed that these two indexes were not significantly altered after glyphosate application. These results indicated that co-expression of G2-EPSPS and GAT conferred high tolerance to the herbicide glyphosate in soybean. Therefore, combination of tolerant and degraded genes provides a new strategy for developing glyphosate tolerant transgenic crops. PMID:26528311

  19. Influence of glyphosate on Rhizoctonia crown and root rot (Rhizoctonia solani) in glyphosate-resistant sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous greenhouse studies with a non-commercial glyphosate-resistant sugarbeet variety indicated that susceptibility to Rhizoctonia crown and root rot could increase after glyphosate was applied. Greenhouse and field experiments were conducted in 2008 and 2009 to determine if glyphosate influenced...

  20. Glyphosate resistant and susceptible soybean (Glycine max) and canola (Brassica napus) dose response and metabolism relationships with glyphosate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments were conducted to determine 1) dose response of glyphosate-resistant (GR) and susceptible (non-GR) soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] and canola (Brassica napus L.) to glyphosate, 2) if differential metabolism of glyphosate to aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) is the underlying mechanism ...

  1. Suppression of reduced sensitivity of eddy current testing depending on defect orientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is generated on material structures in nuclear power plants. An eddy current testing (ECT) is used as a method for inspection techniques of a SCC. However when the eddy current direction is in parallel with defect direction, sensitivity of our ECT drops drown to one-quarter than a perpendicular direction. In order to prevent from this reduced sensitivity, Invert Exciting Method was developed. Adjacent exciter coils, which are located in two lines, are alternately opposite in phase of current. Therefore adjacent eddy currents, which are formed in the surface of metallic specimens, are also alternately opposite in phased of current. Then these eddy currents interfere with each other. Consequently eddy currents are inclined to scan direction. Using inclined eddy currents, the ECT has equal detection sensitivity for both defects parallel and perpendicular to scan direction. On the other hand, sensitivity drops down for defects in the same direction to inclined eddy currents. Then we added the function to inverse the phase for exciter coils in a set of line to the ECT system. Hereby the ECT can form symmetrical inclined eddy currents and prevent from reduced sensitivity. We applied Invert Exciting Method to the ECT system and conducted defect detection tests. As a result, we confirmed that detection sensitivity for both parallel and perpendicular defects are equal and Invert Exciting Method is effective in suppression of reduced sensitivity of the ECT depending on defect orientation. (author)

  2. Eficincia fotossinttica e uso da gua em plantas de eucalipto pulverizadas com glyphosate Photosynthetic efficiency and water use in eucalyptus plants sprayed with glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F.L. Machado

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a eficincia fotossinttica e o uso da gua por plantas de clones de eucalipto submetidas ao herbicida glyphosate. O experimento foi realizado em esquema fatorial 4 x 5, com quatro clones de eucalipto (57, 386, 1203 e 1213 e quatro doses de glyphosate (43,2; 86,2; 129,6; e 172,8 g ha-1 e uma testemunha sem herbicida, considerada dose zero, com quatro repeties. Aos 7, 14, 21 e 28 dias aps aplicao do herbicida (DAA foi avaliada a intoxicao das plantas, e aos 7 e 21 DAA, o fluxo de gases pelos estmatos (U - mmol s-1, a atividade fotossinttica (A - mmol m-2 s-1, a condutncia estomtica (Gs - mol m-1 s-1, a transpirao (E - mol H2O m-2 s-1 e a eficincia do uso da gua (QUE - mol CO2 mol H2O-1. Aos 50 DAA, as plantas de eucalipto foram coletadas e colocadas em estufa de ventilao forada a 70 C at atingirem massa constante. Aos 21 DAA, o clone 1203 comportou-se como mais sensvel ao herbicida. No houve diferena entre clones para as variveis fisiolgicas avaliadas. Aos 21 DAA constatou-se que, com o incremento da dose de glyphosate, houve reduo na condutncia estomtica, na taxa de fluxo de gases pelos estmatos, na taxa fotossinttica e na eficincia do uso da gua. Plantas dos clones 1213 e 1203 apresentaram maior acmulo de massa seca. O aumento da dose do glyphosate promoveu menor acmulo de massa seca das plantas de eucalipto. O glyphosate afetou negativamente o crescimento e a eficincia fotossinttica e de uso da gua dos clones estudados.The objective of this study was to assess the photosynthetic efficiency and water use by eucalyptus clones submitted to the herbicide glyphosate. The experiment was performed in a 4 x 5 factorial, with four eucalyptus clones (57, 386, 1203 and 1213, four doses of glyphosate (43.2, 86.2, 129.6 and 172.8 g ha-1 and a control without herbicide, considered zero dose, with four replications. At 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after herbicide application (DAA, plant intoxication was evaluated and at 7 and 21 DAA, stomatal gas flow (U - mmol s-1, photosynthetic activity (A -mmol m-2 s-1, stomatal conductance (Gs - mol m-1 s-1, transpiration (E - mol H2O m-2 s-1 and water use efficiency (WUE - mol CO2 mol H2O-1. At 50 DAA, the eucalyptus plants were collected and placed in a forced-ventilation oven at 70 C until constant weight to determine dry mass. At 21 DAA, clone 1203 was found to be the most sensitive to the herbicide. There was no difference among the clones for the assessed physiological variables. At 21DAA, it was verified that increasing doses of glyphosate led to a reduction in stomatal conductance, stomatal gas flow rate, photosynthetic rate and water use efficiency. Plants of clones 1213 and 1203 showed a higher accumulation of dry mass. Increasing doses of glyphosate promoted less accumulation of dry mass in the eucalyptus plants. Glyphosate negatively affected growth, photosynthetic efficiency and water use of the evaluated clones.

  3. Eficincia fotossinttica e uso da gua em plantas de eucalipto pulverizadas com glyphosate / Photosynthetic efficiency and water use in eucalyptus plants sprayed with glyphosate

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.F.L., Machado; L.R., Ferreira; L.D.T., Santos; F.A., Ferreira; R.G., Viana; M.S., Machado; F.C.L., Freitas.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a eficincia fotossinttica e o uso da gua por plantas de clones de eucalipto submetidas ao herbicida glyphosate. O experimento foi realizado em esquema fatorial 4 x 5, com quatro clones de eucalipto (57, 386, 1203 e 1213) e quatro doses de glyphosate (43,2; 8 [...] 6,2; 129,6; e 172,8 g ha-1) e uma testemunha sem herbicida, considerada dose zero, com quatro repeties. Aos 7, 14, 21 e 28 dias aps aplicao do herbicida (DAA) foi avaliada a intoxicao das plantas, e aos 7 e 21 DAA, o fluxo de gases pelos estmatos (U - mmol s-1), a atividade fotossinttica (A - mmol m-2 s-1), a condutncia estomtica (Gs - mol m-1 s-1), a transpirao (E - mol H2O m-2 s-1) e a eficincia do uso da gua (QUE - mol CO2 mol H2O-1). Aos 50 DAA, as plantas de eucalipto foram coletadas e colocadas em estufa de ventilao forada a 70 C at atingirem massa constante. Aos 21 DAA, o clone 1203 comportou-se como mais sensvel ao herbicida. No houve diferena entre clones para as variveis fisiolgicas avaliadas. Aos 21 DAA constatou-se que, com o incremento da dose de glyphosate, houve reduo na condutncia estomtica, na taxa de fluxo de gases pelos estmatos, na taxa fotossinttica e na eficincia do uso da gua. Plantas dos clones 1213 e 1203 apresentaram maior acmulo de massa seca. O aumento da dose do glyphosate promoveu menor acmulo de massa seca das plantas de eucalipto. O glyphosate afetou negativamente o crescimento e a eficincia fotossinttica e de uso da gua dos clones estudados. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to assess the photosynthetic efficiency and water use by eucalyptus clones submitted to the herbicide glyphosate. The experiment was performed in a 4 x 5 factorial, with four eucalyptus clones (57, 386, 1203 and 1213), four doses of glyphosate (43.2, 86.2, 129.6 and 1 [...] 72.8 g ha-1) and a control without herbicide, considered zero dose, with four replications. At 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after herbicide application (DAA), plant intoxication was evaluated and at 7 and 21 DAA, stomatal gas flow (U - mmol s-1), photosynthetic activity (A -mmol m-2 s-1), stomatal conductance (Gs - mol m-1 s-1), transpiration (E - mol H2O m-2 s-1) and water use efficiency (WUE - mol CO2 mol H2O-1). At 50 DAA, the eucalyptus plants were collected and placed in a forced-ventilation oven at 70 C until constant weight to determine dry mass. At 21 DAA, clone 1203 was found to be the most sensitive to the herbicide. There was no difference among the clones for the assessed physiological variables. At 21DAA, it was verified that increasing doses of glyphosate led to a reduction in stomatal conductance, stomatal gas flow rate, photosynthetic rate and water use efficiency. Plants of clones 1213 and 1203 showed a higher accumulation of dry mass. Increasing doses of glyphosate promoted less accumulation of dry mass in the eucalyptus plants. Glyphosate negatively affected growth, photosynthetic efficiency and water use of the evaluated clones.

  4. Sensibilidade de estirpes de Bradyrhizobium ao glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Josemar Seminoti Jacques

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A aplicao do glyphosate sobre a soja resistente a este herbicida pode causar prejuzos simbiose com o rizbio. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a sensibilidade ao herbicida glyphosate de trs estirpes de Bradyrhizobium recomendadas para a produo de inoculantes de sementes de soja no Brasil. Avaliou-se o efeito das concentraes de 0,0; 5,4; 10,8; 21,6 e 43,2 g L-1 do ingrediente ativo do glyphosate [N-(fosfonometil glicina] no meio YM lquido sobre o crescimento de B. japonicum (estirpe SEMIA 5079 e de B. elkanii (estirpe SEMIA 5019 e estirpe SEMIA 587, por meio de leituras das densidades ticas e gerao de curvas de crescimento. As redues de crescimento na presena da menor concentrao do glyphosate foram de 18% para SEMIA 5079, 29% para SEMIA 5019 e de 35% para SEMIA 587, sendo, de modo geral, quanto maior a concentrao do herbicida no meio de cultura maior a inibio do crescimento. As estirpes apresentaram sensibilidade diferencial somente s concentraes mais baixas do glyphosate; nesse caso, foi possvel determinar a seguinte ordem de sensibilidade: SEMIA 587 > SEMIA 5019 > SEMIA 5079. Essa sensibilidade diferencial dependente da concentrao do herbicida, pois na presena de 43,2 g L-1 todas as estirpes tiveram seu crescimento severamente reduzido, no havendo diferena entre elas.

  5. Growth and Yield of Glyphosate-Resistant Corn under Different Timing of Glyphosate Application

    OpenAIRE

    N. Desmarwansyah; E. Purba

    2008-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted in 2002 in Langkat, North Sumatra, to determine the effects of glyphosate application timing on the growth and grain yield of glyphosate-resistant corn. Glyphosate at 1,500 g ha-1 was applied at twelve different treatments namely at the V3 stage, the V4 stage, the V5 stage, the V6 stage, the V7 stage, the V8 stage, the V9 stage, the V10 stage, the V12 stage, the V3 stage followed by at the V7 stage, the V3 stage followed by at V12 stage and the V4 stage...

  6. Aplicao foliar de mangans em soja transgnica tolerante ao glyphosate Foliar application of manganese in transgenic soybean tolerant to glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudir Jos Basso

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available O amarelecimento da soja Roundup Ready aps aplicao do glyphosate pode estar associado deficincia momentnea de mangans. Por isso, com a hiptese de que soja tolerante ao glyphosate necessitaria de uma adio suplementar de mangans, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar diferentes manejos na aplicao foliar de mangans sobre alguns parmetros da soja. Foram desenvolvidos dois experimentos, um no municpio de Taquaru do Sul e outro em Boa Vista das Misses, RS, no ano agrcola 2009/2010. Foram testados os seguintes tratamentos: 1 sem aplicao de glyphosate, com controle manual das plantas daninhas e sem aplicao foliar de mangans (testemunha; 2 sem aplicao de glyphosate, com controle manual das plantas daninhas e uma aplicao foliar de mangans sete dias aps esse controle manual das plantas daninhas; 3 com aplicao de glyphosate e sem aplicao foliar de mangans; 4 aplicao de glyphosate em mistura com mangans; 5 aplicao de glyphosate mais uma aplicao foliar de mangans sete dias aps aplicao do glyphosate; 6 aplicao de glyphosate mais aplicao foliar de mangans parcelada em duas pocas, aos 7 e 14 dias aps aplicao do glyphosate; 7 aplicao de glyphosate e uma aplicao foliar de mangans aos 14 dias aps aplicao de glyphosate. A aplicao de glyphosate foi realizada no estdio V5 da soja, na dose de 720g L-1 e.a, enquanto a dose de Mn utilizada foi 2,0L ha-1 de uma formulao contendo 14% (m/v de mangans solvel. No houve diferena significativa entre os tratamentos para as variveis estatura de plantas e altura de insero da primeira vagem. A aplicao de glyphosate no afetou a absoro e o teor foliar de mangans e nitrognio na cultura da soja. Mesmo com aumento no teor foliar de mangans com a suplementao de mangans, no houve incremento na produtividade da soja. Isso mostra que em solos com teores de Mn acima do suficiente a aplicao do herbicida glifosato no requer a suplementao foliar de mangans em soja geneticamente modificada tolerante a esse herbicida.The yellowing of Roundup Ready soybean after glyphosate application, can be associated to a momentary manganese deficiency. Because of that, with the hypothesis that glyphosate tolerant soybean would need supplementary addition of manganese, the objective of this research was to evaluate different managements in the foliar application of manganese in some soybean parameters. It was developed two experiments, one at Taquaru do Sul and other at Boa Vista das Misses, RS in the year of 2009/2010. It was tested the following treatments: 1 without glyphosate application with manual weed control and without manganese foliar application (untreated check; 2 without glyphosate application with manual weed control and one manganese foliar application at 7 days after this manual weed control; 3 with glyphosate application and without manganese foliar application; 4 glyphosate application in mixture with manganese; 5 glyphosate application added of one manganese foliar application at 7 days after glyphosate application; 6 glyphosate application added of manganese foliar application split in two times, at 7 and 14 days after glyphosate application; 7 glyphosate application and one of manganese foliar application at 14 days after glyphosate application. The glyphosate application was realized in the V5 soybean stage, using 720g L-1 i.e, while the used dose of Mn was 2.0L ha-1 of a formulation with 14% (m/v of Mn. There were no significant difference among the treatments to plant height and height insertion of the first legume. The glyphosate application did not affect the absorption and the foliar amount of manganese and nitrogen in soybean crop. Even with the increase in foliar manganese amount, there was no increasing in soybean productivity. This shows that in soils with Mn levels above of the sufficient, it is not necessary foliar manganese addition in genetically modified soybean tolerant to glyphosate.

  7. Analysis of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid in water, plant materials and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, William C; Marek, LeEtta J; Hall, Kathleen E

    2016-03-01

    There is a need for simple, fast, efficient and sensitive methods of analysis for glyphosate and its degradate aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in diverse matrices such as water, plant materials and soil to facilitate environmental research needed to address the continuing concerns related to increasing glyphosate use. A variety of water-based solutions have been used to extract the chemicals from different matrices. Many methods require extensive sample preparation, including derivatization and clean-up, prior to analysis by a variety of detection techniques. This review summarizes methods used during the past 15 years for analysis of glyphosate and AMPA in water, plant materials and soil. The simplest methods use aqueous extraction of glyphosate and AMPA from plant materials and soil, no derivatization, solid-phase extraction (SPE) columns for clean-up, guard columns for separation and confirmation of the analytes by mass spectrometry and quantitation using isotope-labeled internal standards. They have levels of detection (LODs) below the regulatory limits in North America. These methods are discussed in more detail in the review. 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:26454260

  8. Post-treatment with plant extracts used in Brazilian folk medicine caused a partial reversal of the antiproliferative effect of glyphosate in the Allium cepa test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Dal-Souto Frescura

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Species of the genus Psychotria are used for multiple purposes in Brazilian folk medicine, either as water infusions, baths or poultices. This study was aimed to evaluate the genotoxic and antiproliferative effects of infusions of Psychotria brachypoda and P. birotula on the Allium cepa test. Exposure to distilled water was used as a negative control, while exposure to glyphosate was used as a positive control. The interaction of extracts (as a post-treatment with the effects of glyphosate was also studied. Results showed that glyphosate and the extracts of both P. brachypoda and P. birotula reduced the mitotic index as compared with the negative control (distilled water. Surprisingly, however, both extracts from P. brachypoda and P. birotula caused a partial reversal of the antiproliferative effect of glyphosate when used as a post-treatment. Glyphosate also induced the highest number of cells with chromosomal alterations, which was followed by that of P. birotula extracts. However, the extracts from P. brachypoda did not show any significant genotoxic effect. Post-treatment of glyphosate-treated samples with distilled water allowed a partial recovery of the genotoxic effect of glyphosate, and some of the Psychotria extracts also did so. Notably, post-treatment of glyphosate-treated samples with P. brachypoda extracts induced a statistically significant apoptotic effect. It is concluded that P. brachypoda extracts show antiproliferative effects and are not genotoxic, while extracts of P. birotula show a less potent antiproliferative effect and may induce chromosomal abnormalities. The finding of a partial reversion of the effects of glyphosate by a post-treatment with extracts from both plants should be followed up.

  9. Post-treatment with plant extracts used in Brazilian folk medicine caused a partial reversal of the antiproliferative effect of glyphosate in the Allium cepa test

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Viviane, Dal-Souto Frescura; Andrielle, Wouters Kuhn; Haywood Dail, Laughinghouse Iv; Juara, Terezinha Paranhos; Solange, Bosio Tedesco.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Species of the genus Psychotria are used for multiple purposes in Brazilian folk medicine, either as water infusions, baths or poultices. This study was aimed to evaluate the genotoxic and antiproliferative effects of infusions of Psychotria brachypoda and P. birotula on the Allium cepa test. Exposu [...] re to distilled water was used as a negative control, while exposure to glyphosate was used as a positive control. The interaction of extracts (as a post-treatment) with the effects of glyphosate was also studied. Results showed that glyphosate and the extracts of both P. brachypoda and P. birotula reduced the mitotic index as compared with the negative control (distilled water). Surprisingly, however, both extracts from P. brachypoda and P. birotula caused a partial reversal of the antiproliferative effect of glyphosate when used as a post-treatment. Glyphosate also induced the highest number of cells with chromosomal alterations, which was followed by that of P. birotula extracts. However, the extracts from P. brachypoda did not show any significant genotoxic effect. Post-treatment of glyphosate-treated samples with distilled water allowed a partial recovery of the genotoxic effect of glyphosate, and some of the Psychotria extracts also did so. Notably, post-treatment of glyphosate-treated samples with P. brachypoda extracts induced a statistically significant apoptotic effect. It is concluded that P. brachypoda extracts show antiproliferative effects and are not genotoxic, while extracts of P. birotula show a less potent antiproliferative effect and may induce chromosomal abnormalities. The finding of a partial reversion of the effects of glyphosate by a post-treatment with extracts from both plants should be followed up.

  10. Glyphosate surfactant herbicide poisoning and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kranthi Mahendrakar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glyphosate is a widely used herbicide in agriculture, forestry, industrial weed control and aquatic environments. Glyphosate potential as herbicide was first reported in 1971. It is a non-selective herbicide. It can cause a wide range of clinical manifestations in human beings like skin and throat irritation to hypotension, oliguria and death. We are reporting a case of a 35-year-old male patient who was admitted to our tertiary care hospital following intentional ingestion of around 200 ml of herbicide containing glyphosate. Initially, gastric lavage done and the patient was managed with intubation and mechanical ventilation, noradrenaline and vasopressin infusion, continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration and intravenous (IV lipid emulsion (20% intralipid 100 ml, patient was successfully treated and discharged home. This case report emphasizes on timely systemic supportive measure as a sole method of treatment since this poison has no known specific antidote and the use of IV lipid emulsion for a successful outcome.

  11. Expectancy of Stress-Reducing Aromatherapy Effect and Performance on a Stress-Sensitive Cognitive Task

    OpenAIRE

    Chamine, Irina; Oken, Barry S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Stress-reducing therapies help maintain cognitive performance during stress. Aromatherapy is popular for stress reduction, but its effectiveness and mechanism are unclear. This study examined stress-reducing effects of aromatherapy on cognitive function using the go/no-go (GNG) task performance and event related potentials (ERP) components sensitive to stress. The study also assessed the importance of expectancy in aromatherapy actions. Methods. 81 adults were randomized to 3 aroma...

  12. Enthalpic partitioning of the reduced temperature sensitivity of O2 binding in bovine hemoglobin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Roy E; Fago, Angela; Campbell, Kevin L

    2014-01-01

    The oxygenation enthalpy of the heme groups of hemoglobin (Hb) is inherently exothermic, resulting in decreased Hb-O2 affinity with rising temperature. However, oxygenation is coupled with endothermic dissociation of allosteric effectors (e.g. protons, chloride ions and organic phosphates) from the protein moiety, which thus reduces the overall oxygenation enthalpy. The evolution of Hbs with reduced temperature sensitivity ostensibly safeguards O2 unloading in cold extremities of regionally-hete...

  13. Influncia do Glyphosate sobre a nodulao e o crescimento de cultivares de soja resistente ao Glyphosate / Glyphosate influence on growth and nodulation of Glyphosate resistant soybean cultivars

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R.S., Oliveira JR.; E.C., Dvoranen; J., Constantin; S.D., Cavalieri; L.H.M., Franchini; F.A., Rios; E., Blainski.

    Full Text Available A soja resistente ao glyphosate (RR) uma tecnologia que vem acrescentar mais uma ferramenta ao manejo de plantas daninhas para essa cultura, que possui a maior rea plantada em nosso pas. Por se tratar de uma tcnica recente tanto no Brasil quanto no mundo, preciso estudos buscando informaes [...] para o uso correto desta importante e cada vez mais freqente prtica agrcola: o cultivo de soja transgnica. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar os efeitos causados pelas aplicaes de glyphosate sobre 20 cultivares de soja RR. As doses utilizadas foram: testemunha sem herbicida; glyphosate em aplicao seqencial de 0,54/0,36 kg equivalente cido (e.a.) ha-1, aos 12/24 dias aps a emergncia (DAE); glyphosate em aplicao nica de 0,72 kg e.a. ha-1, aos 20 DAE; glyphosate em aplicao seqencial de 0,72/0,54 kg ha-1, aos 12/24 DAE; e glyphosate em aplicao nica de 0,90 kg ha-1, aos 24 DAE. Foram avaliadas as variveis matria seca do sistema radicular (MSSR), matria seca da parte area (MSPA), matria seca dos ndulos acumulados (MSNT) e nmero de ndulos acumulados (NN). Os cultivares que demonstraram maior suscetibilidade s aplicaes de glyphosate foram: MSOY 8008 RR, ANTA RR, CD 213 RR, MSOY 8100 RR, VALIOSA RR, CD 219 RR, MSOY 6001 RR, CRISTALINA RR e BRS 247 RR, apresentando redues de pelo menos trs das quatro variveis estudadas. BRS 242 RR, BRS 243 RR, BRS 244 RR, BRS 246 RR, CD 214 RR, MSOY 8151 RR, MSOY 9000 RR e BRS 245 RR foram as mais tolerantes, pois no sofreram redues significativas em nenhuma ou em uma das variveis avaliadas. De modo geral, a MSSR foi mais afetada pela modalidade de aplicao do que pela dose de glyphosate; por outro lado, a MSPA e a nodulao foram mais afetadas em cultivares de ciclo mais longo, em relao s variedades de ciclo precoce. A nodulao tambm foi menos afetada pelo glyphosate em variedades do grupo BRS, comparada aos demais materiais genticos. Abstract in english Glyphosate resistant soybean (GR) is a new technological tool in weed management applied in soybean culture, which accounts for the largest area planted in Brazil. Since it has been only recently applied in Brazil and abroad, further studies are needed to search for useful information on the correct [...] use of this important and increasingly applied agricultural practice: the cultivation of GR soybean. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effects caused by glyphosate applications on twenty GR soybean cultivars. The rates applied were: check without herbicide; sequential application of glyphosate at 0.54/0.36 kg acid equivalent (AE) ha , at 12/24 days after emergence (DAE); single application of glyphosate at 0.72 kg a.i. ha-1, at 20 DAE; sequential application of glyphosate at 0.72/0.54 kg a.i. ha-1, at 12/24 DAE; single application of glyphosate at 0.90 kg ha-1, at 24 DAE. The variables root dry weight (RDW), shoot dry weight (SDW), accumulated nodule dry weight (ANDW) and number of accumulated nodules (NAN) were evaluated. The cultivars MSOY 8008 RR, ANTA RR, CD 213 RR, MSOY 8100 RR, VALIOSA RR, CD 219 RR, MSOY 6001 RR, CRISTALINA RR and BRS 247 RR showed the highest susceptibility to the glyphosate applications, with reductions in at least three out of the four variables studied. BRS 242 RR, BRS 243 RR, BRS 244 RR, BRS 246 RR, CD 214 RR, MSOY 8151 RR, MSOY 9000 RR and BRS 245 RR showed the highest tolerance, with no significant reductions or only in one of the four assessed variables. In general, RDW was more affected by the mode of application than the glyphosate rate; however, SDW and nodulation (ANDW and NAN) were more affected in the longer cycle cultivars, compared to the earlier cycle varieties. Nodulation was also less affected by glyphosate in the BRS variety group, compared to other genetic materials.

  14. Leaching of glyphosate and AMPA under two soil management practices in Burgundy vineyards (Vosne-Romanee, 21-France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some drinking water reservoirs under the vineyards of Burgundy are contaminated with herbicides. Thus the effectiveness of alternative soil management practices, such as grass cover, for reducing the leaching of glyphosate and its metabolite, AMPA, through soils was studied. The leaching of both molecules was studied in structured soil columns under outdoor conditions for 1 year. The soil was managed under two vineyard soil practices: a chemically treated bare calcosol, and a vegetated calcosol. After 680 mm of rainfall, the vegetated calcosol leachates contained lower amounts of glyphosate and AMPA (0.02% and 0.03%, respectively) than the bare calcosol leachates (0.06% and 0.15%, respectively). No glyphosate and only low amounts of AMPA (<0.01%) were extracted from the soil. Glyphosate, and to a greater extent, AMPA, leach through the soils; thus, both molecules may be potential contaminants of groundwater. However, the alternative soil management practice of grass cover could reduce groundwater contamination by the pesticide. - Glyphosate and AMPA leached in greater amounts through a chemically treated bare calcosol than through a vegetated calcosol

  15. AUXIN-PRODUCING BACTERIA AND UREASE ACTIVITY IN THE RHIZOSPHERE OF GLYPHOSATE-RESISTANT SOYBEAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repeated use of glyphosate on glyphosate-resistant crops has raised concerns regarding the potential environmental impacts of this herbicide. Glyphosate may affect microbial production of plant-growth-regulating compounds including hydrogen cyanide, phytohormones including auxins, and other unidenti...

  16. Determination of glyphosate residues in plants by precolumn derivatization and coupled-column liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernndez, F; Hidalgo, C; Sancho, J V

    2000-01-01

    A rapid method was developed for the trace-level determination of glyphosate in olives. After extraction of the glyphosate with water-dichloromethane and simultaneous removal of the olive oil, an aliquot of the aqueous extract is derivatized with 9-fluoroenylmethyl chloroformate (9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl chloride; FMOC-CI) to produce a highly fluorescent derivative. A 2 mL aliquot of this extract is injected directly into a coupled-column liquid chromatography system with fluorimetric detection (LC/LC-FD). The procedure was validated by recovery experiments at 3 spiking levels; recoveries ranged from 80 to 97% with relative standard deviations of 3-6%. The limits of detection and quantitation were estimated to be 0.01 and 0.05 mg/kg, respectively. The method was also applied to other plant materials, i.e., tomato plants, strawberry plants, and pear trees (branches, leaves, and fruits) suspected to be contaminated by glyphosate. In all these cases, the extraction was performed in aqueous media. The derivatization reaction was modified by increasing the FMOC-CI concentration, to ensure a quantitative reaction between analyte and reagent in the presence of high levels of coextractives, which also react with FMOC-CI. The final determination was by LC/LC-FD, yielding a rapid, selective, and sensitive method for the determination of glyphosate residues in these samples. The method was tested with real-world samples after application of glyphosate to the surrounding area of crops. PMID:10868597

  17. Quantifying sublethal effects of glyphosate and Roundup to Daphnia magna using a fluorescence based enzyme activity assay and video tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roslev, Peter; R. Hansen, Lone

    Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) is the active ingredient in a range of popular broad-spectrum, non-selective herbicide formulations. The toxicity of this herbicide to non-target aquatic organisms such as Daphnia magna is often evaluated using conventional toxicity assays that focus on endpoints such as immobility and mortality. In this study, we investigated sublethal effects of glyphosate and Roundup to D. magna using video tracking for quantifying behavioral changes, and a novel fluorescence based assay for measuring in vivo hydrolytic enzyme activity (FLEA assay). Roundup exposure resulted in concentration-dependent inhibition of alkaline phosphatase activity in D. magna. The inhibition of alkaline phosphatase by Roundup was temperature-dependent with lowest inhibition at 14 C and greater inhibition at 20 and 26 C. Exposure of D. magna to sublethal concentrations of glyphosate resulted in behavioral effects quantified as decreases in average swimming velocity and distance moved whereas the inactive time in defined arenas increased. Exposure of D. magna to binary mixtures of glyphosate and copper (Cu) attenuated acute metal toxicity. The results suggest that a combination of assays targeting in vivo enzyme activity and behavioral changes may be applied as a quantitative and sensitive tool for detecting sublethal effects of glyphosate and Roundup to D. magna. The inhibitory effect of Roundup on alkaline phosphatase in non-target organisms warrants further investigations.

  18. Civility in scientific publishing: The glyphosate paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaylock, Russell Lane

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, we have witnessed a decline in civility in the public arena when various socially sensitive issues are being presented. Those of us engaged in the publishing of scientific papers and in our comments on these papers, need to be cognizant of the social graces, courteous demeanor, and chivalry. Debates are essential to our learning and in being able to ferret out the essentials of various scientific issues that are of value. Because of the amount of time and effort connected with analyzing the complex problems and the years invested in such endeavors, we often resort to the behavior, that is, contentious and at times even quite insulting to our opponents during our defense. This is the part of human nature but as civilized human beings, we must strive to maintain the courtesy and a calm demeanor during such discussions and debates. I have yielded to such temptations myself but am striving to repent of my sins. The medical and scientific history should have taught us that in defending our ideas we learn and sometimes come to the realization that our paradigm or hypothesis is wrong, either in part or whole. Such debates allow us to fine tune our ideas and correct our errors in thinking, which are easily, consciously, or subconsciously sublimated by our enthusiasm. The glyphosate papers presented ideas that, while well supported by the scientific studies and logical conclusions, also contained some possible errors in its suppositions. Dr. Miguel Faria challenged some of these concepts and was met with some degree of derision by one of the authors. This editorial comment is in response to these issues. PMID:26543672

  19. Civility in scientific publishing: The glyphosate paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaylock, Russell Lane

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, we have witnessed a decline in civility in the public arena when various socially sensitive issues are being presented. Those of us engaged in the publishing of scientific papers and in our comments on these papers, need to be cognizant of the social graces, courteous demeanor, and chivalry. Debates are essential to our learning and in being able to ferret out the essentials of various scientific issues that are of value. Because of the amount of time and effort connected with analyzing the complex problems and the years invested in such endeavors, we often resort to the behavior, that is, contentious and at times even quite insulting to our opponents during our defense. This is the part of human nature but as civilized human beings, we must strive to maintain the courtesy and a calm demeanor during such discussions and debates. I have yielded to such temptations myself but am striving to repent of my sins. The medical and scientific history should have taught us that in defending our ideas we learn and sometimes come to the realization that our paradigm or hypothesis is wrong, either in part or whole. Such debates allow us to fine tune our ideas and correct our errors in thinking, which are easily, consciously, or subconsciously sublimated by our enthusiasm. The glyphosate papers presented ideas that, while well supported by the scientific studies and logical conclusions, also contained some possible errors in its suppositions. Dr. Miguel Faria challenged some of these concepts and was met with some degree of derision by one of the authors. This editorial comment is in response to these issues. PMID:26543672

  20. Reduced Sensitivity to Slow-Rate Dynamic Auditory Information in Children with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poelmans, Hanne; Luts, Heleen; Vandermosten, Maaike; Boets, Bart; Ghesquiere, Pol; Wouters, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The etiology of developmental dyslexia remains widely debated. An appealing theory postulates that the reading and spelling problems in individuals with dyslexia originate from reduced sensitivity to slow-rate dynamic auditory cues. This low-level auditory deficit is thought to provoke a cascade of effects, including inaccurate speech perception

  1. Interao de glyphosate com carfentrazone-ethyl Glyphosate - carfentrazone-ethyl interaction

    OpenAIRE

    R.C. Werlang; Silva, A. A.

    2002-01-01

    Foi conduzido um experimento em condies controladas para determinar a interao do carfentrazone-ethyl em mistura no tanque com o herbicida glyphosate, no controle de seis espcies de plantas daninhas. Glyphosate aplicado isoladamente na dose de 720 g ha-1 foi eficaz no controle de Amaranthus hybridus (100%), Desmodium tortuosum (100%), Bidens pilosa (99%), Eleusine indica (96%), Digitaria horizontalis (100%) e Commelina benghalensis (93%) aos 21 DAA. Carfentrazone-ethyl aplicado isoladamen...

  2. Manejo de Conyza bonariensis resistente ao herbicida glyphosate Management of Glyphosate-resistant Conyza bonariensis

    OpenAIRE

    J.M Paula; L. VARGAS; D Agostinetto; M.A Nohatto

    2011-01-01

    C. bonariensis (Conyza bonariensis) uma planta daninha da famlia Asteraceae, amplamente distribuda no Brasil, com presena marcante nos Estados do Rio Grande do Sul e do Paran. Bitipos de C. bonariensis resistentes ao glyphosate foram identificados nos Estados do Rio Grande do Sul, Paran e So Paulo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes manejos de inverno e na pr-semeadura da soja sobre a populao de plantas de C. bonariensis resistente ao herbicida glyphosate...

  3. The effect of glyphosate on import into a sink leaf of sugar beet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shieh, Wenjang; Geiger, D.R. (Univ. of Dayton, OH (USA))

    1990-05-01

    The basis for glyphosate inducted limitation of carbon import into developing leaves was studied in sugar beet. To separate the effects of the herbicide on export from those on import, glyphosate was supplied to a developing leaf from two exporting source leaves which fed the sink leaf. Carbon import into the sink leaf was determined by supplying {sup 14}CO{sub 2} to a third source leaf which also supplies carbon to the monitored sink leaf. Import into the sink leaf decreased within 2 to 3 h after glyphosate application, even though photosynthesis and export in the source leaf supplying {sup 14}C were unaffected. Reduced import into the sink leaf was accompanied by increased import by the tap root. Elongation of the sink leaf was only slightly decreased following arrival of glyphosate. Photosynthesis by the sink leaf was not inhibited. The results to data support the view that import is slowed by the inhibition of synthesis of structural or storage compounds in the developing leaves.

  4. Glyphosate in Runoff Waters and in the Root-Zone: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Lyndsay E. Saunders; Reza Pezeshki

    2015-01-01

    Glyphosate is the most commonly-used herbicide in the world. The present review summarizes the discovery, prevalence, chemical and physical properties, mode of action and effects in plants, glyphosate resistance and the environmental fate of glyphosate. Numerous studies are reviewed that demonstrate that glyphosate may run off of fields where it is applied, while other studies provide evidence that plant roots can take up glyphosate. Non-target vegetation may be exposed to glyphosate in the r...

  5. Chemical control alternatives for sourgrass (Digitaria insularis resistant to glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Sereguin Cabral de Melo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Herbicides alternatives for controlling sourgrass (Digitaria insularis weed in infested citrus areas are limited, mainly due to the few options of registered herbicides and by the modalities in that these chemical products are used (directed applications. Thus it is important to evaluate other post-emergence herbicides, to be used in association with glyphosate, for the efficient control of glyphosate-resistant biotype of sourgrass (Digitaria insularis, resistant to glyphosate.  The experiment was conducted in Matão County, Sao Paulo State, in area belonging to Cambuhy Farm, during September to October 2009, in areas presenting biotypes of D. insularis resistant to glyphosate. Application occurred when sourgrass plants were with 3 to 5 tillers stage. Treatments consisted of different herbicides in association with glyphosate. It was conducted control visual assesments at 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days after application and collecting and weighting of weed dry mass dossel. Treatments that showed better results were glyphosate in association with clethodim, complemented by paraquat + diuron 7 days after the first application and glyphosate in association with clethodim complemented by  ammonium-glufosinate 7 days after the first application. Further, glyphosate treatments mixture to haloxyfop-methyl, glyphosate + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl + clethodim and glyphosate + tepraloxydim showed excelent performance, even with just one application.

  6. Simplified analysis of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid in water, vegetation, and soil by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    A simple, fast, efficient, and sensitive method was developed for analysis of glyphosate and its degradate, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), in water, vegetation, and soil. Aqueous extracts were passed through reverse phase and cation exchange columns and directly injected into a tandem mass spect...

  7. Caractersticas fisiolgicas de bitipos de Conyza bonariensis Resistentes ao glyphosate cultivados sob competio / Physiological characteristics of Conyza bonariensis biotypes resistant to glyphosate cultivated under competition

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L., Galon; E.A., Ferreira; G., Conceno; A.A., Silva; D.V., Silva; A.F., Silva; I, Aspiaz; L., Vargas.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A resistncia de plantas daninhas a herbicidas est relacionada a modificaes metablicas, enzimticas, fisiolgicas e/ou anatmicas. Aliado a essas mudanas, a planta pode aumentar ou diminuir as atividades fisiolgicas, o que, consequentemente, pode afetar o seu crescimento e desenvolvimento. Ass [...] im, bitipos resistentes podem apresentar melhor adaptao ecolgica em ambientes de cultivo e tornar-se predominantes devido eliminao das plantas sensveis. Em condies de seleo natural, bitipos com maior adaptao ecolgica apresentam maior produo que bitipos menos adaptados. Neste trabalho, avaliou-se o efeito da competio em caractersticas fisiolgicas de bitipos de Conyza bonariensis suscetveis e resistentes ao herbicida glyphosate. Os tratamentos constaram de plantas de dois bitipos de C. bonariensis - um comprovadamente resistente e um suscetvel ao glyphosate, dispostas em modelo aditivo de estudo de competio. No centro da unidade experimental foram semeadas trs sementes do bitipo considerado como o tratamento: resistente (R) ou suscetvel (S), sendo essa planta rodeada por 0 (testemunha sem competio), 1, 2, 3, 4, ou 5 plantas do bitipo oposto. O bitipo suscetvel apresentou-se mais tolerante competio com plantas do bitipo oposto no tocante s caractersticas fisiolgicas avaliadas. O bitipo resistente de buva apresenta desvantagem fisiolgica em relao ao suscetvel e, consequentemente, menor potencial de adaptabilidade na ausncia do fator de seleo - o herbicida glyphosate. Abstract in english The resistance of weeds to herbicides is related to metabolic, enzymatic, physiological and anatomical changes. Coupled with these changes, plants can increase or decrease their physiological activities, which can affect their growth and development. Thus, resistant biotypes may have a higher ecolog [...] ical adaptation in these environments and become predominant due to the elimination of sensitive plants. Under natural selection conditions, biotypes with greater ecological adaptation show higher production than less adapted biotypes. Thus, the aim of this work was to assess the effect of competition on the physiological characteristics of Conyza bonariensis biotypes susceptible and resistant to the herbicide glyphosate. The treatments consisted of plants of two biotypes of C. bonariensis - one proven to be resistant and one susceptible to glyphosate. In the center of the experimental unit, three seeds of the C. bonariensis biotype considered for treatment - resistant (R) or susceptible (S) - were sown , with the plant being surrounded by 0 (no competition), 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 plants of the opposite biotype. The susceptible biotype presented a higher tolerance to competition with plants of the opposite biotype regarding the physiological characteristics evaluated. The resistant biotype of C. bonariensis has a physiological disadvantage compared to the susceptible one and, therefore, less potential for adaptability in the absence of the selection factor - the herbicide glyphosate.

  8. 78 FR 60707 - Glyphosate; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... with glyphosate follows. In the Federal Register of May 1, 2013 (78 FR 25396) (FRL-9384-3), EPA issued... April 20, 2011 (76 FR 22067) (FRL-8869- 7), EPA issued a document pursuant to FFDCA section 408(d)(3... Register of May 1, 2013 (78 FR 25396), EPA concludes that there is a reasonable certainty that no harm...

  9. Deriva simulada de formulaes comerciais de glyphosate sobre maracujazeiro amarelo Drift simulation of glyphosate commercial formulations on yellow passion fruit growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wagner Jnior

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar os efeitos da deriva de formulaes comerciais de glyphosate no desenvolvimento de plantas jovens de maracujazeiro amarelo. O trabalho foi realizado em casa de vegetao do Departamento de Fitotecnia da Universidade Federal de Viosa, durante o perodo de maro a abril de 2007. Foi utilizado o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 3 x 4 + 1, em que trs foram as formulaes de glyphosate e cinco foram as doses utilizadas acrescidas de testemunha sem herbicida. O trabalho foi conduzido com cinco repeties, sendo cada planta considerada como parcela experimental. As formulaes comerciais aplicadas foram Roundup Transorb, Roundup Original e Zapp QI, utilizando-se as seguintes doses (g e.a ha-1: 43,2; 86,4; 172,8; e 345,6 g ha-1. Aos 28 dias aps a aplicao (DAA, avaliaram-se os comprimentos da parte area, da raiz e total (cm; o dimetro do caule (mm; o nmero de folhas e de ramificaes primrias; a massa seca da parte area e da raiz das plantas (g; e a rea foliar por planta (cm. Aos 7, 14 e 28 DAA, avaliou-se, visualmente, a porcentagem de intoxicao das plantas. O glyphosate em deriva simulada, independentemente das formulaes utilizadas, ocasionou injrias no maracujazeiro amarelo, acarretando reduo no crescimento e desenvolvimento das plantas. As formulaes Roundup Transorb e Roundup Original foram mais prejudiciais s plantas que o Zapp Qi. O maracujazeiro amarelo mostrou-se suscetvel deriva, devendo o glyphosate ser usado com cuidado, de maneira a atingir somente as plantas daninhas a serem controladas.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of drift simulation of commercial formulations of glyphosate on the growth of young plants of yellow passion fruit. The work was carried out at the Plant Science Department of the Universidade Federal de Viosa (MG, Brazil, from March to April 2007. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized block design, with five replications, in a factorial 3 x 4 + 1, consisting of three glyphosate formulations and five doses, (one being the control without herbicide. Each plot was constituted by one plant. The applied doses of glyphosate were 43.2; 86.4; 172.8 and 345.6 g ha-1, using the commercial formulations: Roundup Transorb, Roundup Original and Zapp QI. After 28 days of application, aerial part, root and total length (cm, stem diameter (mm, number of leaves and primary ramifications, aerial part and root dry mass,(g and the foliar area per plant (cm were evaluated. After 7, 14 and 28 application days, intoxication percentage of the plants was also evaluated. Regardless of the formulations used, glyphosate drift simulation caused injury to the yellow passion fruit, reducing plant growth. The herbicides Roundup Transorb and Roundup Original were more harmful than Zapp Qi. The yellow passion fruit was susceptible to drift simulation; thus, glyphosate must be used carefully, so as to reach only the weeds to be controlled.

  10. Comparison of Applying FOUR Reduced Order Models to a Global Sensitivity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Oladyshkin, S.; Liu, Y.; Pau, G. S. H.

    2014-12-01

    This study focuses on the comparison of applying four reduced order models (ROMs) to global sensitivity analysis (GSA). ROM is one way to improve computational efficiency in many-query applications such as optimization, uncertainty quantification, sensitivity analysis, inverse modeling where the computational demand can become large. The four ROM methods are: arbitrary Polynomial Chaos (aPC), Gaussian process regression (GPR), cut high dimensional model representation (HDMR), and random sample HDMR. The discussion is mainly based on a global sensitivity analysis performed for a hypothetical large-scale CO2 storage project. Pros and cons of each method will be discussed and suggestions on how each method should be applied individually or combined will be made.

  11. MapReduce Based Personalized Locality Sensitive Hashing for Similarity Joins on Large Scale Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingjing; Lin, Chen

    2015-01-01

    Locality Sensitive Hashing (LSH) has been proposed as an efficient technique for similarity joins for high dimensional data. The efficiency and approximation rate of LSH depend on the number of generated false positive instances and false negative instances. In many domains, reducing the number of false positives is crucial. Furthermore, in some application scenarios, balancing false positives and false negatives is favored. To address these problems, in this paper we propose Personalized Locality Sensitive Hashing (PLSH), where a new banding scheme is embedded to tailor the number of false positives, false negatives, and the sum of both. PLSH is implemented in parallel using MapReduce framework to deal with similarity joins on large scale data. Experimental studies on real and simulated data verify the efficiency and effectiveness of our proposed PLSH technique, compared with state-of-the-art methods. PMID:26089861

  12. An Assessment of the Impact of Glyphosate and 2,4-D Amine Salt on Weeds in Niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mamadou

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to investigate the efficacy of two herbicides, viz., glyphosate and 2,4- D amine salt at varying doses for the control of the main noxious weeds. The lowest application rate (0.5l per ha of 2,4-D and 2l per ha of glyphosate of both herbicides gave a control of shoot grow th and drastically reduced the green biomass compared to unweeded plots at different time intervals after the application. There was no re-growth up to nine days after spraying in all treated plots. The highest control of the density of noxious weeds has been obtained with 2,4-D amine salt at the dose of 1.5 l per ha and glyphosate at the dose of 4l per ha in six days after treatment; the reduction rate was more than 85%. Data on green biomass also showed drastic reduction following herbicide application.

  13. Refractory cardiopulmonary failure after glyphosate surfactant intoxication: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Chang Chia-Chu; Chang Chirn-Bin

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Glyphosate is an herbicide considered to be of low toxicity to humans because its effects are specific to plants. However, fatal reactions to glyphosate have been reported after the ingestion of large amounts. Pulmonary edema, shock, and arrhythmia were the reported causes of mortality. Case presentation We present the case of a 57-year-old woman who was admitted to the emergency department unconsciousness after ingestion of glyphosate surfactant in a suicide attempt. Meta...

  14. PHYTO-MICROBIAL DEGRADATION OF GLYPHOSATE IN RIYADH AREA

    OpenAIRE

    ABDEL-MEGEED A.; SADIK M.W.; AL-SHAHRANI H.O.; ALI H.M.

    2013-01-01

    Greenhouse studies were conducted to determine the ability of plant Amaranth, Amaranthus caudate and two isolated bacterial strains from rhizosphere region for cleaning up glyphosate residues in soil and plants. The analytical study of the biodegradation of glyphosate was carried out in the laboratory conditions. Amaranth, Amaranthus caudate and two isolated bacterial strains namely Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus megaterium could degrade glyphosate in 5 days. These results suggested that...

  15. Metabolism of glyphosate in Pseudomonas sp. strain LBr.

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob, G S; Garbow, J R; Hallas, L E; Kimack, N M; Kishore, G M; Schaefer, J.

