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A Novel 5-Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-Phosphate Synthase from Rahnella aquatilis with Significantly Reduced Glyphosate Sensitivity  

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The 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS; EC 2.5.1.19) is a key enzyme in the shikimate pathway for the production of aromatic amino acids and chorismate-derived secondary metabolites in plants, fungi, and microorganisms. It is also the target of the broad-spectrum herbicide glyphosate. Natural glyphosate resistance is generally thought to occur within microorganisms in a strong selective pressure condition. Rahnella aquatilis strain GR20, an antagonist against pathogenic agroba...

Peng, Ri-he; Tian, Yong-sheng; Xiong, Ai-sheng; Zhao, Wei; Fu, Xiao-yan; Han, Hong-juan; Chen, Chen; Jin, Xiao-fen; Yao, Quan-hong

2012-01-01

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Sensibilidade de estirpes de Bradyrhizobium ao glyphosate Sensitivity of Bradyrhizobium strains to glyphosate  

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Full Text Available A aplicação do glyphosate sobre a soja resistente a este herbicida pode causar prejuízos à simbiose com o rizóbio. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a sensibilidade ao herbicida glyphosate de três estirpes de Bradyrhizobium recomendadas para a produção de inoculantes de sementes de soja no Brasil. Avaliou-se o efeito das concentrações de 0,0; 5,4; 10,8; 21,6 e 43,2 µg L-1 do ingrediente ativo do glyphosate [N-(fosfonometil glicina] no meio YM líquido sobre o crescimento de B. japonicum (estirpe SEMIA 5079 e de B. elkanii (estirpe SEMIA 5019 e estirpe SEMIA 587, por meio de leituras das densidades óticas e geração de curvas de crescimento. As reduções de crescimento na presença da menor concentração do glyphosate foram de 18% para SEMIA 5079, 29% para SEMIA 5019 e de 35% para SEMIA 587, sendo, de modo geral, quanto maior a concentração do herbicida no meio de cultura maior a inibição do crescimen­to. As estirpes apresentaram sensibilidade diferencial somente às concentrações mais baixas do glyphosate; nesse caso, foi possível determinar a seguinte ordem de sensibilidade: SEMIA 587 > SEMIA 5019 > SEMIA 5079. Essa sensibilidade diferencial é dependente da concentração do herbicida, pois na presença de 43,2 µg L-1 todas as estirpes tiveram seu crescimento severamente reduzido, não havendo diferença entre elas.Glyphosate applications to glyphosate-resistant soybean may impair symbiosis with Bradyrhizobium, a symbiotic bacterium. This study evaluated the sensitivity to glyphosate of three Bradyrhizobium strains used commercially in soybean crop in Brazil. The concentrations (0.0; 5.4; 10.8; 21.6 e 43.2 µg L-1 of the active ingredient glyphosate [N­(phosphonomethylglycine] were added to YM liquid medium for the growth of one strain of B. japonicum (SEMIA 5079 and two strains of B. elkanni (SEMIA 5019 and SEMIA 587 inoculated as pure culture. The herbicide effect on the growth of the tested strains was assessed by optical density and growth curves were established for each strain. Reduction in growth of strains in the lowest glyphosate concentration were 18% for SEMIA 5079, 29% for SEMIA 5019 and 35% for SEMIA 587. In general, the higher the concentration of the herbicide in the culture medium, the greater the growth inhibition. The strains showed differential sensitivity only at the lowest concentrations of glyphosate, allowing the determination of the following order of sensitivity: SEMIA 587>SEMIA 5019>SEMIA 5079. This differential sensitivity is dependent on the herbicide concentration, since in the presence of 43.2 µg L-1 all strains severely reduced growth, not showing difference among them.

Rodrigo Josemar Seminoti Jacques

2010-02-01

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Sensibilidade de estirpes de Bradyrhizobium ao glyphosate / Sensitivity of Bradyrhizobium strains to glyphosate  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A aplicação do glyphosate sobre a soja resistente a este herbicida pode causar prejuízos à simbiose com o rizóbio. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a sensibilidade ao herbicida glyphosate de três estirpes de Bradyrhizobium recomendadas para a produção de inoculantes de sementes de soja no Brasi [...] l. Avaliou-se o efeito das concentrações de 0,0; 5,4; 10,8; 21,6 e 43,2 µg L-1 do ingrediente ativo do glyphosate [N-(fosfonometil) glicina] no meio YM líquido sobre o crescimento de B. japonicum (estirpe SEMIA 5079) e de B. elkanii (estirpe SEMIA 5019 e estirpe SEMIA 587), por meio de leituras das densidades óticas e geração de curvas de crescimento. As reduções de crescimento na presença da menor concentração do glyphosate foram de 18% para SEMIA 5079, 29% para SEMIA 5019 e de 35% para SEMIA 587, sendo, de modo geral, quanto maior a concentração do herbicida no meio de cultura maior a inibição do crescimen­to. As estirpes apresentaram sensibilidade diferencial somente às concentrações mais baixas do glyphosate; nesse caso, foi possível determinar a seguinte ordem de sensibilidade: SEMIA 587 > SEMIA 5019 > SEMIA 5079. Essa sensibilidade diferencial é dependente da concentração do herbicida, pois na presença de 43,2 µg L-1 todas as estirpes tiveram seu crescimento severamente reduzido, não havendo diferença entre elas. Abstract in english Glyphosate applications to glyphosate-resistant soybean may impair symbiosis with Bradyrhizobium, a symbiotic bacterium. This study evaluated the sensitivity to glyphosate of three Bradyrhizobium strains used commercially in soybean crop in Brazil. The concentrations (0.0; 5.4; 10.8; 21.6 e 43.2 µg [...] L-1) of the active ingredient glyphosate [N­(phosphonomethyl)glycine] were added to YM liquid medium for the growth of one strain of B. japonicum (SEMIA 5079) and two strains of B. elkanni (SEMIA 5019 and SEMIA 587) inoculated as pure culture. The herbicide effect on the growth of the tested strains was assessed by optical density and growth curves were established for each strain. Reduction in growth of strains in the lowest glyphosate concentration were 18% for SEMIA 5079, 29% for SEMIA 5019 and 35% for SEMIA 587. In general, the higher the concentration of the herbicide in the culture medium, the greater the growth inhibition. The strains showed differential sensitivity only at the lowest concentrations of glyphosate, allowing the determination of the following order of sensitivity: SEMIA 587>SEMIA 5019>SEMIA 5079. This differential sensitivity is dependent on the herbicide concentration, since in the presence of 43.2 µg L-1 all strains severely reduced growth, not showing difference among them.

Rodrigo Josemar Seminoti, Jacques; Sérgio de Oliveira, Procópio; José Barbosa dos, Santos; Maria Catarina Megumi, Kasuya; Antônio Alberto da, Silva.

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Resposta de cultivares de algodoeiro a subdoses de glyphosate / Response of cotton cultivars to reduced rates of glyphosate  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Avaliou-se a resposta de nove cultivares de algodoeiro, de importância econômica no Estado do Mato Grosso, quanto à intoxicação causada por subdoses de glyphosate. Os cultivares de algodoeiro utilizados foram Fabrika, Makina, ITA-90, FM 986, FM 966, Delta Opal, BRS Facual, Antares e Coodetec 407. As [...] plantas foram cultivadas em tubetes preenchidos com substrato de solo e mantidas em casa telada, tendo recebido a aplicação do glyphosate aos 20 dias após a emergência, época em que apresentavam quatro folhas verdadeiras. As subdoses de glyphosate, simulando deriva, foram de 270 e 540 g ha-1. Também foi utilizada testemunha, sem aplicação do herbicida, para efeito de comparação. Foram realizadas avaliações semanais até 42 dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos (DAA), período em que também foi tomada a altura das plantas. Os sintomas visuais de intoxicação iniciaram-se aos 3 DAA, caracterizados pelo amarelecimento das pontas das folhas mais novas, seguido de murchamento do ápice das plantas. Na dose de 270 g ha-1 esses sintomas foram de baixa intensidade, mas a 540 g ha-1 causaram, na maioria dos casos, toxidez "preocupante" a "muito alta". Os cultivares BRS Facual e FM 986 mostraram-se os mais suscetíveis. A altura das plantas foi mais afetada quando se aplicou a menor dose de glyphosate. Houve recuperação de todos os cultivares tratados com 270 g ha-1 de glyphosate até os 42 DAA. Quando tratados com 540 g ha-1 de glyphosate, os cultivares Fabrika, Coodetec 407, BRS-Facual e ITA-90 foram mais sensíveis, apresentando redução de altura entre 84 e 90% aos 42 DAA. Os cultivares menos sensíveis na dose de 270 g ha-1 de glyphosate não foram os mesmos para a dose de 540 g ha-1. Abstract in english The response of nine cotton cultivars economically important in the state of Mato Grosso was evaluated in relation to the toxicity caused by reduced rates of glyphosate. The cotton cultivars used were Fabrika, Makina, ITA-90, FM 986, FM 966, Delta Opal, BRS Facual, Antares and Coodetec 407. The plan [...] ts were cultivated in plastic pots filled with soil substratum and kept under greenhouse conditions. Glyphosate application was performed 20 days post emergence, at which time they presented four true leaves. Reduced rates of glyphosate, simulating drift, ranged from 270 and 540 g. A control was also used, without herbicide application to compare the effects. Weekly evaluations were accomplished up to 42 days after application (DAA). During this period, plant height was also measured. Visual symptoms began 3 DAA, with the appearance of yellow spots at the tips of the youngest leaves, followed by withering at the apex of the plants. At the rate of 270 g ha-1, these symptoms showed low intensity but at the rate of 540 g ha-1 the symptoms caused "worrisome" to "very high'' toxicity, in most of the cases. BRS Facual and FM 986 were the most susceptible. Plant height was the most affected when the lowest glyphosate dose was applied. All cultivars treated with 270 g ha-1 glyphosate rate until 42 DAA were recovered. Fabrika, Coodetec 407, BRS Facual and ITA-90 cultivars, when treated with 540 g ha-1 glyphosate were more sensitive, presenting a height reduction between 84 and 90% 42 DAA. The less sensitive cultivars at the rate of 270 g ha-1 glyphosate were not the same at the 540 g ha-1 rate.

O.M., Yamashita; S.C., Guimarães.

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Anatomia foliar de Lolium multiflorum sensível e resistente ao glyphosate / Leaf anatomy of Lolium multiflorum sensitive and resistant to glyphosate  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o intuito de contribuir para o conhecimento anatômico da espécie Lolium multiflorum e, a partir disso, observar possíveis alterações que possam elucidar o mecanismo que confere resistência ao herbicida glyphosate. Para isso, realizou-se um experimento com quatro bi [...] ótipos dessa espécie com distinta sensibilidade ao herbicida glyphosate, sendo um sensível (B1S) e três resistentes (B2R, B3R e B4R). As análises ocorreram a partir de secções transversais e longitudinais dos órgãos vegetativos de plantas no estádio de afilhamento. Anatomicamente, o azevém caracteriza-se por apresentar grande quantidade de estômatos e de células buliformes, bem como mesofilo homogêneo constituído apenas de células paliçádicas compactamente distribuídas. Comparativamente, não ocorrem diferenças morfológicas evidentes que possam ser usadas para diferir biótipos sensíveis de resistentes, no entanto, nota-se que biótipos resistentes, especialmente B3R e B4R, apresentaram maior densidade estomática em relação aos demais. Ainda, os biótipos resistentes apresentaram maior quantidade de espaços intercelulares no mesofilo e feixes vasculares com menor quantidade de floema em relação ao xilema, o que, por suas funções na planta, pode colaborar para a menor sensibilidade ao herbicida. Abstract in english This work aimed to contribute to the anatomical knowledge of the species Lolium multiflorum and to observe possible changes that may elucidate the mechanism that confers its resistance to the herbicide glyphosate. Thus, an experiment was conducted using four biotypes of this species with distinct se [...] nsitivities to the herbicide glyphosate: one susceptible (B1S) and three resistant biotypes (B2R, B3R and B4R). Analyses were conducted on the transverse and longitudinal sections of the vegetative organs of the plants at the tillering stage. Anatomically, ryegrass is characterized as having a large number of stomata and buliform cells as well as homogeneous mesophylls constituted only of palisade cells compactly distributed. Comparatively, no evident morphological differences occur that can be used to distinguish sensitive from resistant biotypes; however, the resistant biotypes, especially B3R B4R, presented higher stomatal density, compared to the others. Still, the resistant biotypes had a higher amount of intercellular spaces in the mesophyll and vascular bundles with a smaller amount of phloem compared to the xylem, which, because of their functions in the plants, may contribute to the lower sensitivity to the herbicide.

J., Galvani; M.A., Rizzardi; C.M., Carneiro; M.A, Bianchi.

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Target site mutation and reduced translocation are present in a glyphosate-resistant Lolium multiflorum Lam. biotype from Spain.  

Science.gov (United States)

The resistance mechanism of a glyphosate-resistant Lolium multiflorum Lam. biotype collected in Córdoba (Southern Spain) was examined. Resistance Factor values at three different growth stages ranged between 4.77 and 4.91. At 96 hours after treatment (HAT) the S biotype had accumulated seven times more shikimic acid than the R biotype. There were significant differences in translocation of (14)C-glyphosate between biotypes, i.e. at 96 HAT, the R biotype accumulated in the treated leaf more than 70% of the absorbed herbicide, in comparison with 59.21% of the S biotype; the R biotype translocated only 14.79% of the absorbed (14)C-glyphosate to roots, while in the S population this value was 24.79%. Visualization of (14)C-glyphosate by phosphor imaging showed a reduced distribution in the R biotype compared with the S. Glyphosate metabolism was not involved in the resistance mechanism due to both biotypes showing similar values of glyphosate at 96 HAT. Comparison of the EPSPS gene sequences between biotypes indicated that the R biotype has a proline 182 to serine amino acid substitution. In short, the resistance mechanism of the L. multiflorum Lam. biotype is due to an impaired translocation of the herbicide and an altered target site. PMID:22771431

González-Torralva, Fidel; Gil-Humanes, Javier; Barro, Francisco; Brants, Ivo; De Prado, Rafael

2012-09-01

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Glyphosate Tolerance in Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.).  

Science.gov (United States)

A glyphosate-tolerant tobacco cell line, Nicotiana tabacum L. Indiana (I7), was selected from the glyphosate-sensitive Wisconsin 38 (W38) line through a single step exposure to the herbicide. Tolerance and growth characteristics of I7 cells were the same for cells maintained for more than 1 year in the presence or absence of glyphosate. Glyphosate tolerance levels were constant through the growth cycle. Tolerance is not due to reduced uptake of glyphosate. Shikimate levels in I7 and W38 cells maintained in glyphosate-free medium were similar, whereas W38 cells accumulated 46 times more shikimate than I7 cells, when cells of both lines were exposed to the herbicide. Glyphosate treatment caused increased levels of aromatic amino acids in W38 cells and slightly lower levels in I7 cells. Specific activities of dehydroquinate synthase, shikimate dehydrogenase, and shikimate kinase were similar in the two cell types, whereas DAHP synthase and EPSP synthase specific activities were elevated in I7 cells. Plants regenerated from I7 cells retained tolerance to glyphosate. PMID:16666365

Dyer, W E; Weller, S C; Bressan, R A; Herrmann, K M

1988-11-01

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Glyphosate poisoning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glyphosate is used extensively as a non-selective herbicide by both professional applicators and consumers and its use is likely to increase further as it is one of the first herbicides against which crops have been genetically modified to increase their tolerance. Commercial glyphosate-based formulations most commonly range from concentrates containing 41% or more glyphosate to 1% glyphosate formulations marketed for domestic use. They generally consist of an aqueous mixture of the isopropylamine (IPA) salt of glyphosate, a surfactant, and various minor components including anti-foaming and colour agents, biocides and inorganic ions to produce pH adjustment. The mechanisms of toxicity of glyphosate formulations are complicated. Not only is glyphosate used as five different salts but commercial formulations of it contain surfactants, which vary in nature and concentration. As a result, human poisoning with this herbicide is not with the active ingredient alone but with complex and variable mixtures. Therefore, It is difficult to separate the toxicity of glyphosate from that of the formulation as a whole or to determine the contribution of surfactants to overall toxicity. Experimental studies suggest that the toxicity of the surfactant, polyoxyethyleneamine (POEA), is greater than the toxicity of glyphosate alone and commercial formulations alone. There is insufficient evidence to conclude that glyphosate preparations containing POEA are more toxic than those containing alternative surfactants. Although surfactants probably contribute to the acute toxicity of glyphosate formulations, the weight of evidence is against surfactants potentiating the toxicity of glyphosate. Accidental ingestion of glyphosate formulations is generally associated with only mild, transient, gastrointestinal features. Most reported cases have followed the deliberate ingestion of the concentrated formulation of Roundup (The use of trade names is for product identification purposes only and does not imply endorsement.) (41% glyphosate as the IPA salt and 15% POEA). There is a reasonable correlation between the amount ingested and the likelihood of serious systemic sequelae or death. Advancing age is also associated with a less favourable prognosis. Ingestion of >85 mL of the concentrated formulation is likely to cause significant toxicity in adults. Gastrointestinal corrosive effects, with mouth, throat and epigastric pain and dysphagia are common. Renal and hepatic impairment are also frequent and usually reflect reduced organ perfusion. Respiratory distress, impaired consciousness, pulmonary oedema, infiltration on chest x-ray, shock, arrythmias, renal failure requiring haemodialysis, metabolic acidosis and hyperkalaemia may supervene in severe cases. Bradycardia and ventricular arrhythmias are often present pre-terminally. Dermal exposure to ready-to-use glyphosate formulations can cause irritation and photo-contact dermatitis has been reported occasionally; these effects are probably due to the preservative Proxel (benzisothiazolin-3-one). Severe skin burns are very rare. Inhalation is a minor route of exposure but spray mist may cause oral or nasal discomfort, an unpleasant taste in the mouth, tingling and throat irritation. Eye exposure may lead to mild conjunctivitis, and superficial corneal injury is possible if irrigation is delayed or inadequate. Management is symptomatic and supportive, and skin decontamination with soap and water after removal of contaminated clothing should be undertaken in cases of dermal exposure. PMID:15862083

Bradberry, Sally M; Proudfoot, Alex T; Vale, J Allister

2004-01-01

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TREATABILITY STUDIES OF PESTICIDE MANUFACTURING WASTEWATERS: GLYPHOSATE  

Science.gov (United States)

The report gives results of subjecting various combinations of glyphosate production wastestreams to biological treatment following lime-pretreatment to reduce high levels of glyphosate. Bench-scale biological treatment demonstrated that glyphosate did not appear to interfere wit...

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Efeito de doses reduzidas de glyphosate e paraquat simulando deriva na cultura do sorgo / Effect of reduced rates of glyphosate and paraquat simulating drift on sorghum crop  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A aplicação de herbicidas, seja para dessecação de culturas ou para controle de plantas daninhas, vem crescendo, devido à expansão da fronteira agrícola brasileira. Esse fato aumenta os riscos de ocorrência de deriva acidental em culturas vizinhas suscetíveis; no entanto, as perdas em produtividade [...] dessas culturas são desconhecidas em muitas situações de ocorrência de deriva de herbicidas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a fitotoxicidade causada por doses reduzidas dos herbicidas glyphosate e paraquat simulando deriva, bem como seus efeitos, no desenvolvimento das plantas e no rendimento de grãos de sorgo. O estudo foi conduzido durante os anos agrícolas 1996/97 e 1997/98, utilizando-se o híbrido BR 700 no delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com 12 tratamentos e quatro repetições. Foram utilizadas cinco doses reduzidas simulando deriva - 2, 4, 6, 8 e 12% da dose recomendada (dose recomendada: 1.440 g ha-1 de glyphosate e 400 g ha-1 de paraquat) - e duas testemunhas sem aplicação de herbicidas para comparação. Área foliar e peso da matéria seca não foram afetados pelos tratamentos de deriva, ao passo que a altura da planta foi reduzida sobretudo nas maiores doses dos herbicidas. O teor de clorofila foi afetado apenas no ano agrícola 1997/98, ocorrendo maior porcentagem de injúrias à medida que se aumentou a concentração de deriva. No ano agrícola 1996/97, os danos observados na parte aérea foram maiores e o estande final chegou a ser reduzido pela maior dose de glyphosate. Com relação à produtividade, somente no ano agrícola 1996/97 houve redução devido à deriva, em que a maior concentração de glyphosate resultou em menor peso de panículas e de grãos. No ano agrícola 1997/98, não houve efeito de deriva nas características de produção, em razão, provavelmente, da influência de fatores climáticos. O sorgo é uma planta sensível à ação de herbicidas não-seletivos; doses reduzidas, tanto de glyphosate como de paraquat, correspondentes a 12% ou menos da dose recomendada, podem influir no desenvolvimento das plantas, comprometendo a produtividade de grãos, sobretudo quando as condições climáticas são favoráveis à ação desses herbicidas. Abstract in english Herbicide application for crop desiccation or weed control has been growing due to the expansion of the Brazilian agricultural frontier. This fact increases the risks of drift to susceptible crops grown in the vicinity areas; however, several questions are frequently raised about possible losses in [...] grain yield of these crops due to herbicide drift. The objective of this work was to evaluate injuries caused by reduced rates of glyphosate and paraquat simulating drift and its effect on sorghum plant development and grain production. The study was carried out during the crop growing seasons of 1996/97 and 1997/98. The hybrid BR 700 was used in a randomized complete block design, with 12 treatments and four replications. The treatments were performed by the combination of two herbicides with five concentrations of simulated drift: 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12% of the recommended rates (1,440 g ha-1 of glyphosate and 400 g ha-1 of paraquat), and two check treatments without herbicide application for compressions. Leaf area and dry matter weight were not affected by drift, whereas plant height was reduced, especially by the highest herbicide reduced rate. The chlorophyll content was slightly affected in the growing season 1997/98, whereas the visual symptoms, in both growing seasons, resulted in higher percentage of injuries while concentration drift increased. The leaf damages observed were greater at the growing season 1996/97. Also in this growing season, the final stand was reduced by the highest glyphosate rate. As far as grain production is concerned, only the growing season 1996/97 presented yield reduction due to drift, when the highest rate of glyphosate resulted in the lowest grain weight. In the 1997/98 trial, there was no d

P.C., Magalhães; J.B., Silva; F.O.M., Durães; D., Karam; L.S., Ribeiro.

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Glyphosate Tolerance in Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) 1  

Science.gov (United States)

A glyphosate-tolerant tobacco cell line, Nicotiana tabacum L. Indiana (I7), was selected from the glyphosate-sensitive Wisconsin 38 (W38) line through a single step exposure to the herbicide. Tolerance and growth characteristics of I7 cells were the same for cells maintained for more than 1 year in the presence or absence of glyphosate. Glyphosate tolerance levels were constant through the growth cycle. Tolerance is not due to reduced uptake of glyphosate. Shikimate levels in I7 and W38 cells maintained in glyphosate-free medium were similar, whereas W38 cells accumulated 46 times more shikimate than I7 cells, when cells of both lines were exposed to the herbicide. Glyphosate treatment caused increased levels of aromatic amino acids in W38 cells and slightly lower levels in I7 cells. Specific activities of dehydroquinate synthase, shikimate dehydrogenase, and shikimate kinase were similar in the two cell types, whereas DAHP synthase and EPSP synthase specific activities were elevated in I7 cells. Plants regenerated from I7 cells retained tolerance to glyphosate. Images Fig. 7

Dyer, William E.; Weller, Stephen C.; Bressan, Ray A.; Herrmann, Klaus M.

1988-01-01

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Aminomethylphosphonic acid, a metabolite of glyphosate, causes injury in glyphosate-treated, glyphosate-resistant soybean.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glyphosate-resistant (GR) soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] was developed by stable integration of a foreign gene that codes insensitive enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase, an enzyme in the shikimate pathway, the target pathway of glyphosate. Application of glyphosate to GR soybean results in injury under certain conditions. It was hypothesized that if GR soybean is completely resistant to the glyphosate, injury could be caused by a metabolite of glyphosate, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), a known phytotoxin. Glyphosate and AMPA effects on one- to two-trifoliolate leaf stage (16-18-days old) GR and non-GR soybean were examined in the greenhouse. In GR soybean, a single application of glyphosate-isopropylammonium (1.12-13.44 kg/ha) with 0.5% Tween 20 did not significantly reduce the chlorophyll content of the second trifoliolate leaf at 7 days after treatment (DAT) or the shoot dry weight at 14 DAT compared with Tween 20 alone. A single application of AMPA (0.12-8.0 kg/ha) with 0.5% Tween 20 reduced the chlorophyll content of the second trifoliolate leaf by 0-52% at 4 DAT and reduced shoot fresh weight by 0-42% at 14 DAT in both GR and non-GR soybeans compared with Tween 20 alone. AMPA at 0.12 and 0.50 kg/ha produced injury in GR and non-GR soybean, respectively, similar to that caused by glyphosate-isopropylammonium at 13.44 kg/ha in GR soybean. AMPA levels found in AMPA-treated soybean of both types and in glyphosate-treated GR soybean correlated similarly with phytotoxicity. These results suggest that soybean injury to GR soybean from glyphosate is due to AMPA formed from glyphosate degradation. PMID:15291487

Reddy, Krishna N; Rimando, Agnes M; Duke, Stephen O

2004-08-11

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Root-Zone Glyphosate Exposure Adversely Affects Two Ditch Species  

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Full Text Available Glyphosate, one of the most applied herbicides globally, has been extensively studied for its effects on non-target organisms. In the field, following precipitation, glyphosate runs off into agricultural ditches where it infiltrates into the soil and thus may encounter the roots of vegetation. These edge-of-field ditches share many characteristics with wetlands, including the ability to reduce loads of anthropogenic chemicals through uptake, transformation, and retention. Different species within the ditches may have a differential sensitivity to exposure of the root zone to glyphosate, contributing to patterns of abundance of ruderal species. The present laboratory experiment investigated whether two species commonly found in agricultural ditches in southcentral United States were affected by root zone glyphosate in a dose-dependent manner, with the objective of identifying a sublethal concentration threshold. The root zone of individuals of Polygonum hydropiperoides and Panicum hemitomon were exposed to four concentrations of glyphosate. Leaf chlorophyll content was measured, and the ratio of aboveground biomass to belowground biomass and survival were quantified. The findings from this study showed that root zone glyphosate exposure negatively affected both species including dose-dependent reductions in chlorophyll content. P. hydropiperdoides showed the greatest negative response, with decreased belowground biomass allocation and total mortality at the highest concentrations tested.

Lyndsay E. Saunders

2013-12-01

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Variabilidade genética e sensibilidade de acessos de Pistia stratiotes ao herbicida glyphosate / Genetic variability and sensitivity of Pistia stratiotes accesses to glyphosate  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A alface-d'água (Pistia stratiotes) é uma das principais entre as macrófitas aquáticas que causam problemas em corpos hídricos no Brasil e são consideradas como plantas daninhas. O presente trabalho foi realizado com os objetivos de conhecer melhor a variabilidade genética dessa macrófita e relacion [...] ar essa variabilidade com a resposta à aplicação do herbicida glyphosate. Para isso, foram coletados indivíduos em 12 corpos hídricos em diferentes cidades do território nacional (Americana, Cambaratiba, Curitiba, Itapura, Jaboticabal, Lagoa Santa, Piraí, Rio Grande, Rubinéia, Salto Grande, Santa Gertrudes e Três Lagoas). Os acessos foram caracterizados pelo uso de marcadores RAPD (DNA Polimórfico Amplificado ao Acaso), que permitiram, com o auxílio de iniciadores aleatórios, a caracterização dos locos polimórficos identificados por uma matriz de ausência e presença de bandas. Utilizando essa matriz, a análise de agrupamento permitiu nítida classificação dos acessos em três grupos com diferenças genéticas entre eles. Um ensaio de controle químico, com plantas mantidas em vasos plásticos (5 L) e pulverizadas com o herbicida glyphosate nas concentrações de 0,0, 0,6, 1,2, 1,8 e 2,4 kg ha-1, identificou, utilizando avaliações aos 7, 14 e 21 dias após aplicação, que as duas maiores doses promoveram melhor efeito herbicida. Foi verificado também que os acessos de Curitiba e Cambaratiba apresentaram menor suscetibilidade ao herbicida glyphosate. Não houve correspondência entre a estrutura de grupos dos acessos pela análise multivariada de agrupamento com a técnica RAPD e a suscetibilidade da alface-d'água ao glyphosate. Abstract in english Water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes) is one the most important macrophytes, classified as weed and causing serious problems in watercourses in Brazil. The aim of this research was to evaluate the genetic variability of water lettuce and its relationship with this plant's susceptibility to glyphosate. P [...] lant samples were collected in 12 water bodies in different regions in Brazil (Americana-AMC, Cambaratiba-CBT, Curitiba-CRB, Itapura-ITP, Jaboticabal-JBT, Lagoa Santa-LST, Piraí-PRI, Rio Grande-RGD, Rubinéia-RBN, Salto Grande-SGD, Santa Gertrudes-SGT and Três Lagoas-TLG). The accesses were characterized by the use of RAPD markers (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA), whose unspecific starters allowed the analysis of polymorphic loci, which evidenced the distribution of the accesses into two groups, with high genetic similarity inside the sub-groups, but with high genetic divergence between them. The use of the RAPD technique evidenced the existence of genetic differences between the accesses. Plants growing in plastic pots (5 L) were sprayed with glyphosate at the concentrations of 0.0, 0.6, 1.2, 1.8, 2.4 kg ha-1. Herbicide effects were evaluated on the 7th, 14th, and 21st days after application (DAA) with control note attributions (0% without control and 100% leading to the complete death of the plants). No correspondence was observed between the structure of the access groups by the grouping multi-varied analysis using the RAPD technique and water lettuce susceptibility to glyphosate.

E.A.S., Cícero; R.A., Pitelli; J.A.D., Sena; A.S., Ferraudo.

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Fluorescence enhancement of CdTe/CdS quantum dots by coupling of glyphosate and its application for sensitive detection of copper ion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Graphical abstract: Glyphosate (Glyp) had been used to modify the surface of CdTe/CdS QDs, resulting in the enhancement of fluorescence intensity. The Glyp-functionalized QDs fluorescent probe offers good sensitivity and selectivity for detecting Cu2+ based on the fluorescence quenching. Highlights: ? Water soluble CdTe/CdS quantum dots capped with glyphosate were firstly synthesized. ? The fluorescence of the Glyp-functionalized QDs was quenched by copper ion. ? A new fluorescent sensor for copper ion was developed based on the prepared QDs. ? The sensor exhibited high sensitivity and good selectivity for copper ion. - Abstract: A novel fluorescent probe for Cu2+ determination based on the fluorescence quenching of glyphosate (Glyp)-functionalized quantum dots (QDs) was firstly reported. Glyp had been used to modify the surface of QDs to form Glyp-functionalized QDs following the capping of thioglycolic acid on the core–shell CdTe/CdS QDs. Under the optimal conditions, the response was linearly proportional to the concentration of Cu2+ between 2.4 × 10?2 ?g mL?1 and 28 ?g mL?1, with a detection limit of 1.3 × 10?3 ?g mL?1 (3?). The Glyp-functionalized QDs fluorescent probe offers good sensitivity and selectivity for detecting Cu2+. The fluorescent probe was successfully used for the determination of Cu2+ in environmental samples. The mechanism of reaction was also discussed.

2012-10-01

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Fluorescence enhancement of CdTe/CdS quantum dots by coupling of glyphosate and its application for sensitive detection of copper ion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Graphical abstract: Glyphosate (Glyp) had been used to modify the surface of CdTe/CdS QDs, resulting in the enhancement of fluorescence intensity. The Glyp-functionalized QDs fluorescent probe offers good sensitivity and selectivity for detecting Cu{sup 2+} based on the fluorescence quenching. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Water soluble CdTe/CdS quantum dots capped with glyphosate were firstly synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fluorescence of the Glyp-functionalized QDs was quenched by copper ion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new fluorescent sensor for copper ion was developed based on the prepared QDs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sensor exhibited high sensitivity and good selectivity for copper ion. - Abstract: A novel fluorescent probe for Cu{sup 2+} determination based on the fluorescence quenching of glyphosate (Glyp)-functionalized quantum dots (QDs) was firstly reported. Glyp had been used to modify the surface of QDs to form Glyp-functionalized QDs following the capping of thioglycolic acid on the core-shell CdTe/CdS QDs. Under the optimal conditions, the response was linearly proportional to the concentration of Cu{sup 2+} between 2.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} {mu}g mL{sup -1} and 28 {mu}g mL{sup -1}, with a detection limit of 1.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} {mu}g mL{sup -1} (3{delta}). The Glyp-functionalized QDs fluorescent probe offers good sensitivity and selectivity for detecting Cu{sup 2+}. The fluorescent probe was successfully used for the determination of Cu{sup 2+} in environmental samples. The mechanism of reaction was also discussed.

Liu Zhengqing; Liu Shaopu; Yin Pengfei [Key Laboratory on Luminescence and Real-Time Analysis, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); He Youqiu, E-mail: heyq@swu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory on Luminescence and Real-Time Analysis, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)

2012-10-01

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Aminomethylphosphonic acid accumulation in plant species treated with glyphosate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) is the most frequently detected metabolite of glyphosate in plants. The objective of this study was to determine if there is any correlation of metabolism of glyphosate to AMPA in different plant species and their natural level of resistance to glyphosate. Greenhouse studies were conducted to determine the glyphosate I 50 values (rate required to cause a 50% reduction in plant growth) and to quantify AMPA and shikimate concentrations in selected leguminous and nonleguminous species treated with glyphosate at respective I 50 rates. Coffee senna [ Cassia occidentalis (L.) Link] was the most sensitive ( I 50 = 75 g/ha) and hemp sesbania [ Sesbania herbacea (P.Mill.) McVaugh] was the most resistant ( I 50 = 456 g/ha) to glyphosate. Hemp sesbania was 6-fold and Illinois bundleflower [ Desmanthus illinoensis (Michx.) MacM. ex B.L.Robins. & Fern.] was 4-fold more resistant to glyphosate than coffee senna. Glyphosate was present in all plant species, and its concentration ranged from 0.308 to 38.7 microg/g of tissue. AMPA was present in all leguminous species studied except hemp sesbania. AMPA concentration ranged from 0.119 to 4.77 microg/g of tissue. Shikimate was present in all plant species treated with glyphosate, and levels ranged from 0.053 to 16.5 mg/g of tissue. Non-glyphosate-resistant (non-GR) soybean accumulated much higher shikimate than glyphosate-resistant (GR) soybean. Although some leguminous species were found to be more resistant to glyphosate than others, and there was considerable variation between species in the glyphosate to AMPA levels found, metabolism of glyphosate to AMPA did not appear to be a common factor in explaining natural resistance levels. PMID:18298069

Reddy, Krishna N; Rimando, Agnes M; Duke, Stephen O; Nandula, Vijay K

2008-03-26

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Glyphosate effects on the gene expression of the apical bud in soybean (Glycine max).  

Science.gov (United States)

Glyphosate is a broad spectrum, non-selective herbicide which has been widely used for weed control. Much work has focused on elucidating the high accumulation of glyphosate in shoot apical bud (shoot apex). However, to date little is known about the molecular mechanisms of the sensitivity of shoot apical bud to glyphosate. Global gene expression profiling of the soybean apical bud response to glyphosate treatment was performed in this study. The results revealed that the glyphosate inhibited tryptophan biosynthesis of the shikimic acid pathway in the soybean apical bud, which was the target site of glyphosate. Glyphosate inhibited the expression of most of the target herbicide site genes. The promoter sequence analysis of key target genes revealed that light responsive elements were important regulators in glyphosate induction. These results will facilitate further studies of cloning genes and molecular mechanisms of glyphosate on soybean shoot apical bud. PMID:23845904

Jiang, Ling-Xue; Jin, Long-Guo; Guo, Yong; Tao, Bo; Qiu, Li-Juan

2013-08-01

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Fluorescence enhancement of CdTe/CdS quantum dots by coupling of glyphosate and its application for sensitive detection of copper ion.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel fluorescent probe for Cu(2+) determination based on the fluorescence quenching of glyphosate (Glyp)-functionalized quantum dots (QDs) was firstly reported. Glyp had been used to modify the surface of QDs to form Glyp-functionalized QDs following the capping of thioglycolic acid on the core-shell CdTe/CdS QDs. Under the optimal conditions, the response was linearly proportional to the concentration of Cu(2+) between 2.4×10(-2)?g mL(-1) and 28?g mL(-1), with a detection limit of 1.3×10(-3)?g mL(-1) (3?). The Glyp-functionalized QDs fluorescent probe offers good sensitivity and selectivity for detecting Cu(2+). The fluorescent probe was successfully used for the determination of Cu(2+) in environmental samples. The mechanism of reaction was also discussed. PMID:22938609

Liu, Zhengqing; Liu, Shaopu; Yin, Pengfei; He, Youqiu

2012-10-01

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Acute stress selectively reduces reward sensitivity  

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Full Text Available Stress may promote the onset of psychopathology by disrupting reward processing. However, the extent to which stress impairs reward processing, rather than incentive processing more generally, is unclear. To evaluate the specificity of stress-induced reward processing disruption, 100 psychiatrically healthy females were administered a probabilistic stimulus selection task enabling comparison of sensitivity to reward-driven (Go and punishment-driven (NoGo learning under either ‘no stress’ or ‘stress’ (threat-of-shock conditions. Cortisol samples and self-report measures were collected. Contrary to hypotheses, the groups did not differ significantly in task performance or cortisol reactivity. However, further analyses focusing only on individuals under ‘stress’ who were high responders with regard to both cortisol reactivity and self-reported negative affect revealed reduced reward sensitivity relative to individuals tested in the ‘no stress’ condition; importantly, these deficits were reward-specific. Overall, findings provide preliminary evidence that stress-reactive individuals show diminished sensitivity to reward but not punishment under stress. While such results highlight the possibility that stress-induced anhedonia might be an important mechanism linking stress to affective disorders, future studies are necessary to confirm this conjecture.

LisaHBerghorst

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
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76 FR 19701 - Glyphosate (N-  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2009-0988; FRL-8866-8] Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine...established tolerance for residues of glyphosate in or on sweet corn, grain with corn...established tolerance for residues of glyphosate and N-acetyl-glyphosate in or...

2011-04-08

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Efeitos de diferentes formulações comerciais de glyphosate sobre estirpes de Bradyrhizobium Effects of different glyphosate commercial formulations on Bradyrhizobium strains  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar efeitos de formulações comerciais de glyphosate sobre estirpes de Bradyrhizobium, em condições de laboratório. As formulações foram aplicadas na concentração de 43,2 µg L-1 do equivalente ácido. As bactérias foram inoculadas em meio de cultura à base de manitol e extrato de levedura (YM. O efeito do herbicida no crescimento das estirpes de Bradyrhizobium foi avaliado mediante leitura da densidade ótica em espectrofotômetro. Avaliou-se o crescimento das estirpes de B. japonicum SEMIA 5079 e de B. elkanii SEMIA 5019 e SEMIA 587 sob efeito de nove formulações de glyphosate: Zapp Qi®, Roundup®, Roundup Multiação®, Roundup Transorb®, Roundup WG®, Trop®, Agrisato®, glyphosate técnico [padrão de N-(phosphonomethyl glycina] e controle sem adição de herbicida (testemunha para as estirpes. Foram utilizadas seis repetições. Confeccionaram-se curvas de crescimento para cada estirpe. Pelos resultados, pôde-se observar que todas as formulações de glyphosate causaram efeitos diferenciados sobre as estirpes de Bradyrhizobium SEMIA 5019, SEMIA 5079 e SEMIA 587. Constatou-se que a formulação Zapp Qi foi a menos tóxica às estirpes de Bradyrhizobium avaliadas. A maior toxicidade foi observada para Roundup Transorb, que provocou reduções no crescimento acima de 94% para todas as estirpes de Bradyrhizobium estudadas. Não se observou correlação entre o tipo de sal - isopropilamina, amônio ou potássico, presentes na formulação herbicida - e o grau de inibição no crescimento das estirpes. SEMIA 587 foi a estirpe menos tolerante à maioria das formulações testadas, porém SEMIA 5019 foi a mais sensível ao glyphosate padrão, sem adição de sais ou de outros aditivos.This work aimed to evaluate the effects of glyphosate commercial formulations on Bradyrhizobium strains under laboratory conditions. The formulations were applied in the concentration of 43.2 µg L-1 of the a.e. and the strains were inoculated in yeast extract manitol (YM. Herbicide effect on the growth of the Bradyrhizobium strains was assessed by optic density reading in a spectrophotometer. Twenty seven treatments arranged in a factorial design were evaluated and consisted of one strain of B. japonicum: SEMIA 5079; and two strains of B. elkanii: SEMIA 5019 and SEMIA 587, under the effect of nine glyphosate formulations: Zapp QI®, Roundup®, Roundup Multiação®, Roundup Transorb®, Roundup WG®, Trop®, Agrisato®, technical glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl glycine] and control without herbicide addition (as the strain control treatment, with six replications. A growth curve was established for each strain. It could be observed that the different glyphosate formulations Zapp Qi, Roundup, Roundup Multiação, Roundup transorb, Roundup WG, Trop and Agrisato caused differentiated effects on the strains of Bradyrhizobium SEMIA 5019, SEMIA 5079 and SEMIA 587. It was verified that the Zapp Qi formulation was the least toxic to the strains. The highest toxicity was observed for Roundup Transorb, which reduced growth over 94% for all the strains assessed. Correlation was not observed among the type of salt, isopropylamine, ammonium or potassic, present in the formulation herbicides, and the toxicity degree to the strains. The strain SEMIA 587 was the least tolerant to most formulations while SEMIA 5019 was the most sensitive to the control treatment N- (phosphonomethyl glycine, without salts or other additives.

J.B. Santos

2004-06-01

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Glyphosate-Resistant Goosegrass from Mississippi  

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Full Text Available A suspected glyphosate-resistant goosegrass [Eleusine indica (L. Gaertn.] population, found in Washington County, Mississippi, was studied to determine the level of resistance and whether the resistance was due to a point mutation, as was previously identified in a Malaysian population. Whole plant dose response assays indicated a two- to four-fold increase in resistance to glyphosate. Leaf disc bioassays based on a glyphosate-dependent increase in shikimate levels indicated a five- to eight-fold increase in resistance. Sequence comparisons of messenger RNA for epsps, the gene encoding the enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase, from resistant and sensitive goosegrass, revealed a cytosine to thymine nucleotide change at position 319 in the resistant accessions. This single nucleotide polymorphism causes a proline to serine amino acid substitution at position 106 in 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase. A real-time polymerase chain reaction assay using DNA probes specific for the nucleotide change at position 319 was developed to detect this polymorphism. Goosegrass from 42 locations were screened, and the results indicated that glyphosate-resistant goosegrass remained localized to where it was discovered. Pendimethalin, s-metolachlor, clethodim, paraquat and fluazifop controlled resistant goosegrass 93% to 100%, indicating that several control options for glyphosate-resistant goosegrass are available.

Vijay K. Nandula

2013-05-01

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Effects of additives on glyphosate activity in purple nutsedge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effects of additives on "1"4 C-glyphosate penetration into purple nutsedge leaves were examined in the laboratory and efficacy of glyphosate for purple nutsedge control was studied in the greenhouse and field. The addition of (NH_4)_2 SO_4 at 1.0% (v/v) + diesel oil at 1,0% (v/v) + Tendal at 1.0% (v/v) increased "1"4C-glyphosate penetration into nutsedge leaves more than the addition of either one alone. (NH_4)_2SO_4 at 1.0% + diesel oil at 1.0% + Tendal at 0.12 or 0.25% increased the phytotoxicity of glyphosate at 0.5 and 0.75 kg, a.e./ha on nutsedge plants in the greenhouse but not in the field. Additives did not enhance glyphosate activity by reducing the number of nutsedae tubers. (author)

1998-02-01

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Estádio de desenvolvimento e superfície foliar reduzem a eficiência de chlorimuron-ethyl e glyphosate em Conyza sumatrensis / Developmental stage and leaf surface reduce the efficiency of chlorimuron-ethyl and glyphosate in Conyza sumatrensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Nos Estados do Rio Grande do Sul e do Paraná, há frequentes relatos de falhas de controle de Conyza sumatrensis com chlorimuron-ethyl em lavouras de soja. Assim, os objetivos deste trabalho foram caracterizar morfologicamente as folhas de Conyza sumatrensis e avaliar o controle com herbicidas aplica [...] dos em biótipos dessa planta daninha em três estádios de desenvolvimento. Foram realizados dois estudos, com experimentos em casa de vegetação, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições. No primeiro estudo, os biótipos de buva foram coletados e identificados; já no segundo estudo avaliou-se a resposta de biótipos aos herbicidas, doses e estádios de desenvolvimento. As doses de herbicidas foram: 0,0; 6,25; 12,5; 25; 50; 100; 200; e 400, representadas em porcentagem da dose de registro dos herbicidas chlorimuron-ethyl (20 g ha-1) e glyphosate (720 g e.a. ha-1), aplicadas de modo isolado ou associadas em três estádios de desenvolvimento dos quatro biótipos (2, 5, 17 e 20) de Conyza sumatrensis (altura de 0,5-1 cm e 3-4 folhas; altura 1-2 cm e 6-7 folhas; e altura de 10-12 cm e 12-14 folhas). As variáveis analisadas foram controle, fitomassa seca da parte aérea e as densidades tricomática e estomática da superfície foliar dos biótipos em diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento. Os resultados demonstram que os estádios de desenvolvimento alteram a eficácia dos herbicidas, e aplicações em estádios avançados de desenvolvimento diminuem a eficácia de controle. A exceção foi o biótipo 5 de Conyza sumatrensis, que demonstrou resistência ao glyphosate, independentemente do estádio de desenvolvimento no momento da aplicação do herbicida. Houve variação no número de tricomas entre os biótipos em todos os estádios de desenvolvimento, e o número de estômatos diminuiu com o desenvolvimento dos biótipos. Abstract in english In the states of Rio Grande do Sul and Paraná, there are frequent reports of failure to control Conyza sumatrensis with chlorimuron-ethyl in soybean crops. Thus, the objectives of this study were to characterize Conyza sumatrensis leaves morphologically and evaluate herbicide control in biotypes of [...] this weed at three stages. Two studies were conducted, with experiments in a greenhouse in a completely randomized design with four replications. In the first study, horseweed biotypes were collected and identified, and the second study evaluated the responses of herbicide rates and development stages. The herbicide rates were: 0.0, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, 200 and 400, represented as a percentage of the dose registry of herbicides chlorimuron­ethyl (20 g ha-1) and glyphosate (720 g e.a. ha-1) applied in isolation or associated at three developmental stages of four Conyza sumatrensis (2, 5, 17 and 20) biotypes (height = 0.5-1 cm and 3-4 leaves, height = 1-2 cm and 6-7 leaves, height = 10-12 cm, 12-14 leaves). The variables analyzed were control, shoot dry weight and trichome and stomatal densities biotypes of the leaf surface at different stages of development. The results obtained demonstrate that the developmental stages affect the effectiveness of the herbicides, and applications at advanced stages of development decrease the effectiveness of control. The exception was biotype 5 of Conyza sumatrensis, which shows resistance to glyphosate, regardless of stage of development at the time of herbicide application. There was variation in the number of trichomes among biotypes at all stages of development, and the number of stomata decreased with the development of biotypes.

F.M., Santos; L., Vargas; P.J., Christoffoleti; D., Agostinetto; T.N., Martin; Q., Ruchel; J.A., Fernando.

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Translocação do glyphosate em biótipos de azevém (Lolium multiflorum Glyphosate translocation in Italian ryegrass biotypes (Lolium multiflorum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foram avaliadas neste trabalho a absorção foliar e a translocação do glyphosate por biótipos de azevém (Lolium multiflorum sensíveis e resistentes a esse herbicida. Para isso, aplicou-se 14C-glyphosate utilizando-se uma microsseringa de precisão, adicionando-se 10 µL da calda sobre a face adaxial da primeira folha com lígula totalmente visível, quando as plantas de azevém se apresentavam com três perfilhos. A quantidade de glyphosate absorvido e translocado foi avaliada em intervalos de tempo (2, 4, 8, 16, 32 e 64 horas ap??s a aplicação, por meio da medição da radiação emitida pelo 14C-glyphosate, em espectrômetro de cintilação líquida. Foram analisadas a parte aérea e as raízes, bem como a folha onde foi feita a aplicação e a solução de lavagem desta folha. A velocidade de absorção do glyphosate foi semelhante em ambos os biótipos de azevém, observando-se mais de 50% de absorção desse herbicida nas primeiras oito horas após a aplicação. Maior retenção de glyphosate foi observada na folha tratada do biótipo resistente: 81,64% do total de glyphosate absorvido até as 64 horas. No biótipo sensível esse valor foi de 55% no mesmo período. No restante da parte aérea e nas raízes, a maior quantidade do glyphosate absorvido foi encontrada no biótipo sensível, mostrando sua maior capacidade de translocação. Após 64 horas da aplicação do glyphosate, apenas 6%, em média, do glyphosate se encontrava nas plantas, indicando que a maior parte do produto pode ter sido exsudada. Conclui-se que a sensibilidade do azevém ao glyphosate pode ser atribuída à maior capacidade de translocação desse herbicida pelo biótipo sensível.This work evaluated foliar absorption and glyphosate translocation in Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum susceptible and resistant biotypes, 14C-glyphosate was applied by using a precision micro syringe, and adding 10 µL of solution on the adaxial side of the first leaf with ligule totally visible, when Italian ryegrass plants showed 3 tillers. The quantity of glyphosate absorbed and translocated was evaluated through a liquid scintilation spectrometer by measuring radiation emitted by 14C-glyphosate at 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 and 64 hours after application. The roots and aerial part were analyzed as well as the leaf where application was performed and the solution used to wash the leaf. Glyphosate absorption speed was similar in both Italian ryegrass biotypes, with over 50% of herbicide absorption in the first 8 hours after application. Up to 64 hours, higher retention (81.64%of glyphosate was observed in the resistant biotype, while only 55% was retained in the susceptible biotype. In the remaining aerial part and roots, a higher amount of glyphosate was absorbed by the susceptible biotype, indicating higher capacity of its translocation. After 64 hours of application, only 6%, of glyphosate was found in the plants, on average indicating that most of the product could be exuded. It could be concluded that Italian ryegrass sensitivity to glyphosate can be attributed to higher translocation capacity of this herbicide by susceptible biotypes.