    1988-01-01

    Metabolism of glyphosate (N-phosphonomethylglycine) by Pseudomonas sp. strain LBr, a bacterium isolated from a glyphosate process waste stream, was examined by a combination of solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance experiments and analysis of the phosphonate composition of the growth medium. Pseudomonas sp. strain LBr was capable of eliminating 20 mM glyphosate from the growth medium, an amount approximately 20-fold greater than that reported for any other microorganism to date. The bact...

  16. MapReduce Based Personalized Locality Sensitive Hashing for Similarity Joins on Large Scale Data

    OpenAIRE

    Jingjing Wang; Chen Lin

    2015-01-01

    Locality Sensitive Hashing (LSH) has been proposed as an efficient technique for similarity joins for high dimensional data. The efficiency and approximation rate of LSH depend on the number of generated false positive instances and false negative instances. In many domains, reducing the number of false positives is crucial. Furthermore, in some application scenarios, balancing false positives and false negatives is favored. To address these problems, in this paper we propose Personalized Loc...

  17. Fuzzy Controller Based Dvr To Mitigate Power Quaity And Reduce The Harmonics Distortion Of Sensitive Load

    OpenAIRE

    SANDESH JAIN; PROF.SHIVENDRA SINGH THAKUR; PROF. S.P.PHULAMBRIKAR

    2013-01-01

    PI controller is very common in the control of DVRs. However, one disadvantage of this conventional controller is its inability to still working well under a wider range of operating conditions. So, as a solution fuzzy controller is proposed. This paper discusses the design and simulation of dynamic voltage restorer for improve power quality and reduce the harmonics distortion of sensitive load. Power quality problem is an occur as a non-standard voltage, current and frequency. Electronics de...

  18. Intoxicao de espcies de eucalipto submetidas deriva do glyphosate Intoxication of eucalypt species under glyphosate drift

    OpenAIRE

    Tuffi Santos, L.D.; F.A Ferreira; L. R. Ferreira; W.M. Duarte; R.A.S. Tiburcio; M.V. Santos

    2006-01-01

    O glyphosate o herbicida mais utilizado em reas de reflorestamento de eucalipto. Nessas reas tem sido freqente a verificao de sintomas de intoxicao devido deriva. Entretanto, trabalhos de pesquisa e observaes de campo indicam comportamento diferencial entre as espcies e os clones de eucalipto quando em contato com o glyphosate. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos da deriva simulada de glyphosate, por meio de doses reduzidas, no crescimento de cinco espcies...

  19. Controle de plantas daninhas na cultura de soja resistente ao glyphosate Weed control in glyphosate tolerant soybean crop

    OpenAIRE

    Nbia Maria Correia; Julio Cezar Durigan

    2010-01-01

    O objetivo da pesquisa foi avaliar o controle de plantas daninhas em rea cultivada com soja resistente ao herbicida glyphosate, sem a utilizao de prticas complementares de manejo de plantas daninhas. Foram desenvolvidos experimentos, em condies de campo, nos anos agrcolas 2005/2006 e 2006/2007 em Jaboticabal (SP). Foram avaliadas duas cultivares de soja resistentes ao glyphosate (CD 214 RR e M-SOY 8008 RR), oito tratamentos de herbicidas (glyphosate, em aplicao nica, nas doses de 0,...

  20. Translocao do glyphosate em bitipos de azevm (Lolium multiflorum) Glyphosate translocation in Italian ryegrass biotypes (Lolium multiflorum)

    OpenAIRE

    E.A. Ferreira; Santos, J. B.; Silva, A. A.; de Oliveira, J. A.; L. VARGAS

    2006-01-01

    Foram avaliadas neste trabalho a absoro foliar e a translocao do glyphosate por bitipos de azevm (Lolium multiflorum) sensveis e resistentes a esse herbicida. Para isso, aplicou-se 14C-glyphosate utilizando-se uma microsseringa de preciso, adicionando-se 10 L da calda sobre a face adaxial da primeira folha com lgula totalmente visvel, quando as plantas de azevm se apresentavam com trs perfilhos. A quantidade de glyphosate absorvido e translocado foi avaliada em intervalos de temp...

  1. Manejo de tiririca e trapoeraba com glyphosate em ambientes sombreados / Commelina benghalensis and Cyperus rotundus treated with glyphosate in shaded environments

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A, Santos Jnior; L.D, Tuffi Santos; G.A, Costa; E.A, Barbosa; G.L.D, Leite; V.D, Machado; L.R, Cruz.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Plantas daninhas mantidas em ambientes com reduo da intensidade luminosa apresentam alteraes morfofisiolgicas marcantes, que podem alterar seu comportamento reprodutivo e a tolerncia a herbicidas aplicados em ps-emergncia. Objetivou-se neste estudo avaliar a eficincia de doses de glyphosate [...] no manejo da trapoeraba (Commelina benghalensis) e da tiririca (Cyperus rotundus) cultivadas em diferentes nveis de sombreamento. O trabalho foi composto por dois ensaios, referentes a cada uma das espcies, com o mesmo delineamento experimental, sendo constitudos em esquema fatorial 5 x 3, com cinco doses de herbicida (0, 540, 810, 1.080 ou 1.350 g ha-1 de glyphosate), trs ambientes de cultivo (0, 30 ou 50% de sombra) e quatro repeties. As parcelas experimentais foram compostas por um vaso com duas plantas de tiririca ou de trapoeraba. As avaliaes de controle ocorreram aos 10, 20 e 30 dias aps a aplicao (DAA), por meio de observaes visuais. Aos 30 DAA, foi determinada a massa seca da parte area de cada espcie. A produtividade de tubrculos foi observada pela contagem direta desses propgulos presentes nas razes das plantas de tiririca. J a sua viabilidade foi avaliada por teste de germinao em leito de areia e por tetrazlio no caso dos no germinados. O controle das espcies foi mais eficiente em ambientes sombreados, contribuindo para a reduo de at 25% da dose recomendada para ambas, obtendo-se controle de 81% para trapoeraba e 100% para tiririca. J a matria seca da parte area, a produtividade e a viabilidade dos tubrculos foram afetadas pelo aumento do nvel de sombra e pela dose de glyphosate. A diminuio da intensidade luminosa - comum no sub-bosque de culturas arbreas e arbustivas ou quando do adensamento de cultivos - representa prtica interessante na supresso da trapoeraba e da tiririca e potencializa a ao de controle do glyphosate. Abstract in english Weeds maintained in reduced light intensity environments present remarkable morpho-physiological changes that may alter their reproductive behavior and tolerance to post-emergence herbicides. Our goal was to evaluate the efficiency of glyphosate doses in the management of Commelina benghalensis and [...] Cyperus rotundus grown at different levels of shading. The work consisted of two trials for each species with the same experimental design, in a 5 x 3 factorial design with five herbicide doses (0, 540, 810, 1.080, and 1.350 gha-1 of glyphosate), three cultivation environments (0, 30, or 50% of shading) and four replicates. Experimental plots consisted of a vase with two plants of either C. benghalensis or C. rotundus. Control evaluations were carried out 10, 20, and 30 days after application (DAA) through visual observations. Tuber productivity was verified by direct counting of these propagules present in the roots of C. rotundus plants, while tuber viability was evaluated by germination test in a sand bed, and by tetrazolium, for the non-germinated tubers. Species control was more efficient in shade environments, contributing to a reduction of up to 25% of the recommended dose for the treated species, and resulting in a control of 81% for C. benghalensis and 100% for C. rotundus. Aerial part dry biomass and productivity and viability of tubers were affected by increase in shade level and glyphosate dose. Reduced light intensity - common in the under-story of tree and shrub cultures or in culture density - is an interesting practice aiming at suppressing C. benghalensis and C. rotundus, acting as a potential control of glyphosate.

  2. Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Glyphosate (Roundup Active to Embryos of Colombian Anurans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tefila Mara Triana Velsquez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Glyphosate is an herbicide widely used in agriculture, which may affect non-target species. The aim of this study was to determine the lethal (Median lethal concentration - LC50 and sublethal effects (changes on body size and development of glyphosate (Roundup Active to embryos of four anuran species, exposed during 96 hours under laboratory and microcosm tests. Under laboratory conditions, Engystomops pustulosus was the most tolerant species (LC50 = 3033,18 ?g a.e./L and Rhinella marina was the most sensitive (LC50 = 1421,46 ?g a.e./L, which also showed a delayed development and significantly reduced body size. The other species had an intermediate LC50 (Rhinella humboldti = 2899,54 ?g a.e./L; Hypsiboas crepitans = 2151,88 ?g a.e./L. In all cases, the laboratory LC50 was lower than the concentration used in field (5392,92 ?g a.e./L, indicating a high toxic effect. In the microcosm tests, embryos of E. pustulosus were the most tolerant (LC50 = 19,41 kg a.e./ha, while R. humboldti were the most sensitive (LC50 = 10,61 kg a.e./ha. In this case, all four study species had a higher LC50 than the concentration sprayed in field (3,69 kg a.e./ ha, so a lower lethal effect, and there were no significant differences in body size and development. This result shows that the glyphosate, as the commercial presentation Roundup Active, produce a moderate mortality on anuran embryos.EFECTOS LETALES Y SUBLETALES DEL GLIFOSATO (ROUNDUP ACTIVO EN EMBRIONES DE ANUROS COLOMBIANOS.El glifosato es un herbicida usado en la agricultura que puede afectar especies no blanco. El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar los efectos letales (concentracin letal media - CL50 y subletales (cambios en el tamao corporal y desarrollo del glifosato (Roundup Activo sobre embriones de cuatro especies de anuros expuestos durante 96 horas en pruebas de laboratorio y microcosmos. En laboratorio, la especie ms tolerante fue Engystomops pustulosus (CL50 = 3033,18 ?g a.e./L y la ms sensible Rhinella marina (CL50 = 1421,46 ?g a.e./L, la cual mostr una reduccin significativa en el tamao corporal y retrasos en el desarrollo de los individuos. Las dems especies tuvieron un CL50 intermedio (Rhinella humboldti = 2899,36 ?ga.e./L; Hypsiboas crepitans = 2151,88 ?g a.e./L. En todos los casos el CL50 fue menor a la concentracin empleada en campo (5392,92 ?g a.e./ L indicando un efecto txico alto. En los microcosmos, los embriones de E. pustulosus fueron los ms tolerantes (CL50 = 19,41 kg a.e./ha, mientras que los de R. humboldti los ms sensibles (CL50 = 10,61 kg a.e./ha. Sin embargo, todas las especies tuvieron un CL50 superiora la concentracin asperjada en campo (3,69 kg a.e./ ha, mostrando un efecto txico leve, y no hubo diferencias enel tamao corporal ni en el desarrollo de los individuos. Este resultado muestra que el glifosato, en su presentacin comercial como Roundup Activo, genera una mortalidad moderada en los embriones de anuros.

  3. Association of sulfentrazone and glyphosate for weed control in RR soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jethro Barros Osipe

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of herbicides with residual activity in weed management has become a common practice in order to reduce weed initial competition. This study aims to evaluate the selectivity and efficiency of the sulfentrazone + glyphosate association at pre-planting management, supplemented with postemergence glyphosate. To reach such intent, an experiment was conducted in Bandeirantes Pr, on a Eutrophic latosol. The experimental design was randomized blocks in split plot scheme with 11 treatments and 04 replicates. The main weeds in the experimental area (Bidens pilosa, Commelina benghalensis were in full vegetative growth at the time of application management. During this period, injury caused by treatment to soybean crop, weed density, and grain yield were evaluated. The results showed that sulfentrazone significantly reduced the density of Bidens pilosa and Commelina benghalensis, which ensured an increase in yield of up to 22.49%. In addition, no symptoms of injury were observed by the use of herbicides.

  4. Effect of Reducing Groundwater on the Retardation of Redox-Sensitive Radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Q; Zavarin, M; Rose, T P

    2008-04-21

    Laboratory batch sorption experiments were used to investigate variations in the retardation behavior of redox-sensitive radionuclides. Water-rock compositions used during these experiments were designed to simulate subsurface conditions at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), where a suite of radionuclides were deposited as a result of underground nuclear testing. Experimental redox conditions were controlled by varying the oxygen content inside an enclosed glove box and by adding reductants into the testing solutions. Under atmospheric (oxidizing) conditions, the radionuclide distribution coefficients varied with the mineralogical composition of the sorbent and the water chemistry. Under reducing conditions, distribution coefficients showed marked increases for {sup 99}Tc and {sup 237}Np in devitrified tuff, but much smaller variations in alluvium, carbonate rock, and zeolitic tuff. This effect was particularly important for {sup 99}Tc, which tends to be mobile under oxidizing conditions. Unlike other redox-sensitive radionuclides, iodine sorption may decrease under reducing conditions when I{sup -} is the predominant species. Overall, sorption of U to alluvium, devitrified tuff, and zeolitic tuff under atmospheric conditions was less than in the glove-box tests. However, the mildly reducing conditions achieved here were not likely to result in substantial U(VI) reduction to U(IV). Sorption of Pu was not affected by the decreasing redox conditions achieved in this study, as the predominant sorbed Pu species in all conditions was expected to be the low-solubility and strongly sorbing Pu(OH){sub 4}. Depending on the aquifer lithology, the occurrence of reducing conditions along a groundwater flowpath could potentially contribute to the retardation of redox-sensitive radionuclides {sup 99}Tc and {sup 237}Np, which are commonly identified as long-term dose contributors in the risk assessment in various nuclear facilities.

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas Strain P818, Isolated from Glyphosate-Polluted Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Gaoyi; Liu, Yunjun; Liu, Guiming; Wang, Jianhua; Wang, Guoying

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas strain P818 was isolated from glyphosate-polluted soil in China. This bacterium presents a capacity for high glyphosate tolerance. We present the draft genome sequence of the strainPseudomonas P818. The genes involved in the glyphosate tolerance were identified. This genomic information will facilitate the study of glyphosate tolerance mechanisms.

  6. Ultrafast and sensitive room temperature NH3 gas sensors based on chemically reduced graphene oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrafast and sensitive room temperature NH3 gas sensors based on chemically reduced graphene oxide (rGO) are demonstrated in this work. rGO, which was prepared via the reduction of graphene oxide by pyrrole, exhibited excellent responsive sensitivity and selectivity to ammonia (NH3) gas. The high sensing performance of these rGO sensors with resistance change as high as 2.4% and response time as fast as 1.4 s was realized when the concentration of NH3 gas was as low as 1 ppb. Furthermore, the rGO sensors could rapidly recover to their initial states with IR illumination. The devices also showed excellent repeatability and selectivity to NH3. These rGO sensors, with low cost, low power, and easy fabrication, as well as scalable properties, showed great potential for ultrasensitive detection of NH3 gas in a wide variety of fields. (paper)

  7. Ultrafast and sensitive room temperature NH3 gas sensors based on chemically reduced graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Nantao; Yang, Zhi; Wang, Yanyan; Zhang, Liling; Wang, Ying; Huang, Xiaolu; Wei, Hao; Wei, Liangmin; Zhang, Yafei

    2014-01-01

    Ultrafast and sensitive room temperature NH3 gas sensors based on chemically reduced graphene oxide (rGO) are demonstrated in this work. rGO, which was prepared via the reduction of graphene oxide by pyrrole, exhibited excellent responsive sensitivity and selectivity to ammonia (NH3) gas. The high sensing performance of these rGO sensors with resistance change as high as 2.4% and response time as fast as 1.4 s was realized when the concentration of NH3 gas was as low as 1 ppb. Furthermore, the rGO sensors could rapidly recover to their initial states with IR illumination. The devices also showed excellent repeatability and selectivity to NH3. These rGO sensors, with low cost, low power, and easy fabrication, as well as scalable properties, showed great potential for ultrasensitive detection of NH3 gas in a wide variety of fields.

  8. Metallic complexes with glyphosate: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present studies involving metallic ions and the herbicide glyphosate. The metallic complexes of Cu(II), Zn(II), Mn(II), Ni(II), Cd(II), Pb(II), Cr(III), Fe(III), Co(III), ammonium, sodium, Ag(I), alkaline earth metals and of some lanthanides ions are described. The complexes are discussed in terms of their synthesis, identification, stability and structural properties, based on data from the current literature. (author)

  9. Time-division SQUID multiplexers with reduced sensitivity to external magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Stiehl, G M; Hilton, G C; Irwin, K D; Mates, J A B; Reintsema, C D; Zink, B L

    2010-01-01

    Time-division SQUID multiplexers are used in many applications that require exquisite control of systematic error. One potential source of systematic error is the pickup of external magnetic fields in the multiplexer. We present measurements of the field sensitivity figure of merit, effective area, for both the first stage and second stage SQUID amplifiers in three NIST SQUID multiplexer designs. These designs include a new variety with improved gradiometry that significantly reduces the effective area of both the first and second stage SQUID amplifiers.

  10. Effectiveness of the nitrate sensitive areas scheme in reducing groundwater concentrations in England

    OpenAIRE

    Silgram, M.; Williams, A.; Waring, R; Neumann, I.; Hughes, A.; Mansour, M.; Besien, T van

    2005-01-01

    The Nitrates Sensitive Areas (NSA) Scheme in England was a voluntary, compensated measure from 1990 to 2003 which aimed to reduce nitrate leaching from agricultural land to vulnerable groundwaters by modifying land use management. Measurements from 22 NSAs introduced in 1994/5 show an overall 34% decrease in the nitrate concentration of water leaching from the soils from 115?mg/l (1994/5-1995/6) to 76?mg/l (1998/9-1999/2000). This study looks at two NSAs in depth. The Old Chalford NSA consist...

  11. Synthesis of 15N labeled glyphosate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amongst the actually commercialized herbicides the Glyphosate is the most used in Brazil. Its efficiency as well as the others herbicides against undesirable weeds is harmed by its final composts left at the environment. Although studies has being carried out to improve the knowledge about the herbicides behavior at the environment its complexity has led them towards innumerous to new significant research work where the use of radiolabeled composts (radiative tracers) are recommended to evaluate their bio-availability in the soil. However is the use, the manipulation and the storage of radiolabeled composts is requires an extra care under chemical safety point of view. The use of non radiolabeled composts is a world tendency especially for field researches. Under this context the presented work describes a method for the synthesis of 15N labeled glyphosate. The 15N-herbicide was undertaken by phosphometilation with the phosphit dialquil and 15N-glycine. The tests where carried out through a micro scale production plant and of equimolars amounts. At these conditions it's was possible to reach approximately a 20% of yield. At the conclusion of a best operational condition its expected to offer another important toll that shall be used in glyphosate behavior at the environment and undesirably weeds. (author)

  12. High-sensitive C-reactive protein is associated with reduced lung function in young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, F; Mikkelsen, D; Hancox, R J; Lambrechtsen, J; Nybo, M; Hansen, H S; Siersted, H C

    2009-01-01

    Systemic inflammation has been associated with reduced lung function. However, data on the interrelationships between lung function and inflammation are sparse, and it is not clear if low-grade inflammation leads to reduced lung function. Associations between high-sensitive C-reactive protein (CR......-grade systemic inflammation in young adulthood may lead to impaired lung function independently of the effects of smoking, obesity, cardiorespiratory fitness, asthma and eosinophilic inflammation....... average decline was 6.2 mL.yr(-1) in the highest CRP quintile versus an increase of 1.8 mL.yr(-1) in the lowest CRP quintile. In a multiple regression analysis adjusted for sex, body mass index, cardiorespiratory fitness, smoking, asthma, airway hyperresponsiveness and serum eosinophil cationic protein...

  13. Biological response of soybean and cotton to aerial glyphosate drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    An aerial application drift study was conducted in 2009 to determine biological effects of glyphosate on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. Glyphosate at 866 g ae/ha was applied using an Air Tractor 402B agricultural aircraft in an 18.3 m spray swath to crops at the...

  14. Heterodera glycines Population Development on Soybean Treated with Glyphosate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) is a major yield limiting pest in all major soybean producing countries. In the last decade genetically modified soybean tolerant to glyphosate has become widely planted and postemergence application of glyphosate has increased exponentially. Genetically m...

  15. Glyphosate Applied at Low Doses Can Stimulate Plant Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyphosate blocks the shikimic acid pathway, inhibiting the production of aromatic amino acids and several secondary compounds derived from these amino acids. Non-target plants can be exposed to low doses of glyphosate by herbicide drift of spray droplets and contact with treated weeds. Previous s...

  16. Glyphosate effects on soil rhizosphere-associated bacterial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Molli M; Hoilett, Nigel; Lorenz, Nicola; Dick, Richard P; Liles, Mark R; Ramsier, Cliff; Kloepper, Joseph W

    2016-02-01

    Glyphosate is one of the most widely used herbicides in agriculture with predictions that 1.35millionmetric tons will be used annually by 2017. With the advent of glyphosate tolerant (GT) cropping more than 10years ago, there is now concern for non-target effects on soil microbial communities that has potential to negatively affect soil functions, plant health, and crop productivity. Although extensive research has been done on short-term response to glyphosate, relatively little information is available on long-term effects. Therefore, the overall objective was to investigate shifts in the rhizosphere bacterial community following long-term glyphosate application on GT corn and soybean in the greenhouse. In this study, rhizosphere soil was sampled from rhizoboxes following 4 growth periods, and bacterial community composition was compared between glyphosate treated and untreated rhizospheres using next-generation barcoded sequencing. In the presence or absence of glyphosate, corn and soybean rhizospheres were dominated by members of the phyla Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria. Proteobacteria (particularly gammaproteobacteria) increased in relative abundance for both crops following glyphosate exposure, and the relative abundance of Acidobacteria decreased in response to glyphosate exposure. Given that some members of the Acidobacteria are involved in biogeochemical processes, a decrease in their abundance could lead to significant changes in nutrient status of the rhizosphere. Our results also highlight the need for applying culture-independent approaches in studying the effects of pesticides on the soil and rhizosphere microbial community. PMID:26580738

  17. Hormesis with glyphosate depends on coffee growth stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed management systems in almost all Brazilian coffee plantations allow herbicide spray to drift on crop plants. In order to evaluate if there is any effect of the most commonly used herbicide in coffee production, glyphosate, on coffee plants, a range of glyphosate doses were applied directly on ...

  18. Concerns over use of glyphosate-based herbicides and risks associated with exposures: a consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, John Peterson; Antoniou, Michael N; Blumberg, Bruce; Carroll, Lynn; Colborn, Theo; Everett, Lorne G; Hansen, Michael; Landrigan, Philip J; Lanphear, Bruce P; Mesnage, Robin; Vandenberg, Laura N; Vom Saal, Frederick S; Welshons, Wade V; Benbrook, Charles M

    2016-01-01

    The broad-spectrum herbicide glyphosate (common trade name "Roundup") was first sold to farmers in 1974. Since the late 1970s, the volume of glyphosate-based herbicides (GBHs) applied has increased approximately 100-fold. Further increases in the volume applied are likely due to more and higher rates of application in response to the widespread emergence of glyphosate-resistant weeds and new, pre-harvest, dessicant use patterns. GBHs were developed to replace or reduce reliance on herbicides causing well-documented problems associated with drift and crop damage, slipping efficacy, and human health risks. Initial industry toxicity testing suggested that GBHs posed relatively low risks to non-target species, including mammals, leading regulatory authorities worldwide to set high acceptable exposure limits. To accommodate changes in GBH use patterns associated with genetically engineered, herbicide-tolerant crops, regulators have dramatically increased tolerance levels in maize, oilseed (soybeans and canola), and alfalfa crops and related livestock feeds. Animal and epidemiology studies published in the last decade, however, point to the need for a fresh look at glyphosate toxicity. Furthermore, the World Health Organization's International Agency for Research on Cancer recently concluded that glyphosate is "probably carcinogenic to humans." In response to changing GBH use patterns and advances in scientific understanding of their potential hazards, we have produced a Statement of Concern drawing on emerging science relevant to the safety of GBHs. Our Statement of Concern considers current published literature describing GBH uses, mechanisms of action, toxicity in laboratory animals, and epidemiological studies. It also examines the derivation of current human safety standards. We conclude that: (1) GBHs are the most heavily applied herbicide in the world and usage continues to rise; (2) Worldwide, GBHs often contaminate drinking water sources, precipitation, and air, especially in agricultural regions; (3) The half-life of glyphosate in water and soil is longer than previously recognized; (4) Glyphosate and its metabolites are widely present in the global soybean supply; (5) Human exposures to GBHs are rising; (6) Glyphosate is now authoritatively classified as a probable human carcinogen; (7) Regulatory estimates of tolerable daily intakes for glyphosate in the United States and European Union are based on outdated science. We offer a series of recommendations related to the need for new investments in epidemiological studies, biomonitoring, and toxicology studies that draw on the principles of endocrinology to determine whether the effects of GBHs are due to endocrine disrupting activities. We suggest that common commercial formulations of GBHs should be prioritized for inclusion in government-led toxicology testing programs such as the U.S. National Toxicology Program, as well as for biomonitoring as conducted by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. PMID:26883814

  19. Research on the weed control degree and glyphosate soil biodegradation in apple plantations (Pioneer variety)

    OpenAIRE

    Ersilia ALEXA; Roxana MICU; Monica NEGREA; Renata SUMALAN; Olimpia IORDANESCU

    2010-01-01

    In this study we follow control degree of glyphosate herbicide on weeds in apple plantations (Pioneer variety) of the Research Station Timisoara. It was also followed glyphosate biodegradation capacity in the soil by determining the amount of CO2 released by the action of microorganisms on C14 glyphosate marked isotope. Laboratory analysis of glyphosate residues in soil was made using a Liquid Scintillation TRIATHLER. Glyphosate biodegradation ability in the presence of soil microorganisms is...

  20. Reduced attention-driven auditory sensitivity in hallucination-prone individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, Louise H; Lee, Kwang-Hyuk; Woodruff, Peter W R

    2015-11-01

    BackgroundEvidence suggests that auditory hallucinations may result from abnormally enhanced auditory sensitivity.AimsTo investigate whether there is an auditory processing bias in healthy individuals who are prone to experiencing auditory hallucinations.MethodTwo hundred healthy volunteers performed a temporal order judgement task in which they determined whether an auditory or a visual stimulus came first under conditions of directed attention ('attend-auditory' and 'attend-visual' conditions). The Launay-Slade Hallucination Scale was used to divide the sample into high and low hallucination-proneness groups.ResultsThe high hallucination-proneness group exhibited a reduced sensitivity to auditory stimuli under the attend-auditory condition. By contrast, attention-directed visual sensitivity did not differ significantly between groups.ConclusionsHealthy individuals prone to hallucinatory experiences may possess a bias in attention towards internal auditory stimuli at the expense of external sounds. Interventions involving the redistribution of attentional resources would have therapeutic benefit in patients experiencing auditory hallucinations. PMID:26382950

  1. Fuzzy Controller Based Dvr To Mitigate Power Quaity And Reduce The Harmonics Distortion Of Sensitive Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANDESH JAIN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available PI controller is very common in the control of DVRs. However, one disadvantage of this conventional controller is its inability to still working well under a wider range of operating conditions. So, as a solution fuzzy controller is proposed. This paper discusses the design and simulation of dynamic voltage restorer for improve power quality and reduce the harmonics distortion of sensitive load. Power quality problem is an occur as a non-standard voltage, current and frequency. Electronics devices are very sensitive load against harmonics. In power system voltage sag, swell, flicker and harmonics are some of the problem to the sensitive load. The compensation capability of a DVR depends primarily on the maximum voltage injection ability and the amount of stored energy available within the restorer. This device is connected in series with the distribution feeder at medium voltage. A fuzzy logic control is proposed. Simulation result carried out by Matlab/Simulink verifies the performance of the proposed method.

  2. Reduced sensitivity to sooner reward during intertemporal decision-making following insula damage in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Sellitto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During intertemporal choice, humans tend to prefer small-sooner rewards over larger-delayed rewards, reflecting temporal discounting (TD of delayed outcomes. Functional neuroimaging evidence has implicated the insular cortex in time-sensitive decisions, yet it is not clear whether activity in this brain region is crucial for, or merely associated with, TD behaviour. Here, patients with damage to the insula (Insular patients, control patients with lesions outside the insula, and healthy individuals chose between smaller-sooner and larger-later monetary rewards. Insular patients were less sensitive to sooner rewards than were the control groups, exhibiting reduced TD. A Voxel-based Lesion-Symptom Mapping (VLSM analysis confirmed a statistically significant association between insular damage and reduced TD. These results indicate that the insular cortex is crucial for intertemporal choice. We suggest that he insula may be necessary to anticipate the bodily/emotional effects of receiving rewards at different delays, influencing the computation of their incentive value. Devoid of such input, insular patients choices would be governed by a heuristic of quantity, allowing patients to wait for larger options.

  3. Overexpression of salivary-type amylase reduces the sensitivity to bortezomib in multiple myeloma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Shohei; Hanamura, Ichiro; Ota, Akinobu; Karnan, Sivasundaram; Narita, Tomoko; Ri, Masaki; Mizutani, Motonori; Goto, Mineaki; Gotou, Mayuko; Tsunekawa, Norikazu; Shikami, Masato; Iida, Shinsuke; Hosokawa, Yoshitaka; Miwa, Hiroshi; Ueda, Ryuzo; Nitta, Masakazu; Takami, Akiyoshi

    2015-11-01

    Amylase-producing myeloma exhibits refractoriness to chemotherapy and a dismal prognosis. In this study, we established a human myeloma cell line, 8226/AMY1, in which a lentivirally transfected AMY1 gene was stably expressed and explored its biological characteristics. 8226/AMY1 showed a survival advantage over mock control when treated with dexamethasone, bortezomib, and lenalidomide in vitro partly through inhibition of apoptosis induced by these reagents. In a xenograft murine model, 8226/AMY1 showed rapid tumor growth and reduced sensitivity to bortezomib compared with mock. A microarray gene expression analysis identified TCL1A, which functions as a coactivator of the cell survival kinase Akt, differentially up-regulated in 8226/AMY1. The expression of phosphorylated Akt was increased in the 8226/AMY1 cells following bortezomib treatment, but not in the mock cells. In addition, treatment with perifosine, an inhibitor of Akt phosphorylation, enhanced the anti-myeloma effect of bortezomib in the 8226/AMY1 cells. Our data suggest that amylase-producing myeloma reduced the sensitivity to bortezomib in vitro and in vivo, and the up-regulation of TCL1A may influence the drug susceptibility of 8226/AMY1 via the phosphorylation of Akt. These findings provide clues for developing treatment approaches for not only amylase-producing myeloma, but also relapsed and refractory myelomas. PMID:26341959

  4. Shock Reactivity Study on Standard and Reduced Sensitivity Rdx of Different Particle Size Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, N. M.; Lindfors, A. J.

    2007-12-01

    Embedded gauge experiments have been performed using a three inch high velocity powder gun to assess the effects of RDX particle size and crystal quality on shock induced reactivity in support of the Combat Safe Insensitive Munitions (CSIM) program. Four monomodal experimental compositions containing 73% solids loading by weight and 27% HTPB binder were tested. The compositions were made using either standard or reduced sensitivity grades of RDX in Class 5 or Class 1 150-300 micron sieve cut particle size classes. Results have shown marked changes in the mode of reaction between the two particle size classes. Both RDX grades at the Class 1 sieve cut particle size distribution showed significant reaction at the shock front as well as behind the front. The Class 5 RDX compositions however showed little reaction at the shock front with rapid growth behind the front. Reaction modes were similar but occurring at greater input pressures for the reduced sensitivity grade of RDX compared to the corresponding particle size distribution standard grade RDX counterpart.

  5. Evaluation of reduced allergenicity of irradiated peanut extract using splenocytes from peanut-sensitized mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Sejo; Jang, Da-In [Department of Pediatrics, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon 442-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Soo-Young [Department of Pediatrics, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon 442-749 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: jsjs87@ajou.ac.kr

    2009-07-15

    Peanut (PN) allergy is one of the most serious forms of IgE-mediated food hypersensitivity. Gamma irradiation has been widely used for the preservation of food. The results of our previous studies showed that the IgE-binding capacity to several antigens were profoundly reduced after gamma irradiation. In this study, we evaluated the changes of allergenecity and cytokine production profiles after exposure of irradiated PN extract in a PN-allergy mouse model. Mice were sensitized to PN extract by intragastric administration on days 0, 1, 2, and 7, and then challenged on day 21. Four weeks later, we evaluated the cytokine production patterns and proliferation responses of splenocytes that were stimulated with intact PN extract, compared to 10 and 50 kGy irradiated PN extract. When the cells were stimulated with 10 kGy of irradiated PN extract, a higher level of production of IFN-{gamma} and IL-10 cytokines was observed. However, stimulation with 50 kGy of irradiated PN extract resulted in a higher level of production of only IFN-{gamma} cytokines. In addition, the Th1/Th2 ratio increased in response to treatment with gamma-irradiated PNs. The results of this study show that the allergenicity of PN extracts could be reduced by gamma irradiation which caused downregulation of Th2 lymphocyte activity in the PN-sensitized mice.

  6. Evaluation of reduced allergenicity of irradiated peanut extract using splenocytes from peanut-sensitized mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sejo; Jang, Da-In; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo; Lee, Soo-Young

    2009-07-01

    Peanut (PN) allergy is one of the most serious forms of IgE-mediated food hypersensitivity. Gamma irradiation has been widely used for the preservation of food. The results of our previous studies showed that the IgE-binding capacity to several antigens were profoundly reduced after gamma irradiation. In this study, we evaluated the changes of allergenecity and cytokine production profiles after exposure of irradiated PN extract in a PN-allergy mouse model. Mice were sensitized to PN extract by intragastric administration on days 0, 1, 2, and 7, and then challenged on day 21. Four weeks later, we evaluated the cytokine production patterns and proliferation responses of splenocytes that were stimulated with intact PN extract, compared to 10 and 50 kGy irradiated PN extract. When the cells were stimulated with 10 kGy of irradiated PN extract, a higher level of production of IFN-? and IL-10 cytokines was observed. However, stimulation with 50 kGy of irradiated PN extract resulted in a higher level of production of only IFN-? cytokines. In addition, the Th1/Th2 ratio increased in response to treatment with gamma-irradiated PNs. The results of this study show that the allergenicity of PN extracts could be reduced by gamma irradiation which caused downregulation of Th2 lymphocyte activity in the PN-sensitized mice.

  7. Reduced Sensitivity to Sooner Reward During Intertemporal Decision-Making Following Insula Damage in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellitto, Manuela; Ciaramelli, Elisa; Mattioli, Flavia; di Pellegrino, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    During intertemporal choice, humans tend to prefer small-sooner rewards over larger-delayed rewards, reflecting temporal discounting (TD) of delayed outcomes. Functional neuroimaging (fMRI) evidence has implicated the insular cortex in time-sensitive decisions, yet it is not clear whether activity in this brain region is crucial for, or merely associated with, TD behavior. Here, patients with damage to the insula (Insular patients), control patients with lesions outside the insula, and healthy individuals chose between smaller-sooner and larger-later monetary rewards. Insular patients were less sensitive to sooner rewards than were the control groups, exhibiting reduced TD. A Voxel-based Lesion-Symptom Mapping (VLSM) analysis confirmed a statistically significant association between insular damage and reduced TD. These results indicate that the insular cortex is crucial for intertemporal choice. We suggest that he insula may be necessary to anticipate the bodily/emotional effects of receiving rewards at different delays, influencing the computation of their incentive value. Devoid of such input, insular patients’ choices would be governed by a heuristic of quantity, allowing patients to wait for larger options. PMID:26793084

  8. Klebsiella oxytoca with reduced sensitivity to chlorhexidine isolated from a diabetic foot ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vali, Leila; Dashti, Ali A; El-Shazly, Sherief; Jadaon, Mehrez M

    2015-05-01

    In most hospitals, chlorhexidine is used as skin antiseptic prior to clinical procedures, in dressings and when bathing patients. We hereby report, for the first time, the isolation of a clinical Klebsiella oxytoca isolate with reduced sensitivity to chlorhexidine from a foot ulcer of a diabetic patient, which is a common and serious complication associated with diabetes. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of the K. oxytoca isolate to chlorhexidine was found to be 30 mg/L and the Minimum Bactericidal Concentration was 60 mg/L. An increased resistance to ethidium bromide (MIC 200 mg/ L) was also observed. Molecular tests revealed that the isolate contained blaCTXM15, blaT(EM-1) and bla(SHV). The other resistant genes detected were qnrB1 and aac(6')-Ib-cr. The resistant determinants were located on a class I integron integrase (intI1) containing qacE gene. DNA sequencing showed homology to K. oxytoca plasmid pACM1. Identification of K. oxytoca with reduced sensitivity to chlorhexidine raises concern regarding dilution standards in hospitals. Adherence to the hospitals' infection control policies should be strictly monitored to avoid continuous low level exposure of bacteria to biocides, specifically in developing countries. PMID:25835102

  9. Evaluation of reduced allergenicity of irradiated peanut extract using splenocytes from peanut-sensitized mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peanut (PN) allergy is one of the most serious forms of IgE-mediated food hypersensitivity. Gamma irradiation has been widely used for the preservation of food. The results of our previous studies showed that the IgE-binding capacity to several antigens were profoundly reduced after gamma irradiation. In this study, we evaluated the changes of allergenecity and cytokine production profiles after exposure of irradiated PN extract in a PN-allergy mouse model. Mice were sensitized to PN extract by intragastric administration on days 0, 1, 2, and 7, and then challenged on day 21. Four weeks later, we evaluated the cytokine production patterns and proliferation responses of splenocytes that were stimulated with intact PN extract, compared to 10 and 50 kGy irradiated PN extract. When the cells were stimulated with 10 kGy of irradiated PN extract, a higher level of production of IFN-? and IL-10 cytokines was observed. However, stimulation with 50 kGy of irradiated PN extract resulted in a higher level of production of only IFN-? cytokines. In addition, the Th1/Th2 ratio increased in response to treatment with gamma-irradiated PNs. The results of this study show that the allergenicity of PN extracts could be reduced by gamma irradiation which caused downregulation of Th2 lymphocyte activity in the PN-sensitized mice.

  10. Glyphosate tolerance of soybean mutant gained after boarding on satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glyphosate-tolerant germplasm and genetic variation characteristics of SP2 and SP3 soybean varieties boarded on Shijian No.8 satellite were analyzed after treated by herbicide glyphosate in the field. Abundant variations of traits were produced, and the resistance within and among cultivars were different in their offspring of space mutagenesis. Plant height and maturity were used as index to screen glyphosate tolerant materials. Space mutation increased of soybean 661 SP3 of Zhongpin, and one glyphosate-resistance variant was screened from Zhongpin 661 SP3. It showed that glyphosate tolerance was different among offspring of different space mutagenesis soybean materials. It is feasible to systemically screen elite traits soybean by applying space mutation breeding. (authors)

  11. DISPERSION OF GLYPHOSATE IN SOILS UNDERGOING EROSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorana Todorovic Rampazzo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Different physical, chemical and biological processes influence the behaviour of organic contaminants in soils. A better understanding of the organic pollutant behaviour in soils would improve the environmental protection. One possible way for better attenuation of the risk of pollution in agriculture can be achieved through ta better-specified pesticide management based on the adaptation of the pesticide type and application rates to the specific environmental characteristics of the area of application. Nowadays, one of the actually most applied herbicide world wide is glyphosate. Glyphosate is highly water soluble and traces have been found in surface and groundwater systems. For a better understanding of the natural influence of erosion processes on glyphosate behaviour and dispersion under heavy rain conditions after application in the field, two erosion simulation experiments were conducted on two different locations in Austria with completely different soil types in September 2008. The results of the experiments showed that under normal practical conditions (e.g. no rainfall is expected immediatly after application, the potential adsorption capacity of the Kirchberg soil (Stagnic Cambisol, with about 16.000 ppm Fe-oxides is confirmed compared to the low adsorption Chernosem soil (about 8.000 ppm pedogenic Fe-oxides. Considering the enormous difference in the run-off amounts between the two sites Pixendorf and Kirchberg soils it can be concluded how important the soil structural conditions and vegetation type and cover are for the risks of erosion and, as a consequence, pollution of neighbouring waters. In the rainfall experiments under comparable simulation conditions, the amount of run-off was about 10 times higher at Kirchberg, owing to its better infiltration rate, than at the Pixendorf site. Moreover, the total loss of glyphosate (NT+CT through run-off at the Kirchberg site was more than double that at Pixendorf, which confirms the importance of the chemical and mineralogical nature of soils in the abatement and absorbency of glyphosate, and the poor results in case of erosive precipitations whwn soil structure and permeability are not favourable.

  12. Effect of reducing groundwater on the retardation of redox-sensitive radionuclides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose TP

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Laboratory batch sorption experiments were used to investigate variations in the retardation behavior of redox-sensitive radionuclides. Water-rock compositions were designed to simulate subsurface conditions at the Nevada Test Site (NTS, where a suite of radionuclides were deposited as a result of underground nuclear testing. Experimental redox conditions were controlled by varying the oxygen content inside an enclosed glove box and by adding reductants into the testing solutions. Under atmospheric (oxidizing conditions, radionuclide distribution coefficients varied with the mineralogic composition of the sorbent and the water chemistry. Under reducing conditions, distribution coefficients showed marked increases for 99Tc (from 1.22 at oxidizing to 378 mL/g at mildly reducing conditions and 237Np (an increase from 4.6 to 930 mL/g in devitrified tuff, but much smaller variations in alluvium, carbonate rock, and zeolitic tuff. This effect was particularly important for 99Tc, which tends to be mobile under oxidizing conditions. A review of the literature suggests that iodine sorption should decrease under reducing conditions when I- is the predominant species; this was not consistently observed in batch tests. Overall, sorption of U to alluvium, devitrified tuff, and zeolitic tuff under atmospheric conditions was less than in the glove-box tests. However, the mildly reducing conditions achieved here were not likely to result in substantial U(VI reduction to U(IV. Sorption of Pu was not affected by the decreasing Eh conditions achieved in this study, as the predominant sorbed Pu species in all conditions was expected to be the low-solubility and strongly sorbing Pu(OH4. Depending on the aquifer lithology, the occurrence of reducing conditions along a groundwater flowpath could potentially contribute to the retardation of redox-sensitive radionuclides 99Tc and 237Np, which are commonly identified as long-term dose contributors in the risk assessment in various radionuclide environmental contamination scenarios. The implications for increased sorption of 99Tc and 237Np to devitrified tuff under reducing conditions are significant as the fractured devitrified tuff serves as important water flow path at the NTS and the horizon for a proposed repository to store high-level nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain.

  13. Effect of reducing groundwater on the retardation of redox-sensitive radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, QH; Zavarin, M; Rose, TP

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory batch sorption experiments were used to investigate variations in the retardation behavior of redox-sensitive radionuclides. Water-rock compositions were designed to simulate subsurface conditions at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), where a suite of radionuclides were deposited as a result of underground nuclear testing. Experimental redox conditions were controlled by varying the oxygen content inside an enclosed glove box and by adding reductants into the testing solutions. Under atmospheric (oxidizing) conditions, radionuclide distribution coefficients varied with the mineralogic composition of the sorbent and the water chemistry. Under reducing conditions, distribution coefficients showed marked increases for 99Tc (from 1.22 at oxidizing to 378 mL/g at mildly reducing conditions) and 237Np (an increase from 4.6 to 930 mL/g) in devitrified tuff, but much smaller variations in alluvium, carbonate rock, and zeolitic tuff. This effect was particularly important for 99Tc, which tends to be mobile under oxidizing conditions. A review of the literature suggests that iodine sorption should decrease under reducing conditions when I- is the predominant species; this was not consistently observed in batch tests. Overall, sorption of U to alluvium, devitrified tuff, and zeolitic tuff under atmospheric conditions was less than in the glove-box tests. However, the mildly reducing conditions achieved here were not likely to result in substantial U(VI) reduction to U(IV). Sorption of Pu was not affected by the decreasing Eh conditions achieved in this study, as the predominant sorbed Pu species in all conditions was expected to be the low-solubility and strongly sorbing Pu(OH)4. Depending on the aquifer lithology, the occurrence of reducing conditions along a groundwater flowpath could potentially contribute to the retardation of redox-sensitive radionuclides 99Tc and 237Np, which are commonly identified as long-term dose contributors in the risk assessment in various radionuclide environmental contamination scenarios. The implications for increased sorption of 99Tc and 237Np to devitrified tuff under reducing conditions are significant as the fractured devitrified tuff serves as important water flow path at the NTS and the horizon for a proposed repository to store high-level nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain. PMID:19077277

  14. Effect of Glyphosate-boron Application on Seed Composition and Nitrogen Metabolism in Glyphosate-resistant Soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information is limited on the effect of combined foliar application of glyphosate (Gly) and boron (B) on seed composition and nitrogen metabolism in glyphosate resistant soybean (Glycine max(L.)Merr.). Therefore, the objective of this two-year field study was to evaluate the effects of single foliar...

  15. Characteristics of thermally reduced graphene oxide and applied for dye-sensitized solar cell counter electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ching-Yuan; Wang, Hong-Wen

    2015-12-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) was synthesized from a flake-type of graphite powder, which was then reduced to a few layers of graphene sheets using the thermal reduction method. The surface morphology, phase crystallization, and defect states of the reduced graphene were determined from an electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersion spectrometer, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and infrared spectra. After graphene formation, the intercalated defects that existed in the GO were removed, and it became crystalline by observing impurity changes and d-spacing. Dye-sensitized solar cells, using reduced graphene as the counter electrode, were fabricated to evaluate the electrolyte activity and charge transport performance. The electrochemical impedance spectra showed that increasing the thermal reduction temperature could achieve faster electron transport and longer electron lifetime, and result in an energy conversion efficiency of approximately 3.4%. Compared to the Pt counter electrode, the low cost of the thermal reduction method suggests that graphene will enjoy a wide range of potential applications in the field of electronic devices.

  16. Dessecação de plantas daninhas com glyphosate em mistura com ureia ou sulfato de amônio Weed desiccation with glyphosate mixed with urea or ammonium sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.J.P. Carvalho

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O glyphosate é um herbicida não-seletivo, sistêmico, usado para controle de plantas daninhas anuais e perenes em todo o mundo. A absorção da molécula do glyphosate ocorre pelos tecidos fotossinteticamente ativos das plantas, porém alguns fatores podem reduzir sua eficácia, como a morfologia e diversidade de espécies, chuva após aplicação, qualidade da água e misturas em tanque com outros defensivos, entre outros. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a influência da adição de sulfato de amônio ou ureia em calda na eficácia do herbicida glyphosate para dessecação de plantas daninhas. Dois experimentos foram desenvolvidos em Piracicaba - SP, com aplicações de glyphosate (720 e 1.440 g ha-1 isolado ou combinado com duas doses de sulfato de amônio (7,5 e 15,0 g L-1 ou ureia (2,5 e 5,0 g L-1 sobre as plantas daninhas: apaga-fogo (Alternanthera tenella e capim-massambará (Sorghum halepense. Para a espécie menos suscetível ao herbicida (capim-massambará, a adição de fontes nitrogenadas à menor dose de glyphosate acelerou a morte das plantas, elevando os níveis de controle em até 7,3% na avaliação de 21 dias após aplicação (DAA dos tratamentos. Contudo, os efeitos não foram observados nas avaliações de controle, massa fresca e seca, conduzidas aos 28 DAA. A dose recomendada de glyphosate para cada espécie proporcionou controle satisfatório, sem a necessidade de adição de sulfato de amônio ou ureia.Glyphosate is a non-selective systemic herbicide used to control annual and perennial weeds worldwide. Molecule absorption occurs through the plant's photosynthetically-active tissues; however, some factors might reduce its efficacy, such as morphology and specific diversity, rain after application, water quality and tank mixtures with other chemicals. Thus, this work aimed to evaluate the influence of ammonium sulfate or urea addiction to spray tank on glyphosate efficacy for weed desiccation. Two trials were carried out in Piracicaba - SP, with applications of glyphosate (720 and 1440 g ha-1 alone or combined with two rates of ammonium sulfate (7.5 and 15.0 g L-1 or urea (2.5 and 5.0 g L-1, over the weeds Alternanthera tenella and Sorghum halepense. For the least susceptible species (S. halepense, the addition of nitrogen sources to the lower rate of glyphosate accelerated plant death, increasing the control levels up to 7.3%, at 21 days after application (DAA. However, the effects were not observed when control, fresh and dry mass were evaluated at 28 DAA. Glyphosate recommended rate for each species promoted appropriate control, without the need to add ammonium sulfate or urea.

  17. Uso de aminocido exgeno na preveno de injrias causadas por glyphosate na soja RR Use of exogenous amino acid to prevent glyphosate injury in glyphosate-resistant soybean

    OpenAIRE

    L.H.S. Zobiole; R.S. Oliveira JR; J. Constantin; D.F Biffe; R.J. Kremer

    2010-01-01

    O aumento da rea cultivada de soja resistente ao glyphosate (RR) no Brasil resultado do benefcio dessa tecnologia no manejo de plantas daninhas. No entanto, a expanso da rea de soja RR aumentou significativamente o uso de glyphosate e consequentemente, em alguns casos, tm sido observados sintomas de injrias na soja RR conhecidos como yellow flashing ou amarelecimento das folhas superiores. Nesse sentido, dois experimentos, em diferentes anos, foram conduzidos em delineamento inteirame...

  18. Highly sensitive micromachined capacitive pressure sensor with reduced hysteresis and low parasitic capacitance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas; Fragiacomo, Giulio

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the design and fabrication of a capacitive pressure sensor that has a large capacitance signal and a high sensitivity of 76 pF/bar in touch mode operation. Due to the large signal, problems with parasitic capacitances are avoided and hence it is possible to integrate the sensor with a discrete components electronics circuit for signal conditioning. Using an AC bridge electronics circuit a resolution of 8 mV/mbar is achieved. The large signal is obtained due to a novel membrane structure utilizing closely packed hexagonal elements. The sensor is fabricated in a process based on fusion bonding to create vacuum cavities. The exposed part of the sensor is perfectly flat such that it can be coated with corrosion resistant thin films. Hysteresis is an inherent problem in touch mode capacitive pressure sensors and a technique to significantly reduce it is presented.

  19. TR? receptor mutations extend the spectrum of syndromes of reduced sensitivity to thyroid hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaeminck-Guillem, Virginie; Espiard, Stphanie; Flamant, Frdric; Wmeau, Jean-Louis

    2015-11-01

    Since 2012, eight different abnormalities have been described in the THRA gene (encoding the TR?1 thyroid hormone receptor) of 14 patients from 9 families. These mutations induce a clinical phenotype (resistance to thyroid hormone type ?) associating symptoms of untreated mild congenital hypothyroidism and a near-normal range of free and total thyroid hormones and TSH (the T4/T3 ratio is nevertheless usually low). The phenotype can diversely include short stature (due to growth retardation), dysmorphic syndrome (face and limb extremities), psychoneuromotor disorders, constipation and bradycardia. The identified genetic abnormalities are located within the ligand-binding domain and result in defective T3 binding, an abnormally strong interaction with corepressors and a dominant negative activity against still functional receptors. The identification of patients with consistent phenotypes and the underlying mutations are warranted to better delineate the spectrum of the syndromes of reduced sensitivity to thyroid hormone. PMID:26585273

  20. Reducing the phase sensitivity of laser-based optical reservoir computing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguimdo, Romain Modeste; Verschaffelt, Guy; Danckaert, Jan; Van der Sande, Guy

    2016-01-25

    Optical implementations of reservoir computing systems are very promising because of their high processing speeds and the possibility to process several tasks in parallel. These systems can be implemented using semiconductor lasers subject to optical delayed feedback and optical injection. While the amount of the feedback/injection can be easily controlled, it is much more difficult to control the optical feedback/injection phase. We present extensive numerical investigations of the influence of the feedback/injection phases on laser-based reservoir computing systems with feedback. We show that a change in the phase can lead to a strong reduction in the reservoir computing system performance. We introduce a new readout layer design that -at least for some tasks- reduces this sensitivity to changes in the phase. It consists in optimizing the readout weights from a coherent combination of the reservoir's readout signal and its delayed version rather than only from the reservoir's readout signal as is usually done. PMID:26832506

  1. New C$_{6}$D$_{6}$ detectors: reduced neutron sensitivity and improved safety

    CERN Document Server

    Mastinu, Pierfrancesco; Berthoumieux, Eric; Cano-Ott, Daniel; Gramegna, F; Guerrero, Carlos; Massimi, Cristian; Milazzo, Paolo Maria; Mingrone, Federica; Praena, Javier; Prete, G; Garca, Aczel Regino

    2013-01-01

    During the 2011 data measurement campaign at n_TOF, the liquid scintillator detectors developed at FZK-Karlsruhe (hereafter named K6D6, [1]) and used with success along 10 years have shown ageing problems, mainly related to liquid leakage. The mould used to produce the carbon fiber structure, containing the liquid and the detection elements, was not available anymore and the technician involved in its construction was retired. Once decided to proceed to the production of new detectors (L6D6 in the following) two major items have been identified: - The detector setup must be able to work in the new class A experimental area (safety requirements advise to avoid the use of the old K6D6 in this area). - If possible, it is useful to reduce the neutron sensitivity, with the aim to have a liquid scintillator detector with very low neutron sensitivity (improving the already high performing K6D6). [1] R.Plag et al., NIM A496 (2003) 425

  2. Reduced-order models for parameter dependent geometries based on shape sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, A.; Borggaard, J.; Akhtar, I.; Pelletier, D.

    2010-02-01

    The proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) is widely used to derive low-dimensional models of large and complex systems. One of the main drawback of this method, however, is that it is based on reference data. When they are obtained for one single set of parameter values, the resulting model can reproduce the reference dynamics very accurately but generally lack of robustness away from the reference state. It is therefore crucial to enlarge the validity range of these models beyond the parameter values for which they were derived. This paper presents two strategies based on shape sensitivity analysis to partially address this limitation of the POD for parameters that define the geometry of the problem at hand (design or shape parameters.) We first detail the methodology to compute both the POD modes and their Lagrangian sensitivities with respect to shape parameters. From them, we derive improved reduced-order bases to approximate a class of solutions over a range of parameter values. Secondly, we demonstrate the efficiency and limitations of these approaches on two typical flow problems: (1) the one-dimensional Burgers' equation; (2) the two-dimensional flows past a square cylinder over a range of incidence angles.

  3. Enthalpic partitioning of the reduced temperature sensitivity of O2 binding in bovine hemoglobin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Roy E; Fago, Angela

    2014-01-01

    The oxygenation enthalpy of the heme groups of hemoglobin (Hb) is inherently exothermic, resulting in decreased Hb-O2 affinity with rising temperature. However, oxygenation is coupled with endothermic dissociation of allosteric effectors (e.g. protons, chloride ions and organic phosphates) from the protein moiety, which thus reduces the overall oxygenation enthalpy. The evolution of Hbs with reduced temperature sensitivity ostensibly safeguards O2 unloading in cold extremities of regionally-heterothermic vertebrates permitting energy-saving reductions in heat loss. Ungulate (e.g. bovine) Hbs have long served as a model system in this regard in that they exhibit numerically low oxygenation enthalpies that are thought to correlate with the presence of an additional Cl(-) binding site (compared to human Hb) comprised of three cationic residues at positions 8, 76 and 77 of the ?-chains of Hb. However, ungulate Hbs also exhibit distinctive amino acid exchanges at the N-termini of the ?-chains that stabilize the low-affinity deoxystructure of the Hb, mimicking the action of organic phosphates. In order to assess the relative contributions from these two effects, we measured the temperature sensitivity of Hb-O2 affinity in bovine and human Hbs in the absence and presence of Cl(-) ions under strictly controlled pH conditions. The data indicate that Cl(-)-binding accounts for a minority (~30%) of the total reduction in the oxygenation enthalpy manifested in bovine compared to human Hb, whereas the majority of this reduction is ascribable to structural differences, including increased ?-chain hydrophobicity that would increase the heat of oxygenation-linked conformational change in bovine Hb.

  4. Glyphosate em mistura com herbicidas alternativos para o manejo de plantas daninhas Glyphosate combined with alternative herbicides for vegetation management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. Monquero

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O uso intensivo de glyphosate como herbicida no-seletivo tem selecionado espcies de plantas daninhas tolerantes. Dessa forma, importante que sejam estudadas misturas de tanque com herbicidas de mecanismos de ao alternativos e que apresentem efeitos sinergsticos ou aditivos. Por essa razo, foi instalado um experimento inteiramente casualizado, composto por 13 tratamentos e 4 repeties, em casa de vegetao da Universidade de So Paulo - ESALQ/USP, Piracicaba-SP, com as plantas daninhas Richardia brasiliensis, Commelina benghalensis, Amaranthus hybridus, Galinsoga parviflora e Ipomoea grandifolia em misturas de tanque dos herbicidas chlorimuron-ethyl, sulfentrazone, carfentrazone, bentazon ou flumioxazin com glyphosate. As interaes foram aditivas para as plantas daninhas I. grandifolia e C. benghalensis, e os herbicidas flumioxazin, sulfentrazone e carfentrazone aplicados isoladamente e em mistura com glyphosate foram os que proporcionaram os melhores nveis de controle. A interao de glyphosate com sulfentrazone foi antagnica em R. brasiliensis; a mistura de glyphosate com os demais herbicidas estudados foi aditiva, sendo os tratamentos com mistura de glyphosate e chlorimuron-ethyl ou flumioxazin os mais eficazes. Em A. hybridus, os tratamentos que apresentaram melhores nveis de controle foram o glyphosate e carfentrazone, aplicados isoladamente, e a mistura de glyphosate com flumioxazin, sulfentrazone, chlorimuron-ethyl e bentazon, sendo estes interaes aditivas. No caso de G. parviflora, os tratamentos com flumioxazin e sulfentrazone apresentaram controle total, o mesmo acontecendo com as misturas de glyphosate com carfentrazone, flumioxazin, sulfentrazone, chlorimuron-ethyl ou bentazon.The intensive use of glyphosate as a non-selective herbicide for weed vegetation management has selected some tolerant weed species. Thus, it is important to study the synergistic or antagonic or additive effects of tank mixtures of glyphosate combined with alternative mechanism of action herbicides. An experiment was developed in a randomized complete design, using 12 treatments and four replications, under greenhouse conditions at University of So Paulo - USP/ESALQ - Piracicaba-SP, Brazil, with the weeds Richardia brasiliensis, Commelina benghalensis, Amaranthus hybridus, Galinsoga parviflora and Ipomoea grandifolia and applying glyphosate combined with the herbicides chlorimuron-ethyl, carfentrazone, bentazon, sulfentrazone and flumioxazin. The interactions were additive for the weeds I. grandifolia and C. benghalensis but the herbicides flumioxazin, sulfentrazone and carfentrazone sprayed alone and in mixture with glyphosate gave better control results. The interaction of glyphosate with sulfentrazone was antagonic in R. brasiliensis, whereas the glyphosate mixed with other herbicides was additive; however, the treatments using glyphosate and chlorimuron-ethyl or flumioxazin were more efficient in weed control. In A. hybridus, the best control results were glyphosate and carfentrazone alone and glyphosate mixed with flumioxazin, sulfentrazone, chlorimuron-ethyl and bentazon, all additives. In the case of G. parviflora, flumioxazin, sulfentrazone, chlorimuron and bentazon with glyphosate and flumioxazin and sulfentrazone gave excellent control.

  5. The occurrence of glyphosate, atrazine, and other pesticides in vernal pools and adjacent streams in Washington, DC, Maryland, Iowa, and Wyoming, 2005-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglin, W.A.; Rice, K.C.; Focazio, M.J.; Salmons, S.; Barry, R.X.

    2009-01-01

    Vernal pools are sensitive environments that provide critical habitat for many species, including amphibians. These small water bodies are not always protected by pesticide label requirements for no-spray buffer zones, and the occurrence of pesticides in them is poorly documented. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of glyphosate, its primary degradation product aminomethylphosphonic acid, and additional pesticides in vernal pools and adjacent flowing waters. Most sampling sites were chosen to be in areas where glyphosate was being used either in production agriculture or for nonindigenous plant control. The four site locations were in otherwise protected areas (e.g., in a National Park). When possible, water samples were collected both before and after glyphosate application in 2005 and 2006. Twenty-eight pesticides or pesticide degradation products were detected in the study, and as many as 11 were identified in individual samples. Atrazine was detected most frequently and concentrations exceeded the freshwater aquatic life standard of 1.8 micrograms per liter (??g/l) in samples from Rands Ditch and Browns Ditch in DeSoto National Wildlife Refuge. Glyphosate was measured at the highest concentration (328 ??g/l) in a sample from Riley Spring Pond in Rock Creek National Park. This concentration exceeded the freshwater aquatic life standard for glyphosate of 65 ??g/l. Aminomethylphosphonic acid, triclopyr, and nicosulfuron also were detected at concentrations greater than 3.0 ??g/l. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008.

  6. Glyphosate herbicide induces genotoxic effect and physiological disturbances in Bulinus truncatus snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakry, Fayez A; Ismail, Somaya M; Abd El-Atti, Mahmoud S

    2015-09-01

    Herbicides are being used in agriculture for controlling noxious weed. Glyphosate is a herbicide that is widely applied to cereal crops in Egypt and is used in controlling a very broad spectrum of weeds. The present study was designed to investigate the response of the snail Bulinus truncatus as a bioindicator for physiological and molecular aspects of B.?truncatus snails after exposure to sublethal concentrations of glyphosate for two weeks. In treating snails, glucose concentration (GL) in the haemolymph as well as lactate (LT) in soft tissues of treated snails increased, while glycogen (GN), pyruvate (PV), total protein (TP), nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) levels in snail's tissues decreased. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR), thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), glycogen phosphorylase (GP), glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase), succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) enzymes in homogenate of snail's tissues were reduced in response to the treatment with the herbicide, while lipid peroxide (LP), sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) and transaminases (GOT and GPT) activity increased (P?glyphosate herbicide may be attributed to the fact that the herbicide can induce genotoxicity through DNA damage. Thus, the present result indicated that the genotoxicity products at low concentration and for long time treatment showed the hazard of herbicide addiction on man's life. PMID:26267049

  7. Glyphosate, pathways to modern diseases III: Manganese, neurological diseases, and associated pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsel, Anthony; Seneff, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an often overlooked but important nutrient, required in small amounts for multiple essential functions in the body. A recent study on cows fed genetically modified Roundup()-Ready feed revealed a severe depletion of serum Mn. Glyphosate, the active ingredient in Roundup(), has also been shown to severely deplete Mn levels in plants. Here, we investigate the impact of Mn on physiology, and its association with gut dysbiosis as well as neuropathologies such as autism, Alzheimer's disease (AD), depression, anxiety syndrome, Parkinson's disease (PD), and prion diseases. Glutamate overexpression in the brain in association with autism, AD, and other neurological diseases can be explained by Mn deficiency. Mn superoxide dismutase protects mitochondria from oxidative damage, and mitochondrial dysfunction is a key feature of autism and Alzheimer's. Chondroitin sulfate synthesis depends on Mn, and its deficiency leads to osteoporosis and osteomalacia. Lactobacillus, depleted in autism, depend critically on Mn for antioxidant protection. Lactobacillus probiotics can treat anxiety, which is a comorbidity of autism and chronic fatigue syndrome. Reduced gut Lactobacillus leads to overgrowth of the pathogen, Salmonella, which is resistant to glyphosate toxicity, and Mn plays a role here as well. Sperm motility depends on Mn, and this may partially explain increased rates of infertility and birth defects. We further reason that, under conditions of adequate Mn in the diet, glyphosate, through its disruption of bile acid homeostasis, ironically promotes toxic accumulation of Mn in the brainstem, leading to conditions such as PD and prion diseases. PMID:25883837

  8. Utilizao de glifosato para o controle de ferrugem da soja Glyphosate application on soybean rust control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Moreira Soares

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de glifosato sobre a germinao de esporos de Phakopsora pachyrhizi e no controle da ferrugem da soja, aplicado preventiva e erradicativamente, em condies controladas. A germinao de esporos foi avaliada tendo-se vertido, em meio de cultura, solues de esporos com diferentes concentraes do glifosato (0, 100, 1.000, 10.000 e 20.000 ppm e fungicidas. Para avaliar o controle da ferrugem, plantas foram pulverizadas com glifosato, com variao da dose e do momento, tendo-se medido a severidade da doena. Houve efeito do produto sobre os esporos do fungo, o que reduziu sua germinao. As pulverizaes em plantas, em casa de vegetao, mostraram um efeito do produto sobre a ferrugem, quando aplicado preventivamente, porm com perodo de proteo curto e fungitoxicidade inferior do fungicida tebuconazole. O uso do glifosato, avaliado nesse ensaio, no deve ser visto como medida de manejo de ferrugem, e no interfere nas prticas habituais de controle da ferrugem da soja.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of glyphosate on the germination of Phakopsora pachyrhizi spores, and on soybean rust control; applications were either preventive or eradicative under controlled conditions. The germination of spores was evaluated by pouring spores solutions on culture medium, with different concentrations of glyphosate (0, 100, 1,000, 10,000 and 20,000 ppm and fungicides. For the rust control evaluation, plants were sprayed with glyphosate, varying doses and moments, and estimating the disease severity. The product reduced spores germination. Plants sprayed in greenhouse conditions, showed effect of the product on rust, when applied preventively, but with short protection period and lower fungus toxicity than tebuconazole fungicide. The use of glyphosate, evaluated in this trial, must not be taken as a rust management measure, and should not interfere in usual practices for soybean rust control.

  9. Effects of pig slurry application on soil physical and chemical properties and glyphosate mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Aparecida de Oliveira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Pig slurry applied to soil at different rates may affect soil properties and the mobility of chemical compounds within the soil. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of rates of pig slurry application in agricultural areas on soil physical and chemical properties and on the mobility of glyphosate through the soil profile. The study was carried out in the 12th year of an experiment with pig slurry applied at rates of 0 (control, 50, 100 and 200 m³ ha-1 yr-1 on a Latossolo Vermelho distrófico (Hapludox soil. In the control, the quantities of P and K removed by harvested grains were replaced in the next crop cycle. Soil physical properties (bulk density, porosity, texture, and saturated hydraulic conductivity and chemical properties (organic matter, pH, extractable P, and exchangeable K were measured. Soil solution samples were collected at depths of 20, 40 and 80 cm using suction lysimeters, and glyphosate concentrations were measured over a 60-day period after slurry application. Soil physical and chemical properties were little affected by the pig slurry applications, but soil pH was reduced and P levels increased in the surface layers. In turn, K levels were increased in sub-surface layers. Glyphosate concentrations tended to decrease over time but were not affected by pig slurry application. The concentrations of glyphosate found in different depths show that the pratice of this application in agricultural soils has the potential for contamination of groundwater, especially when the water table is the surface and heavy rains occur immediately after application.

  10. Utilizao de glifosato para o controle de ferrugem da soja / Glyphosate application on soybean rust control

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rafael Moreira, Soares; Dionsio Luiz Pisa, Gazziero; Daniela Alves dos Santos, Morita; Mnica Lcia, Ciliato; Allan Misael, Flausino; Leandro Cezar Menezes, Santos; Tatiani, Janegitz.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de glifosato sobre a germinao de esporos de Phakopsora pachyrhizi e no controle da ferrugem da soja, aplicado preventiva e erradicativamente, em condies controladas. A germinao de esporos foi avaliada tendo-se vertido, em meio de cultura, solues [...] de esporos com diferentes concentraes do glifosato (0, 100, 1.000, 10.000 e 20.000 ppm) e fungicidas. Para avaliar o controle da ferrugem, plantas foram pulverizadas com glifosato, com variao da dose e do momento, tendo-se medido a severidade da doena. Houve efeito do produto sobre os esporos do fungo, o que reduziu sua germinao. As pulverizaes em plantas, em casa de vegetao, mostraram um efeito do produto sobre a ferrugem, quando aplicado preventivamente, porm com perodo de proteo curto e fungitoxicidade inferior do fungicida tebuconazole. O uso do glifosato, avaliado nesse ensaio, no deve ser visto como medida de manejo de ferrugem, e no interfere nas prticas habituais de controle da ferrugem da soja. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of glyphosate on the germination of Phakopsora pachyrhizi spores, and on soybean rust control; applications were either preventive or eradicative under controlled conditions. The germination of spores was evaluated by pouring spores solutions on [...] culture medium, with different concentrations of glyphosate (0, 100, 1,000, 10,000 and 20,000 ppm) and fungicides. For the rust control evaluation, plants were sprayed with glyphosate, varying doses and moments, and estimating the disease severity. The product reduced spores germination. Plants sprayed in greenhouse conditions, showed effect of the product on rust, when applied preventively, but with short protection period and lower fungus toxicity than tebuconazole fungicide. The use of glyphosate, evaluated in this trial, must not be taken as a rust management measure, and should not interfere in usual practices for soybean rust control.

  11. Organosilicone surfactant together with glyphosate in the control of Brachiaria decumbens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walquria Fernanda Teixeira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The research goal was to evaluate the effects of silicone surfactant and simulated rainfall in glyphosate efficiency in controlling Brachiaria decumbens. The experiments were carried out at (a unit of the University of So Paulo Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ Luiz de Queiroz College of Agriculture in greenhouse conditions, in a randomized block design with four replications. In one experiment, a simulated rainfall of 10 mm was carried out, 30 minutes after treatments application, and in the other there was no simulation. The treatments were arranged in a 5x3 factorial arrangement, with the first factor corresponding to the doses of glyphosate (0, 135, 270, 540 and 1080 g ha-1 a.e., and the second one to the doses of silicone surfactant (0, 50 and 100 mL ha-1. The applications were performed at 30 days after sowing. In the presence of a simulated rainfall, the percentage of control was increased and chlorophyll content was reduced in the dose of 135 g ha-1 a.e. of glyphosate, together with 100 mL ha-1 of silicone surfactant. Increase in lipid peroxidation was also observed with the addition of 100 mL ha-1. In the experiment without a simulated rain, at seven days after treatments application, a higher percentage of control was observed at doses of 540 and 1080 g ha-1 a.e. with 100 mL ha-1 of silicone surfactant. Therefore, the use of silicone surfactant at a dose of 100 mL ha?1 increases the efficiency of glyphosate in the control of Brachiaria decumbens in the absence of simulated rain and rain conditions held for half an hour after application.

  12. Quantifying sublethal effects of glyphosate and Roundup® to Daphnia magna using a fluorescence based enzyme activity assay and video tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roslev, Peter; R. Hansen, Lone; Ørsted, Michael

    Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) is the active ingredient in a range of popular broad-spectrum, non-selective herbicide formulations. The toxicity of this herbicide to non-target aquatic organisms such as Daphnia magna is often evaluated using conventional toxicity assays that focus on...... assays targeting in vivo enzyme activity and behavioral changes may be applied as a quantitative and sensitive tool for detecting sublethal effects of glyphosate and Roundup® to D. magna. The inhibitory effect of Roundup® on alkaline phosphatase in non-target organisms warrants further investigations....

  13. Adipocyte-specific blockade of gamma-secretase, but not inhibition of Notch activity, reduces adipose insulin sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P. Sparling

    2016-02-01

    Conclusions: Notch signaling is dispensable for normal adipocyte function, but adipocyte-specific γ-secretase blockade reduces adipose insulin sensitivity, suggesting that specific Notch inhibitors would be preferable to GSIs for application in T2D.

  14. Reducing the effect of respiration in baroreflex sensitivity estimation with adaptive filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiinanen, Suvi; Tulppo, Mikko; Seppnen, Tapio

    2008-01-01

    Cardiac baroreflex is described by baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) from blood pressure and heart rate interval (RRi) fluctuations. However, respiration affects both blood pressure and RRi via mechanisms that are not necessarily of baroreflex origin. To separate the effects of baroreflex and respiration, metronome-guided breathing in a high frequency band (HF, 0.25-0.4 Hz) and a low frequency spectral band (LF, 0.04-0.15 Hz) have therefore been commonly used for BRS estimation. The controlled breathing may, however, change the natural functioning of the autonomic system and interfere BRS estimates. To enable usage of spontaneous breathing, we propose an adaptive LMS-based filter for removing the respiration effect from the BRS estimates. ECG, continuous blood pressure and respiration were measured during 5 min spontaneous and 5 min controlled breathing at 0.25 Hz in healthy males (n = 24, 33+/-7 years). BRS was calculated with spectral methods from the LF band with and without filtering. In those subjects whose spontaneous breathing rate was adaptive filtering reduced the bias significantly. As a conclusion, the adaptive filter reduces the distorting effect of respiration on BRS values, which enables more accurate estimation of BRS and the usage of spontaneous breathing as a measurement protocol. PMID:18232346

  15. Level of UV-B radiation influences the effects of glyphosate-based herbicide on the spotted salamander.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levis, Nicholas A; Johnson, Jarrett R

    2015-07-01

    Glyphosate-based herbicides are the number one pesticide in the United States and are used commonly around the world. Understanding the affects of glyphosate-based herbicides on non-target wildlife, for example amphibians, is critical for evaluation of regulations pertaining to the use of such herbicides. Additionally, it is important to understand how variation in biotic and abiotic environmental conditions, such as UV-B light regime, could potentially affect how glyphosate-based herbicides interact with non-target species. This study used artificial pond mesocosms to identify the effects of generic glyphosate-based herbicide (GLY-4 Plus) on mortality, cellular immune response, body size, and morphological plasticity of larvae of the spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) under conditions that reflect moderate (UV(M)) and low (UV(L)) UV-B light regimes. Survival within a given UV-B level was unaffected by herbicide presence or absence. However, when herbicide was present, survival varied between UV-B levels with higher survival in UV(M) conditions. Herbicide presence in the UV(M) treatments also decreased body size and reduced cellular immune response. In the UV(L) treatments, the presence of herbicide increased body size and affected tail morphology. Finally, in the absence of herbicide, body size and cellular immune response were higher in UV(M) treatments compared to UV(L) treatments. Thus, the effects of herbicide on salamander fitness were dependent on UV-B level. As anthropogenic habitat modifications continue to alter landscapes that contain amphibian breeding ponds, salamanders may increasingly find themselves in locations with reduced canopy cover and increased levels of UV light. Our findings suggest that the probability of surviving exposure to the glyphosate-based herbicide used in this study may be elevated in more open canopy ponds, but the effects on other components of fitness may be varied and unexpected. PMID:25794558

  16. Glyphosate on digestive enzymes activity in piava (Leporinus obtusidens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseânia Salbego

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of glyphosate, a nonselective herbicide (1.0 or 5.0mg L-1 on digestive enzymes activity (stomach and intestine were evaluated in juveniles of piava (Leporinus obtusidens after 90 days of exposure. The activity of acid protease, trypsin, chymotrypsin and amylase increased with the increase of glyphosate concentration. These results indicate that glyphosate affects digestive enzyme activities in this species, and may be an indicator of poor nutrient availability when fish survive in herbicide-contaminated water.

  17. Glyphosate catabolism by Pseudomonas sp. strain PG2982.

    OpenAIRE

    Shinabarger, D L; Braymer, H. D.

    1986-01-01

    The pathway for the degradation of glyphosate (N-phosphonomethylglycine) by Pseudomonas sp. PG2982 has been determined by using metabolic radiolabeling experiments. Radiorespirometry experiments utilizing [3-14C]glyphosate revealed that approximately 50 to 59% of the C-3 carbon was oxidized to CO2. Fractionation of stationary-phase cells labeled with [3-14C]glyphosate revealed that from 45 to 47% of the assimilated label is distributed to proteins and that the amino acids methionine and serin...

  18. Adsorption of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampazzo, N.; Rampazzo Todorovic, G.; Mentler, A.; Blum, W. E. H.

    2013-03-01

    The results showed that glyphosate is initially adsorbed mostly in the upper 2 cm. It is than transported and adsorbed after few days in deeper soil horizons with concomitant increasing content of its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid. Moreover, Fe-oxides seem to be a key parameter for glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic adsorption in soils. This study confirmed previous studies: the analysis showed lower contents of dithionite-soluble and Fe-oxides for the Chernozem, with consequently lower adsorption of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic as compared with the Cambisol and the Stagnosol.

  19. Resistncia de Conyza canadensis e C. bonariensis ao herbicida glyphosate Glyphosate-resistance in Conyza canadensis and C. bonariensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Moreira

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, por meio de curvas de dose-resposta, a ocorrncia de bitipos resistentes ao herbicida glyphosate em populaes de Conyza canadensis e C. bonariensis, bem como propor tratamentos alternativos para esses bitipos. Os experimentos foram realizados em casa de vegetao, utilizando-se trs populaes de cada espcie: duas com suspeita de resistncia ao herbicida glyphosate, coletadas em pomares de laranja localizados em duas regies diferentes do Estado de So Paulo; e uma suscetvel, coletada em rea sem histrico de aplicao do herbicida. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repeties. Para cada espcie, os tratamentos foram resultado da combinao fatorial entre as trs populaes e os tratamentos herbicidas (oito doses de glyphosate ou cinco tratamentos alternativos. As doses de glyphosate foram (g e.a. ha: 90, 180, 360, 720, 1.440, 2.880, 5.760 e testemunha sem aplicao. Como alternativas de controle, foram testados os seguintes tratamentos (g ha-1: glyphosate + 2,4-D (1.440 + 1.005, glyphosate + metsulfuron (1.440 + 2,4, glyphosate + metsulfuron (1.440 + 3,6, glyphosate + metribuzin (1.440 + 480 e testemunha sem aplicao. A partir dos resultados, comprovou-se a existncia de populaes de ambas as espcies com bitipos resistentes ao herbicida glyphosate, com diferentes nveis de resistncia. Todos os tratamentos herbicidas alternativos controlaram de forma eficiente as trs populaes de cada espcie.The objective of this research was to evaluate, through dose-response curves, the occurrence of glyphosate-resistant biotypes in populations of Conyza canadensis and C. bonariensis; as well as to propose alternative treatments to these biotypes. The experiments were conducted in a greenhouse, using three populations of each species: two with suspicion of resistance to the herbicide glyphosate, and collected in orange orchards located in two different So Paulo state regions; and a susceptible one, collected in an area without herbicide application history. The experimental design adopted was randomized blocks, with four replicates. For each species, the treatments were the result of a factorial combination among the three populations and the herbicide treatments (eight rates of glyphosate or five alternative treatments. The glyphosate rates used were (g e.a. ha-1: 90, 180, 360, 720, 1.440, 2.880, 5.760 and checks without application. As control alternative, the following treatments (g ha-1 were tested: glyphosate + 2,4-D (1.440 + 1.005, glyphosate + metsulfuron (1.440 + 2,4, glyphosate + metsulfuron (1.440 + 3,6, glyphosate + metribuzin (1440 + 480 and checks without application. The results obtained proved the existence of populations of both species with glyphosate-resistant biotypes, with different levels of resistance. All the alternative herbicide treatments controlled efficiently the three populations of each species.

  20. Resistncia de Conyza canadensis e C. bonariensis ao herbicida glyphosate / Glyphosate-resistance in Conyza canadensis and C. bonariensis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M.S., Moreira; M., Nicolai; S.J.P., Carvalho; P.J., Christoffoleti.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, por meio de curvas de dose-resposta, a ocorrncia de bitipos resistentes ao herbicida glyphosate em populaes de Conyza canadensis e C. bonariensis, bem como propor tratamentos alternativos para esses bitipos. Os experimentos foram realizados em casa de vege [...] tao, utilizando-se trs populaes de cada espcie: duas com suspeita de resistncia ao herbicida glyphosate, coletadas em pomares de laranja localizados em duas regies diferentes do Estado de So Paulo; e uma suscetvel, coletada em rea sem histrico de aplicao do herbicida. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repeties. Para cada espcie, os tratamentos foram resultado da combinao fatorial entre as trs populaes e os tratamentos herbicidas (oito doses de glyphosate ou cinco tratamentos alternativos). As doses de glyphosate foram (g e.a. ha): 90, 180, 360, 720, 1.440, 2.880, 5.760 e testemunha sem aplicao. Como alternativas de controle, foram testados os seguintes tratamentos (g ha-1): glyphosate + 2,4-D (1.440 + 1.005), glyphosate + metsulfuron (1.440 + 2,4), glyphosate + metsulfuron (1.440 + 3,6), glyphosate + metribuzin (1.440 + 480) e testemunha sem aplicao. A partir dos resultados, comprovou-se a existncia de populaes de ambas as espcies com bitipos resistentes ao herbicida glyphosate, com diferentes nveis de resistncia. Todos os tratamentos herbicidas alternativos controlaram de forma eficiente as trs populaes de cada espcie. Abstract in english The objective of this research was to evaluate, through dose-response curves, the occurrence of glyphosate-resistant biotypes in populations of Conyza canadensis and C. bonariensis; as well as to propose alternative treatments to these biotypes. The experiments were conducted in a greenhouse, using [...] three populations of each species: two with suspicion of resistance to the herbicide glyphosate, and collected in orange orchards located in two different So Paulo state regions; and a susceptible one, collected in an area without herbicide application history. The experimental design adopted was randomized blocks, with four replicates. For each species, the treatments were the result of a factorial combination among the three populations and the herbicide treatments (eight rates of glyphosate or five alternative treatments). The glyphosate rates used were (g e.a. ha-1): 90, 180, 360, 720, 1.440, 2.880, 5.760 and checks without application. As control alternative, the following treatments (g ha-1) were tested: glyphosate + 2,4-D (1.440 + 1.005), glyphosate + metsulfuron (1.440 + 2,4), glyphosate + metsulfuron (1.440 + 3,6), glyphosate + metribuzin (1440 + 480) and checks without application. The results obtained proved the existence of populations of both species with glyphosate-resistant biotypes, with different levels of resistance. All the alternative herbicide treatments controlled efficiently the three populations of each species.

  1. Surface modifications of photoanodes in dye sensitized solar cells: enhanced light harvesting and reduced recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Vibha; Aswal, D. K.

    2015-06-01

    In a quest to harvest solar power, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have potential for low-cost eco-friendly photovoltaic devices. The major processes which govern the efficiency of a DSSC are photoelectron generation, injection of photo-generated electrons to the conduction band (CB) of the mesoporous nanocrystalline semiconductor (nc-SC); transport of CB electrons through nc-SC and subsequent collection of CB electrons at the counter electrode (CE) through the external circuit; and dye regeneration by redox couple or hole transport layer (HTL). Most of these processes occur at various interfaces of the photoanode. In addition, recombination losses of photo-generated electrons with either dye or redox molecules take place at the interfaces. Therefore, one of the key requirements for high efficiency is to improve light harvesting of the photoanode and to reduce the recombination losses at various interfaces. In this direction, surface modification of the photoanode is the simplest method among the various other approaches available in the literature. In this review, we present a comprehensive discussion on surface modification of the photoanode, which has been adopted in the literature for not only enhancing light harvesting but also reducing recombination. Various approaches towards surface modification of the photoanode discussed are (i) fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)/nc-SC interface modified via a compact layer of semiconductor material which blocks exposed sites of FTO to electrolyte (or HTL), (ii) nc-SC/dye interface modification either through acid treatment resulting in enhanced dye loading due to a positively charged surface or by depositing insulating/semiconducting blocking layer on the nc-SC surface, which acts as a tunneling barrier for recombination, (iii) nc-SC/dye interface modified by employing co-adsorbents which helps in reducing the dye aggregation and thereby recombination, and (iv) dye/electrolyte (or dye/HTL) interface modification using additives which provides surface passivation as well as positive movement of the nc-SC Fermi level owing to negative charge at the surface and hence improves light harvesting and reduced recombination. Finally, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of various approaches towards high-efficiency DSSCs.

  2. Distribuio de glyphosate e acmulo de nutrientes em bitipos de azevm Glyphosate distribution and nutrient accumulation in ryegrass biotypes

    OpenAIRE

    E.A. Ferreira; Silva, A. A.; M.R Reis; Santos, J. B.; de Oliveira, J. A.; L. VARGAS; K.R. Khouri; A.A. Guimares

    2008-01-01

    Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar o acmulo de nutrientes e a translocao de glyphosate em bitipos de azevm. Para isso, foram montados dois ensaios: no primeiro aplicou-se 14C-glyphosate, adicionando 10 L da calda sobre a face adaxial da primeira folha com lgula totalmente visvel, quando as plantas de azevm apresentavam trs perfilhos. A quantidade de glyphosate absorvido, translocado e exsudado foi avaliada 64 horas aps aplicao, por meio da medio da radiao emitida pelo 14C-gl...

  3. Enhanced sensitivity in H photofragment detection by two-color reduced-Doppler ion imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epshtein, Michael; Portnov, Alexander; Kupfer, Rotem; Rosenwaks, Salman; Bar, Ilana, E-mail: ibar@bgu.ac.il [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2013-11-14

    Two-color reduced-Doppler (TCRD) and one-color velocity map imaging (VMI) were used for probing H atom photofragments resulting from the ?243.1 nm photodissociation of pyrrole. The velocity components of the H photofragments were probed by employing two counterpropagating beams at close and fixed wavelengths of 243.15 and 243.12 nm in TCRD and a single beam at ?243.1 nm, scanned across the Doppler profile in VMI. The TCRD imaging enabled probing of the entire velocity distribution in a single pulse, resulting in enhanced ionization efficiency, as well as improved sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio. These advantages were utilized for studying the pyrrole photodissociation at ?243.1 and 225 nm, where the latter wavelength provided only a slight increase in the H yield over the self-signal from the probe beams. The TCRD imaging enabled obtaining high quality H{sup +} images, even for the low H photofragment yields formed in the 225 nm photolysis process, and allowed determining the velocity distributions and anisotropy parameters and getting insight into pyrrole photodissociation.

  4. Detonation and Shock Reactivity Properties of Explosives Containing RDX and Reduced Sensitivity RDX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Gerrit

    2005-07-01

    The detonation and shock reactivity properties of two monomodal research explosives were measured to assess how these properties change when different quality RDX is used. One explosive contained class 1 (coarse) RDX and HTPB binder; the other explosive contained reduced sensitivity (high quality) class 1 RDX (I-RDX) and HTPB binder. Experiments preformed included wave curvature, rate stick and flyer plate experiments. Wave curvature and rate stick experiments indicate that the reaction zone length is shorter for the explosive containing RDX. Our results show that decrement and wave curvature results are bounded by the results of Moulard and coworkers^1,2 for similar explosives containing fine and very coarse RDX particles. We will also present work of ongoing shock reactivity experiments. In these experiments, a flyer impacts an explosive sample containing multiple embedded pressure gauges. Analyses of the pressure gauge records allow us to determine shock reactivity trends for each explosive. ^1Moulard, H., Kury, J.W., Delclos, A., Proceedings of Eighth Symposium (International) on Detonation, Albuquerque, NM, 1985, pg. 902-913. ^2 Moulard, H., Proceedings of the Ninth Symposium (International) on Detonation, Portland, Oregon, 1989, pg. 18-24.

  5. Highly sensitive reduced graphene oxide impedance sensor harnessing ?-stacking interaction mediated direct deposition of protein probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang Su; Um, Yu Mi; Jang, Ji-Ryang; Choe, Woo-Seok; Yoo, Pil J

    2013-05-01

    Graphene-based electrochemical impedance sensors have recently received much attention due to their outstanding sensing capability and economic viability. In this study, we present a novel means of constructing an impedance sensing platform via harnessing intrinsic ?-stacking interactions between probe protein molecules and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) substrate, obviating the need for introducing external chemical groups often required for covalent anchoring of the probes. To achieve this goal, protein molecules used as a probe were denatured to render their hydrophobic residues exposed in order to facilitate their direct ?-stacking interactions with the surface of RGO nanosheets. The protein molecules in denatured form, which would otherwise have difficulty in undergoing ?-stacking interactions with the RGO surface, were found to uniformly cover the RGO nanosheets at high density, conducive to providing a graphene-based impedance sensing platform capable of detecting a probe-specific analyte at high sensitivity. The proof-of-concept performance of thus-constructed RGO-based impedance sensors was demonstrated via selective detection of biological binding events of antigen-antibody reaction at a femtomolar range. Notably, since the ?-stacking interaction can occur on the entire RGO surface, it can desirably exclude a backfill process indispensable for the conventional biosensors to suppress background noise signals. Since the procedure of ?-stacking mediated direct deposition of on-purpose denatured protein probes onto the RGO surface is facile and straightforward, the proposed strategy is anticipated to extend its applicability for fabrication of high performance graphene-based bio or chemical sensors. PMID:23551147

  6. Seeking Energy System Pathways to Reduce Ozone Damage to Ecosystems through Adjoint-based Sensitivity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, S. L.; Pinder, R. W.; Loughlin, D. H.; Bash, J. O.; Turner, M. D.; Henze, D. K.; Percell, P.; Zhao, S.; Russell, M. G.; Hakami, A.

    2014-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) affects the productivity of ecosystems in addition to degrading human health. Concentrations of this pollutant are significantly influenced by precursor gas emissions, many of which emanate from energy production and use processes. Energy system optimization models could inform policy decisions that are intended to reduce these harmful effects if the contribution of precursor gas emissions to human health and ecosystem degradation could be elucidated. Nevertheless, determining the degree to which precursor gas emissions harm ecosystems and human health is challenging because of the photochemical production of ozone and the distinct mechanisms by which ozone causes harm to different crops, tree species, and humans. Here, the adjoint of a regional chemical transport model is employed to efficiently calculate the relative influences of ozone precursor gas emissions on ecosystem and human health degradation, which informs an energy system optimization. Specifically, for the summer of 2007 the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model adjoint is used to calculate the location- and sector-specific influences of precursor gas emissions on potential productivity losses for the major crops and sensitive tree species as well as human mortality attributable to chronic ozone exposure in the continental U.S. The atmospheric concentrations are evaluated with 12-km horizontal resolution with crop production and timber biomass data gridded similarly. These location-specific factors inform the energy production and use technologies selected in the MARKet ALlocation (MARKAL) model.

  7. Central fuel banking to reduce the number of proliferation sensitive enrichment activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Central fuel banking is a complex international political, economic and technical concept that aims to reduce uncontrolled spreading of uranium enrichment technology in the world in order to prevent proliferation of nuclear weapons. This paper first gives an outline of the notions: 'non-proliferation', the 'front-end' of the fuel cycle, the scope of fuel baking, nuclear fuel and the 60 years of enrichment technology. Enrichment technology is highly concentrated in the nuclear weapon states and other developed countries, but this is not exclusive any more. The technology is spreading. The global demand for enrichment services - parallel to massive nuclear investments in the civil sector and the ageing of older facilities - is constantly growing. Proliferation sensitivity calls for an effective and comprehensive non-proliferation regime. The solution may be multilateralizing the nuclear fuel cycle. After a historical overview, the proposals on multilateral nuclear approaches are presented. The assessment of the proposals is complex in the dimensions of: the non-proliferation aim, the assurance of supply aspect and other variables such as legal issues and non-nuclear inducements. A general evaluation and the recommendations of the Expert Panel of the IAEA are introduced outlining a plan on a middle- and long-term basis. The conclusion of the paper stresses the importance and challenge in finding the 'new balance' between obligations and interests of the members of the global community stating that the answers will have a significant impact on the nuclear indus- try, world wide economics and security policy. (orig.)

  8. Moderately reduced graphene oxide as transparent counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moderately reduced graphene oxide (GO) films were fabricated by simple and fast thermal treatment of solution processed GO, and their application as an alternative to conventional Pt counter electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) was investigated. GO without thermal treatment and thermally treated GO at 150 C showed low efficiency of ?0.5%, whereas cell performance was significantly improved by applying thermal treatment over 250 C. In particular, the DSSC with GO thermally treated at 350 C exhibited the highest performance with open-circuit voltage (VOC) of 0.66 V, short-circuit current density (JSC) of 16.35 mA/cm2, F.F. of 33.33%, and overall power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.60%. Moderate reduction of GO by simple thermal treatment over 250 C was confirmed through the measurements of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscope (AFM). Enhancement of efficiency after high temperature thermal treatment might be attributed to the improved electrical conductivities and higher catalytic activities, resulting from the reduction of GO.

  9. Researches regarding extractable glyphosate residues from different soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexa, Ersilia; Lazureanu, Aurel; Alda, Simion; Negrea, Monica; Iordanescu, Olimpia

    2008-01-01

    GLyphosate (N-phosphonomethyl-glycine) is a systemic, broad spectrum herbicide effective against most plant species, including annual and perennial species and is one of the world's most widely used herbicide. To glyphosate applied treatments, a part of active agent comes in contact with soil surface, adsorbing to soil compounds, while another part remains in soil solution. The adsorbing to soil compounds represents a feat importance conditioning the herbicide presence in soil solution and so, his availability to degradation and dispersion in the environment. In this paper work, the extractable glyphosate residues from soil solution have been determined through HPLC-FLD. Substrates used were Black Chernozem, Typical Gleysoil, Slight Vertisol, with moderate carbonatation. The experimental results indicated that the extractable glyphosate residue fractions from soil diminish (<20%), depending of soil parameters and decrease in this order: Gleysoil, Black Chernozem, Slight Vertisol. PMID:19226836

  10. Transgenic tobacco simultaneously overexpressing glyphosate N-acetyltransferase and 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase are more resistant to glyphosate than those containing one gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunjun; Cao, Gaoyi; Chen, Rongrong; Zhang, Shengxue; Ren, Yuan; Lu, Wei; Wang, Jianhua; Wang, Guoying

    2015-08-01

    5-Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) and glyphosate N-acetyltransferase (GAT) can detoxify glyphosate by alleviating the suppression of shikimate pathway. In this study, we obtained transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing AM79 aroA, GAT, and both of them, respectively, to evaluate whether overexpression of both genes could confer transgenic plants with higher glyphosate resistance. The transgenic plants harboring GAT or AM79 aroA, respectively, showed good glyphosate resistance. As expected, the hybrid plants containing both GAT and AM79 aroA exhibited improved glyphosate resistance than the transgenic plants overexpressing only a single gene. When grown on media with high concentration of glyphosate, seedlings containing a single gene were severely inhibited, whereas plants expressing both genes were affected less. When transgenic plants grown in the greenhouse were sprayed with glyphosate, less damage was observed for the plants containing both genes. Metabolomics analysis showed that transgenic plants containing two genes could maintain the metabolism balance better than those containing one gene after glyphosate treatment. Glyphosate treatment did not lead to a huge increase of shikimate contents of tobacco leaves in transgenic plants overexpressing two genes, whereas significant increase of shikimate contents in transgenic plants containing only a single gene was observed. These results demonstrated that pyramiding both aroA and GAT in transgenic plants can enhance glyphosate resistance, and this strategy can be used for the development of transgenic glyphosate-resistant crops. PMID:25822532

  11. Resistncia de azevm (Lolium multiflorum) ao herbicida glyphosate Resistance of italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) to glyphosate

    OpenAIRE

    E.S. Roman; L. VARGAS; M.A Rizzardi; R.W. Mattei

    2004-01-01

    O azevm uma gramnea de ciclo anual, constituindo-se com freqncia em planta infestante em lavouras de trigo do Rio Grande do Sul. Em experimentos realizados em casa de vegetao e no campo, foi avaliada a suscetibilidade de dois bitipos de azevm ao herbicida glyphosate, bem como a eficincia de herbicidas de ao total na dessecao de Lolium multiflorum para a semeadura direta de trigo. O delineamento experimental foi completamente casualizado em casa de vegetao e de blocos ao acaso...