E.A. Ferreira

2006-06-01

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Impact of glyphosate and glyphosate-based herbicides on the freshwater environment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine] is a broad spectrum, post emergent herbicide and is among the most widely used agricultural chemicals globally. Initially developed to control the growth of weed species in agriculture, this herbicide also plays an important role in both modern silviculture and domestic weed control. The creation of glyphosate tolerant crop species has significantly increased the demand and use of this herbicide and has also increased the risk of exposure to non-target species. Commercially available glyphosate-based herbicides are comprised of multiple, often proprietary, constituents, each with a unique level of toxicity. Surfactants used to increase herbicide efficacy have been identified in some studies as the chemicals responsible for toxicity of glyphosate-based herbicides to non-target species, yet they are often difficult to chemically identify. Most glyphosate-based herbicides are not approved for use in the aquatic environment; however, measurable quantities of the active ingredient and surfactants are detected in surface waters, giving them the potential to alter the physiology of aquatic organisms. Acute toxicity is highly species dependant across all taxa, with toxicity depending on the timing, magnitude, and route of exposure. The toxicity of glyphosate to amphibians has been a major focus of recent research, which has suggested increased sensitivity compared with other vertebrates due to their life history traits and reliance on both the aquatic and terrestrial environments. This review is designed to update previous reviews of glyphosate-based herbicide toxicity, with a focus on recent studies of the aquatic toxicity of this class of chemicals. PMID:24615870

Annett, Robert; Habibi, Hamid R; Hontela, Alice

2014-05-01

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Acute Stress Selectively Reduces Reward Sensitivity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Stress may promote the onset of psychopathology by disrupting reward processing. However, the extent to which stress impairs reward processing, rather than incentive processing more generally, is unclear. To evaluate the specificity of stress-induced reward processing disruption, 100 psychiatrically healthy females were administered a probabilistic stimulus selection task (PSST) that enabled comparison of sensitivity to reward-driven (Go) and punishment-driven (NoGo) learning under either “...

Pizzagalli, Diego A.; Berghorst, Lisa Hinckley; Bogdan, Ryan; Frank, Michael J.

2013-01-01

29

Acute stress selectively reduces reward sensitivity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Stress may promote the onset of psychopathology by disrupting reward processing. However, the extent to which stress impairs reward processing, rather than incentive processing more generally, is unclear. To evaluate the specificity of stress-induced reward processing disruption, 100 psychiatrically healthy females were administered a probabilistic stimulus selection task (PSST) that enabled comparison of sensitivity to reward-driven (Go) and punishment-driven (NoGo) learning under either “...

Berghorst, Lisa H.; Bogdan, Ryan; Frank, Michael J.; Pizzagalli, Diego A.

2013-01-01

30

Hormesis with glyphosate depends on coffee growth stage  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Os sistemas de manejo de plantas daninhas em quase todos os pomares de café do Brasil permitem que o herbicida pulverizado sofra deriva sobre a cultura. Com objetivo de avaliar se há algum efeito do glyphosate, herbicida mais comumente utilizado em pomares de café, sobre as plantas de café, uma ampl [...] a faixa de doses do herbicida foi aplicada diretamente sobre plantas de café em dois distintos estádios de crescimento da planta. Embora o crescimento de ambas as plantas novas e velhas tenha sido reduzido em doses mais altas de glyphosate, baixas doses não causaram efeitos sobre características de crescimento de plantas novas e estimularam o crescimento das mais velhas. Portanto, o efeito hormético do glyphosate é dependente do estádio de crescimento da planta de café no momento da aplicação do herbicida. Abstract in english Weed management systems in almost all Brazilian coffee plantations allow herbicide spray to drift on crop plants. In order to evaluate if there is any effect of the most commonly used herbicide in coffee production, glyphosate, on coffee plants, a range of glyphosate doses were applied directly on c [...] offee plants at two distinct plant growth stages. Although growth of both young and old plants was reduced at higher glyphosate doses, low doses caused no effects on growth characteristics of young plants and stimulated growth of older plants. Therefore, hormesis with glyphosate is dependent on coffee plant growth stage at the time of herbicide application.

LEONARDO B. DE, CARVALHO; PEDRO L.C.A., ALVES; STEPHEN O., DUKE.

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Hormesis with glyphosate depends on coffee growth stage  

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Full Text Available Weed management systems in almost all Brazilian coffee plantations allow herbicide spray to drift on crop plants. In order to evaluate if there is any effect of the most commonly used herbicide in coffee production, glyphosate, on coffee plants, a range of glyphosate doses were applied directly on coffee plants at two distinct plant growth stages. Although growth of both young and old plants was reduced at higher glyphosate doses, low doses caused no effects on growth characteristics of young plants and stimulated growth of older plants. Therefore, hormesis with glyphosate is dependent on coffee plant growth stage at the time of herbicide application.Os sistemas de manejo de plantas daninhas em quase todos os pomares de café do Brasil permitem que o herbicida pulverizado sofra deriva sobre a cultura. Com objetivo de avaliar se há algum efeito do glyphosate, herbicida mais comumente utilizado em pomares de café, sobre as plantas de café, uma ampla faixa de doses do herbicida foi aplicada diretamente sobre plantas de café em dois distintos estádios de crescimento da planta. Embora o crescimento de ambas as plantas novas e velhas tenha sido reduzido em doses mais altas de glyphosate, baixas doses não causaram efeitos sobre características de crescimento de plantas novas e estimularam o crescimento das mais velhas. Portanto, o efeito hormético do glyphosate é dependente do estádio de crescimento da planta de café no momento da aplicação do herbicida.

LEONARDO B. DE CARVALHO

2013-06-01

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Vacuolar glyphosate-sequestration correlates with glyphosate resistance in ryegrass (Lolium spp.) from Australia, South America, and Europe: a 31P NMR investigation.  

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Lolium spp., ryegrass, variants from Australia, Brazil, Chile, and Italy showing differing levels of glyphosate resistance were examined by (31)P NMR. Extents of glyphosate (i) resistance (LD(50)), (ii) inhibition of 5-enopyruvyl-shikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) activity (IC(50)), and (iii) translocation were quantified for glyphosate-resistant (GR) and glyphosate-sensitive (GS) Lolium multiflorum Lam. variants from Chile and Brazil. For comparison, LD(50) and IC(50) data for Lolium rigidum Gaudin variants from Italy were also analyzed. All variants showed similar cellular uptake of glyphosate by (31)P NMR. All GR variants showed glyphosate sequestration within the cell vacuole, whereas there was minimal or no vacuole sequestration in the GS variants. The extent of vacuole sequestration correlated qualitatively with the level of resistance. Previous (31)P NMR studies of horseweed ( Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronquist) revealed that glyphosate sequestration imparted glyphosate resistance. Data presented herein suggest that glyphosate vacuolar sequestration is strongly contributing, if not the major contributing, resistance mechanism in ryegrass as well. PMID:22224711

Ge, Xia; d'Avignon, D André; Ackerman, Joseph J H; Collavo, Alberto; Sattin, Maurizio; Ostrander, Elizabeth L; Hall, Erin L; Sammons, R Douglas; Preston, Christopher

2012-02-01

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Nontarget mechanims involved in glyphosate tolerance found in Canavalia ensiformis plants.  

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A glyphosate-tolerant population of Canavalia ensiformis was collected in a cover crop in citrus orchards in Veracruz (Mexico), where glyphosate had been used for the first time. A susceptible Amaranthus hybridus L. population was collected from a nearby field that had never been treated with glyphosate. Dose-response experiments indicated a glyphosate tolerance ratio [ED(50)(C. ensiformis)/ED(50) (A. hybridus)] of 7.7. The hypothesis of a high level of glyphosate tolerance was provisionally corroborated on the basis of shikimate accumulation in both species. The susceptible population accumulated 6 times more shikimic acid in leaf tissue 96 h after glyphosate application than the tolerant leguminous crop. Two different physiological factors were involved in the glyphosate tolerance of this C. ensiformis population, which were confirmed by [(14)C]glyphosate, being a lack of penetration of glyphosate through the cuticle of the leguminous plants and an impaired herbicide translocation to the roots and the rest of shoots. This paper reports that two different nontarget site-based mechanisms, limited absorption and reduced translocation, contribute to the glyphosate tolerance found in C. ensiformis. PMID:19432449

Cruz-Hipolito, Hugo; Osuna, Maria D; Heredia, Antonio; Ruiz-Santaella, Juan Pedro; De Prado, Rafael

2009-06-10

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Control of glyphosate resistant giant ragweed in soybean with preplant herbicides  

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Full Text Available Giant ragweed was the first glyphosate resistant weed identified in Canada. It is a very competetive weed in row crop production and has been found to drastically reduce yields of soybean; therefore, control of this competitive weed is essential. The objective of this study was to determine effective control options for glyphosate resistant giant ragweed in soybean with herbicides applied preplant. Eighteen herbicide combinations were evaluated in field studies conducted in 2011 and 2012 at five locations with confirmed glyphosate resistant giant ragweed. Glyphosate plus 2,4-D ester or amitrole provided the best control of glyphosate resistant giant ragweed 4 WAA. Glyphosate plus 2,4-D ester provided 98 to 99% control and was equivalent to the weed free check at all locations. Glyphosate plus amitrole provided 90% to 93% control and was equivalent to the weed free check at 4 of 5 locations. Herbicides providing residual activity provided variable control across all locations. Of the herbicides with residual activity evaluated, glyphosate plus linuron provided the best control of glyphosate resistant giant ragweed; however, control was inconsistent across locations and years. Glyphosate plus linuron provided 23% to 99% controland was equal to the weed free check at one location 8 WAA.

Joanna Follings

2013-04-01

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Influence of late emerging weeds in glyphosate-resistant corn  

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Fifteen field trials were conducted from 2009 to 2011 in Ontario, Canada and Michigan, USA to determine how long glyphosate-resistant corn needs to be kept weed-free after emergence to prevent yield loss. Data were separated into two environments based on when yield loss first occurred after glyphosate application. In Environment 1 (4/15 sites) yield was not reduced when corn was kept weed-free until the 4-leaf stage. However, in Environme...

Nader Soltani; Nurse, Robert E.; Eric Page; Everman, Wesley J.; Sprague, Christy L.; Sikkema, Peter H.

2013-01-01

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Rice (Oryza sativa) response to drift rates of glyphosate.  

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Greenhouse and field studies were conducted to investigate response of two rice varieties, Priscilla and Cocodrie, to sub-lethal rates of glyphosate in terms of injury, shikimate accumulation and yield. In the greenhouse, more shikimate accumulated in Cocodrie than Priscilla at comparable glyphosate rates applied to plants at the three-leaf stage. In field studies, glyphosate was applied to both varieties when they were 74-cm tall and in the internode separation growth stage. Visual injury, plant height, and leaf-tissue samples for shikimate analysis were collected at 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after treatment (DAT). Rice yield was also determined. Noticeable visual injury and height reduction to both varieties was observed as early as 7 and 3 DAT in Cocodrie and Priscilla, respectively. Shikimate levels in leaves began to increase in both varieties by 3 DAT in a dose-dependent manner and reached a peak between 7 and 14 DAT. Elevated shikimate levels were still detectable by 28 DAT. Similar levels of shikimate accumulated in both varieties at comparable glyphosate rates. However, glyphosate treatment at comparable rates reduced rice yields more in Cocodrie than in Priscilla. The highest rate of glyphosate reduced yield in Cocodrie by 92% whereas there was only a 60% yield reduction in Priscilla. Shikimate levels in glyphosate-treated rice were strongly correlated to yield reductions across both varieties and appeared to be a better predictor of yield reduction than was visual injury. Visual injury coupled with measured shikimate levels can be used collaboratively to identify glyphosate exposure and estimate subsequent rice yield reductions. PMID:16189844

Koger, Clifford H; Shaner, Dale L; Krutz, L Jason; Walker, Timothy W; Buehring, Nathan; Henry, W Brien; Thomas, Walter E; Wilcut, John W

2005-12-01

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Glyphosate no controle de biótipos de azevém e impacto na microbiota do solo Glyphosate application for italian ryegrass biotype control and impact on soil microbiota  

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Full Text Available Avaliou-se neste trabalho a resistência de azevém (L. multiflorum ao glyphosate e o impacto do controle desses biótipos sobre a respiração e biomassa microbiana do solo. Foram conduzidos dois ensaios: no primeiro foram avaliadas a intoxicação e a massa seca das plantas de biótipos de três populações de azevém: população 1 (reconhecidamente resistente, população 2 (resistência intermediária, e população 3 (sensível ao glyphosate, submetidas a diferentes doses de glyphosate (200, 400, 800, 1.600 e 3.200 g ha-1. No segundo ensaio foram avaliados a massa seca da parte aérea, a altura de plantas, o número de folhas de azevém e a respiração e massa microbiana do solo cultivado com os biótipos resistente e sensível, com e sem aplicação de glyphosate (480 g ha-1. Aos 14 DAT, observou-se morte do biótipo sensível quando tratado com doses a partir de 200 g ha-1 de glyphosate. Nos biótipos resistentes e com nível intermediário de resistência, a toxicidade do glyphosate às plantas de azevém foi de 85% na maior dose avaliada. O biótipo resistente apresentou maior produção de massa seca da parte aérea aos 42 DAT e na rebrota, aos 72 DAT, quando comparado ao biótipo intermediário. O biótipo sensível apresentou maior altura de plantas, número de folhas e massa seca da parte aérea, em comparação ao resistente, quando não tratados com o glyphosate. Não foi observada diferença na atividade microbiana do solo entre os tratamentos avaliados.This study aimed to evaluate the resistance Italian ryegrass (L. multiflorum against glyphosate and the impact of the control of these biotypes on soil respiration and microbial biomass. Two essays were conducted: the first evaluated intoxication and dry mass of the plants of biotypes of three Italian ryegrass population (population 1 - resistant; population 2 - intermediary resistance; and population 3 - sensitive to glyphosate submitted to different glyphosate rates. The second assay evaluated dry matter of the aereal part, plant height, number of leaves and respiration and microbial mass of the soil cultivated with the resistant and sensitive biotypes, with and without glyphosate application (480 g ha-1. At 14 DAA, death of the susceptible biotype was observed, when treated with rates starting from 200 g ha-1 of glyphosate. The resistant ad intermediate resistant biotypes showed glyphosate phytotoxicity of 85% at the highest rate evaluated. The resistant biotype presented the highest dry matter production of the aerial part at 42 DAA and during sprouting, at 72 DAA, compared to the intermediary biotype. The sensitive biotype presented higher plant height, number of leaves and dry mass of the aerial part, to the resistant biotype, without glyphosate. No difference was observed in the microbial activity in the soil among the treatments.

E.A. Ferreira

2006-09-01

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Sintomas da intoxicação inicial de Eucalyptus proporcionados por subdoses de glyphosate aplicadas no caule ou nas folhas Initial symptoms of Eucalyptus intoxication by glyphosate rates applied on the stem or leaves  

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Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar os sintomas de intoxicação causados pela aplicação de glyphosate, foi montado um estudo composto por quatro ensaios com aplicações de glyphosate (360 g e.a. L-1 em eucalipto. Em todos os ensaios, mudas foram transplantadas em vasos de 5,0 L. Nos ensaios 1 e 2, foram aplicados volumes crescentes de solução de glyphosate no caule do eucalipto. No ensaio 1, a solução de 3% (v/v foi aplicada nos volumes de 0, 1, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80 e 160 µL de calda por planta e, no segundo, a solução de glyphosate a 2% (v/v foi aplicada nos volumes de 0, 1, 5, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120 e 150 µL de calda por planta. Nos ensaios 3 e 4, foram feitas aplicações de glyphosate sobre as plantas de eucalipto. No ensaio 3, as doses foram de 0, 7,2.10-7, 7,2.10-6, 7,2.10-5, 7,2.10-4, 7,2.10-3, 7,2.10-2, 7,2.10-1, 7,2, 72, 360 e 720 g e.a. de glyphosate ha-1 e, no ensaio 4, de 0, 9, 18, 36, 72, 144, 288, 432, 576, 720, 1.080, 1.440 e 2.160 g e.a. de glyphosate ha-1. Nos quatro ensaios foi utilizado o delineamento DIC, com três repetições. Nas plantas, foram avaliadas a altura, a área foliar e a matéria seca de caule e folhas. Os resultados obtidos foram submetidos a análises de regressão. Quando aplicadas no caule, doses de 40,78 e 51,41 µL de calda por planta de glyphosate a 3 e 2% (v/v, respectivamente, nos ensaios 1 e 2, foram suficientes para redução média de 50% das características estudadas. Nas aplicações sobre as folhas, houve maior sensibilidade das plantas mais desenvolvidas. Para redução média de 50% nas variáveis analisadas, foram necessárias doses de 277,4 e 143,3 g e.a. de glyphosate ha-1 nos ensaios 3 e 4, respectivamente.This work was carried out to evaluate intoxication symptoms caused by glyphosate application. It was constituted by four assays with glyphosate applications (360 g a.e. L-1 on eucalyptus. In all assays, seedlings were transplanted into 5.OL plastic pots. In assays 1 and 2, increasing herbicide volumes were applied on the stem. In the first one, a glyphosate solution of 3% (v/v was applied at the volumes 0, 1, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80 and 160 µL solution per plant, and in the second, glyphosate solution of 2% (v/v was applied at volumes 0, 1, 5, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 µL solution per plant. In assays 3 and 4, glyphosate was sprayed on the plants. The rates in the third assay were: 0, 7.2 10-7, 7.2 10-6, 7.2 10-5, 7.2 10-4, 7.2 10-3, 7.2 10-2, 7.2 10-1, 7.2, 72, 360 and 720 g a.e. of glyphosate ha 1, and in the fourth assay, the rates were: 0, 9, 18, 36, 72, 144, 288, 432, 576, 720, 1.080, 1.440 and 2.160 g a.e. of glyphosate ha-1. All assays were arranged in a randomized design, with three replications. Height, leaf area, and dry mass of the leaves and stem were evaluated in the plants and the results were submitted to regression analysis. When applied on the stem, doses of 40.78 and 51.41 µL per plant of glyphosate solution, 3 and 2% (v/v, respectively, were sufficient to reduce eucalyptus development in 50%. When applied on the plants, more developed plants showed greater sensitivity.Rates of 277.4 and 143.3 g a.e. ha-1 reduced eucalyptus growth in 50%, in assays 3 and 4, respectively.

T.P Salgado

2011-12-01

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Sintomas da intoxicação inicial de Eucalyptus proporcionados por subdoses de glyphosate aplicadas no caule ou nas folhas / Initial symptoms of Eucalyptus intoxication by glyphosate rates applied on the stem or leaves  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Com o objetivo de avaliar os sintomas de intoxicação causados pela aplicação de glyphosate, foi montado um estudo composto por quatro ensaios com aplicações de glyphosate (360 g e.a. L-1) em eucalipto. Em todos os ensaios, mudas foram transplantadas em vasos de 5,0 L. Nos ensaios 1 e 2, foram aplica [...] dos volumes crescentes de solução de glyphosate no caule do eucalipto. No ensaio 1, a solução de 3% (v/v) foi aplicada nos volumes de 0, 1, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80 e 160 µL de calda por planta e, no segundo, a solução de glyphosate a 2% (v/v) foi aplicada nos volumes de 0, 1, 5, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120 e 150 µL de calda por planta. Nos ensaios 3 e 4, foram feitas aplicações de glyphosate sobre as plantas de eucalipto. No ensaio 3, as doses foram de 0, 7,2.10-7, 7,2.10-6, 7,2.10-5, 7,2.10-4, 7,2.10-3, 7,2.10-2, 7,2.10-1, 7,2, 72, 360 e 720 g e.a. de glyphosate ha-1 e, no ensaio 4, de 0, 9, 18, 36, 72, 144, 288, 432, 576, 720, 1.080, 1.440 e 2.160 g e.a. de glyphosate ha-1. Nos quatro ensaios foi utilizado o delineamento DIC, com três repetições. Nas plantas, foram avaliadas a altura, a área foliar e a matéria seca de caule e folhas. Os resultados obtidos foram submetidos a análises de regressão. Quando aplicadas no caule, doses de 40,78 e 51,41 µL de calda por planta de glyphosate a 3 e 2% (v/v), respectivamente, nos ensaios 1 e 2, foram suficientes para redução média de 50% das características estudadas. Nas aplicações sobre as folhas, houve maior sensibilidade das plantas mais desenvolvidas. Para redução média de 50% nas variáveis analisadas, foram necessárias doses de 277,4 e 143,3 g e.a. de glyphosate ha-1 nos ensaios 3 e 4, respectivamente. Abstract in english This work was carried out to evaluate intoxication symptoms caused by glyphosate application. It was constituted by four assays with glyphosate applications (360 g a.e. L-1) on eucalyptus. In all assays, seedlings were transplanted into 5.OL plastic pots. In assays 1 and 2, increasing herbicide volu [...] mes were applied on the stem. In the first one, a glyphosate solution of 3% (v/v) was applied at the volumes 0, 1, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80 and 160 µL solution per plant, and in the second, glyphosate solution of 2% (v/v) was applied at volumes 0, 1, 5, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 µL solution per plant. In assays 3 and 4, glyphosate was sprayed on the plants. The rates in the third assay were: 0, 7.2 10-7, 7.2 10-6, 7.2 10-5, 7.2 10-4, 7.2 10-3, 7.2 10-2, 7.2 10-1, 7.2, 72, 360 and 720 g a.e. of glyphosate ha 1, and in the fourth assay, the rates were: 0, 9, 18, 36, 72, 144, 288, 432, 576, 720, 1.080, 1.440 and 2.160 g a.e. of glyphosate ha-1. All assays were arranged in a randomized design, with three replications. Height, leaf area, and dry mass of the leaves and stem were evaluated in the plants and the results were submitted to regression analysis. When applied on the stem, doses of 40.78 and 51.41 µL per plant of glyphosate solution, 3 and 2% (v/v), respectively, were sufficient to reduce eucalyptus development in 50%. When applied on the plants, more developed plants showed greater sensitivity.Rates of 277.4 and 143.3 g a.e. ha-1 reduced eucalyptus growth in 50%, in assays 3 and 4, respectively.

Salgado, T.P; Alves, P.L.C.A; Kuva, M.A; Takahashi, E.N; Dias, T.C.S; Lemes, L.N.

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Isoflavone, glyphosate, and aminomethylphosphonic acid levels in seeds of glyphosate-treated, glyphosate-resistant soybean.  

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The estrogenic isoflavones of soybeans and their glycosides are products of the shikimate pathway, the target pathway of glyphosate. This study tested the hypothesis that nonphytotoxic levels of glyphosate and other herbicides known to affect phenolic compound biosynthesis might influence levels of these nutraceutical compounds in glyphosate-resistant soybeans. The effects of glyphosate and other herbicides were determined on estrogenic isoflavones and shikimate in glyphosate-resistant soybeans from identical experiments conducted on different cultivars in Mississippi and Missouri. Four commonly used herbicide treatments were compared to a hand-weeded control. The herbicide treatments were (1) glyphosate at 1260 g/ha at 3 weeks after planting (WAP), followed by glyphosate at 840 g/ha at 6 WAP; (2) sulfentrazone at 168 g/ha plus chlorimuron at 34 g/ha applied preemergence (PRE), followed by glyphosate at 1260 g/ha at 6 WAP; (3) sulfentrazone at 168 g/ha plus chlorimuron at 34 g/ha applied PRE, followed by glyphosate at 1260 g/ha at full bloom; and (4) sulfentrazone at 168 g/ha plus chlorimuron at 34 g/ha applied PRE, followed by acifluorfen at 280 g/ha plus bentazon at 560 g/ha plus clethodim at 140 g/ha at 6 WAP. Soybeans were harvested at maturity, and seeds were analyzed for daidzein, daidzin, genistein, genistin, glycitin, glycitein, shikimate, glyphosate, and the glyphosate degradation product, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA). There were no remarkable effects of any treatment on the contents of any of the biosynthetic compounds in soybean seed from either test site, indicating that early and later season applications of glyphosate have no effects on phytoestrogen levels in glyphosate-resistant soybeans. Glyphosate and AMPA residues were higher in seeds from treatment 3 than from the other two treatments in which glyphosate was used earlier. Intermediate levels were found in treatments 1 and 2. Low levels of glyphosate and AMPA were found in treatment 4 and a hand-weeded control, apparently due to herbicide drift. PMID:12502430

Duke, Stephen O; Rimando, Agnes M; Pace, Patrick F; Reddy, Krishna N; Smeda, Reid J

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Glyphosate effect on shikimate, nitrate reductase activity, yield, and seed composition in corn.  

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When glyphosate is applied to glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops, drift to nonglyphosate-resistant (non-GR) crops may cause significant injury and reduce yields. Tools are needed to quantify injury and predict crop losses. In this study, glyphosate drift was simulated by direct application at 12.5% of the recommended label rate to non-GR corn (Zea mays L.) at 3 or 6 weeks after planting (WAP) during two field seasons in the Mississippi delta region of the southeastern USA. Visual plant injury, shikimate accumulation, nitrate reductase activity, leaf nitrogen, yield, and seed composition were evaluated. Effects were also evaluated in GR corn and GR corn with stacked glufosinate-resistant gene at the recommended label rate at 3 and 6 WAP. Glyphosate at 105 g ae/ha was applied once at 3 or 6 weeks after planting to non-GR corn. Glyphosate at 840 (lower label limit) or 1260 (upper label limit) g ae/ha was applied twice at 3 and 6 WAP to transgenic corn. Glyphosate caused injury (45-55%) and increased shikimate levels (24-86%) in non-GR compared to nontreated corn. In non-GR corn, glyphosate drift did not affect starch content but increased seed protein 8-21% while reducing leaf nitrogen reductase activity 46-64%, leaf nitrogen 7-16%, grain yield 49-54%, and seed oil 18-23%. In GR and GR stacked with glufosinate-resistant corn, glyphosate applied at label rates did not affect corn yield, leaf and seed nitrogen, or seed composition (protein, oil, and starch content). Yet, nitrate reductase activity was reduced 5-19% with glyphosate at 840 + 840 g/ha rate and 8-42% with glyphosate at 1260 + 1260 g/ha rate in both GR and GR stacked corn. These results demonstrate the potential for severe yield loss in non-GR corn exposed to glyphosate drift. PMID:20180575

Reddy, Krishna N; Bellaloui, Nacer; Zablotowicz, Robert M

2010-03-24

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Impact of the invasive mussel Limnoperna fortunei on glyphosate concentration in water.  

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The use of glyphosate has increased dramatically during the past years around the world. Microbial communities are altered when glyphosate reaches water bodies. The freshwater golden mussel Limnoperna fortunei is an invasive species that has rapidly dispersed since it was introduced in Argentina two decades ago. Mussels alter aquatic conditions through their filtrating activity by increasing water clarity and nutrient recycling. We aim to evaluate the potential capacity of the golden mussel to reduce glyphosate concentration in water, in laboratory conditions. Firstly, the evasive response of mussels to glyphosate (10, 20, and 40 mg l?¹) was evaluated and a toxicity test was carried out for these concentrations. A three-week experiment was then performed to assess glyphosate variation under mussel presence for two mussel sizes. Finally, mussels' role on glyphosate concentration was evaluated considering different mussel parts (living organisms and empty shells) through another three-week experiment. Laboratory experiments were performed in triplicate using 2-l microcosms. An initial glyphosate concentration between 16 and 19 mg l?¹ was used, and when mussels or valvae were added, 20 organisms per aquaria were used. Samples were obtained at days 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 14, and 21. Glyphosate decreased by 40% under large mussel presence in both experiments, and was reduced by 25% in empty shell treatments. We believe that part of the herbicide that disappears from the water column is adsorbed in valvae surface, while another proportion is being mineralized by microbial communities in shells' biofilm. The mechanisms by which living mussels increase glyphosate dissipation would be degradation, possibly mediated by bacteria associated to mussel's metabolism. Glyphosate half-life depended on mussel and valvae presence and varied with mussel size. L. fortunei presence (either alive or as empty valvae) alters glyphosate concentration in water. We provide preliminary observations from laboratory experiments, with strong potential ecological consequences, about two stressors that could be acting jointly on the environment. PMID:22595085

Di Fiori, Eugenia; Pizarro, Haydée; dos Santos Afonso, María; Cataldo, Daniel

2012-07-01

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A Preliminary Study of Soybean Genotype Responses to Glyphosate  

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Full Text Available The effect of four application rates of glyphosate (Roundup, 360 g a.i./l – 180; 360; 720 and 1440 g a.i./ha on the survival, dynamics of growth, and accumulation of fresh biomass in g per plant was studied on eight newly-developed Bulgarian lines, varieties and candidate varieties of soybean bred by different methods under greenhouse conditions. The objective of this study was to determine and compare the sensitivities of different soybean genotypes to glyphosate. The studied soybean genotypes showed different levelsof glyphosate sensitivity due to their genetic differences. Glyphosate rates of 180, 360, 720 and 1440 g a.i./ha, applied at the stage of three trifoliate leaves (V4 of soybean had effect on the survival of the studied genotypes and can be presented conditionally in the following order: H (40.6% < G (40.7% < D (51.3% < C (52.6% < F (58.9% < E (60.5% < B (62.0% < A (65.3%. The depression coefficients (B of the studied characteristics dependedmainly on soybean genotypes and the applied herbicide rates. The tested glyphosate rates showed a high (GI 26.5-51.6% to relatively low degree of toxicity (GI 16.0-18.7% in the studied soybean genotypes.

Plamen Marinov-Serafimov

2009-01-01

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Uptake of Glyphosate by an Arthrobacter sp  

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The uptake of glyphosate (N-[phosphonomethyl]glycine) by an Arthrobacter sp. which can utilize this herbicide as its sole source of phosphorus was investigated. Orthophosphate suppressed the expression of the uptake system for glyphosate and also competed with glyphosate for uptake. The Km for glyphosate uptake was 125 ?M, and the Ki for orthophosphate was 24 ?M. Organophosphonates as well as organophosphates inhibited glyphosate uptake, but only organophosphates and orthophosphate suppress...

Pipke, Ru?diger; Schulz, Arno; Amrhein, Nikolaus

1987-01-01

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Controle de plantas daninhas na cultura de soja resistente ao glyphosate / Weed control in glyphosate tolerant soybean crop  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo da pesquisa foi avaliar o controle de plantas daninhas em área cultivada com soja resistente ao herbicida glyphosate, sem a utilização de práticas complementares de manejo de plantas daninhas. Foram desenvolvidos experimentos, em condições de campo, nos anos agrícolas 2005/2006 e 2006/200 [...] 7 em Jaboticabal (SP). Foram avaliadas duas cultivares de soja resistentes ao glyphosate (CD 214 RR e M-SOY 8008 RR), oito tratamentos de herbicidas (glyphosate, em aplicação única, nas doses de 0,48; 0,72; 0,96 e 1,20 kg ha-1 de equivalente ácido, associadas ou não a aplicação sequencial na dose de 0,48 kg ha-1), além de duas testemunhas, uma capinada e outra mantida infestada. As cultivares de soja influenciaram na infestação das espécies de plantas daninhas na área. Sem a aplicação de glyphosate, houve o predomínio de X. strumarium na área, desfavorecendo a ocorrência de outras espécies. Quando utilizado glyphosate, independentemente da dose, a infestação contabilizada aos 35 e 40 dias após a primeira aplicação, no primeiro e segundo ano, respectivamente, foi baixa. O controle de plantas daninhas na cultura da soja transgênica é diretamente influenciado pela dose de glyphosate, havendo controle satisfatório com a aplicação única de 0,96 kg ha-1 ou a sequencial de 0,48 + 0,48 kg ha-1 de glyphosate. Em situação de menor infestação (2006/2007), a aplicação única de 0,48 kg ha-1 de glyphosate é suficiente para o controle das plantas daninhas. As cultivares de soja transgênica CD 214 RR e M-SOY 8008 RR influenciam diferencialmente a dinâmica das espécies de plantas daninhas, sendo o controle químico mais efetivo na situação de cultivo de M-SOY 8008 RR, em que houve menor diversidade e desenvolvimento das plantas daninhas. Abstract in english This work evaluated the weed control in glyphosate tolerant soybean crop without additional management practices. Two experiments were carried out under field conditions in the agricultural years 2006/2007 and 2007/2008 in Jaboticabal, São Paulo State, Brazil. It was tested two glyphosate-tolerant v [...] arieties (CD 214 RR and M-SOY 8008 RR), eight herbicide treatments (Roundup Ready, single spraying at rates of 0.48; 0.72; 0.96 and 1.20 kg ha-1 of glyphosate acid equivalent, associates or not to sequential spraying at 0.48 kg ha-1), and two controls (one under mechanical control and one untreated control). Soybean varieties influenced the infestation of weed species. Xanthium strumarium was predominant in control treatments, reducing the occurrence of other weeds species. Independently of the dose, glyphosate sprayings resulted in low infestations 35 and 40 days after the first spraying, in the first and second year, respectively. The weed control in transgenic soybean is directly influenced for the glyphosate rate, having satisfactory control with the single application at 0.96 kg ha-1 or sequential at 0.48 plus 0.48 kg ha-1 of glyphosate. Under lesser infestation conditions (2006/2007), the single application at 0.48 kg ha-1 of glyphosate is enough for weed control. The varieties of transgenic soybean CD 214 RR and M-SOY 8008 RR distinguishing influence the dynamics of the weed species. The chemical control is more effective in the M-SOY 8008 RR, where it had minor diversity and development of the weed.

Núbia Maria, Correia; Julio Cezar, Durigan.

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Selection and characterization of glyphosate tolerance in birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

If birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) was tolerant to glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine], Canada thistle [Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop.] and other dicot weeds could be selectively controlled in certified seed production fields. Glyphosate tolerance in birdsfoot trefoil was identified in plants from the cultivar Leo, plants regenerated from tolerant callus, and selfed progeny of plants regenerated from callus. Plants from the three sources were evaluated in field studies for tolerance to glyphosate at rates up to 1.6 kg ae/ha. Plants of Leo selected for tolerance exhibited a twofold range in the rate required to reduce shoot weight 50% (I50s from 0.6 to 1.2 kg/ha glyphosate). Plants regenerated from tolerant callus had tolerance up to 66% greater than plants regenerated from unselected callus. Transgressive segregation for glyphosate tolerance was observed in the selfed progeny of two regenerated plants that both had I50s of 0.7 kg/ha glyphosate. The selfed progeny ranged from highly tolerant (I50 of 1.5 kg/ha) to susceptible (I50 of 0.5 kg/ha). Spray retention, 14C-glyphosate absorption and translocation did not account for the differential tolerance of nine plants that were evaluated from the three sources. The specific activity of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate (EPSP) synthase ranged from 1.3 to 3.5 nmol/min sm-bullet mg among the nine plants and was positively correlated with glyphosate tolerance. Leo birdsfoot trefoil was found to have significant variation in glyphosate tolerance which made it possible to initiate a recurrent selection program to select for glyphosate tolerance in birdsfoot trefoil. Two cycles of selection for glyphosate tolerance were practiced in three birdsfoot trefoil populations, Leo, Norcen, and MU-81

1989-01-01

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Glyphosate e nitrgênio no controle de Brachiaria decumbens Stapf em capineiras estabelecidas Glyphosate and nitrogen in the control of Brachiaria decumbens Stapf in established elephant grass stocking piles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo do experimento foi avaliar a eficiência de utilização do herbicida glyphosate associado com adubação nitrogenada no controle de Brachiaria decumbens Stapf em capineiras estabelecidas. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com dezessete tratamentos e três repetições. Os tratamentos foram arranjados em esquema fatorial 4 x 4 + 1, sendo quatro doses de glyphosate (0, 720, 1440 e 2160 g/ha/aplicação, quatro doses de nitrogênio (0, 75, 150 e 225 kg/ha/ano e um tratamento adicional (testemunha com capina. As aplicações do nitrogênio e glyphosate, nas respectivas doses, foram realizadas imediatamente após o corte do capim-elefante. A associação entre o herbicida glyphosate (2160 g/ha/aplicação e nitrogênio (225 kg/ha/ano foi eficiente no controle de capim-braquiária em capineiras estabelecidas. A aplicação do herbicida glyphosate (2160 g/ha/aplicação reduziu o tamanho do banco de sementes de capim-braquiária no solo em 64%.The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the efficiency of the use of the herbicide glyphosate associated with nitrogen fertilization in the control of Brachiaria decumbens Stapf in elephant grass stocking piles. The experimental design used was a randomized blocks with 17 treatments and three replications. The treatments were arranged in 4x4+1 factorial scheme, namely four doses of glyphosate (0, 720, 1440 e 2160 g/ha/application, four doses of nitrogen (0, 75, 150 e 225 kg/ha/ano and one additional treatment (control with a hoeing. The application of the nitrogen and glyphosate, in the respective doses were performed immediately after the cutting of elephant grass. The association between glyphosate (2160 g/ha/application and nitrogen (225 kg/ha/ano was efficient in the control brachiaria grass in established elephant grass stocking piles. The application of the glyphosate (2160 g/ha/application reduced the size of the bank of brachiaria grass seeds in the soil in 64%.

Joadil Gonçalves de Abreu

2006-10-01

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Exposure assessment to glyphosate of two species of annelids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adult mortality, biomass, fecundity and viability of cocoons were studied in Eisenia fetida and Octolasion tyrtaeum, in response to glyphosate exposure in soil. Exposure tests were carried out following USEPA procedure, with five concentrations of glyphosate in soil and a control. O. tyrtaeum was more sensitive to the highest concentration of glyphosate (50,000 mg kg(-1)), with 100 % mortality by day 7 of exposure, compared with 71 % for E. fetida. Although biomass of O. tyrtaeum was significantly different between the control and 5,000 mg kg(-1) dose at day 14, E. fetida was not affected at that concentration, and only showed a significant weight loss after 7 days of exposure to 50,000 mg kg(-1). Adverse effects upon adult fecundity and cocoon viability were observed at glyphosate concentrations of 5,000 mg kg(-1) and above. Adverse effects were observed at concentrations that greatly exceeded the recommended field application rates of glyphosate. PMID:24902650

García-Torres, Tristán; Giuffré, Lidia; Romaniuk, Romina; Ríos, Ruth P; Pagano, Eduardo A

2014-08-01

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Adição simultânea de sulfato de amônio e ureia à calda de pulverização do herbicida glyphosate Simultaneous addition of ammonium sulfate and urea to glyphosate spray solution  

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Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram desenvolvidos em casa de vegetação, com o objetivo de avaliar a eficácia do herbicida glyphosate sobre plantas de Digitaria insularis quando soluções de ureia (U; 5 g L-1, sulfato de amônio (SA; 15 g L-1 ou U+SA (2,5 + 7,5 g L-1 foram utilizadas como veículo de pulverização. Aos 28 dias após aplicação, de acordo com as curvas de dose-resposta (primeiro experimento, foram necessários 409 g ha-1 de glyphosate para atingir 50% de controle da planta daninha (C50 quando água sem adjuvantes foi usada como veículo de pulverização. Para obtenção dos mesmos 50% de controle, as doses de glyphosate foram reduzidas para 373, 208 e 189 g ha-1; quando o herbicida foi pulverizado utilizando solução de U, SA ou U+SA, respectivamente. A redução na dose oriunda da combinação de glyphosate e U+SA também foi observada para controles de 80% (C80. No segundo experimento, a adição de U+SA à calda elevou o controle obtido com a menor dose de glyphosate (360 g ha-1, igualando-o à aplicação da maior dose (720 g ha-1 sem adjuvantes. Esses resultados evidenciam efeito complementar de U e SA em elevar a eficácia do glyphosate para controle de D. insularis.Two trials were carried out under greenhouse conditions to evaluate the efficacy of glyphosate on Digitaria insularis plants when urea (U; 5 g L-1; ammonium sulfate (AMS; 15 g L-1 or U+AMS (2.5 + 7.5 g L-1 were used as spray solutions. At 28 days after application, according to dose-response curves (first trial, 409 g ha-1 of glyphosate application were necessary to obtain 50% of weed control (C50 when water without adjuvants was used as spray solution. To reach the same 50% of weed control, glyphosate rates were reduced to 373, 208 and 189 g ha-1, when the herbicide was sprayed using a solution of U, AMS or U+AMS, respectively. Reduction in the dose of glyphosate combined with U+AMS was also observed for controls of 80% (C80. In the second trial, the addition of U+SA to glyphosate spray solution increased the control obtained at the lowest glyphosate rate (360 g ha-1, leveling it to the highest rate application (720 g ha-1 without adjuvants. These results show the complementary action of U and AMS to increase glyphosate efficacy to control D. insularis.

S.J.P. Carvalho

2010-01-01

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Yield of glyphosate-resistant sugar beets and efficiency of weed management systems with glyphosate and conventional herbicides under German and Polish crop production.  

Science.gov (United States)

In sugar beet production, weed control is one of the most important and most expensive practices to ensure yield. Since glyphosate-resistant sugar beets are not yet approved for cultivation in the EU, little commercial experience exists with these sugar beets in Europe. Experimental field trials were conducted at five environments (Germany, Poland, 2010, 2011) to compare the effects of glyphosate with the effects of conventional weed control programs on the development of weeds, weed control efficiency and yield. The results show that the glyphosate weed control programs compared to the conventional methods decreased not only the number of herbicide applications but equally in magnitude decreased the dosage of active ingredients. The results also showed effective weed control with glyphosate when the weed covering was greater and sugar beets had a later growth stage of four true leaves. Glyphosate-resistant sugar beets applied with the glyphosate herbicide two or three times had an increase in white sugar yield from 4 to 18 % in comparison to the high dosage conventional herbicide systems. In summary, under glyphosate management sugar beets can positively contribute to the increasingly demanding requirements regarding efficient sugar beet cultivation and to the demands by society and politics to reduce the use of chemical plant protection products in the environment. PMID:23271374

Nichterlein, Henrike; Matzk, Anja; Kordas, Leszek; Kraus, Josef; Stibbe, Carsten

2013-08-01

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Herança da resistência de azevém (Lolium multiflorum) ao glyphosate / Inheritance of azevém (Lolium multiflorum) resistance to glyphosate  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O glyphosate é o principal produto usado para manejo não-seletivo das plantas daninhas. Já foram identificados biótipos de azevém resistentes a esse herbicida no Rio Grande do Sul, os quais estão se tornando predominantes rapidamente. Objetivou-se neste trabalho identificar o tipo de herança, o núme [...] ro de genes que conferem resistência e o grau de resistência dos biótipos homozigotos e heterozigotos resistentes em azevém. Foram realizados cruzamentos recíprocos entre genitores suscetíveis e resistentes para obtenção de sementes F1 e, em seguida, efetuaram-se os retrocruzamentos resistente e sensível. Plantas F1 foram cruzadas, para obtenção da geração F2. Sobre as plantas F1, F2, RCr e RCs e genitores foi aplicado o glyphosate na dose de 720 g ha-1, para avaliar a segregação. A fim de avaliar o grau de resistência, as plantas F1 e os genitores resistente e sensível foram tratados com doses crescentes de glyphosate (0, 360, 720, 1.440 e 2.880 g ha-1). As plantas F1 evidenciaram resposta intermediária ao biótipo resistente e sensível, demonstrando que a interação alélica é do tipo dominância incompleta. As plantas F2 mostraram tendência para segregação 3:1, indicando que a característica resistência ao glyphosate é controlada por um gene semidominante. Abstract in english Glyphosate is a non-selective herbicide used to control weeds. Azevem plants, which are tolerant to glyphosate, have been identified in Rio Grande do Sul, where they are rapidly becoming predominant. The objective of this work was to identify inheritance type, number of genes conferring resistance, [...] and the degree of resistance in azevem plants. Reciprocal crossings between sensitive and resistant plants have been carried out to obtain F1 seeds which were crossed among themselves to obtain F2 plants .Herbicide containing 720 g ha-1 was applied on the F1, F2, RCr, Rc and parent plants to estimate segregation. To evaluate the degree of resistance of the F1 plants, resistant and sensitive parents were sprayed with increasing rates of glyphosate (0, 360, 720, 1.440 and 2.880 g ha-1). F1 plants showed intermediate response to the resistant and sensitive biotypes, indicating that allelic interaction is of the incomplete dominance type. F2 plants showed a tendency for segregation 3:1, indicating that resistance to glyphosate is controlled by a semi-dominant gene.

L., Vargas; R.M.A., Moraes; C.M., Berto.

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Micromorfologia foliar na análise da fitotoxidez por glyphosate em Eucalyptus grandis Leaf micromorphology in the analysis of glyphosate toxicity in Eucalyptus grandis  

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Full Text Available Foram avaliados os efeitos da deriva de formulações comerciais de glyphosate sobre a superfície foliar e o crescimento de clones de eucalipto. Mudas de seis clones foram submetidas a 129,6 g ha-1 de glyphosate das formulações comerciais Scout®, Roundup NA®, Roundup transorb® e Zapp QI®. Entre os clones não foram identificadas diferenças quanto à tolerância ao glyphosate. Plantas expostas à deriva simulada de Roundup transorb® e Zapp QI® apresentaram, respectivamente, a maior e menor porcentagem de intoxicação. Observou-se menor massa seca em plantas expostas ao glyphosate, independentemente da formulação, e menor altura naquelas expostas ao Scout® e ao Roundup transorb®. As características quantitativas da superfície foliar não foram afetadas pelo glyphosate. As alterações micromorfológicas ocorreram na ausência de danos visíveis e foram observadas em ambas as faces da epiderme, em todos os clones avaliados. Danos como erosão e aspecto amorfo das ceras epicuticulares e infestação por hifas fúngicas ocorreram, independentemente da formulação utilizada. A avaliação anatômica da superfície foliar foi relevante para descrição e interpretação dos danos causados pelo glyphosate. Os dados de crescimento e de intoxicação indicam o Zapp QI® como a formulação de menor risco para a cultura do eucalipto quanto aos efeitos indesejáveis da deriva.The effects of commercial glyphosate drift on the leaf surface and growth of eucalypt clones were evaluated. Seedlings of six clones were submitted to 129.6 g ha-1 sub-rate of commercial glyphosate formulations Scout®, Roundup NA®, Roundup transorb® and Zapp QI®. No differences in tolerance to glyphosate were observed among the clones. Plants exposed to simulated drift of Roundup transorb® and Zapp QI® presented the highest and lowest intoxication percentages, respectively. Plants exposed to glyphosate reduced dry biomass, regardless of the formulation, and also reduced height of the plants exposed to Scout® and Roundup transorb®. Leaf surface characteristics were not affected by glyphosate application. However, the micromorphological damages occurred prior to the appearance of visible symptoms, and were observed on both faces of the epidermis, in all clones tested. Damages such as erosion and amorphous aspect of epicuticular waxes and infestation of fungal hyphae occurred, independently of the formulation used. The anatomical evaluation of the leaf surface effectively described the damages caused by glyphosate. The growth and intoxication data indicate Zapp QI® formulation as presenting the lowest risk to eucalypt culture, in relation to the undesirable herbicide drift effects.

L.D. Tuffi Santos

2009-01-01

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Resistência de azevém (Lolium multiflorum ao herbicida glyphosate Resistance of italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum to glyphosate  

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Full Text Available O azevém é uma gramínea de ciclo anual, constituindo-se com freqüência em planta infestante em lavouras de trigo do Rio Grande do Sul. Em experimentos realizados em casa de vegetação e no campo, foi avaliada a suscetibilidade de dois biótipos de azevém ao herbicida glyphosate, bem como a eficiência de herbicidas de ação total na dessecação de Lolium multiflorum para a semeadura direta de trigo. O delineamento experimental foi completamente casualizado em casa de vegetação e de blocos ao acaso em campo, com três e quatro repetições, respectivamente. Foram avaliados herbicidas com mecanismos de ação distintos em diferentes doses: glyphosate, glufosinate, clethodim, haloxyfop-r e diclofop, paraquat e paraquat + diuron. Os resultados, em casa de vegetação, evidenciam que o biótipo sensível é totalmente controlado com glyphosate na dose de 360 g e.a. ha-1 e que doses de até 1.440 g e.a. ha-1 não afetam significativamente o acúmulo de matéria seca do biótipo resistente e produzem toxicidade inferior a 15% sobre este. Já as doses entre 1.440 e 5.760 g e.a. ha-1 de glyphosate reduzem significativamente a produção de matéria seca e resultam em toxicidade inferior a 45%. Em campo, os melhores controles de azevém foram propiciados pelos tratamentos clethodim (79,2 g ha-1 e diuron + paraquat (300 + 600 g ha-1, que não diferiram entre si. Assim, evidencia-se que a população de Lolium multiflorum avaliada neste trabalho é constituída predominantemente de um biótipo resistente aos herbicidas inibidores da enzima EPSPs.Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum is cultivated as forage and/or cover crop in no-till system. However, it is also a serious weed in wheat and other winter cereals in Southern Brazil. Experiments were conducted at greenhouse and field conditions to evaluate the susceptibility of two ryegrass biotype to glyphosate as well as the efficacy of other herbicides on the post-emergence control of the species for sowing wheat under no-till system. The experimental design was a completely randomized design for the greenhouse experiment and a completely randomized block design for the field experiment. Herbicides with different mechanisms of action were evaluated on the weed control: glyphosate, glufosinate, clethodim, haloxyfop-r and diclofop, paraquat and paraquat+diuron. The results obtained under greenhouse conditions indicated the glyphosate susceptible biotype was controlled by the rate of 360 g e.a. ha-1. The resistant ryegrass biotype had no reduction in dry matter production and less than 15 % phytotoxicity caused by glyphosate up to 1,440 g e.a. ha-1. However, glyphosate rates between 1440 and 5,760 g e.a. ha-1 reduced dry matter accumulation and resulted in toxicities under45%. Under field conditions, the best Lolium multiflorum control was given by clethodim 79.2 g ha-1 and diuron + paraquat at 300+600 g ha¹, respectively. The results obtained in these studies indicated that the population was composed predominantly by a biotype resistant to EPSPs inhibitor herbicides.