  12. Desiccation species of ground cover with glyphosate formulations

    OpenAIRE

    Fbio Henrique Krenchinski; Leandro Paiola Albrecht; Leandro Rafael Krenchinski; Henrique Fabricio Placido; Jean Elisier Reckziegel; Fernando Henrique Ecco

    2013-01-01

    The management of coverage species may be accomplished by mechanical or chemical methods. In chemical method nonselective herbicides are used mainly the ones belonging to glyphosate group. The objective of this study was to evaluate phytotoxicity and agronomic efficacy of two formulations with active ingredient glyphosate over desiccation in ground cover species. The present study was conducted in field conditions in Marechal Candido Rondon County, Parana State. Experimental design used was r...

  13. Architecturally sensitive retrofitting of PV to a residential block in Greece to reduce its carbon footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panopoulou, Ismini

    Photovoltaic power is a unique energy source, with wide distribution potential, which can be integrated within the fabric of individual buildings, transforming the power generation in a less large-scale and regionally located issue. As a result, photovoltaic power is a free, clean and silent electrical supply that can be introduced into cities and residential areas. Over the past years, grid-connected, distributed photovoltaic power systems have become an explosively growing sector worldwide. This trend is expected to be continued in the future and solar systems may become a common building element of building construction. In Greece, where the main focus of the project is concentrated, the extended sunshine and the incentives of the new Renewable Energy Sources law of 2006, give a different perspective in photovoltaic investments. In the case study of Vera Water Residence complex in Athens, the viability of an architecturally sensitive retrofitting of PV was examined, from both financial and environmental aspects. The project was concentrated in one of the complex's buildings which was modelled in TAS simulator in order for the annual heating and cooling loads to be estimated. A closer to the reality estimation of electricity demand was made through the annual electricity bills of the building. The proposed building integrated photovoltaic system was designed in terms of following and respecting the aesthetics of the existing architecture of the complex while being as efficient as possible. The annual energy output and C02 emissions reductions were then calculated through RETScreen software analysis according to the location of the project and the characteristics of the PV system. Finally, an economic analysis has been included to the study, considering the installation cost, the annual savings and the embodied energy of the system, in order for the payback period of the investment to be determined. Finally, a small sensitivity analysis concerning the effect of different factors influencing the feasibility of the PV investment was carried out and as it was expected it had significant effect on the initially calculated the payback period value. The expected future increase of fuel prices and the reduction of the investment's initial cost due to government grants, added to the prospect of new future tax incentive and subsidies, have made the prospect of the project more attractive while significantly reducing the payback period.

  14. Acute toxicity and sublethal effects of the mixture glyphosate (Roundup Active and Cosmo-Flux411F to anuran embryos and tadpoles of four Colombian species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Marcela Henao Muoz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide in the world with application in agriculture, forestry, industrial weed control, garden and aquatic environments. However, its use is highly controversial for the possible impact on not-target organisms, such as amphibians, which are vanishing at an alarming and rapid rate. Due to the high solubility in water and ionic nature, the glyphosate requires of surfactants to increase activity. In addition, for the control of coca (Erythroxylum coca and agricultural weeds in Colombia, formulated glyphosate is mixed and sprayed with the adjuvant Cosmo-Flux411F to increase the penetration and activity of the herbicide. This study evaluates the acute toxic and sublethal effects (embryonic development, tadpole body size, tadpole swimming performance of the mixture of the formulated glyphosate Roundup Active and Cosmo-Flux411F to anuran embryos and tadpoles of four Colombian species under 96h laboratory standard tests and microcosms, which are more similar to field conditions as they include soil, sand and macrophytes. In the laboratory, embryos and tadpoles of Engystomops pustulosus were the most tolerant (LC50=3 904g a.e./L; LC50=2 799g a.e./L, respectively, while embryos and tadpoles of Hypsiboas crepitans (LC50=2 203g a.e./L; LC50=1 424g a.e./L, respectively were the most sensitive. R. humboldti and R. marina presented an intermediate toxicity. Embryos were significantly more tolerant to the mixture than tadpoles, which could be likely attributed to the exclusion of chemicals by the embryonic membranes and the lack of organs, such as gills, which are sensitive to surfactants. Sublethal effects were observed for the tadpole body size, but not for the embryonic development and tadpole swimming performance. In microcosms, no toxicity (LC50 could not be estimated, or sublethal responses were observed at concentrations up to fourfold (14.76kg glyphosate a.e./ha the highest field application rate of 3.69kg glyphosate a.e./ha. Thus, toxicity was less in the microcosms than in laboratory tests, which may be attributed to the presence of sediments and organic matter which rapidly adsorb glyphosate and surfactants such as POEA. It is concluded that the mixture of glyphosate (Roundup Active and Cosmo-Flux411F, as used in the field, has a negligible toxic effect to embryos and tadpoles of the species tested in this study.

  15. A glyphosate-based pesticide impinges on transcription

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widely spread chemicals used for human benefits may exert adverse effects on health or the environment, the identification of which are a major challenge. The early development of the sea urchin constitutes an appropriate model for the identification of undesirable cellular and molecular targets of pollutants. The widespread glyphosate-based pesticide affected sea urchin development by impeding the hatching process at millimolar range concentration of glyphosate. Glyphosate, the active herbicide ingredient of Roundup, by itself delayed hatching as judged from the comparable effect of different commercial glyphosate-based pesticides and from the effect of pure glyphosate addition to a threshold concentration of Roundup. The surfactant polyoxyethylene amine (POEA), the major component of commercial Roundup, was found to be highly toxic to the embryos when tested alone and therefore could contribute to the inhibition of hatching. Hatching, a landmark of early development, is a transcription-dependent process. Correlatively, the herbicide inhibited the global transcription, which follows fertilization at the 16-cell stage. Transcription inhibition was dose-dependent in the millimolar glyphosate range concentration. A 1257-bp fragment of the hatching enzyme transcript from Sphaerechinus granularis was cloned and sequenced; its transcription was delayed by 2 h in the pesticide-treated embryos. Because transcription is a fundamental basic biological process, the pesticide may be of health concern by inhalation near herbicide spraying at a concentration 25 times the adverse transcription concentration in the sprayed microdroplets

  16. PHYTO-MICROBIAL DEGRADATION OF GLYPHOSATE IN RIYADH AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDEL-MEGEED A.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse studies were conducted to determine the ability of plant Amaranth, Amaranthus caudate and two isolated bacterial strains from rhizosphere region for cleaning up glyphosate residues in soil and plants. The analytical study of the biodegradation of glyphosate was carried out in the laboratory conditions. Amaranth, Amaranthus caudate and two isolated bacterial strains namely Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus megaterium could degrade glyphosate in 5 days. These results suggested that phytoremediation could accelerate the degradation of glyphosate residues in plants and in rhizosphere region as well. Glyphosate had strong effect on bacterial DNA where many DNA bands were affected. This could be explained that the effect of herbicide glyphosate on the protein profile may reflex somehow DNA mutation occurred during the assimilation of those toxic compounds. Therefore, the alteration occurred in both DNA and protein profiles is considered a degree of tolerance that lead to DNA mutation to cope with the assimilation of this compound. Therefore, the phytoremediation way could be a promising tool in program is to protect public health and the environment by ensuring the safety and availability of herbicides and pesticide alternatives.

  17. Intoxicao de espcies de eucalipto submetidas deriva do glyphosate Intoxication of eucalypt species under glyphosate drift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.D. Tuffi Santos

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O glyphosate o herbicida mais utilizado em reas de reflorestamento de eucalipto. Nessas reas tem sido freqente a verificao de sintomas de intoxicao devido deriva. Entretanto, trabalhos de pesquisa e observaes de campo indicam comportamento diferencial entre as espcies e os clones de eucalipto quando em contato com o glyphosate. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos da deriva simulada de glyphosate, por meio de doses reduzidas, no crescimento de cinco espcies de eucalipto. Utilizou-se o esquema fatorial 5x5, sendo cinco espcies (Eucalyptus urophylla, E. grandis, E. pellita, E. resinifera e E. saligna e cinco doses (0; 43,2; 86,4; 172,8; e 345,6 g ha-1 de glyphosate, no delineamento em blocos casualizados com quatro repeties. A aplicao do herbicida foi feita sobre as plantas, de modo que no atingisse o tero superior, 23 dias aps o plantio destas. Os sintomas de intoxicao causados pelo glyphosate foram semelhantes nas diferentes espcies, sendo caracterizados por murcha, clorose e enrolamento foliar, e, no caso de maiores doses, por necroses e senescncia foliar. Plantas submetidas a doses acima de 86,4 g ha-1 de glyphosate foram severamente intoxicadas, afetando o seu crescimento, resultando em menor altura, dimetro do caule e massa seca aos 45 dias aps aplicao do herbicida. Entre as espcies estudadas, E. resinifera foi mais tolerante deriva de glyphosate, apresentando menores valores de intoxicao e maior incremento em altura e dimetro, mesmo nas plantas submetidas s maiores doses, o que no foi observado nas demais espcies.Glyphosate is the most used herbicide in eucalypt plantations. In these areas intoxication symptoms are often observed due to glyphosate drift. However, research works and field observations indicate different behaviors among eucalypt species and clones with glyphosate contact. This work aimed to evaluate the effects of simulated glyphosate drift, by means of herbicide subdoses, on the growth of five eucalypt species. The factorial model used five species (Eucalyptus urophylla, E. grandis, E. pellita, E. resinifera and E. saligna and five subdoses (0, 43.2, 86.4, 172.8, and 345.6 g ha-1 glyphosate arranged in a randomized block design, with four repetitions. Glyphosate applications were performed on the plants in such a way as to avoid reaching the upper third part of the plants 23 days after seed planting. The intoxication symptoms caused by glyphosate were similar for the different species, as characterized by wilt, chlorosis and leaf curling and in the case of larger doses, by necrosis and leaf senescence. Plants treated with subdoses above 86.4 g ha-1 glyphosate were severely intoxicated and were affected in their growth, with smaller height, diameter and less dry matter after 45 days of herbicide application. Among the species studied, E. resinifera showed to be the most tolerant to glyphosate drift, displaying the lowest intoxication values and greatest height and diameter increases, a fact not observed in the other species.

  18. Comparative environmental impacts of glyphosate and conventional herbicides when used with glyphosate-tolerant and non-tolerant crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamy, Laure; Gabrielle, Benot; Barriuso, Enrique

    2010-10-01

    The introduction of glyphosate-tolerant (GT) crops is expected to mitigate the environmental contamination by herbicides because glyphosate is less persistent and toxic than the herbicides used on non-GT crops. Here, we compared the environmental balances of herbicide applications for both crop types in three French field trials. The dynamic of herbicides and their metabolites in soil, groundwater and air was simulated with PRZM model and compared to field measurements. The associated impacts were aggregated with toxicity potentials calculated with the fate and exposure model USES for several environmental endpoints. The impacts of GT systems were lower than those of non-GT systems, but the accumulation in soils of one glyphosate metabolite (aminomethylphosphonic acid) questions the sustainability of GT systems. The magnitude of the impacts depends on the rates and frequency of glyphosate application being highest for GT maize monoculture and lowest for combination of GT oilseed rape and non-GT sugarbeet crops. PMID:20691521

  19. Effects of glyphosate-based herbicides on embryo-larval development and metamorphosis in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottier, Antoine; Kientz-Bouchart, Valérie; Serpentini, Antoine; Lebel, Jean Marc; Jha, Awadhesh N; Costil, Katherine

    2013-03-15

    Pesticides may be involved in oyster summer mortality events, not necessarily as a single causative agent but as an additional stressor. In this context, the present study aimed to assess the toxicity of glyphosate, its by-product, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) and two commercial formulations, Roundup Express(®) (R(EX)) and Roundup Allées et Terrasses(®) (R(AT)), containing glyphosate as the active ingredient, on the early life stages of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas. The embryotoxicity of these chemicals were quantified by considering both the rates of abnormalities and the arrested development or types of abnormalities in D-shaped larvae after 48 h exposure. The success of metamorphosis was examined in pediveliger larvae exposed for 24 h. Experiments involving both endpoints included range finding experiments for herbicide concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 100,000 μg L(-1). This range was then narrowed down in order to determine precise EC(50) values. Actual concentrations of the herbicide were determined at the beginning and after 48 h (embryotoxicity) and 24 h (metamorphosis) to evaluate the potential temporal variation in the concentrations. During embryo-larval development, no mortalities were recorded at any of the concentrations of glyphosate and AMPA, whereas no embryos or D-shaped larvae could be observed after exposure to 10,000 μg L(-1) of R(EX) or R(AT). Compared with the controls, no effects on embryo-larval development were recorded between 0.1 and 1000 μg L(-1), regardless of the chemical tested. Above a threshold, which varied according to the chemical used, the gradient of herbicide concentrations correlated with a gradient of severity of abnormality ranging from normal larvae to arrested development (an "old embryo" stage). The EC(50) values were 28,315 and 40,617 μg L(-1) for glyphosate and its metabolite, respectively, but much lowered values of 1133 and 1675 μg L(-1) for R(EX) and R(AT), respectively. Metamorphosis tests also revealed a significant difference between molecules, as the EC(50) values exceeded 100,000 μg L(-1) for glyphosate and AMPA but were as low as 6366 and 6060 μg L(-1) for the commercial formulations, which appeared relatively more toxic. Overall, the embryo-larval development of C. gigas was more sensitive to glyphosate-based herbicides compared to various endpoints studied in regulatory model organisms, and embryos and D-shaped larvae were more sensitive compared to pediveliger larvae. PMID:23277103

  20. Appetitive Sensitization by Amphetamine does not Reduce its Ability to Produce Conditioned Taste Aversion to Saccharin

    OpenAIRE

    Scott-Railton, John; Arnold, Gretchen; Vezina, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Previous exposure to amphetamine attenuates its ability to induce conditioned taste aversion (CTA). Because amphetamine, unlike emetic agents like LiCl, possesses appetitive properties that sensitize when it is administered repeatedly, the present study assessed the contribution of sensitization to this US pre-exposure effect (US-PEE). It was found that not all sensitizing regimens of systemic amphetamine injections produce a US-PEE. In addition, previous exposure to amphetamine in the VTA, w...

  1. Enhanced monolithic diffraction gratings with high efficiency and reduced polarization sensitivity for remote sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triebel, Peter; Diehl, Torsten; Moeller, Tobias; Gatto, Alexandre; Pesch, Alexander; Erdmann, Lars H.; Burkhardt, Matthias; Kalies, Alexander

    2015-10-01

    Spectral imaging systems lead to enhanced sensing properties when the sensing system provides sufficient spectral resolution to identify materials from its spectral reflectance signature. The performance of diffraction gratings provides an initial way to improve instrumental resolution. Thus, subsequent manufacturing techniques of high quality gratings are essential to significantly improve the spectral performance. The ZEISS unique technology of manufacturing real-blazed profiles and as well as lamellar profiles comprising transparent substrates is well suited for the production of transmission gratings. In order to reduce high order aberrations, aspherical and free-form surfaces can be alternatively processed to allow more degrees of freedom in the optical design of spectroscopic instruments with less optical elements and therefore size and weight advantages. Prism substrates were used to manufacture monolithic GRISM elements for UV to IR spectral range. Many years of expertise in the research and development of optical coatings enable high transmission anti-reflection coatings from the DUV to the NIR. ZEISS has developed specially adapted coating processes (Ion beam sputtering, ion-assisted deposition and so on) for maintaining the micro-structure of blazed gratings in particular. Besides of transmission gratings, numerous spectrometer setups (e.g. Offner, Rowland circle, Czerny-Turner system layout) working on the optical design principles of reflection gratings. This technology steps can be applied to manufacture high quality reflection gratings from the EUV to the IR applications with an outstanding level of low stray light and ghost diffraction order by employing a combination of holography and reactive ion beam etching together with the in-house coating capabilities. We report on results of transmission gratings on plane and curved substrates and GRISM elements with enhanced efficiency of the grating itself combined with low scattered light in the angular distribution. Beside of the results of straylight measurement the actual results on improving efficiency and lowering the polarization sensitivity for transmission gratings will be discussed on theoretical simulations compared to measured data over the entire wavelength range.

  2. Aplicao foliar de mangans em soja transgnica tolerante ao glyphosate Foliar application of manganese in transgenic soybean tolerant to glyphosate

    OpenAIRE

    Claudir Jos Basso; Antnio Luis Santi; Fabiane Pinto Lamego; Eduardo Girotto

    2011-01-01

    O amarelecimento da soja Roundup Ready aps aplicao do glyphosate pode estar associado deficincia momentnea de mangans. Por isso, com a hiptese de que soja tolerante ao glyphosate necessitaria de uma adio suplementar de mangans, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar diferentes manejos na aplicao foliar de mangans sobre alguns parmetros da soja. Foram desenvolvidos dois experimentos, um no municpio de Taquaru do Sul e outro em Boa Vista das Misses, RS, no ano agrcola 2009/2...

  3. Resistncia de Conyza canadensis e C. bonariensis ao herbicida glyphosate Glyphosate-resistance in Conyza canadensis and C. bonariensis

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, M. S.; Nicolai, M.; S.J.P. Carvalho; P.J. Christoffoleti

    2007-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, por meio de curvas de dose-resposta, a ocorrncia de bitipos resistentes ao herbicida glyphosate em populaes de Conyza canadensis e C. bonariensis, bem como propor tratamentos alternativos para esses bitipos. Os experimentos foram realizados em casa de vegetao, utilizando-se trs populaes de cada espcie: duas com suspeita de resistncia ao herbicida glyphosate, coletadas em pomares de laranja localizados em duas regies diferentes do Estado de S...

  4. Pisolithus sp. tolerance to glyphosate and isoxaflutole in vitro / Tolerncia de pisolithus sp. a glyphosate e isoxaflutole in vitro

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mayara Cristina Silva, Fernandes; Lidiomar Soares da, Costa; Paulo Henrique, Grazziotti; Danielle Cristina Fonseca Santos, Grazziotti; Jos Barbosa dos, Santos; Mrcio Jos, Rossi.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Os fungos ectomicorrzicos possuem tolerncia diferenciada aos herbicidas e podem promover a sobrevivncia e crescimento das plantas de eucalipto. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a tolerncia de isolados do fungo ectomicorrzico . Pisolithus sp. aos herbicidas glyphosate e isoxaflutole. Os iso [...] lados avaliados foram D3, D16, D17, Pt24 e UFVJM04 e as concentraes de glyphosate no meio lquido, de 0, 32, 63, 127 e 254 mg L-1, enquanto no meio slido, de 0, 32, 63, 127, 254, 507 e 1.014 mg L-1. Para o isoxaflutole nos dois meios de cultura, as concentraes foram de: 0, 295, 589, 1.178 e 2.355 mg L-1. Os ensaios foram independentes para cada herbicida e tipo de meio de cultura. A tolerncia dos isolados foi dependente do herbicida e da sua concentrao em cada meio. O Pt24 foi o mais tolerante ao glyphosate e o UFVJM04, ao isoxaflutole. O glyphosate foi mais txico aos isolados de Pisolithus sp. do que o isoxaflutole. Abstract in english The ectomycorrhizal fungi have different tolerance to herbicides and may promote the survival and growth of the eucalypts tree. This study aimed to evaluate the tolerance of Pisolithus sp. isolates to glyphosate and isoxaflutole. The isolates evaluated were D3, D16, D17, Pt24 and UFVJM04. Glyphosate [...] concentrations were: 0, 32, 63, 127 and 254 mg L-1 in liquid medium; 0, 32, 63, 127, 254, 507 and 1014 mg L-1 in solid medium. For isoxaflutole, the concentrations were 0, 295, 589, 1178 and 2355 mg L-1 for both media. Assays were independent for each herbicide and culture medium. The tolerance of isolates depended on the herbicide and its concentration in each type of culture medium. Pt24 was the most tolerant to glyphosate and the UFVJM04 to isoxaflutole. Glyphosate was more toxic to isolates of Pisolithus than isoxaflutole.

  5. Selectivity of glyphosate tank mixtures for RR soybean Seletividade de glyphosate em misturas em tanque para soja RR

    OpenAIRE

    D.G. Alonso; J. Constantin; R.S. Oliveira JR; J.G.Z. Arantes; S.D. Cavalieri; Santos, G.; F.A. Rios; L.H.M Franchini

    2011-01-01

    An active ingredients mixture of different action mechanisms is an essential tool to prevent or manage areas with resistant weeds. However, it is important that such a mixture provides adequate selectivity to the crop. The aim of this work was to evaluate glyphosate selectivity to glyphosate-resistant (RR) soybean, and also verify if there is selectivity in mixtures with other active ingredients applied postemergence aimed at new control strategies, which might be used in RR soybean cultivati...

  6. Comparative environmental impacts of glyphosate and conventional herbicides when used with glyphosate-tolerant and non-tolerant crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The introduction of glyphosate-tolerant (GT) crops is expected to mitigate the environmental contamination by herbicides because glyphosate is less persistent and toxic than the herbicides used on non-GT crops. Here, we compared the environmental balances of herbicide applications for both crop types in three French field trials. The dynamic of herbicides and their metabolites in soil, groundwater and air was simulated with PRZM model and compared to field measurements. The associated impacts were aggregated with toxicity potentials calculated with the fate and exposure model USES for several environmental endpoints. The impacts of GT systems were lower than those of non-GT systems, but the accumulation in soils of one glyphosate metabolite (aminomethylphosphonic acid) questions the sustainability of GT systems. The magnitude of the impacts depends on the rates and frequency of glyphosate application being highest for GT maize monoculture and lowest for combination of GT oilseed rape and non-GT sugarbeet crops. - The impacts of herbicide applications on glyphosate-tolerant crops could be higher than expected due to the accumulation of a metabolite of glyphosate in soils.

  7. Comparative environmental impacts of glyphosate and conventional herbicides when used with glyphosate-tolerant and non-tolerant crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamy, Laure, E-mail: laure.mamy@versailles.inra.f [INRA-AgroParisTech, UMR 1091 Environnement et Grandes Cultures, 78850 Thiverval-Grignon (France); Gabrielle, Benoit, E-mail: benoit.gabrielle@agroparistech.f [INRA-AgroParisTech, UMR 1091 Environnement et Grandes Cultures, 78850 Thiverval-Grignon (France); Barriuso, Enrique, E-mail: barriuso@grignon.inra.f [INRA-AgroParisTech, UMR 1091 Environnement et Grandes Cultures, 78850 Thiverval-Grignon (France)

    2010-10-15

    The introduction of glyphosate-tolerant (GT) crops is expected to mitigate the environmental contamination by herbicides because glyphosate is less persistent and toxic than the herbicides used on non-GT crops. Here, we compared the environmental balances of herbicide applications for both crop types in three French field trials. The dynamic of herbicides and their metabolites in soil, groundwater and air was simulated with PRZM model and compared to field measurements. The associated impacts were aggregated with toxicity potentials calculated with the fate and exposure model USES for several environmental endpoints. The impacts of GT systems were lower than those of non-GT systems, but the accumulation in soils of one glyphosate metabolite (aminomethylphosphonic acid) questions the sustainability of GT systems. The magnitude of the impacts depends on the rates and frequency of glyphosate application being highest for GT maize monoculture and lowest for combination of GT oilseed rape and non-GT sugarbeet crops. - The impacts of herbicide applications on glyphosate-tolerant crops could be higher than expected due to the accumulation of a metabolite of glyphosate in soils.

  8. Adsoro de glifosato sobre solos e minerais Adsorption of glyphosate on soils and minerals

    OpenAIRE

    Lus R. M. Toni; Henrique de Santana; Dimas A. M. Zaia

    2006-01-01

    Glyphosate, an enzyme inhibitor herbicide, has been widely used around the world in agriculture. Dr. John Franz from Monsanto Corporation (USA) discovered glyphosate in 1970. It has been showed that glyphosate is strongly adsorbed by inorganic soil components especially aluminium and iron oxides, and the phosphate group is involved in this interaction. The inactivation of glyphosate in soils can last for days or even months depending on soil characteristics. The addition of phosphate from fer...

  9. The effect of glyphosate on the frequency of micronuclei in bovine lymphocytes in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Pieova Elena

    2005-01-01

    Glyphosate is a widely used broad-spectrum herbicide that has expanded its applications on plant varieties that are genetically modified to tolerate glyphosate treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of micronuclei (MNi) in bovine peripheral lymphocytes after exposure to glyphosate in vitro. The cytokinesis block micronucleus assay (CBMN) for estimation of genotoxic activity was used. The obtained results indicate that glyphosate weakly induced micronuclei in bovine pe...

  10. Differential Effects of Glyphosate and Roundup on Human Placental Cells and Aromatase

    OpenAIRE

    Richard, Sophie; Moslemi, Safa; Sipahutar, Herbert; Benachour, Nora; Seralini, Gilles-Eric

    2005-01-01

    Roundup is a glyphosate-based herbicide used worldwide, including on most genetically modified plants that have been designed to tolerate it. Its residues may thus enter the food chain, and glyphosate is found as a contaminant in rivers. Some agricultural workers using glyphosate have pregnancy problems, but its mechanism of action in mammals is questioned. Here we show that glyphosate is toxic to human placental JEG3 cells within 18 hr with concentrations lower than those found with agricult...

  11. Degradation of the Phosphonate Herbicide Glyphosate by Arthrobacter atrocyaneus ATCC 13752

    OpenAIRE

    Pipke, Rdiger; Amrhein, Nikolaus

    1988-01-01

    Of nine authentic Arthrobacter strains tested, only A. atrocyaneus ATCC 13752 was capable of using the herbicide glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] as its sole source of phosphorus. Contrary to the previously isolated Arthrobacter sp. strain GLP-1, which degrades glyphosate via sarcosine, A. atrocyaneus metabolized glyphosate to aminomethylphosphonic acid. The carbon of aminomethylphosphonic acid was entirely converted to CO2. This is the first report on glyphosate degradation by a bacte...

  12. Glyphosate detection with ammonium nitrate and humic acids as potential interfering substances by pulsed voltammetry technique

    OpenAIRE

    MARTNEZ GIL, PABLO; Laguarda Mir, Nicols; Soto Camino, Juan; Masot Peris, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Pulsed voltammetry has been used to detect and quantify glyphosate on buffered water in presence of ammonium nitrate and humic substances. Glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide active ingredient in the world. It is a non-selective broad spectrum herbicide but some of its health and environmental effects are still being discussed. Nowadays, glyphosate pollution in water is being monitored but quantification techniques are slow and expensive. Glyphosate wastes are often detected in count...

  13. Leaching of Glyphosate and Aminomethylphosphonic Acid from an Agricultural Field over a Twelve-Year Period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norgaard, Trine; Moldrup, Per; Ferr, Ty P A; Olsen, Preben; Rosenbom, Annette E.; de Jonge, Lis Wollesen

    2014-01-01

    The globally-used herbicide glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) and its most frequently detected metabolite, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), were studied in a unique 12-year field-scale monitoring program. The leaching of glyphosate, AMPA, and soil particles were studied in a shallow drainage system beneath a 1.26 ha field. Five annual glyphosate applications were applied with different autumn application dates. Solute mass flux from the drain system following the five glyphosate applicat...

  14. Noopept reduces the postischemic functional and metabolic disorders in the brain of rats with different sensitivity to hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarubina, I V; Shabanov, P D

    2009-03-01

    Chronic cerebral ischemia was induced by ligation of both common carotid arteries in Wistar rats, divided by sensitivity to hypoxia into highly sensitive and low-sensitive. Noopept (peptide preparation), injected (0.5 mg/kg) during 7 days after occlusion of the carotid arteries, reduced the neurological disorders in rats with high and low sensitivity to hypoxia and improved their survival during the postischemic period. Noopept normalized behavior disordered by cerebral ischemia (according to the open field and elevated plus maze tests), prevented accumulation of LPO products and inhibition of antioxidant systems in the brain of rats with high and low sensitivity to hypoxia. Hence, noopept exhibited a neuroprotective effect in cerebral ischemia. PMID:19529857

  15. Photoelectrochemical sensitization and spectroscopic properties of reduced and oxidized forms of a chlorophyll analogue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The photoelectrochemical sensitization of a large bandgap semiconductor has been achieved via excitation of a sensitizer, chlorophyllin (CPLN). The redox states that control the net charge transfer are characterized by pulse radiolysis. The spectroscopic and kinetic details of the pulse radiolytically generated CPLN.+ and CPLN.- are reported. (author)

  16. Photoelectrochemical sensitization and spectroscopic properties of reduced and oxidized forms of a chlorophyll analogue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamat, P.V. (Notre Dame Univ., IN (USA). Radiation Lab.); Chauvet, J.-P. (Notre Dame Univ., IN (USA). Radiation Lab. Ecole Normale Superieure, Lyon (France))

    1991-01-01

    The photoelectrochemical sensitization of a large bandgap semiconductor has been achieved via excitation of a sensitizer, chlorophyllin (CPLN). The redox states that control the net charge transfer are characterized by pulse radiolysis. The spectroscopic and kinetic details of the pulse radiolytically generated CPLN{sup .+} and CPLN{sup .-} are reported. (author).

  17. Does a Culturally Sensitive Smoking Prevention Program Reduce Smoking Intentions among Aboriginal Children? A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKennitt, Daniel W.; Currie, Cheryl L.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine if a culturally sensitive smoking prevention program would have short-term impacts on smoking intentions among Aboriginal children. Two schools with high Aboriginal enrollment were selected for the study. A grade 4 classroom in one school was randomly assigned to receive the culturally sensitive smoking

  18. Analysis of glyphosate residues in cereals using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granby, Kit; Johannesen, S.; Gabrielsen, Martin Vahl

    2003-01-01

    monitored m/z 168--> 150 (glyphosate) and 170-->152 (internal standard 2- 13 (CN)-N-15-glyphosate) for quantification. The mean recovery was 85% ( n =32) at spiking levels from 0.03 to 0.33 mg kg(-1) . From 1998 to 2001, from the analysis of about 50 samples per annum, a reduction in the glyphosate residues...

  19. Utilization of glyphosate as phosphate source: biochemistry and genetics of bacterial carbon-phosphorous lyase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove-Jensen, Bjarne; Zechel, David L; Jochimsen, Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    After several decades of use of glyphosate, the active ingredient in weed killers such as Roundup, in fields, forests, and gardens, the biochemical pathway of transformation of glyphosate phosphorus to a useful phosphorus source for microorganisms has been disclosed. Glyphosate is a member of a l...

  20. Leaching of Glyphosate and Aminomethylphosphonic Acid from an Agricultural Field over a Twelve-Year Period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norgaard, Trine; Moldrup, Per; Ferré, Ty P A; Olsen, Preben; Rosenbom, Annette E.; de Jonge, Lis Wollesen

    2014-01-01

    The globally-used herbicide glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) and its most frequently detected metabolite, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), were studied in a unique 12-year field-scale monitoring program. The leaching of glyphosate, AMPA, and soil particles were studied in a shallow...... intensity and the timing of rain events after glyphosate application....

  1. Seed Germination Differences Between Glyphosate-Resistant and -Susceptible Italian Ryegrass Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Italian ryegrass tolerant to glyphosate is becoming a major weed problem in glyphosate-resistant crops. The effects of temperature, light, pH, salt and osmotic stress, shikimic acid, and planting depth on germination of glyphosate-tolerant (T) and susceptible (S) Italian ryegrass populations were st...

  2. Glyphosate-Resistant Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) Spreads in the Southern United States (U.S.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyphosate (N-phosphonomethyl glycine) is an exceptionally broad-spectrum herbicide that was first registered for use in 1974. Glyphosate is used mainly in conjunction with transgenic, glyphosate-resistant soybean, canola (Brassica napus), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), and corn (Zea mays) cultivars, ...

  3. Varying tolerance to glyphosate in a population of Palmer amaranth with low epsps copy number

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Palmer amaranth population (seeds collected in the year 2000; Washington Co., MS) suspected to be susceptible to glyphosate was examined as a population and as individual plants and found to exhibit varying tolerance or resistance to glyphosate. Whole plant spraying of glyphosate (0.84 kg ha-1) t...

  4. Práticas de manejo e a resistência de Euphorbia heterophylla aos inibidores da ALS e tolerância ao glyphosate no Rio Grande do Sul Management practices x Euphorbia heterophylla resistance to ALS-inhibitors and tolerance to glyphosate in Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Vargas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A utilização intensiva do glyphosate nas lavouras de soja Roundup Ready® (RR no Rio Grande do Sul (RS, nos últimos anos, pode ter selecionado biótipos de leiteira (Euphorbia heterophylla resistentes ao herbicida. Esse cenário dificultará ainda mais o manejo da espécie, já que permanecem indícios da presença de biótipos resistentes também em herbicidas inibidores da acetolactato sintase (ALS. Assim, os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar a sensibilidade da leiteira a herbicidas inibidores da ALS e ao glyphosate, verificar a distribuição dos biótipos resistentes no RS e determinar os principais fatores agronômicos associados a falhas de controle. Para isso, amostras de sementes de plantas de leiteira foram coletadas em lavouras de soja RR localizadas em 56 municípios do Estado do RS. Por ocasião das coletas, os agricultores responderam a questionário que abordava o manejo das plantas daninhas na área. Usando-se as sementes coletadas, foram conduzidos dois experimentos em casa de vegetação: no primeiro, avaliou-se a resposta de 86 biótipos ao herbicida glyphosate, aplicado na dose de 2.160 g e.a. ha-1; e, no segundo, a resposta de 73 biótipos ao herbicida imazethapyr, aplicado na dose de 200 g i.a. ha-1. Os resultados obtidos evidenciam que todos os biótipos de leiteira avaliados são suscetíveis ao glyphosate, porém existem biótipos resistentes aos inibidores da ALS. As respostas do questionário indicam que práticas de manejo como uso de subdoses e/ou utilização intensiva do glyphosate e a ausência de rotação de culturas favorecem falhas no controle de leiteira pelo herbicida glyphosate em soja.The intensive use of glyphosate in Roundup Ready® (RR soybean fields in Rio Grande do Sul (RS, in recent years may have selected wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla biotypes resistant to the herbicide. This scenario will further complicate the management of this species, since evidence remains of the presence of herbicide resistant biotypes also in acetolactate synthase (ALS-inhibitors. Thus, the objectives of this work were to evaluate wild poinsettia's sensitivity to the ALS-inhibiting herbicides and glyphosate; to investigate the distribution of resistant biotypes in the state of RS;and to determine the main agronomic factors associated with control failures. Seeds of wild poinsettia plants that survived glyphosate applications were collected from RR soybean fields located in 56 municipalities in the state of RS. On the occasion, the farmers were interviewed through a questionnaire aiming to collect information on the management of the area. Using the seeds collected, two experiments were conducted under greenhouse conditions. The first evaluated the response of 86 biotypes to glyphosate, applied at the rate of 2.160 g ha-1 while the second experiment evaluated the response of the herbicide imazethapyr to 73 biotypes, applied at a dose of 200 g a.i. ha‑1. The results show that all the wild poinsettia biotypes evaluated are susceptible to glyphosate, but some are resistant to ALS-inhibitors. The survey responses indicate that management practices such as the use of sub doses and/or intensive use of glyphosate, as well as lack of crop rotation favor failures in wild poinsettia control by glyphosate in soybean.

  5. Prticas de manejo e a resistncia de Euphorbia heterophylla aos inibidores da ALS e tolerncia ao glyphosate no Rio Grande do Sul / Management practices x Euphorbia heterophylla resistance to ALS-inhibitors and tolerance to glyphosate in Rio Grande do Sul

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L., Vargas; M.A., Nohatto; D., Agostinetto; M.A., Bianchi; J.M., Paula; E., Polidoro; R.E., Toledo.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A utilizao intensiva do glyphosate nas lavouras de soja Roundup Ready (RR) no Rio Grande do Sul (RS), nos ltimos anos, pode ter selecionado bitipos de leiteira (Euphorbia heterophylla) resistentes ao herbicida. Esse cenrio dificultar ainda mais o manejo da espcie, j que permanecem indcios [...] da presena de bitipos resistentes tambm em herbicidas inibidores da acetolactato sintase (ALS). Assim, os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar a sensibilidade da leiteira a herbicidas inibidores da ALS e ao glyphosate, verificar a distribuio dos bitipos resistentes no RS e determinar os principais fatores agronmicos associados a falhas de controle. Para isso, amostras de sementes de plantas de leiteira foram coletadas em lavouras de soja RR localizadas em 56 municpios do Estado do RS. Por ocasio das coletas, os agricultores responderam a questionrio que abordava o manejo das plantas daninhas na rea. Usando-se as sementes coletadas, foram conduzidos dois experimentos em casa de vegetao: no primeiro, avaliou-se a resposta de 86 bitipos ao herbicida glyphosate, aplicado na dose de 2.160 g e.a. ha-1; e, no segundo, a resposta de 73 bitipos ao herbicida imazethapyr, aplicado na dose de 200 g i.a. ha-1. Os resultados obtidos evidenciam que todos os bitipos de leiteira avaliados so suscetveis ao glyphosate, porm existem bitipos resistentes aos inibidores da ALS. As respostas do questionrio indicam que prticas de manejo como uso de subdoses e/ou utilizao intensiva do glyphosate e a ausncia de rotao de culturas favorecem falhas no controle de leiteira pelo herbicida glyphosate em soja. Abstract in english The intensive use of glyphosate in Roundup Ready (RR) soybean fields in Rio Grande do Sul (RS), in recent years may have selected wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla) biotypes resistant to the herbicide. This scenario will further complicate the management of this species, since evidence remain [...] s of the presence of herbicide resistant biotypes also in acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibitors. Thus, the objectives of this work were to evaluate wild poinsettia's sensitivity to the ALS-inhibiting herbicides and glyphosate; to investigate the distribution of resistant biotypes in the state of RS;and to determine the main agronomic factors associated with control failures. Seeds of wild poinsettia plants that survived glyphosate applications were collected from RR soybean fields located in 56 municipalities in the state of RS. On the occasion, the farmers were interviewed through a questionnaire aiming to collect information on the management of the area. Using the seeds collected, two experiments were conducted under greenhouse conditions. The first evaluated the response of 86 biotypes to glyphosate, applied at the rate of 2.160 g ha-1 while the second experiment evaluated the response of the herbicide imazethapyr to 73 biotypes, applied at a dose of 200 g a.i. ha?1. The results show that all the wild poinsettia biotypes evaluated are susceptible to glyphosate, but some are resistant to ALS-inhibitors. The survey responses indicate that management practices such as the use of sub doses and/or intensive use of glyphosate, as well as lack of crop rotation favor failures in wild poinsettia control by glyphosate in soybean.

  6. Manejo de capim p-de-galinha em lavouras de soja transgnica resistente ao glifosato / Management of goose grass on transgenic soybean, resistant to glyphosate

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andr da Rosa, Ulguim; Leandro, Vargas; Dirceu, Agostinetto; Tasa Dal, Magro; Nixon da Rosa, Westendorff; Marcelo Timm, Holz.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resistncia de capim p-de-galinha (Eleusine indica) ao glifosato, em lavouras de soja transgnica; avaliar o efeito de aplicaes de glifosato em diferentes estdios de desenvolvimento; identificar prticas agronmicas associadas seleo de bitipos resiste [...] ntes; e avaliar a eficincia dos herbicidas cletodim, fluazifope-P-butlico, clomazona, glufosinato de amnio e glifosato nas plantas resistentes. Plantas escapes ao tratamento com glifosato foram coletadas em 24 propriedades, no Rio Grande do Sul. As plantas foram cultivadas em casa de vegetao, tendo-se avaliado a sua resistncia ao glifosato. Os acessos resistentes foram selecionados e avaliados quanto ao efeito da aplicao do glifosato em diferentes estdios de crescimento e quanto sensibilidade aos herbicidas. Foi aplicado um questionrio aos produtores para identificao das prticas agronmicas associadas s falhas no controle. O controle de E. indica pelo glifosato mais efetivo com a aplicao em estdios iniciais de desenvolvimento. Prticas agronmicas, como uso contnuo de baixas doses do herbicida, aplicao em estdios de desenvolvimento avanados das plantas daninhas (mais de um afilho) e a ausncia de rotao de culturas foram relacionadas s falhas de controle observadas. Os herbicidas cletodim, fluazifope-P-butlico e glufosinato de amnio so alternativas eficientes para o controle de E. indica. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the resistance of goose grass (Eleusine indica) to glyphosate application in transgenic soybean crops; evaluate the effect of glyphosate applications in different growth stages; identify the main agronomic practices associated with the selection of resistan [...] t biotypes; and evaluate the effect of the herbicides clethodim, fluazifop-p-butyl, clomazone, glufosinate ammonium, and glyphosate on resistant plants. Plants that survived glyphosate application were collected on 24 properties in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Plants were grown in greenhouse and their resistance to glyphosate was evaluated. The resistant accessions were selected and evaluated as to the effect of glyphosate application on different growth stages and to their sensitivity to the herbicides. A questionnaire was given to producers in order to identify agronomic practices associated with control failures. The control of E. indica by glyphosate is more effective at initial growth stages. Agronomic practices, such as continued use of low doses of glyphosate, application on advanced weed growth stages (more than one tiller), and absence of crop rotation were related to the observed control failures. The herbicides clethodim, fluazifop-p-butyl, and glufosinate ammonium are efficient alternatives to control E. indica.

  7. Manejo de capim p-de-galinha em lavouras de soja transgnica resistente ao glifosato Management of goose grass on transgenic soybean, resistant to glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andr da Rosa Ulguim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resistncia de capim p-de-galinha (Eleusine indica ao glifosato, em lavouras de soja transgnica; avaliar o efeito de aplicaes de glifosato em diferentes estdios de desenvolvimento; identificar prticas agronmicas associadas seleo de bitipos resistentes; e avaliar a eficincia dos herbicidas cletodim, fluazifope-P-butlico, clomazona, glufosinato de amnio e glifosato nas plantas resistentes. Plantas escapes ao tratamento com glifosato foram coletadas em 24 propriedades, no Rio Grande do Sul. As plantas foram cultivadas em casa de vegetao, tendo-se avaliado a sua resistncia ao glifosato. Os acessos resistentes foram selecionados e avaliados quanto ao efeito da aplicao do glifosato em diferentes estdios de crescimento e quanto sensibilidade aos herbicidas. Foi aplicado um questionrio aos produtores para identificao das prticas agronmicas associadas s falhas no controle. O controle de E. indica pelo glifosato mais efetivo com a aplicao em estdios iniciais de desenvolvimento. Prticas agronmicas, como uso contnuo de baixas doses do herbicida, aplicao em estdios de desenvolvimento avanados das plantas daninhas (mais de um afilho e a ausncia de rotao de culturas foram relacionadas s falhas de controle observadas. Os herbicidas cletodim, fluazifope-P-butlico e glufosinato de amnio so alternativas eficientes para o controle de E. indica.The objective of this work was to evaluate the resistance of goose grass (Eleusine indica to glyphosate application in transgenic soybean crops; evaluate the effect of glyphosate applications in different growth stages; identify the main agronomic practices associated with the selection of resistant biotypes; and evaluate the effect of the herbicides clethodim, fluazifop-p-butyl, clomazone, glufosinate ammonium, and glyphosate on resistant plants. Plants that survived glyphosate application were collected on 24 properties in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Plants were grown in greenhouse and their resistance to glyphosate was evaluated. The resistant accessions were selected and evaluated as to the effect of glyphosate application on different growth stages and to their sensitivity to the herbicides. A questionnaire was given to producers in order to identify agronomic practices associated with control failures. The control of E. indica by glyphosate is more effective at initial growth stages. Agronomic practices, such as continued use of low doses of glyphosate, application on advanced weed growth stages (more than one tiller, and absence of crop rotation were related to the observed control failures. The herbicides clethodim, fluazifop-p-butyl, and glufosinate ammonium are efficient alternatives to control E. indica.

  8. Pulverizao de glyphosate utilizando soluo de uria + sulfato de amnio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saul Jorge Pinto Carvalho

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Diversos experimentos tm sido realizados com intuito de elevar a eficcia do herbicida glyphosate na dessecao de plantas daninhas, incluindo-se o uso de sulfato de amnio ou ureia como adjuvantes. Em termos fisiolgicos, existem explicaes para o efeito complementar destes produtos quando adicionados concomitantemente calda herbicida. Desta forma, trs experimentos foram desenvolvidos em campo com o objetivo de avaliar a eficcia do herbicida glyphosate para dessecao de espcies de plantas daninhas utilizando soluo de fertilizantes nitrogenados como veculos de pulverizao. Foram avaliados seis tratamentos, sendo estes: aplicao de glyphosate (540 g e.a. ha-1 utilizando gua, soluo de sulfato de amnio SA (15 g L-1, soluo de uria U (5 g L-1, soluo de U+SA (2,5 + 7,5 g L-1 como veculos de pulverizao, glyphosate a 1080 g e.a. ha-1 aplicado com gua, e testemunha sem aplicao. Avaliou-se a eficcia dos tratamentos sobre comunidade mista de plantas daninhas, Brachiaria decumbens e Sorghum halepense. O uso de soluo de fertilizantes nitrogenados como veculo para pulverizao do glyphosate no elevou o controle de B. decumbens. A menor dose do herbicida glyphosate teve maior eficcia sobre a comunidade mista de plantas daninhas e sobre S. halepense devido pulverizao com soluo de SA (15 g L-1 ou de U+SA (2,5 + 7,5 g L-1. Os resultados positivos obtidos pela aplicao de glyphosate com fertilizantes nitrogenados tambm foram observados para a reduo de massa fresca da comunidade mista e para massa fresca e seca de S. halepense.

  9. Degradation and Isotope Source Tracking of Glyphosate and Aminomethylphosphonic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Joshi, Sunendra R; Jaisi, Deb P

    2016-01-27

    Glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine], an active ingredient of the herbicide Roundup, and its main metabolite, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), have been frequently reported to be present in soils and other environments and thus have heightened public concerns on their potential adverse effects. Understanding the fate of these compounds and differentiating them from other naturally occurring compounds require a toolbox of methods that can go beyond conventional methods. Here, we applied individual isotope labeling technique whereby each compound or mineral involved in the glyphosate and AMPA degradation reaction was either synthesized or chosen to have distinct (18)O/(16)O ratios so that the source of incorporated oxygen in the orthophosphate generated and corresponding isotope effect during C-P bond cleavage could be identified. Furthermore, we measured original isotope signatures of a few commercial glyphosate sources to identify their source-specific isotope signatures. Our degradation kinetics results showed that the rate of glyphosate degradation was higher than that of AMPA in all experimental conditions, and both the rate and extent of degradation were lowest under anoxic conditions. Oxygen isotope ratios (?(18)OP) of orthophosphate generated from glyphosate and AMPA degradation suggested that one external oxygen atom from ambient water, not from dissolved oxygen or mineral, was incorporated into orthophosphate with the other three oxygen atoms inherited from the parent molecule. Interestingly, ?(18)OP values of all commercial glyphosate products studied were found to be the lightest among all orthophosphates known so far. Furthermore, isotope composition was found to be unaffected due to variable degradation kinetics, light/dark, and oxic/anoxic conditions. These results highlight the importance of phosphate oxygen isotope ratios as a nonconventional tool to potentially distinguish glyphosate sources and products from other organophosphorus compounds and orthophosphate in the environment. PMID:26689867

  10. Reduced sensitivity to emotional prosody in congenital amusia rekindles the musical protolanguage hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, William Forde; Marin, Manuela M.; Stewart, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    A number of evolutionary theories assume that music and language have a common origin as an emotional protolanguage that remains evident in overlapping functions and shared neural circuitry. The most basic prediction of this hypothesis is that sensitivity to emotion in speech prosody derives from the capacity to process music. We examined sensitivity to emotion in speech prosody in a sample of individuals with congenital amusia, a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in proce...

  11. Reduced sensitivity to emotional prosody in congenital amusia rekindles the musical protolanguage hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, William Forde; Marin, Manuela M; Stewart, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    A number of evolutionary theories assume that music and language have a common origin as an emotional protolanguage that remains evident in overlapping functions and shared neural circuitry. The most basic prediction of this hypothesis is that sensitivity to emotion in speech prosody derives from the capacity to process music. We examined sensitivity to emotion in speech prosody in a sample of individuals with congenital amusia, a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in processi...

  12. Improving the NH3 gas sensitivity of ZnO nanowire sensors by reducing the carrier concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a method to improve the sensitivity of a zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowire gas sensor towards ammonia (NH3) without the use of catalyst nanoparticles on the nanowire surface. This improvement is achieved by lowering the nominal carrier concentration in the as-grown ZnO nanowires. The carrier concentration in the as-grown ZnO nanowires can be tuned by treating these nanowires to either an oxidizing gas plasma or a reducing gas plasma, as observed from the measured current-voltage (I-V) characteristics response. We demonstrate that a ZnO nanowire sensor device that has been subjected to oxygen plasma treatment, thereby having a reduced carrier concentration, exhibits a sensitivity towards 0.75% NH3 gas that is improved by approximately four times. The origin of this gas sensitivity improvement is discussed based on x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis results of the plasma-treated ZnO nanowires

  13. Reduced dihydroxyacetone sensitivity and normal sensitivity to glyceraldehyde and oxidizing agent of ATP-sensitive K+ channels of pancreatic beta cells in NIDDM rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Song, D.K.; Park, W K; Bae, J.H.; Park, M K; Kim, S.J.; Ho, W.K.; Earm, Y. E.

    1997-01-01

    The inhibition of ATP-sensitive K+(KATP) channels in pancreatic beta cells is a key step of insulin secretion induced by glucose. Glucose-induced insulin secretion from the beta cells is selectively impaired in patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and in animal models of it. In order to clarify the site of this abnormal glucose response, we studied the effects of insulin secretagogues and sulfhydryl oxidizing agent, 2,2'-dithio-bis (5-nitropyridine) (DTBNP), on KATP ch...

  14. Adsoro de glifosato sobre solos e minerais Adsorption of glyphosate on soils and minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lus R. M. Toni

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Glyphosate, an enzyme inhibitor herbicide, has been widely used around the world in agriculture. Dr. John Franz from Monsanto Corporation (USA discovered glyphosate in 1970. It has been showed that glyphosate is strongly adsorbed by inorganic soil components especially aluminium and iron oxides, and the phosphate group is involved in this interaction. The inactivation of glyphosate in soils can last for days or even months depending on soil characteristics. The addition of phosphate from fertilizers can displace glyphosate from the soils and this could be the cause of decreased productivity of some crops.

  15. Eficácia de glyphosate em plantas de cobertura Efficacy of glyphosate in cover crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. Timossi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se comparar a eficácia de três dosagens do herbicida glyphosate para a dessecação de Brachiaria decumbens, B. brizantha cv. Marandu e vegetação espontânea, visando a adoção do sistema plantio direto. Utilizou-se delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, num esquema fatorial 3 x 3, com quatro repetições. Testaram-se três tipos de cobertura vegetal e três dosagens de glyphosate (1,44, 2,16 e 2,88 kg ha-1. Aos 7, 14, 21 e 28 dias após a aplicação (DAA, foram feitas avaliações visuais da porcentagem de controle das coberturas vegetais e, aos 45 DAA, avaliações visuais da porcentagem de reinfestação da área. Conclui-se que, para as espécies que compunham a vegetação espontânea, o uso de 1,44 kg ha-1 proporcionou bom controle, sem no entanto evitar rebrotes de Digitaria insularis. Para as braquiárias, a mesma taxa de controle foi observada a partir de 2,16 kg ha-1. A camada de palha das braquiárias sobre o solo não foi capaz de suprimir a emergência de Cyperus rotundus, Alternanthera tenella, Raphanus raphanistrum, Bidens pilosa e Euphorbia heterophylla.This work aimed to compare rates of glyphosate to desiccate Brachiaria decumbens, B. brizantha cv. Marandu and spontaneous plants (weeds, aiming to adopt the no-tillage system. A randomized block experimental design in a factorial scheme was used (3x3, with four replications. The factors consisted of three species of cover crops and three rates of glyphosate (1.44, 2.16 and 2.88 kg ha-1. At 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after application of the herbicide, visual evaluations of the percentage of cover crop control were carried out and at 45 days of the reinfestation percentage of the area. It was concluded that the spontaneous plants presented a good control at 1.44 kg ha-1, without, however, preventing Digitaria insularis sprouts. The same control rate starting at 2.16 kg ha-1 was observed for the Brachiaria species. The straw layer of these cover crops on the soil was not able to suppress the emergence of Cyperus rotundus, Alternanthera tenella, Raphanus raphanistrum, Bidens pilosa and Euphorbia heterophylla.

  16. Subacute toxicity of copper and glyphosate and their interaction to earthworm (Eisenia fetida)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glyphosate (GPS) and copper (Cu) are common pollutants in soils, and commonly co-exist. Due to the chemical structure of GPS, it can form complexes of heavy metals and interface their bioavailability in soil environment. In order to explore the interactions between GPS and Cu, subacute toxicity tests of Cu and GPS on soil invertebrate earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were conducted. The relative weight loss and whole-worm metal burdens increased significantly with the increasing exposure concentration of Cu, while the toxicity of GPS was insignificant. The joint toxicity data showed that the relative weight loss and the uptake of Cu, as well as the superoxide dismutase, catalase and malondialdehyde activities, were significantly alleviated in the present of GPS, which indicated that GPS could reduce the toxicity and bioavailability of Cu in the soil because of its strong chelating effects. Highlights: Cu markedly increased the weight loss ratio of earthworm. Cu decreased the cocoon production of earthworm. The toxicity of GPS on earthworm was insignificant. The presence of GPS could reduce the toxicity of Cu on earthworm. -- The presence of glyphosate could reduce the toxicity and bioavailability of Cu in the soil because of its strong chelating effects

  17. Reducing side effects of hiding sensitive itemsets in privacy preserving data mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Wei; Hong, Tzung-Pei; Hsu, Hung-Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Data mining is traditionally adopted to retrieve and analyze knowledge from large amounts of data. Private or confidential data may be sanitized or suppressed before it is shared or published in public. Privacy preserving data mining (PPDM) has thus become an important issue in recent years. The most general way of PPDM is to sanitize the database to hide the sensitive information. In this paper, a novel hiding-missing-artificial utility (HMAU) algorithm is proposed to hide sensitive itemsets through transaction deletion. The transaction with the maximal ratio of sensitive to nonsensitive one is thus selected to be entirely deleted. Three side effects of hiding failures, missing itemsets, and artificial itemsets are considered to evaluate whether the transactions are required to be deleted for hiding sensitive itemsets. Three weights are also assigned as the importance to three factors, which can be set according to the requirement of users. Experiments are then conducted to show the performance of the proposed algorithm in execution time, number of deleted transactions, and number of side effects. PMID:24982932

  18. Momento da chuva aps a aplicao e a eficcia dos herbicidas sulfosate e glyphosate aplicados em diferentes formulaes Rainfastness and glyphosate and sulfosate efficacy using different formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F.F. Pedrinho Jnior

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar a influncia da chuva sobre o desempenho dos herbicidas sulfosate e glyphosate em diferentes formulaes, foram conduzidos dois experimentos, um no inverno de 2000 e outro no vero de 2001, na Fazenda Experimental de Ensino e Pesquisa da Faculdade de Cincias Agrrias e Veterinrias, Campus de Jaboticabal-SP. Os experimentos foram instalados segundo o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repeties, no arranjo fatorial de 4x5+1, ou seja, quatro tratamentos de herbicidas, cinco perodos sem chuva aps a aplicao e uma testemunha, que no recebeu chuva. As formulaes de glyphosate foram: SAqC (1,0 L ha-1, GrDA (0,5 kg ha-1, SAqC Transorb (0,75 L ha-1, mais o sulfosate SAqC (1,09 L ha. Os perodos sem chuva aps a aplicao foram de 1, 2, 4, 6 e > 48 horas. Os herbicidas foram aplicados em ps-emergncia das plantas daninhas, utilizando-se de um pulverizador costal, presso constante (mantida por ar comprimido de 30 lbf pol-2. A chuva foi simulada com um sistema de irrigao por asperso. A lmina de gua variou entre 18 e 19 mm. Em ambas as pocas, a chuva simulada foi prejudicial ao dos herbicidas, principalmente quando feita nos menores intervalos aps a aplicao. Os sintomas de fitointoxicao apareceram mais rapidamente no vero. A formulao Transorb, comercializada como no sendo afetada pela chuva uma hora aps a aplicao, no teve o desempenho esperado, tanto no inverno quanto no vero, para perodos de at seis horas sem chuva aps a aplicao. O sulfosate apresentou o melhor controle geral das plantas avaliadas, quando se simulou chuva aps seis horas, em ambas as pocas. A formulao GrDA foi a mais afetada pela ao da chuva em ambas as pocas.Two field assays were carried out to evaluate the rainfall effects on sulfosate and glyphosate herbicide activity, using different formulations, under two growing seasons (winter and summer. The experiments were conducted at the FCAV/UNESP Experimental Station, Jaboticabel, Brazil, during 2000/01. The formulations were glyphosate SA (1.0 L ha-1, WG (0.5 L ha-1, Transorb (0.75 L ha-1 and sulfosate SA (1.09 L ha-1. In the field, all the trials were arranged in a randomized block experimental design, with four replications. The treatments were arranged in factorial design 5 x 4 + 1 factors, with five periods between the herbicide spraying and the rain incidence (1, 2, 4, 6 and > 48 h, plus one control treatment. The herbicide treatments were applied using a back spraying, with six nozzles DG 11002, spaced by 0.5 m, at 30 p.s.i. constant pression. Artificial rain was provided by a top irrigation system raining 18-19 mm during one hour. The artificial rain reduced glyphosate action, mainly in the shorter periods between herbicide application and the rain incidence. The herbicide symptoms appeared quicker in the summer trials. The Transorb formulation (advertised as not affected by rain one hour after spraying had the phytointoxication symptoms reduced by the rain up to six hours after spraying, both in the summer and winter. The herbicide sulfosate promoted better control when the rain occurred six hours after spraying, in both seasons.

  19. Efficiency of the application of the mixture of glyphosate with saflufenacil on Brachiaria decumbens plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Roberta Gobi Queiroz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the synergism or antagonism of glyphosate with and without mixing with saflufenacil to control B. decumbens. The following treatments were evaluated: glyphosate (1.080; glyphosate + saflufenacil + Dash (1,080 + 24.5 + 0.5 % v/v; glyphosate + 2,4-D (1,080 + 720; glyphosate (1,440; glyphosate + saflufenacil + Dash (1,440 + 24.5 + 0.5% v/v; glyphosate + 2,4-D (1,440 + 720; saflufenacil + Dash (24.5 + 0.5 v/v; 2,4-D (720, doses in g a.i./e.a. ha-1. The efficiency control of Brachiaria decumbens was evaluated at different times: 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42 and 49 days after application (DAA, with basis on phytotoxicity symptoms, using the scale of 0 % to 100%. The results were submitted to the F test and the average values were compared using Tukey test at 5 % probability. The herbicide glyphosate applied isolated at both tested doses, or mixed with saflufenacil, provided excellent control of B. decumbens after 14 days. Saflufenacil and 2,4-D when applied isolated without the presence of glyphosate were ineffective in controlling plants. The control of B. decumbens provided by mixtures of glyphosate with 2,4-D and saflufenacil was similar to the application of glyphosate isolated. Mixtures showed no synergism or antagonism on the control of B. decumbens plants.

  20. Glyphosate biodegradation and potential soil bioremediation by Bacillus subtilis strain Bs-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, X M; Yu, T; Yin, G H; Dong, Q L; An, M; Wang, H R; Ai, C X

    2015-01-01

    Glyphosate and glyphosate-containing herbicides have an adverse effect on mammals, humans, and soil microbial ecosystems. Therefore, it is important to develop methods for enhancing glyphosate degradation in soil through bioremediation. We investigated the potential of glyphosate degradation and bioremediation in soil by Bacillus subtilis Bs-15. Bs-15 grew well at high concentrations of glyphosate; the maximum concentration tolerated by Bs-15 reached 40,000 mg/L. The optimal conditions for bacterial growth and glyphosate degradation were less than 10,000 mg/L glyphosate, with a temperature of 35C and a pH of 8.0. Optimal fermentation occurred at 180 rpm for 60 h with an inoculum ratio of 4%. Bs-15 degraded 17.65% (12 h) to 66.97% (96 h) of glyphosate in sterile soil and 19.01% (12 h) to 71.57% (96 h) in unsterilized soil. Using a BIOLOG ECO plate test, we observed no significant difference in average well color development values between the soil inoculated with Bs-15 and the control soil before 72 h, although there was a significant difference (P glyphosate-containing herbicides, increasing the microbial functional diversity in glyphosate-contaminated soils and thus enhancing the bioremediation of glyphosate-contaminated soils. PMID:26600533

  1. No fitness cost of glyphosate resistance endowed by massive EPSPS gene amplification in Amaranthus palmeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila-Aiub, Martin M; Goh, Sou S; Gaines, Todd A; Han, Heping; Busi, Roberto; Yu, Qin; Powles, Stephen B

    2014-04-01

    Amplification of the EPSPS gene has been previously identified as the glyphosate resistance mechanism in many populations of Amaranthus palmeri, a major weed pest in US agriculture. Here, we evaluate the effects of EPSPS gene amplification on both the level of glyphosate resistance and fitness cost of resistance. A. palmeri individuals resistant to glyphosate by expressing a wide range of EPSPS gene copy numbers were evaluated under competitive conditions in the presence or absence of glyphosate. Survival rates to glyphosate and fitness traits of plants under intra-specific competition were assessed. Plants with higher amplification of the EPSPS gene (53-fold) showed high levels of glyphosate resistance, whereas less amplification of the EPSPS gene (21-fold) endowed a lower level of glyphosate resistance. Without glyphosate but under competitive conditions, plants exhibiting up to 76-fold EPSPS gene amplification exhibited similar height, and biomass allocation to vegetative and reproductive organs, compared to glyphosate susceptible A. palmeri plants with no amplification of the EPSPS gene. Both the additive effects of EPSPS gene amplification on the level of glyphosate resistance and the lack of associated fitness costs are key factors contributing to EPSPS gene amplification as a widespread and important glyphosate resistance mechanism likely to become much more evident in weed plant species. PMID:24385093

  2. Leaching of Glyphosate and Aminomethylphosphonic Acid from an Agricultural Field over a Twelve-Year Period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norgaard, Trine; Moldrup, Per

    2014-01-01

    The globally-used herbicide glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) and its most frequently detected metabolite, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), were studied in a unique 12-year field-scale monitoring program. The leaching of glyphosate, AMPA, and soil particles were studied in a shallow drainage system beneath a 1.26 ha field. Five annual glyphosate applications were applied with different autumn application dates. Solute mass flux from the drain system following the five glyphosate applications were compared to determine how different factors affect the leaching of glyphosate, AMPA, and particles. Glyphosate and AMPA leaching were highly event driven, controlled by the time and intensity of the first precipitation event after glyphosate application. A high similarity in time-accumulated curves for drainage and leached pesticide masses suggests near-constant drainage and leaching rates for approximately 150 days. There was no clear relationship between particle-facilitated transport and the transport of glyphosate or AMPA. However, soil particles, glyphosate, and AMPA, all showed distinct, simultaneous concentration curves, indicating common dominant transport mechanisms. Also, soil- water content at the time of application and the level of the groundwater table relative to the drain depth was essential for whether solutes were detected in the drainage runoff. We present a leaching risk chart to illustrate the dependence of glyphosate, AMPA, and soil particle leaching based on precipitation intensity and the timing of rain events after glyphosate application.

  3. Glyphosate translocation in hairy fleabane (Conyza bonariensis) biotypes / Translocao do glyphosate em bitipos de buva (Conyza bonariensis)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E.A., Ferreira; L., Galon; I., Aspiaz; A.A., Silva; G., Conceno; A.F., Silva; J.A., Oliveira; L., Vargas.

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a translocao do glyphosate em plantas de C. bonariensis resistentes e suscetveis a esse herbicida. Para isso aplicou-se o 14C-glyphosate em mistura com glyphosate comercial (800 g ha-1) sobre o centro da face adaxial da folha do terceiro n, utilizando-se um [...] a microsseringa, adicionando-se 10 L da calda com atividade especfica de 1.400 Bq, aos 45 dias aps a emergncia da buva. A concentrao de glyphosate translocado na planta foi avaliada em intervalos de tempo de 6, 12, 36 e 72 horas aps a aplicao, na folha de aplicao, no caule, nas razes e nas folhas. Dez horas aps a aplicao dos tratamentos (HAT) avaliou-se tambm a distribuio do produto na folha de aplicao, dividida em base, centro e pice. As avaliaes foram realizadas por meio da medio da radiao emitida pelo 14C-glyphosate, em espectrmetro de cintilao lquida. Maior reteno de glyphosate foi observada na folha tratada do bitipo resistente, aproximadamente 90 % do total absorvido at as 72 horas. No bitipo suscetvel esse valor foi de cerca de 70 % no mesmo perodo. Nas folhas, no caule e nas razes, a maior concentrao do glyphosate absorvido foi encontrada no bitipo suscetvel, indicando maior eficincia de translocao neste bitipo. No bitipo resistente o herbicida se acumulou em maior quantidade no pice e no centro da folha de aplicao e no suscetvel observou-se maior acmulo na base e no centro da mesma folha. Desta forma, pode-se afirmar que o mecanismo de resistncia est relacionado translocao diferencial deste herbicida nos bitipos. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the translocation of glyphosate in C. bonariensis plants resistant and susceptible to that herbicide. The 14C-glyphosate was mixed with commercial gyhphosate (800 g ha-1) and applied on the center of the adaxial face of a third node leaf, using a micro syri [...] nge, and adding 10 L of a solution with specific activity of 1,400 Bq, 45 days after plant emergence. The concentration of the glyphosate translocated in the plant was evaluated at time intervals of 6, 12, 36 and 72 hours after being applied on the application leaf, stem, roots and leaves. Ten hours after treatment application, the distribution of the product in the application leaf, divided into base, center and apex, was also evaluated by measuring the radiation emitted by 14C-glyphosate in a liquid scintillation spectrometer. Greater glyphosate retention was observed in the resistant biotype leaf, approximately 90% of the total absorbed up to 72 hours. In the susceptible biotype, this value was close to 70% in the same period. Susceptible biotype leaves, stem and roots showed greater concentration of glyphosate, indicating greater translocation efficiency in this biotype. In the resistant biotype, the herbicide accumulated in greater quantity at the apex and center of the application leaf, while in the susceptible biotype greater accumulation was observed at the base and center leaf. Thus, it can be stated that the resistance mechanism is related to the differential translocation of this herbicide in the biotypes.

  4. Deriva simulada do glyphosate em cultivares de caf Acai e Catuca / Simulated glyphosate drift on Acai and Catuca coffee cultivars

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.C., Frana; F.P., Carvalho; C.M.T., Fialho; L., D' Antonino; A.A., Silva; J.B., Santos; L.R., Ferreira.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar os efeitos da deriva simulada de glyphosate sobre o crescimento inicial de dois cultivares de caf de crescimento distinto. Utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos casualizados com quatro repeties, sendo os tratamentos distribudos em esquema fatorial 2x5. No pri [...] meiro fator foram alocados os cultivares e, no segundo, as subdoses do glyphosate (0, 57,6; 115,2; 230,4; e 460,8 g ha-1). No dia da aplicao e tambm aos 45 e 120 dias aps aplicao (DAA), avaliaram-se a altura, a rea foliar, o dimetro do caule, o nmero de ramos plagiotrpicos e de folhas; aos 10, 45 e 120 DAA foram avaliados os sintomas de intoxicao nas plantas e, aos 120 DAA, o acmulo de massa seca de caule, folhas e razes. Os sintomas de intoxicao nas plantas de caf causados pelo glyphosate foram caracterizados por clorose e estreitamento do limbo foliar nos dois cultivares estudados. Todavia, sintomas mais severos foram verificados no cultivar Acai a partir de 10 DAA, como necrose de folhas mais novas da parte mediana da planta. Conclui-se que o cultivar Acai menos tolerante ao glyphosate, quando comparado ao Catuca, pois apresentou menor crescimento que o Catuca quando submetidos ao tratamento com o herbicida, ou seja, pode ocorrer tolerncia diferencial entre cultivares de crescimento distinto. Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate the effects of simulated glyphosate drift on the growth of two cultivars with distinct growing patterns. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design, with four repetitions, and the treatments were distributed in a factorial scheme 2x5, with two cultivars in [...] the first factor and the glyphosate subdoses (0, 57.6; 115.2; 230.4 and 460.8 g ha?1) in the second factor. On the day glyphosate was applied and at 45 and 120 days after application (DAA), height, leaf area, stem diameter, and number of plagiotropic branches and leaves were evaluated; at 10, 45 and 120 DAA, plant intoxication symptoms were visually evaluated and at 120 DAA, dry mass accumulation of the stem, leaves, and roots was evaluated. The intoxication symptoms of the coffee plants caused by glyphosate were characterized by chlorosis and leaf narrowing in the two cultivars studied. However, more severe symptoms were verified in the Acai cultivars from 10 DAA on, such as necrosis of younger leaves in the median part of the plant. It was concluded that Acai cultivar is less tolerant to glyphosate than Catuca cultivar, since it showed lower growth when submitted to herbicide treatment, i.e., tolerance can vary between cultivars with distinct growing patterns.

  5. Resposta de bitipos de Euphorbia heterophylla a doses de glyphosate / Response of Euphorbia heterophylla biotypes to glyphosate rates

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L, Vargas; M.A, Nohatto; D, Agostinetto; M.A, Bianchi; E.M, Gonalves; R.E, Toledo.

    Full Text Available A leiteira (Euphorbia heterophylla) uma planta daninha de ciclo anual encontrada com frequncia em lavouras de soja na regio Sul do Brasil, controlada em lavouras de soja geneticamente modificada (Roundup Ready - RR) com uso do herbicida glyphosate. Entretanto, nos ltimos anos, o controle dessa [...] espcie no tem sido satisfatrio em alguns locais, provocando a suspeita de que foram selecionados bitipos resistentes ao herbicida. Diante disso, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, por meio de curvas de dose-resposta, bitipos de leiteira com suspeita de resistncia ao glyphosate. O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetao, em delineamento experimental completamente casualizado, com quatro repeties. Os tratamentos constituram-se de doses crescentes de glyphosate (0, 90, 180, 360, 720, 1.080, 1.440 e 2.160 g e.a. ha-1), aplicadas sobre cinco bitipos de leiteira, oriundos de lavouras de soja RR do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. As variveis avaliadas foram controle e matria seca da parte area. Os resultados evidenciam que os bitipos de leiteira avaliados so suscetveis ao glyphosate. Abstract in english Wild poinsettia is an annual cycle weed, commonly found in soybean crop in southern Brazil. It is controlled by glyphosate in genetically- modified soybean (Roundup Ready - RR). The control of this species has not proven to be satisfactory in some places in the last years, leading to the suspicion [...] that biotypes resistant to glyphosate have been selected. The objective this work was to evaluate, by response-dose curve, wild poinsettia biotypes with suspected resistance to glyphosate. The experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions and the experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design, with four replications. The treatments consisted of increased application rates of glyphosate (0, 90, 180, 360, 720, 1,080, 1,440 and 2,160 g a.e. ha-1) on five wild poinsettia biotypes, from crop soybean RR in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Control and dry weight were evaluated. The results indicated that the wild poinsettia biotypes are susceptible to glyphosate.

  6. Caractersticas da epiderme foliar de eucalipto e seu envolvimento com a tolerncia ao glyphosate Characteristics of eucalypt leaf epidermis and its role in glyphosate tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Tuffi Santos, L.D.; L. Iarema; M. Thadeo; F.A Ferreira; R.M.S.A. Meira

    2006-01-01

    Em reas de reflorestamento, a deriva do glyphosate causa injrias nas plantas de eucalipto. Trabalhos preliminares de pesquisa e observaes de campo apontam para uma tolerncia diferencial ao glyphosate entre os gentipos cultivados. Nesse contexto, objetivou-se estudar as estruturas anatmicas da epiderme foliar de cinco espcies de eucalipto, correlacionando com a tolerncia ao glyphosate em deriva simulada. Utilizou-se o esquema fatorial, sendo cinco espcies (Eucalyptus urophylla, E. gr...

  7. Buva (Conyza bonariensis) resistente ao glyphosate na regio sul do Brasil Conyza bonariensis biotypes resistant to the glyphosate in southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    L. VARGAS; M.A Bianchi; M.A Rizzardi; D Agostinetto; T Dal magro

    2007-01-01

    O glyphosate um herbicida no-seletivo utilizado para controlar plantas daninhas h mais de 20 anos no Rio Grande do Sul. A buva (Conyza bonariensis) uma espcie daninha comum nos Estados da regio Sul do Brasil e tradicionalmente controlada com uso de glyphosate. Entretanto, nos ltimos anos plantas de buva tm apresentado poucos sintomas de toxicidade em resposta ao tratamento com glyphosate, sugerindo que estas plantas so resistentes ao herbicida. Assim, com o objetivo de avaliar a re...

  8. Effects of glyphosate and endosulfan on soil microorganisms in soybean crop Efeitos do endosulfan e glyphosate sobre microrganismos do solo na cultura da soja

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, J.L.; M.C. Picano; Silva, A. A.; E.A Santos; H.V.V. Tom; J.B. Olarte

    2008-01-01

    Transgenic soybean, resistant to glyphosate, is the most dominant transgenic crop grown commercially in the world. Research works on herbicide and insecticide mixtures and their effects on microorganisms are rarely reported. This work aimed to study the impact of glyphosate, endosulfan and their mixtures on the microbial soil activity in soybean crop. The experiment was carried out in a complete randomized block design with four treatments and five replications. The treatments were glyphosate...

  9. Micromorfologia foliar na anlise da fitotoxidez por glyphosate em Eucalyptus grandis Leaf micromorphology in the analysis of glyphosate toxicity in Eucalyptus grandis

    OpenAIRE

    Tuffi Santos, L.D.; B.F Sant'anna-Santos; R.M.S.A. Meira; Ferreira, F.A.; R.A.S.T. Tiburcio; E.C.F. Silva

    2009-01-01

    Foram avaliados os efeitos da deriva de formulaes comerciais de glyphosate sobre a superfcie foliar e o crescimento de clones de eucalipto. Mudas de seis clones foram submetidas a 129,6 g ha-1 de glyphosate das formulaes comerciais Scout, Roundup NA, Roundup transorb e Zapp QI. Entre os clones no foram identificadas diferenas quanto tolerncia ao glyphosate. Plantas expostas deriva simulada de Roundup transorb e Zapp QI apresentaram, respectivamente, a maior e menor porcentag...

  10. Glyphosate, pathways to modern diseases III: Manganese, neurological diseases, and associated pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Samsel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Manganese (Mn is an often overlooked but important nutrient, required in small amounts for multiple essential functions in the body. A recent study on cows fed genetically modified Roundup ® -Ready feed revealed a severe depletion of serum Mn. Glyphosate, the active ingredient in Roundup ® , has also been shown to severely deplete Mn levels in plants. Here, we investigate the impact of Mn on physiology, and its association with gut dysbiosis as well as neuropathologies such as autism, Alzheimer′s disease (AD, depression, anxiety syndrome, Parkinson′s disease (PD, and prion diseases. Glutamate overexpression in the brain in association with autism, AD, and other neurological diseases can be explained by Mn deficiency. Mn superoxide dismutase protects mitochondria from oxidative damage, and mitochondrial dysfunction is a key feature of autism and Alzheimer′s. Chondroitin sulfate synthesis depends on Mn, and its deficiency leads to osteoporosis and osteomalacia. Lactobacillus, depleted in autism, depend critically on Mn for antioxidant protection. Lactobacillus probiotics can treat anxiety, which is a comorbidity of autism and chronic fatigue syndrome. Reduced gut Lactobacillus leads to overgrowth of the pathogen, Salmonella, which is resistant to glyphosate toxicity, and Mn plays a role here as well. Sperm motility depends on Mn, and this may partially explain increased rates of infertility and birth defects. We further reason that, under conditions of adequate Mn in the diet, glyphosate, through its disruption of bile acid homeostasis, ironically promotes toxic accumulation of Mn in the brainstem, leading to conditions such as PD and prion diseases.

  11. A low energy ion sensor for space measurements with reduced photo-sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A low energy ion detector designed to reduce the contribution of photoelectrons to the measured sensor current is described. The ion collector is shielded from direct solar illumination and the internal configuration accelerates the incoming ions onto this collector. Satellite measurements show that the photocurrent to ion current ratio is reduced by a factor of four with this new configuration. Results from the new sensor are compared with simultaneous measurements using a planar electrostatic analyzer on the same satellite. (Auth.)

  12. Skeletal troponin C reduces contractile sensitivity to acidosis in cardiac myocytes from transgenic mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Metzger, J. M.; Parmacek, M S; Barr, E.; Pasyk, K; Lin, W I; Cochrane, K L; Field, L J; Leiden, J M

    1993-01-01

    Depressed contractile function plays a primary role in the pathophysiology of acute myocardial ischemia. Intracellular acidification is an important factor underlying the inhibition of force production in the ischemic myocardium. The effect of acidosis to depress contractility is markedly greater in cardiac as compared to skeletal muscle; however, the molecular basis of this difference in sensitivity to acidosis is not clearly understood. In this report, we describe transgenic mice that expre...

  13. Reduced baroreflex sensitivity in alcoholic cirrhosis: relations to hemodynamics and humoral systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mller, Sren; Iversen, Jens S; Henriksen, Jens H; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2007-01-01

    In cirrhosis, arterial vasodilatation leads to central hypovolemia and activation of the sympathetic nervous and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone systems. As the liver disease and circulatory dysfunction may affect baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), we assessed BRS in a large group of patients with cirrhosis and in controls who were all supine and some after 60 degrees passive head-up and 30 degrees head-down tilting in relation to central hemodynamics and activity of the sympathetic nervous and renin-a...

  14. Effect of reducing groundwater on the retardation of redox-sensitive radionuclides

    OpenAIRE

    Rose TP; Zavarin M; Hu QH

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Laboratory batch sorption experiments were used to investigate variations in the retardation behavior of redox-sensitive radionuclides. Water-rock compositions were designed to simulate subsurface conditions at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), where a suite of radionuclides were deposited as a result of underground nuclear testing. Experimental redox conditions were controlled by varying the oxygen content inside an enclosed glove box and by adding reductants into the testing solutions. U...

  15. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia associated with glyphosate-surfactant exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Raadt, Wanda M; Wijnen, Petal A; Bast, Aalt; Bekers, Otto; Drent, Marjolein

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a female patient who developed acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP) after recent onset of smoking and exposure to glyphosate-surfactant.The additional exposure associated with the recent start of smoking may have contributed to the development and/or severity of AEP.A clinical relapse after re-challenge four years later both with smoking and glyphosate-surfactant made the association highly likely.Respiratory distress is a factor of poor outcome and mortality after ingestion of glyphosate-surfactant.This case highlights the importance of a thorough exposure history e.g., possible occupational and environmental exposures together with drug-intake.Genotyping should be considered in cases of severe unexplained pulmonary damage. PMID:26278698

  16. Evaluation of glyphosate and paraquat in management of Brachiaria ruziziensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neumarcio Vilanova Costa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of doses of paraquat and glyphosate on desiccation Brachiaria ruziziensis. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four replications. The rates glyphosate were 0, 90, 180, 360, 720 and 1440 g ha-1 and paraquat were 0, 50, 100, 200, 400 and 800 g ha-1. Based on the results obtained it can be concluded that paraquat was ineffective in desiccation B. ruziziensis and the glyphosate was only effective at rates of 720 and 1440g ha-1. There was no issuance of new tillers after desiccation of forage plants to allow practical use for management in crop-livestock system.

  17. Vitamin D Supplementation Reduces Induction of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Allergen Sensitized and Challenged Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Kimberly D.; Hall, Sannette C.; Agrawal, Devendra K.

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic disease of the lung associated with airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), airway obstruction and airway remodeling. Airway remodeling involves differentiation of airway epithelial cells into myofibroblasts via epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) to intensify the degree of subepithelial fibrosis. EMT involves loss in E-cadherin with an increase in mesenchymal markers, including vimentin and N-cadherin. There is growing evidence that vitamin D has immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of these effects are still unclear. In this study, we examined the contribution of vitamin D on the AHR, airway inflammation and expression of EMT markers in the airways of mice sensitized and challenged with a combination of clinically relevant allergens, house dust mite, ragweed, and Alternaria (HRA). Female Balb/c mice were fed with vitamin D-sufficient (2000 IU/kg) or vitamin D-supplemented (10,000 IU/kg) diet followed by sensitization with HRA. The density of inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), lung histology, and expression of EMT markers by immunofluorescence were examined. Vitamin D-supplementation decreased AHR, airway inflammation in the BALF and the features of airway remodeling compared to vitamin D-sufficiency in HRA-sensitized and -challenged mice. This was accompanied with increased expression of E-cadherin and decreased vimentin and N-cadherin expression in the airways. These results indicate that vitamin D may be a beneficial adjunct in the treatment regime in allergic asthma. PMID:26872336

  18. Vitamin D Supplementation Reduces Induction of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Allergen Sensitized and Challenged Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Kimberly D; Hall, Sannette C; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic disease of the lung associated with airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), airway obstruction and airway remodeling. Airway remodeling involves differentiation of airway epithelial cells into myofibroblasts via epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) to intensify the degree of subepithelial fibrosis. EMT involves loss in E-cadherin with an increase in mesenchymal markers, including vimentin and N-cadherin. There is growing evidence that vitamin D has immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of these effects are still unclear. In this study, we examined the contribution of vitamin D on the AHR, airway inflammation and expression of EMT markers in the airways of mice sensitized and challenged with a combination of clinically relevant allergens, house dust mite, ragweed, and Alternaria (HRA). Female Balb/c mice were fed with vitamin D-sufficient (2000 IU/kg) or vitamin D-supplemented (10,000 IU/kg) diet followed by sensitization with HRA. The density of inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), lung histology, and expression of EMT markers by immunofluorescence were examined. Vitamin D-supplementation decreased AHR, airway inflammation in the BALF and the features of airway remodeling compared to vitamin D-sufficiency in HRA-sensitized and -challenged mice. This was accompanied with increased expression of E-cadherin and decreased vimentin and N-cadherin expression in the airways. These results indicate that vitamin D may be a beneficial adjunct in the treatment regime in allergic asthma. PMID:26872336

  19. Potential for drifting of mix 2,4-D + glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Gandolfo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of the mixture of glyphosate with 2,4-d took on great importance with high adoption of no-tillage system in the early 90s, and with the constant reports of weed biotypes resistant to glyphosate. However, studies on the drift of this mixture are still scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential drift of these herbicides, with or without the adjuvant, applied in wind tunnel. The experimental design was completely randomized considered, arranged in a factorial design 5 x 3, with four replications, and five tails and three collection distances (5, 10 and 15 meters. The spray tested were: glyphosate, 2,4-D, 2,4-D+glyphosate, glyphosate+2,4-D+adjuvant, and a control in which water was applied. The collection points were installed at 5, 10 and 15 meters and in this points each 20 cm of height in relation of tunnel ground until 1,0 m of height. The application of the products took place in a wind tunnel with 20 m length and cross-sectional 4 m2 with speed wind of 2.0 m s-1,. The mean values obtained in the samples were subjected to analysis of variance, and their means were compared by Tukey test at 5% probability. It was observed that herbicide application associated produces more drift than when applied alone mainly to 5 and 10 meters of distance to sprayer boom. The drift of each herbicide applied alone did not differ. When added to the adjuvant mixture glyphosate plus 2,4-D, there was a 23% reduction in drift at 5 m and 6 m to 10%.

  20. Glyphosate tolerant volunteer corn control at two development stages / Controle do milho voluntrio tolerante ao glyphosate em dois estdios de desenvolvimento

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    N.V., Costa; L.H.S., Zobiole; C.A., Scariot; G.R., Pereira; G., Moratelli.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Os gros perdidos na colheita de culturas tolerantes ao glyphosate podem originar plantas voluntrias que apresentam restries ao manejo de dessecao no sistema de plantio direto, bem como causar interferncia na cultura sucessora transgnica ou convencional. Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar o [...] controle do milho voluntrio tolerante ao glyphosate em dois estdios de desenvolvimento. Dois experimentos foram conduzidos: um para o controle no estdio V5 e outro para o controle no estdio V8 do milho hibrido triplo 2B688 HR (tolerante a lepidpteros e ao glyphosate). Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos casualizados com quatro repeties. Os tratamentos avaliados foram: haloxyfop (25 g ha-1), haloxyfop (50 g ha-1), haloxyfop (62 g ha-1), haloxyfop + 2,4-D (25 + 670gha-1), haloxyfop + 2,4-D (50 + 670gha-1), haloxyfop + 2,4-D (62 + 670gha-1), haloxyfop + fluroxypyr (25 + 200gha-1), haloxyfop + fluroxypyr (50 + 200gha-1), haloxyfop + fluroxypyr (62 + 200gha-1), clethodim (84gha-1), clethodim + 2,4-D (84 + 670gha-1), clethodim + fluroxypyr (84 + 200 g ha-1) e uma testemunha sem aplicao. As aplicaes no estdio V5 do haloxyfop e do clethodim isolados ou em mistura com 2,4-D e com fluroxypyr apresentaram controle mximo (100%) entre 32 e 39 dias aps a aplicao, com exceo da mistura haloxyfop +2,4-D (25 + 670 g ha-1) que no promoveu controle satisfatrio. Para o estdio V8, as misturas haloxyfop +2,4-D (50+670gha-1) e haloxyfop +2,4-D (62+670gha-1) demoraram at 6 e 10 dias a mais para atingirem controle satisfatrio a excelente, quando comparados com as aplicaes isoladas do haloxyfop nas mesmas doses, respectivamente. O clethodim aplicado isolado e em mistura com 2,4-D e com fluroxypyr no apresentou controle satisfatrio. Concluiu-se que os herbicidas mostraram controle eficiente em aplicaes no estdio V5 das plantas do milho voluntrio transgnico, com exceo da mistura haloxyfop + 2,4-D (25 + 670gha-1). Para as aplicaes no estdio V8, o haloxyfop isolado e em mistura com fluroxypyr foi o que demonstrou controle excelente em todas as doses avaliadas. A mistura com 2,4-D pode reduzir a eficincia do haloxyfop em baixas doses. O clethodim isolado e em mistura com o 2,4-D ou com fluroxypyr no foi eficiente. Abstract in english The loss of grains during the harvest of glyphosate tolerant corn may generate volunteer plants, which can interfere in the conventional or glyphosate crop in succession. The current work aim to evaluate the control of the volunteer corn glyphosate tolerant under two weed stages. Aimed to evaluate t [...] he control of volunteer glyphosate tolerant corn in two stages of development. There were conducted two experiments with hybrid 2B688 HR (lepidoptera and glyphosate tolerant), the application were at V5 and V8 stage. The experiment was randomized block design with four replicates, using the treatments: haloxyfop at 25, 50 and 62 g ha-1 alone and associated with 2,4-D at 670 g ha-1 or fluroxypyr at 200 g ha-1. The standard was clethodim at 84 g ha-1 with 2,4-D and fluroxypyr at same rates. The applications of haloxyfop and clethodim both isolated or in a mixture with 2,4-D and fluroxypyr at V5 stage showed total control (100%) at 32 and 39 days after the application, except for haloxyfop + 2,4-D (25 + 670 g ha-1) mixture, which did not provided adequate control. At V8 stage, haloxyfop + 2,4-D (50 + 670 g ha-1) and haloxyfop + 2,4-D (62 + 670 g ha-1) mixtures took up to 6 and 10 days or longer to reach adequate to excellent control, when compared to haloxyfop isolated applications in the same doses, respectively. Either isolated clethodim or mixed with 2, 4-D and fluroxypyr did not show adequate control. The treatments showed efficient control on volunteer corn plants at V5 stage, except for haloxyfop + 2, 4-D (25 + 670 g ha-1) mixture. At V8 stage applications, haloxyfop either isolated or mixture with fluroxypyr demonstrated excellent control on every evaluated dose. The mixture with 2, 4-D can reduce haloxyfop effic

  1. Chemical control of different Digitaria insularis populations and management of a glyphosate-resistant population / Controle qumico de diferentes populaes de Digitaria insularis e manejo de uma populao resistente ao glyphosate

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    N.M., CORREIA; L.T., ACRA; G., BALIEIRO.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho estudar o controle de diferentes populaes de Digitaria insularis pelo herbicida glyphosate, isolado e em mistura, alm da combinao de mtodos (qumico e mecnico) no manejo de plantas adultas resistentes. Trs experimentos foram desenvolvidos: um em vasos mantidos em [...] condio ambiente e dois em condio de campo. No experimento em vasos, 12 populaes de D. insularis foram pulverizadas com glyphosate isolado (1,44 e 2,16 kg e.a. ha-1) e em mistura (1,44 e 2,16 kg e.a. ha-1) com quizalofop-p-tefuryl (0,12 kg i.a. ha-1). O tratamento de 1,44 kg e.a. ha-1 de glyphosate mais 0,12 kg i.a. ha-1 de quizalofop foi suficiente para o controle adequado (>95%) de todas as populaes. A populao 11 (rea de produo de gros em Itumbiara - GO) foi considerada sensvel ao glyphosate, e as demais, medianamente sensveis ou tolerantes ao herbicida. Em campo, as plantas de D. insularis de um dos experimentos foram roadas e, no outro, no. Oito tratamentos com herbicidas [glyphosate isolado (1,44 e 2,16 kg e.a. ha-1) e em mistura (1,44 e 2,16 kg e.a. ha-1) com quizalofop-p-tefuryl a 0,12 kg i.a. ha-1, clethodim a 0,108 kg i.a. ha-1 ou nicosulfuron a 0,06 kg i.a. ha-1] foram avaliados, combinados com ou sem a aplicao sequencial de tratamento padro, pulverizado 15 dias aps a primeira a aplicao. A combinao do controle mecnico com a aplicao de glyphosate (2,16 e 1,44 kg e.a. ha-1) mais quizalofop-p-tefuryl (0,12 kg i.a. ha-1) ou clethodim (0,108 kg i.a. ha-1), associados aplicao sequencial, foi a estratgia mais eficaz para o manejo de plantas adultas de D. insularis resistentes. Abstract in english This study aimed to control different populations of Digitaria insularis by glyphosate herbicide, isolated and mixed, besides the combination of methods (chemical and mechanical) to manage resistant adult plants. Three experiments were conducted, one in pots which were maintained under non-controlle [...] d conditions and two under field conditions. In the experiment in pots, twelve populations of D. insularis were sprayed with isolated glyphosate (1.44 and 2.16 kg a.e. ha-1) and mixed (1.44 and 2.16 kg a.e. ha-1) with quizalofop-p tefuryl (0.12 kg i.a. ha-1). The treatment of 1.44 kg a.e. ha-1 of glyphosate plus 0.12 kg a.i. ha-1 of quizalofop was sufficient for adequate control (>95%) of all populations. Population 11 (area of grain production in Itumbiara, GO) was considered sensitive to glyphosate. Others populations were moderately sensitive or tolerant to the herbicide. In the field, the plants of D. insularis of one of the experiments were mowed and, in the other, there were not. Eight treatments with herbicides [isolated glyphosate (1.44 and 2.16 kg a.e. ha-1) and mixed (1.44 and 2.16 kg a.e. ha-1) with quizalofop-p-tefuryl at 0.12 kg a.i. ha-1), clethodim at 0.108 kg a.i. ha-1) or nicosulfuron at 0.06 kg a.i. ha-1)] were assessed, in combination with or without sequential application of the standard treatment, sprayed 15 days after the first application. The combination of the mechanic control with the application of glyphosate (2.16 and 1.44 kg a.e. ha-1) plus quizalofop-p-tefuryl (0.12 kg a.i. ha-1) or clethodim (0.108 kg a.i. ha-1), associated to the sequential application, was the most effective strategy for the management of adult plants of resistant D. insularis.

  2. Resistencia a herbicidas: Glifosato / Resistance to Herbicides: Glyphosate

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andrea, Villalba.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una revisin actualizada de los mecanismos generadores de resistencia a herbicidas, en plantas, y los factores que favorecen su desarrollo. Se renen las especies que actualmente han sido denunciadas como resistentes a glifosato, en Argentina y el mundo. Se explica el mecanismo de accin [...] y de desarrollo de resistencia de este xenobitico, poniendo nfasis en las conductas preventivas. Abstract in english This paper presents a revision of resistance to herbicides mechanisms and factors of those developments in plants. Glyphosate resistent plants in Argentina and the world are considered. Mechanisms of action and development of glyphosate resistance and preventive behaviors are proposed. [...

  3. Placental restriction of fetal growth reduces cutaneous responses to antigen after sensitization in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooldridge, Amy L; Bischof, Robert J; Meeusen, Els N; Liu, Hong; Heinemann, Gary K; Hunter, Damien S; Giles, Lynne C; Kind, Karen L; Owens, Julie A; Clifton, Vicki L; Gatford, Kathryn L

    2014-04-01

    Prenatal and early childhood exposures are implicated as causes of allergy, but the effects of intrauterine growth restriction on immune function and allergy are poorly defined. We therefore evaluated effects of experimental restriction of fetal growth on immune function and allergic sensitization in adolescent sheep. Immune function (circulating total red and white blood cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils, and the antibody response to Clostridial vaccination) and responses to house dust mite (HDM) allergen and ovalbumin (OVA) antigen sensitization (specific total Ig, IgG1, and IgE antibodies, and cutaneous hypersensitivity) were investigated in adolescent sheep from placentally restricted (PR, n = 23) and control (n = 40) pregnancies. Increases in circulating HDM-specific IgE (P = 0.007) and OVA-specific IgE (P = 0.038) were greater in PR than control progeny. PR did not alter total Ig, IgG1, or IgM responses to either antigen. PR increased OVA-specific but not HDM-specific IgA responses in females only (P = 0.023). Multiple birth increased Ig responses to OVA in a sex-specific manner. PR decreased the proportion of positive cutaneous hypersensitivity responders to OVA at 24 h (P = 0.030) but had no effect on cutaneous responses to HDM. Acute wheal responses to intradermal histamine correlated positively with birth weight in singletons (P = 0.023). Intrauterine growth restriction may suppress inflammatory responses in skin downstream of IgE induction, without impairment in antibody responses to a nonpolysaccharide vaccine. Discord between cutaneous and IgE responses following sensitization suggests new mechanisms for prenatal allergy programming. PMID:24500430

  4. Tracing the origin and mobilization of Glyphosate and AMPA in a vineyard catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassmann, Matthias; Olsson, Oliver; Payraudeau, Sylvain; Imfeld, Gwenal; Kmmerer, Klaus

    2014-05-01

    Pesticides residues are often found in storm-water runoff in agricultural areas. There are several pathways along which pesticides may be transported from their application point towards the river. Although the primary target of pesticide application is the agricultural area, wind drift transports pesticide droplets to non-target areas. Furthermore, miss-operation of application machines results in the deposition of pesticides at filter strips or roads from where they can be washed off. Therefore, it may be difficult to identify the origin of pesticides in storm-water runoff. However, management of water quality requires that critical source areas are clearly delineated in order to effectively reduce water pollution. In the Rouffach catchment, a 42.7 ha vineyard catchment in France, Glyphosate and its transformation product AMPA occurred frequently and in high concentrations in runoff water during rainfall-runoff events in 2008. In order to identify the source areas of Glyphosate residue pollution and its mobilization, we used here a combination of sampling data analysis techniques and distributed pollutant transfer modelling. Available sampling data allowed for an analysis by Normalized Cumulative Loads (NCL) at a high temporal resolution (10 min). The results imply that pollutant mobilization took place mainly at the beginning of an event. This First Flush suggests a wash off of substances from impervious surfaces such as roads. This assumption was confirmed by local hydrological knowledge about infiltration rates in the vineyard, which were not exceeded by rainfall intensities in most considered events. Additionally, the distributed process-based reactive transport model ZIN-AgriTra was used as a learning tool to evaluate the pesticide mobilization and export processes. The hydrological model was successfully calibrated and validated for long high-resolution time series of discharge data. Pesticide export modelling focused on the first rainfall-runoff event following the first significant Glyphosate application in 2008. Assuming only target Glyphosate application, hardly any export of Ghyphosate and AMPA occurred. Therefore, non-target application at adjacent roads was introduced into the model. By assuming different mobilization processes of substances on the roads, our results show that storage of sorbed pesticides (e.g. road sides, unpaved roads) and storage without sorption (e.g. plant surface, paved roads) significantly contributed to the total pesticide residue export. Concluding, it is likely that the major part of pesticides in runoff of the Rouffach catchment originates from the roads rather than from the vine growing areas and that the mobilization process is a combination of both sorptive and non-sorptive substance storage. Thus, avoiding non-target pesticide application could largely help to mitigate water contamination in this catchment.