E.S. Roman

2004-06-01

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Resistência de azevém (Lolium multiflorum) ao herbicida glyphosate / Resistance of italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) to glyphosate  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O azevém é uma gramínea de ciclo anual, constituindo-se com freqüência em planta infestante em lavouras de trigo do Rio Grande do Sul. Em experimentos realizados em casa de vegetação e no campo, foi avaliada a suscetibilidade de dois biótipos de azevém ao herbicida glyphosate, bem como a eficiência [...] de herbicidas de ação total na dessecação de Lolium multiflorum para a semeadura direta de trigo. O delineamento experimental foi completamente casualizado em casa de vegetação e de blocos ao acaso em campo, com três e quatro repetições, respectivamente. Foram avaliados herbicidas com mecanismos de ação distintos em diferentes doses: glyphosate, glufosinate, clethodim, haloxyfop-r e diclofop, paraquat e paraquat + diuron. Os resultados, em casa de vegetação, evidenciam que o biótipo sensível é totalmente controlado com glyphosate na dose de 360 g e.a. ha-1 e que doses de até 1.440 g e.a. ha-1 não afetam significativamente o acúmulo de matéria seca do biótipo resistente e produzem toxicidade inferior a 15% sobre este. Já as doses entre 1.440 e 5.760 g e.a. ha-1 de glyphosate reduzem significativamente a produção de matéria seca e resultam em toxicidade inferior a 45%. Em campo, os melhores controles de azevém foram propiciados pelos tratamentos clethodim (79,2 g ha-1) e diuron + paraquat (300 + 600 g ha-1), que não diferiram entre si. Assim, evidencia-se que a população de Lolium multiflorum avaliada neste trabalho é constituída predominantemente de um biótipo resistente aos herbicidas inibidores da enzima EPSPs. Abstract in english Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) is cultivated as forage and/or cover crop in no-till system. However, it is also a serious weed in wheat and other winter cereals in Southern Brazil. Experiments were conducted at greenhouse and field conditions to evaluate the susceptibility of two ryegrass bio [...] type to glyphosate as well as the efficacy of other herbicides on the post-emergence control of the species for sowing wheat under no-till system. The experimental design was a completely randomized design for the greenhouse experiment and a completely randomized block design for the field experiment. Herbicides with different mechanisms of action were evaluated on the weed control: glyphosate, glufosinate, clethodim, haloxyfop-r and diclofop, paraquat and paraquat+diuron. The results obtained under greenhouse conditions indicated the glyphosate susceptible biotype was controlled by the rate of 360 g e.a. ha-1. The resistant ryegrass biotype had no reduction in dry matter production and less than 15 % phytotoxicity caused by glyphosate up to 1,440 g e.a. ha-1. However, glyphosate rates between 1440 and 5,760 g e.a. ha-1 reduced dry matter accumulation and resulted in toxicities under45%. Under field conditions, the best Lolium multiflorum control was given by clethodim 79.2 g ha-1 and diuron + paraquat at 300+600 g ha¹, respectively. The results obtained in these studies indicated that the population was composed predominantly by a biotype resistant to EPSPs inhibitor herbicides.

Roman, E.S.; Vargas, L.; Rizzardi, M.A.; Mattei, R.W..

55

Photosynthetic activity of coffee after application of glyphosate subdoses / Atividade fotossintética do cafeeiro após aplicação de subdoses de glyphosate  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Para o controle de plantas daninhas em lavouras cafeeiras, os produtores utilizam herbicidas não-seletivos, como o glyphosate, empregado em aplicações dirigidas. Apesar de todos os cuidados com a aplicação, são constatados casos de intoxicação em plantas, sendo de fundamental importância o conhecime [...] nto dos efeitos sobre os processos fotossintéticos. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar as características associadas à atividade fotossintética entre cultivares de cafeeiro submetidos a doses de glyphosate. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação utilizando-se três cultivares de cafeeiro (Coffea arabica): Acaiá (MG-6851), Catucaí Amarelo (2 SL) e Topázio (MG-1190) e, três subdoses do glyphosate (0,0; 115,2 e 460,8 g ha-1), em esquema fatorial 3 x 3. Em função da aplicação do herbicida observou-se redução de carbono interno, razão carbono interno e do ambiente, consumo de carbono e taxa fotossintética, aos 15 DAA na quarta folha. Na mesma folha aos 45 DAA, constatou-se menor consumo de carbono pelos cultivares. Na última folha apesar de inferiores concentrações de carbono, não obteve-se diferença no consumo e taxa fotossintética. O glyphosate resulta em danos metabólicos com efeitos transitórios sobre a atividade fotossintética, sendo o cultivar Acaiá o mais tolerante. Este efeito transitório pode resultar em danos prolongados e irreversíveis no crescimento da cultura. Abstract in english Farmers use non-selective herbicides, such as glyphosate, in directed applications to control weeds in coffee crops. Despite the precautions used during the application of herbicides, there are usually reports of poisoning in plantation areas. Moreover, it is fundamental to understand the effects of [...] glyphosate on photosynthetic processes. The present study aimed to evaluate the characteristics associated with the photosynthetic activity in coffee cultivars subjected to doses of glyphosate. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse using three varieties of coffee (Coffea arabica), including Acaiá (MG-6851), Catucaí Amarelo (2 SL) and Topázio (MG-1190), and three subdoses of glyphosate (0.0, 115.2 and 460.8 g ha-1) in a 3 x 3 factorial scheme. Herbicide application led to reduced internal carbon, ratio between internal and environmental carbon, carbon consumption and photosynthetic rate at 15 days after application (DAA) in the fourth leaf. In the same leaf at 45 DAA, the carbon consumption of the cultivars was even less. Despite low carbon concentrations, no difference in consumption and photosynthetic rate was observed in the last leaf. Glyphosate caused metabolic damage with transitory effects on the photosynthetic rate; the Acaiá cultivar was the most tolerant. These transitory effects may result in irreversible and prolonged damage to crop growth.

Felipe Paolinelli de, Carvalho; André Cabral, França; Vinícius Teixeira, Lemos; Evander Alves, Ferreira; José Barbosa dos, Santos; Antonio Alberto da, Silva.

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Crop Response to Glyphosate Trimesium Sulphosate  

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Full Text Available Glyphosate may cause injury to non-target plants. The first detectable symptom after glyphosate treatment is the growth inhibition, followed by noticeable yellowing (chlorosis of the treated tissue. Five to ten days after the treatment, the chlorosis turns into necrosis and the plants begin to die. Greenhouse research was conducted in 2007 to investigate the response of glyphosate resistant (GR soybeans PAN 520 line and non-glyphosate resistant EGRET line of soybeans to glyphosate trimesium sulphosate and to evaluate soybeans injury to help in weed resistance detection. The methods used to detect changes were dose response test, HPLC measurement based on glyphosate induced accumulation of shikimate, and morpho-anatomical changes (light and electron microscopy. Damaged chloroplasts are a clear indication of a glyphosate injury. If the injury rating is related to increased shikimate levels, there is greater certainty that differences among biotypes are due to glyphosate tolerance.

Danijela PAVLOVIC

2013-12-01

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75 FR 17768 - Glyphosate From China  

Science.gov (United States)

...COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-1178 (Preliminary)] Glyphosate From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission...is materially retarded, by reason of imports from China of glyphosate, provided for in subheadings 2931.00.90 and...

2010-04-07

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75 FR 24969 - Glyphosate From China  

Science.gov (United States)

...COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-1178 (Preliminary)] Glyphosate From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission...gives notice that its antidumping investigation concerning glyphosate from China (investigation No. 731-TA-1178...

2010-05-06

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THE REMOVAL OF GLYPHOSATE FROM DRINKING WATER  

Science.gov (United States)

The effectiveness of granulated activated carbon (GAC), packed activated carbon (PAC), conventional treatment, membranes, and oxidation for removing glyphosate from natural waters is evaluated. Results indicate that GAC and PAC are not effective in removing glyphosate, while oxid...

60

Perturbations of amino acid metabolism associated with glyphosate-dependent inhibition of shikimic acid metabolism affect cellular redox homeostasis and alter the abundance of proteins involved in photosynthesis and photorespiration.  

Science.gov (United States)

The herbicide glyphosate inhibits the shikimate pathway of the synthesis of amino acids such as phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan. However, much uncertainty remains concerning precisely how glyphosate kills plants or affects cellular redox homeostasis and related processes in glyphosate-sensitive and glyphosate-resistant crop plants. To address this issue, we performed an integrated study of photosynthesis, leaf proteomes, amino acid profiles, and redox profiles in the glyphosate-sensitive soybean (Glycine max) genotype PAN809 and glyphosate-resistant Roundup Ready Soybean (RRS). RRS leaves accumulated much more glyphosate than the sensitive line but showed relatively few changes in amino acid metabolism. Photosynthesis was unaffected by glyphosate in RRS leaves, but decreased abundance of photosynthesis/photorespiratory pathway proteins was observed together with oxidation of major redox pools. While treatment of a sensitive genotype with glyphosate rapidly inhibited photosynthesis and triggered the appearance of a nitrogen-rich amino acid profile, there was no evidence of oxidation of the redox pools. There was, however, an increase in starvation-associated and defense proteins. We conclude that glyphosate-dependent inhibition of soybean leaf metabolism leads to the induction of defense proteins without sustained oxidation. Conversely, the accumulation of high levels of glyphosate in RRS enhances cellular oxidation, possibly through mechanisms involving stimulation of the photorespiratory pathway. PMID:21757634

Vivancos, Pedro Diaz; Driscoll, Simon P; Bulman, Christopher A; Ying, Liu; Emami, Kaveh; Treumann, Achim; Mauve, Caroline; Noctor, Graham; Foyer, Christine H

2011-09-01

 
 
 
 
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Glyphosate inhibits rust diseases in glyphosate-resistant wheat and soybean  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum herbicide used for the control of weeds in glyphosate-resistant crops. Glyphosate inhibits 5-enolpyruvyl shikimate 3-phosphate synthase, a key enzyme in the synthesis of aromatic amino acids in plants, fungi, and bacteria. Studies with glyphosate-resistant wheat have shown that glyphosate provided both preventive and curative activities against Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici and Puccinia triticina, which cause stripe and leaf rusts, respectively, in wheat. ...

Feng, Paul C. C.; Baley, G. James; Clinton, William P.; Bunkers, Greg J.; Alibhai, Murtaza F.; Paulitz, Timothy C.; Kidwell, Kimberlee K.

2005-01-01

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Selectivity of glyphosate tank mixtures for RR soybean / Seletividade de glyphosate em misturas em tanque para soja RR  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A mistura de ingredientes ativos de diferentes mecanismos de ação é uma ferramenta essencial para prevenir ou manejar áreas com plantas daninhas resistentes. No entanto é importante que tais associações forneçam adequada seletividade para a cultura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a seletivida [...] de do glyphosate a soja RR, e verificar também, se existe seletividade a misturas com outros ingredientes ativos, aplicados em pós-emergência, visando novas estratégias de controle que poderão ser empregadas no cultivo da soja RR. Os herbicidas e respectivas doses (g ha-1) avaliadas foram: glyphosate isolado (720, 960, 1.200 e 1.440) e as misturas de glyphosate (960) com cloransulam-methyl (30,24), fomesafen (125), lactofen (72), chlorimuron-ethyl (12,5), flumiclorac-pentyl (30), bentazon (480) e imazethapyr (80). Todos os tratamentos foram aplicados em dose única em pós-emergência quando a soja estava no estádio V2 a V3. Tratamentos com glyphosate isolado ou em mistura com herbicidas pós-emergentes aplicados em dose única promoveram efeitos visuais de fitointoxicação quando aplicados na soja resistente ao glyphosate. Efeitos como redução na altura das plantas, no fechamento da cultura, no número de vagens por planta e na massa de cem grãos puderam ser observados. Entretanto, os efeitos relatados ao desenvolvimento das plantas foram na sua maioria transientes, não persistindo durante todo ciclo da cultura. Dentre os tratamentos estudados, somente a mistura entre glyphosate e lactofen não apresentou seletividade à cultura, promovendo efeitos negativos na maioria das características estudadas e consequentemente reduzindo a produtividade de grãos. Abstract in english An active ingredients mixture of different action mechanisms is an essential tool to prevent or manage areas with resistant weeds. However, it is important that such a mixture provides adequate selectivity to the crop. The aim of this work was to evaluate glyphosate selectivity to glyphosate-resista [...] nt (RR) soybean, and also verify if there is selectivity in mixtures with other active ingredients applied postemergence aimed at new control strategies, which might be used in RR soybean cultivation. The herbicides and respective rates (g ha-1) evaluated were: glyphosate (720, 960, 1,200, and 1,440), and the mixtures of glyphosate (960) with cloransulam-methyl (30.24), fomesafen (125), lactofen (72), chlorimuron-ethyl (12.5), flumiclorac-pentyl (30), bentazon (480), or imazethapyr (80). All treatments were applied in postemergence when the soybean crop was at V2 to V3 stage. Treatments with glyphosate or in mixtures with postemergent herbicides showed visual effects of phytotoxicity when applied to the glyphosate-resistant soybean. Effects such as reduction in plant height, crop closure, number of pods per plant, and hundred grain weight could be observed. However, the effects related to plant development were mostly transient and did not persist during the crop cycle. Among the studied treatments, only the mixture of glyphosate and lactofen was not selective to the crop, promoting negative effects on most characteristics analyzed and consequently reducing grain yield.

D.G, Alonso; J, Constantin; R.S, Oliveira Jr; J.G.Z, Arantes; S.D, Cavalieri; G, Santos; F.A, Rios; L.H.M, Franchini.

63

Selectivity of glyphosate tank mixtures for RR soybean Seletividade de glyphosate em misturas em tanque para soja RR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An active ingredients mixture of different action mechanisms is an essential tool to prevent or manage areas with resistant weeds. However, it is important that such a mixture provides adequate selectivity to the crop. The aim of this work was to evaluate glyphosate selectivity to glyphosate-resistant (RR soybean, and also verify if there is selectivity in mixtures with other active ingredients applied postemergence aimed at new control strategies, which might be used in RR soybean cultivation. The herbicides and respective rates (g ha-1 evaluated were: glyphosate (720, 960, 1,200, and 1,440, and the mixtures of glyphosate (960 with cloransulam-methyl (30.24, fomesafen (125, lactofen (72, chlorimuron-ethyl (12.5, flumiclorac-pentyl (30, bentazon (480, or imazethapyr (80. All treatments were applied in postemergence when the soybean crop was at V2 to V3 stage. Treatments with glyphosate or in mixtures with postemergent herbicides showed visual effects of phytotoxicity when applied to the glyphosate-resistant soybean. Effects such as reduction in plant height, crop closure, number of pods per plant, and hundred grain weight could be observed. However, the effects related to plant development were mostly transient and did not persist during the crop cycle. Among the studied treatments, only the mixture of glyphosate and lactofen was not selective to the crop, promoting negative effects on most characteristics analyzed and consequently reducing grain yield.A mistura de ingredientes ativos de diferentes mecanismos de ação é uma ferramenta essencial para prevenir ou manejar áreas com plantas daninhas resistentes. No entanto é importante que tais associações forneçam adequada seletividade para a cultura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a seletividade do glyphosate a soja RR, e verificar também, se existe seletividade a misturas com outros ingredientes ativos, aplicados em pós-emergência, visando novas estratégias de controle que poderão ser empregadas no cultivo da soja RR. Os herbicidas e respectivas doses (g ha-1 avaliadas foram: glyphosate isolado (720, 960, 1.200 e 1.440 e as misturas de glyphosate (960 com cloransulam-methyl (30,24, fomesafen (125, lactofen (72, chlorimuron-ethyl (12,5, flumiclorac-pentyl (30, bentazon (480 e imazethapyr (80. Todos os tratamentos foram aplicados em dose única em pós-emergência quando a soja estava no estádio V2 a V3. Tratamentos com glyphosate isolado ou em mistura com herbicidas pós-emergentes aplicados em dose única promoveram efeitos visuais de fitointoxicação quando aplicados na soja resistente ao glyphosate. Efeitos como redução na altura das plantas, no fechamento da cultura, no número de vagens por planta e na massa de cem grãos puderam ser observados. Entretanto, os efeitos relatados ao desenvolvimento das plantas foram na sua maioria transientes, não persistindo durante todo ciclo da cultura. Dentre os tratamentos estudados, somente a mistura entre glyphosate e lactofen não apresentou seletividade à cultura, promovendo efeitos negativos na maioria das características estudadas e consequentemente reduzindo a produtividade de grãos.

D.G Alonso

2011-12-01

64

The interaction of glyphosate with soil constituents  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The chemical mechanisms that govern glyphosate interactions with soil constituents are not fully understood. In studies of single soil constituents, iron and aluminum oxides have shown a particularly high affinity for glyphosate compared to other soil constituents. We used goethite and poorly crystalline boehmite (PCB) in this study as model sorbents to show the interactions of glyphosate on soil constituents. We identified glyphosate sorption on goethite and PCB using coupled sorption and Fo...

2009-01-01

65

76 FR 27268 - Glyphosate; Pesticide Tolerance  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0938; FRL-8872-6] Glyphosate; Pesticide Tolerance AGENCY: Environmental...established tolerance for residues of glyphosate in or on corn, field, forage. Monsanto...tolerance for residues of the herbicide glyphosate, N-(phosphonomethyl)...

2011-05-11

66

78 FR 60707 - Glyphosate; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2011-0307; FRL-9396-6] Glyphosate; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental...tolerance for residues of the herbicide glyphosate in or on canola, seed at 20 parts per...expression from the combined residues of glyphosate only, to the combined residues of...

2013-10-02

67

Sub-lethal glyphosate exposure alters flowering phenology and causes transient male-sterility in Brassica spp  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Herbicide resistance in weedy plant populations can develop through different mechanisms such as gene flow of herbicide resistance transgenes from crop species into compatible weedy species or by natural evolution of herbicide resistance or tolerance following selection pressure. Results from our previous studies suggest that sub-lethal levels of the herbicide glyphosate can alter the pattern of gene flow between glyphosate resistant Canola®, Brassica napus, and glyphosate sensitive varieties of B. napus and B. rapa. The objectives of this study were to examine the phenological and developmental changes that occur in Brassica crop and weed species following sub-lethal doses of the herbicides glyphosate and glufosinate. We examined several vegetative and reproductive traits of potted plants under greenhouse conditions, treated with sub-lethal herbicide sprays. Results Our results indicate that exposure of Brassica spp. to a sub-lethal dose of glyphosate results in altering flowering phenology and reproductive function. Flowering of all sensitive species was significantly delayed and reproductive function, specifically male fertility, was suppressed. Higher dosage levels typically contributed to an increase in the magnitude of phenotypic changes. Conclusions These results demonstrate that Brassica spp. plants that are exposed to sub-lethal doses of glyphosate could be subject to very different pollination patterns and an altered pattern of gene flow that would result from changes in the overlap of flowering phenology between species. Implications include the potential for increased glyphosate resistance evolution and spread in weedy communities exposed to sub-lethal glyphosate.

2014-01-01

68

Epoxy resin monomers with reduced skin sensitizing potency.  

Science.gov (United States)

Epoxy resin monomers (ERMs), especially diglycidyl ethers of bisphenol A and F (DGEBA and DGEBF), are extensively used as building blocks for thermosetting polymers. However, they are known to commonly cause skin allergy. This research describes a number of alternative ERMs, designed with the aim of reducing the skin sensitizing potency while maintaining the ability to form thermosetting polymers. The compounds were designed, synthesized, and assessed for sensitizing potency using the in vivo murine local lymph node assay (LLNA). All six epoxy resin monomers had decreased sensitizing potencies compared to those of DGEBA and DGEBF. With respect to the LLNA EC3 value, the best of the alternative monomers had a value approximately 2.5 times higher than those of DGEBA and DGEBF. The diepoxides were reacted with triethylenetetramine, and the polymers formed were tested for technical applicability using thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Four out of the six alternative ERMs gave polymers with a thermal stability comparable to that obtained with DGEBA and DGEBF. The use of improved epoxy resin monomers with less skin sensitizing effects is a direct way to tackle the problem of contact allergy to epoxy resin systems, particularly in occupational settings, resulting in a reduction in the incidence of allergic contact dermatitis. PMID:24830866

O'Boyle, Niamh M; Niklasson, Ida B; Tehrani-Bagha, Ali R; Delaine, Tamara; Holmberg, Krister; Luthman, Kristina; Karlberg, Ann-Therese

2014-06-16

69

Resposta de diferentes populações de Digitaria insularis ao herbicida glyphosate / Response of different Digitaria insularis populations to glyphosate  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se com estse trabalho avaliar o controle químico de diferentes populações de capim-amargoso (Digitaria insularis) pelo herbicida glyphosate por meio de curva de dose-resposta, além de propor tratamentos alternativos para as populações mais tolerantes. O delineamento experimental foi o de b [...] locos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, em esquema fatorial 5 x 9. As sementes de capim-amargoso foram coletadas em cinco locais: área de produção de grãos da Fazenda de Ensino, Pesquisa e Produção da UNESP, Jaboticabal (SP); área de produção comercial de grãos, localizada nos municípios de Campo Florido-MG e Rio Verde-GO; pomar de laranja, localizado no município de Matão (SP); e área não agrícola sem histórico da aplicação de glyphosate (Jaboticabal-SP). O glyphosate (0D, 1/4D, 1/2D, D, 2D, 4D e 8D, em que D é a dose recomendada de 1,5 kg ha-1 de equivalente ácido) e as suas associações [glyphosate + fluazifop-p-butil (1,5 + 0,25 kg ha-1) e glyphosate (1,5 kg ha-1) com sequencial de diuron + paraquat (0,20 + 0,40 kg ha-1 + 0,2% de surfatante)] foram pulverizados em plantas de sete a oito perfilhos e altura média de 20 cm. As populações de capim-amargoso de Campo Florido e Rio Verde foram consideradas suscetíveis; as de Jaboticabal e Matão, tolerantes; e a da área não agrícola, de sensibilidade intermediária. A associação de glyphosate ao fluazifop ou a sua aplicação com sequencial de diuron + paraquat foram eficazes no controle das populações mais tolerantes de capim-amargoso. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical control of different sourgrass (Digitaria insularis) populations by the herbicide glyphosate through dose-response curves, besides considering alternative treatments to control tolerant populations. A randomized block design was used with four [...] replications, in a factorial scheme (5 x 9). Sourgrass seeds were colleted from five locations: a grain production area located at the educational, research and production farm of UNESP, Jaboticabal-SP; a grain production area located in the agricultural area of Campo Florido, MG, and Rio Verde, GO; citrus production area located in the agricultural area of Matão, SP, and an area without previous glyphosate application (Jaboticabal-SP). Glyphosate (0D, 1/4D, 1/2D, D, 2D, 4D and 8D, where D is the recommended rate of 1.5 kg ha-1 of acid equivalent) and its associations [glyphosate plus fluazifop-p-butyl (1.5 plus 0.25 kg ha-1) and glyphosate (1.5 kg ha-1) in sequence with diuron plus paraquat (0.20 plus 0.40 kg ha-1 plus 0.2% of surfactant)] were sprayed on the 7-8 tiller plants with average height of 20 cm. Campo Florido, MG and Rio Verde, GO sourgrass populations were considered susceptible; those of Jaboticabal-SP and Matão,SP were found to be tolerant and those from the nonagricultural area were considered of intermediate sensitivity. The association of glyphosate with fluazifop, or its application in sequence with diuron plus paraquat, were efficient in the control of sourgrass tolerant populations.

N.M, Correia; G.J, Leite; L.D, Garcia.

70

Resposta de diferentes populações de Digitaria insularis ao herbicida glyphosate Response of different Digitaria insularis populations to glyphosate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivou-se com estse trabalho avaliar o controle químico de diferentes populações de capim-amargoso (Digitaria insularis pelo herbicida glyphosate por meio de curva de dose-resposta, além de propor tratamentos alternativos para as populações mais tolerantes. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, em esquema fatorial 5 x 9. As sementes de capim-amargoso foram coletadas em cinco locais: área de produção de grãos da Fazenda de Ensino, Pesquisa e Produção da UNESP, Jaboticabal (SP; área de produção comercial de grãos, localizada nos municípios de Campo Florido-MG e Rio Verde-GO; pomar de laranja, localizado no município de Matão (SP; e área não agrícola sem histórico da aplicação de glyphosate (Jaboticabal-SP. O glyphosate (0D, 1/4D, 1/2D, D, 2D, 4D e 8D, em que D é a dose recomendada de 1,5 kg ha-1 de equivalente ácido e as suas associações [glyphosate + fluazifop-p-butil (1,5 + 0,25 kg ha-1 e glyphosate (1,5 kg ha-1 com sequencial de diuron + paraquat (0,20 + 0,40 kg ha-1 + 0,2% de surfatante] foram pulverizados em plantas de sete a oito perfilhos e altura média de 20 cm. As populações de capim-amargoso de Campo Florido e Rio Verde foram consideradas suscetíveis; as de Jaboticabal e Matão, tolerantes; e a da área não agrícola, de sensibilidade intermediária. A associação de glyphosate ao fluazifop ou a sua aplicação com sequencial de diuron + paraquat foram eficazes no controle das populações mais tolerantes de capim-amargoso.The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical control of different sourgrass (Digitaria insularis populations by the herbicide glyphosate through dose-response curves, besides considering alternative treatments to control tolerant populations. A randomized block design was used with four replications, in a factorial scheme (5 x 9. Sourgrass seeds were colleted from five locations: a grain production area located at the educational, research and production farm of UNESP, Jaboticabal-SP; a grain production area located in the agricultural area of Campo Florido, MG, and Rio Verde, GO; citrus production area located in the agricultural area of Matão, SP, and an area without previous glyphosate application (Jaboticabal-SP. Glyphosate (0D, 1/4D, 1/2D, D, 2D, 4D and 8D, where D is the recommended rate of 1.5 kg ha-1 of acid equivalent and its associations [glyphosate plus fluazifop-p-butyl (1.5 plus 0.25 kg ha-1 and glyphosate (1.5 kg ha-1 in sequence with diuron plus paraquat (0.20 plus 0.40 kg ha-1 plus 0.2% of surfactant] were sprayed on the 7-8 tiller plants with average height of 20 cm. Campo Florido, MG and Rio Verde, GO sourgrass populations were considered susceptible; those of Jaboticabal-SP and Matão,SP were found to be tolerant and those from the nonagricultural area were considered of intermediate sensitivity. The association of glyphosate with fluazifop, or its application in sequence with diuron plus paraquat, were efficient in the control of sourgrass tolerant populations.

N.M Correia

2010-12-01

71

Crescimento de cultivares de café arábica submetidos a doses do glyphosate Growth of arabica coffee cultivars submitted to glyphosate doses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Avaliaram-se, neste trabalho, os efeitos do glyphosate sobre o crescimento de três cultivares de café arábica. Utilizou-se o esquema fatorial (3 x 5 em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, sendo os tratamentos compostos por três cultivares de café: Catucaí Amarelo (2 SL, Oeiras (MG-6851 e Topázio (MG-1190 e cinco doses de glyphosate (0; 57,6; 115,2; 230,4; e 460,8 g ha-1. O herbicida foi aplicado quando as plantas de café se apresentavam com 21 pares de folhas e de forma que não atingisse o terço superior delas. Aos 45 e 120 dias após a aplicação do glyphosate (DAA, avaliaram-se os incrementos na altura, na área foliar, no diâmetro do caule, no número de folhas e nos ramos plagiotrópicos, sendo eles mensurados inicialmente no dia da aplicação do herbicida; aos 10, 45 e 120 DAA, avaliou-se a porcentagem de intoxicação das plantas. A massa da matéria seca de folhas, raízes e caule, a densidade e o comprimento radicular foram avaliados aos 120 DAA. Os sintomas de intoxicação das plantas de café causados pelo glyphosate foram semelhantes nos diferentes cultivares, sendo caracterizados por clorose e estreitamento do limbo foliar. Os incrementos no número de folhas e ramos plagiotrópicos e no diâmetro do caule, independentemente do cultivar, não foram alterados pelo glyphosate. O cultivar Topázio foi o mais sensível ao glyphosate quanto a acúmulo de área foliar, de massa de matéria seca e densidade radicular.This study evaluated the effects of glyphosate on the growth of three arabica coffee cultivars. A factorial (3 x 5 was arranged in a randomized block design with four replications, with treatments consisting of three coffee varieties: Catucaí Amarelo (2 SL, Oeiras (MG-6851 and Topázio (MG-1190 and five glyphosate doses (0, 57.6, 115.2, 230.4 and 460.8 g ha-1 . The herbicide was applied when the coffee plants reached 21 pairs of leaves, before reaching their upper third ones. At 45 and 120 days after glyphosate application (DAA, increase in leaf area, stem diameter, number of leaves and plagiotropic branches was evaluated, being initially measured on the day the herbicide was applied, and plant intoxication rate at 10, 45 and 120 DAA. Dry matter of leaves, roots and stem, and root length and density were measured at 120 DAA. Symptoms of coffee plant intoxication caused by glyphosate were similar in different cultivars, being characterized by chlorosis and leaf narrowing. Increase in the number of leaves, plagiotropic branches and stem diameter, regardless of the cultivar, was not affected by glyphosate. Cultivar Topázio was the most sensitive to glyphosate, in terms of accumulation of leaf area, root dry matter and root density.

A.C. França

2010-01-01

72

Qualidade fisiológica de sementes de soja colhidas em duas épocas após dessecação com glyphosate Physiological quality of soybean seeds harvested at two periods after glyphosate desiccation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A dessecação de plantas de soja em pré-colheita com glyphosate vem se tornando prática rotineira entre os produtores, apesar de não ser recomendada, pois pode comprometer a qualidade fisiológica das sementes. Objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos da dessecação das plantas em pré-colheita com glyphosate na qualidade fisiológica de sementes de soja colhidas em duas épocas após a aplicação. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas. As parcelas principais consistiram da dessecação ou não das plantas de soja com glyphosate em pré-colheita, no estádio R7, e as subparcelas da colheita das sementes 7 e 14 dias após a aplicação. As sementes foram avaliadas quanto ao teor de água, dano mecânico, viabilidade, massa de 100 sementes e teor de proteína. A qualidade fisiológica foi avaliada por meio dos testes de germinação, envelhecimento acelerado, condutividade elétrica, comprimento de plântulas e massa da matéria seca das plântulas. A dessecação das plantas de soja em pré-colheita com glyphosate ocasiona redução da germinação das sementes e do desenvolvimento inicial das plântulas. O atraso na colheita reduz a germinação das sementes oriundas de plantas de soja dessecadas com glyphosate em pré-colheita, mas minimiza os efeitos fitotóxicos no desenvolvimento das plântulas.Pre-harvest desiccation of soybean plants with glyphosate has been routinely conducted by seed producers, although it is not recommended because it may reduce seed physiological quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the pre-harvest desiccation of plants with glyphosate on the physiological quality of soybean seeds harvested at two different periods after application. The experimental design was completely randomized blocks, with four replications and subdivided plots. Main plots consisted of the presence and absence of a pre-harvest desiccation of soybean plants with glyphosate at the R7 stage, and subplots of seeds harvested 7 and 14 days after application. Moisture content, mechanical damage, viability, weight of 100 seeds, protein content and accumulation of glyphosate residues were determined after harvest. Physiological quality was evaluated by tests for germination, accelerated aging, electrical conductivity, seedling length and seedling dry matter. Pre-harvest desiccation of soybean plants with glyphosate reduces seed germination and seedling development. Delayed harvesting reduces the germination of soybean seeds produced by plants desiccated with glyphosate, but minimizes phytotoxicity in seedling development.

Mariana Zampar Toledo

2012-01-01

73

Micromorfologia foliar na análise da fitotoxidez por glyphosate em Eucalyptus grandis / Leaf micromorphology in the analysis of glyphosate toxicity in Eucalyptus grandis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foram avaliados os efeitos da deriva de formulações comerciais de glyphosate sobre a superfície foliar e o crescimento de clones de eucalipto. Mudas de seis clones foram submetidas a 129,6 g ha-1 de glyphosate das formulações comerciais Scout®, Roundup NA®, Roundup transorb® e Zapp QI®. Entre os clo [...] nes não foram identificadas diferenças quanto à tolerância ao glyphosate. Plantas expostas à deriva simulada de Roundup transorb® e Zapp QI® apresentaram, respectivamente, a maior e menor porcentagem de intoxicação. Observou-se menor massa seca em plantas expostas ao glyphosate, independentemente da formulação, e menor altura naquelas expostas ao Scout® e ao Roundup transorb®. As características quantitativas da superfície foliar não foram afetadas pelo glyphosate. As alterações micromorfológicas ocorreram na ausência de danos visíveis e foram observadas em ambas as faces da epiderme, em todos os clones avaliados. Danos como erosão e aspecto amorfo das ceras epicuticulares e infestação por hifas fúngicas ocorreram, independentemente da formulação utilizada. A avaliação anatômica da superfície foliar foi relevante para descrição e interpretação dos danos causados pelo glyphosate. Os dados de crescimento e de intoxicação indicam o Zapp QI® como a formulação de menor risco para a cultura do eucalipto quanto aos efeitos indesejáveis da deriva. Abstract in english The effects of commercial glyphosate drift on the leaf surface and growth of eucalypt clones were evaluated. Seedlings of six clones were submitted to 129.6 g ha-1 sub-rate of commercial glyphosate formulations Scout®, Roundup NA®, Roundup transorb® and Zapp QI®. No differences in tolerance to glyph [...] osate were observed among the clones. Plants exposed to simulated drift of Roundup transorb® and Zapp QI® presented the highest and lowest intoxication percentages, respectively. Plants exposed to glyphosate reduced dry biomass, regardless of the formulation, and also reduced height of the plants exposed to Scout® and Roundup transorb®. Leaf surface characteristics were not affected by glyphosate application. However, the micromorphological damages occurred prior to the appearance of visible symptoms, and were observed on both faces of the epidermis, in all clones tested. Damages such as erosion and amorphous aspect of epicuticular waxes and infestation of fungal hyphae occurred, independently of the formulation used. The anatomical evaluation of the leaf surface effectively described the damages caused by glyphosate. The growth and intoxication data indicate Zapp QI® formulation as presenting the lowest risk to eucalypt culture, in relation to the undesirable herbicide drift effects.

L.D., Tuffi Santos; B.F., Sant' Anna-Santos; R.M.S.A., Meira; F.A., Ferreira; R.A.S.T., Tiburcio; E.C.F., Silva.

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Glyphosate-Resistant Giant Ragweed (Ambrosia trifida L.: 2,4-D Dose Response and Control with Postemergence Herbicides in Soybean  

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Full Text Available Glyphosate resistant giant ragweed is an increasing problem in glyphosate resistant cropping systems in southwestern Ontario. The postemergence herbicides registered for use in soybean in Ontario do not provide consistent control of glyphosate resistant giant ragweed. There is limited research on the lowest effective rate of 2,4-D for the control of glyphosate resistant giant ragweed. Consequently, the objectives of this study were a to determine the efficacy of herbicides applied postemergence for the control of glyphosate resistant giant ragweed in glyphosate resistant soybean, and b to determine the lowest effective rate of 2,4-D for the control of glyphosate-resistant giant ragweed. Ten postemergence herbicide combinations and seven rates of 2,4-D were evaluated in field studies conducted in 2011 and 2012 at six locations confirmed with glyphosate-resistant giant ragweed. The post emergence herbicides evaluated did not provide acceptable/consistent control. Of the herbicides evaluated, glyphosate plus cloransulam-methyl provided 26% to 70% control 8 WAA of glyphosate resistant giant ragweed, which was the best of the herbicides combinations evaluated. The doses of 2,4-D required to reduce giant ragweed shoot dry weight by 50, 80 and 95% were 142, 310 and 1048 g a.e. ha-1, respectively.

Joanna Follings

2013-08-01

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Changes in the accumulation of shikimic acid in mycorrhized Capsicum annuum L. grown with application of glyphosate and phosphorus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english When glyphosate is added to the soil, it is absorbed by roots and transported by xylem causing growth inhibition in plants. Mycorrhiza is the beneficial association between roots of most plants and soil fungi. The methylphosphonic group of the glyphosate could compete with inorganic phosphates for s [...] orption sites in the soil. The aim of this work was to study the effect of phosphorus availability and glyphosate residues in soil on pepper plant growth, and on physiological parameters, in plants non-inoculated or inoculated with Glomus mosseae or G. intraradices. The phytotoxic effects of the glyphosate were assessed by a bio-indicator as shikimic acid. At high doses, glyphosate (6.32 ?M) reduced root colonization, and this effect was increased by higher levels of phosphorus in the soil. The effects of herbicide on shikimic acid accumulation and on shoot growth began 24 hours after glyphosate treatments (HAT). At 24, 48, and 72 HAT, inoculated plants grown without glyphosate showed higher growth compared to the non-inoculated ones. At high glyphosate (6.32 ?M) and 96 HAT, the growth was completely inhibited. The shikimic acid accumulated in the upper leaves of non-inoculated plants, treated at 3.16 ?M glyphosate, was significantly higher at high P level, related to inoculated ones. These results suggest that the remobilization of glyphosate residues in the soil by the addition of phosphate should be considered a serious problem for crops in treated soils. The mycorrhization increases the pepper plant's tolerance to high glyphosate concentration in the substrate, and may allow support to this stress condition.

José, Beltrano; Marcela, Ruscitti; Cecilia, Arango; Marta, Ronco.

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Differential susceptibility to glyphosate among the Conyza weed species in Spain.  

Science.gov (United States)

Greenhouse and laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate differences in glyphosate susceptibility among three species of the genus Conyza introduced as weeds in Spain: tall fleabane (Conyza sumatrensis), hairy fleabane (Conyza bonariensis), and horseweed (Conyza canadensis). Plant material was obtained from seeds collected in weed populations growing in olive groves and citrus orchards in southern Spain, with no previous history of glyphosate application. Dose-response curves displayed ED(50) values of 2.9, 15.7, and 34.9 g ai ha(-1), respectively, for C. sumatrensis, C. bonariensis, and C. canadensis plants at the rosette stage (6-8 leaves). Significant differences were found among the three species in the glyphosate retention on leaves as well as the leaf contact angle. The species order according to glyphosate retention was C. sumatrensis > C. bonariensis > C. canadensis, while the mean contact angles of glyphosate droplets were 59.2, 65.5, and 72.9 degrees , respectively. There were no significant differences among species in the absorption of [(14)C]glyphosate (ranged from 37.4% for C. canadensis to 52.4% for C. sumatrensis), but the order among species was the same as glyphosate retention. The amount of radioactivity translocated from treated leaves was lower in C. canadensis as compared to the other two species (C. sumatrensis > C. bonariensis > C. canadensis). Combined, all of the studied parameters identified differential susceptibility to glyphosate among the Conyza species. Each species accumulated shikimate in leaf tissues following application of glyphosate at 200 g ai ha(-1). However, C. canadensis exhibited lower shikimate levels than the other two species at 168 h after herbicide application. For hairy fleabane, a greenhouse study explored its susceptibility to glyphosate at three developmental stages: rosette, bolting (stem height, 10-15 cm), and flowering. The ED(50) was lower at the rosette stage (15.7 g ai ha(-1)) as compared to bolting (86.6 g ai ha(-1)), with the highest ED(50) values occurring at flowering (117.5 g ai ha(-1)); plants at the earlier developmental stage retained more glyphosate. These results agree with field observations that plants at early developmental stages are more sensitive to glyphosate. PMID:20225860

González-Torralva, Fidel; Cruz-Hipolito, Hugo; Bastida, Fernando; Mülleder, Norbert; Smeda, Reid J; De Prado, Rafael

2010-04-14

77

Glyphosate catabolism by Pseudomonas sp  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pathway for the degradation of glyphosate (N-phosphonomethylglycine) by Pseudomonas sp. PG2982 has been determined using metabolic radiolabeling experiments. Radiorespirometry experiments utilizing [3-14C] glyphosate revealed that approximately 50-59% of the C3 carbon was oxidized to CO2. Fractionation of stationary phase cells labeled with [3-14C]glyphosate revealed that from 45-47% of the assimilated C3 carbon is distributed to proteins and that amino acids methionine and serine are highly labeled. The nucleic acid bases adenine and guanine received 90% of the C3 label that was incorporated into nucleic acids, and the only pyrimidine base labeled was thymine. Pulse labeling of PG2982 cells with [3-14C]glyphosate revealed that [3-14C]sarcosine is an intermediate in glyphosate degradation. Examination of crude extracts prepared from PG2982 cells revealed the presence of an enzyme that oxidizes sarcosine to glycine and formaldehyde. These results indicate that the first step in glyphosate degradation by PG2982 is cleavage of the carbon-phosphorus bond, resulting in the release of sarcosine and a phosphate group. The phosphate group is utilized as a source of phosphorus, and the sarcosine is degraded to glycine and formaldehyde. Phosphonate utilization by Pseudomonas sp. PG2982 was investigated. Each of the ten phosphonates tested were utilized as a sole source of phosphorus by PG2982. Representative compounds tested included alkylphosphonates, 1-amino-substituted alkylphosphonates, amino-terminal phosphonates, and an arylphosphonate. PG2982 cultures degraded phenylphosphonate to benzene and produced methane from methylphosphonate. The data indicate that PG2982 is capable of cleaving the carbon-phosphorus bond of several structurally different phosphonates

1986-01-01

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Dessecação de plantas daninhas com glyphosate em mistura com ureia ou sulfato de amônio Weed desiccation with glyphosate mixed with urea or ammonium sulfate  

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Full Text Available O glyphosate é um herbicida não-seletivo, sistêmico, usado para controle de plantas daninhas anuais e perenes em todo o mundo. A absorção da molécula do glyphosate ocorre pelos tecidos fotossinteticamente ativos das plantas, porém alguns fatores podem reduzir sua eficácia, como a morfologia e diversidade de espécies, chuva após aplicação, qualidade da água e misturas em tanque com outros defensivos, entre outros. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a influência da adição de sulfato de amônio ou ureia em calda na eficácia do herbicida glyphosate para dessecação de plantas daninhas. Dois experimentos foram desenvolvidos em Piracicaba - SP, com aplicações de glyphosate (720 e 1.440 g ha-1 isolado ou combinado com duas doses de sulfato de amônio (7,5 e 15,0 g L-1 ou ureia (2,5 e 5,0 g L-1 sobre as plantas daninhas: apaga-fogo (Alternanthera tenella e capim-massambará (Sorghum halepense. Para a espécie menos suscetível ao herbicida (capim-massambará, a adição de fontes nitrogenadas à menor dose de glyphosate acelerou a morte das plantas, elevando os níveis de controle em até 7,3% na avaliação de 21 dias após aplicação (DAA dos tratamentos. Contudo, os efeitos não foram observados nas avaliações de controle, massa fresca e seca, conduzidas aos 28 DAA. A dose recomendada de glyphosate para cada espécie proporcionou controle satisfatório, sem a necessidade de adição de sulfato de amônio ou ureia.Glyphosate is a non-selective systemic herbicide used to control annual and perennial weeds worldwide. Molecule absorption occurs through the plant's photosynthetically-active tissues; however, some factors might reduce its efficacy, such as morphology and specific diversity, rain after application, water quality and tank mixtures with other chemicals. Thus, this work aimed to evaluate the influence of ammonium sulfate or urea addiction to spray tank on glyphosate efficacy for weed desiccation. Two trials were carried out in Piracicaba - SP, with applications of glyphosate (720 and 1440 g ha-1 alone or combined with two rates of ammonium sulfate (7.5 and 15.0 g L-1 or urea (2.5 and 5.0 g L-1, over the weeds Alternanthera tenella and Sorghum halepense. For the least susceptible species (S. halepense, the addition of nitrogen sources to the lower rate of glyphosate accelerated plant death, increasing the control levels up to 7.3%, at 21 days after application (DAA. However, the effects were not observed when control, fresh and dry mass were evaluated at 28 DAA. Glyphosate recommended rate for each species promoted appropriate control, without the need to add ammonium sulfate or urea.

S.J.P. Carvalho

2009-06-01

79

Heterogeneity reduces sensitivity of cell death for TNF-Stimuli  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Apoptosis is a form of programmed cell death essential for the maintenance of homeostasis and the removal of potentially damaged cells in multicellular organisms. By binding its cognate membrane receptor, TNF receptor type 1 (TNF-R1, the proinflammatory cytokine Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF activates pro-apoptotic signaling via caspase activation, but at the same time also stimulates nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B-mediated survival pathways. Differential dose-response relationships of these two major TNF signaling pathways have been described experimentally and using mathematical modeling. However, the quantitative analysis of the complex interplay between pro- and anti-apoptotic signaling pathways is an open question as it is challenging for several reasons: the overall signaling network is complex, various time scales are present, and cells respond quantitatively and qualitatively in a heterogeneous manner. Results This study analyzes the complex interplay of the crosstalk of TNF-R1 induced pro- and anti-apoptotic signaling pathways based on an experimentally validated mathematical model. The mathematical model describes the temporal responses on both the single cell level as well as the level of a heterogeneous cell population, as observed in the respective quantitative experiments using TNF-R1 stimuli of different strengths and durations. Global sensitivity of the heterogeneous population was quantified by measuring the average gradient of time of death versus each population parameter. This global sensitivity analysis uncovers the concentrations of Caspase-8 and Caspase-3, and their respective inhibitors BAR and XIAP, as key elements for deciding the cell's fate. A simulated knockout of the NF-?B-mediated anti-apoptotic signaling reveals the importance of this pathway for delaying the time of death, reducing the death rate in the case of pulse stimulation and significantly increasing cell-to-cell variability. Conclusions Cell ensemble modeling of a heterogeneous cell population including a global sensitivity analysis presented here allowed us to illuminate the role of the different elements and parameters on apoptotic signaling. The receptors serve to transmit the external stimulus; procaspases and their inhibitors control the switching from life to death, while NF-?B enhances the heterogeneity of the cell population. The global sensitivity analysis of the cell population model further revealed an unexpected impact of heterogeneity, i.e. the reduction of parametric sensitivity.

Schliemann Monica

2011-12-01

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40 CFR 180.364 - Glyphosate; tolerances for residues.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Glyphosate; tolerances for residues. 180... Specific Tolerances § 180.364 Glyphosate; tolerances for residues. (a...Tolerances are established for residues of glyphosate N -(phosphonomethyl)glycine...

2009-07-01

 
 
 
 
81

Physiological and biochemical characterization of glyphosate resistant Ambrosia trifida L.  

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Giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida L.) is an annual plant that persists in crop and non-crop areas. Agronomic producers often use glyphosate, the most widely used herbicide in the world, to control giant ragweed in glyphosate resistant crops. Glyphosate inhibits EPSP synthase, the key enzyme of the shikimate pathway. Repeated use of glyphosate has resulted in the occurrence of glyphosate resistant giant ragweed populations in Indiana. ^ Initial studies confirmed glyphosate resistance in a gian...

2010-01-01

82

The effect of glyphosate on import into a sink leaf of sugar beet  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The basis for glyphosate inducted limitation of carbon import into developing leaves was studied in sugar beet. To separate the effects of the herbicide on export from those on import, glyphosate was supplied to a developing leaf from two exporting source leaves which fed the sink leaf. Carbon import into the sink leaf was determined by supplying 14CO2 to a third source leaf which also supplies carbon to the monitored sink leaf. Import into the sink leaf decreased within 2 to 3 h after glyphosate application, even though photosynthesis and export in the source leaf supplying 14C were unaffected. Reduced import into the sink leaf was accompanied by increased import by the tap root. Elongation of the sink leaf was only slightly decreased following arrival of glyphosate. Photosynthesis by the sink leaf was not inhibited. The results to data support the view that import is slowed by the inhibition of synthesis of structural or storage compounds in the developing leaves

1990-05-01

83

Glyphosate herbicide affects belowground interactions between earthworms and symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi in a model ecosystem.  