  5. Low-Temperature Thermally Reduced Molybdenum Disulfide as a Pt-Free Counter Electrode for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Che-Hsien; Tsai, Chuen-Horng; Tseng, Fan-Gang; Yu, Yang-Yen; Wu, Hsuan-Chung; Hsieh, Chien-Kuo

    2015-01-01

    A two-dimensional nanostructure of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) thin film exposed layered nanosheet was prepared by a low-temperature thermally reduced (TR) method on a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate as a platinum (Pt)-free and highly electrocatalytic counter electrode (CE) for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) results show that the MoS2 sulfidization temperature was approximately 300C. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), high-resolution...

  6. Photodegradation of glyphosate in the ferrioxalate system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The photoinduced degradation of glyphosate (GLP) in the ferrioxalate system was investigated under irradiation with a 250 W metal halide lamp (λ ≥ 365 nm). The efficiency of orthophosphates release, representing the photodegradation efficiency of GLP, increased with decreasing the initial concentrations of GLP and Fe(III)/oxalate ratios. At acidic pH value in the range of 3.5-5.0, higher efficiency of orthophosphates release up to 60.6% was achieved, while the efficiency dropped to 42.1% at pH 6.0. The photochemical process mainly involved the predominant species of iron(III), namely Fe(C2O4)2- and Fe(C2O4)33-, which lead to the formation of hydroxyl radicals in the presence of dissolved oxygen under UV-vis irradiation. Also, the complexation of GLP with Fe(III) obviously increased the light absorption of GLP and facilitated its degradation by direct photolysis. The ninhydrin test for primary amines showed that the GLP was attacked by hydroxyl radicals with C-N cleavage to yield aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) and C-P cleavage to yield sarcosine. The photodegradation may be enhanced by the decomposition of reactive radicals produced through ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT) of ferric-GLP complexes

  7. Photodegradation of glyphosate in the ferrioxalate system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Yong [School of Resources and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Wu Feng [School of Resources and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079 (China)], E-mail: fengwu@whu.edu.cn; Lin Yixin; Deng Nansheng [School of Resources and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Bazhin, Nikolai; Glebov, Evgeni [Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion, 3 Institutskaya St., Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2007-09-05

    The photoinduced degradation of glyphosate (GLP) in the ferrioxalate system was investigated under irradiation with a 250 W metal halide lamp ({lambda} {>=} 365 nm). The efficiency of orthophosphates release, representing the photodegradation efficiency of GLP, increased with decreasing the initial concentrations of GLP and Fe(III)/oxalate ratios. At acidic pH value in the range of 3.5-5.0, higher efficiency of orthophosphates release up to 60.6% was achieved, while the efficiency dropped to 42.1% at pH 6.0. The photochemical process mainly involved the predominant species of iron(III), namely Fe(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2}{sup -} and Fe(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}{sup 3-}, which lead to the formation of hydroxyl radicals in the presence of dissolved oxygen under UV-vis irradiation. Also, the complexation of GLP with Fe(III) obviously increased the light absorption of GLP and facilitated its degradation by direct photolysis. The ninhydrin test for primary amines showed that the GLP was attacked by hydroxyl radicals with C-N cleavage to yield aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) and C-P cleavage to yield sarcosine. The photodegradation may be enhanced by the decomposition of reactive radicals produced through ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT) of ferric-GLP complexes.

  8. Reduced sensitivity to emotional prosody in congenital amusia rekindles the musical protolanguage hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, William Forde; Marin, Manuela M; Stewart, Lauren

    2012-11-13

    A number of evolutionary theories assume that music and language have a common origin as an emotional protolanguage that remains evident in overlapping functions and shared neural circuitry. The most basic prediction of this hypothesis is that sensitivity to emotion in speech prosody derives from the capacity to process music. We examined sensitivity to emotion in speech prosody in a sample of individuals with congenital amusia, a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in processing acoustic and structural attributes of music. Twelve individuals with congenital amusia and 12 matched control participants judged the emotional expressions of 96 spoken phrases. Phrases were semantically neutral but prosodic cues (tone of voice) communicated each of six emotional states: happy, tender, afraid, irritated, sad, and no emotion. Congenitally amusic individuals were significantly worse than matched controls at decoding emotional prosody, with decoding rates for some emotions up to 20% lower than that of matched controls. They also reported difficulty understanding emotional prosody in their daily lives, suggesting some awareness of this deficit. The findings support speculations that music and language share mechanisms that trigger emotional responses to acoustic attributes, as predicted by theories that propose a common evolutionary link between these domains. PMID:23112175

  9. Reduced sensitivity to emotional prosody in congenital amusia rekindles the musical protolanguage hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, William Forde; Marin, Manuela M

    2012-01-01

    A number of evolutionary theories assume that music and language have a common origin as an emotional protolanguage that remains evident in overlapping functions and shared neural circuitry. The most basic prediction of this hypothesis is that sensitivity to emotion in speech prosody derives from the capacity to process music. We examined sensitivity to emotion in speech prosody in a sample of individuals with congenital amusia, a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in processing acoustic and structural attributes of music. Twelve individuals with congenital amusia and 12 matched control participants judged the emotional expressions of 96 spoken phrases. Phrases were semantically neutral but prosodic cues (tone of voice) communicated each of six emotional states: happy, tender, afraid, irritated, sad, and no emotion. Congenitally amusic individuals were significantly worse than matched controls at decoding emotional prosody, with decoding rates for some emotions up to 20% lower than that of matched controls. They also reported difficulty understanding emotional prosody in their daily lives, suggesting some awareness of this deficit. The findings support speculations that music and language share mechanisms that trigger emotional responses to acoustic attributes, as predicted by theories that propose a common evolutionary link between these domains.

  10. Influncia da chuva na eficcia do glyphosate em mistura com adjuvantes na dessecao de plantas daninhas Influence of rain on the efficacy of glyphosate in mixture with adjuvants in weed desiccation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F.F Pedrinho Junior

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar a influncia do momento da chuva aps a aplicao do herbicida glyphosate isolado e em mistura com adjuvantes na dessecao de plantas daninhas, foram instalados dois experimentos na Fazenda Experimental de Ensino e Pesquisa da Faculdade de Cincias Agrrias e Veterinrias, UNESP - campus de Jaboticabal-SP, em duas pocas: inverno de 2000 (junho - agosto e vero de 2001 (janeiro-maro. Os experimentos foram instalados no delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, em arranjo fatorial 4 (tratamentos herbicidas x 5 (perodos livres de chuva simulada + 1, com quatro repeties. Os tratamentos consistiram da combinao de glyphosate SAqC (360 g e.a. ha-1 isolado ou adicionado de uria (50 g L-1 de calda ou leo vegetal (100 ml L-1 de calda ou sulfato de amnio (100 g L-1 de calda, com cinco perodos de chuva simulada (1, 2, 4, 6 e > 48 horas aps a aplicao, alm de uma testemunha. A chuva foi simulada com um sistema de irrigao por asperso, e a quantidade aplicada variou entre 18 e 19 mm. Em ambas as pocas a chuva foi prejudicial ao do glyphosate, principalmente nos menores perodos livres de chuva aps a aplicao. Os sintomas de fitointoxicao apareceram mais rapidamente no vero. A utilizao de adjuvantes na calda de pulverizao no beneficiou o desempenho do herbicida glyphosate no controle das plantas daninhas, no inverno. A adio de uria (50 g L uma boa alternativa para o controle de plantas daninhas, no vero, em situaes sujeitas chuva at duas horas aps a aplicao.The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of the moment of rain on the activity of the herbicide glyphosate, applied alone and in combination with surfactants, on two growing seasons (winter and summer; at FCAV-UNESP Experimental Station, Jaboticabal-SP, Brazil,, during 2000/2001. The winter experiment was installed from June to August 2000 and the summer one from January to March 2001. The treatments were glyphosate SAqC (360 g e.a. ha-1, alone or in combination with urea (50 g L-1, vegetable oil (100 ml L-1 or ammonium sulfate (100 g L-1, and five periods of simulated rainfall (1, 2, 4, 6 or 48 hours after application and a check treatment. The experimental design was set up in a randomized block factorial, 5 (herbicides x 6 (moment of rain + 1 (controls treatment, with four replications. The artificial rain was provided by a top irrigation system supplying 18-19 mm rain during one hour. The artificial rain reduced the glyphosate action, mainly in the earlier periods. The herbicide symptoms appeared sooner in the summer trial. The use of surfactants in the spray mixture did not improve the performance of glyphosate on weed control during the winter. The addition of urea (50 g L-1, is a good alternative for weed control during summer, when rainfall is expected after the application.

  11. Seletividade de glyphosate isolado ou em misturas para soja RR em aplicaes sequenciais / Selectivity of glyphosate alone or in mixtures for RR soybean in sequential applications

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    D.G, Alonso; J, Constantin; R.S, Oliveira Jr; G, Santos; H.A, Dan; A.M, Oliveira Neto.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O uso de misturas de herbicidas latifolicidas com o glyphosate tem sido uma alternativa para o controle de plantas daninhas resistentes ao glyphosate ou de difcil controle nos cultivos de soja RR. Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar a seletividade de aplicaes sequenciais de glyphosate, isola [...] do ou em mistura com latifolicidas, para a soja RR. As aplicaes dos tratamentos foram feitas em plantas de soja cultivar CD214 RR nos estdios de desenvolvimento V1 a V2 e V3 a V4. Os herbicidas e as respectivas doses (g i.a. ha-1) utilizadas foram: glyphosate (g e.a. ha-1) isolado (720/480, 720/720, 960/960 e 1.200/1.200) e as misturas de glyphosate + cloransulam-methyl (720 + 15,12/480 + 15,12), glyphosate + fomesafen (720 + 62,5/480 + 62,5), glyphosate + lactofen (720 + 36/480 + 36), glyphosate + chlorimuron-ethyl (720 + 6,25/480 + 6,25), glyphosate + flumiclorac-pentyl (720 + 15/480 + 15), glyphosate + bentazon (720 + 240/480 + 240) e glyphosate + imazethapyr (720 + 40/480 + 40). O delineamento adotado foi o de blocos casualizados, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repeties. As variveis avaliadas foram: fitointoxicao, altura de plantas, estande, fechamento do dossel, nmero de vagens por planta, massa de cem gros e produtividade. Todos os tratamentos promoveram efeitos visuais de fitointoxicao na cultura da soja; todavia, em nenhuma das situaes estudadas houve prejuzo no rendimento de gros. Abstract in english The use of latifolicide mixed with glyphosate has been an alternative to control weeds resistant to glyphosate or difficult to control in RR soybean crops. The aim of this work was to evaluate the selectivity of sequential applications of glyphosate isolated or in mixture with latifolicide herbicide [...] s for RR soybean. Treatment applications were carried out on the soybean cultivar plants CD 214 RR at the developmental stages V1 up to V2 and V3 up to V4. The herbicides and respective rates (g a.i. ha-1) evaluated were: glyphosate (g a.e. ha) alone (720/480, 720/720, 960/960, and 1.200/1.200) and the mixtures glyphosate + cloransulam-methyl (720+15.12/480+15.12), glyphosate + fomesafen (720 + 62.5/480 + 62.5), glyphosate + lactofen (720 + 36/480 + 36), glyphosate + chlorimuron-ethyl (720 + 6.25/480 + 6.25), glyphosate + flumiclorac-pentyl (720 + 15/480 + 15), glyphosate + bentazon (720 + 240/480 + 240), and glyphosate + imazethapyr (720 + 40/480 + 40). The experimental design was completely randomized in a split-plot scheme with two checks, and four replicates. The variables analyzed were plant intoxication, plant height, stand,crop canopy, number of pods per plant, 100-grain mass, and yield. All the treatments promoted visual effects of plant intoxication on the soybean crop. However, yield loss was not observed in any of the situations studied.

  12. Seletividade de glyphosate isolado ou em misturas para soja RR em aplicaes sequenciais Selectivity of glyphosate alone or in mixtures for RR soybean in sequential applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.G Alonso

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O uso de misturas de herbicidas latifolicidas com o glyphosate tem sido uma alternativa para o controle de plantas daninhas resistentes ao glyphosate ou de difcil controle nos cultivos de soja RR. Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar a seletividade de aplicaes sequenciais de glyphosate, isolado ou em mistura com latifolicidas, para a soja RR. As aplicaes dos tratamentos foram feitas em plantas de soja cultivar CD214 RR nos estdios de desenvolvimento V1 a V2 e V3 a V4. Os herbicidas e as respectivas doses (g i.a. ha-1 utilizadas foram: glyphosate (g e.a. ha-1 isolado (720/480, 720/720, 960/960 e 1.200/1.200 e as misturas de glyphosate + cloransulam-methyl (720 + 15,12/480 + 15,12, glyphosate + fomesafen (720 + 62,5/480 + 62,5, glyphosate + lactofen (720 + 36/480 + 36, glyphosate + chlorimuron-ethyl (720 + 6,25/480 + 6,25, glyphosate + flumiclorac-pentyl (720 + 15/480 + 15, glyphosate + bentazon (720 + 240/480 + 240 e glyphosate + imazethapyr (720 + 40/480 + 40. O delineamento adotado foi o de blocos casualizados, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repeties. As variveis avaliadas foram: fitointoxicao, altura de plantas, estande, fechamento do dossel, nmero de vagens por planta, massa de cem gros e produtividade. Todos os tratamentos promoveram efeitos visuais de fitointoxicao na cultura da soja; todavia, em nenhuma das situaes estudadas houve prejuzo no rendimento de gros.The use of latifolicide mixed with glyphosate has been an alternative to control weeds resistant to glyphosate or difficult to control in RR soybean crops. The aim of this work was to evaluate the selectivity of sequential applications of glyphosate isolated or in mixture with latifolicide herbicides for RR soybean. Treatment applications were carried out on the soybean cultivar plants CD 214 RR at the developmental stages V1 up to V2 and V3 up to V4. The herbicides and respective rates (g a.i. ha-1 evaluated were: glyphosate (g a.e. ha alone (720/480, 720/720, 960/960, and 1.200/1.200 and the mixtures glyphosate + cloransulam-methyl (720+15.12/480+15.12, glyphosate + fomesafen (720 + 62.5/480 + 62.5, glyphosate + lactofen (720 + 36/480 + 36, glyphosate + chlorimuron-ethyl (720 + 6.25/480 + 6.25, glyphosate + flumiclorac-pentyl (720 + 15/480 + 15, glyphosate + bentazon (720 + 240/480 + 240, and glyphosate + imazethapyr (720 + 40/480 + 40. The experimental design was completely randomized in a split-plot scheme with two checks, and four replicates. The variables analyzed were plant intoxication, plant height, stand,crop canopy, number of pods per plant, 100-grain mass, and yield. All the treatments promoted visual effects of plant intoxication on the soybean crop. However, yield loss was not observed in any of the situations studied.

  13. Technical note: Method of Morris effectively reduces the computational demands of global sensitivity analysis for distributed watershed models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Herman

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The increase in spatially distributed hydrologic modeling warrants a corresponding increase in diagnostic methods capable of analyzing complex models with large numbers of parameters. Sobol' sensitivity analysis has proven to be a valuable tool for diagnostic analyses of hydrologic models. However, for many spatially distributed models, the Sobol' method requires a prohibitive number of model evaluations to reliably decompose output variance across the full set of parameters. We investigate the potential of the method of Morris, a screening-based sensitivity approach, to provide results sufficiently similar to those of the Sobol' method at a greatly reduced computational expense. The methods are benchmarked on the Hydrology Laboratory Research Distributed Hydrologic Model (HL-RDHM model over a six-month period in the Blue River Watershed, Oklahoma, USA. The Sobol' method required over six million model evaluations to ensure reliable sensitivity indices, corresponding to more than 30 000 computing hours and roughly 180 gigabytes of storage space. We find that the method of Morris is able to correctly identify sensitive and insensitive parameters with 300 times fewer model evaluations, requiring only 100 computing hours and 1 gigabyte of storage space. Method of Morris proves to be a promising diagnostic approach for global sensitivity analysis of highly parameterized, spatially distributed hydrologic models.

  14. Aluminum sulfate significantly reduces the skin test response to common allergens in sensitized patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grier Thomas J

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avoidance of allergens is still recommended as the first and best way to prevent allergic illnesses and their comorbid diseases. Despite a variety of attempts there has been very limited success in the area of environmental control of allergic disease. Our objective was to identify a non-invasive, non-pharmacological method to reduce indoor allergen loads in atopic persons' homes and public environments. We employed a novel in vivo approach to examine the possibility of using aluminum sulfate to control environmental allergens. Methods Fifty skin test reactive patients were simultaneously skin tested with conventional test materials and the actions of the protein/glycoprotein modifier, aluminum sulfate. Common allergens, dog, cat, dust mite, Alternaria, and cockroach were used in the study. Results Skin test reactivity was significantly reduced by the modifier aluminum sulfate. Our studies demonstrate that the effects of histamine were not affected by the presence of aluminum sulfate. In fact, skin test reactivity was reduced independent of whether aluminum sulfate was present in the allergen test material or removed prior to testing, indicating that the allergens had in some way been inactivated. Conclusion Aluminum sulfate was found to reduce the in vivo allergic reaction cascade induced by skin testing with common allergens. The exact mechanism is not clear but appears to involve the alteration of IgE-binding epitopes on the allergen. Our results indicate that it may be possible to diminish the allergenicity of an environment by application of the active agent aluminum sulfate, thus producing environmental control without complete removal of the allergen.

  15. Reduced sensitivity solutions to global linearisation of the pole assignment map

    OpenAIRE

    Leventides, J; Karcanias, N.; Meintanis, I.; Milonidis, E.

    2014-01-01

    The problem of pole assignment, by static output feedback controllers has been tackled as far as solvability conditions and the computation of solutions when they exist by a powerful method referred to as global linearisation. This is based on asymptotic linearisation (around a degenerate point) of the pole placement map. The essence of the present approach is to reduce the multilinear nature of the problem to the solution of a linear set of equations. The solution is given in closed form in ...

  16. Translocao dos herbicidas glyphosate e imazamox em plantas de aguap / Glyphosate and imazamox translocation in water hyacinth plants

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C.F. de, Campos; H.S., Vitorino; G.S.F. de, Souza; D.C. de, Santana; D., Martins.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Entre as diversas plantas daninhas encontradas em ambientes aquticos, a Eichhornia crassipes uma das principais, sendo espcie indesejvel para muitas atividades. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a translocao de glyphosate e imazamox em plantas de E. crassipes. Foram estudados oito interva [...] los de tempo para o corte das folhas que receberam os herbicidas: 2, 4, 6, 8, 12 e 24 horas aps a aplicao (HAA) dos produtos, alm de um tratamento sem corte das plantas (testemunha). Utilizaram-se glyphosate na dose de 2.160 g e.a. ha-1 (produto comercial - Rodeo) + 0,5% v v-1 do espalhante adesivo aterbane e imazamox na dose de 290,4 g i.a. ha-1 (produto comercial - Clearcast). Os tratamentos foram instalados em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com quatro repeties. O glyphosate apresentou um controle insatisfatrio quando realizado os cortes das folhas em todos os perodos avaliados. O herbicida imazamox no proporcionou controle em at 12 HAA, enquanto que a partir de 24 HAA do herbicida o controle foi eficiente. No houve uma grande mobilidade da molcula de glyphosate nas plantas de aguap, sendo necessrio um perodo superior a 24 horas para uma translocao satisfatria. J para o imazamox um tempo de mnimo de 24 horas aps a aplicao do herbicida foi suficiente para que ocorresse a translocao e um posterior controle. Abstract in english Eichhornia crassipes is one of the main weeds found in aquatic environments, being undesirable for many activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the translocation of glyphosate and imazamox in E. crassipes. Eight intervals were studied for cutting leaves that received herbicides: 2, 4, 6, 8 [...] , 12 and 24 hours after application (HAA), and a treatment with no cutting (untreated). The glyphosate dose was 2,160 g a.e. ha-1 (commercial product - Rodeo) + 0.5% v v-1 Aterbane adhesive spreader and imazamox at 290.4 g i.a. ha-1 (commercial product - Clearcast). The treatments were installed in a completely randomized design with four replications. Glyphosate showed a bad control for all the periods of leaf cutting. The imazamox did not provide control within 12 HAA, while from 24 HAA onward the control was effective. There was not a great mobility of the glyphosate molecule in water hyacinth plants, a period above 24 hours being needed for a satisfactory translocation. For imazamox at least 24 hours were needed after herbicide application for the translocation to occur along with subsequent control.

  17. Efeito de adjuvantes adicionados calda herbicida contendo glyphosate Effect of adjuvants added to herbicide spray containing glyphosate

    OpenAIRE

    Leandro Vargas; Nilson G. Fleck; Marcos M. da Cunha; Ribas A. Vidal

    1997-01-01

    Tentativas de aumentar a fitotoxicidade do herbicida glyphosate atravs da adio de cido e/ ou de sulfato de amnio calda tem sido promissoras. A adio dessas substncias otimiza as propriedades qumicas da calda herbicida, superando efeitos negativos do pH elevado e de ions nela presentes. O objetivo desse trabalho foi investigar o efeito da adio de cido sulfrico e/ou de sulfato de amnio calda herbicida, sobre a eficincia do glyphosate misturado em diluente com alto pH e teores ...

  18. Fenologia da trapoeraba como indicador para tolerncia ao herbicida glyphosate Phenology of bengal dayflower as indicator of glyphosate tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C.R Dias

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Rotineiramente, tem sido desconsiderada a contribuio do estdio de desenvolvimento das espcies de plantas daninhas nas anlises de tolerncia ou resistncia a herbicidas, o que pode resultar em divergncias entre a pesquisa terica e a aplicao prtica dos dados. Nesse sentido, este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar a resposta biolgica da trapoeraba (Commelina benghalensis, comparativamente ao capim-marmelada (Brachiaria plantaginea, a aplicaes de doses do herbicida glyphosate, em seis estdios fenolgicos. Dois experimentos foram desenvolvidos em casa de vegetao, submetendo-se plantas de trapoeraba e capim-marmelada ao esquema fatorial de tratamentos 9 x 6, em que nove foram as doses de glyphosate e seis foram os estdios fenolgicos das plantas daninhas, variveis entre a emisso da primeira folha definitiva e o incio do florescimento. Por meio do emprego de curvas de dose-resposta e de regresses polinomiais, concluiu-se que o estdio de desenvolvimento da trapoeraba contribui significativamente para o grau de tolerncia da espcie ao herbicida glyphosate, de modo que, comparativamente ao capim-marmelada, plantas de trapoeraba tornam-se quatro vezes mais tolerantes ao glyphosate a cada dez unidades de desenvolvimento fenolgico na escala BBCH. Essas consideraes possuem importante aplicabilidade prtica, justificando medidas de controle qumico em estdios iniciais do crescimento da trapoeraba.The importance of the phenological development of weeds has been frequently ignored when analyzing plant-herbicide tolerance or resistance, what may result on divergences between theoretical research and practical data application. Thus, this work was carried out to evaluate the biological response of Bengal dayflower (Commelina benghalensis, comparatively to alexandergrass (Brachiaria plantaginea, to the application of different rates of glyphosate, at six phenological stages. Two experiments were developed under greenhouse conditions, with Bengal dayflower and alexandergrass plants being submitted to a 9 x6 factorial scheme, where nine treatments were the glyphosate rates and six, the weed phenological stages, varying between unfolding of the first true leaf and the beginning of flowering. Using dose-response curves and polynomial regressions, it could be concluded that the Bengal dayflower phenological stages significantly contribute to the species'degree of glyphosate-tolerance, since, compared to alexandergrass, Bengal dayflower plants became four times more tolerant to glyphosate at every ten units of phenological development at the BBCH scale. These considerations have an important practical applicability, justifying chemical control measurements at the initial growth stages of Bengal dayflower.

  19. Crescimento do eucalipto sob efeito da deriva de glyphosate Eucalyptus growth under the effect of glyphosate drift

    OpenAIRE

    L.D. Tuffi Santos; Machado, A.F.L.; Viana, R.G.; FERREIRA, L. R.; F.A. Ferreira; G.V.R. Souza

    2007-01-01

    Um dos questionamentos no setor florestal é sobre os possíveis efeitos negativos da deriva de glyphosate sobre plantas de eucalipto ao longo de seu ciclo. Aos 30 dias após a aplicação (DAA) de 1.440 g ha-1 de glyphosate, para controle de plantas daninhas em talhão de Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla (híbrido urograndis) com 120 dias após o transplantio, selecionaram-se 120 plantas ao acaso, que apresentavam graus de intoxicação variáveis. Os tratamentos foram os seguintes intervalos: 0-5, 6-...

  20. The effect of two glyphosate formulations on a small, diurnal lizard (Oligosoma polychroma).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Joanna K; Monks, Joanne M; Nelson, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    Formulations of glyphosate-based herbicides continue to dominate the global herbicide market, while there continue to be concerns regarding the impact of this herbicide on non-target organisms. Research also indicates that the additives within certain glyphosate formulations, such as surfactants, are actually more toxic than the glyphosate active ingredient alone. Concerns arise in particular when glyphosate formulations are proposed for vegetation control in areas inhabited by rare or threatened species. Although the effect of glyphosate on birds and mammals is well studied, reptiles remain neglected in ecotoxicological studies. We investigated whether dermal exposure to two different commercial glyphosate formulations affected performance measures in the New Zealand common skink (Oligosoma polychroma). Fifty-eight skinks were each placed in a box of straw to simulate field conditions and sprayed once with Agpro Glyphosate 360, Yates Roundup Weedkiller (both at the label-specified concentrations of 144 mg glyphosate per 1 L water), or water (control). Agpro Glyphosate 360 contained ethoxylated tallow amine at a concentration of <200 g/L, while the surfactant within Yates Roundup Weedkiller was unknown. Following treatment skinks were kept in captivity and sampled for selected temperature and mass over a four-week period. Neither glyphosate formulation had a significant impact on mass. However, skinks treated with Yates Roundup Weedkiller selected significantly higher temperatures across 3 weeks following exposure. This heat-seeking behaviour could be a fever response to increase metabolism and thereby counteract physiological stress. PMID:26841966

  1. Relationship between radiation dose and reduced X-ray sensitivity surrounding breast region using CR stimulable phosphor plate for mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishide, Hiroko; Kodera, Yoshie

    2015-03-01

    Computed radiography (CR) systems use a photostimulable phosphor plate (imaging plate ; IP) as a sensor for digital mammography. In clinical mammography, breast is almost exposed same region of IP, and therefor, direct x-ray regions surrounding suffer from reduced x-ray sensitivity. Consequently, the difference in x-ray sensitivity between the breast regions and the unattenuated x-ray region was obtained. However, radiation dose quantity that reduces x-ray sensitivity is not known. In this study, we imaged a breast phantom under fixed conditions, and subsequently, we investigated the pixel value differences between the breast region and the unattenuated x-ray regions. We measured the entrance air-kerma using 550 sensing elements of glass dosimeter, 22x25 lines, that were placed at the surface of the cassette including the IP. In order to measure the x-ray sensitivity, pre- and post-exposure breast phantom images were acquired after 500, 1,000, 1,350, and 1,500 trials. The pixel values were measured at four points; in the breast region and in the unattenuated x-ray region. The ratio of these pixel values was compared with the cumulative exposure dose. The ratio was nearly constant until 1,000 trials, but a significant reduction was observed after 1,350 trials. Further, in the image obtained after 1,500th trials, the shape of breast phantom could be observed. This image supports the fact that the x-ray sensitivity was lowered in the unattenuated x-ray region. The difference in the pixel value between the breast region and the unattenuated x-ray region was obtained over 1,000 exposures at 100,000 mAs.

  2. Replacing Fish Oil with Vegetable Oils in Salmon Feed Increases Hepatic Lipid Accumulation and Reduces Insulin Sensitivity in Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtb, Lisa Kolden

    2013-01-01

    Background: Due to a growing global aquaculture production, fish oil (FO) and fish meal (FM) are partly replaced with vegetable ingredients in aqua feed for Atlantic salmon. These replacements in the feed lead to an altered fatty acid composition in the salmon fillet. We aimed to investigate how these changes affects obesity development and insulin sensitivity in mice eating the salmon. In addition, we wanted to investigate how the background diet affects the antiobesity effect of FO. Results: Western diets (WDs) were produced containing salmon fed either FO (WD-FO), or with partly replacement (80%) of FO with different vegetable oils (VOs); rape seed oil (WDRO), olive oil (WD-OO) or soybean oil (WD-SO). These diets were given to C57BL/6J mice, and mice had higher hepatic lipid accumulation and lower insulin sensitivity when given WD-SO compared with WD-FO. Mice given WD-SO had higher hepatic levels of diacylglycerol (DAG), ceramides and arachidonic acid (AA)-derived oxylipins compared with mice fed WD-FO. In addition, C57BL/6J mice were fed fish oil-enriched diets with different carbohydrate sources, and we observed that sucrose dose-dependently abrogate the antiobesity effect of fish oil. High-GI starch had a stronger effect on reducing the antiobesity effect of FO compared with low-GI starch. Conclusions: In summary, our results demonstrate that the background diet affects the antiobesity effect of FO and that replacement of FO with SO in aqua feed increased hepatic lipid accumulation and reduces insulin sensitivity. Elevated hepatic levels of DAG, ceramides and AA-derived oxylipins might be a link between the observed hepatic lipid accumulation and the reduced insulin sensitivity.

  3. Real-time digital compensation to reduce acceleration's sensitivity in quartz resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qingxiao, Shan; Jun, Yang; Jianyun, Chen; Longzhe, Ji; Feijiang, Huang

    2012-06-01

    The paper presents a digital compensator imposing real-time voltage to compensate the frequency offset of quartz resonator under acceleration. To begin with, a triple-axis MEMS acceleration sensor, whose package is less than 3 mm 3 mm 0.9 mm, is mounted at the bottom of quartz resonator. Then acceleration sensitivity vector, based on sensor's coordinator, can be calculated by imposing sinusoidal vibration on singular axis and measuring the amplitude of sideband. So, the frequency offset can be calculated and the compensate value can also be inferred. A digital circuit is designed to generate compensate voltage real time to counteract the frequency offset. A FPGA is employed, which can realize computation in one clock period. Experiments show that the digital compensator presented here has a good effect at low frequency vibration just at which mechanical cushion is ineffective. At steady state, it can almost eliminate the frequency offset. Because of the integration and miniaturization of digital elements, the whole compensator is flexible, low cost, and easy to be applied. PMID:22755650

  4. Strongly coupled hybrid nanostructures for selective hydrogen detection--understanding the role of noble metals in reducing cross-sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Cai, Daoping; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Dandan; Wang, Lingling; Xie, Wuyuan; Li, Qiuhong; Wang, Taihong

    2014-05-01

    Noble metal-semiconductor hybrid nanostructures can offer outperformance to gas sensors in terms of sensitivity and selectivity. In this work, a catalytically activated (CA) hydrogen sensor is realized based on strongly coupled Pt/Pd-WO3 hybrid nanostructures constructed by a galvanic replacement participated solvothermal procedure. The room-temperature operation and high selectivity distinguish this sensor from the traditional ones. It is capable of detecting dozens of parts per million (ppm) hydrogen in the presence of thousands of ppm methane gas. An insight into the role of noble metals in reducing cross-sensitivity is provided by comparing the sensing properties of this sensor with a traditional thermally activated (TA) one made from the same pristine WO3. Based on both experimental and density functional theory (DFT) calculation results, the cross-sensitivity of the TA sensor is found to have a strong dependence on the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) level of the hydrocarbon molecules. The high selectivity of the CA sensor comes from the reduced impact of gas frontier orbitals on the charge transfer process by the nano-scaled metal-semiconductor (MS) interface. The methodology demonstrated in this work indicates that rational design of MS hybrid nanostructures can be a promising strategy for highly selective gas sensing applications. PMID:24658357

  5. Efficacy of glyphosate and five surfactants for controlling giant salvinia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, J.F.; Allert, A.L.; Riddle, J.S.; Gladwin, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    Giant salvinia (Salvinia molesta Mitchell) is a non-native, invasive aquatic fern that was recently introduced to the southern United States. The aggressive nature of the species has led to concerns over its potential adverse impacts to native plants, fish, and invertebrates. We conducted a study to determine the efficacy of glyphosate [isopropylamine salt of N-(phosphono-methyl)glycine] and several surfactants for control of giant salvinia. Studies were conducted over a 42-day period using static renewals (twice weekly) with 4% Hoagland's medium (10 mg/L N equivalent) in replicated 2-L containers. Five concentrations of glyphosate (0, 0.45, 0.91, 1.82, and 3.60% v:v) and five surfactants (0.25% concentration, v:v; Optima???, Kinetic???, Mon 0818???, Cygnet Plus???, and LI-700???) were applied with a pressurized sprayer as a single surface application in a fully nested experimental design. Untreated giant salvinia grew rapidly and exhibited an increase of 800% wet weight biomass over the 42-day test duration. Glyphosate, with and without surfactants, exhibited efficacy at concentrations as low as 0.45% of the commercial formulation. Glyphosate with Optima was the only mixture that resulted in complete mortality of plants with no regrowth.

  6. Desiccation species of ground cover with glyphosate formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fbio Henrique Krenchinski

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The management of coverage species may be accomplished by mechanical or chemical methods. In chemical method nonselective herbicides are used mainly the ones belonging to glyphosate group. The objective of this study was to evaluate phytotoxicity and agronomic efficacy of two formulations with active ingredient glyphosate over desiccation in ground cover species. The present study was conducted in field conditions in Marechal Candido Rondon County, Parana State. Experimental design used was randomized complete blocks with four repetitions in factorial scheme 2x5 (formulations x species, in that the species were white oat, black oat, ryegrass, common vetch and oilseed radish, desiccated by two herbicides: Zapp Qi (ZQ and Glyphosate 480 Agripec (GA. Phytotoxicity and agronomic efficacy of coverage species were evaluated. Zapp Qi has provided greater phytotoxicity and agronomic efficacy of coverage species when compared to Glyphosate 480 Agripec. Zapp Qi at 32 days after desiccation presented the highest values of agronomic efficiency. The only specie that presented 100% of efficacy was oilseed radish.

  7. GLYPHOSATE-RESISTANT PALMER AMARANTH (AMARANTHUS PALMERI) CONFIRMED IN GEORGIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer amaranth is among the three most troublesome weeds in Georgia cotton, peanut, and soybean and is among the top five most troublesome weeds in most other southeastern states. A glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth biotype was confirmed in central Georgia. In the field, potassium salt of glyp...

  8. RHIZOSPHERE ECOLOGY IS ALTERED IN GLYPHOSATE RESISTANT SOYBEAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    The environmental assessment of glyphosate-resistant (GR) soybean on soil- and root-associated microbial communities is not well understood. Changes in the dynamics of soil and rhizosphere microbial community structure may lead to functional consequences with either positive or negative effects on p...

  9. The free energy cost of reducing noise while maintaining a high sensitivity

    CERN Document Server

    Sartori, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Living systems need to be highly responsive, and also to keep fluctuations low. These goals are incompatible in equilibrium systems due to the Fluctuation Dissipation Theorem (FDT). Here, we show that biological sensory systems, driven far from equilibrium by free energy consumption, can reduce their intrinsic fluctuations while maintaining high responsiveness. By developing a continuum theory of the E. coli chemotaxis pathway, we demonstrate that adaptation can be understood as a non-equilibrium phase transition controlled by free energy dissipation, and it is characterized by a breaking of the FDT. We show that the maximum response at short time is enhanced by free energy dissipation. At the same time, the low frequency fluctuations and the adaptation error decrease with the free energy dissipation algebraically and exponentially, respectively.

  10. Free Energy Cost of Reducing Noise while Maintaining a High Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Pablo; Tu, Yuhai

    2015-09-01

    Living systems need to be highly responsive, and also to keep fluctuations low. These goals are incompatible in equilibrium systems due to the fluctuation dissipation theorem (FDT). Here, we show that biological sensory systems, driven far from equilibrium by free energy consumption, can reduce their intrinsic fluctuations while maintaining high responsiveness. By developing a continuum theory of the E. coli chemotaxis pathway, we demonstrate that adaptation can be understood as a nonequilibrium phase transition controlled by free energy dissipation, and it is characterized by a breaking of the FDT. We show that the maximum response at short time is enhanced by free energy dissipation. At the same time, the low frequency fluctuations and the adaptation error decrease with the free energy dissipation algebraically and exponentially, respectively.

  11. Palmitoleic acid reduces intramuscular lipid and restores insulin sensitivity in obese sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duckett SK

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Susan K Duckett, Gabriela Volpi-Lagreca, Mariano Alende, Nathan M LongAnimal and Veterinary Sciences Department, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, USAAbstract: Obese sheep were used to assess the effects of palmitoleic (C16:1 cis-9 acid infusion on lipogenesis and circulating insulin levels. Infusion of 10 mg/kg body weight (BW/day C16:1 intravenously in obese sheep reduced (P<0.01 weight gain by 77%. Serum palmitoleic levels increased (P<0.05 in a linear manner with increasing levels of C16:1 infusion. Cis-11 vaccenic (C18:1 cis-11 acid, a known elongation product of palmitoleic acid, was also elevated (P<0.05 in serum after 14 days and 21 days of infusion. Plasma insulin levels were lower (P<0.05 (10 mg/kg BW/day C16:1 than controls (0 mg/kg BW/day C16:1 at 14 days and 28 days of infusion. Infusion of C16:1 resulted in linear increases in tissue concentrations of palmitoleic, cis-11 vaccenic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosapentaenoic acids in a dose-dependent manner. Total lipid content of the semitendinosus (ST muscle and mesenteric adipose tissue was reduced (P<0.01 in both 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg BW C16:1 dose levels. Total lipid content and mean adipocyte size in the longissimus muscle was reduced (P<0.05 in the 10 mg/kg BW C16:1 dose level only, whereas total lipid content and adipocyte size of the subcutaneous adipose tissue was not altered. Total lipid content of the liver was also unchanged with C16:1 infusion. Palmitoleic acid infusion upregulated (P<0.05 acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC, fatty acid elongase-6 (ELOVL6, and Protein kinase, AMP-activated, alpha 1 catalytic subunit, transcript variant 1 (AMPK mRNA expressions in liver, subcutaneous adipose, and ST muscle compared to the controls. However, mRNA expression of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4 and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1b (CPT1B differed between tissues. In the subcutaneous adipose and liver, C16:1 infusion upregulated (P<0.05 GLUT4 and CPT1B, whereas these genes were downregulated (P<0.05 in ST muscle with C16:1 infusion. These results show that C16:1 infusion for 28 days reduced weight gain, intramuscular adipocyte size and total lipid content, and circulating insulin levels. These changes appear to be mediated through alterations in expression of genes regulating glucose uptake and fatty acid oxidation specifically in the muscles.Keywords: adipocytes, longissimus muscle, lipogenesis, insulin level, serum, fatty acid

  12. Shape-controlled ceria-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites toward high-sensitive in situ detection of nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Fang Xin; Xie, Jia Le; Bao, Shu Juan; Yu, Ling; Li, Chang Ming

    2015-08-15

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signal molecule released by most cancer cells under drug stimulation or/and disease development but it is extremely challenging to in situ while real-time sensitively detect NO due to its large diffusivity, low concentration and fast decay. Herein, shape-controlled reduced graphene oxide nanocomposing with ceria (rGO-CeO2) was synthesized via hydrothermal reaction to construct a highly sensitive real-time sensing platform for NO detection. The crystal shape of CeO2 nanoparticles in rGO-CeO2 composites significantly affects the sensing performance of rGO-CeO2, of which the regular hexagonal nanocrystal CeO2 achieves the highest sensitivity (1676.06 mA cm(-2) M(-1)), a wide dynamic range (18.0 nM to 5.6 M) and a low detection limit (9.6 nM). This attributes to a synergical effect from high catalytic activity of the specifically shaped CeO2 nanocrystal and good conductivity/high surface area of rGO. This work demonstrates a way by rationally compose individual merit components while well control the nanostructure for a superior synergistic effect to build a smart sensing platform, while offering a great application potential to sensitively real-time detect NO released from living cells for diagnosis or/and studies of complicated biological processes. PMID:25840016

  13. Reduced temperature sensitivity of soil respiration after a 17-year climate change experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond-Lamberty, B. P.; Bailey, V. L.; Fansler, S.; Liu, C.; Smith, J. L.; Bolton, H.

    2012-12-01

    In 1994, a reciprocal soil transplant experiment was initiated between two elevations (310 m, warmer and drier, and 844 m, cooler and wetter) on Rattlesnake Mountain in southeastern Washington, USA, testing whether the microbial and biochemical dynamics that developed under cool, moist conditions would be destabilized under hot, dry conditions. In March 2012 we resampled the original transplanted soils to study longer-term changes in microbial community composition, soil C and N dynamics, and soil physical structure. These resampled cores were randomly assigned to climate-control chambers simulating the lower or upper site climates. We measured respiration throughout a 100-day incubation, coupled with biogeochemical analyses, to examine how these soils had responded to environmental changes over 17 years. Temperature and soil moisture were the primary drivers of CO2 evolution, but transplant source and destination both exerted significant effects. Most strikingly, respiration from cores originally from the hotter, low-elevation site that spent 17 years at the upper site exhibited almost no temperature sensitivity (Q10=1.07, 13-33 C). Cores from the upper site had more carbon (~1.1% versus 0.8%), but equivalent C:N ratios, while soils incubated in the 'upper' chamber had greater N-acetylglucosaminidase and ?-glucosidase potentials. Tomographic reconstructions revealed that porosity, moisture content, grain size distribution, and organic C were highly heterogeneous, consistent with the observed macro-scale variability. These results suggest that the upper-site soils were more resilient to the 1994 transplant, but that there is a significantly altered microbial community in the transplanted soils, particularly the lower-to-upper cores, that has not recovered almost two decades after the original experiment. This raises more general questions of how current climate change will affect soil resistance to future perturbations, and how confidently we can model this response at larger scales.

  14. In vivo P-nuclear magnetic resonance studies of glyphosate uptake, vacuolar sequestration, and tonoplast pump activity in glyphosate-resistant horseweed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xia; d'Avignon, D Andr; Ackerman, Joseph J H; Sammons, R Douglas

    2014-11-01

    Horseweed (Conyza canadensis) is considered a significant glyphosate-resistant (GR) weed in agriculture, spreading to 21 states in the United States and now found globally on five continents. This laboratory previously reported rapid vacuolar sequestration of glyphosate as the mechanism of resistance in GR horseweed. The observation of vacuole sequestration is consistent with the existence of a tonoplast-bound transporter. (31)P-Nuclear magnetic resonance experiments performed in vivo with GR horseweed leaf tissue show that glyphosate entry into the plant cell (cytosolic compartment) is (1) first order in extracellular glyphosate concentration, independent of pH and dependent upon ATP; (2) competitively inhibited by alternative substrates (aminomethyl phosphonate [AMPA] and N-methyl glyphosate [NMG]), which themselves enter the plant cell; and (3) blocked by vanadate, a known inhibitor/blocker of ATP-dependent transporters. Vacuole sequestration of glyphosate is (1) first order in cytosolic glyphosate concentration and dependent upon ATP; (2) competitively inhibited by alternative substrates (AMPA and NMG), which themselves enter the plant vacuole; and (3) saturable. (31)P-Nuclear magnetic resonance findings with GR horseweed are consistent with the active transport of glyphosate and alternative substrates (AMPA and NMG) across the plasma membrane and tonoplast in a manner characteristic of ATP-binding cassette transporters, similar to those that have been identified in mammalian cells. PMID:25185124

  15. Influncia de pontas de pulverizao e adjuvantes na deriva em caldas com glyphosate Influence on spray drift of nozzles and adjuvants with a glyphosate spray solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Gandolfo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O uso inadequado da tecnologia de aplicao de agrotxicos, relacionados ao uso de pontas de pulverizao e adio de adjuvantes, resulta diretamente em um maior risco de deriva. Objetivou-se como trabalho quantificar a deriva gerada por pontas de pulverizao com e sem induo de ar, em aplicaes de glyphosate e adjuvantes. O experimento foi realizado em tnel de vento, com o herbicida glyphosate isolado ou em mistura com ureia ou adjuvante redutor de deriva (LI700. As coletas foram realizadas, com fios de polietileno, nas distncias de 5,0; 10,0 e 15,0 m em relao barra e nas alturas de 0,2; 0,4; 0,6; 0,8 e 1,0 m em relao ao piso do tnel, a deriva foi aferida por meio do processo de condutividade eltrica. Os resultados apresentaram maior deriva nas menores alturas, tendo igual comportamento para todas as caldas e em todas as distncias. A ponta de jato plano com induo de ar (AVI 110-015 proporcionou menor deriva em relao ponta jato plano padro (AXI 110-015, para todas as caldas avaliadas. Para a ponta de jato plano padro o acrscimo de adjuvante reduziu a deriva para as trs distncias avaliadas em relao calda contendo somente o herbicida. J para a ponta de jato plano com induo de ar a ureia elevou a deriva para todas as distncias em relao s outras caldas. A ureia pode ser utilizada em aplicaes com o modelo de ponta jato plano padro, por diminuir os riscos de deriva.The improper use of pesticide-application technology, related to the use of spray nozzles and the addition of adjuvants, is directly related to a greater risk of drift. This study aimed to quantify the spray drift generated by nozzles, both with and without air induction, in applications of glyphosate and adjuvants. The experiment was conducted in a wind tunnel, using the herbicide, glyphosate, either pure or in combination with urea or a drift-reducing adjuvant (LI700. Collections were made on polyethylene strings, at distances of 5.0, 10.0 and 15.0 m from the spray-boom, and at heights of 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 m from the floor of the tunnel; the drift was measured using a process of electrical conductivity. The results showed greater drift at the lower heights, giving the same results for all solutions and at all distances. The flat nozzle with air induction (AVI 110-015 gave a smaller drift relative to the standard flat nozzle (AXI 110-015 for all solutions tested. With the standard flat nozzle, adding an adjuvant reduced the drift at the three distances tested, for the solution containing pure herbicide. For the flat fan nozzle with air induction however, the urea increased drift at all distances compared to other the spray solutions. Urea can be employed in applications where the standard flat tip model is used, as it reduces the risk of drift.