Science.gov (United States)

Herbicides containing glyphosate are widely used in agriculture and private gardens, however, surprisingly little is known on potential side effects on non-target soil organisms. In a greenhouse experiment with white clover we investigated, to what extent a globally-used glyphosate herbicide affects interactions between essential soil organisms such as earthworms and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). We found that herbicides significantly decreased root mycorrhization, soil AMF spore biomass, vesicles and propagules. Herbicide application and earthworms increased soil hyphal biomass and tended to reduce soil water infiltration after a simulated heavy rainfall. Herbicide application in interaction with AMF led to slightly heavier but less active earthworms. Leaching of glyphosate after a simulated rainfall was substantial and altered by earthworms and AMF. These sizeable changes provide impetus for more general attention to side-effects of glyphosate-based herbicides on key soil organisms and their associated ecosystem services. PMID:25005713

Zaller, Johann G; Heigl, Florian; Ruess, Liliane; Grabmaier, Andrea

2014-01-01

84

Glyphosate translocation in herbicide tolerant plants Translocação do glyphosate em plantas tolerantes ao herbicida  

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The objective of this study was to evaluate glyphosate translocation in glyphosate-tolerant weed species (I. nil, T. procumbens and S. latifolia) compared to glyphosate-susceptible species (B. pilosa). The evaluations of 14C-glyphosate absorption and translocation were performed at 6, 12, 36 and 72 hours after treatment (HAT) in I. nil and B. pilosa, and only at 72 HAT in the species T. procumbens and S. latifolia. The plants were collected and fractionated into application leaf, other leaves...

Galon, L.; Ferreira, E. A.; Aspiazu?, I.; Concenc?o, G.; Silva, A. F.; Silva, A. A.; Vargas, L.

2013-01-01

85

GLYPHOSATE REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER  

Science.gov (United States)

Activated-carbon, oxidation, conventional-treatment, filtration, and membrane studies are conducted to determine which process is best suited to remove the herbicide glyphosate from potable water. Both bench-scale and pilot-scale studies are completed. Computer models are used ...

86

Review of potential environmental impacts of transgenic glyphosate-resistant soybean in Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Transgenic glyphosate-resistant soybeans (GRS) have been commercialized and grown extensively in the Western Hemisphere, including Brazil. Worldwide, several studies have shown that previous and potential effects of glyphosate on contamination of soil, water, and air are minimal, compared to those caused by the herbicides that they replace when GRS are adopted. In the USA and Argentina, the advent of glyphosate-resistant soybeans resulted in a significant shift to reduced- and no-tillage practices, thereby significantly reducing environmental degradation by agriculture. Similar shifts in tillage practiced with GRS might be expected in Brazil. Transgenes encoding glyphosate resistance in soybeans are highly unlikely to be a risk to wild plant species in Brazil. Soybean is almost completely self-pollinated and is a non-native species in Brazil, without wild relatives, making introgression of transgenes from GRS virtually impossible. Probably the highest agricultural risk in adopting GRS in Brazil is related to weed resistance. Weed species in GRS fields have shifted in Brazil to those that can more successfully withstand glyphosate or to those that avoid the time of its application. These include Chamaesyce hirta (erva-de-Santa-Luzia), Commelina benghalensis (trapoeraba), Spermacoce latifolia (erva-quente), Richardia brasiliensis (poaia-branca), and Ipomoea spp. (corda-de-viola). Four weed species, Conyza bonariensis, Conyza Canadensis (buva), Lolium multiflorum (azevem), and Euphorbia heterophylla (amendoim bravo), have evolved resistance to glyphosate in GRS in Brazil and have great potential to become problems. PMID:17562462

Cerdeira, Antonio L; Gazziero, Dionsio L P; Duke, Stephen O; Matallo, Marcus B; Spadotto, Claudio A

2007-01-01

87

Glyphosate-Resistant Goosegrass from Mississippi  

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A suspected glyphosate-resistant goosegrass [Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.] population, found in Washington County, Mississippi, was studied to determine the level of resistance and whether the resistance was due to a point mutation, as was previously identified in a Malaysian population. Whole plant dose response assays indicated a two- to four-fold increase in resistance to glyphosate. Leaf disc bioassays based on a glyphosate-dependent increase in shikimate levels indicated a five- to eight...

Molin, William T.; Wright, Alice A.; Nandula, Vijay K.

2013-01-01

88

Effects of glyphosate on isolated maize mitochondria  

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The effects of the herbicide glyphosate (K+ salt) on isolated maize mitochondria have been investigated. Protein synthesis, oxygen uptake (state 3 and state 4 respiration) and passive swelling were inhibited at concentrations in the 10?6–10?2 M range. No decrease of the respiratory control ratio (RCR) or stimulation of ATPase activity by glyphosate (K+ salt) were observed. It is concluded that the previously reported decrease of the RCR and ATPase stimulation by glyphosate (isopropylami...

Lopez Bran?a, Isidoro; Delibes Castro, Angeles; Garci?a Olmedo, Francisco

1984-01-01

89

Glyphosate e nitrgênio no controle de Brachiaria decumbens Stapf em capineiras estabelecidas / Glyphosate and nitrogen in the control of Brachiaria decumbens Stapf in established elephant grass stocking piles  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do experimento foi avaliar a eficiência de utilização do herbicida glyphosate associado com adubação nitrogenada no controle de Brachiaria decumbens Stapf em capineiras estabelecidas. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com dezessete tratamentos e três repetições. Os t [...] ratamentos foram arranjados em esquema fatorial 4 x 4 + 1, sendo quatro doses de glyphosate (0, 720, 1440 e 2160 g/ha/aplicação), quatro doses de nitrogênio (0, 75, 150 e 225 kg/ha/ano) e um tratamento adicional (testemunha com capina). As aplicações do nitrogênio e glyphosate, nas respectivas doses, foram realizadas imediatamente após o corte do capim-elefante. A associação entre o herbicida glyphosate (2160 g/ha/aplicação) e nitrogênio (225 kg/ha/ano) foi eficiente no controle de capim-braquiária em capineiras estabelecidas. A aplicação do herbicida glyphosate (2160 g/ha/aplicação) reduziu o tamanho do banco de sementes de capim-braquiária no solo em 64%. Abstract in english The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the efficiency of the use of the herbicide glyphosate associated with nitrogen fertilization in the control of Brachiaria decumbens Stapf in elephant grass stocking piles. The experimental design used was a randomized blocks with 17 treatments and thr [...] ee replications. The treatments were arranged in 4x4+1 factorial scheme, namely four doses of glyphosate (0, 720, 1440 e 2160 g/ha/application), four doses of nitrogen (0, 75, 150 e 225 kg/ha/ano) and one additional treatment (control with a hoeing). The application of the nitrogen and glyphosate, in the respective doses were performed immediately after the cutting of elephant grass. The association between glyphosate (2160 g/ha/application) and nitrogen (225 kg/ha/ano) was efficient in the control brachiaria grass in established elephant grass stocking piles. The application of the glyphosate (2160 g/ha/application) reduced the size of the bank of brachiaria grass seeds in the soil in 64%.

Joadil Gonçalves de, Abreu; Antônio Ricardo, Evangelista; Itamar Ferreira de, Souza; Gudesteu Porto, Rocha; Lécio Queiroz, Soares; Leonardo de Castro, Santarosa.

90

Foliar levels of macro and micronutrients in glyphosate-tolerant corn submitted to herbicides  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A serial of factors related to development of glyphosate-tolerant corn should be approached and best studied. This work was developed to evaluate foliar levels of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn, besides the grain yield of glyphosate-tolerant corn (DKB390 RR hybrid. An experiment was carried out under field conditions, during the crop year of 2010/2011. A randomized complete block design with four repetitions was used to distribute the treatments in the field. Twelve herbicide treatments were studied: glyphosate (720, 1200 and sequential application of 960 plus 720 g ha-1 of the acid glyphosate equivalent, atrazine (2500 g ha-1, nicosulfuron (60 g ha-1, mesotrione (192 g ha-1, tembotrione (100,8 g ha-1, atrazine plus glyphosate (1000 + 960 g ha-1, atrazine plus nicosulfuron (1000 + 20 g ha-1, atrazine plus mesotrione (1000 + 144 g ha-1 and atrazine plus tembotrione (1000 + 75,6 g ha-1 and one control treatment without herbicide. The glyphosate and mesotrione alone did not cause no visible injury to corn. The other herbicides caused intoxication symptoms classified as light (<5%. The treatments studied did not affect foliar levels of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Mn and Zn in the corn plants. But, the plants treated with atrazine plus nicosulfuron had more leaf Fe content, and the plants sprayed with glyphosate (in the three doses and atrazine, more accumulation of Cu in the leaf. The Grain yield of corn was reduced with application single of glyphosate (1200 g ha-1, nicosulfuron, tembotrione and with the mixture atrazine plus nicosulfuron.

Núbia Maria Correia

2013-12-01

91

Agricultural impacts of glyphosate-resistant soybean cultivation in South America.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the 2009/2010 growing season, Brazil was the second largest world soybean producer, followed by Argentina. Glyphosate-resistant soybeans (GRS) are being cultivated in most of the soybean area in South America. Overall, the GRS system is beneficial to the environment when compared to conventional soybean. GRS resulted in a significant shift toward no-tillage practices in Brazil and Argentina, but weed resistance may reduce this trend. Probably the highest agricultural risk in adopting GRS in Brazil and South America is related to weed resistance due to use of glyphosate. Weed species in GRS fields have shifted in Brazil to those that can more successfully withstand glyphosate or to those that avoid the time of its application. Five weed species, in order of importance, Conyza bonariensis (L.) Cronquist, Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronquist, Lolium multiflorum Lam., Digitaria insularis (L.) Mez ex Ekman, and Euphorbia heterophylla L., have evolved resistance to glyphosate in GRS in Brazil. Conyza spp. are the most difficult to control. A glyphosate-resistant biotype of Sorghum halepense L. has evolved in GRS in Argentina and one of D. insularis in Paraguay. The following actions are proposed to minimize weed resistance problem: (a) rotation of GRS with conventional soybeans in order to rotate herbicide modes of action; (b) avoidance of lower than recommended glyphosate rates; (c) keeping soil covered with a crop or legume at intercrop intervals; (d) keeping machinery free of weed seeds; and (d) use of a preplant nonselective herbicide plus residuals to eliminate early weed interference with the crop and to minimize escapes from later applications of glyphosate due to natural resistance of older weeds and/or incomplete glyphosate coverage. PMID:20839871

Cerdeira, Antonio L; Gazziero, Dionsio L P; Duke, Stephen O; Matallo, Marcus B

2011-06-01

92

Control of glyphosate resistant hairy fleabane (Conyza bonariensis) with dicamba and 2,4-D / Controle de buva (Conyza bonariensis) resistente ao glyphosate com dicamba e 2,4-D  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Os herbicidas mimetizadores de auxinas como dicamba e 2,4-D são alternativas para o controle de buva resistente ao glyphosate. Com a possível futura liberação comercial de culturas resistentes ao dicamba e 2,4-D, a aplicação destes herbicidas reguladores de crescimento será uma provável alternativa [...] de controle de buva resistente ao glyphosate. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi modelar por meio de curvas de dose-resposta a eficácia do dicamba e 2,4-D isolados e dicamba em associação com glyphosate para controle de uma população de buva resistente. Um estudo de doseresposta em casa de vegetação foi conduzido em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, sendo que as doses utilizadas para a construção das curvas de dose-resposta foram de 0, 120, 240, 480, 720 e 960 g i.a. ha-1de para o dicamba e o 2,4-D isolados e dicamba associado com 540 g e.a. ha-1 de glyphosate. As doses utilizadas para o glyphosate isolado foram de 0, 180, 360, 540, 720 e 960 g e.a. ha-1. Os tratamentos herbicidas foram aplicados quando asplantas estavam no estádio vegetativo de 10 a 12 folhas e altura entre 12 e 15 cm. A buva apresentou baixa sensibilidade ao glyphosate, pois não foi controlada mesmo na dose de 960 g e.a. ha-1 de glyphosate. O dicamba e o 2,4-D foram eficazes no controle da população de buva estudada. A buva responde de forma diferenciada ao 2,4-D e dicamba e será importante determinaras doses apropriadas de cada herbicida para controle de buva resistente ao glyphosate em condições de campo. A associação de glyphosate e dicamba não foi antagônica no controle da buva e o glyphosate pode causar um efeito aditivo no controle, apesar da resistência da população. Abstract in english Auxyn type herbicides such as dicamba and 2,4-D are alternative herbicides that can be used to control glyphosate-resistant hairy fleabane. With the forthcoming possibility of releasing dicamba-resistant and 2,4-D-resistant crops, use of these growth regulator herbicides will likely be an alternativ [...] e that can be applied to the control of glyphosate resistant hairy fleabane (Conyza bonariensis). The objective of this research was to model the efficacy, through dose-response curves, of glyphosate, 2,4-D, isolated dicamba and glyphosatedicamba combinations to control a brazilian hairy fleabane population resistant to glyphosate. The greenhouse dose-response studies were conducted as a completely randomized experimental design, and the rates used for dose response curve construction were 0, 120, 240, 480, 720 and 960 g a.i. ha-1 for 2,4-D, dicamba and the dicamba combination, with glyphosate at 540 g a.e. ha-1. The rates for glyphosate alone were 0, 180, 360, 540, 720 and 960 g a.e. ha-1. Herbicides were applied when the plants were in a vegetative stage with 10 to 12 leaves and height between 12 and 15 cm. Hairy fleabane had low sensitivity to glyphosate, with poor control even at the 960 g a.e. ha-1 rate. Dicamba and 2,4-D were effective in controlling the studied hairy fleabane. Hairy fleabane responds differently to 2,4-D and dicamba. The combination of glyphosate and dicamba was not antagonistic to hairy fleabane control, and glyphosate may cause an additive effect on the control, despite the population resistance.

D.J., Soares; W.S., Oliveira; R.F., López-Ovejero; P.J, Christoffoleti.

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Control of glyphosate resistant hairy fleabane (Conyza bonariensis with dicamba and 2,4-D Controle de buva (Conyza bonariensis resistente ao glyphosate com dicamba e 2,4-D  

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Full Text Available Auxyn type herbicides such as dicamba and 2,4-D are alternative herbicides that can be used to control glyphosate-resistant hairy fleabane. With the forthcoming possibility of releasing dicamba-resistant and 2,4-D-resistant crops, use of these growth regulator herbicides will likely be an alternative that can be applied to the control of glyphosate resistant hairy fleabane (Conyza bonariensis. The objective of this research was to model the efficacy, through dose-response curves, of glyphosate, 2,4-D, isolated dicamba and glyphosatedicamba combinations to control a brazilian hairy fleabane population resistant to glyphosate. The greenhouse dose-response studies were conducted as a completely randomized experimental design, and the rates used for dose response curve construction were 0, 120, 240, 480, 720 and 960 g a.i. ha-1 for 2,4-D, dicamba and the dicamba combination, with glyphosate at 540 g a.e. ha-1. The rates for glyphosate alone were 0, 180, 360, 540, 720 and 960 g a.e. ha-1. Herbicides were applied when the plants were in a vegetative stage with 10 to 12 leaves and height between 12 and 15 cm. Hairy fleabane had low sensitivity to glyphosate, with poor control even at the 960 g a.e. ha-1 rate. Dicamba and 2,4-D were effective in controlling the studied hairy fleabane. Hairy fleabane responds differently to 2,4-D and dicamba. The combination of glyphosate and dicamba was not antagonistic to hairy fleabane control, and glyphosate may cause an additive effect on the control, despite the population resistance.Os herbicidas mimetizadores de auxinas como dicamba e 2,4-D são alternativas para o controle de buva resistente ao glyphosate. Com a possível futura liberação comercial de culturas resistentes ao dicamba e 2,4-D, a aplicação destes herbicidas reguladores de crescimento será uma provável alternativa de controle de buva resistente ao glyphosate. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi modelar por meio de curvas de dose-resposta a eficácia do dicamba e 2,4-D isolados e dicamba em associação com glyphosate para controle de uma população de buva resistente. Um estudo de doseresposta em casa de vegetação foi conduzido em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, sendo que as doses utilizadas para a construção das curvas de dose-resposta foram de 0, 120, 240, 480, 720 e 960 g i.a. ha-1de para o dicamba e o 2,4-D isolados e dicamba associado com 540 g e.a. ha-1 de glyphosate. As doses utilizadas para o glyphosate isolado foram de 0, 180, 360, 540, 720 e 960 g e.a. ha-1. Os tratamentos herbicidas foram aplicados quando asplantas estavam no estádio vegetativo de 10 a 12 folhas e altura entre 12 e 15 cm. A buva apresentou baixa sensibilidade ao glyphosate, pois não foi controlada mesmo na dose de 960 g e.a. ha-1 de glyphosate. O dicamba e o 2,4-D foram eficazes no controle da população de buva estudada. A buva responde de forma diferenciada ao 2,4-D e dicamba e será importante determinaras doses apropriadas de cada herbicida para controle de buva resistente ao glyphosate em condições de campo. A associação de glyphosate e dicamba não foi antagônica no controle da buva e o glyphosate pode causar um efeito aditivo no controle, apesar da resistência da população.

D.J. Soares

2012-06-01

94

Glyphosate inhibits rust diseases in glyphosate-resistant wheat and soybean.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum herbicide used for the control of weeds in glyphosate-resistant crops. Glyphosate inhibits 5-enolpyruvyl shikimate 3-phosphate synthase, a key enzyme in the synthesis of aromatic amino acids in plants, fungi, and bacteria. Studies with glyphosate-resistant wheat have shown that glyphosate provided both preventive and curative activities against Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici and Puccinia triticina, which cause stripe and leaf rusts, respectively, in wheat. Growth-chamber studies demonstrated wheat rust control at multiple plant growth stages with a glyphosate spray dose typically recommended for weed control. Rust control was absent in formulation controls without glyphosate, dependent on systemic glyphosate concentrations in leaf tissues, and not mediated through induction of four common systemic acquired resistance genes. A field test with endemic stripe rust inoculum confirmed the activities of glyphosate pre- and postinfestation. Preliminary greenhouse studies also demonstrated that application of glyphosate in glyphosate-resistant soybeans suppressed Asian soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi. PMID:16293685

Feng, Paul C C; Baley, G James; Clinton, William P; Bunkers, Greg J; Alibhai, Murtaza F; Paulitz, Timothy C; Kidwell, Kimberlee K

2005-11-29

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Buva (Conyza bonariensis resistente ao glyphosate na região sul do Brasil Conyza bonariensis biotypes resistant to the glyphosate in southern Brazil  

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Full Text Available O glyphosate é um herbicida não-seletivo utilizado para controlar plantas daninhas há mais de 20 anos no Rio Grande do Sul. A buva (Conyza bonariensis é uma espécie daninha comum nos Estados da região Sul do Brasil e tradicionalmente controlada com uso de glyphosate. Entretanto, nos últimos anos plantas de buva têm apresentado poucos sintomas de toxicidade em resposta ao tratamento com glyphosate, sugerindo que estas plantas são resistentes ao herbicida. Assim, com o objetivo de avaliar a resposta de uma população de plantas de buva a glyphosate, foram realizados três experimentos: um em campo e dois em casa de vegetação. No experimento em campo, os tratamentos avaliados constaram de doses crescentes de glyphosate (0, 360, 720, 1.440, 2.880 e 5.760 g ha-1, e os herbicidas paraquat (400 g ha-1 e 2,4-D (1.005 g ha-1 foram empregados como produtos testemunhas, com diferentes mecanismos de ação nas plantas. No experimento em casa de vegetação os tratamentos constaram de doses crescentes de glyphosate (0, 360, 720, 1.440, 2.880 e 5.760 g ha-1, mais os herbicidas testemunhas, aplicados sobre plantas de um biótipo considerado resistente e de outro considerado sensível. No segundo experimento realizado em casa de vegetação, foram avaliados os tratamentos contendo glyphosate (720, 1.440 e 2.880 g ha-1, mais os herbicidas chlorimuron-ethyl (40 g ha-1, metsulfuron-methyl (4 g ha-1, 2,4-D (1.005 g ha-1, paraquat (400 g ha-1 e diuron + paraquat (200 + 400 g ha-1, bem como a testemunha sem tratamento herbicida. A toxicidade dos tratamentos herbicidas foi avaliada aos 7, 15 e 30 DAT (dias após tratamento. Os resultados obtidos nos experimentos em condições de campo e em casa de vegetação, de forma geral, evidenciam que o biótipo sensível é controlado pelo glyphosate e pelos demais herbicidas avaliados. Demonstram ainda que o biótipo resistente apresenta-se, igualmente ao biótipo sensível, altamente suscetível aos herbicidas com mecanismo de ação distinto daquele do glyphosate. Entretanto, o biótipo resistente mostra baixa resposta ao herbicida glyphosate, mesmo se este for empregado em doses elevadas, evidenciando ter adquirido resistência a esse produto.Glyphosate is a non-selective herbicide used for over 20 years to control weeds in Rio Grande do Sul. Horseweed (Conyza bonariensis is a common weed in Rio Grande do Sul and traditionally sensitive to glyphosate. However, during the last years, some horseweed plants have not shown significant injury symptoms after treatment with glyphosate, suggesting that they are resistant to this herbicide. Aiming to evaluate the response of a population of horseweed plants to glyphosate, one field and two greenhouse experiments were carried out. The field experiment treatment had increasing rates of glyphosate (0, 360, 720, 1,440, 2,880 and 5,760 g ha-1, and also the herbicides paraquat and 2,4-D as standards. The greenhouse experiments had increasing rates of glyphosate (0, 360, 720, 1,440, 2,880 and 5,760 g ha-1 plus the above listed check herbicides sprayed on biotypes considered resistant and on plants of one susceptible biotype. In the second greenhouse experiment, the treatments were increasing rates of glyphosate (720, 1,440 and 2,880 g ha-1 and herbicides chlorimuron-ethyl, metsulfuron-methyl, 2,4-D, paraquat and diuron + paraquat sprayed on plants of resistant and susceptible biotypes. Horseweed control was accessed at 7, 15 and 30 DAT (days after treatment. Overall results of the field and greenhouse experiments provided evidence that the susceptible biotype is easily controlled by glyphosate and the other tested herbicides. In addition, the results demonstrated that the resistant biotype, as the susceptible biotype, is highly sensitive to herbicides with mode of action that differs from glyphosate. However, the resistant biotype showed low response to glyphosate, even at very high rates, confirming resistance of this horseweed population to glyphosate.

L. Vargas

2007-09-01

96

Identification of regulated genes conferring resistance to high concentrations of glyphosate in a new strain of Enterobacter.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glyphosate is a widely used herbicide that inhibits 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) activity. Most plants and microbes are sensitive to glyphosate. However, transgenic-resistant crops that contain a modified epsps obtained from the resistant microbes have been commercially successful and therefore, new resistance genes and their adaptive regulatory mechanisms are of great interest. In this study, a soil-borne, glyphosate-resistant bacterium was selected and identified as Enterobacter. The EPSPS in this strain was found to have been altered to a resistant one. A total of 42 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the glyphosate were screened using microarray techniques. Under treatment, argF, sdhA, ivbL, rrfA-H were downregulated, whereas the transcripts of speA, osmY, pflB, ahpC, fusA, deoA, uxaC, rpoD and a few ribosomal protein genes were upregulated. Data were verified by quantitative real-time PCR on selected genes. All transcriptional changes appeared to protect the bacteria from glyphosate and associated osmotic, acidic and oxidative stresses. Many DEGs may have the potential to confer resistance to glyphosate alone, and some may be closely related to the shikimate pathway, reflecting the complex gene interaction network for glyphosate resistance. PMID:24237416

Fei, Yun-Yan; Gai, Jun-Yi; Zhao, Tuan-Jie

2013-12-01

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Residual herbicides in weed management for glyphosate-resistant soybean in Brazil / Herbicidas residuais em manejo de plantas daninhas na soja resistente ao glyphosate no Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Em sistemas de produção agrícola onde a cultura da soja tolerante ao glyphosate (Glycine max) está inserida e onde não há a prática de rotação de culturas com herbicidas alternativos, o uso exclusivo e contínuo do glyphosate tem levado ao surgimento de populações de plantas daninhas resistentes, que [...] podem limitar ou comprometer os benefícios dessa tecnologia. Nesse sentido, a eficiência de programas de manejo que envolvem herbicidas residuais (sulfentrazone, flumioxazin, imazethapyr, diclosulam, chlorimuron e s-metolachlor) aplicados na pré-emergência seguidos de glyphosate na pós-emergência da cultura (PRE-POST) foi comparada à de programas com apenas glyphosate na pós-emergência ? POST. O estudo constituiu-se de nove experimentos realizados durante as safras agrícolas 2009/2010 e 2010/2011. Os programas PRE-POST foram eficientes no controle de Amaranthus viridis, Brachiaria plantaginea, Bidens pilosa, Commelina benghalensis, Eleusine indica, Euphorbia heterophylla e Raphanus raphanistrum, sendo semelhantes aos níveis de controle do programa com duas aplicações de glyphosate POST. Alguns programas PRE-POST não foram eficientes para Cenchrus echinatus, Ipomoea hederifolia e Ipomoea triloba. Sulfentrazone e diclosulam PRE-POST melhoraram o controle de Ipomoea triloba em relação às aplicações sequenciais de glyphosate. Quanto à produtividade, não foram observadas diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos herbicidas. As aplicações de herbicidas residuais em pré-emergência seguidos da aplicação de glyphosate em pós-emergência resultam em controles consistentes de plantas daninhas e evitam a competição inicial. Além disso, estes programas utilizam pelo menos dois modos de ação que contribuem para a diversidade do uso de herbicidas que será necessária para ficar à frente de novos casos de resistência, independentemente de quando as plantas daninhas possam aparecer. Abstract in english In agricultural production systems where the glyphosate-resistant soybean crop (Glycine max) is grown and the practice of crop rotation with alternative herbicides is not adopted, the exclusive and continuous use of glyphosate has led to the occurrence of resistant weed populations that may limit or [...] compromise the benefits of this technology. Thus, the efficacy of weed management programs, including the use of residual herbicides (sulfentrazone, flumioxazin, imazethapyr, diclosulan, chlorimuron and s-metolachlor) applied in preemergence and followed by in-crop postemergence applications of glyphosate (PRE-POST) were compared to glyphosate postemergence only programs - POST. The study was conducted across nine locations during the 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 growing seasons. PRE-POST programs were efficient in the control of Amaranthus viridis, Brachiaria plantaginea, Bidens pilosa, Commelina benghalensis, Eleusine indica, Euphorbia heterophylla and Raphanus raphanistrum, with the level of control being similar when comparing the program with two applications of glyphosate POST. Some PRE-POST programs were not efficient in controlling Cenchrus echinatus, Ipomoea hederifolia and Ipomoea triloba. Sulfentrazone and diclosulam PRE-POST programs improved the control of Ipomoea triloba compared to sequential applications of glyphosate alone. No significant differences in soybean yield were observed between any of the herbicide treatments or study locations. The use of residual herbicides in preemergence followed by glyphosate in-crop postemergence provides consistent weed control and reducing early season weed competition. Furthermore, these programs utilize at least two herbicide modes of action for herbicide use diversity, which will be needed to stay ahead of resistance build-up, regardless of when weeds may appear.

R.F., Lopes Ovejero; D.J., Soares; W.S., Oliveira; L.B., Fonseca; G.U., Berger; J.K., Soteres; P.J., Christoffoleti.

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Efeitos da chuva na eficiência de formulações e doses de glyphosate no controle de Brachiaria decumbens Rainfall effects on glyphosate formulation and rate the efficiency to control of Brachiaria decumbens  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi de avaliar os efeitos de doses das formulações de glyphosate - amônio, isopropilamina e potássico - sobre o controle de plantas de Brachiaria decumbens, em condições controladas, quando submetidas à chuva com intensidade de 20 mm e durante 30 minutos, em intervalos de 1, 2, 4, 6, 12 e 24 horas após aplicação dos tratamentos herbicidas. A ocorrência de chuvas após a aplicação de glyphosate reduziu o controle de B. decumbens, e essa redução foi maior com a diminuição do intervalo sem chuva após a aplicação. As aplicações das formulações de glyphosate potássico e isopropilamina resultaram em maior controle da B. decumbens que a formulação de glyphosate amônico. Esse efeito foi também observado no acúmulo de matéria seca da rebrota da planta daninha, avaliada aos 19 dias após o corte da parte aérea das plantas. Foram necessários intervalos de pelo menos 8, 11 e 12 horas sem chuva após aplicação, respectivamente para glyphosate potássico, isopropilamina e amônio, na dose de 1.440 g ha-1, para obter controle maior que 80%. Na dose de 2.160 g ha-1 necessitou-se de intervalos de pelo menos 5, 7 e 9 horas sem chuva, respectivamente para as formulações de glyphosate potássico, isopropilamina e amônio, para proporcionar o mesmo controle de B. decumbens. Na avaliação da matéria seca acumulada na rebrota, o glyphosate potássico proporcionou controle excelente da espécie (rebrota menor do que 5% a partir de quatro e cinco horas sem chuva após aplicação, respectivamente nas duas maiores doses (2.160 e 1.440 g ha-1. No caso do glyphosate isopropilamina, nas doses de 2.160 e 1.440 g ha-1, o mesmo controle foi obtido a partir de 7 e 12 horas sem chuva, respectivamente. Concluiu-se que as formulações glyphosate potássico e isopropilamina são menos afetadas pela ocorrência de chuva após a aplicação e demandam menor intervalo livre de chuva do que o glyphosate amônio.The objective of this study was to evaluate the dose effects the glyphosate formulations - ammonium, isopropylamine and potassic - on Brachiaria decumbens plant control, under controlled conditions, when submitted to 20 mm of rainfall intensity for 30 minutes, at intervals of 1, 2, 4, 6, 12 and 24 hours after application of the herbicide treatments. Rainfall events after glyphosate application reduced the control of B. decumbens and this reduction was higher as the rainfall event was closer to the herbicide application. Potassic and isopropylamine glyphosate formulations showed a higher control of B. decumbens than ammonium glyphosate formulation. This effect was also observed on the dry biomass accumulation of B. decumbens regrowth, which was evaluated at 19 days after excising the plantshoot. At least 8, 11 and 12 hours after glyphosate application without rainfall were required, respectively, for potassic, isopropylamine and ammonium glyphosate at the dose of 1,440 g ha-1, to obtain a control over 80%; however, for the rate of 2,160 g ha-1, intervals required were 5, 7, and 9 hours, at least, respectively, to obtain the same control of B. decumbens. Dry biomass accumulation oduring weed regrowth was lower than 5%, providing an excellent control of the weed when four to five hours without rainfall occurred after herbicide application at the highest two doses (2,160 and 1,440 g ha-1. For isopropylamine glyphosate at the doses of 2,160 and 1,440 g ha-1, the same control was obtained from 7 and 12 hours without rainfall, respectively. It was concluded that both the potassic and isopropylamine glyphosate formulations are less affected by rainfall events after herbicide application, tolerating rainfall in a shorter interval after herbicide application than ammonium glyphosate.

R.C. Werlang

2003-04-01

99

Glyphosate-Degrading Microorganisms from Industrial Activated Sludge  

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A plating medium was developed to isolate N-phosphonomethylglycine (glyphosate)-degrading microorganisms, with glyphosate as the sole phosphorus source. Two industrial biosystems treating glyphosate wastes contained elevated microbial counts on the medium. One purified isolate metabolized glyphosate to aminomethylphosphonic acid, mineralizing this accumulating intermediate during log growth. This microorganism has been identified as a Flavobacterium species.

Balthazor, Terry M.; Hallas, Laurence E.

1986-01-01

100

Bioremediation of glyphosate-contaminated soils.  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on the results of laboratory and field experiments, we performed a comprehensive assessment of the bioremediation efficiency of glyphosate-contaminated soddy-podzol soil. The selected bacterial strains Achromobacter sp. Kg 16 (VKM B-2534D) and Ochrobactrum anthropi GPK 3 (VKM B-2554D) were used for the aerobic degradation of glyphosate. They demonstrated high viability in soil with the tenfold higher content of glyphosate than the recommended dose for the single in situ treatment of weeds. The strains provided a two- to threefold higher rate of glyphosate degradation as compared to indigenous soil microbial community. Within 1-2 weeks after the strain introduction, the glyphosate content of the treated soil decreased and integral toxicity and phytotoxicity diminished to values of non-contaminated soil. The decrease in the glyphosate content restored soil biological activity, as is evident from a more than twofold increase in the dehydrogenase activity of indigenous soil microorganisms and their biomass (1.2-fold and 1.6-fold for saprotrophic bacteria and fungi, respectively). The glyphosate-degrading strains used in this study are not pathogenic for mammals and do not exhibit integral toxicity and phytotoxicity. Therefore, these strains are suitable for the efficient, ecologically safe, and rapid bioremediation of glyphosate-contaminated soils. PMID:20676632

Ermakova, Inna T; Kiseleva, Nina I; Shushkova, Tatyana; Zharikov, Mikhail; Zharikov, Gennady A; Leontievsky, Alexey A

2010-09-01

 
 
 
 
101

Influence of glyphosate and its formulation (Roundup[reg]) on the toxicity and bioavailability of metals to Ceriodaphnia dubia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study examined the toxicological interaction between glyphosate (or its formulation, Roundup[reg]) and several heavy metals to a freshwater cladoceran, Ceriodaphnia dubia. We demonstrated that all binary combinations of Roundup[reg] and metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn) exhibited 'less than additive' mixture toxicity, with 48-h LC50 toxic unit>1. Addition of glyphosate alone could significantly reduce the acute toxicity of Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn (but not Hg and Se). The ratio between glyphosate and metal ions was important in determining the mitigation of metal toxicity by glyphosate. A bioaccumulation study showed that in the presence of glyphosate the uptake of some metals (e.g. Ag) was halted but that of others (e.g. Hg) was increased significantly. Therefore, our study strongly suggests that glyphosate and its commercial formulations can control the toxicity as well as the bioavailability of heavy metals in aquatic ecosystems where both groups of chemicals can co-occur. - Glyphosate can control the toxicity and bioavailability of many heavy metals in the aquatic environment

2005-11-01

102

Influence of glyphosate and its formulation (Roundup[reg]) on the toxicity and bioavailability of metals to Ceriodaphnia dubia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study examined the toxicological interaction between glyphosate (or its formulation, Roundup[reg]) and several heavy metals to a freshwater cladoceran, Ceriodaphnia dubia. We demonstrated that all binary combinations of Roundup[reg] and metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn) exhibited 'less than additive' mixture toxicity, with 48-h LC50 toxic unit>1. Addition of glyphosate alone could significantly reduce the acute toxicity of Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn (but not Hg and Se). The ratio between glyphosate and metal ions was important in determining the mitigation of metal toxicity by glyphosate. A bioaccumulation study showed that in the presence of glyphosate the uptake of some metals (e.g. Ag) was halted but that of others (e.g. Hg) was increased significantly. Therefore, our study strongly suggests that glyphosate and its commercial formulations can control the toxicity as well as the bioavailability of heavy metals in aquatic ecosystems where both groups of chemicals can co-occur. - Glyphosate can control the toxicity and bioavailability of many heavy metals in the aquatic environment.

Tsui, Martin T.K. [Department of Biology, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong (China); Department of Biology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Wang Wenxiong [Department of Biology, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Chu, L.M. [Department of Biology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: leemanchu@cuhk.edu.hk

2005-11-15

103

Suscetibilidade de duas Gramas-boiadeiras a diferentes formulações de glyphosate / Susceptibility of Cutgrass and Peruvian Watergrass to different glyphosate formulations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A utilização do herbicida glyphosate para o controle químico das espécies de gramas-boiadeiras nas lavouras orizícolas não tem se mostrado eficiente. Nesse contexto, a investigação do controle dessas espécies com o glyphosate torna-se de fundamental importância, uma vez que não estão disponíveis no [...] mercado herbicidas seletivos para o controle dessas em pós-emergência na cultura do arroz irrigado. Em vista do exposto, o objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a suscetibilidade das gramas-boiadeiras a diferentes formulações de glyphosate. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos em casa de vegetação em esquema fatorial. No primeiro experimento, o fator A constituiu-se de duas formulações de glyphosate (sal potássico e isopropilamina) e o fator B de nove doses dos herbicidas (zero; 175; 350; 700; 1400; 2800; 5600; 11200; 22400g e.a. ha-1). No segundo experimento, o fator A constituiu-se de duas espécies de gramas-boiadeiras (Leersia hexandra e Luziola peruviana), o fator B de três formulações do glyphosate (sal amônio, potássico e isopropilamina) e o fator C de nove doses dos herbicidas (zero; 87,5; 175; 350; 700; 1400; 2800; 5600; 11200g e.a. ha-1). Com base nos resultados obtidos, foi possível observar que as espécies apresentaram diferença de suscetibilidade ao herbicida glyphosate. Além disso, Leersia hexandra foi mais sensível em comparação a Luziola peruviana. As formulações de glyphosate influenciaram na suscetibilidade das espécies ao controle, sendo que, Roundup Transorb R® e Roundup Ultra® proporcionam melhor controle das espécies de gramas-boiadeiras. Abstract in english The use of glyphosate to chemical control of Cutgrass and Peruvian Watergrass with the use of non-selective herbicides has not been efficient. In this context, the investigation of chemical control of these species to glyphosate is very important, since there are not available commercially selective [...] herbicides to control these species in post-emergence of irrigated rice. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility of Cutgrass and Peruvian Watergrass to different formulations of glyphosate. Two factorial experiments were conducted in a greenhouse, in the first the A factor were two formulations of glyhposate (potassium and isopropylamine salt) and the B factor were nine doses of the herbicide (zero; 175; 350; 700; 1400; 2800; 5600; 11200; 22400g a.e. ha-1). In the second experiment, the A factor were two species (Leersia hexandra and Luziola peruviana), the B factor were three formulations of glyphosate (amoniun, potassium e isopropylamine salt) and the C factor were nine doses of herbicides (zero; 87,5; 175; 350; 700; 1400; 2800; 5600; 11200g a.e. ha-1). Based on the results obtained, it was observed that these species exhibit differential susceptibility to glyphosate. Moreover, Leersia hexandra was more sensitive when compared to Luziola peruviana. Glyphosate formulation influenced control efficiency, where Transorb Roundup R® and Roundup Ultra® provided the best control of the two species.

Ananda, Scherner; Luis Antonio de, Avila; Fábio, Schreiber; Nelson Diehl, Kruse; Dirceu, Agostinetto; Jesus Juares Oliveira, Pinto; Rodrigo Ribeiro, Pestana.

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Gene amplification confers glyphosate resistance in Amaranthus palmeri  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The herbicide glyphosate became widely used in the United States and other parts of the world after the commercialization of glyphosate-resistant crops. These crops have constitutive overexpression of a glyphosate-insensitive form of the herbicide target site gene, 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS). Increased use of glyphosate over multiple years imposes selective genetic pressure on weed populations. We investigated recently discovered glyphosate-resistant Amaranthus palmer...

Gaines, Todd A.; Zhang, Wenli; Wang, Dafu; Bukun, Bekir; Chisholm, Stephen T.; Shaner, Dale L.; Nissen, Scott J.; Patzoldt, William L.; Tranel, Patrick J.; Culpepper, A. Stanley; Grey, Timothy L.; Webster, Theodore M.; Vencill, William K.; Sammons, R. Douglas; Jiang, Jiming

2010-01-01

105

Buva (Conyza bonariensis) resistente ao glyphosate na região sul do Brasil / Conyza bonariensis biotypes resistant to the glyphosate in southern Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O glyphosate é um herbicida não-seletivo utilizado para controlar plantas daninhas há mais de 20 anos no Rio Grande do Sul. A buva (Conyza bonariensis) é uma espécie daninha comum nos Estados da região Sul do Brasil e tradicionalmente controlada com uso de glyphosate. Entretanto, nos últimos anos pl [...] antas de buva têm apresentado poucos sintomas de toxicidade em resposta ao tratamento com glyphosate, sugerindo que estas plantas são resistentes ao herbicida. Assim, com o objetivo de avaliar a resposta de uma população de plantas de buva a glyphosate, foram realizados três experimentos: um em campo e dois em casa de vegetação. No experimento em campo, os tratamentos avaliados constaram de doses crescentes de glyphosate (0, 360, 720, 1.440, 2.880 e 5.760 g ha-1), e os herbicidas paraquat (400 g ha-1) e 2,4-D (1.005 g ha-1) foram empregados como produtos testemunhas, com diferentes mecanismos de ação nas plantas. No experimento em casa de vegetação os tratamentos constaram de doses crescentes de glyphosate (0, 360, 720, 1.440, 2.880 e 5.760 g ha-1), mais os herbicidas testemunhas, aplicados sobre plantas de um biótipo considerado resistente e de outro considerado sensível. No segundo experimento realizado em casa de vegetação, foram avaliados os tratamentos contendo glyphosate (720, 1.440 e 2.880 g ha-1), mais os herbicidas chlorimuron-ethyl (40 g ha-1), metsulfuron-methyl (4 g ha-1), 2,4-D (1.005 g ha-1), paraquat (400 g ha-1) e diuron + paraquat (200 + 400 g ha-1), bem como a testemunha sem tratamento herbicida. A toxicidade dos tratamentos herbicidas foi avaliada aos 7, 15 e 30 DAT (dias após tratamento). Os resultados obtidos nos experimentos em condições de campo e em casa de vegetação, de forma geral, evidenciam que o biótipo sensível é controlado pelo glyphosate e pelos demais herbicidas avaliados. Demonstram ainda que o biótipo resistente apresenta-se, igualmente ao biótipo sensível, altamente suscetível aos herbicidas com mecanismo de ação distinto daquele do glyphosate. Entretanto, o biótipo resistente mostra baixa resposta ao herbicida glyphosate, mesmo se este for empregado em doses elevadas, evidenciando ter adquirido resistência a esse produto. Abstract in english Glyphosate is a non-selective herbicide used for over 20 years to control weeds in Rio Grande do Sul. Horseweed (Conyza bonariensis) is a common weed in Rio Grande do Sul and traditionally sensitive to glyphosate. However, during the last years, some horseweed plants have not shown significant injur [...] y symptoms after treatment with glyphosate, suggesting that they are resistant to this herbicide. Aiming to evaluate the response of a population of horseweed plants to glyphosate, one field and two greenhouse experiments were carried out. The field experiment treatment had increasing rates of glyphosate (0, 360, 720, 1,440, 2,880 and 5,760 g ha-1), and also the herbicides paraquat and 2,4-D as standards. The greenhouse experiments had increasing rates of glyphosate (0, 360, 720, 1,440, 2,880 and 5,760 g ha-1) plus the above listed check herbicides sprayed on biotypes considered resistant and on plants of one susceptible biotype. In the second greenhouse experiment, the treatments were increasing rates of glyphosate (720, 1,440 and 2,880 g ha-1) and herbicides chlorimuron-ethyl, metsulfuron-methyl, 2,4-D, paraquat and diuron + paraquat sprayed on plants of resistant and susceptible biotypes. Horseweed control was accessed at 7, 15 and 30 DAT (days after treatment). Overall results of the field and greenhouse experiments provided evidence that the susceptible biotype is easily controlled by glyphosate and the other tested herbicides. In addition, the results demonstrated that the resistant biotype, as the susceptible biotype, is highly sensitive to herbicides with mode of action that differs from glyphosate. However, the resistant biotype showed low response to glyphosate, even at very high rates, confirming resistance of this hor

Vargas, L.; Bianchi, M.A.; Rizzardi, M.A.; Agostinetto, D.; Dal Magro, T..

106

Associação de glyphosate e imidazolinonas no controle de arroz-vermelho em arroz Clearfield® / Association of glyphosate and imidazolinones on red rice control in Clearfield™ rice  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do presente trabalho foi o de avaliar os efeitos da utilização de glyphosate e herbicidas imidazolinonas, em aplicações isoladas ou associadas, sobre o controle de arroz-vermelho (Oryza sativa) e produtividade de grãos de arroz Clearfield®. O experimento foi conduzido a campo na safra 200 [...] 7/08, em Cachoeirinha, RS, Brasil, com delineamento em blocos ao acaso e tratamentos dispostos em arranjo fatorial (2x6), usando-se quatro repetições. O fator A constou de dois níveis do herbicida glyphosate, aplicados no subperíodo semeadura-emergência da cultura por ocasião do início da emissão do coleóptilo do arroz (ponto de agulha); o fator B constou de seis tratamentos com imazethapyr+imazapic, aplicados em associação ao glyphosate ou quando a cultura atingiu o estádio de três folhas expandidas. As três variáveis explicativas analisadas foram a população de plantas de arroz e arroz-vermelho, a eficácia do controle de arroz-vermelho e a produtividade de grãos da cultura. O uso de glyphosate no ponto de agulha reduziu em 75% a população do arroz-vermelho e aumentou em 40% a produtividade de grãos de arroz, em relação à testemunha. O uso isolado de herbicidas imidazolinonas e sua associação com o dessecante proporcionou controle eficaz do arroz-vermelho e incrementou a produtividade de grãos, em comparação à situação sem controle da infestante, independente da dose e do sistema de aplicação. Abstract in english The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of the utilization of glyphosate and imidazolinones herbicides, in isolated or associated applications, on the effectiveness of red rice (Oryza sativa) control and grain yield of Clearfield-rice. The experiment was conducted under field cond [...] itions in 2007/08, in Cachoeirinha, RS, Brazil, using a randomized block design in a two-factorial design 2x6, with four replicates. The factor A was composed by two levels of glyphosate, applied during the subperiod between sowing and crop emergence at the early coleoptile stage of the rice plants; and the factor B consisted of six treatments with imazethapyr+imazapic, applied in association with glyphosate or when the rice crop plants had three expanded leaves. The crop and weed populations, red rice control and grain yield of crop were evaluated. The results show that the glyphosate application at the early coleoptile stage of the crop reduced 75% the red rice population and increased 40% the grain yield, in relation to the situation without weed control. The use of imidazolinones and their association with glyphosate provided effective control of red rice and increased the grain yield, independent of rates and application system.

Valmir Gaedke, Menezes; Carlos Henrique Paim, Mariot; Augusto, Kalsing; Thais Fernanda Stella de, Freitas; Daniel Santos, Grohs; Felipe de Oliveira, Matzenbacher.

107

Análisis de la sensibilidad de biotipos de Lolium multiflorum a herbicidas inhibidores de la enzima ALS, ACCasa y Glifosato / Sensitivity analysis of Lolium multiflorum biotypes to Glyphosate, ACCase and ALS-inhibiting herbicides  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish A pesar de los avances logrados en el control de las malezas con el uso de herbicidas, el manejo de las mismas no se simplificó, sino que, al contrario, surgieron nuevos desafíos, como la aparición de resistencia a herbicidas. En 2007, se reportó en Lolium multiflorum el segundo caso de resistencia [...] a glifosato detectado en Argentina. En el sudeste de la provincia de Buenos Aires se registraron fallas de control a campo en poblaciones de Lolium multiflorum debido a su resistencia a distintos herbicidas de las familias de los inhibidores de ALS y de ACCasa y al herbicida glifosato. El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar el nivel de resistencia a ciertos herbicidas inhibidores de la ALS y de la ACCasa y al glifosato en una población de L. multiflorum de Lobería (Bs As, Argentina) supuestamente resistente (LmR). Se realizaron bioensayos en cajas de Petri y se determinó la GR50 mediante la variación en la longitud de coleoptile. Las curvas de dosis-respuesta se obtuvieron por medio de la ecuación log-logística. El biotipo LmR presentó resistencia múltiple a herbicidas con tres modos de acción diferentes: glifosato, inhibidores de ALS y de ACCasa. Dicho ensayo demostró la aparición de un biotipo de L. multiflorum con resistencia a múltiples principios activos. Abstract in english Despite progress in weed control using herbicides, management has not been simplified, but new challenges such as herbicides resistance have arisen. In 2007, a Lolium multiflorum population resistant to glyphosate was reported, as the second case of glyphosate resistant weeds in Argentina. In the so [...] utheast of Buenos Aires province, control failures in populations of L. multiflorum to different families of herbicide such as ALS and ACCase inhibitors and to glyphosate at field level have been registered. The aim of this study was to characterize the level of resistance to certain herbicides inhibitors of ALS, ACCase and glyphosate in a putatively resistant (LmR) population of L. multiflorum of Loberia (Buenos Aires, Argentina). Bioassays were conducted in Petri dishes and the GR50 was determined by the length of coleoptile. Curves dose-response were obtained using the log-logistic equation. The LmR biotype survived under multiple herbicides of three different modes of action, glyphosate, ALS and ACCase inhibitors. This test showed the appearance of a biotype of L. multiflorum with resistance to multiple active ingredients.

P., Diez De Ulzurrun; M.I., Leaden.

108

Nodulation and mycorrhization of transgenic soybean after glyphosate application  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The sensitivity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria like Bradyrhizobium spp with in relation to glyphosate can be influenced by the concentration of the herbicide. This study aims to evaluate the effects of two formulations of glyphosate, in two application periods, on nodulation and mycorrhization in a soybean of variety RR P98Y11, using greenhouse, in pots with capacity of 4 L with savanna soils. Six treatments were utilized using Roundup Ultra and Roundup Original with one and two applications, witness without herbicide and witness only with mineral nitrogen, in a completely randomized design. Four evaluations were done, every 15 days, to determine the plant height, shoot and root dry weight, number of nodules, nodule dry weigh and mycorrhizae. It was observed an increase on the number of nodules, with the use of Roundup Ultra until 15 days after the first application. After this period, the witness only with inoculants showed a larger number of nodules. Roundup Ultra had positive influences on the dry weight of nodules, regardless the number of applications. There was no influence of glyphosate formulation considering the mycorrhizal colonization.