  16. Mothers' depressive symptoms predict both increased and reduced negative reactivity: aversion sensitivity and the regulation of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dix, Theodore; Moed, Anat; Anderson, Edward R

    2014-07-01

    This study examined whether, as mothers' depressive symptoms increase, their expressions of negative emotion to children increasingly reflect aversion sensitivity and motivation to minimize ongoing stress or discomfort. In multiple interactions over 2 years, negative affect expressed by 319 mothers and their children was observed across variations in mothers' depressive symptoms, the aversiveness of children's immediate behavior, and observed differences in children's general negative reactivity. As expected, depressive symptoms predicted reduced maternal negative reactivity when child behavior was low in aversiveness, particularly with children who were high in negative reactivity. Depressive symptoms predicted high negative reactivity and steep increases in negative reactivity as the aversiveness of child behavior increased, particularly when high and continued aversiveness from the child was expected (i.e., children were high in negative reactivity). The findings are consistent with the proposal that deficits in parenting competence as depressive symptoms increase reflect aversion sensitivity and motivation to avoid conflict and suppress children's aversive behavior. PMID:24796661

  17. Enhanced NH3-Sensitivity of Reduced Graphene Oxide Modified by Tetra-?-Iso-Pentyloxymetallophthalocyanine Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaocheng; Wang, Bin; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhou, Xiaoqing; Chen, Zhimin; He, Chunying; Yu, Zheying; Wu, Yiqun

    2015-12-01

    Three kinds of novel hybrid materials were prepared by noncovalent functionalized reduced graphene oxide (rGO) with tetra-?-iso-pentyloxyphthalocyanine copper (CuPc), tetra-?-iso-pentyloxyphthalocyanine nickel (NiPc) and tetra-?-iso-pentyloxyphthalocyanine lead (PbPc) and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), Raman spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and atomic force microscope (AFM). The as-synthesized MPc/rGO hybrids show excellent NH3 gas-sensing performance with high response value and fast recovery time compared with bare rGO. The enhancement of the sensing response is mainly attributed to the synergism of gas adsorption of MPc to NH3 gas and conducting network of rGO with greater electron transfer efficiency. Strategies for combining the good properties of rGO and MPc derivatives will open new opportunities for preparing and designing highly efficient rGO chemiresistive gas-sensing hybrid materials for potential applications in gas sensor field. PMID:26403926

  18. Glyphosate sorption and desorption in soils with distinct phosphorus levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sorption of glyphosate by soils occurs due to the inner sphere complex formation with metals of soil oxides, which are related to the soil phosphate adsorption capacity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of increasing rates of phosphorus on sorption and desorption of glyphosate in three soils with different mineralogical attributes. Soils were a Rhodic Kandiudalf, an Anionic Acrudox and a Typic Humaquept. Soil samples were amended with Kh2PO4 at equivalent rates of 0; 1,000; 5,000; 20,000 and 50,000 kg ha-1 of P2O5, which are high from the agricultural point of view, but necessary in order to perform sorption and desorption studies. The experimental design consisted of a completely randomized factorial: 2 soils x 5 phosphorus rates and 3 replicates. For the sorption experiments, five glyphosate solutions were employed (0.42; 0.84; 1.68; 3.36 and 6.72 mg L-1), with a 14C radioactivity of 0.233 kBq mL-1. Four steps of the desorption procedures withCaCl2 0.01 mol L-1 and one extraction with Mehlich 3 were performed only at one concentration (0.84 mol L-1). Soil samples were afterwards biologically oxidized to establish the radioactive balance. Glyphosate competes with phosphorus for specific sorption sites, but this competition becomes important when phosphorus is present at rates higher than 1,000 mg dm-3. Moreover, a small amount of applied glyphosate was extracted (<10%), and the extraction increased with increasing soil phosphorus content. (author)

  19. Glyphosate sorption and desorption in soils with distinct phosphorus levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prata, Fabio [BIOAGRI Labs., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Div. de Quimica. Lab. de Radioquimica; Cardinali, Vanessa Camponez do Brasil; Tornisielo, Valdemar Luiz; Regitano, Jussara Borges [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz. Dept. de Ciencias Exatas; Lavorenti, Arquimedes [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Secao de Toxicologia

    2003-03-01

    The sorption of glyphosate by soils occurs due to the inner sphere complex formation with metals of soil oxides, which are related to the soil phosphate adsorption capacity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of increasing rates of phosphorus on sorption and desorption of glyphosate in three soils with different mineralogical attributes. Soils were a Rhodic Kandiudalf, an Anionic Acrudox and a Typic Humaquept. Soil samples were amended with Kh{sub 2}PO{sub 4} at equivalent rates of 0; 1,000; 5,000; 20,000 and 50,000 kg ha{sup -1} of P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, which are high from the agricultural point of view, but necessary in order to perform sorption and desorption studies. The experimental design consisted of a completely randomized factorial: 2 soils x 5 phosphorus rates and 3 replicates. For the sorption experiments, five glyphosate solutions were employed (0.42; 0.84; 1.68; 3.36 and 6.72 mg L{sup -1}), with a {sup 14}C radioactivity of 0.233 kBq mL{sup -1}. Four steps of the desorption procedures withCaCl{sub 2} 0.01 mol L{sup -1} and one extraction with Mehlich 3 were performed only at one concentration (0.84 mol L{sup -1}). Soil samples were afterwards biologically oxidized to establish the radioactive balance. Glyphosate competes with phosphorus for specific sorption sites, but this competition becomes important when phosphorus is present at rates higher than 1,000 mg dm{sup -3}. Moreover, a small amount of applied glyphosate was extracted (<10%), and the extraction increased with increasing soil phosphorus content. (author)

  20. Glyphosate sorption and desorption in soils with distinct phosphorus levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prata Fbio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The sorption of glyphosate by soils occurs due to the inner sphere complex formation with metals of soil oxides, which are related to the soil phosphate adsorption capacity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of increasing rates of phosphorus on sorption and desorption of glyphosate in three soils with different mineralogical attributes. Soils were a Rhodic Kandiudalf, an Anionic Acrudox and a Typic Humaquept. Soil samples were amended with KH2PO4 at equivalent rates of 0; 1,000; 5,000; 20,000 and 50,000 kg ha-1 of P2O5, which are high from the agricultural point of view, but necessary in order to perform sorption and desorption studies. The experimental design consisted of a completely randomized factorial: 2 soils x 5 phosphorus rates and 3 replicates. For the sorption experiments, five glyphosate solutions were employed (0.42; 0.84; 1.68; 3.36 and 6.72 mg L-1, with a 14C radioactivity of 0.233 kBq mL-1. Four steps of the desorption procedure with CaCl2 0.01 mol L-1 and one extraction with Mehlich 3 were performed only at one concentration (0.84 mol L-1. Soil samples were afterwards biologically oxidized to establish the radioactive balance. Glyphosate competes with phosphorus for specific sorption sites, but this competition becomes important when phosphorus is present at rates higher than 1,000 mg dm-3. Moreover, a small amount of applied glyphosate was extracted (<10%, and the extraction increased with increasing soil phosphorus content.

  1. Germination test as a fast method to detect glyphosate-resistant sourgrass

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcos Altomani Neves, Dias; Flavio Eduardo Botelhos, Obara; Natalia, Arruda; Patricia Ribeiro, Cursi; Navara Roberto, Gonalves; Pedro Jacob, Christoffoleti.

    Full Text Available The occurrence of weed species with different levels of resistance to glyphosate has increasingly spread in agricultural areas. In Brazil, sourgrass is among the main species presenting issues in this regard. Thus, fast and reliable methods to detect glyphosate resistance are of special interest for [...] this specie, either for research or rational management purposes. This study was carried out to verify the feasibility of using the germination test to detect glyphosate resistance in sourgrass. The experiment was conducted with two sourgrass biotypes, with different levels of susceptibility to glyphosate. The seeds were previously imbibed in solutions composed of 0, 0.1875%, 0.25%, 0.75%, 1.5%, 3% and 6% of glyphosate during two periods, five and ten minutes, and submitted to germination tests. The results indicate the germination test as a feasible and time-saving approach to evaluate glyphosate-resistant sourgrass, with results available in seven days.

  2. Efficiency and quality of glyphosate + carfentrazone application in controlling Commelina diffusa depending on the spray nozzles and Triunfo FlexTM adjuvant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber Daniel de Goes Maciel

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the efficiency and the quality of technology application of the tank mixture of glyphosate + carfentrazone-ethyl in Commelina diffusa control. The experiment was conducted in plastic greenhouse and the experimental units were represented by vessels with four plants of C. diffusa. The experimental design was the entirely randomized, with nine treatments in a factorial scheme (4x2+1, being four spray nozzles, (XR11002; DG11002; TT11002 and AI11002, two spray solutions of glyphosate + carfentrazone-ethy at 480 + 8 g ha-1 (with and without Triunfo FlexTM adjuvant at 0.05% v v-1 and a check without application. In the spray solution was added the FD&C-1 dye (1500 ppm, and applied over natural (15 replications of four leaves of C. diffusa and artificial targets (4 replications of two plastic blades over the soil. The tracer quantification on the targets was realized by spectrophotometry, beyond evaluated the pH, static surface tension and conductivity of the solutions and control of C. diffusa at 5, 10 and 15 days after application. The Triunfo FlexTM adjuvant reduced the surface tension and the pH of carfentrazone-ethyl + glyphosate mixture. There was significant interaction between nozzles and glyphosate + carfentrazone-ethyl solution with the adjuvant for the deposit on the leaves of C. diffusa. With the exception of TT11002 model, the other nozzles promoted significant increase of the deposition on C. diffusa when combined with the adjuvant. For solution deposition in plastic blades the best performances were characterized by DG11002 nozzle with and without adjuvant and AI11002 nozzle with adjuvant. The initial control of C. diffusa with glyphosate + carfentrazone-ethyl was improved when associated with the adjuvant, mainly for AI11002 and TT11002 nozzles.

  3. Influncia do orvalho e volume de calda de aplicao na eficcia do glyphosate na dessecao de Brachiaria plantaginea / Influence of dew and spray volume on the efficacy of glyphosate for Brachiaria plantaginea burndown

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E.S., Roman; L., Vargas; M.C.F., Ribeiro; A.R.M., Luiz.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A eficcia de herbicidas influenciada por diversos fatores que afetam a absoro e a translocao desses compostos na planta. A absoro de herbicidas pelas plantas, por exemplo, influenciada, tanto fsica como biologicamente, pela temperatura e pela umidade relativa do ar dentro do dossel. Com [...] a diminuio da umidade relativa do ar e/ou com o aumento da temperatura, as gotas da pulverizao secam mais rapidamente e a absoro do produto diminui, ou at mesmo cessa, afetando o desempenho biolgico. Com base nessa premissa, o presente estudo teve como objetivo examinar a influncia do orvalho e do volume de calda de aplicao na eficincia de doses de glyphosate para o controle de Brachiaria plantaginea. Foram observadas interaes significativas entre volume de calda, orvalho e dose de glyphosate. O volume mais baixo (100 L ha-1) resultou em melhor controle da espcie, especialmente quando o herbicida foi usado na menor dose (90 g ha-1). A presena de orvalho nas folhas causou redues na atividade do produto, especialmente quando aplicado na menor dose e combinado com maior volume de calda. Abstract in english The efficacy of herbicides is influenced by several factors affecting the absorption and translocation of these compounds in the plant. Herbicide plant absorption, for example, is both physically and biologically influenced by temperature and air relative humidity in the plant canopy. With the reduc [...] tion in relative air humidity and/or increase in temperature, the spray droplets dry more rapidly and the absorption of the herbicide decreases or even stops, affecting the biological performance. Based on that, this research aimed to study the influence of dew and spray volume on the efficacy of glyphosate rates in the control of B. plantaginea. There were significant interactions among volume of water, dew and rate of glyphosate. The lower the water volume, the more effective the glyphosate activity was, especially when applied at the lowest tested rate (90 g ha-1). The presence of dew on the leaves caused reductions in the activity of the product, mainly when the lowest rate was combined with the highest water volume.

  4. MANAGING GLYPHOSATE-RESISTANT PALMER AMARANTH (AMARANTHUS PALMERI) IN GEORGIA COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were conducted in GA to evaluate control programs on a population of glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth. Glyphosate at 0.84 (1X use rate), 1.68, and 3.36 kg ae ha-1 controlled the weed >31%. Pendimethalin (0.94 kg ai ha-1) plus fluometuron (1.12 kg ai ha-1) PRE, glyphosate 0.84 kg POST, ...

  5. Utilization of glyphosate as phosphate source: biochemistry and genetics of bacterial carbon-phosphorous lyase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove-Jensen, Bjarne; Zechel, David L; Jochimsen, Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    After several decades of use of glyphosate, the active ingredient in weed killers such as Roundup, in fields, forests, and gardens, the biochemical pathway of transformation of glyphosate phosphorus to a useful phosphorus source for microorganisms has been disclosed. Glyphosate is a member of a large group of chemicals, phosphonic acids or phosphonates, which are characterized by a carbon-phosphorus bond. This is in contrast to the general phosphorus compounds utilized and metabolized by microor...

  6. Annual Glyphosate Treatments Alter Growth of Unaffected Bentgrass (Agrostis) Weeds and Plant Community Composition

    OpenAIRE

    Ahrens, Collin W.; Auer, Carol A.

    2012-01-01

    Herbicide resistance is becoming more common in weed ecotypes and crop species including turfgrasses, but current gaps in knowledge limit predictive ecological risk assessments and risk management plans. This project examined the effect of annual glyphosate applications on the vegetative growth and reproductive potential of two weedy bentgrasses, creeping bentgrass (CB) and redtop (RT), where the glyphosate resistance (GR) trait was mimicked by covering the bentgrass plants during glyphosate ...

  7. BEHAVIOR OF THE NON-SELECTIVE HERBICIDE GLYPHOSATE IN AGRICULTURAL SOIL

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Jabbar Al-Rajab; Othman M. Hakami

    2014-01-01

    Glyphosate [N-phosphonomethyl]glycine is a systematic, non-selective, organophosphorus herbicide used worldwide in agriculture and industrial zones. Following its application, residues of glyphosate can threaten soil or aquatic organisms in adjacent water. In this study, we followed the degradation, stabilization, remobilization and leaching of 14C-glyphosate in three agricultural soils in laboratory incubations and in lysimeters under field condition...

  8. Cancer Incidence among Glyphosate-Exposed Pesticide Applicators in the Agricultural Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    DE ROOS, ANNECLAIRE J.; Blair, Aaron; Rusiecki, Jennifer A; Hoppin, Jane A; Svec, Megan; Dosemeci, Mustafa; Sandler, Dale P.; Alavanja, Michael C.

    2004-01-01

    Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum herbicide that is one of the most frequently applied pesticides in the world. Although there has been little consistent evidence of genotoxicity or carcinogenicity from in vitro and animal studies, a few epidemiologic reports have indicated potential health effects of glyphosate. We evaluated associations between glyphosate exposure and cancer incidence in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a prospective cohort study of 57,311 licensed pesticide applicators in...

  9. Degradation of the Herbicide Glyphosate by Members of the Family Rhizobiaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, C.-M.; McLean, P A; Sookdeo, C. C.; Cannon, F C

    1991-01-01

    Several strains of the family Rhizobiaceae were tested for their ability to degrade the phosphonate herbicide glyphosate (isopropylamine salt of N-phosphonomethylglycine). All organisms tested (seven Rhizobium meliloti strains, Rhizobium leguminosarum, Rhizobium galega, Rhizobium trifolii, Agrobacterium rhizogenes, and Agrobacterium tumefaciens) were able to grow on glyphosate as the sole source of phosphorus in the presence of the aromatic amino acids, although growth on glyphosate was not a...

  10. Clastogenic Effects of Glyphosate in Bone Marrow Cells of Swiss Albino Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Yogeshwer Shukla; Madhulika Singh; Smita Srivastava; Sahdeo Prasad

    2009-01-01

    Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine, C3H8NO5P), a herbicide, used to control unwanted annual and perennial plants all over the world. Nevertheless, occupational and environmental exposure to pesticides can pose a threat to nontarget species including human beings. Therefore, in the present study, genotoxic effects of the herbicide glyphosate were analyzed by measuring chromosomal aberrations (CAs) and micronuclei (MN) in bone marrow cells of Swiss albino mice. A single dose of glyphosate ...

  11. Use of glyphosate associate to herbicides applied in post-emergence on soybean crop genetically modified

    OpenAIRE

    Joaquim Julio Almeida Jnior; Alberto Leo Lemos Barroso; Alessandro Guerra da Silva; Srgio de Oliveira Procpio

    2010-01-01

    Frequent utilization of associations among post-emergence herbicides has remained a lot of questions about the selectivity and effectiveness of weeds control in soybean crop. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the selectivity and effectiveness of herbicides tank mixtures on weed management in Roundup Ready soybean crop. For this purpose, the following treatments were evaluated: glyphosate (960 g ha-1), glyphosate + Agrus 200 adjuvant (960 + 200 g ha-1), glyphosate+chlorimuron-ethyl (960 +12...

  12. Cigarette smoke exposure severely reduces peripheral insulin sensitivity without changing GLUT4 expression in oxidative muscle of Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Ebersbach-Silva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of exposure to cigarette smoke and running training on a treadmill on the expression of glucose transporter GLUT4 in oxidative soleus muscle of rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Wistar rats were divided into: (C control, (E exercise control, (SS, sedentary smoker, and (ES exercise smoker. Insulin Tolerance Test, Western blotting, and RT-PCR were performed for the evaluation of GLUT4 levels. RESULTS: The SS group presented lower insulin sensitivity with reduced GLUT4 protein in the plasma membrane (PM, no changes in the microsomal fraction, but increased mRNA content. Training reversed this condition. No intervention altered total GLUT4 content of the oxidative muscle. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that passive smoking stimulates GLUT4 transcription without changing total protein content, but impairs the ability of GLUT4 translocation to the PM. On the other hand, training seems to reduce the deleterious effects, even under the influence of cigarette smoking.

  13. Neutralization of the antimicrobial effect of glyphosate by humic acid in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehata, Awad A; Kühnert, Manfred; Haufe, Svent; Krüger, Monika

    2014-06-01

    In the present study, the neutralization ability of the antimicrobial effect of glyphosate by different humic acids was investigated. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of glyphosate for different bacteria such as Bacillus badius, Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Escherichia coli, E. coli 1917 strain Nissle, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium were determined in the presence or absence of different concentrations of humic acid (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 mg mL(-1)). Our findings indicated that humic acids inhibited the antimicrobial effect of glyphosate on different bacteria. This information can help overcome the negative impact of glyphosate residues in feed and water. PMID:24268342

  14. Urban contributions of glyphosate and its degradate AMPA to streams in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolpin, D.W.; Thurman, E.M.; Lee, E.A.; Meyer, M.T.; Furlong, E.T.; Glassmeyer, S.T.

    2006-01-01

    Glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide in the world, being routinely applied to control weeds in both agricultural and urban settings. Microbial degradation of glyphosate produces aminomethyl phosphonic acid (AMPA). The high polarity and water-solubility of glyphosate and AMPA has, until recently, made their analysis in water samples problematic. Thus, compared to other herbicides (e.g. atrazine) there are relatively few studies on the environmental occurrence of glyphosate and AMPA. In 2002, treated effluent samples were collected from 10 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to study the occurrence of glyphosate and AMPA. Stream samples were collected upstream and downstream of the 10 WWTPs. Two reference streams were also sampled. The results document the apparent contribution of WWTP effluent to stream concentrations of glyphosate and AMPA, with roughly a two-fold increase in their frequencies of detection between stream samples collected upstream and those collected downstream of the WWTPs. Thus, urban use of glyphosate contributes to glyphosate and AMPA concentrations in streams in the United States. Overall, AMPA was detected much more frequently (67.5%) compared to glyphosate (17.5%). ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Cloning and sequencing of the genes involved in glyphosate utilization by Pseudomonas pseudomallei.

    OpenAIRE

    Pealoza-Vazquez, A; Mena, G L; Herrera-Estrella, L.; Bailey, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    Thirty-four strains of Pseudomonas pseudomallei isolated from soil were selected for their ability to degrade the phosphonate herbicide glyphosate. All strains tested were able to grow on glyphosate as the only phosphorus source without the addition of aromatic amino acids. One of these strains, P. pseudomallei 22, showed 50% glyphosate degradation in 40 h in glyphosate medium. From a genomic library of this strain constructed in pUC19, we have isolated a plasmid carrying a 3.0-kb DNA fragmen...

  16. Import of a precursor protein into chloroplasts is inhibited by the herbicide glyphosate

    OpenAIRE

    Della-Cioppa, Guy; Kishore, Ganesh M.

    1988-01-01

    Import of the precursor to 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (pEPSPS) into chloroplasts is inhibited by the herbicide glyphosate. Inhibition of import is maximal at glyphosate concentrations of ?10 ?m and occurs only when pEPSPS is present as a ternary complex of enzymeshikimate-3-phosphateglyphosate. Glyphosate alone had no effect on the import of pEPSPS since it is not known to interact with the enzyme in the absence of shikimate-3-phosphate. Experiments with wild-type and glyph...

  17. The Fate and Transport of Glyphosate and AMPA into Surface Waters of Agricultural Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupe, R.; Kalkhoff, S.; Capel, P.; Gregoire, C.

    2010-12-01

    Glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] is a herbicide used widely throughout the world in the production of many crops, but is particularly heavily used on crops which are genetically modified to be glyphosate tolerant: predominately soybeans, corn, potatoes, and cotton. Glyphosate is used extensively in almost all agricultural areas of the United States, and annual application has increased from less than 10,000 Mg in 1992 to more than 80,000 Mg in 2007. The greatest areal use is in the Midwest where glyphosate is applied on genetically modified corn and soybeans. Although use is increasing, the characterization of glyphosate transport on the watershed scale is lacking. Glyphosate, and its degradate AMPA [aminomethylphosphoric acid], was frequently detected in the surface waters of four agricultural watersheds. The load as a percent of use of glyphosate ranged from 0.009 to 0.86 percent and can be related to three factors: source strength, hydrology, and flowpath. Glyphosate use within a watershed results in some occurrence in surface water at the part per billion level; however watersheds most at risk for the offsite transport of glyphosate are those with high application rates, rainfall that results in overland runoff, and a flowpath that does not include transport through the soil.

  18. BEHAVIOR OF THE NON-SELECTIVE HERBICIDE GLYPHOSATE IN AGRICULTURAL SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Jabbar Al-Rajab

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glyphosate [N-phosphonomethyl]glycine is a systematic, non-selective, organophosphorus herbicide used worldwide in agriculture and industrial zones. Following its application, residues of glyphosate can threaten soil or aquatic organisms in adjacent water. In this study, we followed the degradation, stabilization, remobilization and leaching of 14C-glyphosate in three agricultural soils in laboratory incubations and in lysimeters under field conditions. Glyphosate degradation was relatively rapid with a half-life of 14.5 days in the silt clay loam soil incubated at 20C. Glyphosates degradation product, Aminomethylphosphonic Acid (AMPA, represented more than 85% of residues after 80 days of laboratory incubation. Leaching of glyphosate in lysimeters of three different investigated soils under outdoor conditions was very slow, less than 1% of the initial applied amount has been detected in the leachates after 100 days of experimentation. Glyphosate rapidly formed non-extractable residues after treatment. In summary, glyphosate was removed from soil very rapidly and its leaching seems to be very slow regardless the type of treated soil. On the other hand, the contamination risk of groundwater with its metabolite AMPA at long term is probably due to the release of the non-extractable residues.

  19. Mineralization and degradation of glyphosate and atrazine applied in combination in a Brazilian Oxisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfleur, Eloana J; Lavorenti, Arquimedes; Tornisielo, Valdemar L

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the behavior of the association between atrazine and glyphosate in the soil through mineralization and degradation tests. Soil treatments consisted of the combination of a field dose of glyphosate (2.88 kg ha?) with 0, , 1 and 2 times a field dose of atrazine (3.00 kg ha?) and a field dose of atrazine with 0, , 1 and 2 times a field dose of glyphosate. The herbicide mineralization rates were measured after 0, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56 and 63 days of soil application, and degradation rates after 0, 7, 28 and 63 days. Although glyphosate mineralization rate was higher in the presence of 1 (one) dose of atrazine when compared with glyphosate alone, no significant differences were found when half or twice the atrazine dose was applied, meaning that differences in glyphosate mineralization rates cannot be attributed to the presence of atrazine. On the other hand, the influence of glyphosate on atrazine mineralization was evident, since increasing doses of glyphosate increased the atrazine mineralization rate and the lowest dose of glyphosate accelerated atrazine degradation. PMID:21191866

  20. Temporal Patterns of Glyphosate Leaching at a Loamy Agricultural Field in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Trine; Møldrup, Per; Olsen, Preben; Rosenbom, Annette Elisabeth; de Jonge, Lis Wollesen

    2013-01-01

    Glyphosate is a herbicide used worldwide for weed control in agriculture. Glyphosate is believed to pose a low risk for groundwater reservoirs due to its strong sorption to soil minerals and fast degradation. However, during the last ten years several studies have shown detections of glyphosate in......-structured loamy field (Estrup) located in southern Denmark. The Estrup field is part of the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Program (PLAP), which monitors and evaluates pesticide leaching from five differently textured agricultural fields in Denmark. The study investigates the effect of successive glyphosate...

  1. Caracteres anatmicos de duas espcies de trapoeraba e a eficincia do glyphosate / Anatomical features of two dayflower species (Commelina spp.) on glyphosate efficacy

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    I.C., Santos; R.M.S.A., Meira; F.A., Ferreira; L.D.T., Santos; G.V., Miranda.

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available O gnero Commelina engloba espcies de plantas daninhas de difcil controle em diversas culturas, principalmente onde o herbicida glyphosate tem sido utilizado com elevada freqncia. Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar diferenas entre caracteres anatmicos de Commelina benghalens [...] is e Commelina diffusa, submetidas a crescimento sob condies de sol e sombra, que pudessem influenciar a absoro e translocao deste herbicida. O complexo estomtico das duas espcies semelhante e a folha anfiestomtica. O nmero de estmatos na epiderme foliar foi maior em C. diffusa (38/mm) em relao a C. benghalensis (33,66/mm), na epiderme abaxial (54,86/mm) em relao adaxial (16,80/mm) e sob sol (37,89/mm) em relao a sombra (33,77/mm). A epiderme abaxial apresentou maior nmero de estmatos sob sol. Plos secretores, do mesmo tipo, esto presentes nas duas espcies, mas em maior nmero em C. diffusa. Somente C. benghalensis apresentou plos tectores, que so de dois tipos: longos com extremidade afilada e curtos com extremidade curva; os plos longos concentram-se na epiderme abaxial e os plos curtos, na epiderme adaxial. Apesar de a presena de plos na epiderme foliar ser freqentemente associada maior absoro de herbicidas, acredita-se que o fator determinante da maior suscetibilidade de C. benghalensis ao glyphosate, em relao a C. diffusa, esteja relacionado reserva de amido no caule. Enquanto C. benghalensis apresenta poucos e pequenos gros de amido no parnquima medular, C. diffusa apresenta grandes e numerosos gros de amido, o que, possivelmente, torna mais lenta a translocao simplstica de herbicidas, reduzindo a quantidade de herbicida acumulada nos pontos de crescimento e permitindo que ela rebrote mesmo aps a perda total das folhas. Abstract in english The genus Commelina includes weed species of difficult control in several crops, chiefly when the herbicide glyphosate is used repeatedly. This work was conducted to evaluate the differences between the anatomic features of Commelina benghalensis and Commelina diffusa, grown under sun and shade cond [...] itions, which could influence herbicide absorption and translocation. The stomatal apparatus of the two species is similar and the leaf is amphistomatic. C. diffusa has a greater number of stomata in relation to C. benghalensis. The number of stomatas in the leaf epiderm is greater in C. diffusa (38/mm) than in C. benghalensis (33.66/mm), in the abaxial (54.86/mm) rather than in the adaxial epiderm (16.80/mm) and under sun (37.89/mm) rather than shade conditions (33.77/mm). The abaxial epiderm has a greater number of stomata under sun conditions. Similar secretory hair is present in both species, but in greater number in C. diffusa. Only C. benghalensis presented tector hair: (i) long with slender extremity and (ii) short with curved extremity. Long hair is concentrated in the abaxial epiderm and short hair in the adaxial epiderm. Although the presence of hair in the leaf epiderm is frequently associated to greater herbicide absorption, it is believed that the determinant factor of greater susceptibility of C. benghalensis to glyphosate in comparison to C. diffusa could be related to the starch stock of the stem. While C. benghalensis presents fewer and smaller starch grains in the pith parenchyma, C. diffusa presents larger and numerous starch grains, which may make herbicide simplastic translocation slower, reducing the herbicide accumulated in the growth points, and allowing it to regrowth even after total leaves loss.

  2. EFECTOS LETALES Y SUBLETALES DEL GLIFOSATO (ROUNDUP ACTIVO) EN EMBRIONES DE ANUROS COLOMBIANOS / Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Glyphosate (Roundup Active) to Embryos of Colombian Anurans

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    TEFILA MARA, TRIANA VELSQUEZ; CLAUDIA MARSELA, MONTES ROJAS; MANUEL HERNANDO, BERNAL BAUTISTA.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available El glifosato es un herbicida usado en la agricultura que puede afectar especies no blanco. El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar los efectos letales (concentracin letal media - CL50) y subletales (cambios en el tamao corporal y desarrollo) del glifosato (Roundup Activo) sobre embriones de cuatro [...] especies de anuros expuestos durante 96 horas en pruebas de laboratorio y microcosmos. En laboratorio, la especie ms tolerante fue Engystomops pustulosus (CL50 = 3033,18 g a.e./L) y la ms sensible Rhinella marina (CL50 = 1421,46 g a.e./L), la cual mostr una reduccin significativa en el tamao corporal y retrasos en el desarrollo de los individuos. Las dems especies tuvieron un CL50 intermedio (Rhinella humboldti = 2899,36 ga.e./L; Hypsiboas crepitans = 2151,88 g a.e./L). En todos los casos el CL50 fue menor a la concentracin empleada en campo (5392,92 g a.e./ L) indicando un efecto txico alto. En los microcosmos, los embriones de E. pustulosus fueron los ms tolerantes (CL50 = 19,41 kg a.e./ha), mientras que los de R. humboldti los ms sensibles (CL50 = 10,61 kg a.e./ha). Sin embargo, todas las especies tuvieron un CL50 superiora la concentracin asperjada en campo (3,69 kg a.e./ ha), mostrando un efecto txico leve, y no hubo diferencias en el tamao corporalni en el desarrollo de los individuos. Este resultado muestra que el glifosato, en su presentacin comercial como Roundup Activo, genera una mortalidad moderada en los embriones de anuros. Abstract in english Glyphosate is an herbicide widely used in agriculture, which may affect non-target species. The aim of this study was to determine the lethal (Median lethal concentration - LC50) and sublethal effects (changes on body size and development) of glyphosate (Roundup Active) to embryos of four anuran sp [...] ecies, exposed during 96 hours under laboratory and microcosmtests. Under laboratory conditions, Engystomops pustulosus was the most tolerant species (LC50 = 3033,18 g a.e./L) and Rhinella marina was the most sensitive (LC50 = 1421,46 g a.e./L), which also showed a delayed development and significantly reduced body size. The other species had an intermediate LC50 (Rhinella humboldti = 2899,54 g a.e./L; Hypsiboas crepitans = 2151,88 g a.e./L). In all cases, the laboratory LC50 was lower than the concentration used in field (5392,92 g a.e./L), indicating a high toxic effect. In the microcosm tests, embryos of E. pustulosus were the most tolerant (LC50 = 19,41 kg a.e./ha), while R. humboldti were the most sensitive (LC50 = 10,61 kg a.e./ha). In this case, all four study species had a higher LC50 than the concentration sprayed in field (3,69 kg a.e./ ha), so a lower lethal effect, and there were no significant differences in body size and development. This result shows that the glyphosate, as the commercial presentation Roundup Active, produce a moderate mortality on anuran embryos.

  3. The intensity of non-target site mechanisms influences the level of resistance of sourgrass to glyphosate

    OpenAIRE

    Flávia Regina da Costa; Leonardo Bianco de Carvalho; Pedro Luis da Costa Aguiar Alves; Rafael Prado

    2014-01-01

    Non-target site mechanisms are involved in the resistance of sourgrass (Digitaria insularis) to glyphosate. Studies on the 14C-glyphosate absorption and translocation as well as the detection of glyphosate and its metabolites in sourgrass plants were carried out under controlled conditions to investigate if the differential response of resistant sourgrass biotypes (R1 and R2) is derived from the intensity of non-target site mechanisms involved in the resistance to glyphosate. Different patter...

  4. Efeito de adjuvantes adicionados calda herbicida contendo glyphosate Effect of adjuvants added to herbicide spray containing glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Vargas

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Tentativas de aumentar a fitotoxicidade do herbicida glyphosate atravs da adio de cido e/ ou de sulfato de amnio calda tem sido promissoras. A adio dessas substncias otimiza as propriedades qumicas da calda herbicida, superando efeitos negativos do pH elevado e de ions nela presentes. O objetivo desse trabalho foi investigar o efeito da adio de cido sulfrico e/ou de sulfato de amnio calda herbicida, sobre a eficincia do glyphosate misturado em diluente com alto pH e teores elevados de sais. Os tratamentos envolveram cinco doses de glyphosate (variveis de 180 a 540 g/ha i.a. diludas em gua destilada e, mais glyphosate a 270 g/ha misturado s guas minera is Fonte Azul e Fonte Iju em presena de cido sulfrico (0,5 1/ha e/ou sulfato de amnio (2 ,5 kg/h a . A fitotoxicidade foi avaliada aos 7, 17 e 27 dias aps as aplicaes do herbicida sobre a aveia preta. Os resultados demonstraram que a aveia-preta muito suscetvel ao de glyphosate, mesmo aplicado a 270 g/ha, independente da gua utilizada ou da adio de adjuvantes e, que a adio de cido sulfrico e/ou de sulfato de amnio calda no alterou a atividade do herbicida.Attempts to increase phytotoxicity of glyphosat e her bic ide through addition of acid and/or of ammonium sulphate to the spray solution have been promising. Addition of these substances optimize chemical properties of the herbicide spray, overcoming negative effects of high pH and of ons present in it. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of sulphuric acid and/or of ammonium sulphate addition to herbicide spray, on the efficiency of glyphosate mixed in diluents with high pH and high salts content. Glyphosate treatments consisted of five rates (variables from 180 to 540 g/ha a.e., diluted in distilled water, and also glyph osate at 270 g/h a a. e. mix ed in the mineral waters Fonte Azul and Fonte Iju. To this herbicide rate, it was added 0,5 1/ha of sulphuric acid and /or 2,5 kg/ha of ammonium sulphate, whose treatments were sprayed over oat plants. Herbicide toxicity was evaluated at 7, 17, and 27 days after applications. Results showed that oats was very susceptible to glyphosate action, even when applied at 270 g/ha, independent of water used or adjuvantes added. It is concluded that addition of sulphuric acid and/or of ammonium sulphate to spray solution do not increase herbicide activity of glyphosate.

  5. Efeito de adjuvantes adicionados calda herbicida contendo glyphosate / Effect of adjuvants added to herbicide spray containing glyphosate

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leandro, Vargas; Nilson G., Fleck; Marcos M. da, Cunha; Ribas A., Vidal.

    Full Text Available Tentativas de aumentar a fitotoxicidade do herbicida glyphosate atravs da adio de cido e/ ou de sulfato de amnio calda tem sido promissoras. A adio dessas substncias otimiza as propriedades qumicas da calda herbicida, superando efeitos negativos do pH elevado e de ions nela presentes. O o [...] bjetivo desse trabalho foi investigar o efeito da adio de cido sulfrico e/ou de sulfato de amnio calda herbicida, sobre a eficincia do glyphosate misturado em diluente com alto pH e teores elevados de sais. Os tratamentos envolveram cinco doses de glyphosate (variveis de 180 a 540 g/ha i.a.) diludas em gua destilada e, mais glyphosate a 270 g/ha misturado s guas minera is Fonte Azul e Fonte Iju em presena de cido sulfrico (0,5 1/ha) e/ou sulfato de amnio (2 ,5 kg/h a) . A fitotoxicidade foi avaliada aos 7, 17 e 27 dias aps as aplicaes do herbicida sobre a aveia preta. Os resultados demonstraram que a aveia-preta muito suscetvel ao de glyphosate, mesmo aplicado a 270 g/ha, independente da gua utilizada ou da adio de adjuvantes e, que a adio de cido sulfrico e/ou de sulfato de amnio calda no alterou a atividade do herbicida. Abstract in english Attempts to increase phytotoxicity of glyphosat e her bic ide through addition of acid and/or of ammonium sulphate to the spray solution have been promising. Addition of these substances optimize chemical properties of the herbicide spray, overcoming negative effects of high pH and of ons present i [...] n it. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of sulphuric acid and/or of ammonium sulphate addition to herbicide spray, on the efficiency of glyphosate mixed in diluents with high pH and high salts content. Glyphosate treatments consisted of five rates (variables from 180 to 540 g/ha a.e.), diluted in distilled water, and also glyph osate at 270 g/h a a. e. mix ed in the mineral waters Fonte Azul and Fonte Iju. To this herbicide rate, it was added 0,5 1/ha of sulphuric acid and /or 2,5 kg/ha of ammonium sulphate, whose treatments were sprayed over oat plants. Herbicide toxicity was evaluated at 7, 17, and 27 days after applications. Results showed that oats was very susceptible to glyphosate action, even when applied at 270 g/ha, independent of water used or adjuvantes added. It is concluded that addition of sulphuric acid and/or of ammonium sulphate to spray solution do not increase herbicide activity of glyphosate.

  6. Notch signalling in the paraxial mesoderm is most sensitive to reduced Pofut1 levels during early mouse development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serth Jrgen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evolutionarily conserved Notch signalling pathway regulates multiple developmental processes in a wide variety of organisms. One critical posttranslational modification of Notch for its function in vivo is the addition of O-linked fucose residues by protein O-fucosyltransferase 1 (POFUT1. In addition, POFUT1 acts as a chaperone and is required for Notch trafficking. Mouse embryos lacking POFUT1 function die with a phenotype indicative of global inactivation of Notch signalling. O-linked fucose residues on Notch can serve as substrates for further sugar modification by Fringe (FNG proteins. Notch modification by Fringe differently affects the ability of ligands to activate Notch receptors in a context-dependent manner indicating a complex modulation of Notch activity by differential glycosylation. Whether the context-dependent effects of Notch receptor glycosylation by FNG reflect different requirements of distinct developmental processes for O-fucosylation by POFUT1 is unclear. Results We have identified and characterized a spontaneous mutation in the mouse Pofut1 gene, referred to as "compact axial skeleton" (cax. Cax carries an insertion of an intracisternal A particle retrotransposon into the fourth intron of the Pofut1 gene and represents a hypomorphic Pofut1 allele that reduces transcription and leads to reduced Notch signalling. Cax mutant embryos have somites of variable size, showed partly abnormal Lfng expression and, consistently defective anterior-posterior somite patterning and axial skeleton development but had virtually no defects in several other Notch-regulated early developmental processes outside the paraxial mesoderm that we analyzed. Conclusion Notch-dependent processes apparently differ with respect to their requirement for levels of POFUT1. Normal Lfng expression and anterior-posterior somite patterning is highly sensitive to reduced POFUT1 levels in early mammalian embryos, whereas other early Notch-dependent processes such as establishment of left-right asymmetry or neurogenesis are not. Thus, it appears that in the presomitic mesoderm (PSM Notch signalling is particularly sensitive to POFUT1 levels. Reduced POFUT1 levels might affect Notch trafficking or overall O-fucosylation. Alternatively, reduced O-fucosylation might preferentially affect sites that are substrates for LFNG and thus important for somite formation and patterning.

  7. Effect of formulations on the absorption and translocation of glyphosate in transgenic soybean; Efeito de formulacoes na absorcao e translocacao do glyphosate em soja transgenica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, J.B. [UNIVALE, Governador Valadares, MG (Brazil). FAAG. Agronomia]. E-mail: jbarbosa@univale.br; Ferreira, E.A.; Silva, A.A. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Fitotecnia]. E-mail: evanderalves@yahoo.com.br; aasilva@ufv.br; Oliveira, J.A. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Geral]. E-mail: jalves@ufv.br; Fialho, C.M.T. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Agronomia]. E-mail: cintiamtfialho@yahoo.com.br

    2007-07-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the absorption and translocation of glyphosate formulations in genetically modified (GM) soybean by applying 14C-glyphosate mixed to three glyphosate formulations (Roundup Ready and R. Transorb - both with +isopropylamine salt, and Zapp Qi, formulated from potassic salt ), using a precision micro syringe. Plant samples were collected after herbicide application (4, 16, 40 and 64 hours) and then divided into leaf (trifolium), aerial part, roots and root nodes for radiation reading. 14C-glyphosate that was not absorbed was recovered and counted by washing the leaf with methanol. Penetration and translocation of 14C-glyphosate to the different parts evaluated was found to vary. However, the highest absorption was verified at intervals after 16 hours of application. The highest herbicide percentage in the aerial part of the soybean plants was found when Zapp (potassic salt) was applied on the aerial part and when isopropylamin salt was applied on the roots; 14C-glyphosate was found in the plant root nodules in all treatments, with the highest percentage being observed with R. Transorb, 40 hours after application (0.13% of the total measured or 0.4%, considering only the plant total). Results highlight the hypothesis that glyphosate could harm symbiosis between rhizobium and soybean, since the former also shows in its metabolism EPSPS, which is susceptible to this herbicide. (author)

  8. Reduced vascular responses to soluble guanylyl cyclase but increased sensitivity to sildenafil in female rats with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulopoulou, Styliani; Hannan, Johanna L; Matsumoto, Takayuki; Ogbi, Safia; Ergul, Adviye; Webb, R Clinton

    2015-07-15

    Impaired nitric oxide (NO), soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signaling (NO-sGC-cGMP) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular dysfunction. Efforts to directly target this signaling have led to the development of sGC agonists that activate the heme group of sGC (stimulators) or preferentially activate sGC when the heme is oxidized (activators). In this study, we hypothesized that resistance arteries from female rats with spontaneous type 2 diabetes (Goto-Kakizaki rats, GK) would have reduced vasodilatory responses to heme-dependent sGC activation and increased responses to heme-independent sGC activation compared with control rats (Wistar). Endothelium-dependent and -independent relaxation was assessed in isolated segments from mesenteric resistance arteries (MA) mounted in a wire myograph. GK MA had reduced responses to acetylcholine (pEC50: 7.96 0.06 vs. 7.66 0.05, P 0.05). GK MA had attenuated responses to BAY 41-2272 (heme-dependent sGC stimulator; pEC50: 7.56 0.05 vs. 6.93 0.06, P reproductive age that spontaneously develop type 2 diabetes have increased sensitivity to PDE5 inhibition and reduced responsiveness to sGC activators and stimulators. PMID:25957216

  9. Functional genomics analysis of horseweed (Conyza canadensis) with special reference to the evolution of non-target-site glyphosate resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    The evolution of glyphosate resistance in weedy species places an environmentally benign herbicide in peril. The first report of a dicot plant with evolved glyphosate resistance was horseweed, which occurred in 2001. Since then, several species have evolved glyphosate resistance and genomic informat...

  10. 40 CFR 174.524 - Glyphosate Oxidoreductase GOX or GOXv247 in all plants; exemption from the requirement of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Glyphosate Oxidoreductase GOX or... REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions 174.524 Glyphosate... Glyphosate Oxidoreductase GOX or GOXv247 enzyme in all plants are exempt from the requirement of a...

  11. Glifosato como desregulador endcrino qumico / Glyphosate as an endocrine chemical disruptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Marino Romano

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available ResumoDesreguladores endcrinos so molculas exgenas ambientais que podem afetar a sntese, secreo, transporte, metabolismo, ligao, ao e catabolismo de hormnios naturais do organismo, podendo exercer seu efeito mesmo quando em mnimas quantidades. O glifosato um herbicida utilizado no combate s plantas daninhas prejudiciais a diversas culturas, bastante efetivo, no seletivo e ps-emergente que inibe o crescimento da planta atravs da interferncia com a produo de aminocidos aromticos essenciais pela inibio da fotossntese. Em baixas concentraes no txicas ele causa efeito de desregulao sobre a enzima aromatase em clulas de placenta humana in vitro, reduzindo a atividade da enzima aromatase e reduzindo a expresso da protena StAR (protena de regulao rpida da esteroidognese. Acontaminao do solo e da gua tanto fluvial como subterrnea, pelo intenso uso do glifosato, pode levar a distrbios reprodutivos, alm da possibilidade da persistncia de resduos destas substncias no sangue, na carne, no leite, na urina e nas fezes dos animais levando recontaminao do solo e podendo chegar ao consumo humano. O objetivo desta reviso apresentar informaes atuais sobre a toxicologia do glifosato e a sua importncia sobre a sade humana, suscitando o debate nessa rea, uma vez que a legislao brasileira ainda no contempla o controle desse tipo de efeito txico.AbstractEndocrine disruptors (EDs are exogenous molecular factors that may affect the synthesis, secretion, transport, metabolism, binding, action, and catabolism of the bodys natural hormones. They are able to produce their effect even when they are present in minimum quantities. Glyphosate is an herbicide used to combat weeds that are harmful to different plants. It is very effective, non-selective and post-emergent, inhibiting the plant growth by interfering with the production of essential aromatic amino acids for the inhibition of photosynthesis. At low and non-toxic concentrations it causes disruption effects upon the aromatase enzyme in human placenta cells in vitro, reducing the activity of this enzyme and reducing the expression of the StAR protein (steroid acute regulatory protein. The contamination of soil and of both surface and underground water due to the intense use of glyphosate may lead to reproductive disorders and also the possibility of the persistence of residues of these substances in blood, meat, milk, urine and animal excrements, leading to the recontamination of the soil and possibly reaching products consumed by humans. The purpose of this review has been to provide current information on the toxicology of glyphosate (formulation Roundup and its importance for human health, raising the debate in this field, since the Brazilian legislation does not address the control of such toxic effects yet.

  12. Efficacy of Pre-Emergence and Post-Emergence Soybean Herbicides for Control of Glufosinate-, Glyphosate-, and Imidazolinone-Resistant Volunteer Corn

    OpenAIRE

    Chahal, Parminder S; Greg Kruger; Humberto Blanco-Canqui; Amit J. Jhala

    2014-01-01

    Glyphosate-resistant corn and soybean are grown in rotations in the Midwest, including Nebraska. Volunteer corn is a problematic weed in soybean fields because it causes harvest problems, reduces yield and seed quality, and potentially harbors insects, pests, and diseases. Several pre-packaged herbicides have been registered in soybean in recent years, but response of volunteer corn to these herbicides has not yet been documented. Greenhouse experiments were conducted to evaluate the respons...