Aloisio Freitas Chagas Junior

2013-12-01

109

Glyphosate influence on the physiological parameters of Conyza bonariensis biotypes / Influência de glyphosate em parâmetros fisiológicos de biótipos de Conyza bonariensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se neste trabalho determinar alterações na fotossíntese e na inibição da EPSPs, com base no acúmulo de ácido chiquímico, em biótipos de buva resistente e suscetível ao glyphosate. Foram realizados dois experimentos, conduzidos em esquema bifatorial. No primeiro, avaliaram-se biótipos de bu [...] va (um resistente e outro suscetível ao glyphosate) e doses do herbicida (0 e 1.080ge.a.ha-1) aplicadas sobre a planta daninha. No segundo experimento, os biótipos de buva (resistente e suscetível ao glyphosate) foram avaliados em cinco épocas: 0, 3, 7, 10 e 14 dias após a aplicação do herbicida (DAH). Foram efetuadas determinações da taxa fotossintética, transpiração, eficiência da carboxilação e uso eficiente da água, empregando analisador de gases no infravermelho (IRGA), e a concentração de ácido chiquímico, determinada por HPLC. A aplicação do glyphosate afetou negativamente os parâmetros fotossintéticos do biótipo suscetível, causando total inibição da taxa fotossintética, da taxa transpiratória, da eficiência da carboxilação e da eficiência do uso da água, a partir dos 7DAH. Já para o biótipo resistente, não se observou total inibição dos parâmetros fotossintéticos. Em ambos os biótipos ocorreu acúmulo de ácido chiquímico após aplicação de glyphosate; contudo, o biótipo suscetível apresentou as maiores concentrações, indicando maior sensibilidade da enzima EPSPs. O acúmulo de ácido chiquímico no biótipo resistente indica que o mecanismo de resistência não está relacionado somente com a insensibilidade da EPSPs ao glyphosate e/ou que outros mecanismos de resistência podem estar envolvidos. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to determine changes in gas exchange and inhibition of EPSPs, based on the accumulation of shikimic acid in horseweed biotypes resistant and sensitive to glyphosate. Two experiments were conducted in a factorial model. The first one evaluated horseweed biotypes (one r [...] esistant and one susceptible to glyphosate), and herbicide rates (0 and 1,080 g a.e. ha ¹) applied on the weed. In the second experiment, the horseweed biotypes (susceptible and resistant to glyphosate) were evaluated in five periods as following: 0, 3, 7, 10, and 14 days after herbicide application (DAH). The photosynthetic rate, transpiration, carboxylation efficiency, and water efficiency were determined using an infrared gas analyzer (IRGA), and shikimic acid concentration by HPLC. The application of glyphosate damaged the photosynthetic parameters of the susceptible biotype, causing complete inhibition of the photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, carboxylation efficiency and water use efficiency, starting from the 7 DAH. On the other hand, total inhibition of the photosynthetic parameters was not observed for the resistant biotype. Shikimic acid accumulation occurred in both biotypes after glyphosate application but the susceptible biotype had the highest concentrations, indicating greater sensitivity of the enzyme EPSPs. The accumulation of shikimic acid in the resistant biotype indicates that the mechanism of resistance is not related to the total insensitivity of the enzyme EPSPs to glyphosate and/or that other resistance mechanisms may be involved.

L., Vargas; D.R.O., Silva; D., Agostinetto; M.B., Matallo; F.M., Santos; S.D.B., Almeida; G., Chavarria; D.F.P., Silva.

110

Structural basis of glyphosate resistance resulting from the double mutation Thr97 -> Ile and Pro101 -> Ser in 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase from Escherichia coli.  

Science.gov (United States)

The shikimate pathway enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) is the target of the broad spectrum herbicide glyphosate. The genetic engineering of EPSPS led to the introduction of glyphosate-resistant crops worldwide. The genetically engineered corn lines NK603 and GA21 carry distinct EPSPS enzymes. CP4 EPSPS, expressed in NK603 corn and transgenic soybean, cotton, and canola, belongs to class II EPSPS, glyphosate-insensitive variants of this enzyme isolated from certain Gram-positive bacteria. GA21 corn, on the other hand, was created by point mutations of class I EPSPS, such as the enzymes from Zea mays or Escherichia coli, which are sensitive to low glyphosate concentrations. The structural basis of the glyphosate resistance resulting from these point mutations has remained obscure. We studied the kinetic and structural effects of the T97I/P101S double mutation, the molecular basis for GA21 corn, using EPSPS from E. coli. The T97I/P101S enzyme is essentially insensitive to glyphosate (K(i) = 2.4 mm) but maintains high affinity for the substrate phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) (K(m) = 0.1 mm). The crystal structure at 1.7-A resolution revealed that the dual mutation causes a shift of residue Gly(96) toward the glyphosate binding site, impairing efficient binding of glyphosate, while the side chain of Ile(97) points away from the substrate binding site, facilitating PEP utilization. The single site T97I mutation renders the enzyme sensitive to glyphosate and causes a substantial decrease in the affinity for PEP. Thus, only the concomitant mutations of Thr(97) and Pro(101) induce the conformational changes necessary to produce catalytically efficient, glyphosate-resistant class I EPSPS. PMID:19211556

Funke, Todd; Yang, Yan; Han, Huijong; Healy-Fried, Martha; Olesen, Sanne; Becker, Andreas; Schönbrunn, Ernst

2009-04-10

111

Reducing the temperature sensitivity of SOI waveguide-based biosensors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Label-free photonic biosensors fabricated on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) can provide compact size, high evanescent field strength at the silicon waveguide surface, and volume fabrication potential. However, due to the large thermo optic coefficient of water-based biosamples, the sensors are temperature-sensitive. Consequently, active temperature control is usually used. However, for low cost applications, active temperature control is often not feasible. Here, we use the opposite polarity of t...

Gylfason, Kristinn B.; Mola Romero, Albert; Sohlstro?m, Hans

2012-01-01

112

Cognitive control reduces sensitivity to relational aggression among adolescent girls  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Relational aggression describes a type of aggression that aims to hurt others through relationships and includes behaviors such as gossip and ostracism. This type of aggression is very common among adolescent girls; and in its more intense forms has been linked with poor psychosocial outcomes, including depression and suicide. In the present study we investigated whether individual differences in sensitivity to relational aggression among adolescent girls predicted recruitment of neural netwo...

Baird, Abigail A.; Silver, Shari H.; Veague, Heather B.

2010-01-01

113

The use of environmental metabolomics to determine glyphosate level of exposure in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) seedlings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Metabolic profiling in plants can be used to differentiate between treatments and to search for biomarkers for exposure. A methodology for processing Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode-Array-Detection data is devised. This methodology includes a scheme for selecting informative wavelengths, baseline removal, retention time alignment, selection of relevant retention times, and principal component analysis (PCA). Plant crude extracts from rapeseed seedling exposed to sublethal concentrations of glyphosate are used as a study case. Through this approach, plants exposed to concentrations down to 5 ?M could be distinguished from the controls. The compounds responsible for this differentiation were partially identified and were different from those specific for high exposure samples, which suggests that two different responses to glyphosate are elicited in rapeseed depending on the level of exposure. The PCA loadings indicate that a combination of other metabolites could be more sensitive than the response of shikimate to detect glyphosate exposure. - Highlights: ? A method for processing UHPLC-DAD data for plant metabolic profiling is devised. ? The metabolic profiling approach is more sensitive to glyphosate exposure than shikimate. ? Plants exposed to concentrations down to 5 ?M can be distinguished from the controls. ? Two different responses to glyphosate may be elicited in rapeseed depending on the level of exposure. - A novel untargeted environmental metabololomic approach is used to detect low-level glyphosate exposure of rapeseed seedlings.

2011-10-01

114

The use of environmental metabolomics to determine glyphosate level of exposure in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) seedlings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Metabolic profiling in plants can be used to differentiate between treatments and to search for biomarkers for exposure. A methodology for processing Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode-Array-Detection data is devised. This methodology includes a scheme for selecting informative wavelengths, baseline removal, retention time alignment, selection of relevant retention times, and principal component analysis (PCA). Plant crude extracts from rapeseed seedling exposed to sublethal concentrations of glyphosate are used as a study case. Through this approach, plants exposed to concentrations down to 5 {mu}M could be distinguished from the controls. The compounds responsible for this differentiation were partially identified and were different from those specific for high exposure samples, which suggests that two different responses to glyphosate are elicited in rapeseed depending on the level of exposure. The PCA loadings indicate that a combination of other metabolites could be more sensitive than the response of shikimate to detect glyphosate exposure. - Highlights: > A method for processing UHPLC-DAD data for plant metabolic profiling is devised. > The metabolic profiling approach is more sensitive to glyphosate exposure than shikimate. > Plants exposed to concentrations down to 5 {mu}M can be distinguished from the controls. > Two different responses to glyphosate may be elicited in rapeseed depending on the level of exposure. - A novel untargeted environmental metabololomic approach is used to detect low-level glyphosate exposure of rapeseed seedlings.

Petersen, Iben Lykke; Tomasi, Giorgio; Sorensen, Hilmer; Boll, Esther S.; Hansen, Hans Christian Bruun [Department of Basic Sciences and Environment, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, DK-1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark); Christensen, Jan H., E-mail: jch@life.ku.dk [Department of Basic Sciences and Environment, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, DK-1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark)

2011-10-15

115

Interação de glyphosate com carfentrazone-ethyl / Glyphosate - carfentrazone-ethyl interaction  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foi conduzido um experimento em condições controladas para determinar a interação do carfentrazone-ethyl em mistura no tanque com o herbicida glyphosate, no controle de seis espécies de plantas daninhas. Glyphosate aplicado isoladamente na dose de 720 g ha-1 foi eficaz no controle de Amaranthus hybr [...] idus (100%), Desmodium tortuosum (100%), Bidens pilosa (99%), Eleusine indica (96%), Digitaria horizontalis (100%) e Commelina benghalensis (93%) aos 21 DAA. Carfentrazone-ethyl aplicado isoladamente controlou eficazmente C. benghalensis. As misturas de glyphosate nas doses de 252 e 720 g ha-1 com carfentrazone-ethyl nas doses de 15 e 30 g ha¹ demonstraram efeito aditivo no controle de A. hybridus, D. tortuosum e Bidens pilosa, à exceção das misturas de glyphosate na dose de 252 g ha-1 com as doses de 15 e 30 g ha-1 de carfentrazone-ethyl, que proporcionam efeito sinergístico no controle de D. tortuosum. A adição das duas doses de carfentrazone-ethyl antagonizou o efeito de glyphosate na menor dose (252 g ha-1) no controle de E. indica, apresentando, no entanto, efeito aditivo com o glyphosate na maior dose (720 g ha-1). Já para D. horizontalis, as misturas de carfentrazone-ethyl com glyphosate na menor dose (252 g ha-1) apresentaram efeito sinergístico no controle dessa espécie, demonstrando, ainda, efeito aditivo na mistura com glyphosate na dose de 720 g ha-1. A mistura de carfentrazone-ethyl com glyphosate proporcionou efeito aditivo no controle de C. benghalensis, independentemente das combinações de doses avaliadas. Os resultados deste experimento indicam que carfentrazone-ethyl apresenta comportamento diferenciado quanto à interação com glyphosate, dependendo da espécie de planta daninha e da dose dos herbicidas utilizados na mistura em tanque, sendo complementar na mistura em tanque com glyphosate, pois demonstrou efeito antagônico em poucas das combinações estudadas, prevalecendo seu efeito aditivo na mistura com glyphosate, no controle das espécies avaliadas. Abstract in english Under evironmental controlled conditions experiments were conducted to determine the efficacy of carfentrazone-ethyl in tank mixture with glyphosate to control six weed species. Glyphosate alone at 720 g ha-1 was effective in controlling Amaranthus hybridus (100%), Desmodium tortuosum (100%), Bidens [...] pilosa (99%), Eleusine indica (96%), Digitaria horizontalis (100%) and Commelina benghalensis (93%) at 21 DAA. Carfentrazone-ethyl alone controlled only C. benghalensis. efficiently. Glyphosate mixtures (252 and 720 g ha-1) with carfentrazone-ethyl at 15 and 30 g ha¹ showed an additive effect in controlling A. hybridus, D. tortuosum and Bidens pilosa, except for glyphosate mixture at 252 g ha-1 with carfentrazone-ethyl at 15 and 30 g ha-1, which showed synergism in controlling D. tortuosum. The addition of the two carfentrazone-ethyl doses antagonized the effect of the smallest dose (252 g ha-1) of glyphosate on E. indica control. However, the largest glyphosate dose (720 g ha-1) provided additive effect when mixed with both carfentrazone-ethyl doses. For D. horizontalis, carfentrazone-ethyl mixtures with glyphosate in the smallest dose (252 g ha-1) had a synergistic effect in the control of this species, also showing and additive effect in the mixture with glyphosate at 720 g ha-1. Carfentrazone-ethyl mixture with glyphosate provided an additive effect in C. benghalensis control, regardless of dose combinations. The results of this experiment indicate that carfentrazone-ethyl presents a differentiated behavior when interacting with glyphosate, depending on the weed species and the herbicide dose used in the tank mixtures, being complementary in tank-mix combinations with glyphosate, since it showed an antagonistic effect in few combinations, with its additive effect prevailing in the mixture with glyphosate for the control of the evaluated species.

R.C., Werlang; A.A., Silva.

116

Interação de glyphosate com carfentrazone-ethyl Glyphosate - carfentrazone-ethyl interaction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foi conduzido um experimento em condições controladas para determinar a interação do carfentrazone-ethyl em mistura no tanque com o herbicida glyphosate, no controle de seis espécies de plantas daninhas. Glyphosate aplicado isoladamente na dose de 720 g ha-1 foi eficaz no controle de Amaranthus hybridus (100%, Desmodium tortuosum (100%, Bidens pilosa (99%, Eleusine indica (96%, Digitaria horizontalis (100% e Commelina benghalensis (93% aos 21 DAA. Carfentrazone-ethyl aplicado isoladamente controlou eficazmente C. benghalensis. As misturas de glyphosate nas doses de 252 e 720 g ha-1 com carfentrazone-ethyl nas doses de 15 e 30 g ha¹ demonstraram efeito aditivo no controle de A. hybridus, D. tortuosum e Bidens pilosa, à exceção das misturas de glyphosate na dose de 252 g ha-1 com as doses de 15 e 30 g ha-1 de carfentrazone-ethyl, que proporcionam efeito sinergístico no controle de D. tortuosum. A adição das duas doses de carfentrazone-ethyl antagonizou o efeito de glyphosate na menor dose (252 g ha-1 no controle de E. indica, apresentando, no entanto, efeito aditivo com o glyphosate na maior dose (720 g ha-1. Já para D. horizontalis, as misturas de carfentrazone-ethyl com glyphosate na menor dose (252 g ha-1 apresentaram efeito sinergístico no controle dessa espécie, demonstrando, ainda, efeito aditivo na mistura com glyphosate na dose de 720 g ha-1. A mistura de carfentrazone-ethyl com glyphosate proporcionou efeito aditivo no controle de C. benghalensis, independentemente das combinações de doses avaliadas. Os resultados deste experimento indicam que carfentrazone-ethyl apresenta comportamento diferenciado quanto à interação com glyphosate, dependendo da espécie de planta daninha e da dose dos herbicidas utilizados na mistura em tanque, sendo complementar na mistura em tanque com glyphosate, pois demonstrou efeito antagônico em poucas das combinações estudadas, prevalecendo seu efeito aditivo na mistura com glyphosate, no controle das espécies avaliadas.Under evironmental controlled conditions experiments were conducted to determine the efficacy of carfentrazone-ethyl in tank mixture with glyphosate to control six weed species. Glyphosate alone at 720 g ha-1 was effective in controlling Amaranthus hybridus (100%, Desmodium tortuosum (100%, Bidens pilosa (99%, Eleusine indica (96%, Digitaria horizontalis (100% and Commelina benghalensis (93% at 21 DAA. Carfentrazone-ethyl alone controlled only C. benghalensis. efficiently. Glyphosate mixtures (252 and 720 g ha-1 with carfentrazone-ethyl at 15 and 30 g ha¹ showed an additive effect in controlling A. hybridus, D. tortuosum and Bidens pilosa, except for glyphosate mixture at 252 g ha-1 with carfentrazone-ethyl at 15 and 30 g ha-1, which showed synergism in controlling D. tortuosum. The addition of the two carfentrazone-ethyl doses antagonized the effect of the smallest dose (252 g ha-1 of glyphosate on E. indica control. However, the largest glyphosate dose (720 g ha-1 provided additive effect when mixed with both carfentrazone-ethyl doses. For D. horizontalis, carfentrazone-ethyl mixtures with glyphosate in the smallest dose (252 g ha-1 had a synergistic effect in the control of this species, also showing and additive effect in the mixture with glyphosate at 720 g ha-1. Carfentrazone-ethyl mixture with glyphosate provided an additive effect in C. benghalensis control, regardless of dose combinations. The results of this experiment indicate that carfentrazone-ethyl presents a differentiated behavior when interacting with glyphosate, depending on the weed species and the herbicide dose used in the tank mixtures, being complementary in tank-mix combinations with glyphosate, since it showed an antagonistic effect in few combinations, with its additive effect prevailing in the mixture with glyphosate for the control of the evaluated species.

R.C. Werlang

2002-04-01

117

Herbicidas alternativos para controle de biótipos de Conyza bonariensis e C. canadensis resistentes ao glyphosate / Alternative herbicides to control glyphosate-resistant biotypes of Conyza bonariensis and C. canadensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Após sucessivos anos, aplicações do herbicida glyphosate em pomares de citros no Estado de São Paulo selecionaram biótipos resistentes de Conyza bonariensis e C. canadensis. Na ocorrência de plantas daninhas resistentes em uma área agrícola, tornam-se necessárias mudanças nas práticas de manejo para [...] obtenção de adequado controle das populações resistentes, bem como para a redução da pressão de seleção sobre outras espécies. Assim, este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de identificar herbicidas alternativos para controle de biótipos de Conyza spp. resistentes ao herbicida glyphosate, com aplicações em diferentes estádios fenológicos da planta daninha. Três experimentos foram conduzidos em campo, em pomares de citros em formação, sobre plantas de buva em estádio fenológico de dez folhas e no pré-florescimento. Para plantas no estádio de dez folhas, controle satisfatório foi obtido com aplicações de glyphosate + bromacil + diuron (1.440 + 1.200 + 1.200 g ha-1), glyphosate + atrazina (1.440 + 1.500 g ha-1) e glyphosate + diuron (1.440 + 1.500 g ha-1). Quando em estádio de pré-florescimento de Conyza spp., a aplicação do herbicida amônio-glufosinato, na dose de 400 g ha-1, isolado ou associado a MSMA, bromacil+diuron, metsulfuron, carfentrazone e paraquat, foi a alternativa viável para controle dos biótipos resistentes ao glyphosate. Abstract in english After successive years, glyphosate applications on São Paulo-Brazil citrus orchards selected resistant biotypes of Conyza bonariensis and C. canadensis. The occurrence of herbicide-resistant weed biotypes at some agricultural area makes it necessary to change the management practices to reach effect [...] ive control of the selected resistant populations, as well as to reduce selection pressure on the other species. Thus, this work aimed to identify the alternative herbicides to control glyphosate-resistant biotypes of Conyza spp., with applications at different weed phenological stages. Three trials were developed under field conditions: in citrus orchards under formation, in plants with phenological stages of ten leaves and at pre-flowering. For plants at the ten leaf stage, satisfactory control was reached with applications of glyphosate + bromacil + diuron (1,440 + 1,200 + 1,200 g ha-1), glyphosate + atrazine (1,440 + 1,500 g ha-1) and glyphosate + diuron (1,440 + 1,500 g ha-1). For Conyza spp. plants at the pre-flowering stage, ammonium-glufosinate application, at the rate of 400 g ha-1, isolated or associated to MSMA, bromacil+diuron, metsulfuron, carfentrazone and paraquat, was a viable alternative to control glyphosate-resistant biotypes.

M.S., Moreira; M.S.C., Melo; S.J.P., Carvalho; M., Nicolai; P.J., Crhistoffoleti.

118

Herbicidas alternativos para controle de biótipos de Conyza bonariensis e C. canadensis resistentes ao glyphosate Alternative herbicides to control glyphosate-resistant biotypes of Conyza bonariensis and C. canadensis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Após sucessivos anos, aplicações do herbicida glyphosate em pomares de citros no Estado de São Paulo selecionaram biótipos resistentes de Conyza bonariensis e C. canadensis. Na ocorrência de plantas daninhas resistentes em uma área agrícola, tornam-se necessárias mudanças nas práticas de manejo para obtenção de adequado controle das populações resistentes, bem como para a redução da pressão de seleção sobre outras espécies. Assim, este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de identificar herbicidas alternativos para controle de biótipos de Conyza spp. resistentes ao herbicida glyphosate, com aplicações em diferentes estádios fenológicos da planta daninha. Três experimentos foram conduzidos em campo, em pomares de citros em formação, sobre plantas de buva em estádio fenológico de dez folhas e no pré-florescimento. Para plantas no estádio de dez folhas, controle satisfatório foi obtido com aplicações de glyphosate + bromacil + diuron (1.440 + 1.200 + 1.200 g ha-1, glyphosate + atrazina (1.440 + 1.500 g ha-1 e glyphosate + diuron (1.440 + 1.500 g ha-1. Quando em estádio de pré-florescimento de Conyza spp., a aplicação do herbicida amônio-glufosinato, na dose de 400 g ha-1, isolado ou associado a MSMA, bromacil+diuron, metsulfuron, carfentrazone e paraquat, foi a alternativa viável para controle dos biótipos resistentes ao glyphosate.After successive years, glyphosate applications on São Paulo-Brazil citrus orchards selected resistant biotypes of Conyza bonariensis and C. canadensis. The occurrence of herbicide-resistant weed biotypes at some agricultural area makes it necessary to change the management practices to reach effective control of the selected resistant populations, as well as to reduce selection pressure on the other species. Thus, this work aimed to identify the alternative herbicides to control glyphosate-resistant biotypes of Conyza spp., with applications at different weed phenological stages. Three trials were developed under field conditions: in citrus orchards under formation, in plants with phenological stages of ten leaves and at pre-flowering. For plants at the ten leaf stage, satisfactory control was reached with applications of glyphosate + bromacil + diuron (1,440 + 1,200 + 1,200 g ha-1, glyphosate + atrazine (1,440 + 1,500 g ha-1 and glyphosate + diuron (1,440 + 1,500 g ha-1. For Conyza spp. plants at the pre-flowering stage, ammonium-glufosinate application, at the rate of 400 g ha-1, isolated or associated to MSMA, bromacil+diuron, metsulfuron, carfentrazone and paraquat, was a viable alternative to control glyphosate-resistant biotypes.

M.S. Moreira

2010-01-01

119

A red and far-red light receptor mutation confers resistance to the herbicide glyphosate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glyphosate is a widely applied broad-spectrum systemic herbicide that inhibits competitively the penultimate enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) from the shikimate pathway, thereby causing deleterious effects. A glyphosate-resistant Arabidopsis mutant (gre1) was isolated and genetic analyses indicated that a dysfunctional red (R) and far-red (FR) light receptor, phytochrome B (phyB), caused this phenotype. This finding is consistent with increased glyphosate sensitivity and glyphosate-induced shikimate accumulation in low R:FR light, and the induction of genes encoding enzymes of the shikimate pathway in high R:FR light. Expression of the shikimate pathway genes exhibited diurnal oscillation and this oscillation was altered in the phyB mutant. Furthermore, transcript analysis suggested that this diurnal oscillation was not only dependent on phyB but was also due to circadian regulatory mechanisms. Our data offer an explanation of the well documented observation that glyphosate treatment at various times throughout the day, with their specific composition of light quality and intensity, results in different efficiencies of the herbicide. PMID:24654847

Sharkhuu, Altanbadralt; Narasimhan, Meena L; Merzaban, Jasmeen S; Bressan, Ray A; Weller, Steve; Gehring, Chris

2014-06-01

120

Identificação de biótipos de azevém (Lolium multiflorum resistentes ao herbicida glyphosate em pomares de maçã Identification of glyphosate-resistant ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum biotypes in apple orchards  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O glyphosate é um herbicida de amplo espectro utilizado há mais de 15 anos em pomares de maçã na região de Vacaria-RS, para manejo da vegetação nas linhas da cultura. São realizadas, em geral, três a quatro aplicações por ciclo e a dose normalmente utilizada é de 720 a 1.080 g e.a. ha-1 de glyphosate (2 a 3 L ha-1 do produto comercial. O azevém (Lolium multiflorum é uma planta daninha comum em pomares e, tradicionalmente, sensível ao glyphosate. Entretanto, nos últimos anos a ocorrência de plantas de azevém que, após receberem o tratamento com glyphosate, não manifestam sintomas significativos de toxicidade sugere que elas adquiriram resistência ao produto. Assim, com o objetivo de avaliar a resposta de uma população de plantas de azevém ao glyphosate, foram realizados três experimentos: um em campo e dois em casa de vegetação. No experimento em campo os tratamentos avaliados constaram de doses crescentes de glyphosate (0, 360, 720, 1.440, 2.880, 5.760 e 11.520 g e.a. ha-1, e os herbicidas paraquat, glufosinate, haloxyfop e diclofop foram empregados como produtos-padrão, aplicados em dois estádios vegetativos do azevém. No experimento em casa de vegetação, os tratamentos constaram de doses crescentes de glyphosate (0, 360, 720, 1.440, 2.880 e 5.760 g e.a. ha-1 mais os herbicidas testemunhas, aplicados sobre plantas do biótipo considerado resistente e de um sensível. No segundo experimento realizado em casa de vegetação foram avaliados tratamentos contendo glyphosate (720, 1.440, 2.880, 720 + 720 e 720 + 1.440 g e.a. ha-1, em aplicações únicas e seqüenciais, mais os herbicidas paraquat, glufosinate, haloxyfop, clethodim, sethoxydim, diclofop, fenoxaprop, fluazifop, paraquat + diuron, atrazine + simazine, trifluralin e metolachlor. A toxicidade dos tratamentos herbicidas foi avaliada aos 15, 30 e 45 DAT (dias após tratamento. Os resultados obtidos nos experimentos em campo e em casa de vegetação, de forma geral, evidenciam que o biótipo sensível é facilmente controlado com o herbicida glyphosate e pelos demais herbicidas pós-emergentes avaliados, independentemente do estádio vegetativo. Demonstram, ainda, que o biótipo resistente apresenta-se, igualmente ao biótipo sensível, altamente suscetível aos herbicidas com mecanismo de ação distinto daquele do glyphosate. No entanto, o biótipo resistente apresenta baixa resposta ao herbicida glyphosate, mesmo se este for empregado em altas doses, evidenciando ter adquirido resistência a esse produto.Glyphosate is a wide spectrum herbicide used for over 15 years in apple orchards in Vacaria-RS for weed control in rows of trees. Usually, 3 to 4 applications per year are made at a rate of 720 to 1080 g a.e. glyphosate ha-1 (2 to 3 L ha-1 of commercial product. Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum is a common weed in orchards and traditionally sensitive to glyphosate. However, in the last years, some ryegrass plants have not been found to show significant toxicity symptoms after treatment with glyphosate, suggesting that they acquired resistance to this product. To evaluate the response of a ryegrass plant population to glyphosate, one field and two greenhouse experiments were carried out. The field experiment treatments had increasing rates of glyphosate (0; 360; 720; 1,440; 2,880; 5,760 and 11,520 g a.e. ha-1, in addition to the herbicides paraquat, glufosinate-ammonium, haloxyfop and diclofop-methyl as standards, sprayed at two different vegetative growth stages of ryegrass. The greenhouse experiments had increasing rates of glyphosate (0; 360; 720; 1,440; 2,880 and 5,760 g a.e. ha-1 plus the above listed check herbicides sprayed on biotypes considered resistant and on plants of one susceptible biotype. In the second greenhouse experiment, glyphosate rates (720; 1,440; 2,880; 720 + 720 and 720 + 1,440 g a.e. ha-1 were sprayed in single and sequential applications, in addition to the herbicides paraquat, glufosinate-ammonium, haloxyfop, clethodim, sethoxydim, diclofop-methyl, fenoxaprop, fluazifop, paraquat + diuron,

L. Vargas

2004-12-01

 
 
 
 
121

Sugarcane tolerance to ratoon eradication with glyphosate determined by physiological responses / Tolerância da soqueira da cana-de-açúcar à erradicação com glyphosate determinada por respostas fisiológicas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a tolerância de cultivares de cana-de-açúcar à erradicação de soqueiras com diferentes doses de glyphosate por meio de respostas fisiológicas. Para isso, um ensaio foi desenvolvido no delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso em esquema fatorial 4 x [...] 4 (cultivares x doses), totalizando 16 tratamentos com quatro repetições. Foram utilizados os cultivares IAC91-5155, IACSP93-3046, IAC86-2480 e IAC87-3396 tratados com as doses de glyphosate 0, 1.920, 2.400, e 2.880gha-1. As variáveis analisadas foram porcentagem de perfilhos mortos, eficiência quântica do FSII (Fv/Fm) e índice SPAD. Há diferenças entre cultivares de cana-de-açúcar quanto à eliminação de perfilhos e a respostas fisiológicas a diferentes doses de glyphosate. A dose de 2.880gha-1 foi a mais eficiente em eliminar perfilhos de cana-de-açúcar. Os cultivares IAC86-2480, IAC87-3396 e IACSP93-3046 foram os mais sensíveis, e o IAC91-5155 tolerou por mais tempo os danos promovidos no aparato fotossintético à dessecação das soqueiras pelo glyphosate. Devido às respostas diferenciadas, manejos distintos devem ser considerados para a eliminação das soqueiras de diferentes cultivares. Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate the tolerance of sugarcane cultivars to ratoon eradication under different glyphosate rates by means of physiological responses. Therefore, a trial was carried out in randomized complete blocks with 4 x 4 factorial design (cultivars x rates) totaling 16 treatments with f [...] our replicates. The cultivars IAC91-5155, IACSP93-3046, and IAC86-2480 and IAC87-3396 and the glyphosate rates 0 g ha-1; 1,920 g ha-1; 2,400 g ha-1; 2,880 g ha-1 were tested. The variables analyzed were percentage of tiller mortality, quantum efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) and SPAD index. The results showed that there are differences among sugarcane cultivars for tiller eradication and for physiological responses with glyphosate different rates. The rate of 2,880 g ha-1 was the most efficient in eliminating sugarcane tillers. The cultivars IAC86-2480, IAC87-3396 and IACSP93-3046 were the most sensitive and the IAC91-5155 tolerated, for a longer period of time, the damage to the photosynthetic apparatus of the ratoons caused by glyphosate desiccation. Due to different responses, different managements should be considered for eliminating ratoons of different cultivars.

M.A., Silva; M.T., Arantes; R., Oliver; M.C., Brunelli.

122

Warming and drought reduce temperature sensitivity of nitrogen transformations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Shifts in nitrogen (N) mineralization and nitrification rates due to global changes can influence nutrient availability, which can affect terrestrial productivity and climate change feedbacks. While many single-factor studies have examined the effects of environmental changes on N mineralization and nitrification, few have examined these effects in a multifactor context or recorded how these effects vary seasonally. In an old-field ecosystem in Massachusetts, USA, we investigated the combined effects of four levels of warming (up to 4 °C) and three levels of precipitation (drought, ambient, and wet) on net N mineralization, net nitrification, and potential nitrification. We also examined the treatment effects on the temperature sensitivity of net N mineralization and net nitrification and on the ratio of C mineralization to net N mineralization. During winter, freeze-thaw events, snow depth, and soil freezing depth explained little of the variation in net nitrification and N mineralization rates among treatments. During two years of treatments, warming and altered precipitation rarely influenced the rates of N cycling, and there was no evidence of a seasonal pattern in the responses. In contrast, warming and drought dramatically decreased the apparent Q10 of net N mineralization and net nitrification, and the warming-induced decrease in apparent Q10 was more pronounced in ambient and wet treatments than the drought treatment. The ratio of C mineralization to net N mineralization varied over time and was sensitive to the interactive effects of warming and altered precipitation. Although many studies have found that warming tends to accelerate N cycling, our results suggest that warming can have little to no effect on N cycling in some ecosystems. Thus, ecosystem models that assume that warming will consistently increase N mineralization rates and inputs of plant-available N may overestimate the increase in terrestrial productivity and the magnitude of an important negative feedback to climate change. PMID:23504800

Novem Auyeung, Dolaporn S; Suseela, Vidya; Dukes, Jeffrey S

2013-02-01

123

Monitoring glyphosate and AMPA concentrations in wells and drains using the sorbicell passive sampler  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Glyphosate is one of the worldâ??s most extensively used weed control agents. Glyphosate, and its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), are suspected to be hazardous to human health and the aquatic environment. In Denmark, the extensive use has resulted in an increasing number of occurrences in groundwater wells and tile drains, stressing the need for extensive monitoring of this compound in the environment. Traditionally, monitoring programs are based on grab sampling which is time consuming and expensive due to the need for frequent sampling events. Using a passive sampling device, the SorbiCell, will decrease the workload and number of samples freeing up funds for larger monitoring programs. When installed in a well the SorbiCell will continuously sample the water giving either a flux-weighed or time-weighted average measurement of the glyphosate/AMPA concentration throughout the sampling period. It may therefore be possible to measure lower concentrations as the glyphosate/AMPA sorbed in the SorbiCell is an accumulated measurement. Also, glyphosate/AMPA associated with sudden flush events will be detected by the SorbiCells, while such events may pass between two consecutive grab samples. To document the ability of the SorbiCell to capture glyphosate/AMPA, a series of laboratory flow experiments were carried out. Sorption and release from the flow cells is tested with two influent solutions (0.15 µg/l and 5 µg/l), one of demineralized water and the other with drain water from the Silstrup site (part of the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Program, PLAP), spiked with 14C marked glyphosate. Two different volumes of effluent were then eluted through Sorbicellâ??s with two different capacities. The concentration of glyphosate/AMPA was continuously measured in both the influent and effluent. The aim of the study is to test and verify if the glyphosate/AMPA sensitive SorbiCell is an efficient and reliable, and cost-effective technology for groundwater and drainwater monitoring of pesticides.

Vendelboe, Anders Lindblad; de Jonge, Hubert

124

Influence of glyphosate on the copper dissolution in phosphate buffer  

Science.gov (United States)

The electrochemical behavior of copper microelectrode in phosphate buffer in the presence of glyphosate was investigated by electrochemical techniques. It was observed that the additions of glyphosate in the phosphate buffer increased the anodic current of copper microelectrode and the electrochemical dissolution was observed. This phenomenon could be associated with the Cu(II) complexation by glyphosate forming a soluble complex. Physical characterization of the surface showed that, in absence of glyphosate, an insoluble layer covered the copper surface; on the other hand, in presence of glyphosate, it was observed a corroded copper surface with the formation of glyphosate complex in solution.

Coutinho, C. F. B.; Silva, M. O.; Machado, S. A. S.; Mazo, L. H.

2007-01-01

125

Associações entre o herbicida glyphosate e inseticidas na cultura da soja Roundup Ready® Associations among glyphosate and insecticides in Roundup Ready® soybean  

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Full Text Available Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da associação do herbicida glyphosate com 10 inseticidas de diferentes grupos químicos sobre a cultura da soja Roundup Ready® (cultivar Monsoy 8585 RR®, o controle de plantas daninhas e o controle da lagarta-da-soja (Anticarsia gemmatalis. O experimento foi realizado em lavoura no município de Nova Xavantina - MT, no período de novembro de 2005 a abril de 2006, em solo classificado como Latossolo Vermelho distrófico. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 11 x 2, sendo os fatores constituídos por 11 tratamentos inseticidas [lambdacyhalothrin (3,75 g ha-1; permethrin (12,50 g ha-1; methamidophos (300,00 g ha-1; chlorpyriphos (240,00 g ha-1; acephate (150,00 g ha-1; endosulfan (175,00 g ha-1; methomyl (107,50 g ha-1; lufenuron (7,50 g ha-1; triflumuron (14,40 g ha-1; spinosad (24,00 g ha-1; e testemunha sem inseticida], com ou sem a adição (mistura em tanque de 960 g e.a. ha-1 de glyphosate, formando 22 tratamentos, conduzidos em quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram aplicados 30 dias depois da emergência da cultura. A mistura do herbicida glyphosate com o inseticida chlorpyriphos causou fitotoxicidade inicial à cultura da soja RR®. O controle das plantas daninhas Chamaesyce hirta, Alternanthera tenella, Euphorbia heterophylla e Cenchrus echinatus não foi afetado pelas misturas de glyphosate com todos os inseticidas avaliados. A adição do glyphosate à calda de aplicação prejudicou a eficiência inicial dos inseticidas methomyl, methamidophos, chlorpyriphos e acephate no controle de Anticarsia gemmatalis, porém incrementou o controle dessa praga quando associado aos inseticidas spinosad, lambdacyhalothrin e lufenuron. A combinação de glyphosate com os inseticidas methamidophos, chlorpyriphos, lufenuron, triflumuron e spinosad proporcionou os maiores níveis de produtividade de grãos da soja RR®.This research aimed to evaluate the effects of the association of the herbicide glyphosate with 10 different insecticides of several chemical groups on Roundup Ready® soybean (Monsoy 8585 RR®, weeds, and on velvetbean caterpillar (Anticarsia gemmatalis. The experiment was carried out under field conditions at Nova Xavantina-MT, from November 2005 to April 2006 in soil classified as Dystrophic Red Latosol. Trial design was a factorial randomized complete block having 11 insecticide treatments: [lambdacyhalothrin (3,75 g ha-1; permethrin (12,50 g ha-1; methamidophos (300,00 g ha-1; chlorpyriphos (240,00 g ha-1; acephate (150,00 g ha-1; endosulfan (175,00 g ha-1; methomyl (107,50 g ha-1; lufenuron (7,50 g ha-1; triflumuron (14,40 g ha-1; spinosad (24,00 g ha-1; and untreated without insecticide] with and without addiction (tank mixture of 960 g a.e. ha-1 of glyphosate, totalling 22 treatments. Each treatment had four replications. Treatments were applied 30 days after soybean emergence. Tank mixture of glyphosate and insecticide caused phytotoxicity to soybean. The control of the weeds Chamaesyce hirta, Alternathera tenella, Euphorbia heterophylla and Cenchrus echinatus was not affected by the glyphosate mixture. Tank mixture of glyphosate with the insecticides methomyl, methamidophos, chlorpyriphos and acephate reduced their control of Anticarsia gemmatalis. However, the control performance of the insecticides spinosad, lambdacyhalothrin and lufenuron was increased. The combination of glyphosate with the insecticides methamidophos, chlorpyriphos, lufenuron, triflumuron and spinosad provided the highest soybean yields.

F.A. Petter

2007-01-01

126

Associações entre o herbicida glyphosate e inseticidas na cultura da soja Roundup Ready® / Associations among glyphosate and insecticides in Roundup Ready® soybean  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da associação do herbicida glyphosate com 10 inseticidas de diferentes grupos químicos sobre a cultura da soja Roundup Ready® (cultivar Monsoy 8585 RR®), o controle de plantas daninhas e o controle da lagarta-da-soja (Anticarsia gemmatalis). O expe [...] rimento foi realizado em lavoura no município de Nova Xavantina - MT, no período de novembro de 2005 a abril de 2006, em solo classificado como Latossolo Vermelho distrófico. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 11 x 2, sendo os fatores constituídos por 11 tratamentos inseticidas [lambdacyhalothrin (3,75 g ha-1); permethrin (12,50 g ha-1); methamidophos (300,00 g ha-1); chlorpyriphos (240,00 g ha-1); acephate (150,00 g ha-1); endosulfan (175,00 g ha-1); methomyl (107,50 g ha-1); lufenuron (7,50 g ha-1); triflumuron (14,40 g ha-1); spinosad (24,00 g ha-1); e testemunha sem inseticida], com ou sem a adição (mistura em tanque) de 960 g e.a. ha-1 de glyphosate, formando 22 tratamentos, conduzidos em quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram aplicados 30 dias depois da emergência da cultura. A mistura do herbicida glyphosate com o inseticida chlorpyriphos causou fitotoxicidade inicial à cultura da soja RR®. O controle das plantas daninhas Chamaesyce hirta, Alternanthera tenella, Euphorbia heterophylla e Cenchrus echinatus não foi afetado pelas misturas de glyphosate com todos os inseticidas avaliados. A adição do glyphosate à calda de aplicação prejudicou a eficiência inicial dos inseticidas methomyl, methamidophos, chlorpyriphos e acephate no controle de Anticarsia gemmatalis, porém incrementou o controle dessa praga quando associado aos inseticidas spinosad, lambdacyhalothrin e lufenuron. A combinação de glyphosate com os inseticidas methamidophos, chlorpyriphos, lufenuron, triflumuron e spinosad proporcionou os maiores níveis de produtividade de grãos da soja RR®. Abstract in english This research aimed to evaluate the effects of the association of the herbicide glyphosate with 10 different insecticides of several chemical groups on Roundup Ready® soybean (Monsoy 8585 RR®), weeds, and on velvetbean caterpillar (Anticarsia gemmatalis). The experiment was carried out under field c [...] onditions at Nova Xavantina-MT, from November 2005 to April 2006 in soil classified as Dystrophic Red Latosol. Trial design was a factorial randomized complete block having 11 insecticide treatments: [lambdacyhalothrin (3,75 g ha-1); permethrin (12,50 g ha-1); methamidophos (300,00 g ha-1); chlorpyriphos (240,00 g ha-1); acephate (150,00 g ha-1); endosulfan (175,00 g ha-1); methomyl (107,50 g ha-1); lufenuron (7,50 g ha-1); triflumuron (14,40 g ha-1); spinosad (24,00 g ha-1); and untreated without insecticide] with and without addiction (tank mixture) of 960 g a.e. ha-1 of glyphosate, totalling 22 treatments. Each treatment had four replications. Treatments were applied 30 days after soybean emergence. Tank mixture of glyphosate and insecticide caused phytotoxicity to soybean. The control of the weeds Chamaesyce hirta, Alternathera tenella, Euphorbia heterophylla and Cenchrus echinatus was not affected by the glyphosate mixture. Tank mixture of glyphosate with the insecticides methomyl, methamidophos, chlorpyriphos and acephate reduced their control of Anticarsia gemmatalis. However, the control performance of the insecticides spinosad, lambdacyhalothrin and lufenuron was increased. The combination of glyphosate with the insecticides methamidophos, chlorpyriphos, lufenuron, triflumuron and spinosad provided the highest soybean yields.

Petter, F.A.; Procópio, S.O.; Cargnelutti Filho, A.; Barroso, A.L.L.; Pacheco, L.P.; Bueno, A.F..

127

Bioassay and Characterization of Several Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri Biotypes with Varying Tolerances to Glyphosate  

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Full Text Available The wide distribution of Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri in the southern US became a serious weed control problem prior to the extensive use of glyphosate-resistant crops. Currently glyphosate-resistant populations of Palmer amaranth occur in many areas of this geographic region creating an even more serious threat to crop production. Investigations were undertaken using four biotypes (one glyphosate-sensitive, one resistant from Georgia and two of unknown tolerance from Mississippi of Palmer amaranth to assess bioassay techniques for the rapid detection and level of resistance in populations of this weed. These plants were characterized with respect to chlorophyll, betalain, and protein levels and immunological responses to an antibody of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS the target site of glyphosate. Only slight differences were found in four biotypes grown under greenhouse conditions regarding extractable soluble protein and chlorophyll content, but one biotype was found to be devoid of the red pigment, betalain. Measurement of early growth (seedling shoot elongation of seedlings was a useful detection tool to determine glyphosate resistance. A leaf disc bioassay (using visual ratings and/or chlorophyll analysis and an assay for shikimate accumulation were effective methods for determining herbicide resistance levels. The two unknown biotypes were found to be resistant to this herbicide. Some differences were found in the protein profiles of the biotypes, and western blots demonstrated a weak labeling of antibody in the glyphosate-sensitive biotype, whereas strong labeling occurred in the resistant plants. This latter point supports research by others, that increased copy number of the EPSPS gene (and increased EPSPS protein levels is the resistance mechanism in this species. Results indicate the utility of certain bioassays for the determination of resistance and provide useful comparative information on the levels of inherent constituents among closely related plants.

Robert E. Hoagland

2013-05-01

128

Crescimento do eucalipto sob efeito da deriva de glyphosate / Eucalyptus growth under the effect of glyphosate drift  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Um dos questionamentos no setor florestal é sobre os possíveis efeitos negativos da deriva de glyphosate sobre plantas de eucalipto ao longo de seu ciclo. Aos 30 dias após a aplicação (DAA) de 1.440 g ha-1 de glyphosate, para controle de plantas daninhas em talhão de Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophyll [...] a (híbrido urograndis) com 120 dias após o transplantio, selecionaram-se 120 plantas ao acaso, que apresentavam graus de intoxicação variáveis. Os tratamentos foram os seguintes intervalos: 0-5, 6-10, 11-20, 21-30, 31-40 e 41-50% de intoxicação das plantas, em que o intervalo de 0 - 5% foi considerado testemunha. Foram realizadas avaliações de altura e diâmetro, após a seleção das plantas, até os 360 DAA, sendo acompanhados durante esse período os sintomas de intoxicação. Aos 360 DAA, foi estimado o volume de madeira (m³) e calculado o ganho em altura e diâmetro durante o período de avaliação. Plantas com intoxicação inicial acima de 31% apresentaram menor altura e diâmetro aos 360 DAA. O ganho em altura foi menor em plantas com intoxicação inicial acima de 41%. Observou-se menor diâmetro a partir de 21% de intoxicação, com os menores valores de crescimento em diâmetro do caule observados em plantas com 41-50% de intoxicação. Os danos causados pela deriva do glyphosate afetaram a produção de madeira aos 360 DAA, em que plantas com 21-30, 31-40 e 41-50% de intoxicação apresentaram redução no volume de madeira de 18, 26 e 48%, respectivamente, em relação à testemunha. Os resultados confirmam os prejuízos ocasionados pela deriva do glyphosate em plantas de eucalipto. Novas avaliações devem ser realizadas para acompanhamento do crescimento e desenvolvimento das plantas até o final do ciclo do eucalipto, a fim de elucidar os efeitos da deriva do glyphosate sobre a produção final da cultura. Abstract in english The possible negative effects of glyphosate drift on eucalyptus plants throughout their cycle are one of the many issues faced in forestry. Thus, 120 plants presenting variable degrees of intoxication were randomly selected at day 30 after application of 1.440 g ha-1 glyphosate, aiming to control th [...] e weeds in an area of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla (urograndis hybrid) at 120 days after transplantation. The treatments were constituted by the following intervals: 0-5; 6-10; 11-20; 21-30; 31-40 and 41-50% of plant intoxication with 0-5% being considered the control treatment. Height and diameter were evaluated after plant selection, up to 360 days after application (DAA) and the intoxication symptoms were evaluated during this period. At 360 DAA wood volume (m³) was estimated and height and diameter gains were calculated. Plants with initial intoxication above 31% presented lesser height and diameter at 270 DAA Height gains were lesser in plants with initial intoxication above 41%. Lesser diameter was observed from 21% intoxication, with the plants with 41-50% intoxication displaying the lesser values for diameter growth. The damage caused by the drift affected wood production at 270 DAA, with the plants with 21-30, 31-40 and 41-50% intoxication being the ones presenting reduced wood volume of 18, 26 and 48%, respectively, in relation to the control treatment. The results confirmed the damage caused by glyphosate drift to eucalyptus plants. However, new evaluations should be performed to monitor the growth and development of the plants until the end of their cycle so as to elucidate the drift effects on the final production.

L.D., Tuffi Santos; A.F.L., Machado; R.G., Viana; L.R., Ferreira; F.A., Ferreira; G.V.R., Souza.

129

Crescimento do eucalipto sob efeito da deriva de glyphosate Eucalyptus growth under the effect of glyphosate drift  

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Full Text Available Um dos questionamentos no setor florestal é sobre os possíveis efeitos negativos da deriva de glyphosate sobre plantas de eucalipto ao longo de seu ciclo. Aos 30 dias após a aplicação (DAA de 1.440 g ha-1 de glyphosate, para controle de plantas daninhas em talhão de Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla (híbrido urograndis com 120 dias após o transplantio, selecionaram-se 120 plantas ao acaso, que apresentavam graus de intoxicação variáveis. Os tratamentos foram os seguintes intervalos: 0-5, 6-10, 11-20, 21-30, 31-40 e 41-50% de intoxicação das plantas, em que o intervalo de 0 - 5% foi considerado testemunha. Foram realizadas avaliações de altura e diâmetro, após a seleção das plantas, até os 360 DAA, sendo acompanhados durante esse período os sintomas de intoxicação. Aos 360 DAA, foi estimado o volume de madeira (m³ e calculado o ganho em altura e diâmetro durante o período de avaliação. Plantas com intoxicação inicial acima de 31% apresentaram menor altura e diâmetro aos 360 DAA. O ganho em altura foi menor em plantas com intoxicação inicial acima de 41%. Observou-se menor diâmetro a partir de 21% de intoxicação, com os menores valores de crescimento em diâmetro do caule observados em plantas com 41-50% de intoxicação. Os danos causados pela deriva do glyphosate afetaram a produção de madeira aos 360 DAA, em que plantas com 21-30, 31-40 e 41-50% de intoxicação apresentaram redução no volume de madeira de 18, 26 e 48%, respectivamente, em relação à testemunha. Os resultados confirmam os prejuízos ocasionados pela deriva do glyphosate em plantas de eucalipto. Novas avaliações devem ser realizadas para acompanhamento do crescimento e desenvolvimento das plantas até o final do ciclo do eucalipto, a fim de elucidar os efeitos da deriva do glyphosate sobre a produção final da cultura.The possible negative effects of glyphosate drift on eucalyptus plants throughout their cycle are one of the many issues faced in forestry. Thus, 120 plants presenting variable degrees of intoxication were randomly selected at day 30 after application of 1.440 g ha-1 glyphosate, aiming to control the weeds in an area of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla (urograndis hybrid at 120 days after transplantation. The treatments were constituted by the following intervals: 0-5; 6-10; 11-20; 21-30; 31-40 and 41-50% of plant intoxication with 0-5% being considered the control treatment. Height and diameter were evaluated after plant selection, up to 360 days after application (DAA and the intoxication symptoms were evaluated during this period. At 360 DAA wood volume (m³ was estimated and height and diameter gains were calculated. Plants with initial intoxication above 31% presented lesser height and diameter at 270 DAA Height gains were lesser in plants with initial intoxication above 41%. Lesser diameter was observed from 21% intoxication, with the plants with 41-50% intoxication displaying the lesser values for diameter growth. The damage caused by the drift affected wood production at 270 DAA, with the plants with 21-30, 31-40 and 41-50% intoxication being the ones presenting reduced wood volume of 18, 26 and 48%, respectively, in relation to the control treatment. The results confirmed the damage caused by glyphosate drift to eucalyptus plants. However, new evaluations should be performed to monitor the growth and development of the plants until the end of their cycle so as to elucidate the drift effects on the final production.

L.D. Tuffi Santos

2007-03-01

130

Leaf anatomy and morphometry in three eucalypt clones treated with glyphosate Anatomia e morfometria foliar em clones de eucalipto tratados com glyphosate  

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Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the effects of simulated drift of glyphosate on the morphoanatomy of three eucalypt clones and to correlate the intoxication symptoms on a microscopic scale with those observed in this visual analysis. The effects of glyphosate drift were proportional to the five doses tested, with Eucalyptus urophylla being more tolerant to the herbicide than E. grandis and urograndis hybrid. The symptoms of intoxication which were similar for the different clones at 7 and 15 days after application were characterized by leaf wilting, chlorosis and curling and, at the highest rates, by necrosis, leaf senescence and death. Anatomically glyphosate doses higher than 86.4 g.ha-1 caused cellular plasmolysis, hypertrophy and hyperplasia, formation of the cicatrization tissue and dead cells on the adaxial epidermis. The spongy parenchyma had a decrease, and the palisade parenchyma and leaf blade thickness had an increase. The increased thickness in leaf blade and palisade parenchyma may be related to the plant response to glyphosate action, as a form of recovering the photosynthetically active area reduced by necroses and leaf senescence caused by the herbicide.Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos da deriva simulada de glyphosate na morfoanatomia de três clones de eucalipto e correlacionar os sintomas de intoxicação em escala microscópica com aqueles observados à vista desarmada. Os efeitos da deriva do glyphosate foram proporcionais às doses testadas, sendo Eucalyptus urophylla mais tolerante ao herbicida que E. grandis e o híbrido urograndis. Os sintomas de intoxicação foram semelhantes para os diferentes clones testados, tanto aos 7 quanto aos 15 dias após a aplicação, sendo caracterizados, morfologicamente, por murcha, clorose e enrolamento foliar e, no caso das maiores doses, por necrose, senescência foliar e morte das plantas de eucalipto. Anatomicamente, doses de glyphosate superiores a 86,4 g.ha-1 provocaram plasmólise, hipertrofia e hiperplasia celular, formação de tecido de cicatrização e morte das células da face adaxial da epiderme. Observou-se diminuição na espessura do parênquima lacunoso e aumento na espessura do parênquima paliçádico e da lâmina foliar. O aumento na espessura da folha e do parênquima paliçádico podem estar relacionados à resposta das plantas ao glyphosate, como forma de compensar a área fotossinteticamente reduzida pelas necroses e senescência causadas pelo herbicida.

LD. Tuffi Santos

2009-02-01

131

Leaf anatomy and morphometry in three eucalypt clones treated with glyphosate / Anatomia e morfometria foliar em clones de eucalipto tratados com glyphosate  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos da deriva simulada de glyphosate na morfoanatomia de três clones de eucalipto e correlacionar os sintomas de intoxicação em escala microscópica com aqueles observados à vista desarmada. Os efeitos da deriva do glyphosate foram proporcionais às dose [...] s testadas, sendo Eucalyptus urophylla mais tolerante ao herbicida que E. grandis e o híbrido urograndis. Os sintomas de intoxicação foram semelhantes para os diferentes clones testados, tanto aos 7 quanto aos 15 dias após a aplicação, sendo caracterizados, morfologicamente, por murcha, clorose e enrolamento foliar e, no caso das maiores doses, por necrose, senescência foliar e morte das plantas de eucalipto. Anatomicamente, doses de glyphosate superiores a 86,4 g.ha-1 provocaram plasmólise, hipertrofia e hiperplasia celular, formação de tecido de cicatrização e morte das células da face adaxial da epiderme. Observou-se diminuição na espessura do parênquima lacunoso e aumento na espessura do parênquima paliçádico e da lâmina foliar. O aumento na espessura da folha e do parênquima paliçádico podem estar relacionados à resposta das plantas ao glyphosate, como forma de compensar a área fotossinteticamente reduzida pelas necroses e senescência causadas pelo herbicida. Abstract in english This work aimed to evaluate the effects of simulated drift of glyphosate on the morphoanatomy of three eucalypt clones and to correlate the intoxication symptoms on a microscopic scale with those observed in this visual analysis. The effects of glyphosate drift were proportional to the five doses te [...] sted, with Eucalyptus urophylla being more tolerant to the herbicide than E. grandis and urograndis hybrid. The symptoms of intoxication which were similar for the different clones at 7 and 15 days after application were characterized by leaf wilting, chlorosis and curling and, at the highest rates, by necrosis, leaf senescence and death. Anatomically glyphosate doses higher than 86.4 g.ha-1 caused cellular plasmolysis, hypertrophy and hyperplasia, formation of the cicatrization tissue and dead cells on the adaxial epidermis. The spongy parenchyma had a decrease, and the palisade parenchyma and leaf blade thickness had an increase. The increased thickness in leaf blade and palisade parenchyma may be related to the plant response to glyphosate action, as a form of recovering the photosynthetically active area reduced by necroses and leaf senescence caused by the herbicide.

Tuffi Santos, LD.; Sant' Anna-Santos, BF.; Meira, RMSA.; Ferreira, FA.; Tiburcio, RAS.; Machado, AFL..

132

78 FR 25396 - Glyphosate; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...htm. Based on the Pesticide Root Zone Model...glyphosate (residential handlers). However, since...www.epa.gov/pesticides/trac/science...practice and procedure, Agricultural commodities, Pesticides and pests,...

2013-05-01

133

Identificação de biótipos de azevém (Lolium multiflorum) resistentes ao herbicida glyphosate em pomares de maçã / Identification of glyphosate-resistant ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) biotypes in apple orchards  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O glyphosate é um herbicida de amplo espectro utilizado há mais de 15 anos em pomares de maçã na região de Vacaria-RS, para manejo da vegetação nas linhas da cultura. São realizadas, em geral, três a quatro aplicações por ciclo e a dose normalmente utilizada é de 720 a 1.080 g e.a. ha-1 de glyphosat [...] e (2 a 3 L ha-1 do produto comercial). O azevém (Lolium multiflorum) é uma planta daninha comum em pomares e, tradicionalmente, sensível ao glyphosate. Entretanto, nos últimos anos a ocorrência de plantas de azevém que, após receberem o tratamento com glyphosate, não manifestam sintomas significativos de toxicidade sugere que elas adquiriram resistência ao produto. Assim, com o objetivo de avaliar a resposta de uma população de plantas de azevém ao glyphosate, foram realizados três experimentos: um em campo e dois em casa de vegetação. No experimento em campo os tratamentos avaliados constaram de doses crescentes de glyphosate (0, 360, 720, 1.440, 2.880, 5.760 e 11.520 g e.a. ha-1), e os herbicidas paraquat, glufosinate, haloxyfop e diclofop foram empregados como produtos-padrão, aplicados em dois estádios vegetativos do azevém. No experimento em casa de vegetação, os tratamentos constaram de doses crescentes de glyphosate (0, 360, 720, 1.440, 2.880 e 5.760 g e.a. ha-1) mais os herbicidas testemunhas, aplicados sobre plantas do biótipo considerado resistente e de um sensível. No segundo experimento realizado em casa de vegetação foram avaliados tratamentos contendo glyphosate (720, 1.440, 2.880, 720 + 720 e 720 + 1.440 g e.a. ha-1), em aplicações únicas e seqüenciais, mais os herbicidas paraquat, glufosinate, haloxyfop, clethodim, sethoxydim, diclofop, fenoxaprop, fluazifop, paraquat + diuron, atrazine + simazine, trifluralin e metolachlor. A toxicidade dos tratamentos herbicidas foi avaliada aos 15, 30 e 45 DAT (dias após tratamento). Os resultados obtidos nos experimentos em campo e em casa de vegetação, de forma geral, evidenciam que o biótipo sensível é facilmente controlado com o herbicida glyphosate e pelos demais herbicidas pós-emergentes avaliados, independentemente do estádio vegetativo. Demonstram, ainda, que o biótipo resistente apresenta-se, igualmente ao biótipo sensível, altamente suscetível aos herbicidas com mecanismo de ação distinto daquele do glyphosate. No entanto, o biótipo resistente apresenta baixa resposta ao herbicida glyphosate, mesmo se este for empregado em altas doses, evidenciando ter adquirido resistência a esse produto. Abstract in english Glyphosate is a wide spectrum herbicide used for over 15 years in apple orchards in Vacaria-RS for weed control in rows of trees. Usually, 3 to 4 applications per year are made at a rate of 720 to 1080 g a.e. glyphosate ha-1 (2 to 3 L ha-1 of commercial product). Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) is a c [...] ommon weed in orchards and traditionally sensitive to glyphosate. However, in the last years, some ryegrass plants have not been found to show significant toxicity symptoms after treatment with glyphosate, suggesting that they acquired resistance to this product. To evaluate the response of a ryegrass plant population to glyphosate, one field and two greenhouse experiments were carried out. The field experiment treatments had increasing rates of glyphosate (0; 360; 720; 1,440; 2,880; 5,760 and 11,520 g a.e. ha-1), in addition to the herbicides paraquat, glufosinate-ammonium, haloxyfop and diclofop-methyl as standards, sprayed at two different vegetative growth stages of ryegrass. The greenhouse experiments had increasing rates of glyphosate (0; 360; 720; 1,440; 2,880 and 5,760 g a.e. ha-1) plus the above listed check herbicides sprayed on biotypes considered resistant and on plants of one susceptible biotype. In the second greenhouse experiment, glyphosate rates (720; 1,440; 2,880; 720 + 720 and 720 + 1,440 g a.e. ha-1) were sprayed in single and sequential applications, in addition to the herbicides paraquat, glufosin

Vargas, L.; Roman, E.S.; Rizzardi, M.A.; Silva, V.C..

134

Effects of glyphosate application on succeeding crops  

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Full Text Available Glyphosate is an important herbicide for the control of weeds and volunteer crops in production systems with conservation tillage or direct drilling. For a feasible timing of the glyphosate application it is essential that the following crops are not aggrieved by soil uptake of glyphosate. In field trials over several years it was confirmed that a usual application with 1800 g/ha glyphosate poses no risk for the growth of subsequent corn or winter wheat. Low yields could be caused by different soil management techniques such as conservation tillage or direct drilling and the preceding crops. Treatments with a dosage of 1800 – 7200 g/ha glyphosate with a time lag of 23 – 10 day before mulch-sowing, resp. 1 day after direct drilling had no influence on the growth and yield of following corn and winter wheat. Based on the results of these field trials it can be confirmed that glyphosate is a save herbicide for weed control in production systems with conservation tillage or direct drilling.

Gehring, Klaus

2012-03-01

135

Growth and Yield of Glyphosate-Resistant Corn under Different Timing of Glyphosate Application  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted in 2002 in Langkat, North Sumatra, to determine the effects of glyphosate application timing on the growth and grain yield of glyphosate-resistant corn. Glyphosate at 1,500 g ha-1 was applied at twelve different treatments namely at the V3 stage, the V4 stage, the V5 stage, the V6 stage, the V7 stage, the V8 stage, the V9 stage, the V10 stage, the V12 stage, the V3 stage followed by at the V7 stage, the V3 stage followed by at V12 stage and the V4 stage followed by at V8 stage of glyphosate-resistant corn growth. In addition to the twelve treatments, two other treatments (maintained weed free all season and weed infested all season were provided for comparison. Competition between corn and weed at the beginning of growth prior to glyphosate application affected growth and yield of corn more than that of post application. Compared to yield resulted from weed-free plot all season, no significant grain yield were found when glyphosate was applied at the V3 stage, the V4 stage, the V3 and V7 stage, the V3 and V12 stage and the V4 and V8 stage. Single application of glyphosate at the V3 corn growth was found to be the best timing of glyphosate application for weed control in Langkat, North Sumatra conditions.

N. Desmarwansyah

2008-01-01

136

Sorption and leaching of glyphosate on partly sealed urban areas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The motivation for this work was the application of the herbicide glyphosate for weed control on pavements. As the construction material for pavements, has lower sorption capacities for glyphosate than agricultural soils, the aim of this study was to assess the risk of glyphosate leaching into deeper layers after its application on partly sealed pavements. Therefore the fate of glyphosate was investigated on four methodological levels after a basic characterisation of the seam material: (1) s...

Klingelmann, Eva

2009-01-01

137

Molecular basis of glyphosate resistance: Different approaches through protein engineering  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Glyphosate (N-phosphonomethyl-glycine) is the most-used herbicide in the world: glyphosate-based formulations exhibit broad-spectrum herbicidal activity with minimal human and environmental toxicity. The extraordinary success of this simple small molecule is mainly due to the high specificity of glyphosate towards the plant enzyme enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase in the shikimate pathway leading to biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids. Starting in 1996, transgenic glyphosate-resistan...

Pollegioni, Loredano; Schonbrunn, Ernst; Siehl, Daniel

2011-01-01

138

Identification of Glyphosate Resistance in Lolium rigidum Gaudin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Glyphosate resistance was found in Lolium rigidum Gaudin (Rigid ryegrass, LOLRI) inSouth Africa. Suspected glyphosate-resistant L. rigidum populations were collected andgrown under greenhouse conditions. The plants were sprayed with a range of doses of glyphosate35 days after planting and shoot dry biomass was determined 17 days after herbicidetreatment. Based on the dose-response experiment conducted in the greenhouse,one population of L. rigidum suspected to be resistant to glyphosate was a...

2011-01-01

139

Dessecação de plantas daninhas com glyphosate em mistura com ureia ou sulfato de amônio / Weed desiccation with glyphosate mixed with urea or ammonium sulfate  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O glyphosate é um herbicida não-seletivo, sistêmico, usado para controle de plantas daninhas anuais e perenes em todo o mundo. A absorção da molécula do glyphosate ocorre pelos tecidos fotossinteticamente ativos das plantas, porém alguns fatores podem reduzir sua eficácia, como a morfologia e divers [...] idade de espécies, chuva após aplicação, qualidade da água e misturas em tanque com outros defensivos, entre outros. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a influência da adição de sulfato de amônio ou ureia em calda na eficácia do herbicida glyphosate para dessecação de plantas daninhas. Dois experimentos foram desenvolvidos em Piracicaba - SP, com aplicações de glyphosate (720 e 1.440 g ha-1) isolado ou combinado com duas doses de sulfato de amônio (7,5 e 15,0 g L-1) ou ureia (2,5 e 5,0 g L-1) sobre as plantas daninhas: apaga-fogo (Alternanthera tenella) e capim-massambará (Sorghum halepense). Para a espécie menos suscetível ao herbicida (capim-massambará), a adição de fontes nitrogenadas à menor dose de glyphosate acelerou a morte das plantas, elevando os níveis de controle em até 7,3% na avaliação de 21 dias após aplicação (DAA) dos tratamentos. Contudo, os efeitos não foram observados nas avaliações de controle, massa fresca e seca, conduzidas aos 28 DAA. A dose recomendada de glyphosate para cada espécie proporcionou controle satisfatório, sem a necessidade de adição de sulfato de amônio ou ureia. Abstract in english Glyphosate is a non-selective systemic herbicide used to control annual and perennial weeds worldwide. Molecule absorption occurs through the plant's photosynthetically-active tissues; however, some factors might reduce its efficacy, such as morphology and specific diversity, rain after application, [...] water quality and tank mixtures with other chemicals. Thus, this work aimed to evaluate the influence of ammonium sulfate or urea addiction to spray tank on glyphosate efficacy for weed desiccation. Two trials were carried out in Piracicaba - SP, with applications of glyphosate (720 and 1440 g ha-1) alone or combined with two rates of ammonium sulfate (7.5 and 15.0 g L-1) or urea (2.5 and 5.0 g L-1), over the weeds Alternanthera tenella and Sorghum halepense. For the least susceptible species (S. halepense), the addition of nitrogen sources to the lower rate of glyphosate accelerated plant death, increasing the control levels up to 7.3%, at 21 days after application (DAA). However, the effects were not observed when control, fresh and dry mass were evaluated at 28 DAA. Glyphosate recommended rate for each species promoted appropriate control, without the need to add ammonium sulfate or urea.

S.J.P., Carvalho; V., Damin; A.C.R., Dias; M.S.C., Melo; M., Nicolai; P.J., Christoffoleti.

140

Severe adverse effects related to dermal exposure to a glyphosate-surfactant herbicide  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This is a case of severe chemical burns following prolonged accidental exposure to a glyphosate-surfactant herbicide. The patient developed local swelling, bullae and exuding wounds. Neurological impairment followed affecting finger flexion and sensation with reduced nerve conduction. Imaging revealed oedema of the soft tissue and juxta-articular osteopenia, and a causal relationship to exposure is suggested.

Mariager, T P; Madsen, P V

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Glyphosate translocation in herbicide tolerant plants / Translocação do glyphosate em plantas tolerantes ao herbicida  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se neste estudo avaliar a translocação de glyphosate em plantas tolerantes (Ipomoea nil, Tridax procumbens e Spermacoce latifolia) e suscetível (Bidens pilosa) a esse herbicida. As avaliações de absorção e translocação do 14C-glyphosate em I. nil e B. pilosa foram efetuadas às 6, 12, 36 e [...] 72 horas após a aplicação do herbicida (HAT), e em T. procumbens e S. latifolia, às 72 HAT. As plantas foram coletadas e fracionadas em: folha de aplicação, demais folhas, caules e raízes; em T. procumbens e S. latifolia, avaliou-se a presença do produto na inflorescência da planta. Em S. latifolia, aproximadamente 88% do glyphosate permaneceu na folha de aplicação, e pequena quantidade translocou para as raízes. Todavia, em T. procumbens, 75% do herbicida permaneceu na folha que recebeu a aplicação, observando-se maior translocação na inflorescência em relação às raízes. Conclui-se que a menor translocação do glyphosate observada em S. latifolia e T. procumbens pode ser um dos fatores responsáveis pela maior tolerância dessas espécies ao herbicida, ao passo que em I. nil a metabolização, a exsudação radicular ou a compartimentalização podem favorecer a tolerância, já que grande quantidade do produto atingiu as raízes da espécie. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate glyphosate translocation in glyphosate-tolerant weed species (I. nil, T. procumbens and S. latifolia) compared to glyphosate-susceptible species (B. pilosa). The evaluations of 14C-glyphosate absorption and translocation were performed at 6, 12, 36 and 72 [...] hours after treatment (HAT) in I. nil and B. pilosa, and only at 72 HAT in the species T. procumbens and S. latifolia. The plants were collected and fractionated into application leaf, other leaves, stems, and roots. In S. latifolia, approximately 88% of the glyphosate remained in the application leaf and a small amount was translocated to roots at 72 HAT. However, 75% of the herbicide applied on T. procumbens remained in the leaf that had received the treatment, with greater glyphosate translocation to the floral bud. It was concluded that the smaller amount of glyphosate observed in S. latifolia and T. procumbens may partly account for their higher tolerance to glyphosate. However, I. nil tolerance to glyphosate may be associated with other factors such as metabolization, root exudation or compartmentalization, because a large amount of the herbicide reached the roots of this species.

L, Galon; E.A, Ferreira; I, Aspiazú; G, Concenço; A.F, Silva; A.A, Silva; L, Vargas.

142

Glyphosate translocation in herbicide tolerant plants Translocação do glyphosate em plantas tolerantes ao herbicida  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate glyphosate translocation in glyphosate-tolerant weed species (I. nil, T. procumbens and S. latifolia compared to glyphosate-susceptible species (B. pilosa. The evaluations of 14C-glyphosate absorption and translocation were performed at 6, 12, 36 and 72 hours after treatment (HAT in I. nil and B. pilosa, and only at 72 HAT in the species T. procumbens and S. latifolia. The plants were collected and fractionated into application leaf, other leaves, stems, and roots. In S. latifolia, approximately 88% of the glyphosate remained in the application leaf and a small amount was translocated to roots at 72 HAT. However, 75% of the herbicide applied on T. procumbens remained in the leaf that had received the treatment, with greater glyphosate translocation to the floral bud. It was concluded that the smaller amount of glyphosate observed in S. latifolia and T. procumbens may partly account for their higher tolerance to glyphosate. However, I. nil tolerance to glyphosate may be associated with other factors such as metabolization, root exudation or compartmentalization, because a large amount of the herbicide reached the roots of this species.Objetivou-se neste estudo avaliar a translocação de glyphosate em plantas tolerantes (Ipomoea nil, Tridax procumbens e Spermacoce latifolia e suscetível (Bidens pilosa a esse herbicida. As avaliações de absorção e translocação do 14C-glyphosate em I. nil e B. pilosa foram efetuadas às 6, 12, 36 e 72 horas após a aplicação do herbicida (HAT, e em T. procumbens e S. latifolia, às 72 HAT. As plantas foram coletadas e fracionadas em: folha de aplicação, demais folhas, caules e raízes; em T. procumbens e S. latifolia, avaliou-se a presença do produto na inflorescência da planta. Em S. latifolia, aproximadamente 88% do glyphosate permaneceu na folha de aplicação, e pequena quantidade translocou para as raízes. Todavia, em T. procumbens, 75% do herbicida permaneceu na folha que recebeu a aplicação, observando-se maior translocação na inflorescência em relação às raízes. Conclui-se que a menor translocação do glyphosate observada em S. latifolia e T. procumbens pode ser um dos fatores responsáveis pela maior tolerância dessas espécies ao herbicida, ao passo que em I. nil a metabolização, a exsudação radicular ou a compartimentalização podem favorecer a tolerância, já que grande quantidade do produto atingiu as raízes da espécie.

L Galon

2013-03-01

143

Isolation and Characterization of a Mutant of Arthrobacter sp. Strain GLP-1 Which Utilizes the Herbicide Glyphosate as Its Sole Source of Phosphorus and Nitrogen  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Arthrobacter sp. strain GLP-1, grown on glucose as a carbon source, utilizes the herbicide glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] as its sole source of phosphorus as well as its sole source of nitrogen. The mutant strain GLP-1/Nit-1 utilizes glyphosate as its sole source of nitrogen as well. In strain GLP-1, Pi was a potent competitive inhibitor of glyphosate uptake (Ki, 24 ?M), while the affinity of Pi for the uptake system of strain GLP-1/Nit-1 was reduced by 2 orders of magnitude (Ki, 2....

Pipke, Ru?diger; Amrhein, Nikolaus

1988-01-01

144

Bermudagrass (Cynodon spp) dose-response relationships with clethodim, glufosinate and glyphosate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Greenhouse studies were conducted to evaluate the sensitivity of three commercial cultivars, eight experimental cultivars and common bermudagrass to clethodim, glufosinate and glyphosate. Each herbicide was applied at eight doses. Data were regressed on herbicide dose using a log-logistic curve (R2 = 0.56-0.95 for clethodim, R2 = 0.60-0.94 for glufosinate, and R2 = 0.70-0.96 for glyphosate). The herbicide rate that elicited a 50% plant response (I50) in the bermudagrass cultivars ranged from 0.04 to 0.19 kg ha(-1) clethodim, 0.19 to 1.33 kg ha(-1) glufosinate and 0.34 to 1.14 kg ha(-1) glyphosate. Relative to other cultivars, common bermudagrass was intermediate in its response to clethodim and among the most tolerant cultivars to glufosinate and glyphosate. TifSport was relatively tolerant to clethodim and glufosinate compared with other cultivars, but relatively sensitive to glyphosate. One cultivar, 94-437, was consistently among the most sensitive cultivars to each of the herbicides. While there were differential herbicide tolerances among the tested bermudagrass cultivars, there did not appear to be any naturally occurring herbicide resistance that could be commercially utilized. However, research indicated that breeding efforts should target herbicide resistance that is at least four times the registered use rate. Also, TifSport and Tifway have been identified as suitable representatives of triploid hybrid bermudagrass cultivars to be used to evaluate the success of turfgrass renovation programs. PMID:15578605

Webster, Theodore M; Hanna, Wayne W; Mullinix, Benjamin G

2004-12-01

145

Eficiência fotossintética e uso da água em plantas de eucalipto pulverizadas com glyphosate Photosynthetic efficiency and water use in eucalyptus plants sprayed with glyphosate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a eficiência fotossintética e o uso da água por plantas de clones de eucalipto submetidas ao herbicida glyphosate. O experimento foi realizado em esquema fatorial 4 x 5, com quatro clones de eucalipto (57, 386, 1203 e 1213 e quatro doses de glyphosate (43,2; 86,2; 129,6; e 172,8 g ha-1 e uma testemunha sem herbicida, considerada dose zero, com quatro repetições. Aos 7, 14, 21 e 28 dias após aplicação do herbicida (DAA foi avaliada a intoxicação das plantas, e aos 7 e 21 DAA, o fluxo de gases pelos estômatos (U - mmol s-1, a atividade fotossintética (A - mmol m-2 s-1, a condutância estomática (Gs - mol m-1 s-1, a transpiração (E - mol H2O m-2 s-1 e a eficiência do uso da água (QUE - mol CO2 mol H2O-1. Aos 50 DAA, as plantas de eucalipto foram coletadas e colocadas em estufa de ventilação forçada a 70 ºC até atingirem massa constante. Aos 21 DAA, o clone 1203 comportou-se como mais sensível ao herbicida. Não houve diferença entre clones para as variáveis fisiológicas avaliadas. Aos 21 DAA constatou-se que, com o incremento da dose de glyphosate, houve redução na condutância estomática, na taxa de fluxo de gases pelos estômatos, na taxa fotossintética e na eficiência do uso da água. Plantas dos clones 1213 e 1203 apresentaram maior acúmulo de massa seca. O aumento da dose do glyphosate promoveu menor acúmulo de massa seca das plantas de eucalipto. O glyphosate afetou negativamente o crescimento e a eficiência fotossintética e de uso da água dos clones estudados.The objective of this study was to assess the photosynthetic efficiency and water use by eucalyptus clones submitted to the herbicide glyphosate. The experiment was performed in a 4 x 5 factorial, with four eucalyptus clones (57, 386, 1203 and 1213, four doses of glyphosate (43.2, 86.2, 129.6 and 172.8 g ha-1 and a control without herbicide, considered zero dose, with four replications. At 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after herbicide application (DAA, plant intoxication was evaluated and at 7 and 21 DAA, stomatal gas flow (U - mmol s-1, photosynthetic activity (A -mmol m-2 s-1, stomatal conductance (Gs - mol m-1 s-1, transpiration (E - mol H2O m-2 s-1 and water use efficiency (WUE - mol CO2 mol H2O-1. At 50 DAA, the eucalyptus plants were collected and placed in a forced-ventilation oven at 70 °C until constant weight to determine dry mass. At 21 DAA, clone 1203 was found to be the most sensitive to the herbicide. There was no difference among the clones for the assessed physiological variables. At 21DAA, it was verified that increasing doses of glyphosate led to a reduction in stomatal conductance, stomatal gas flow rate, photosynthetic rate and water use efficiency. Plants of clones 1213 and 1203 showed a higher accumulation of dry mass. Increasing doses of glyphosate promoted less accumulation of dry mass in the eucalyptus plants. Glyphosate negatively affected growth, photosynthetic efficiency and water use of the evaluated clones.

A.F.L. Machado

2010-06-01

146

Growth and Yield of Glyphosate-Resistant Corn under Different Timing of Glyphosate Application  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A field experiment was conducted in 2002 in Langkat, North Sumatra, to determine the effects of glyphosate application timing on the growth and grain yield of glyphosate-resistant corn. Glyphosate at 1,500 g ha-1 was applied at twelve different treatments namely at the V3 stage, the V4 stage, the V5 stage, the V6 stage, the V7 stage, the V8 stage, the V9 stage, the V10 stage, the V12 stage, the V3 stage followed by at the V7 stage, the V3 stage followed by at V12 stage and t...

Desmarwansyah, N.; Purba, E.

2008-01-01

147

Aplicação foliar de manganês em soja transgênica tolerante ao glyphosate Foliar application of manganese in transgenic soybean tolerant to glyphosate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O amarelecimento da soja Roundup Ready após aplicação do glyphosate pode estar associado à deficiência momentânea de manganês. Por isso, com a hipótese de que soja tolerante ao glyphosate necessitaria de uma adição suplementar de manganês, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar diferentes manejos na aplicação foliar de manganês sobre alguns parâmetros da soja. Foram desenvolvidos dois experimentos, um no município de Taquaruçú do Sul e outro em Boa Vista das Missões, RS, no ano agrícola 2009/2010. Foram testados os seguintes tratamentos: 1 sem aplicação de glyphosate, com controle manual das plantas daninhas e sem aplicação foliar de manganês (testemunha; 2 sem aplicação de glyphosate, com controle manual das plantas daninhas e uma aplicação foliar de manganês sete dias após esse controle manual das plantas daninhas; 3 com aplicação de glyphosate e sem aplicação foliar de manganês; 4 aplicação de glyphosate em mistura com manganês; 5 aplicação de glyphosate mais uma aplicação foliar de manganês sete dias após aplicação do glyphosate; 6 aplicação de glyphosate mais aplicação foliar de manganês parcelada em duas épocas, aos 7 e 14 dias após aplicação do glyphosate; 7 aplicação de glyphosate e uma aplicação foliar de manganês aos 14 dias após aplicação de glyphosate. A aplicação de glyphosate foi realizada no estádio V5 da soja, na dose de 720g L-1 e.a, enquanto a dose de Mn utilizada foi 2,0L ha-1 de uma formulação contendo 14% (m/v de manganês solúvel. Não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos para as variáveis estatura de plantas e altura de inserção da primeira vagem. A aplicação de glyphosate não afetou a absorção e o teor foliar de manganês e nitrogênio na cultura da soja. Mesmo com aumento no teor foliar de manganês com a suplementação de manganês, não houve incremento na produtividade da soja. Isso mostra que em solos com teores de Mn acima do suficiente a aplicação do herbicida glifosato não requer a suplementação foliar de manganês em soja geneticamente modificada tolerante a esse herbicida.The yellowing of Roundup Ready soybean after glyphosate application, can be associated to a momentary manganese deficiency. Because of that, with the hypothesis that glyphosate tolerant soybean would need supplementary addition of manganese, the objective of this research was to evaluate different managements in the foliar application of manganese in some soybean parameters. It was developed two experiments, one at Taquaruçú do Sul and other at Boa Vista das Missões, RS in the year of 2009/2010. It was tested the following treatments: 1 without glyphosate application with manual weed control and without manganese foliar application (untreated check; 2 without glyphosate application with manual weed control and one manganese foliar application at 7 days after this manual weed control; 3 with glyphosate application and without manganese foliar application; 4 glyphosate application in mixture with manganese; 5 glyphosate application added of one manganese foliar application at 7 days after glyphosate application; 6 glyphosate application added of manganese foliar application split in two times, at 7 and 14 days after glyphosate application; 7 glyphosate application and one of manganese foliar application at 14 days after glyphosate application. The glyphosate application was realized in the V5 soybean stage, using 720g L-1 i.e, while the used dose of Mn was 2.0L ha-1 of a formulation with 14% (m/v of Mn. There were no significant difference among the treatments to plant height and height insertion of the first legume. The glyphosate application did not affect the absorption and the foliar amount of manganese and nitrogen in soybean crop. Even with the increase in foliar manganese amount, there was no increasing in soybean productivity. This shows that in soils with Mn levels above of the sufficient, it is not necessary foliar manganese addition in genetically modified soybean tolerant to glyphosate.

Claudir José Basso

2011-10-01

148

Post-treatment with plant extracts used in Brazilian folk medicine caused a partial reversal of the antiproliferative effect of glyphosate in the Allium cepa test  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in english Species of the genus Psychotria are used for multiple purposes in Brazilian folk medicine, either as water infusions, baths or poultices. This study was aimed to evaluate the genotoxic and antiproliferative effects of infusions of Psychotria brachypoda and P. birotula on the Allium cepa test. Exposu [...] re to distilled water was used as a negative control, while exposure to glyphosate was used as a positive control. The interaction of extracts (as a post-treatment) with the effects of glyphosate was also studied. Results showed that glyphosate and the extracts of both P. brachypoda and P. birotula reduced the mitotic index as compared with the negative control (distilled water). Surprisingly, however, both extracts from P. brachypoda and P. birotula caused a partial reversal of the antiproliferative effect of glyphosate when used as a post-treatment. Glyphosate also induced the highest number of cells with chromosomal alterations, which was followed by that of P. birotula extracts. However, the extracts from P. brachypoda did not show any significant genotoxic effect. Post-treatment of glyphosate-treated samples with distilled water allowed a partial recovery of the genotoxic effect of glyphosate, and some of the Psychotria extracts also did so. Notably, post-treatment of glyphosate-treated samples with P. brachypoda extracts induced a statistically significant apoptotic effect. It is concluded that P. brachypoda extracts show antiproliferative effects and are not genotoxic, while extracts of P. birotula show a less potent antiproliferative effect and may induce chromosomal abnormalities. The finding of a partial reversion of the effects of glyphosate by a post-treatment with extracts from both plants should be followed up.

Viviane, Dal-Souto Frescura; Andrielle, Wouters Kuhn; Haywood Dail, Laughinghouse Iv; Juçara, Terezinha Paranhos; Solange, Bosio Tedesco.

149

Post-treatment with plant extracts used in Brazilian folk medicine caused a partial reversal of the antiproliferative effect of glyphosate in the Allium cepa test.  

Science.gov (United States)

Species of the genus Psychotria are used for multiple purposes in Brazilian folk medicine, either as water infusions, baths or poultices. This study was aimed to evaluate the genotoxic and antiproliferative effects of infusions of Psychotria brachypoda and P. birotula on the Allium cepa test. Exposure to distilled water was used as a negative control, while exposure to glyphosate was used as a positive control. The interaction of extracts (as a post-treatment) with the effects of glyphosate was also studied. Results showed that glyphosate and the extracts of both P. brachypoda and P. birotula reduced the mitotic index as compared with the negative control (distilled water). Surprisingly, however, both extracts from P. brachypoda and P. birotula caused a partial reversal of the antiproliferative effect of glyphosate when used as a post-treatment. Glyphosate also induced the highest number of cells with chromosomal alterations, which was followed by that of P. birotula extracts. However, the extracts from P. brachypoda did not show any significant genotoxic effect. Post-treatment of glyphosate-treated samples with distilled water allowed a partial recovery of the genotoxic effect of glyphosate, and some of the Psychotria extracts also did so. Notably, post-treatment of glyphosate-treated samples with P. brachypoda extracts induced a statistically significant apoptotic effect. It is concluded that P. brachypoda extracts show antiproliferative effects and are not genotoxic, while extracts of P. birotula show a less potent antiproliferative effect and may induce chromosomal abnormalities. The finding of a partial reversion of the effects of glyphosate by a post-treatment with extracts from both plants should be followed up. PMID:24392578

Frescura, Viviane Dal-Souto; Kuhn, Andrielle Wouters; Laughinghouse, Haywood Dail; Paranhos, Juçara Terezinha; Tedesco, Solange Bosio

2013-08-01

150

Glyphosate surfactant herbicide poisoning and management.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glyphosate is a widely used herbicide in agriculture, forestry, industrial weed control and aquatic environments. Glyphosate potential as herbicide was first reported in 1971. It is a non-selective herbicide. It can cause a wide range of clinical manifestations in human beings like skin and throat irritation to hypotension, oliguria and death. We are reporting a case of a 35-year-old male patient who was admitted to our tertiary care hospital following intentional ingestion of around 200 ml of herbicide containing glyphosate. Initially, gastric lavage done and the patient was managed with intubation and mechanical ventilation, noradrenaline and vasopressin infusion, continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration and intravenous (IV) lipid emulsion (20% intralipid 100 ml), patient was successfully treated and discharged home. This case report emphasizes on timely systemic supportive measure as a sole method of treatment since this poison has no known specific antidote and the use of IV lipid emulsion for a successful outcome. PMID:24914265

Mahendrakar, Kranthi; Venkategowda, Pradeep M; Rao, S Manimala; Mutkule, Dnyaneshwar P

2014-05-01

151

Efeito de concentrações de espalhante adesionante e doses de glyphosate no controle de Brachiaria decumbens e Panicum maximum Effects of adhesive spreading and glyphosate on Brachiaria decumbens and Panicum maximum control  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foram avaliadas as interações entre o glyphosate e o espalhante adesionante correspondente ao condensado de alcoolfenóis com óxido de eteno e sulfonados orgânicos quanto à redução de tensão superficial e ao controle de Panicum maximum e Brachiaria decumbens. Os produtos comerciais apresentavam 360 g e.a./l e 466 g i.a./l, respectivamente. O herbicida reduziu o efeito do espalhante sobre a tensão superficial. Na concentração de 0,1% de p.c., o espalhante maximizou o controle das duas espécies pelo glyphosate. P. maximum mostrou-se menos sensível ao glyphosate que B. decumbens, exigindo doses 24,05% superiores.The interactions of glyphosate and one adhesive spreading (concentrate of alcoholphenols with ethene-oxide and organic sulfonates in reducing the surface tension and controlling Brachiaria decumbens and Panicum maximum were evaluated. It were used comercial products with 360 g a.e/l and 466 g i.a./l, respectivelly. To achieve similar control levels, the herbicide rates should be 24,05% higher for the second species. The herbicide reduced the effect of the surfactant on surface tension. The concentration of 0,1 % (c.p. of the surfactant maximized the efficacy of glyphosate in controlling the two grasses.

Edivaldo D. Velini

2000-08-01

152

Adjoint design sensitivity analysis of reduced atomic systems using generalized Langevin equation for lattice structures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An efficient adjoint design sensitivity analysis method is developed for reduced atomic systems. A reduced atomic system and the adjoint system are constructed in a locally confined region, utilizing generalized Langevin equation (GLE) for periodic lattice structures. Due to the translational symmetry of lattice structures, the size of time history kernel function that accounts for the boundary effects of the reduced atomic systems could be reduced to a single atom’s degrees of freedom. For the problems of highly nonlinear design variables, the finite difference method is impractical for its inefficiency and inaccuracy. However, the adjoint method is very efficient regardless of the number of design variables since one additional time integration is required for the adjoint GLE. Through numerical examples, the derived adjoint sensitivity turns out to be accurate and efficient through the comparison with finite difference sensitivity

2013-05-01

153

Reducing whole body physiologically based pharmacokinetic models using global sensitivity analysis: diazepam case study.  

Science.gov (United States)

There are situations in drug development where one may wish to reduce the dimensionality and complexity of whole body physiologically based pharmacokinetic models. A technique for formal reduction of such models, based on global sensitivity analysis, is suggested. Using this approach mean and variance of tissue(s) and/or blood concentrations are preserved in the reduced models. Extended Fourier amplitude sensitivity test (FAST), a global sensitivity technique, takes a sampling approach, acknowledging parameter variability and uncertainty, to calculate the impact of parameters on concentration variance. We used existing literature rules for formal model reduction to identify all possible smaller dimensionally models. To discriminate among those competing mechanistic models extended FAST was used, whereby we treated model structural uncertainty as another factor contributing to the overall uncertainty. A previously developed 14 compartment whole body physiologically based model for diazepam disposition in rat was reduced to three alternative reduced models, with preserved arterial mean and variance concentration profiles. PMID:16369700

Gueorguieva, Ivelina; Nestorov, Ivan A; Rowland, Malcolm

2006-02-01

154

Adjoint design sensitivity analysis of reduced atomic systems using generalized Langevin equation for lattice structures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An efficient adjoint design sensitivity analysis method is developed for reduced atomic systems. A reduced atomic system and the adjoint system are constructed in a locally confined region, utilizing generalized Langevin equation (GLE) for periodic lattice structures. Due to the translational symmetry of lattice structures, the size of time history kernel function that accounts for the boundary effects of the reduced atomic systems could be reduced to a single atom’s degrees of freedom. For the problems of highly nonlinear design variables, the finite difference method is impractical for its inefficiency and inaccuracy. However, the adjoint method is very efficient regardless of the number of design variables since one additional time integration is required for the adjoint GLE. Through numerical examples, the derived adjoint sensitivity turns out to be accurate and efficient through the comparison with finite difference sensitivity.

Kim, Min-Geun; Jang, Hong-Lae [National Creative Research Initiatives Center for Isogeometric Optimal Design and Department of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seonho, E-mail: secho@snu.ac.kr [National Creative Research Initiatives Center for Isogeometric Optimal Design and Department of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-05-01

155

Aplicação foliar de manganês em soja transgênica tolerante ao glyphosate / Foliar application of manganese in transgenic soybean tolerant to glyphosate  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O amarelecimento da soja Roundup Ready após aplicação do glyphosate pode estar associado à deficiência momentânea de manganês. Por isso, com a hipótese de que soja tolerante ao glyphosate necessitaria de uma adição suplementar de manganês, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar diferentes manejos na [...] aplicação foliar de manganês sobre alguns parâmetros da soja. Foram desenvolvidos dois experimentos, um no município de Taquaruçú do Sul e outro em Boa Vista das Missões, RS, no ano agrícola 2009/2010. Foram testados os seguintes tratamentos: 1) sem aplicação de glyphosate, com controle manual das plantas daninhas e sem aplicação foliar de manganês (testemunha); 2) sem aplicação de glyphosate, com controle manual das plantas daninhas e uma aplicação foliar de manganês sete dias após esse controle manual das plantas daninhas; 3) com aplicação de glyphosate e sem aplicação foliar de manganês; 4) aplicação de glyphosate em mistura com manganês; 5) aplicação de glyphosate mais uma aplicação foliar de manganês sete dias após aplicação do glyphosate; 6) aplicação de glyphosate mais aplicação foliar de manganês parcelada em duas épocas, aos 7 e 14 dias após aplicação do glyphosate; 7) aplicação de glyphosate e uma aplicação foliar de manganês aos 14 dias após aplicação de glyphosate. A aplicação de glyphosate foi realizada no estádio V5 da soja, na dose de 720g L-1 e.a, enquanto a dose de Mn utilizada foi 2,0L ha-1 de uma formulação contendo 14% (m/v) de manganês solúvel. Não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos para as variáveis estatura de plantas e altura de inserção da primeira vagem. A aplicação de glyphosate não afetou a absorção e o teor foliar de manganês e nitrogênio na cultura da soja. Mesmo com aumento no teor foliar de manganês com a suplementação de manganês, não houve incremento na produtividade da soja. Isso mostra que em solos com teores de Mn acima do suficiente a aplicação do herbicida glifosato não requer a suplementação foliar de manganês em soja geneticamente modificada tolerante a esse herbicida. Abstract in english The yellowing of Roundup Ready soybean after glyphosate application, can be associated to a momentary manganese deficiency. Because of that, with the hypothesis that glyphosate tolerant soybean would need supplementary addition of manganese, the objective of this research was to evaluate different m [...] anagements in the foliar application of manganese in some soybean parameters. It was developed two experiments, one at Taquaruçú do Sul and other at Boa Vista das Missões, RS in the year of 2009/2010. It was tested the following treatments: 1) without glyphosate application with manual weed control and without manganese foliar application (untreated check); 2) without glyphosate application with manual weed control and one manganese foliar application at 7 days after this manual weed control; 3) with glyphosate application and without manganese foliar application; 4) glyphosate application in mixture with manganese; 5) glyphosate application added of one manganese foliar application at 7 days after glyphosate application; 6) glyphosate application added of manganese foliar application split in two times, at 7 and 14 days after glyphosate application; 7) glyphosate application and one of manganese foliar application at 14 days after glyphosate application. The glyphosate application was realized in the V5 soybean stage, using 720g L-1 i.e, while the used dose of Mn was 2.0L ha-1 of a formulation with 14% (m/v) of Mn. There were no significant difference among the treatments to plant height and height insertion of the first legume. The glyphosate application did not affect the absorption and the foliar amount of manganese and nitrogen in soybean crop. Even with the increase in foliar manganese amount, there was no increasing in soybean productivity. This shows that in soils with Mn levels above of the suffic

Claudir José, Basso; Antônio Luis, Santi; Fabiane Pinto, Lamego; Eduardo, Girotto.

156

Influência do Glyphosate sobre a nodulação e o crescimento de cultivares de soja resistente ao Glyphosate Glyphosate influence on growth and nodulation of Glyphosate resistant soybean cultivars  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A soja resistente ao glyphosate (RR é uma tecnologia que vem acrescentar mais uma ferramenta ao manejo de plantas daninhas para essa cultura, que possui a maior área plantada em nosso país. Por se tratar de uma técnica recente tanto no Brasil quanto no mundo, é preciso estudos buscando informações para o uso correto desta importante e cada vez mais freqüente prática agrícola: o cultivo de soja transgênica. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar os efeitos causados pelas aplicações de glyphosate sobre 20 cultivares de soja RR. As doses utilizadas foram: testemunha sem herbicida; glyphosate em aplicação seqüencial de 0,54/0,36 kg equivalente ácido (e.a. ha-1, aos 12/24 dias após a emergência (DAE; glyphosate em aplicação única de 0,72 kg e.a. ha-1, aos 20 DAE; glyphosate em aplicação seqüencial de 0,72/0,54 kg ha-1, aos 12/24 DAE; e glyphosate em aplicação única de 0,90 kg ha-1, aos 24 DAE. Foram avaliadas as variáveis matéria seca do sistema radicular (MSSR, matéria seca da parte aérea (MSPA, matéria seca dos nódulos acumulados (MSNT e número de nódulos acumulados (NN. Os cultivares que demonstraram maior suscetibilidade às aplicações de glyphosate foram: MSOY 8008 RR, ANTA RR, CD 213 RR, MSOY 8100 RR, VALIOSA RR, CD 219 RR, MSOY 6001 RR, CRISTALINA RR e BRS 247 RR, apresentando reduções de pelo menos três das quatro variáveis estudadas. BRS 242 RR, BRS 243 RR, BRS 244 RR, BRS 246 RR, CD 214 RR, MSOY 8151 RR, MSOY 9000 RR e BRS 245 RR foram as mais tolerantes, pois não sofreram reduções significativas em nenhuma ou em uma das variáveis avaliadas. De modo geral, a MSSR foi mais afetada pela modalidade de aplicação do que pela dose de glyphosate; por outro lado, a MSPA e a nodulação foram mais afetadas em cultivares de ciclo mais longo, em relação às variedades de ciclo precoce. A nodulação também foi menos afetada pelo glyphosate em variedades do grupo BRS, comparada aos demais materiais genéticos.Glyphosate resistant soybean (GR is a new technological tool in weed management applied in soybean culture, which accounts for the largest area planted in Brazil. Since it has been only recently applied in Brazil and abroad, further studies are needed to search for useful information on the correct use of this important and increasingly applied agricultural practice: the cultivation of GR soybean. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effects caused by glyphosate applications on twenty GR soybean cultivars. The rates applied were: check without herbicide; sequential application of glyphosate at 0.54/0.36 kg acid equivalent (AE ha ¹, at 12/24 days after emergence (DAE; single application of glyphosate at 0.72 kg a.i. ha-1, at 20 DAE; sequential application of glyphosate at 0.72/0.54 kg a.i. ha-1, at 12/24 DAE; single application of glyphosate at 0.90 kg ha-1, at 24 DAE. The variables root dry weight (RDW, shoot dry weight (SDW, accumulated nodule dry weight (ANDW and number of accumulated nodules (NAN were evaluated. The cultivars MSOY 8008 RR, ANTA RR, CD 213 RR, MSOY 8100 RR, VALIOSA RR, CD 219 RR, MSOY 6001 RR, CRISTALINA RR and BRS 247 RR showed the highest susceptibility to the glyphosate applications, with reductions in at least three out of the four variables studied. BRS 242 RR, BRS 243 RR, BRS 244 RR, BRS 246 RR, CD 214 RR, MSOY 8151 RR, MSOY 9000 RR and BRS 245 RR showed the highest tolerance, with no significant reductions or only in one of the four assessed variables. In general, RDW was more affected by the mode of application than the glyphosate rate; however, SDW and nodulation (ANDW and NAN were more affected in the longer cycle cultivars, compared to the earlier cycle varieties. Nodulation was also less affected by glyphosate in the BRS variety group, compared to other genetic materials.

R.S. Oliveira JR.