  13. Research on the weed control degree and glyphosate soil biodegradation in apple plantations (Pioneer variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersilia ALEXA

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study we follow control degree of glyphosate herbicide on weeds in apple plantations (Pioneer variety of the Research Station Timisoara. It was also followed glyphosate biodegradation capacity in the soil by determining the amount of CO2 released by the action of microorganisms on C14 glyphosate marked isotope. Laboratory analysis of glyphosate residues in soil was made using a Liquid Scintillation TRIATHLER. Glyphosate biodegradation ability in the presence of soil microorganisms is high, so glyphosate residues remaining in soil, in terms of its use in weed combating, are minimal. Study of glyphosate biodegradation capacity in the experimental field indicates that the CO2 fraction accumulated after 50 days is 28.02% for samples exposed in the experimental field. Weather conditions, especially temperature variations between day and night, influences the activity of soilmicroorganisms and affect biodegraded glyphosate percentage.Chemical method of weed control consisted in: herbicide used was Roundup 3 l/ha (glyphosate isopropyl amine salt 360 g/l and are based on chemical application on weeds, on the rows of trees, on their uptake and translocation in their organs having as principal scope the total destruction of weeds. The experimental results obtained reveal a weed combat degree of 82.98% , in the case of chemical variant, compared with control variant. The species combated mainly due to glyphosate herbicide, which is no longer found in the final mapping are: Capsella bursa-pastoris, Chenopodium album, Echinochloa crus-galli, Plantago major, Polygonum aviculare. Total combated weeds /m2 with glyphosate is 126.67.

  14. Consequences of phosphate application on glyphosate uptake by roots: Impacts for environmental management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Marcelo Pedrosa; Maccario, Sophie; Lucotte, Marc; Labrecque, Michel; Juneau, Philippe

    2015-12-15

    Phosphate (PO4(3-)) fertilization is a common practice in agricultural fields also targets for glyphosate application. Due to their chemical similarities, PO4(3-) and glyphosate compete for soil adsorbing sites, with PO4(3-) fertilization increasing glyphosate bioavailability in the soil solution. After PO4(3-) fertilization, its concentration will be elevated in the soil solution and both PO4(3-) and glyphosate will be readily available for runoff into aquatic ecosystems. In this context, man-made riparian buffer strips (RBS) at the interface of agricultural lands and waterways can be used as a green technology to mitigate water contamination. The plants used in RBS form a barrier to agricultural wastes that can limit runoff, and the ability of these plants to take up these compounds through their roots plays an important role in RBS efficacy. However, the implications of PO4(3-) for glyphosate uptake by roots are not yet clearly demonstrated. Here, we addressed this problem by hydroponically cultivating willow plants in nutrient solutions amended with glyphosate and different concentrations of PO4(3-), assuring full availability of both chemicals to the roots. Using a phosphate carrier inhibitor (phosphonophormic acid-PFA), we found that part of the glyphosate uptake is mediated by PO4(3-) transporters. We observed, however, that PO4(3-) increased glyphosate uptake by roots, an effect that was related to increased root cell membrane stability. Our results indicate that PO4(3-) has an important role in glyphosate physiological effects. Under agricultural conditions, PO4(3-) fertilization can amplify glyphosate efficiency by increasing its uptake by the roots of undesired plants. On the other hand, since simultaneous phosphate and glyphosate runoffs are common, non-target species found near agricultural fields can be affected. PMID:26282745

  15. Herbicidas para o controle de plantas voluntárias de soja resistentes ao glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayene Bueno Cruvinel Lima

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a eficácia de herbicidas no controle de plantas voluntárias de soja resistente ao glyphosate. O ensaio foi conduzido a campo utilizando o delineamento de blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 6x9, com quatro repetições, sendo o primeiro fator seis variedades de soja resistentes ao herbicida glyphosate (BRS Favorita RR®, BRS Valiosa RR®, CD 219 RR®, M-SOY 7908 RR®, P98Y11® e P98R31® e o segundo herbicidas aplicados isolados ou em mistura (2,4-D, 2,4-D + glyphosate, metsulfuron-methyl, metsulfuron-metyl + glyphosate, [MSMA + diuron], [MSMA + diuron] + glyphosate, [paraquat + diuron], [paraquat + diuron] + glyphosate e uma testemunha sem herbicida. Os tratamentos [MSMA + diuron] e [MSMA + diuron] + glyphosate apresentaram controle eficaz apenas para CD 219 RR®. Metsulfuron-methyl + glyphosate apresentou eficácia no controle da M-SOY 7908 RR®, P98Y11®, P98R31®, BRS Favorita RR® e CD 219 RR®; assim como a cultivar BRS Valiosa RR® foi a mais tolerante a esse tratamento. A adição de glyphosate não acarretou efeitos antagônicos na eficácia dos herbicidas, porém potencializou a ação do metsulfuron-methyl. Os herbicidas [paraquat + diuron] e 2,4-D foram eficazes no controle da soja RR. Houve diferenças na sensibilidade das variedades aos herbicidas metsulfuron-methyl, metsulfuron-methyl + glyphosate, [MSMA + diuron] e [MSMA + diuron] + glyphosate.

  16. Re-evaluation of groundwater monitoring data for glyphosate and bentazone by taking detection limits into account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Claus Toni; Ritz, Christian; Gerhard, Daniel; Jensen, Jens Erik; Streibig, Jens Carl

    2015-12-01

    Current regulatory assessment of pesticide contamination of Danish groundwater is exclusively based on samples with pesticide concentrations above detection limit. Here we demonstrate that a realistic quantification of pesticide contamination requires the inclusion of "non-detect" samples i.e. samples with concentrations below the detection limit, as left-censored observations. The median calculated pesticide concentrations are shown to be reduced 10(4) to 10(5) fold for two representative herbicides (glyphosate and bentazone) relative to the median concentrations based upon observations above detection limits alone. PMID:26196070

  17. Re-evaluation of groundwater monitoring data for glyphosate and bentazone by taking detection limits into account

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus Toni; Ritz, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Current regulatory assessment of pesticide contamination of Danish groundwater is exclusively based on samples with pesticide concentrations above detection limit. Here we demonstrate that a realistic quantification of pesticide contamination requires the inclusion of "non-detect" samples i.e. samples with concentrations below the detection limit, as left-censored observations. The median calculated pesticide concentrations are shown to be reduced 10(4) to 10(5) fold for two representative herbicides (glyphosate and bentazone) relative to the median concentrations based upon observations above detection limits alone.

  18. Highly sensitive determination of reduced glutathione based on a cobalt nanoparticle implanted-modified indium tin oxide electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tong; Su, Wen; Xiao, Zhengjun; Hao, Shuang; Li, Yuanchun; Hu, Jingbo

    2015-08-01

    Cobalt nanoparticle modified indium tin oxide (CoNP/ITO) electrodes fabricated by ion implantation were applied for the detection of reduced glutathione (GSH). The CoNP/ITO electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) detector and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The assay performance with regard to GSH were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (I-t). The proposed sensor exhibited a much higher electrocatalytic activity toward the oxidation of GSH than the bare ITO electrode, with a detection limit of 5 nM. The CoNP/ITO electrode showed enhanced electrocatalytic properties, high sensitivity, good long-term stability and reproducibility as well as a rapid response to detect GSH. In addition, the CoNP/ITO electrode was also used to analyse the GSH concentration in eye drop samples, and the results were in good agreement with the labelled values. PMID:26034785

  19. Improved Selectivity and Sensitivity of Gas Sensing Using a 3D Reduced Graphene Oxide Hydrogel with an Integrated Microheater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jin; Tao, Kai; Miao, Jianmin; Norford, Leslie K

    2015-12-16

    Low-cost, one-step, and hydrothermal synthesized 3D reduced graphene oxide hydrogel (RGOH) is exploited to fabricate a high performance NO2 and NH3 sensor with an integrated microheater. The sensor can experimentally detect NO2 and NH3 at low concentrations of 200 ppb and 20 ppm, respectively, at room temperature. In addition to accelerating the signal recovery rate by elevating the local silicon substrate temperature, the microheater is exploited for the first time to improve the selectivity of NO2 sensing. Specifically, the sensor response from NH3 can be effectively suppressed by a locally increased temperature, while the sensitivity of detecting NO2 is not significantly affected. This leads to good discrimination between NO2 and NH3. This strategy paves a new avenue to improve the selectivity of gas sensing by using the microheater to raise substrate temperature. PMID:26630364

  20. Chronic sleep restriction disrupts sleep homeostasis and behavioral sensitivity to alcohol by reducing the extracellular accumulation of adenosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clasadonte, Jerome; McIver, Sally R; Schmitt, Luke I; Halassa, Michael M; Haydon, Philip G

    2014-01-29

    Sleep impairments are comorbid with a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders including depression, epilepsy, and alcohol abuse. Despite the prevalence of these disorders, the cellular mechanisms underlying the interaction between sleep disruption and behavior remain poorly understood. In this study, the impact of chronic sleep loss on sleep homeostasis was examined in C57BL/6J mice following 3 d of sleep restriction. The electroencephalographic power of slow-wave activity (SWA; 0.5-4 Hz) in nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and adenosine tone were measured during and after sleep restriction, and following subsequent acute sleep deprivation. During the first day of sleep restriction, SWA and adenosine tone increased, indicating a homeostatic response to sleep loss. On subsequent days, SWA declined, and this was accompanied by a corresponding reduction in adenosine tone caused by a loss of one source of extracellular adenosine. Furthermore, the response to acute sleep deprivation (6 h) was significantly attenuated in sleep-restricted mice. These effects were long-lasting with reduced SWA and adenosine tone persisting for at least 2 weeks. To investigate the behavioral consequences of chronic sleep restriction, sensitivity to the motor-impairing effects of alcohol was also examined. Sleep-restricted mice were significantly less sensitive to alcohol when tested 24 h after sleep restriction, an effect that persisted for 4 weeks. Intracerebroventricular infusion of an adenosine A1 receptor antagonist produced a similar decrease in sensitivity to alcohol. These results suggest that chronic sleep restriction induces a sustained impairment in adenosine-regulated sleep homeostasis and consequentially impacts the response to alcohol. PMID:24478367

  1. Identificao de bitipos de azevm (Lolium multiflorum) resistentes ao herbicida glyphosate em pomares de ma Identification of glyphosate-resistant ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) biotypes in apple orchards

    OpenAIRE

    L. VARGAS; E.S. Roman; M.A Rizzardi; V.C. Silva

    2004-01-01

    O glyphosate um herbicida de amplo espectro utilizado h mais de 15 anos em pomares de ma na regio de Vacaria-RS, para manejo da vegetao nas linhas da cultura. So realizadas, em geral, trs a quatro aplicaes por ciclo e a dose normalmente utilizada de 720 a 1.080 g e.a. ha-1 de glyphosate (2 a 3 L ha-1 do produto comercial). O azevm (Lolium multiflorum) uma planta daninha comum em pomares e, tradicionalmente, sensvel ao glyphosate. Entretanto, nos ltimos anos a ocorrncia de ...

  2. Seletividade de glyphosate isolado ou em misturas para soja RR em aplicaes sequenciais Selectivity of glyphosate alone or in mixtures for RR soybean in sequential applications

    OpenAIRE

    D.G. Alonso; J. Constantin; R.S. Oliveira JR; Santos, G.; H.A Dan; A.M. Oliveira Neto

    2013-01-01

    O uso de misturas de herbicidas latifolicidas com o glyphosate tem sido uma alternativa para o controle de plantas daninhas resistentes ao glyphosate ou de difcil controle nos cultivos de soja RR. Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar a seletividade de aplicaes sequenciais de glyphosate, isolado ou em mistura com latifolicidas, para a soja RR. As aplicaes dos tratamentos foram feitas em plantas de soja cultivar CD214 RR nos estdios de desenvolvimento V1 a V2 e V3 a V4. Os herbicidas ...

  3. Absoro, translocao e metabolismo do glyphosate por plantas tolerantes e suscetveis a este herbicida Absorption, translocation and metabolism of glyphosate by plants tolerant and susceptible to this herbicide

    OpenAIRE

    P.A Monquero; P.J. Christoffoleti; M.D. Osuna; R.A. De Prado

    2004-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a absoro foliar, a translocao e o metabolismo do 14C-glyphosate pelas plantas daninhas Commelina benghalensis, Ipomoea grandifolia e Amaranthus hybridus. O glyphosate foi aplicado atravs de quatro gotas de 0,5 L de uma soluo contendo o produto comercial, na dose de campo de 720 g e.a. ha-1 em mistura com 14C-glyphosate, na face adaxial da segunda folha verdadeira das plantas estudadas. As avaliaes foram feitas a 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48 e ...

  4. miR-134 in extracellular vesicles reduces triple-negative breast cancer aggression and increases drug sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Claire; Martinez, Vanesa G.; Daly, Melissa; Rani, Sweta; Gallagher, William M.; Radomski, Marek W.; MacLeod, Roderick A.F.; O'Driscoll, Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    Exosomes (EVs) have relevance in cell-to-cell communication carrying pro-tumorigenic factors that participate in oncogenesis and drug resistance and are proposed to have potential as self-delivery systems. Advancing on our studies of EVs in triple-negative breast cancer, here we more comprehensively analysed isogenic cell line variants and their EV populations, tissues cell line variants and their EV populations, as well as breast tumour and normal tissues. Profiling 384 miRNAs showed EV miRNA content to be highly representative of their cells of origin. miRNAs most substantially down-regulated in aggressive cells and their EVs originated from 14q32. Analysis of miR-134, the most substantially down-regulated miRNA, supported its clinical relevance in breast tumours compared to matched normal breast tissue. Functional studies indicated that miR-134 controls STAT5B which, in turn, controls Hsp90. miR-134 delivered by direct transfection into Hs578Ts(i)8 cells (in which it was greatly down-regulated) reduced STAT5B, Hsp90, and Bcl-2 levels, reduced cellular proliferation, and enhanced cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Delivery via miR-134-enriched EVs also reduced STAT5B and Hsp90, reduced cellular migration and invasion, and enhanced sensitivity to anti-Hsp90 drugs. While the differing effects achieved by transfection or EV delivery are likely to be, at least partly, due to specific amounts of miR-134 delivered by these routes, these EV-based studies identified miRNA-134 as a potential biomarker and therapeutic for breast cancer. PMID:26416415

  5. miR-134 in extracellular vesicles reduces triple-negative breast cancer aggression and increases drug sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Keith; Lowry, Michelle C; Corcoran, Claire; Martinez, Vanesa G; Daly, Melissa; Rani, Sweta; Gallagher, William M; Radomski, Marek W; MacLeod, Roderick A F; O'Driscoll, Lorraine

    2015-10-20

    Exosomes (EVs) have relevance in cell-to-cell communication carrying pro-tumorigenic factors that participate in oncogenesis and drug resistance and are proposed to have potential as self-delivery systems. Advancing on our studies of EVs in triple-negative breast cancer, here we more comprehensively analysed isogenic cell line variants and their EV populations, tissues cell line variants and their EV populations, as well as breast tumour and normal tissues. Profiling 384 miRNAs showed EV miRNA content to be highly representative of their cells of origin. miRNAs most substantially down-regulated in aggressive cells and their EVs originated from 14q32. Analysis of miR-134, the most substantially down-regulated miRNA, supported its clinical relevance in breast tumours compared to matched normal breast tissue. Functional studies indicated that miR-134 controls STAT5B which, in turn, controls Hsp90. miR-134 delivered by direct transfection into Hs578Ts(i)8 cells (in which it was greatly down-regulated) reduced STAT5B, Hsp90, and Bcl-2 levels, reduced cellular proliferation, and enhanced cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Delivery via miR-134-enriched EVs also reduced STAT5B and Hsp90, reduced cellular migration and invasion, and enhanced sensitivity to anti-Hsp90 drugs. While the differing effects achieved by transfection or EV delivery are likely to be, at least partly, due to specific amounts of miR-134 delivered by these routes, these EV-based studies identified miRNA-134 as a potential biomarker and therapeutic for breast cancer. PMID:26416415

  6. Enhancement of photocatalytic H2 evolution of eosin Y-sensitized reduced graphene oxide through a simple photoreaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiying Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A graphene oxide (GO solution was irradiated by a Xenon lamp to form reduced graphene oxide (RGO. After irradiation, the epoxy, the carbonyl and the hydroxy groups are gradually removed from GO, resulting in an increase of sp2 π-conjugated domains and defect carbons with holes for the formed RGO. The RGO conductivity increases due to the restoration of sp2 π-conjugated domains. The photocatalytic activity of EY-RGO/Pt for hydrogen evolution was investigated with eosin Y (EY as a sensitizer of the RGO and Pt as a co-catalyst. When the irradiation time is increased from 0 to 24 h the activity rises, and then reaches a plateau. Under optimum conditions (pH 10.0, 5.0 × 10−4 mol L−1 EY, 10 μg mL−1 RGO, the maximal apparent quantum yield (AQY of EY-RGO24/Pt for hydrogen evolution rises up to 12.9% under visible light irradiation (λ ≥ 420 nm, and 23.4% under monochromatic light irradiation at 520 nm. Fluorescence spectra and transient absorption decay spectra of the EY-sensitized RGO confirm that the electron transfer ability of RGO increases with increasing irradiation time. The adsorption quantity of EY on the surface of RGO enhances, too. The two factors ultimately result in an enhancement of the photocatalytic hydrogen evolution over EY-RGO/Pt with increasing irradiation time. A possible mechanism is discussed.

  7. Altering second-order configurations reduces the adaptation effects on early face-sensitive event-related potential components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornl Nmeth

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The spatial distances among the features of a face are commonly referred to as second-order relations, and the coding of these properties is often regarded as a cornerstone in face recognition. Previous studies have provided mixed results regarding whether the N170, a face-sensitive component of the event-related potential, is sensitive to second-order relations. Here we investigated this issue in a gender discrimination paradigm following long-term (5 seconds adaptation to normal or vertically stretched male and female faces, considering that the latter manipulation substantially alters the position of the inner facial features. Gender-ambiguous faces were more likely judged to be female following adaptation to a male face and vice versa. This aftereffect was smaller but statistically significant after being adapted to vertically stretched when compared to unstretched adapters. Event-related potential recordings revealed that adaptation effects measured on the amplitude of the N170 show strong modulations by the second-order relations of the adapter: reduced N170 amplitude was observed, however, this reduction was smaller in magnitude after being adapted to stretched when compared to unstretched faces. These findings suggest early face-processing, as reflected in the N170 component, proceeds by extracting the spatial relations of inner facial features.

  8. Inactivation of capsaicin-sensitive nerves reduces pulmonary remodeling in guinea pigs with chronic allergic pulmonary inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Prado

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary remodeling is an important feature of asthma physiopathology that can contribute to irreversible changes in lung function. Although neurokinins influence lung inflammation, their exact role in the extracellular matrix (ECM remodeling remains to be determined. Our objective was to investigate whether inactivation of capsaicin-sensitive nerves modulates pulmonary ECM remodeling in animals with chronic lung inflammation. After 14 days of capsaicin (50 mg/kg, sc or vehicle administration, male Hartley guinea pigs weighing 250-300 g were submitted to seven inhalations of increasing doses of ovalbumin (1, 2.5, and 5 mg/mL or saline for 4 weeks. Seventy-two hours after the seventh inhalation, animals were anesthetized and mechanically ventilated and the lung mechanics and collagen and elastic fiber content in the airways, vessels and lung parenchyma were evaluated. Ovalbumin-exposed animals presented increasing collagen and elastic fiber content, respectively, in the airways (9.2 0.9; 13.8 1.2, vessels (19.8 0.8; 13.4 0.5 and lung parenchyma (9.2 0.9; 13.8 1.2 compared to control (P < 0.05. Capsaicin treatment reduced collagen and elastic fibers, respectively, in airways (1.7 1.1; 7.9 1.5, vessels (2.8 1.1; 4.4 1.1 and lung tissue (2.8 1.1; 4.4 1.1 of ovalbumin-exposed animals (P < 0.05. These findings were positively correlated with lung mechanical responses to antigenic challenge (P < 0.05. In conclusion, inactivation of capsaicin-sensitive nerve fibers reduces pulmonary remodeling, particularly collagen and elastic fibers, which contributes to the attenuation of pulmonary functional parameters.

  9. Deriva de equipamentos costais na aplicao de glyphosate

    OpenAIRE

    Euripedes B. Rodrigues; Otavio J. G. Abi-Saab; Marco A. Gandolfo; Rone B. de Oliveira; Marcio M. Hasegawa

    2015-01-01

    RESUMOObjetivou-se, neste trabalho, comparar o risco potencial de deriva provocada por trs equipamentos que utilizam diferentes taxas de aplicao do herbicida glyphosate. Os equipamentos avaliados foram: pulverizador costal de acionamento manual, pulverizador costal pressurizado e um pulverizador de micronizao centrfuga acionado eletricamente. Os equipamentos foram testados com as pontas de pulverizao AXI 110015 e AXI 11003. O risco potencial de deriva foi avaliado em tnel de vento co...

  10. Ecotoxicological assessment of soil microbial community tolerance to glyphosate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegrini, Marco; Zabaloy, Mara Celina; Gmez, Elena del V

    2015-11-15

    Glyphosate is the most used herbicide worldwide. While contrasting results have been observed related with its impact on soil microbial communities, more studies are necessary to elucidate the potential effects of the herbicide. Differences in tolerance detected by Pollution Induced Community Tolerance (PICT) approach could reflect these effects. The objective of the present study was to assess the tolerance to glyphosate (the active ingredient and a commercial formulation) of contrasting soils with (H) and without (NH) history of exposure. The hypothesis of a higher tolerance in H soils due to a sustained selection pressure on community structure was tested through the PICT approach. Results indicated that tolerance to glyphosate is not consistent with previous history of exposure to the herbicide either for the active ingredient or for a commercial formulation. Soils of H and NH sites were also characterized in order to determine to what extent they differ in their functional diversity and structure of microbial communities. Denaturant Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) and Quantitative Real Time PCR (Q-PCR) indicated high similarity of Eubacteria profiles as well as no significant differences in abundance, respectively, between H and NH sites. Community level physiological profiling (CLPP) indicated some differences in respiration of specific sources but functional diversity was very similar as reflected by catabolic evenness (E). These results support PICT assay, which ideally requires soils with differences in their exposure to the contaminant but minor differences in other characteristics. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of PICT approach with glyphosate examining tolerance at soil microbial community level. PMID:26150308

  11. Genotoxicity of diuron and glyphosate in oyster spermatozoa and embryos

    OpenAIRE

    Akcha, Farida; Spagnol, Charlene; Rouxel, Julien

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effects of genotoxicant exposure in gametes and embryos to find a possible link between genotoxicity and reproduction/developmental impairment, and explore the impact of chemical genotoxicity on population dynamics. Our study focused on the genotoxic effects of two herbicides on oyster gametes and embryos: glyphosate (both as an active substance and in the Roundup formulation) and diuron. France is Europe's leading consumer of agrochemical substances and as such, contamina...

  12. Shikimate accumulation, glyphosate absorption and translocation in horseweed biotypes / Acmulo de chiquimato, absoro e translocao do glyphosate em bitipos de buva

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    V.C.B., CARDINALI; A.C.R., DIAS; T.C., MUELLER; L., ABERCROMBIE; C.N., STEWART JR.; V.L., TORNISIELO; P.J., CHRISTOFFOLETI.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, poucos trabalhos de pesquisas com mecanismos de resistncia de plantas daninhas ao glyphosate foram conduzidos at o momento. Assim, o objetivo desta pesquisa foi estudar procedimentos analticos para determinar a relao da concentrao de chiquimato na planta aps aplicao de glyphosat [...] e e a resistncia da planta a este herbicida, bem como avaliar a absoro e translocao do herbicida glyphosate em dois bitipos de buva, resistente e suscetvel (S) ao glyphosate. Plantas de buva com nove folhas definitivas receberam glyphosate (720 g e.a. ha-1), e 2, 3, 4, 7 e 10 dias aps a aplicao (DAA) foi medida a concentrao de cido chiqumico da parte area, atravs de HPLC. Em outro experimento, as plantas foram tratadas com glyphosate radiomarcado (14C) (atividade especfica de 1,456 MBq mmol-1), e a radioatividade foi determinada 4, 8, 24, 48 e 72 horas aps o tratamento (HAT), por espectrometria de cintilao lquida. A concentrao de chiquimato aumentou (16.351,14 e 7.892,25 mg kg-1 de matria seca nas plantas R e S, respectivamente) aos 7 DAA. Portanto, o procedimento de quantificao do cido chiqumico foi adequado para diferenciao das plantas R e S ao glyphosate, indicando que a populao R estudada resistente ao glyphosate. Em mdia, 98% do glyphosate aplicado foi absorvido pelos bitipos estudados 72 HAT. Cerca de 68% da radioatividade absorvida permaneceu nas folhas tratadas dos bitipos, sendo que o bitipo S foi o que mais translocou. Assim, o mecanismo de resistncia no bitipo R estudado est relacionado com a translocao diferencial. Abstract in english In Brazil, few research works on mechanisms of weed resistance to glyphosate have been conducted so far. Therefore, this research aimed to study analytical procedures determining the relation between the concentration of plant shikimate after glyphosate application and the plant resistance to this h [...] erbicide; and evaluate the glyphosate absorption and translocation into two resistant and susceptible (S) horseweed biotypes to glyphosate. Horseweed plants with nine true leaves received glyphosate (720 g a.e. ha-1), and 2, 3, 4, 7 and 10 days after application (DAA) the concentration of shikimic acid was measured by HPLC. In another experiment, plants were treated with radiolabeled glyphosate (14C) (1.456 MBq mmol-1 specific activity) and radioactivity was measured 4, 8, 24, 48 and 72 hours after treatment (HAT) by liquid scintillation spectrometry. The shikimate concentration in plants increased 16,351.14 and 7,892.25 mg kg-1 of dry weight, for R and S plants respectively, at seven DAA. Therefore, the procedure for quantification of shikimic acid was suitable for R and S plants differentiation to glyphosate, indicating that the R population is actually resistant to glyphosate. On average, 98% of glyphosate applied was absorbed by the studied biotypes, at 72 HAT. Around 68% of the absorbed radioactivity remained on the biotypes leaves treated, the S biotype showing the highest translocation. Therefore, the R biotype resistance mechanism studied is associated to the differential translocation.

  13. Association effects of glyphosate and phosphite in maize plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Larissa Gimenes Cotrick Gomes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of glyphosate herbicide association with potassium phosphite in maize plants. The experiment was accomplished in green house conditions, with seeding of Pioneer 30F53H simple hybrid in vases. Experimental design used was entirely randomized with six treatments and four replications. Treatments application was made with plants in V7 developmental stage. Evaluations of electron transport rate (ETR in photo system II were conducted during periods of 1, 2, 5, 32, 56, 80, 104, 128, 152, 176, 200 and 360 hours after application (HAA, as well as visual determinations of intoxication in the same plants at 2, 4, 6, 10 and 15 days after application (DAA. At the end of experiment (15 DAA it was determined plants height with a graduated ruler from soil level as far as the insertion of last leaf fully expanded, and leaves and stalks dry mass. Glyphosate association with potassium phosphite Fosway (3.0 L ha-1, with 30% of P2O5 and 20% of K2O with 72 g a.e. ha-1 dose increased the levels of plant intoxication. Maize plants submitted to 72 g a.e. ha-1 dose alone showed higher growth than control. ETR of treated plants showed an increase in the first hours after application, and subsequent reduction in plants exposed to higher doses of glyphosate associated or not with potassium phosphite.

  14. Interactions of Glyphosate with Soil and Plant Microbial Communities and Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impacts of glyphosate on soil and plant microbial interactions have received considerable attention in the last 10 to 15 years as glyphosate-resistant crop technology became the dominant management option for major crop production systems. Although effective weed management is the goal of this techn...

  15. Early detection of crop injury from herbicide glyphosate by leaf biochemical parameter inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Feng; Guo, Yiqing; Huang, Yanbo; Reddy, Krishna N.; Lee, Matthew A.; Fletcher, Reginald S.; Thomson, Steven J.

    2014-09-01

    Early detection of crop injury from herbicide glyphosate is of significant importance in crop management. In this paper, we attempt to detect glyphosate-induced crop injury by PROSPECT (leaf optical PROperty SPECTra model) inversion through leaf hyperspectral reflectance measurements for non-Glyphosate-Resistant (non-GR) soybean and non-GR cotton leaves. The PROSPECT model was inverted to retrieve chlorophyll content (Ca+b), equivalent water thickness (Cw), and leaf mass per area (Cm) from leaf hyperspectral reflectance spectra. The leaf stress conditions were then evaluated by examining the temporal variations of these biochemical constituents after glyphosate treatment. The approach was validated with greenhouse-measured datasets. Results indicated that the leaf injury caused by glyphosate treatments could be detected shortly after the spraying for both soybean and cotton by PROSPECT inversion, with Ca+b of the leaves treated with high dose solution decreasing more rapidly compared with leaves left untreated, whereas the Cw and Cm showed no obvious difference between treated and untreated leaves. For both non-GR soybean and non-GR cotton, the retrieved Ca+b values of the glyphosate treated plants from leaf hyperspectral data could be distinguished from that of the untreated plants within 48 h after the treatment, which could be employed as a useful indicator for glyphosate injury detection. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of applying the PROSPECT inversion technique for the early detection of leaf injury from glyphosate and its potential for agricultural plant status monitoring.

  16. Selection and physiological response of glyphosate resistant zoysiagrass mutants derived from a radiation breeding technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to select of zoysiagrass mutants resistant to glyphosate and to identify their physiological and molecular characteristics. Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of glyphosate on the physiological responses in zoysiagrass and to select mutants resistant to glyphosate. The results indicated that the optimum concentration for a mutant resistant to glyphosate selection is 0.5?1.0%. In order to select mutants resistant to glyphosate, M2 plants were sprayed with 0.5% glyphosate after propagation. M2 seeds were collected from the plants that survived after being irradiated with 300Gy gamma ray. Three resistant and susceptible M2 plants were selected for an analysis of their physiological characters. The electrolyte leakage was increased more in the susceptible plants than the resistant plants treated with 0.5% glyphosate. A difference in the malondialdehyde content was not evident between the resistant and susceptible plants. The chlorophyll and carotenoid contents were decreased in the plants treated with 0.5% glyphosate with a greater reduction in the susceptible plants than in the resistant plants. And, the zoysiagrass 5-enolpyruvyl-shikimate-3-phosphate synthase gene was cloned by RT-PCR and RACE (Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends) approaches. The derived cDNA sequence revealed a high homology with the genes reported in other species. (author)

  17. Assessing the risk of Glyphosate to native plants and weedy Brassicaceae species of North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to determine the ecological risk to native plants and weedy Brassicaceae species which may be growing in areas affected by off target movement of glyphosate applied to glyphosate-resistant canola (Brassica napus). Ten native grass and forb species were ...

  18. Seasonal timing of glyphosate ripener application affects sugarcanes response in Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyphosate is applied as a ripener to ratoon sugarcane in Louisiana to increase theoretically recoverable sugar (TRS) in harvested sugarcane. While glyphosate is applied as a ripener throughout the harvest season, recommendations for these applications have been based primarily on the response of s...

  19. Effects of glyphosate application timing and rate on sicklepod (Senna obtusifolia) fecundity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhouse experiments were conducted to examine the effect of glyphosate on reproductive development in sicklepod. Glyphosate was applied postemergence over the top at 112 and 280 g ai/ha to sicklepod at 4-leaf stage (L), 8-L, 4-L followed by 8-L, and 12-L. A nontreated control was included. Immedi...

  20. Response of Pennsylvania native plant species to dicamba and/or glyphosate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeds may become resistant to intensive and extensive use of specific herbicides associated with the growth of herbicide tolerant crops, e.g., the use of glyphosate for weed control with glyphosate tolerant soybeans. To counter this resistance, crops modified to contain genes for...

  1. Correlation of leaf damage with uptake and translocation of glyphosate in velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uptake and translocation of glyphosate in three commercial formulations were examined in velvetleaf, a dicotyledonous weed that is commonly treated with glyphosate. The formulations included Roundup(R) (MON35085), Roundup Ultra, and Touchdown(R) as sold in Canada. A minimal amount of 14C-glyphosate was spiked into a lethal rate of each formulation, and the short-term (3 to 72 h) uptake into the treated leaf and subsequent translocation into the plant were measured. Time-course studies showed very rapid uptake and translocation of glyphosate in the Ultra formulation. In comparison, the uptake and translocation of glyphosate in Touchdown was much slower but continued throughout the 72-h period. Glyphosate in the Roundup formulation showed intermediate uptake and translocation. Tissue necrosis at the application sites of Ultra and Roundup was visible within 24 h after treatment. Examinations using stereo and fluorescence microscopy revealed extensive cell death and tissue disruption. Tissue necrosis from Ultra and Roundup was also observed in blank formulations containing no glyphosate and therefore was likely caused by the surfactants. In contrast, the application sites of Touchdown produced little to no leaf damage. Our results demonstrated a direct correlation between tissue necrosis and rapid rates of glyphosate uptake and translocation. (author)

  2. An Interlaboratory Comparative Study on the Quantitative Determination of Glyphosate at Low Levels in Wheat Flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonetti, Emanuela; Cartaud, Grald; Quinn, Robert M; Marotti, Ilaria; Dinelli, Giovanni

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, the use of glyphosate has dramatically increased worldwide, and there is growing concern about contamination of organic products caused by its heavy use on neighboring fields. Glyphosate is found as a residue not only in soil, plants, and groundwater but also in humans and animals. Considering the controversy on glyphosate maximum residue level in foodstuff and the difficulties in its analytical determination, the main purpose of the present paper was to investigate the competence and accuracy of 13 accredited European laboratories in determining glyphosate in wheat flour at a level close to their reporting limit of 10 ?g/kg. According to the results of this performance assessment, the laboratories were not able to quantify glyphosate at trace levels. Therefore, their specified reporting limits of 10 ?g/kg were not supported by their results, and a reporting limit of around 50 ?g/kg of glyphosate in flour seems to be more appropriate to guarantee reliable and robust results. The widespread use of glyphosate and its harmfulness to humans make its detection at trace levels a primary goal for analytical laboratories. This is achievable through the improvement of QA and/or the optimization of the method of analysis used for glyphosate detection. PMID:26651590

  3. Bioassay and characterization of several palmer amaranth biotypes with varying tolerances to glyphosate

    Science.gov (United States)

    The wide distribution of Palmer amaranth in the southern U.S. became a serious weed control problem prior to the extensive use of glyphosate-resistant crops. Currently glyphosate-resistant populations of Palmer amaranth occur in many areas of this geographic region creating an even more serious thr...

  4. Glyphosate carryover in seed potato: effects on mother crop and daughter tubers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field studies were conducted in 2008 and 2009 in Aberdeen, ID, Ontario, OR, and Paterson, WA to determine the effect of simulated glyphosate drift on Ranger Russet potato during the application year and the crop growing the next year from the daughter tubers. Glyphosate was applied at 8.5, 54, 107...

  5. Biodegradation of glyphosate herbicide by Salinicoccus spp isolated from Qom Hoze-soltan lake, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaser Sharifi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Glyphosate (N-phosphonomethyl Glycine is an organophosphorus pesticide with dangerous effects on the environment. In this study, the biodegradation of glyphosate herbicide by halophilic bacteria isolated from Qom Hoze-Soltan Lake has been investigated. Methods: After sampling and bacterial isolation, native halophilic strains grown in the presence of glyphosate at a wavelength of 660 nm and also the disappearance of the glyphosate in the plates at a wavelength of 220 nm were determined and the dominant bacteria were isolated. Biochemical, molecular (according to the 16S rRNA sequence, antibiotic, and the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC test was performed for the dominant bacteria. Analysis of the remaining glyphosate herbicide was performed by HPLC analysis after derivation with FMOC-Cl. Results: According to the results of the biochemical, antibiotic and molecular 16S rRNA tests, the native halophilic isolates with the ability to biodegrade glyphosate were gram positive cocci very similar to Salinicoccusspp. The results of HPLC showed that Salinicoccusspp is able to biodegrade glyphosate herbicide. Conclusion: The native bacteria in Qom Hoze-soltanlake, Iran can be used for biodegradation of glyphosate herbicide.

  6. Seasonal trends in reduced leaf gas exchange and ozone-induced foliar injury in three ozone sensitive woody plant species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seasonal trends in leaf gas exchange and ozone-induced visible foliar injury were investigated for three ozone sensitive woody plant species. Seedlings of Populus nigra L., Viburnum lantana L., and Fraxinus excelsior L. were grown in charcoal-filtered chambers, non-filtered chambers and open plots. Injury assessments and leaf gas exchange measurements were conducted from June to October during 2002. All species developed typical ozone-induced foliar injury. For plants exposed to non-filtered air as compared to the charcoal-filtered air, mean net photosynthesis was reduced by 25%, 21%, and 18% and mean stomatal conductance was reduced by 25%, 16%, and 8% for P. nigra, V. lantana, and F. excelsior, respectively. The timing and severity of the reductions in leaf gas exchange were species specific and corresponded to the onset of visible foliar injury. - Reductions in leaf gas exchange corresponded to the onset of ozone-induced visible foliar injury for seedlings exposed to ambient ozone exposures

  7. Seasonal trends in reduced leaf gas exchange and ozone-induced foliar injury in three ozone sensitive woody plant species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, K. [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Zuercherstrasse 111, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland)]. E-mail: kristopher.novak@wsl.ch; Schaub, M. [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Zuercherstrasse 111, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Fuhrer, J. [Swiss Federal Research Station for Agroecology and Agriculture FAL, 8046 Zurich (Switzerland); Skelly, J.M. [Department of Plant Pathology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Hug, C. [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Zuercherstrasse 111, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Landolt, W. [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Zuercherstrasse 111, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Bleuler, P. [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Zuercherstrasse 111, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Kraeuchi, N. [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Zuercherstrasse 111, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland)

    2005-07-15

    Seasonal trends in leaf gas exchange and ozone-induced visible foliar injury were investigated for three ozone sensitive woody plant species. Seedlings of Populus nigra L., Viburnum lantana L., and Fraxinus excelsior L. were grown in charcoal-filtered chambers, non-filtered chambers and open plots. Injury assessments and leaf gas exchange measurements were conducted from June to October during 2002. All species developed typical ozone-induced foliar injury. For plants exposed to non-filtered air as compared to the charcoal-filtered air, mean net photosynthesis was reduced by 25%, 21%, and 18% and mean stomatal conductance was reduced by 25%, 16%, and 8% for P. nigra, V. lantana, and F. excelsior, respectively. The timing and severity of the reductions in leaf gas exchange were species specific and corresponded to the onset of visible foliar injury. - Reductions in leaf gas exchange corresponded to the onset of ozone-induced visible foliar injury for seedlings exposed to ambient ozone exposures.

  8. Low-Temperature Thermally Reduced Molybdenum Disulfide as a Pt-Free Counter Electrode for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Che-Hsien; Tsai, Chuen-Horng; Tseng, Fan-Gang; Yu, Yang-Yen; Wu, Hsuan-Chung; Hsieh, Chien-Kuo

    2015-11-01

    A two-dimensional nanostructure of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) thin film exposed layered nanosheet was prepared by a low-temperature thermally reduced (TR) method on a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate as a platinum (Pt)-free and highly electrocatalytic counter electrode (CE) for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) results show that the MoS2 sulfidization temperature was approximately 300 C. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicate that the stoichiometry and crystallization of MoS2 were more complete at higher temperatures; however, these temperatures reduce the number of edge-plane active sites in the short-range-order nanostructure. Accordingly, the DSSCs with 300 C annealed TR-MoS2 CE exhibited an excellent photovoltaic conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.351 %, up to 91.7 % of which is obtained using the conventional TD-Pt CE (PCE = 6.929 %). The temperature of thermal reaction and the molar ratio of reaction precursors were found to significantly influence the resulting stoichiometry and crystallization of MoS2 nanosheets, thus affecting DSSCs' performance.

  9. Introduction of a methoxymethyl side chain into p-phenylenediamine attenuates its sensitizing potency and reduces the risk of allergy induction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goebel, Carsten, E-mail: goebel.c.1@pg.com [The Procter and Gamble Co., Central Product Safety and Communications, Darmstadt (Germany); Troutman, John [The Procter and Gamble Co., Central Product Safety, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Hennen, Jenny [Dept. of Environmental Toxicology, Trier University, Trier (Germany); Rothe, Helga; Schlatter, Harald [The Procter and Gamble Co., Central Product Safety and Communications, Darmstadt (Germany); Gerberick, G. Frank [The Procter and Gamble Co., Central Product Safety, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Blömeke, Brunhilde [Dept. of Environmental Toxicology, Trier University, Trier (Germany)

    2014-02-01

    The strong sensitizing potencies of the most important primary intermediates of oxidative hair dyes, p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and p-toluylenediamine (PTD, i.e. 2-methyl-PPD) are well established. They are considered as the key sensitizers in hair dye allergic contact dermatitis. While modification of their molecular structure is expected to alter their sensitizing properties, it may also impair their color performance. With introduction of a methoxymethyl side chain we found the primary intermediate 2-methoxymethyl-p-phenylenediamine (ME-PPD) with excellent hair coloring performance but significantly reduced sensitizing properties compared to PPD and PTD: In vitro, ME-PPD showed an attenuated innate immune response when analyzed for its protein reactivity and dendritic cell activation potential. In vivo, the effective concentration of ME-PPD necessary to induce an immune response 3-fold above vehicle control (EC3 value) in the local lymph node assay (LLNA) was 4.3%, indicating a moderate skin sensitizing potency compared to values of 0.1 and 0.17% for PPD and PTD, respectively. Finally, assessing the skin sensitizing potency of ME-PPD under consumer hair dye usage conditions through a quantitative risk assessment (QRA) indicated an allergy induction risk negligible compared to PPD or PTD. - Highlights: • Methoxymethyl side chain in p-phenylenediamine reduces its strong skin sensitizing properties. • Reduced protein reactivity and dendritic cell activation. • Reduced skin sensitizing potency in local lymph node assay (LLNA). • Negligible allergy induction risk under hair dye usage conditions.

  10. Introduction of a methoxymethyl side chain into p-phenylenediamine attenuates its sensitizing potency and reduces the risk of allergy induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strong sensitizing potencies of the most important primary intermediates of oxidative hair dyes, p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and p-toluylenediamine (PTD, i.e. 2-methyl-PPD) are well established. They are considered as the key sensitizers in hair dye allergic contact dermatitis. While modification of their molecular structure is expected to alter their sensitizing properties, it may also impair their color performance. With introduction of a methoxymethyl side chain we found the primary intermediate 2-methoxymethyl-p-phenylenediamine (ME-PPD) with excellent hair coloring performance but significantly reduced sensitizing properties compared to PPD and PTD: In vitro, ME-PPD showed an attenuated innate immune response when analyzed for its protein reactivity and dendritic cell activation potential. In vivo, the effective concentration of ME-PPD necessary to induce an immune response 3-fold above vehicle control (EC3 value) in the local lymph node assay (LLNA) was 4.3%, indicating a moderate skin sensitizing potency compared to values of 0.1 and 0.17% for PPD and PTD, respectively. Finally, assessing the skin sensitizing potency of ME-PPD under consumer hair dye usage conditions through a quantitative risk assessment (QRA) indicated an allergy induction risk negligible compared to PPD or PTD. - Highlights: • Methoxymethyl side chain in p-phenylenediamine reduces its strong skin sensitizing properties. • Reduced protein reactivity and dendritic cell activation. • Reduced skin sensitizing potency in local lymph node assay (LLNA). • Negligible allergy induction risk under hair dye usage conditions

  11. Principais aspectos da resistncia de plantas daninhas ao herbicida glyphosate / Main aspects on weed herbicide resistance to glyphosate

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P.J., Christoffoleti; R., Lpez-Ovejero.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A seleo de bitipos de plantas daninhas resistentes a herbicidas na agricultura brasileira e mundial um fenmeno j constatado e relatado para praticamente todos os herbicidas em uso na agricultura. A confirmao de um novo caso de resistncia de planta daninha ao herbicida glyphosate atravs da [...] espcie Lolium multiflorum (azevm), que corresponde ao primeiro caso relatado no Brasil para esse herbicida, preocupa o meio cientfico, produtivo e industrial, devido importncia desse herbicida para o manejo de plantas daninhas das diversas culturas. Assim, a discusso e compreenso do fenmeno da resistncia so fundamentais para prevenir ou retardar a seleo de bitipos resistentes a herbicidas, sendo este o objetivo principal do presente artigo. So discutidos aspectos referentes a fatores ligados s plantas daninhas e aos sistemas de produo que interagem na seleo da resistncia a herbicidas, o potencial de seleo de plantas daninhas resistentes ao glyphosate, o fluxo gnico e as formas de manejo e preveno da resistncia. Abstract in english The weed biotypes resistant to herbicides in the Brazilian and worldwide agriculture is a phenomenon reported for most of the herbicides in use in the agriculture. The confirmation of a new case of weed resistant to glyphosate by the species Lolium multiflorum that correspond to the first case in Br [...] azil for this herbicide, leave the weed scientist, producers and industrial media concerned due to the importance of this herbicide for weed management in several crops. Therefore, the discussion and understanding of the resistance phenomenon is fundamental to delay or avoid the selection herbicide resistant weed biotypes, being this the main objective of this article. It is discussed aspects related to factors related to the weeds and cropping systems that interact in the selection of herbicide resistance, the potential of weed resistant to glyphosate, gene flow, and ways to delay or avoid resistance.

  12. Glyphosate em mistura com herbicidas alternativos para o manejo de plantas daninhas Glyphosate combined with alternative herbicides for vegetation management

    OpenAIRE

    P.A Monquero; P.J. Christoffoleti; C.T.D. Santos

    2001-01-01

    O uso intensivo de glyphosate como herbicida no-seletivo tem selecionado espcies de plantas daninhas tolerantes. Dessa forma, importante que sejam estudadas misturas de tanque com herbicidas de mecanismos de ao alternativos e que apresentem efeitos sinergsticos ou aditivos. Por essa razo, foi instalado um experimento inteiramente casualizado, composto por 13 tratamentos e 4 repeties, em casa de vegetao da Universidade de So Paulo - ESALQ/USP, Piracicaba-SP, com as plantas daninha...

  13. Local activation of cannabinoid CB1 receptors in the urinary bladder reduces the inflammation-induced sensitization of bladder afferents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cervero Fernando

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic administration of cannabinoid agonists is known to reduce pain induced by bladder inflammation and to modulate cystometric parameters in vivo. We have previously reported that intravesical administration of a cannabinoid agonist reduces the electrical activity of bladder afferents under normal conditions. However, the effects of local activation of bladder cannabinoid receptors on afferent activity during inflammation are unknown. This study was aimed to assess the effects of intravesical administration of a cannabinoid agonist on the discharges of afferent fibers in inflamed bladders ex vivo. We also characterized the expression of CB1 receptors in the bladder and their localization and co-expression with TRPV1, a marker of nociceptive afferents. Results Compared to untreated animals, afferent fiber activity in inflamed bladders was increased for intravesical pressures between 10 and 40 mmHg. Local treatment with a non selective cannabinoid agonist (AZ12646915 significantly reduced the afferent activity at intravesical pressures above 20 mmHg. This effect was blocked by AM251 but not by AM630 (selective for CB1 and CB2 respectively. Finally, CB1 was co-expressed with TRPV1 in control and inflamed bladders. Conclusion These results demonstrate that sensitization of bladder afferents induced by inflammation is partly suppressed by intravesical activation of cannabinoid receptors, an effect that appears to be mediated by CB1 receptors. Also, TRPV1 positive fibers were found to co-express CB1, supporting the hypothesis of a direct action of the cannabinoid agonist on nociceptive afferents. Taken together, these results indicate a peripheral modulation by the cannabinoid system of bladder hypersensitivity during inflammation.

  14. Sevoflurane Preconditioning Reduces Intestinal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury: Role of Prot