2008-01-01

157

Influência do Glyphosate sobre a nodulação e o crescimento de cultivares de soja resistente ao Glyphosate / Glyphosate influence on growth and nodulation of Glyphosate resistant soybean cultivars  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A soja resistente ao glyphosate (RR) é uma tecnologia que vem acrescentar mais uma ferramenta ao manejo de plantas daninhas para essa cultura, que possui a maior área plantada em nosso país. Por se tratar de uma técnica recente tanto no Brasil quanto no mundo, é preciso estudos buscando informações [...] para o uso correto desta importante e cada vez mais freqüente prática agrícola: o cultivo de soja transgênica. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar os efeitos causados pelas aplicações de glyphosate sobre 20 cultivares de soja RR. As doses utilizadas foram: testemunha sem herbicida; glyphosate em aplicação seqüencial de 0,54/0,36 kg equivalente ácido (e.a.) ha-1, aos 12/24 dias após a emergência (DAE); glyphosate em aplicação única de 0,72 kg e.a. ha-1, aos 20 DAE; glyphosate em aplicação seqüencial de 0,72/0,54 kg ha-1, aos 12/24 DAE; e glyphosate em aplicação única de 0,90 kg ha-1, aos 24 DAE. Foram avaliadas as variáveis matéria seca do sistema radicular (MSSR), matéria seca da parte aérea (MSPA), matéria seca dos nódulos acumulados (MSNT) e número de nódulos acumulados (NN). Os cultivares que demonstraram maior suscetibilidade às aplicações de glyphosate foram: MSOY 8008 RR, ANTA RR, CD 213 RR, MSOY 8100 RR, VALIOSA RR, CD 219 RR, MSOY 6001 RR, CRISTALINA RR e BRS 247 RR, apresentando reduções de pelo menos três das quatro variáveis estudadas. BRS 242 RR, BRS 243 RR, BRS 244 RR, BRS 246 RR, CD 214 RR, MSOY 8151 RR, MSOY 9000 RR e BRS 245 RR foram as mais tolerantes, pois não sofreram reduções significativas em nenhuma ou em uma das variáveis avaliadas. De modo geral, a MSSR foi mais afetada pela modalidade de aplicação do que pela dose de glyphosate; por outro lado, a MSPA e a nodulação foram mais afetadas em cultivares de ciclo mais longo, em relação às variedades de ciclo precoce. A nodulação também foi menos afetada pelo glyphosate em variedades do grupo BRS, comparada aos demais materiais genéticos. Abstract in english Glyphosate resistant soybean (GR) is a new technological tool in weed management applied in soybean culture, which accounts for the largest area planted in Brazil. Since it has been only recently applied in Brazil and abroad, further studies are needed to search for useful information on the correct [...] use of this important and increasingly applied agricultural practice: the cultivation of GR soybean. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effects caused by glyphosate applications on twenty GR soybean cultivars. The rates applied were: check without herbicide; sequential application of glyphosate at 0.54/0.36 kg acid equivalent (AE) ha ¹, at 12/24 days after emergence (DAE); single application of glyphosate at 0.72 kg a.i. ha-1, at 20 DAE; sequential application of glyphosate at 0.72/0.54 kg a.i. ha-1, at 12/24 DAE; single application of glyphosate at 0.90 kg ha-1, at 24 DAE. The variables root dry weight (RDW), shoot dry weight (SDW), accumulated nodule dry weight (ANDW) and number of accumulated nodules (NAN) were evaluated. The cultivars MSOY 8008 RR, ANTA RR, CD 213 RR, MSOY 8100 RR, VALIOSA RR, CD 219 RR, MSOY 6001 RR, CRISTALINA RR and BRS 247 RR showed the highest susceptibility to the glyphosate applications, with reductions in at least three out of the four variables studied. BRS 242 RR, BRS 243 RR, BRS 244 RR, BRS 246 RR, CD 214 RR, MSOY 8151 RR, MSOY 9000 RR and BRS 245 RR showed the highest tolerance, with no significant reductions or only in one of the four assessed variables. In general, RDW was more affected by the mode of application than the glyphosate rate; however, SDW and nodulation (ANDW and NAN) were more affected in the longer cycle cultivars, compared to the earlier cycle varieties. Nodulation was also less affected by glyphosate in the BRS variety group, compared to other genetic materials.

R.S., Oliveira JR.; E.C., Dvoranen; J., Constantin; S.D., Cavalieri; L.H.M., Franchini; F.A., Rios; E., Blainski.

158

Leaching of glyphosate and AMPA under two soil management practices in Burgundy vineyards (Vosne-Romanee, 21-France)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Some drinking water reservoirs under the vineyards of Burgundy are contaminated with herbicides. Thus the effectiveness of alternative soil management practices, such as grass cover, for reducing the leaching of glyphosate and its metabolite, AMPA, through soils was studied. The leaching of both molecules was studied in structured soil columns under outdoor conditions for 1 year. The soil was managed under two vineyard soil practices: a chemically treated bare calcosol, and a vegetated calcosol. After 680 mm of rainfall, the vegetated calcosol leachates contained lower amounts of glyphosate and AMPA (0.02% and 0.03%, respectively) than the bare calcosol leachates (0.06% and 0.15%, respectively). No glyphosate and only low amounts of AMPA (<0.01%) were extracted from the soil. Glyphosate, and to a greater extent, AMPA, leach through the soils; thus, both molecules may be potential contaminants of groundwater. However, the alternative soil management practice of grass cover could reduce groundwater contamination by the pesticide. - Glyphosate and AMPA leached in greater amounts through a chemically treated bare calcosol than through a vegetated calcosol.

Landry, David [UMR 1229 INRA/Universite de Bourgogne, Microbiologie et Geochimie des sols, Centre des Sciences de la Terre, Universite de Bourgogne, 6 bd Gabriel 21000 Dijon (France)]. E-mail: david.landry@u-bourgogne.fr; Dousset, Sylvie [UMR 1229 INRA/Universite de Bourgogne, Microbiologie et Geochimie des sols, Centre des Sciences de la Terre, Universite de Bourgogne, 6 bd Gabriel 21000 Dijon (France); Fournier, Jean-Claude [UMR 1229 INRA/Universite de Bourgogne, INRA, 17 rue Sully, 21000 Dijon (France); Andreux, Francis [UMR 1229 INRA/Universite de Bourgogne, Microbiologie et Geochimie des sols, Centre des Sciences de la Terre, Universite de Bourgogne, 6 bd Gabriel 21000 Dijon (France)

2005-11-15

159

Leaching of glyphosate and AMPA under two soil management practices in Burgundy vineyards (Vosne-Romanee, 21-France)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some drinking water reservoirs under the vineyards of Burgundy are contaminated with herbicides. Thus the effectiveness of alternative soil management practices, such as grass cover, for reducing the leaching of glyphosate and its metabolite, AMPA, through soils was studied. The leaching of both molecules was studied in structured soil columns under outdoor conditions for 1 year. The soil was managed under two vineyard soil practices: a chemically treated bare calcosol, and a vegetated calcosol. After 680 mm of rainfall, the vegetated calcosol leachates contained lower amounts of glyphosate and AMPA (0.02% and 0.03%, respectively) than the bare calcosol leachates (0.06% and 0.15%, respectively). No glyphosate and only low amounts of AMPA (<0.01%) were extracted from the soil. Glyphosate, and to a greater extent, AMPA, leach through the soils; thus, both molecules may be potential contaminants of groundwater. However, the alternative soil management practice of grass cover could reduce groundwater contamination by the pesticide. - Glyphosate and AMPA leached in greater amounts through a chemically treated bare calcosol than through a vegetated calcosol

2005-11-01

160

The use of BMED for glyphosate recovery from glyphosate neutralization liquor in view of zero discharge.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alkaline glyphosate neutralization liquors containing a high salinity pose a severe environmental pollution problem by the pesticide industry. However, there is a high potential for glyphosate recovery due to the high concentration of glyphosate in the neutralization liquors. In the study, a three-compartment bipolar membrane electrodialysis (BMED) process was applied on pilot scale for the recovery of glyphosate and the production of base/acid with high concentration in view of zero discharge of wastewater. The experimental results demonstrate that BMED can remove 99.0% of NaCl from the feed solution and transform this fraction into HCl and NaOH with high concentration and purity. This is recycled for the hydrolysis reaction of the intermediate product generated by the means of the Mannich reaction of paraformaldehyde, glycine and dimethylphosphite catalyzed by triethylamine in the presence of HCl and reclamation of the triethylamine catalyst during the production process of glyphosate. The recovery of glyphosate in the feed solution was over 96%, which is acceptable for industrial production. The current efficiency for producing NaOH with a concentration of 2.0 mol L(-1) is above 67% and the corresponding energy consumption is 2.97 kWh kg(-1) at a current density of 60 mA cm(-2). The current efficiency increases and energy consumption decreases as the current density decreases, to 87.13% and 2.37 kWh kg(-1), respectively, at a current density of 30 mA cm(-2). Thus, BMED has a high potential for desalination of glyphosate neutralization liquor and glyphosate recovery, aiming at zero discharge and resource recycling in industrial application. PMID:23832058

Shen, Jiangnan; Huang, Jie; Liu, Lifen; Ye, Wenyuan; Lin, Jiuyang; Van der Bruggen, Bart

2013-09-15

 
 
 
 
161

Interação de glyphosate com carfentrazone-ethyl Glyphosate - carfentrazone-ethyl interaction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Foi conduzido um experimento em condições controladas para determinar a interação do carfentrazone-ethyl em mistura no tanque com o herbicida glyphosate, no controle de seis espécies de plantas daninhas. Glyphosate aplicado isoladamente na dose de 720 g ha-1 foi eficaz no controle de Amaranthus hybridus (100%), Desmodium tortuosum (100%), Bidens pilosa (99%), Eleusine indica (96%), Digitaria horizontalis (100%) e Commelina benghalensis (93%) aos 21 DAA. Carfentrazone-ethyl aplicado isola...

2002-01-01

162

Oxidative degradation of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonate by manganese oxide.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine), the most commonly used herbicide worldwide, degrades relatively rapidly in soils under most conditions, presumably by microbial processes. The most frequently detected degradation product in soil and water is AMPA (aminomethylphosphonic acid). We report the first evidence for an abiotic pathway of glyphosate and AMPA degradation under environmentally realistic conditions. Both glyphosate and AMPA degraded at 20 degrees C in dilute aqueous suspensions of birnessite, a manganese oxide common in soils, as evidenced by the accumulation of orthophosphate in solution over a period of several days. It is concluded that the abiotic degradation involved C-P bond cleavage at the Mn oxide surface, although evidence for C-N bond cleavage in the case of glyphosate and sarcosine, a likely degradation product of glyphosate, was found. The degradation of glyphosate was faster than that of AMPA, and higher temperature (50 degrees C) resulted in faster degradation of both glyphosate and AMPA. The addition of sulfate to the solution had no marked effect on the reaction rate, although Cu2+ addition inhibited degradation. As this metal ion complexes strongly with glyphosate, the inhibition can be attributed to the ability of Cu2+ to limit glyphosate coordination to reactive oxidation sites at the Mn oxide surface. Using a similar experimental design, we were unable to detect glyphosate degradation in an equimolar solution of MnCl2 (0.5 mM). However, we demonstrated that the oxidation of Mn2+ is enhanced both in solution and on an inert surface, in the presence of glyphosate (4:1 Mn-glyphosate molar ratio). This result suggests that the oxidative breakdown of glyphosate in the presence of Mn2+ may ultimately occur following the spontaneous oxygen-mediated oxidation of manganese. PMID:16382946

Barrett, K A; McBride, M B

2005-12-01

163

Histamine Reduces Flash Sensitivity of ON Ganglion Cells in the Primate Retina  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The retinas of primates, including humans, receive input from the brain via histaminergic axons emerging from the optic nerve. Exogenously applied histamine selectively reduces the sensitivity of ON-responding retinal ganglion cells. The significance of these findings is that central brain input to the retina, carried by the retinopetal axons of posterior hypothalamic neurons, serves to lower the sensitivity of the retina during the day, when the release of histamine is expected to be the hig...

Akimov, Nikolay P.; Marshak, David W.; Frishman, Laura J.; Glickman, Randolph D.; Yusupov, Rafail G.

2010-01-01

164

Características fisiológicas de biótipos de Conyza bonariensis Resistentes ao glyphosate cultivados sob competição / Physiological characteristics of Conyza bonariensis biotypes resistant to glyphosate cultivated under competition  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A resistência de plantas daninhas a herbicidas está relacionada a modificações metabólicas, enzimáticas, fisiológicas e/ou anatômicas. Aliado a essas mudanças, a planta pode aumentar ou diminuir as atividades fisiológicas, o que, consequentemente, pode afetar o seu crescimento e desenvolvimento. Ass [...] im, biótipos resistentes podem apresentar melhor adaptação ecológica em ambientes de cultivo e tornar-se predominantes devido à eliminação das plantas sensíveis. Em condições de seleção natural, biótipos com maior adaptação ecológica apresentam maior produção que biótipos menos adaptados. Neste trabalho, avaliou-se o efeito da competição em características fisiológicas de biótipos de Conyza bonariensis suscetíveis e resistentes ao herbicida glyphosate. Os tratamentos constaram de plantas de dois biótipos de C. bonariensis - um comprovadamente resistente e um suscetível ao glyphosate, dispostas em modelo aditivo de estudo de competição. No centro da unidade experimental foram semeadas três sementes do biótipo considerado como o tratamento: resistente (R) ou suscetível (S), sendo essa planta rodeada por 0 (testemunha sem competição), 1, 2, 3, 4, ou 5 plantas do biótipo oposto. O biótipo suscetível apresentou-se mais tolerante à competição com plantas do biótipo oposto no tocante às características fisiológicas avaliadas. O biótipo resistente de buva apresenta desvantagem fisiológica em relação ao suscetível e, consequentemente, menor potencial de adaptabilidade na ausência do fator de seleção - o herbicida glyphosate. Abstract in english The resistance of weeds to herbicides is related to metabolic, enzymatic, physiological and anatomical changes. Coupled with these changes, plants can increase or decrease their physiological activities, which can affect their growth and development. Thus, resistant biotypes may have a higher ecolog [...] ical adaptation in these environments and become predominant due to the elimination of sensitive plants. Under natural selection conditions, biotypes with greater ecological adaptation show higher production than less adapted biotypes. Thus, the aim of this work was to assess the effect of competition on the physiological characteristics of Conyza bonariensis biotypes susceptible and resistant to the herbicide glyphosate. The treatments consisted of plants of two biotypes of C. bonariensis - one proven to be resistant and one susceptible to glyphosate. In the center of the experimental unit, three seeds of the C. bonariensis biotype considered for treatment - resistant (R) or susceptible (S) - were sown , with the plant being surrounded by 0 (no competition), 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 plants of the opposite biotype. The susceptible biotype presented a higher tolerance to competition with plants of the opposite biotype regarding the physiological characteristics evaluated. The resistant biotype of C. bonariensis has a physiological disadvantage compared to the susceptible one and, therefore, less potential for adaptability in the absence of the selection factor - the herbicide glyphosate.

L., Galon; E.A., Ferreira; G., Concenço; A.A., Silva; D.V., Silva; A.F., Silva; I, Aspiazú; L., Vargas.

165

Glyphosate-resistant and -susceptible soybean (Glycine max) and canola (Brassica napus) dose response and metabolism relationships with glyphosate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Experiments were conducted to determine (1) dose response of glyphosate-resistant (GR) and -susceptible (non-GR) soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] and canola (Brassica napus L.) to glyphosate, (2) if differential metabolism of glyphosate to aminomethyl phosphonic acid (AMPA) is the underlying mechanism for differential resistance to glyphosate among GR soybean varieties, and (3) the extent of metabolism of glyphosate to AMPA in GR canola and to correlate metabolism to injury from AMPA. GR50 (glyphosate dose required to cause a 50% reduction in plant dry weight) values for GR (Asgrow 4603RR) and non-GR (HBKC 5025) soybean were 22.8 kg ae ha-1 and 0.47 kg ha-1, respectively, with GR soybean exhibiting a 49-fold level of resistance to glyphosate as compared to non-GR soybean. Differential reduction in chlorophyll by glyphosate was observed between GR soybean varieties, but there were no differences in shoot fresh weight reduction. No significant differences were found between GR varieties in metabolism of glyphosate to AMPA, and in shikimate levels. These results indicate that GR soybean varieties were able to outgrow the initial injury from glyphosate, which was previously caused at least in part by AMPA. GR50 values for GR (Hyola 514RR) and non-GR (Hyola 440) canola were 14.1 and 0.30 kg ha-1, respectively, with GR canola exhibiting a 47-fold level of resistance to glyphosate when compared to non-GR canola. Glyphosate did not cause reduction in chlorophyll content and shoot fresh weight in GR canola, unlike GR soybean. Less glyphosate (per unit leaf weight) was recovered in glyphosate-treated GR canola as compared to glyphosate-treated GR soybean. External application of AMPA caused similar injury in both GR and non-GR canola. The presence of a bacterial glyphosate oxidoreductase gene in GR canola contributes to breakdown of glyphosate to AMPA. However, the AMPA from glyphosate breakdown could have been metabolized to nonphytotoxic metabolites before causing injury to GR canola. Injury in GR and non-GR canola from exogenous application of AMPA was similar. PMID:17417871

Nandula, Vijay K; Reddy, Krishna N; Rimando, Agnes M; Duke, Stephen O; Poston, Daniel H

2007-05-01

166

Influence of late emerging weeds in glyphosate-resistant corn  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fifteen field trials were conducted from 2009 to 2011 in Ontario, Canada and Michigan, USA to determine how long glyphosate-resistant corn needs to be kept weed-free after emergence to prevent yield loss. Data were separated into two environments based on when yield loss first occurred after glyphosate application. In Environment 1 (4/15 sites yield was not reduced when corn was kept weed-free until the 4-leaf stage. However, in Environment 2 (11/15 sites there was no yield loss when corn was kept weed-free up to the 2-leaf stage. The most prominent weeds were velvetleaf, redroot pigweed, common ragweed, common lambsquarters and foxtail species. While later emerging weeds did not necessarily impact corn yield, weeds emerging after the 2- and 4-leaf corn stage likely produced seed that was added to the soil seed bank. Weeds emerging after 6-, 8-, and 10-leaf corn growth stages were small (low biomass/seedlings and most likely did not reach reproductive maturity. Based on this research, corn must be maintained weed-free up to the 4-leaf stage. Any weeds emerging after that did not influence corn yield.

Nader Soltani

2013-06-01

167

Effects of Herbicides on Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines and Development of Sudden Death Syndrome in Glyphosate-Tolerant Soybean.  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT Sudden death syndrome of soybean, caused by Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines, is a disease of increasing economic importance in the United States. Although the ecology of sudden death syndrome has been extensively studied in relation to crop management practices such as tillage, irrigation, and cultivar selection, there is no information on the effects of herbicides on this disease. Three herbicides (lactofen, glyphosate, and imazethapyr) commonly used in soybean were evaluated for their effects on the phenology of F. solani f. sp. glycines and the development of sudden death syndrome in four soybean cultivars varying in resistance to the disease and in tolerance to glyphosate. Conidial germination, mycelial growth, and sporulation in vitro were reduced by glyphosate and lactofen. In growth-chamber and greenhouse experiments, there was a significant increase in disease severity and frequency of isolation of F. solani f. sp. glycines from roots of all cultivars after application of imazethapyr or glyphosate compared with the control treatment (no herbicide applied). Conversely, disease severity and isolation frequency of F. solani f. sp. glycines decreased after application of lactofen. Across all herbicide treatments, severity of sudden death syndrome and isolation frequency were lower in disease-resistant than in susceptible cultivars. Results suggest that glyphosate-tolerant and -nontolerant cultivars respond similarly to infection by F. solani f. sp. glycines after herbicide application. PMID:18944572

Sanogo, S; Yang, X B; Scherm, H

2000-01-01

168

Deriva simulada de formulações comerciais de glyphosate sobre maracujazeiro amarelo Drift simulation of glyphosate commercial formulations on yellow passion fruit growth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar os efeitos da deriva de formulações comerciais de glyphosate no desenvolvimento de plantas jovens de maracujazeiro amarelo. O trabalho foi realizado em casa de vegetação do Departamento de Fitotecnia da Universidade Federal de Viçosa, durante o período de março a abril de 2007. Foi utilizado o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 3 x 4 + 1, em que três foram as formulações de glyphosate e cinco foram as doses utilizadas acrescidas de testemunha sem herbicida. O trabalho foi conduzido com cinco repetições, sendo cada planta considerada como parcela experimental. As formulações comerciais aplicadas foram Roundup Transorb®, Roundup Original® e Zapp QI®, utilizando-se as seguintes doses (g e.a ha-1: 43,2; 86,4; 172,8; e 345,6 g ha-1. Aos 28 dias após a aplicação (DAA, avaliaram-se os comprimentos da parte aérea, da raiz e total (cm; o diâmetro do caule (mm; o número de folhas e de ramificações primárias; a massa seca da parte aérea e da raiz das plantas (g; e a área foliar por planta (cm². Aos 7, 14 e 28 DAA, avaliou-se, visualmente, a porcentagem de intoxicação das plantas. O glyphosate em deriva simulada, independentemente das formulações utilizadas, ocasionou injúrias no maracujazeiro amarelo, acarretando redução no crescimento e desenvolvimento das plantas. As formulações Roundup Transorb® e Roundup Original® foram mais prejudiciais às plantas que o Zapp Qi®. O maracujazeiro amarelo mostrou-se suscetível à deriva, devendo o glyphosate ser usado com cuidado, de maneira a atingir somente as plantas daninhas a serem controladas.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of drift simulation of commercial formulations of glyphosate on the growth of young plants of yellow passion fruit. The work was carried out at the Plant Science Department of the Universidade Federal de Viçosa (MG, Brazil, from March to April 2007. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized block design, with five replications, in a factorial 3 x 4 + 1, consisting of three glyphosate formulations and five doses, (one being the control without herbicide. Each plot was constituted by one plant. The applied doses of glyphosate were 43.2; 86.4; 172.8 and 345.6 g ha-1, using the commercial formulations: Roundup Transorb®, Roundup Original® and Zapp QI®. After 28 days of application, aerial part, root and total length (cm, stem diameter (mm, number of leaves and primary ramifications, aerial part and root dry mass,(g and the foliar area per plant (cm² were evaluated. After 7, 14 and 28 application days, intoxication percentage of the plants was also evaluated. Regardless of the formulations used, glyphosate drift simulation caused injury to the yellow passion fruit, reducing plant growth. The herbicides Roundup Transorb® and Roundup Original® were more harmful than Zapp Qi®. The yellow passion fruit was susceptible to drift simulation; thus, glyphosate must be used carefully, so as to reach only the weeds to be controlled.

A. Wagner Júnior

2008-01-01

169

Comparative action of glyphosate as a trigger of energy drain in eubacteria.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, each possessing a 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate synthase that is sensitive to inhibition by glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine], provide a good cross-section of organisms exemplifying the biochemical diversity of the aromatic pathway targeted by this potent antimicrobial compound. The pattern of growth inhibition, the alteration in levels of aromatic-pathway enzymes, and the accumulation of early-pathway metabolites aft...

Fischer, R. S.; Berry, A.; Gaines, C. G.; Jensen, R. A.

1986-01-01

170

Differential response of two sourgrass populations to glyphosate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The repetitive use of glyphosate may cause increase on the resistance of sourgrass (Digitaria insularis through mechanisms of natural selection. The aim of this study was to verify the response of two populations of sourgrass (one collected from nonagricultural area and the other one from area suspected of glyphosate resistance to increasing doses of glyphosate. The experimental design was completely randomized with four repetitions. For both populations, glyphosate was sprayed at 10 doses (0D, D/16, D/8, D/4, D/2, D, 2D, 4D, 8D, and 16D; so that D is the dose of 1.08 kg e.a. ha-1. The treatments were sprayed when the plants had shown 3-5 tillers. The population collected in the nonagricultural area was slightly more sensible to the herbicide glyphosate than the population originated from an area where the herbicide application is common, not indicating glyphosate resistance.

São Paulo State University, Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil

2013-02-01

171

Multibit sigma-delta modulator with reduced sensitivity to DAC nonlinearity  

Science.gov (United States)

A new architecture is presented for a multibit oversampled Sigma-Delta A/D convertor. A novel feedback arrangement is employed to reduce the sensitivity of the overall resolution to the nonlinearity of the multibit DAC. Simulations confirm the improved performance achieved by the proposed structure.

Hairapetian, A.; Zhang, Z. X.; Temes, G. C.

1991-01-01

172

An Assessment of the Impact of Glyphosate and 2,4-D Amine Salt on Weeds in Niger  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to investigate the efficacy of two herbicides, viz., glyphosate and 2,4- D amine salt at varying doses for the control of the main noxious weeds. The lowest application rate (0.5l per ha of 2,4-D and 2l per ha of glyphosate of both herbicides gave a control of shoot grow th and drastically reduced the green biomass compared to unweeded plots at different time intervals after the application. There was no re-growth up to nine days after spraying in all treated plots. The highest control of the density of noxious weeds has been obtained with 2,4-D amine salt at the dose of 1.5 l per ha and glyphosate at the dose of 4l per ha in six days after treatment; the reduction rate was more than 85%. Data on green biomass also showed drastic reduction following herbicide application.

A. Mamadou

2010-10-01

173

Refractory cardiopulmonary failure after glyphosate surfactant intoxication: a case report  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Glyphosate is an herbicide considered to be of low toxicity to humans because its effects are specific to plants. However, fatal reactions to glyphosate have been reported after the ingestion of large amounts. Pulmonary edema, shock, and arrhythmia were the reported causes of mortality. Case presentation We present the case of a 57-year-old woman who was admitted to the emergency department unconsciousness after ingestion of glyphosate surfac...

Chang Chirn-Bin; Chang Chia-Chu

2009-01-01

174

Metabolism of glyphosate in Pseudomonas sp. strain LBr.  

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Metabolism of glyphosate (N-phosphonomethylglycine) by Pseudomonas sp. strain LBr, a bacterium isolated from a glyphosate process waste stream, was examined by a combination of solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance experiments and analysis of the phosphonate composition of the growth medium. Pseudomonas sp. strain LBr was capable of eliminating 20 mM glyphosate from the growth medium, an amount approximately 20-fold greater than that reported for any other microorganism to date. The bact...

Jacob, G. S.; Garbow, J. R.; Hallas, L. E.; Kimack, N. M.; Kishore, G. M.; Schaefer, J.

1988-01-01

175

PHYTO-MICROBIAL DEGRADATION OF GLYPHOSATE IN RIYADH AREA  

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Greenhouse studies were conducted to determine the ability of plant Amaranth, Amaranthus caudate and two isolated bacterial strains from rhizosphere region for cleaning up glyphosate residues in soil and plants. The analytical study of the biodegradation of glyphosate was carried out in the laboratory conditions. Amaranth, Amaranthus caudate and two isolated bacterial strains namely Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus megaterium could degrade glyphosate in 5 days. These results suggested that...

2013-01-01

176

Glyphosate Exposure in a Farmer’s Family  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We tested the presence of glyphosate in the urines of a farmer who sprayed a glyphosate based herbicide on his land, and in his family, as his children were born with birth defects that could be due to or promoted by pesticides. Glyphosate residues were measured in urines a day before, during, and two days after spraying, by liquid chromatography-linear ion trap mass spectrometry. Glyphosate reached a peak of 9.5 µg/L in the farmer after spraying, and 2 µg/L were found in him and in one of ...

Robin Mesnage; Christian Moesch; Rozenn Le Grand Grand; Guillaume Lauthier; Joël Spiroux de Vendômois; Steeve Gress; Gilles-Eric Séralini

2012-01-01

177

Intoxicação de espécies de eucalipto submetidas à deriva do glyphosate Intoxication of eucalypt species under glyphosate drift  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

O glyphosate é o herbicida mais utilizado em áreas de reflorestamento de eucalipto. Nessas áreas tem sido freqüente a verificação de sintomas de intoxicação devido à deriva. Entretanto, trabalhos de pesquisa e observações de campo indicam comportamento diferencial entre as espécies e os clones de eucalipto quando em contato com o glyphosate. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos da deriva simulada de glyphosate, por meio de doses reduzidas, no crescimento de ci...

2006-01-01

178

Glyphosate sobre a resistência à ferrugem (Puccinia psidii) do eucalipto Glyphosate on eucalyptus resistance to rust (Puccinia psidii)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

O glyphosate é o herbicida mais usado no controle de plantas daninhas em eucalipto, atuando diretamente na rota do ácido chiquímico, principal via de formação de compostos ligados aos mecanismos de defesa das plantas, como: lignina, ácido salicítico e fitoalexinas. Assim, o contato do glyphosate com as folhas do eucalipto pode levar a conseqüências importantes sobre a resistência a doenças. Objetivou-se neste estudo avaliar o envolvimento do glyphosate, via deriva, na severidade da...

2007-01-01

179

Distribuição de glyphosate e acúmulo de nutrientes em biótipos de azevém Glyphosate distribution and nutrient accumulation in ryegrass biotypes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar o acúmulo de nutrientes e a translocação de glyphosate em biótipos de azevém. Para isso, foram montados dois ensaios: no primeiro aplicou-se 14C-glyphosate, adicionando 10 µL da calda sobre a face adaxial da primeira folha com lígula totalmente visível, quando as plantas de azevém apresentavam três perfilhos. A quantidade de glyphosate absorvido, translocado e exsudado foi avaliada 64 horas após aplicação, por meio da medição da radiação em...

2008-01-01

180

Translocação do glyphosate em biótipos de azevém (Lolium multiflorum) Glyphosate translocation in Italian ryegrass biotypes (Lolium multiflorum)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Foram avaliadas neste trabalho a absorção foliar e a translocação do glyphosate por biótipos de azevém (Lolium multiflorum) sensíveis e resistentes a esse herbicida. Para isso, aplicou-se 14C-glyphosate utilizando-se uma microsseringa de precisão, adicionando-se 10 µL da calda sobre a face adaxial da primeira folha com lígula totalmente visível, quando as plantas de azevém se apresentavam com três perfilhos. A quantidade de glyphosate absorvido e translocado foi avaliada em inter...

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Manejo de tiririca e trapoeraba com glyphosate em ambientes sombreados Commelina benghalensis and Cyperus rotundus treated with glyphosate in shaded environments  

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Full Text Available Plantas daninhas mantidas em ambientes com redução da intensidade luminosa apresentam alterações morfofisiológicas marcantes, que podem alterar seu comportamento reprodutivo e a tolerância a herbicidas aplicados em pós-emergência. Objetivou-se neste estudo avaliar a eficiência de doses de glyphosate no manejo da trapoeraba (Commelina benghalensis e da tiririca (Cyperus rotundus cultivadas em diferentes níveis de sombreamento. O trabalho foi composto por dois ensaios, referentes a cada uma das espécies, com o mesmo delineamento experimental, sendo constituídos em esquema fatorial 5 x 3, com cinco doses de herbicida (0, 540, 810, 1.080 ou 1.350 g ha-1 de glyphosate, três ambientes de cultivo (0, 30 ou 50% de sombra e quatro repetições. As parcelas experimentais foram compostas por um vaso com duas plantas de tiririca ou de trapoeraba. As avaliações de controle ocorreram aos 10, 20 e 30 dias após a aplicação (DAA, por meio de observações visuais. Aos 30 DAA, foi determinada a massa seca da parte aérea de cada espécie. A produtividade de tubérculos foi observada pela contagem direta desses propágulos presentes nas raízes das plantas de tiririca. Já a sua viabilidade foi avaliada por teste de germinação em leito de areia e por tetrazólio no caso dos não germinados. O controle das espécies foi mais eficiente em ambientes sombreados, contribuindo para a redução de até 25% da dose recomendada para ambas, obtendo-se controle de 81% para trapoeraba e 100% para tiririca. Já a matéria seca da parte aérea, a produtividade e a viabilidade dos tubérculos foram afetadas pelo aumento do nível de sombra e pela dose de glyphosate. A diminuição da intensidade luminosa - comum no sub-bosque de culturas arbóreas e arbustivas ou quando do adensamento de cultivos - representa prática interessante na supressão da trapoeraba e da tiririca e potencializa a ação de controle do glyphosate.Weeds maintained in reduced light intensity environments present remarkable morpho-physiological changes that may alter their reproductive behavior and tolerance to post-emergence herbicides. Our goal was to evaluate the efficiency of glyphosate doses in the management of Commelina benghalensis and Cyperus rotundus grown at different levels of shading. The work consisted of two trials for each species with the same experimental design, in a 5 x 3 factorial design with five herbicide doses (0, 540, 810, 1.080, and 1.350 gha-1 of glyphosate, three cultivation environments (0, 30, or 50% of shading and four replicates. Experimental plots consisted of a vase with two plants of either C. benghalensis or C. rotundus. Control evaluations were carried out 10, 20, and 30 days after application (DAA through visual observations. Tuber productivity was verified by direct counting of these propagules present in the roots of C. rotundus plants, while tuber viability was evaluated by germination test in a sand bed, and by tetrazolium, for the non-germinated tubers. Species control was more efficient in shade environments, contributing to a reduction of up to 25% of the recommended dose for the treated species, and resulting in a control of 81% for C. benghalensis and 100% for C. rotundus. Aerial part dry biomass and productivity and viability of tubers were affected by increase in shade level and glyphosate dose. Reduced light intensity - common in the under-story of tree and shrub cultures or in culture density - is an interesting practice aiming at suppressing C. benghalensis and C. rotundus, acting as a potential control of glyphosate.

A Santos Júnior

2013-03-01

182

Manejo de tiririca e trapoeraba com glyphosate em ambientes sombreados / Commelina benghalensis and Cyperus rotundus treated with glyphosate in shaded environments  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Plantas daninhas mantidas em ambientes com redução da intensidade luminosa apresentam alterações morfofisiológicas marcantes, que podem alterar seu comportamento reprodutivo e a tolerância a herbicidas aplicados em pós-emergência. Objetivou-se neste estudo avaliar a eficiência de doses de glyphosate [...] no manejo da trapoeraba (Commelina benghalensis) e da tiririca (Cyperus rotundus) cultivadas em diferentes níveis de sombreamento. O trabalho foi composto por dois ensaios, referentes a cada uma das espécies, com o mesmo delineamento experimental, sendo constituídos em esquema fatorial 5 x 3, com cinco doses de herbicida (0, 540, 810, 1.080 ou 1.350 g ha-1 de glyphosate), três ambientes de cultivo (0, 30 ou 50% de sombra) e quatro repetições. As parcelas experimentais foram compostas por um vaso com duas plantas de tiririca ou de trapoeraba. As avaliações de controle ocorreram aos 10, 20 e 30 dias após a aplicação (DAA), por meio de observações visuais. Aos 30 DAA, foi determinada a massa seca da parte aérea de cada espécie. A produtividade de tubérculos foi observada pela contagem direta desses propágulos presentes nas raízes das plantas de tiririca. Já a sua viabilidade foi avaliada por teste de germinação em leito de areia e por tetrazólio no caso dos não germinados. O controle das espécies foi mais eficiente em ambientes sombreados, contribuindo para a redução de até 25% da dose recomendada para ambas, obtendo-se controle de 81% para trapoeraba e 100% para tiririca. Já a matéria seca da parte aérea, a produtividade e a viabilidade dos tubérculos foram afetadas pelo aumento do nível de sombra e pela dose de glyphosate. A diminuição da intensidade luminosa - comum no sub-bosque de culturas arbóreas e arbustivas ou quando do adensamento de cultivos - representa prática interessante na supressão da trapoeraba e da tiririca e potencializa a ação de controle do glyphosate. Abstract in english Weeds maintained in reduced light intensity environments present remarkable morpho-physiological changes that may alter their reproductive behavior and tolerance to post-emergence herbicides. Our goal was to evaluate the efficiency of glyphosate doses in the management of Commelina benghalensis and [...] Cyperus rotundus grown at different levels of shading. The work consisted of two trials for each species with the same experimental design, in a 5 x 3 factorial design with five herbicide doses (0, 540, 810, 1.080, and 1.350 gha-1 of glyphosate), three cultivation environments (0, 30, or 50% of shading) and four replicates. Experimental plots consisted of a vase with two plants of either C. benghalensis or C. rotundus. Control evaluations were carried out 10, 20, and 30 days after application (DAA) through visual observations. Tuber productivity was verified by direct counting of these propagules present in the roots of C. rotundus plants, while tuber viability was evaluated by germination test in a sand bed, and by tetrazolium, for the non-germinated tubers. Species control was more efficient in shade environments, contributing to a reduction of up to 25% of the recommended dose for the treated species, and resulting in a control of 81% for C. benghalensis and 100% for C. rotundus. Aerial part dry biomass and productivity and viability of tubers were affected by increase in shade level and glyphosate dose. Reduced light intensity - common in the under-story of tree and shrub cultures or in culture density - is an interesting practice aiming at suppressing C. benghalensis and C. rotundus, acting as a potential control of glyphosate.

A, Santos Júnior; L.D, Tuffi Santos; G.A, Costa; E.A, Barbosa; G.L.D, Leite; V.D, Machado; L.R, Cruz.

183

Novel three-dimensional acquisition order with reduced motion sensitivity for MR imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on acquisition order for three-dimensional (3D) volumetric MR imaging that provides considerably reduced motion sensitivity in the imaging of moving structures. In a standard 3D pulse sequence, all phase-encoding values of ky are acquired sequentially for each value of kz. Because of the long time delay between acquiring successive kz values, this strategy is highly susceptible to image corruption due to motion. For our proposed 3D square spiral acquisition order, phase encodings were acquired beginning at the central ky- kz value and then sequentially outward in a square spiral pattern. Motion sensitivity was assessed by simulation and experimental phantom and in vivo studies

1990-11-25

184

Cow milk allergy symptoms are reduced in mice fed dietary synbiotics during oral sensitization with whey.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cow milk allergy is the most common food allergy in children. So far, no effective treatment is available to prevent or cure food allergy. The purpose of this study was to compare effects of dietary supplementation with a prebiotic mixture (Immunofortis), a probiotic strain [Bifidobacterium breve M-16V], or a synbiotic diet combining both on the outcome of the allergic response when provided during oral sensitization with whey in mice. Mice were fed diets containing 2% (wt:wt) Immunofortis and/or the B. breve M-16V (n = 6/group). The acute allergic skin response was determined by measuring ear swelling. Antigen-induced anaphylaxis was scored. Furthermore, whey-specific serum immunoglobulins and mouse mast cell protease-1 (mMCP-1) were determined. In mice fed the synbiotic mixture, the allergic skin response and the anaphylactic reaction were strongly reduced compared with whey-sensitized mice fed the control diet (P < 0.01). Immunofortis or B. breve M-16V alone were significantly less effective in reducing the allergic skin response than the synbiotic diet and did not reduce the anaphylactic reaction. The whey-specific IgE and IgG(1) responses were not affected; however, IgG(2a) was greater in all treated groups than in the control group (P < 0.05). Serum mMCP-1 concentrations, reflecting mucosal mast cell degranulation, were lower in mice fed synbiotics compared with those fed the control diet (P < 0.01). Dietary supplementation with Immunofortis, B. breve M-16V, and particularly the synbiotic mixture, provided during sensitization, reduces the allergic effector response in a murine model of IgE-mediated hypersensitivity that mimics the human route of sensitization. This model shows the potential for dietary intervention with synbiotics in reducing the allergic response to food allergens. PMID:19474160

Schouten, Bastiaan; van Esch, Betty C A M; Hofman, Gerard A; van Doorn, Suzan A C M; Knol, Jan; Nauta, Alma J; Garssen, Johan; Willemsen, Linette E M; Knippels, Léon M J

2009-07-01

185

A micromachined vibration isolation system for reducing the vibration sensitivity of surface transverse wave resonators.  

Science.gov (United States)

A micromachined system has been developed for reducing the vibration sensitivity of surface transverse wave (STW) resonators. The isolation system consists of a support platform for mounting the STW resonator, four support arms, and a support rim. The entire isolation system measures 8 mm by 9 mm by 0.4 mm without the resonator mounted on the platform. The system acts as a passive vibration isolation system, decreasing the magnitude of high frequency (>1.2 kHz) vibrations. Finite element analysis is used to analyze the acceleration sensitivity of the mounted resonator. The isolation system is then modeled as a damped mass-spring system and the transmissibility of vibration from the support rim to the support platform is calculated. Multiplying the acceleration sensitivity of the resonator by the transmissibility results in the expected system vibration sensitivity. The isolation systems are fabricated using two sided bulk etching of (110) oriented silicon wafers. STW resonators were mounted on the isolation systems, and the isolated units were mounted on commercial hybrid oscillator substrates. Vibration sensitivity measurements were taken for vibrations with frequencies ranging from 100 Hz to 5 kHz. The measured data show that the system performs as expected with a low frequency (<500 Hz) vibration sensitivity of 1.8x10(-8)/g and a high frequency roll off of 12 dB/octave. PMID:18244203

Reid, J R; Bright, V M; Kosinski, J A

1998-01-01

186

Resposta de plantas de beterraba (Beta vulgaris) e de cenoura (Daucus carota) à deriva simulada de glyphosate e clomazone / Response of beetroot (Beta vulgaris) and carrot (Daucus carota) to simulated glyphosate and clomazone drift  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Várias espécies de hortaliças são de muita importância para a alimentação humana e tornam-se alvos da deriva de herbicidas, pois comumente são cultivadas nas proximidades de culturas como arroz, soja e milho, pulverizadas com esses produtos. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se verificar possíveis efeitos d [...] e doses reduzidas dos herbicidas glyphosate e clomazone sobre plantas de beterraba (Beta vulgaris) e de cenoura (Daucus carota), em diferentes fases de desenvolvimento. As doses avaliadas dos herbicidas foram de 0, 5, 10, 15 e 20% da dose recomendada, equivalentes a 0, 63, 126, 189 e 252 g ha-1 de glyphosate e 0, 14,4, 28,8, 43,2 e 57,6 g ha-1 de clomazone, respectivamente, aplicadas aos 20, 30 e 40 dias após a emergência das culturas. Observou-se aumento no percentual de fitotoxicidade do glyphosate com o incremento na dose do herbicida, e a maior suscetibilidade ocorreu com a deriva nos estádios mais precoces, em ambas as espécies. As doses de clomazone não causaram qualquer sintoma detectável visualmente para as plantas de beterraba e de cenoura. Os resultados sugerem que o herbicida glyphosate causa injúrias às plantas de beterraba e cenoura, independentemente do estádio em que ocorre a interceptação do produto. No entanto, o herbicida clomazone não interfere no desenvolvimento inicial de plantas de beterraba e cenoura. Abstract in english Herbicide drift over horticultural crops is a common problem in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, mainly in areas near rice, soybean and corn fields. The objective of this research was to evaluate glyphosate and clomazone drift effects on beetroot (Beta vulgaris) and carrot (Daucus carota) plants. The [...] herbicides were sprayed at three different growth stages: 20, 30 and 40 days after seedling emergence. Herbicide rates evaluated were 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% of the label rate. The sprayed rates were 0, 63, 126, 189 and 252 g ha-1 of glyphosate and 0.0, 14.4, 28.8, 43.2 and 57.6 g ha-1 of clomazone. Glyphosate injury to beetroot and carrot increased with herbicide rate, with the highest injury being observed at the earlier growth stage. Clomazone did not injure beetroot and carrot plants at any tested rate or growth stage. The results of this study suggest that glyphosate drift damages beetroot and carrot at any growth stage. However, beetroot and carrot are not sensitive to clomazone drift.

R.P., Rogoli; L.C., Fontana; S.S., Figueredo; J.A., Noldin.

187

Resposta de plantas de beterraba (Beta vulgaris e de cenoura (Daucus carota à deriva simulada de glyphosate e clomazone Response of beetroot (Beta vulgaris and carrot (Daucus carota to simulated glyphosate and clomazone drift  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Várias espécies de hortaliças são de muita importância para a alimentação humana e tornam-se alvos da deriva de herbicidas, pois comumente são cultivadas nas proximidades de culturas como arroz, soja e milho, pulverizadas com esses produtos. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se verificar possíveis efeitos de doses reduzidas dos herbicidas glyphosate e clomazone sobre plantas de beterraba (Beta vulgaris e de cenoura (Daucus carota, em diferentes fases de desenvolvimento. As doses avaliadas dos herbicidas foram de 0, 5, 10, 15 e 20% da dose recomendada, equivalentes a 0, 63, 126, 189 e 252 g ha-1 de glyphosate e 0, 14,4, 28,8, 43,2 e 57,6 g ha-1 de clomazone, respectivamente, aplicadas aos 20, 30 e 40 dias após a emergência das culturas. Observou-se aumento no percentual de fitotoxicidade do glyphosate com o incremento na dose do herbicida, e a maior suscetibilidade ocorreu com a deriva nos estádios mais precoces, em ambas as espécies. As doses de clomazone não causaram qualquer sintoma detectável visualmente para as plantas de beterraba e de cenoura. Os resultados sugerem que o herbicida glyphosate causa injúrias às plantas de beterraba e cenoura, independentemente do estádio em que ocorre a interceptação do produto. No entanto, o herbicida clomazone não interfere no desenvolvimento inicial de plantas de beterraba e cenoura.Herbicide drift over horticultural crops is a common problem in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, mainly in areas near rice, soybean and corn fields. The objective of this research was to evaluate glyphosate and clomazone drift effects on beetroot (Beta vulgaris and carrot (Daucus carota plants. The herbicides were sprayed at three different growth stages: 20, 30 and 40 days after seedling emergence. Herbicide rates evaluated were 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% of the label rate. The sprayed rates were 0, 63, 126, 189 and 252 g ha-1 of glyphosate and 0.0, 14.4, 28.8, 43.2 and 57.6 g ha-1 of clomazone. Glyphosate injury to beetroot and carrot increased with herbicide rate, with the highest injury being observed at the earlier growth stage. Clomazone did not injure beetroot and carrot plants at any tested rate or growth stage. The results of this study suggest that glyphosate drift damages beetroot and carrot at any growth stage. However, beetroot and carrot are not sensitive to clomazone drift.

R.P. Rogoli

2008-06-01

188

Suscetibilidade de genótipos de Lolium multiflorum ao herbicida glyphosate Susceptibility of Lolium multiflorum genotypes to glyphosate  

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Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o grau de tolerância dos genótipos diploides e tetraploides de L. multiflorum (azevém ao herbicida glyphosate. Para isso, foram instalados quatro experimentos, sendo um para cada estádio fenológico do azevém (duas folhas, quatro perfilhos, pré-florescimento e formação de grãos. Utilizou-se delineamento em blocos casualizados com arranjo fatorial 2 x 6 (dois genótipos e seis doses do herbicida glyphosate: 240, 480, 960, 1.920, 3.840 e 7.680 g e.a. ha-1 e uma testemunha sem aplicação de glyphosate, com quatro repetições. Os parâmetros analisados foram porcentagem de controle e fitomassa seca da parte aérea das plantas. Os resultados foram submetidos à análise de variância e, em seguida, ajustados para modelo de curva de dose-resposta do tipo logística, sendo desses modelos calculados valores de controle correspondentes a 50, 80, 90 e 99%. Os genótipos de azevém diploide apresentaram suscetibilidade diferencial ao herbicida glyphosate, sendo o genótipo tetraploide mais tolerante ao herbicida que o diploide. O grau diferencial de tolerância, medido pelo fator de tolerância diferencial entre os genótipos, foi de 1,6 vez a dose de glyphosate no genótipo tetraploide em relação ao diploide. Os estádios fenológicos de desenvolvimento das plantas de ambos os genótipos afetaram o grau de tolerância ao glyphosate. A variável fitomassa seca das plantas apresentou a mesma tendência diferencial entre os genótipos diploides e tetraploides que o parâmetro porcentagem visual de controle.This work aimed to evaluate the degree of tolerance of Italian ryegrass genotypes to the herbicide glyphosate. Thus, four experiments were installed, one for each phenological stage (two leaves, four tillers, pre-flowering, and grain formation. The treatments consisted of the combination of the two genotypes and six rates of glyphosate (240; 480; 960; 1,920; 3,840 and 7,680 g a.e. ha-1 and a check without glyphosate application, in a complete randomized block design and four replications. The parameters analyzed were control percentage and shoot dry biomass. Results were submitted to analysis of variance and subsequently adjusted to non-linear log of dose-response curves, and from these models control values were calculated at 50, 80, 90 and 99%. The Italian ryegrass genotypes presented differential susceptibility to the herbicide glyphosate, with the tetraploid genotype being more tolerant to the herbicide than the diploid. The degree of differential tolerance, measured by the differential tolerance factor between the genotypes, is 1.6 times the glyphosate dose in the tetraploid genotype compared to the diploid genotype. The phenological stages of plant development of both the genotypes studied affected the degree of tolerance to glyphosate. The variable shoot dry biomass presented the same differential tendency between the diploid and tetraploid genotypes presented by the parameter visual control percentage.

C.A. Dors

2010-06-01

189

Reduced dihydroxyacetone sensitivity and normal sensitivity to glyceraldehyde and oxidizing agent of ATP-sensitive K+ channels of pancreatic beta cells in NIDDM rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The inhibition of ATP-sensitive K+(KATP) channels in pancreatic beta cells is a key step of insulin secretion induced by glucose. Glucose-induced insulin secretion from the beta cells is selectively impaired in patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and in animal models of it. In order to clarify the site of this abnormal glucose response, we studied the effects of insulin secretagogues and sulfhydryl oxidizing agent, 2,2'-dithio-bis (5-nitropyridine) (DTBNP), on KATP channels in single beta cells of neonatally streptozotocin-induced NIDDM rats. We used the patch-clamp technique in cell-attached mode (Vpipette = 0 mV). The inhibitory response to glucose of KATP channels was lacking in NIDDM rats, indicating reduced sensitivity to glucose of the channels. Glyceraldehyde (2-5 mM) in the diabetic beta cells elicited the same KATP channel inhibition as that obtained in controls. In contrast, dihydroxyacetone (DHA, 2-10 mM) sensitivity of KATP channels was significantly reduced in the beta cells of NIDDM rats. KATP channels in the diabetic beta cells were rapidly inhibited by 50 microM DTBNP, just as in the normal beta cells, suggesting that KATP channel function was normal. This indicates that one of the sites responsible for impaired glucose-induced insulin secretion in the pancreatic beta cells of NIDDM rats is located in the glycerol phosphate shuttle. PMID:9288626

Song, D K; Park, W K; Bae, J H; Park, M K; Kim, S J; Ho, W K; Earm, Y E

1997-08-01

190

Decreased in vitro lymphocyte stimulation and reduced sensitivity to IL-2 in patients with alopecia areata.  

Science.gov (United States)

The response to the T-cell growth factor interleukin-2 (IL-2) and to phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (Con-A) were investigated in 63 patients with alopecia areata (AA) and in control subjects. The proliferative response to mitogens and to IL-2 determined by measuring [3H]-thymidine incorporation 72 h after stimulation is generally decreased in AA patients. The response to mitogens and to IL-2 was related to the response to the topical sensitizer SADBE (squaric acid dibutylester) and patients with no allergic reaction to this substance showed a marked reduction in lymphocyte stimulation, especially with IL-2. HLA typing of 34 of the 63 AA patients was performed in order to investigate the immunogenetic basis of hyporesponsiveness to topical sensitization. The relationship between reduced in vitro response to mitogens and particularly to IL-2, and in vivo response to sensitization to SADBE and the presence of HLA-DR5 are discussed. PMID:3261574

Orecchia, G; Capelli, E; Martinetti, M; Cuccia Belvedere, M; Rabbiosi, G

1988-01-01

191

Distance from a distance: psychological distance reduces sensitivity to any further psychological distance.  

Science.gov (United States)

What is the difference between far and further? Investigations into such psychological distancing--removal from an egocentric reference point--have suggested similarities between geographical space, time, probability, and social distance. We draw on these similarities to propose that experiencing any kind of distance will reduce sensitivity to any other distance. Nine studies varied the initial distance of an event and assessed sensitivity to a second distance. Consistently, people were less responsive to a given span of distance when it was distal versus proximal. This effect held using each of the four distances as the initial instantiation of distance; it also held using each dimension to assess sensitivity to distance (i.e., as the second distance dimension). These findings suggest that the dimensions of psychological distance share a common, interchangeable meaning and that the cross-dimension difference between far and further is less than that between near and far. PMID:23025560

Maglio, Sam J; Trope, Yaacov; Liberman, Nira

2013-08-01

192

Controle de Brachiaria brizantha com uso do glyphosate após o estabelecimento de Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp.) / Control of Brachiaria brizantha with glyphosate's after Tifton's 85 (Cynodon spp.) establishment  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A eficiência do glyphosate no controle de Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu em áreas de cultivo do Tifton 85 foi avaliada utilizando o delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, com oito doses de glyphosate (0, 90, 180, 360, 720, 1.080, 1.440 e 1.800 g ha-1), e quatro repetições. Cada parcela [...] foi constituída de um vaso com duas plantas de B. brizantha cv. Marandu e duas plantas de Tifton-85. A aplicação do herbicida foi feita quando as plantas de B. brizantha apresentavam cerca de 40 cm de altura. O nível de intoxicação nas plantas de Tifton 85 e a eficiência do herbicida no controle de B. brizantha foram avaliados aos 15, 30 e 60 dias após aplicação (DAA). Aos 60 DAA, as plantas foram colhidas ao nível do solo e secas em estufa. A rebrota foi avaliada, do mesmo modo, aos 60 dias após o corte (DAC). Obeservou-se controle superior a 90% de B. brizantha, a partir da dose de 738,28 g ha-1 de glyphosate, enquanto a intoxicação para as plantas de Tifton 85 foi de apenas 12,05. Aos 60 DAA, houve redução na produção de massa seca de braquiária a partir da dose de 90 g ha-1. Doses superiores a 720 g ha-1 diminuíram o crescimento e desenvolvimento do Tifton 85, afetando sua produção, sem, no entanto, ocasionar a morte das plantas. Os resultados evidenciam boa tolerância do Tifton 85 até a dose de 720 g ha-1 de glyphosate. Abstract in english No information is available on selective herbicide to control Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu on established pasture of 'Tifton 85'. This work evaluated the selectivity of glyphosate to Tifton 85 culture, using a randomized block design, with eight glyphosate rates (0; 90; 180; 360; 720; 1.080; 1.4 [...] 40 and 1.800 g ha-1 ), and four replications. Each plot consisted of a pot with two Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu plants and two 'Tifton-85' plants. Herbicide was applied when Brachiaria was around 40 cm high. After 15, 30 and 60 days of application (DAA), intoxication level on Tifton plants and herbicide efficiency on Brachiaria control were evaluated. At 60 DAA, the plants were cut and dried in a greenhouse, and the sprouts evaluated 60 days after cut. Under 738.28 g ha-1 of glyphosate, 90% of the Brachiaria brizantha plants were controlled, while Tifton plant intoxication was observed only at 12.05%. At 60 DAA, Brachiaria dry matter production decreased from 90 g ha-1 , with total control of these plants being observed at the rate of 738.28 g ha-1. Rates higher than 720 g ha-1 reduced the growth and development of Tifton 85, affecting its production without, however, leading to death of the plants. The results evidenced good selectivity for glyphosate to Tifton 85 culture up to 720 g ha-1.

M.V., Santos; F.A., Ferreira; F.C.L., Freitas; L.D., Tuffi Santos; D.M., Fonseca.

193

Controle de Brachiaria brizantha com uso do glyphosate após o estabelecimento de Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp. Control of Brachiaria brizantha with glyphosate's after Tifton's 85 (Cynodon spp. establishment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A eficiência do glyphosate no controle de Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu em áreas de cultivo do Tifton 85 foi avaliada utilizando o delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, com oito doses de glyphosate (0, 90, 180, 360, 720, 1.080, 1.440 e 1.800 g ha-1, e quatro repetições. Cada parcela foi constituída de um vaso com duas plantas de B. brizantha cv. Marandu e duas plantas de Tifton-85. A aplicação do herbicida foi feita quando as plantas de B. brizantha apresentavam cerca de 40 cm de altura. O nível de intoxicação nas plantas de Tifton 85 e a eficiência do herbicida no controle de B. brizantha foram avaliados aos 15, 30 e 60 dias após aplicação (DAA. Aos 60 DAA, as plantas foram colhidas ao nível do solo e secas em estufa. A rebrota foi avaliada, do mesmo modo, aos 60 dias após o corte (DAC. Obeservou-se controle superior a 90% de B. brizantha, a partir da dose de 738,28 g ha-1 de glyphosate, enquanto a intoxicação para as plantas de Tifton 85 foi de apenas 12,05. Aos 60 DAA, houve redução na produção de massa seca de braquiária a partir da dose de 90 g ha-1. Doses superiores a 720 g ha-1 diminuíram o crescimento e desenvolvimento do Tifton 85, afetando sua produção, sem, no entanto, ocasionar a morte das plantas. Os resultados evidenciam boa tolerância do Tifton 85 até a dose de 720 g ha-1 de glyphosate.No information is available on selective herbicide to control Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu on established pasture of 'Tifton 85'. This work evaluated the selectivity of glyphosate to Tifton 85 culture, using a randomized block design, with eight glyphosate rates (0; 90; 180; 360; 720; 1.080; 1.440 and 1.800 g ha-1 , and four replications. Each plot consisted of a pot with two Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu plants and two 'Tifton-85' plants. Herbicide was applied when Brachiaria was around 40 cm high. After 15, 30 and 60 days of application (DAA, intoxication level on Tifton plants and herbicide efficiency on Brachiaria control were evaluated. At 60 DAA, the plants were cut and dried in a greenhouse, and the sprouts evaluated 60 days after cut. Under 738.28 g ha-1 of glyphosate, 90% of the Brachiaria brizantha plants were controlled, while Tifton plant intoxication was observed only at 12.05%. At 60 DAA, Brachiaria dry matter production decreased from 90 g ha-1 , with total control of these plants being observed at the rate of 738.28 g ha-1. Rates higher than 720 g ha-1 reduced the growth and development of Tifton 85, affecting its production without, however, leading to death of the plants. The results evidenced good selectivity for glyphosate to Tifton 85 culture up to 720 g ha-1.

M.V. Santos

2006-12-01

194

Metallic complexes with glyphosate: a review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present studies involving metallic ions and the herbicide glyphosate. The metallic complexes of Cu(II), Zn(II), Mn(II), Ni(II), Cd(II), Pb(II), Cr(III), Fe(III), Co(III), ammonium, sodium, Ag(I), alkaline earth metals and of some lanthanides ions are described. The complexes are discussed in terms of their synthesis, identification, stability and structural properties, based on data from the current literature. (author)

2005-01-01

195

Influência do Glyphosate sobre a nodulação e o crescimento de cultivares de soja resistente ao Glyphosate Glyphosate influence on growth and nodulation of Glyphosate resistant soybean cultivars  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A soja resistente ao glyphosate (RR) é uma tecnologia que vem acrescentar mais uma ferramenta ao manejo de plantas daninhas para essa cultura, que possui a maior área plantada em nosso país. Por se tratar de uma técnica recente tanto no Brasil quanto no mundo, é preciso estudos buscando informações para o uso correto desta importante e cada vez mais freqüente prática agrícola: o cultivo de soja transgênica. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar os efeitos causados pelas aplicaçõ...

2008-01-01

196

Low-cost reduced graphene oxide-based conductometric nitrogen dioxide-sensitive sensor on paper.  

Science.gov (United States)

The fabrication concept for a low-cost sensor device using reduced graphene oxide (rGO) as the sensing material on a porous paper substrate is presented. The sensors were characterized using conductivity and capacitance measurements, atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The effects of different reducing agents, graphene oxide (GO) flake size and film thickness were studied. The sensor was sensitive to NO2, and devices based on a thin (10-nm) hydrazine-reduced GO layer had the best sensitivity, reaching a 70% reduction in resistance after 10 min of exposure to 10 ppm NO2. The sensitivity was high enough for the detection of sub-parts per million levels of NO2. Desorption of gas molecules, i.e. the recovery of the sensor, could be accelerated by UV irradiation. The structure and preparation of the sensor are simple and up-scalable, allowing their fabrication in bulk quantities, and the fabrication concept can be applied to other materials, too. PMID:23462978

Hassinen, Jukka; Kauppila, Jussi; Leiro, Jarkko; Määttänen, Anni; Ihalainen, Petri; Peltonen, Jouko; Lukkari, Jukka

2013-04-01

197

Synthesis of 15N labeled glyphosate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Amongst the actually commercialized herbicides the Glyphosate is the most used in Brazil. Its efficiency as well as the others herbicides against undesirable weeds is harmed by its final composts left at the environment. Although studies has being carried out to improve the knowledge about the herbicides behavior at the environment its complexity has led them towards innumerous to new significant research work where the use of radiolabeled composts (radiative tracers) are recommended to evaluate their bio-availability in the soil. However is the use, the manipulation and the storage of radiolabeled composts is requires an extra care under chemical safety point of view. The use of non radiolabeled composts is a world tendency especially for field researches. Under this context the presented work describes a method for the synthesis of 15N labeled glyphosate. The 15N-herbicide was undertaken by phosphometilation with the phosphit dialquil and 15N-glycine. The tests where carried out through a micro scale production plant and of equimolars amounts. At these conditions it's was possible to reach approximately a 20% of yield. At the conclusion of a best operational condition its expected to offer another important toll that shall be used in glyphosate behavior at the environment and undesirably weeds. (author)

2005-09-02

198

Atividade de glutationa S-transferase na degradação do herbicida glyphosate em plantas de milho (Zea mays Glutathione S-transferase activity on the degradation of the herbicide glyphosate in maize (Zea mays plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A glutationa S-transferase (GST, EC 2.5.1.18 desempenha um papel importante na resposta do estresse causado por herbicidas nas plantas; é considerada uma enzima de desintoxicação, por metabolizar grande variedade de compostos xenobióticos, por meio da conjugação destes com glutationa reduzida, formando substâncias de baixa toxicidade. O milho (Zea mays foi escolhido neste trabalho por apresentar problemas de injúrias quando submetido ao controle químico de plantas daninhas, por meio do uso de herbicidas. Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo determinar as alterações na atividade desta enzima em plantas de milho submetidas ao tratamento pelo herbicida glyphosate. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 4x4, com quatro tratamentos herbicidas (glyphosate nas concentrações de 1.000, 2.500 e 5.000 ppm e as plantas-controle tratadas com água e quatro estádios de desenvolvimento (9, 16, 23 e 30 dias após a emergência, com cinco repetições. O herbicida foi aplicado na parte aérea das plântulas de milho. A parte aérea foi coletada às 24, 48 e 72 horas após a aplicação do herbicida e utilizada para a determinação da atividade da GST e do teor de lipoperóxidos. Foi verificado que os teores de lipoperóxidos não foram alterados pelo tratamento com o glyphosate, porém a atividade de GST aumentou na maioria dos tratamentos utilizados, indicando ter ação na degradação do herbicida glyphosate em plantas de milho.Glutathione S-transferase (GST, EC 2.5.1.18 plays an important role in the response to stress caused by herbicides in plants; it is considered to be a detoxifying enzyme since it metabolizes a great variety of xenobiotic compounds, by combining them with reduced glutathione, forming substances of low toxicity. Maize (Zea mays was chosen in this work for showing injury problems when submitted to weed chemical control. This research aimed to determine the alterations in the activity of this enzyme in glyphosate-treated maize plants. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a 4 x 4 factorial arrangement, with four treatments (glyphosate at concentrations of 1,000, 2,500 and 5,000 ppm and control plant treated with water and four developmental stages (9, 16, 23 and 30 days after emergence, with five replicates. The herbicide was applied on the maize plant shoots, which were collected at 24, 48 and 72 hours after herbicide application and utilized for determining the GST activity and lipoperoxide content. It was verified that glyphosate does not change the lipoperoxide content, but increases GST activity for most treatments utilized, indicating its action in the degradation of glyphosate in maize plants.

A.C. Cataneo

2003-08-01

199

Study of glyphosate transport through suspended particulate matter  

Science.gov (United States)

The results have been produced in a project aiming to improve the water quality of the Layon localy supported by stakeholders involved in the implementation of the Water Framework Directive as the SAGE-Layon Aubance. The study site is a small vineyard catchment (2.2 ha) of the Loire Valley. The slopes of the study site are between 8 and 40% resulting in strong erosive episodes during rainy event. The main objective is to understand the transfer of pesticide residues to stream. Preliminary results have shown glyphosate can be found with high concentrations during runoff. However this study was realized only in the dissolved phase. The objective is now to understand the glyphosate transport driven by SPM. The methodology developed has been (i) characterization and production of the erodible water fraction from soils aggregates; (ii) achievement of the adsorption of glyphosate on these erodible materials to compare this results with adsorption on soil sieved to 2 mm, (iii) achievement of the desorption of glyphosate on these erodible materials. Measurements have been performed on soil samples distinguishing weed or grassed soils. Soils are sieved to 2 mm or between 2 and 5 mm (to produce the erodible water fraction). Both fractions are then used to glyphosate sorption and desorption. The erodible fraction was produce with a wet sieving machine (eijkelkampt Method Kemper and Rosenau, 1986), using sieve porosity of 250 microns. The fraction obtained at 250 microns is considered to be the erodible water fraction and is used to study the adsorption and desorption of glyphosate. Kinetics has been first carried out then the isotherm to obtain the value of Kd. A ratio soil/solution of 1/5 was used. Successive desorption's method was chosen with a stirring time of 20 min, centrifugation at 6000 g and the supernatant in each desorption of 20 min is analyzed. This step is repeated 25 times. The main results of the study are: (i) adsorption of glyphosate is rapid and almost complete (95% in 2 min). (ii) Kd obtained on the erodible fraction are two times higher than on 2 mm sieved soils. (iii) Desorption showed that glyphosate is desorbed from the erodible fraction at 40% after 25 desorptions. The aim of this study was to show the potential transport of glyphosate through suspended particulate matter. The adsorption on the erodible fraction argued to a significant transport potential of glyphosate on this fraction. The desorption of glyphosate from the erodible water fraction have revealed that the adsorption of glyphosate is reversible but it is much slower. These results demonstrate that glyphosate may be stored on the erodible fraction and be transported by these fractions. Keywords: Adsorption, Desorption, Glyphosate, Suspended Solids, Erosion.

Amiot, Audrey; Landry, David; Jadas-Hécart, Alain; La Jeunesse, Isabelle; Sourice, Stéphane; Ballouche, Aziz

2014-05-01

200

Simultaneous substitution of Gly96 to Ala and Ala183 to Thr in 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase gene of E. coli (k12) and transformation of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) in order to make tolerance to glyphosate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glyphosate is a non-selective broad-spectrum herbicide that inhibits 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS). This is a key enzyme in the aromatic amino acid biosynthesis pathway of microorganisms and plants. The manipulation of bacterial EPSPS gene in order to reduce its affinity for glyphosate, followed by its transfer to plants is one of the most effective approaches for the production of glyphosate-tolerant plants. In this study, we chose to focus on amino acid residues glycine96 and alanine183 of the E. coli (k12) EPSPS enzyme. These two amino acids are important residues for glyphosate binding. We used site directed mutagenesis (SDM) to induce point mutations in the E. coli EPSPS gene, in order to convert glycine96 to alanine (Gly96Ala) and alanine183 to threonine (Ala183Thr). After confirming the mutation by sequencing, the altered EPSPS gene was transferred to rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The transformed explants were screened in shoot induction medium containing 25 mg L-1 kanamycin. Glyphosate tolerance was assayed in putative transgenic plants. Statistical analysis of data showed that there was a significant difference between the transgenic and control plants. It was observed that transgenic plants were resistant to glyphosate at a concentration of 10 mM whereas the non-transformed control plants were unable to survive 1 mM glyphosate. The presence and copy numbers of the transgene were confirmed with PCR and Southern blotting analysis, respectively. PMID:16874527

Kahrizi, Danial; Salmanian, Ali Hatef; Afshari, Afsoon; Moieni, Ahmad; Mousavi, Amir

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Rhizosphere processes as determinants for glyphosate damage of non-target plants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Due to low production costs and high herbicidal efficiency, glyphosate is the most widely used wide-spectrum herbicide. Glyphosate acts as a non-selective, total herbicide by inhibiting the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids. Apart from glyphosate drift contamination, risks of glyphosate toxicity to crop plants and other non-target organisms are generally considered as marginal, because glyphosate is almost instantaneously inactivated by adsorption to the soil matrix and rapid microbial/che...

Bott, Sebastian

2010-01-01

202

Research on the weed control degree and glyphosate soil biodegradation in apple plantations (Pioneer variety)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study we follow control degree of glyphosate herbicide on weeds in apple plantations (Pioneer variety) of the Research Station Timisoara. It was also followed glyphosate biodegradation capacity in the soil by determining the amount of CO2 released by the action of microorganisms on C14 glyphosate marked isotope. Laboratory analysis of glyphosate residues in soil was made using a Liquid Scintillation TRIATHLER. Glyphosate biodegradation ability in the presence of soil microorganisms is...

2010-01-01

203

The influence of salts in carrier water and adjuvants on glyphosate activity  

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Glyphosate, a non-selective herbicide, is antagonized by salts in the spray carrier and responds to surfactant type and concentration. Glyphosate antagonism by dissolved salts such as calcium and magnesium was verified with natural water carriers and with carriers to which salts were added. Salt antagonism of glyphosate occurred from the formation of complexes that were less absorptive than the formulated isopropylamine glyphosate. Absorption of various salts of glyphosate varied as follows: ...

2002-01-01

204

Bioassay for detection of transgenic soybean seeds tolerant to glyphosate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Glyphosate is a systemic, nonselective, postemergence herbicide that inhibits growth of both weeds and crop plants. Once inside the plant, glyphosate interferes with biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan, by inhibiting the activity of 5enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS, a key enzyme of the shikimate pathway. The objective of this work was to develop a simple, effective and inexpensible method for identification of transgenic soybean tolerant to glyphosate. This technique consisted in germinating soybean seeds in filter paper moistened with 100 to 200 muM of glyphosate. Transgenic soybean seeds tolerant to glyphosate germinated normally in this solution and, between 7 and 10 days, started to develop a primary root system. However non-transgenic seeds stopped primary root growth and emission of secondary roots.

Torres Antonio Carlos

2003-01-01

205

Identification of Glyphosate Resistance in Lolium rigidum Gaudin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Glyphosate resistance was found in Lolium rigidum Gaudin (Rigid ryegrass, LOLRI inSouth Africa. Suspected glyphosate-resistant L. rigidum populations were collected andgrown under greenhouse conditions. The plants were sprayed with a range of doses of glyphosate35 days after planting and shoot dry biomass was determined 17 days after herbicidetreatment. Based on the dose-response experiment conducted in the greenhouse,one population of L. rigidum suspected to be resistant to glyphosate was approximately 5.3fold more resistant than susceptible population. The other population was 2.8 fold moreresistant than susceptible population. Difference between the two suspected resistant populationswas 1.9 fold. All plants were treated with glyphosate (1000 g a.i. ha-1 and shikimicacid was extracted 2, 4 and 6 days after treatment. The plants of susceptible populationsaccumulated more shikimic acid than other two populations.

Danijela Pavlovi?

2011-01-01

206

Effect of different doses of glyphosate in soybean  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract: Brazil ranks second in production of conventional soybeans and third in production of transgenic soybeans. The main advantage of transgenic soybean is resistant to the herbicide glyphosate, but the continued use of exaggeration and even of the same herbicide on soybean can significantly decrease acquired resistance. This work aimed to evaluate the effects of different doses of glyphosate can result in soybean. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse on the Campus of UFMT in Sinop-MT, and evaluated five doses of glyphosate in transgenic soybeans intercropped with two conventional soybeans. The characters were evaluated for phytotoxicity scores and length of the root system. It was found that, regardless of the amount of glyphosate applied occur symptoms of phytotoxicity in conventional and transgenic soybean. Whereas the most damage will be in conventional soybean, and transgenic soybean little affected by the action of the herbicide.Key words: Glycine max, glyphosate, phytotoxicity

S. A. Gomes

2013-07-01

207

Effect of Reducing Groundwater on the Retardation of Redox-Sensitive Radionuclides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Laboratory batch sorption experiments were used to investigate variations in the retardation behavior of redox-sensitive radionuclides. Water-rock compositions used during these experiments were designed to simulate subsurface conditions at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), where a suite of radionuclides were deposited as a result of underground nuclear testing. Experimental redox conditions were controlled by varying the oxygen content inside an enclosed glove box and by adding reductants into the testing solutions. Under atmospheric (oxidizing) conditions, the radionuclide distribution coefficients varied with the mineralogical composition of the sorbent and the water chemistry. Under reducing conditions, distribution coefficients showed marked increases for 99Tc and 237Np in devitrified tuff, but much smaller variations in alluvium, carbonate rock, and zeolitic tuff. This effect was particularly important for 99Tc, which tends to be mobile under oxidizing conditions. Unlike other redox-sensitive radionuclides, iodine sorption may decrease under reducing conditions when I- is the predominant species. Overall, sorption of U to alluvium, devitrified tuff, and zeolitic tuff under atmospheric conditions was less than in the glove-box tests. However, the mildly reducing conditions achieved here were not likely to result in substantial U(VI) reduction to U(IV). Sorption of Pu was not affected by the decreasing redox conditions achieved in this study, as the predominant sorbed Pu species in all conditions was expected to be the low-solubility and strongly sorbing Pu(OH)4. Depending on the aquifer lithology, the occurrence of reducing conditions along a groundwater flowpath could potentially contribute to the retardation of redox-sensitive radionuclides 99Tc and 237Np, which are commonly identified as long-term dose contributors in the risk assessment in various nuclear facilities.

2008-12-12

208

Distribuição de glyphosate e acúmulo de nutrientes em biótipos de azevém / Glyphosate distribution and nutrient accumulation in ryegrass biotypes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar o acúmulo de nutrientes e a translocação de glyphosate em biótipos de azevém. Para isso, foram montados dois ensaios: no primeiro aplicou-se 14C-glyphosate, adicionando 10 µL da calda sobre a face adaxial da primeira folha com lígula totalmente visível, quando as [...] plantas de azevém apresentavam três perfilhos. A quantidade de glyphosate absorvido, translocado e exsudado foi avaliada 64 horas após aplicação, por meio da medição da radiação emitida pelo 14C-glyphosate, em espectrômetro de cintilação líquida. O glyphosate foi quantificado em folha de aplicação, perfilhos, raízes e na solução nutritiva onde foram cultivados os biótipos de azevém. No segundo experimento, aplicou-se o glyphosate (480 g ha-1) tanto no biótipo sensível quanto no resistente. Após dez dias da aplicação, a parte área e as raízes das plantas foram coletadas e secas em estufa, sendo determinados os teores de macronutrientes. No primeiro ensaio, verificou-se exsudação radicular em ambos os biótipos, nos quais a quantidade de glyphosate exsudada foi semelhante, não ultrapassando 5% do total que penetrou na planta. No perfilho principal do biótipo sensível, comparado ao resistente, foi observada maior concentração do produto marcado. O biótipo resistente apresentou maior acúmulo de produto marcado na folha de aplicação; no sensível, a maior parte do glyphosate foi encontrada nas raízes. Com relação ao segundo ensaio, na presença de herbicida o biótipo sensível apresentou menor teor de fósforo tanto na parte aérea quanto na planta. Os biótipos resistente e sensível, sem aplicação de herbicida, tenderam a apresentar maiores teores de N total e N inorgânico na parte aérea e na planta como um todo, quando comparados aos tratamentos em que foi realizada a aplicação do produto. Ambos os biótipos mostraram a mesma capacidade de absorção e acúmulo de macronutrientes na ausência do produto. Abstract in english This work aimed to evaluate nutrient accumulation and glyphosate translocation in ryegrass biotypes. Two trials were conducted: in the first, 10 uL of 14C-glyphosate ware applied on the upper side of the first leaf showing completely visible ligule, with ryegrass plants at the three-tiller stage. Th [...] e amount of glyphosate absorbed, translocated and exudated was evaluated 64 hours after application, by using a liquid scintillation spectrometer. Glyphosate was quantified in the leaf it had been applied, in the tillers, roots and in the nutritive solution the plants were grown. In the second trial, glyphosate was applied on the resistant and the susceptible biotypes at the rate of 480 g L-1. Ten days after application, the shoot and roots were collected and oven-dried and the levels of macronutrients were determined. In the first trial, root exudation was observed in both biotypes, in which the amount of exudated glyphosate was similar and not greater than 5% of the absorbed glyphosate. In the main tiller of the susceptible biotype, a higher concentration of 14C-glyphosate was observed, compared to the resistant one. The resistant biotype showed more glyphosate accumulation in the leaf it had been applied and in the susceptible biotype; most 14-C glyphosate was found in the root system. In the second trial, the susceptible biotype showed less P accumulation than the resistant one. Both the resistant and susceptible biotypes tended to accumulate more total N and inorganic N in the shoot and in the whole plant in the absence of glyphosate, compared to the applied treatments. Both biotypes presented the same absorption capacity and macronutrients accumulation in the absence of the glyphosate.

E.A., Ferreira; A.A., Silva; M.R., Reis; J.B., Santos; J.A., Oliveira; L., Vargas; K.R., Khouri; A.A., Guimarães.

209

Distribuição de glyphosate e acúmulo de nutrientes em biótipos de azevém Glyphosate distribution and nutrient accumulation in ryegrass biotypes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar o acúmulo de nutrientes e a translocação de glyphosate em biótipos de azevém. Para isso, foram montados dois ensaios: no primeiro aplicou-se 14C-glyphosate, adicionando 10 µL da calda sobre a face adaxial da primeira folha com lígula totalmente visível, quando as plantas de azevém apresentavam três perfilhos. A quantidade de glyphosate absorvido, translocado e exsudado foi avaliada 64 horas após aplicação, por meio da medição da radiação emitida pelo 14C-glyphosate, em espectrômetro de cintilação líquida. O glyphosate foi quantificado em folha de aplicação, perfilhos, raízes e na solução nutritiva onde foram cultivados os biótipos de azevém. No segundo experimento, aplicou-se o glyphosate (480 g ha-1 tanto no biótipo sensível quanto no resistente. Após dez dias da aplicação, a parte área e as raízes das plantas foram coletadas e secas em estufa, sendo determinados os teores de macronutrientes. No primeiro ensaio, verificou-se exsudação radicular em ambos os biótipos, nos quais a quantidade de glyphosate exsudada foi semelhante, não ultrapassando 5% do total que penetrou na planta. No perfilho principal do biótipo sensível, comparado ao resistente, foi observada maior concentração do produto marcado. O biótipo resistente apresentou maior acúmulo de produto marcado na folha de aplicação; no sensível, a maior parte do glyphosate foi encontrada nas raízes. Com relação ao segundo ensaio, na presença de herbicida o biótipo sensível apresentou menor teor de fósforo tanto na parte aérea quanto na planta. Os biótipos resistente e sensível, sem aplicação de herbicida, tenderam a apresentar maiores teores de N total e N inorgânico na parte aérea e na planta como um todo, quando comparados aos tratamentos em que foi realizada a aplicação do produto. Ambos os biótipos mostraram a mesma capacidade de absorção e acúmulo de macronutrientes na ausência do produto.This work aimed to evaluate nutrient accumulation and glyphosate translocation in ryegrass biotypes. Two trials were conducted: in the first, 10 uL of 14C-glyphosate ware applied on the upper side of the first leaf showing completely visible ligule, with ryegrass plants at the three-tiller stage. The amount of glyphosate absorbed, translocated and exudated was evaluated 64 hours after application, by using a liquid scintillation spectrometer. Glyphosate was quantified in the leaf it had been applied, in the tillers, roots and in the nutritive solution the plants were grown. In the second trial, glyphosate was applied on the resistant and the susceptible biotypes at the rate of 480 g L-1. Ten days after application, the shoot and roots were collected and oven-dried and the levels of macronutrients were determined. In the first trial, root exudation was observed in both biotypes, in which the amount of exudated glyphosate was similar and not greater than 5% of the absorbed glyphosate. In the main tiller of the susceptible biotype, a higher concentration of 14C-glyphosate was observed, compared to the resistant one. The resistant biotype showed more glyphosate accumulation in the leaf it had been applied and in the susceptible biotype; most 14-C glyphosate was found in the root system. In the second trial, the susceptible biotype showed less P accumulation than the resistant one. Both the resistant and susceptible biotypes tended to accumulate more total N and inorganic N in the shoot and in the whole plant in the absence of glyphosate, compared to the applied treatments. Both biotypes presented the same absorption capacity and macronutrients accumulation in the absence of the glyphosate.

E.A. Ferreira

2008-03-01

210

Determination of glyphosate and phosphate in water by ion chromatography--inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Quantitative determination of trace glyphosate and phosphate in waters was achieved by coupling ion chromatography (IC) separation with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection. The separation of glyphosate and phosphate on a polymer anion-exchange column (Dionex IonPac AS16, 4.0 mm x 250 mm) was obtained by eluting them with 20 mM citric acid at 0.50 mL min(-1), and the analytes were detected directly and selectively by ICP-MS at m/z = 31. Parameters affecting their chromatographic behaviors and ICP-MS characteristics were systematically examined. Based on a 500-microL sample injection volume, the detection limits were 0.7 microgL(-1) for both glyphosate and phosphate, and the calibrations were linear up to 400 microgL(-1). Polyphosphates, aminomethylphosphonic acid (the major metabolite of glyphosate), non-polar and other polar phosphorus-containing pesticides showed different chromatographic behaviors from the analytes of interest and therefore did not interference. The determination was also interference free from the matrix anions (nitrate, nitrite, sulphate, chloride, etc.) and metallic ions. The analysis of certified reference material, drinking water, reservoir water and Newater yielded satisfactory results with spiked recoveries of 97.1-107.0% and relative standard deviations of IC-ICP-MS method is sensitive and simple, and does not require any chemical derivatization, sample preconcentration and mobile phase conductivity suppression. PMID:16185703

Guo, Zhong-Xian; Cai, Qiantao; Yang, Zhaoguang

2005-12-30

211

Doubly imprinted polymer nanofilm-modified electrochemical sensor for ultra-trace simultaneous analysis of glyphosate and glufosinate.  

Science.gov (United States)

A rapid, selective, and sensitive double-template imprinted polymer nanofilm-modified pencil graphite electrode was fabricated for the simultaneous analysis of phosphorus-containing amino acid-type herbicides (glyphosate and glufosinate) in soil and human serum samples. Since both herbicides respond overlapped oxidation peaks and only glyphosate is prone to nitrosation, n-nitroso glyphosate and glufosinate were used as templates for obtaining the well-resolved quantitative differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetric peaks on the proposed sensor. Toward sensor fabrication, a nano-structured polymer film was first grown directly on the electrode via initial immobilization of gold nanoparticles at its surface. This was followed by linking of monomeric (N-methacryloyl-l-cysteine) molecules through S-Au bonds. Subsequently, these molecules were subjected to free radical polymerization, in the presence of templates, cross linker, initiator, and multiwalled carbon nanotubes as pre-polymer mixture. The modified sensor observed wide linear ranges (3.98-176.23ngmL(-1) and 0.54-3.96ngmL(-1)) of simultaneous analysis with detection limits as low as 0.35 and 0.19ngmL(-1) (S/N=3) for glyphosate and glufosinate, respectively, in aqueous samples. The respective oxidation peak potentials of both analytes were found to be substantially apart by 265mV. This enabled the simultaneous determination of one target in the presence of other, without any cross reactivity, interferences, and false-positives, in real samples. PMID:24704689

Prasad, Bhim Bali; Jauhari, Darshika; Tiwari, Mahavir Prasad

2014-09-15

212

Carbon isotope ratio measurements of glyphosate and AMPA by liquid chromatography coupled to isotope ratio mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

The interest in compound-specific isotope analysis for product authenticity control and source differentiation in environmental sciences has grown rapidly during the last decade. However, the isotopic analysis of very polar analytes is a challenging task due to the lack of suitable chromatographic separation techniques which can be used coupled to isotope ratio mass spectrometry. In this work, we present the first method to measure carbon isotope compositions of the widely applied herbicide glyphosate and its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) by liquid chromatography coupled to isotope ratio mass spectrometry. We demonstrate that this analysis can be carried out either in cation exchange or in reversed-phase separation modes. The reversed-phase separation yields a better performance in terms of resolution compared with the cation exchange method. The measurement of commercial glyphosate herbicide samples show its principal applicability and reveals a wide range of ?(13)C values between -24 and -34 ‰ for different manufacturers. The absolute minimum amounts required to perform a precise and accurate determination of carbon isotope compositions of glyphosate and AMPA were in the sub-microgram range. The method proposed is sensitive enough to further perform the experiments that are necessary to better understand the carbon isotope fractionation associated to the natural degradation of glyphosate into AMPA. Furthermore, it can be used for contaminant source allocation and product authenticity as well. PMID:23322349

Kujawinski, Dorothea M; Wolbert, J Benjamin; Zhang, Lijun; Jochmann, Maik A; Widory, David; Baran, Nicole; Schmidt, Torsten C

2013-03-01

213

Uso de aminoácido exógeno na prevenção de injúrias causadas por glyphosate na soja RR / Use of exogenous amino acid to prevent glyphosate injury in glyphosate-resistant soybean  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O aumento da área cultivada de soja resistente ao glyphosate (RR) no Brasil é resultado do benefício dessa tecnologia no manejo de plantas daninhas. No entanto, a expansão da área de soja RR aumentou significativamente o uso de glyphosate e consequentemente, em alguns casos, têm sido observados sint [...] omas de injúrias na soja RR conhecidos como yellow flashing ou amarelecimento das folhas superiores. Nesse sentido, dois experimentos, em diferentes anos, foram conduzidos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. O primeiro teve o objetivo de avaliar a influência do glyphosate na soja RR nas variáveis fotossintéticas, nos parâmetros de nodulação e na biomassa seca da parte aérea e raiz, realizando-se a comparação entre os tratamentos BRS 242 RR sem glyphosate, BRS 242 RR + glyphosate e a isolinha parental não-RR cv. Embrapa 58, submetidas a uma dose de glyphosate de 1.200 g e.a. ha-1; aplicada no estádio V4. O segundo experimento foi conduzido visando reavaliar as variáveis fotossintéticas, de produção de biomassa e nodulação afetadas na soja RR pelo glyphosate no primeiro experimento. Entretanto, no segundo experimento foi avaliada a utilização de diversas modalidades de aplicação de aminoácidos (a.a.), sendo os diferentes tratamentos (sem a.a.; tratamento de semente com a.a; tratamento de semente com a.a. + aplicação foliar de a.a.; sem tratamento de sementes com a.a; e com aplicação foliar de a.a) combinados com diferentes doses de glyphosate (1.200 e 2.400 g e.a. ha-1), objetivando uma provável recuperação das plantas de soja com sua utilização exógena. Em ambos os experimentos, as variáveis fotossintéticas, os parâmetros de nodulação e biomassa seca da parte aérea e raiz foram afetados pela aplicação do glyphosate, porém o segundo experimento evidenciou, de modo geral, que o uso de aminoácidos via tratamento de sementes associado com aplicação foliar pode ser uma estratégia para prevenir os efeitos indesejáveis desse herbicida na cultura da soja RR. Abstract in english Cultivation of glyphosate-resistant (GR) soybeans has increased in Brazil as a result of the application of this technology in weed management systems developed for this crop. However, the expansion of GR soybean production has significantly increased the use of glyphosate and, in some cases, result [...] ed in injury symptoms observed in GR soybean, known as "yellow flashing" or yellowing of the upper leaves. Thus, two experiments were conducted in different years. The first experiment aimed to evaluate the influence of glyphosate on GR soybeans regarding the photosynthetic variables, nodule parameters, and shoot and root dry biomass by comparing cultivar BRS 242 GR without glyphosate and BRS 242 RR + glyphosate at 1.200 g ha-1 at V4 growth stage, to the near isogenic non-GR parental line cv. Embrapa 58. The second experiment aimed to reassess the same parameters in GR soybeans at the V4 stage treated with glyphosate, plus the application of various amino acids, to evaluate the expected recovery of soybean growth under the exogenous use of supplemental amino acids. In general, the photosynthetic variables, nodulation parameters and shoot and root dry biomass were affected by glyphosate; however, the use of amino acids may be a strategy to prevent the undesirable effects of this herbicide on GR soybean

Zobiole, L.H.S.; Oliveira Jr., R.S.; Constantin, J.; Biffe, D.F.; Kremer, R.J..

214

Uso de aminoácido exógeno na prevenção de injúrias causadas por glyphosate na soja RR Use of exogenous amino acid to prevent glyphosate injury in glyphosate-resistant soybean  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O aumento da área cultivada de soja resistente ao glyphosate (RR no Brasil é resultado do benefício dessa tecnologia no manejo de plantas daninhas. No entanto, a expansão da área de soja RR aumentou significativamente o uso de glyphosate e consequentemente, em alguns casos, têm sido observados sintomas de injúrias na soja RR conhecidos como yellow flashing ou amarelecimento das folhas superiores. Nesse sentido, dois experimentos, em diferentes anos, foram conduzidos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. O primeiro teve o objetivo de avaliar a influência do glyphosate na soja RR nas variáveis fotossintéticas, nos parâmetros de nodulação e na biomassa seca da parte aérea e raiz, realizando-se a comparação entre os tratamentos BRS 242 RR sem glyphosate, BRS 242 RR + glyphosate e a isolinha parental não-RR cv. Embrapa 58, submetidas a uma dose de glyphosate de 1.200 g e.a. ha-1; aplicada no estádio V4. O segundo experimento foi conduzido visando reavaliar as variáveis fotossintéticas, de produção de biomassa e nodulação afetadas na soja RR pelo glyphosate no primeiro experimento. Entretanto, no segundo experimento foi avaliada a utilização de diversas modalidades de aplicação de aminoácidos (a.a., sendo os diferentes tratamentos (sem a.a.; tratamento de semente com a.a; tratamento de semente com a.a. + aplicação foliar de a.a.; sem tratamento de sementes com a.a; e com aplicação foliar de a.a combinados com diferentes doses de glyphosate (1.200 e 2.400 g e.a. ha-1, objetivando uma provável recuperação das plantas de soja com sua utilização exógena. Em ambos os experimentos, as variáveis fotossintéticas, os parâmetros de nodulação e biomassa seca da parte aérea e raiz foram afetados pela aplicação do glyphosate, porém o segundo experimento evidenciou, de modo geral, que o uso de aminoácidos via tratamento de sementes associado com aplicação foliar pode ser uma estratégia para prevenir os efeitos indesejáveis desse herbicida na cultura da soja RR.Cultivation of glyphosate-resistant (GR soybeans has increased in Brazil as a result of the application of this technology in weed management systems developed for this crop. However, the expansion of GR soybean production has significantly increased the use of glyphosate and, in some cases, resulted in injury symptoms observed in GR soybean, known as "yellow flashing" or yellowing of the upper leaves. Thus, two experiments were conducted in different years. The first experiment aimed to evaluate the influence of glyphosate on GR soybeans regarding the photosynthetic variables, nodule parameters, and shoot and root dry biomass by comparing cultivar BRS 242 GR without glyphosate and BRS 242 RR + glyphosate at 1.200 g ha-1 at V4 growth stage, to the near isogenic non-GR parental line cv. Embrapa 58. The second experiment aimed to reassess the same parameters in GR soybeans at the V4 stage treated with glyphosate, plus the application of various amino acids, to evaluate the expected recovery of soybean growth under the exogenous use of supplemental amino acids. In general, the photosynthetic variables, nodulation parameters and shoot and root dry biomass were affected by glyphosate; however, the use of amino acids may be a strategy to prevent the undesirable effects of this herbicide on GR soybean

L.H.S. Zobiole

2010-01-01

215

Rydberg atoms with a reduced sensitivity to dc and low-frequency electric fields  

CERN Document Server

A non-resonant microwave dressing field at 38.465 GHz was used to eliminate the static electric dipole moment difference between the $49s_{1/2}$ and $48s_{1/2}$ Rydberg states of $^{87}$Rb in dc fields of approximately 1 V/cm. The reduced susceptibility to electric field fluctuations was measured using 2-photon microwave spectroscopy. An anomalous spectral doublet is attributed to polarization ellipticity in the dressing field. The demonstrated ability to inhibit static dipole moment differences --- while retaining sensitivity to high frequency fields --- is applicable to sensors and/or quantum devices using Rydberg atoms.

Jones, L A; Martin, J D D

2013-01-01

216

Time-division SQUID multiplexers with reduced sensitivity to external magnetic fields  

CERN Document Server

Time-division SQUID multiplexers are used in many applications that require exquisite control of systematic error. One potential source of systematic error is the pickup of external magnetic fields in the multiplexer. We present measurements of the field sensitivity figure of merit, effective area, for both the first stage and second stage SQUID amplifiers in three NIST SQUID multiplexer designs. These designs include a new variety with improved gradiometry that significantly reduces the effective area of both the first and second stage SQUID amplifiers.

Stiehl, G M; Hilton, G C; Irwin, K D; Mates, J A B; Reintsema, C D; Zink, B L

2010-01-01

217

Kalanchoe blossfeldiana plants expressing the Arabidopsis etr1-1 allele show reduced ethylene sensitivity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Transgenic Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Poelln. with reduced ethylene sensitivity in flowers was obtained by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation using the plasmid pBEO210 containing the mutant ethylene receptor gene etr1-1 from Arabidopsis thaliana under the control of the flower-specific fbp1-promoter from Petunia. Three ethylene-resistent T0 lines, 300, 324 and 331, were selected and analyzed for postharvest-performance and morphological characteristics. Line 324 was found to be infertile and only slightly less ethylene-sensitive than control-plants, but lines 300 and 331 had significantly increased ethylene-resistance and were fertile. These two lines were analyzed for copy-number of the etr1-1 gene by Southern blotting and were crossed with the ethylene-sensitive cultivar 'Celine' to create T1 progeny. Line 300 contains two T-DNA copies per nucleus, one of which is rearranged, and these are unlinked according to segregation data from the crossing to 'Celine' and PCR-analysis of progeny plants. For control plants all flowers were closed after 2 days at 2 microl l(-1 )ethylene, but for line 300 only 33% were closed after 10 days. Line 331 contains three T-DNA copies per nucleus and is more sensitive to ethylene than line 300. In the line 300 the etr1-1 gene was found by RT-PCR to be expressed in petals and stamens but not in carpels and sepals. Both lines 300 and 331, and their progeny, appear morphologically and physiologically identical to control plants except for the higher ethylene resistance. Line 300 and its progeny with only one T-DNA copy have very low ethylene sensitivity and may be useful in future breeding. PMID:18080125

Sanikhani, Mohsen; Mibus, Heiko; Stummann, Bjarne M; Serek, Margrethe

2008-04-01

218

Glyphosate em mistura com herbicidas alternativos para o manejo de plantas daninhas Glyphosate combined with alternative herbicides for vegetation management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O uso intensivo de glyphosate como herbicida não-seletivo tem selecionado espécies de plantas daninhas tolerantes. Dessa forma, é importante que sejam estudadas misturas de tanque com herbicidas de mecanismos de ação alternativos e que apresentem efeitos sinergísticos ou aditivos. Por essa razão, foi instalado um experimento inteiramente casualizado, composto por 13 tratamentos e 4 repetições, em casa de vegetação da Universidade de São Paulo - ESALQ/USP, Piracicaba-SP, com as plantas daninhas Richardia brasiliensis, Commelina benghalensis, Amaranthus hybridus, Galinsoga parviflora e Ipomoea grandifolia em misturas de tanque dos herbicidas chlorimuron-ethyl, sulfentrazone, carfentrazone, bentazon ou flumioxazin com glyphosate. As interações foram aditivas para as plantas daninhas I. grandifolia e C. benghalensis, e os herbicidas flumioxazin, sulfentrazone e carfentrazone aplicados isoladamente e em mistura com glyphosate foram os que proporcionaram os melhores níveis de controle. A interação de glyphosate com sulfentrazone foi antagônica em R. brasiliensis; a mistura de glyphosate com os demais herbicidas estudados foi aditiva, sendo os tratamentos com mistura de glyphosate e chlorimuron-ethyl ou flumioxazin os mais eficazes. Em A. hybridus, os tratamentos que apresentaram melhores níveis de controle foram o glyphosate e carfentrazone, aplicados isoladamente, e a mistura de glyphosate com flumioxazin, sulfentrazone, chlorimuron-ethyl e bentazon, sendo estes interações aditivas. No caso de G. parviflora, os tratamentos com flumioxazin e sulfentrazone apresentaram controle total, o mesmo acontecendo com as misturas de glyphosate com carfentrazone, flumioxazin, sulfentrazone, chlorimuron-ethyl ou bentazon.The intensive use of glyphosate as a non-selective herbicide for weed vegetation management has selected some tolerant weed species. Thus, it is important to study the synergistic or antagonic or additive effects of tank mixtures of glyphosate combined with alternative mechanism of action herbicides. An experiment was developed in a randomized complete design, using 12 treatments and four replications, under greenhouse conditions at University of São Paulo - USP/ESALQ - Piracicaba-SP, Brazil, with the weeds Richardia brasiliensis, Commelina benghalensis, Amaranthus hybridus, Galinsoga parviflora and Ipomoea grandifolia and applying glyphosate combined with the herbicides chlorimuron-ethyl, carfentrazone, bentazon, sulfentrazone and flumioxazin. The interactions were additive for the weeds I. grandifolia and C. benghalensis but the herbicides flumioxazin, sulfentrazone and carfentrazone sprayed alone and in mixture with glyphosate gave better control results. The interaction of glyphosate with sulfentrazone was antagonic in R. brasiliensis, whereas the glyphosate mixed with other herbicides was additive; however, the treatments using glyphosate and chlorimuron-ethyl or flumioxazin were more efficient in weed control. In A. hybridus, the best control results were glyphosate and carfentrazone alone and glyphosate mixed with flumioxazin, sulfentrazone, chlorimuron-ethyl and bentazon, all additives. In the case of G. parviflora, flumioxazin, sulfentrazone, chlorimuron and bentazon with glyphosate and flumioxazin and sulfentrazone gave excellent control.

P.A. Monquero

2001-12-01

219

Exsudação radicular de glyphosate por Brachiaria decumbens e seus efeitos em plantas de eucalipto Radicular exudation of glyphosate by Brachiaria decumbens and its effects on eucalypt plant  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Plantas de eucalipto com sintomas de intoxicação por glyphosate são comuns em áreas em que esse herbicida é usado. Uma das possíveis formas de contato com glyphosate é por meio da exsudação radicular do produto, por plantas daninhas tratadas, e subseqüente absorção pelas plantas de eucalipto. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a exsudação de glyphosate por Brachiaria decumbens e seus efeitos sobre plantas de eucalipto, por meio da aplicação de 14C-glyphosate misturado à c...

2008-01-01

220

Utilização de glifosato para o controle de ferrugem da soja Glyphosate application on soybean rust control  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de glifosato sobre a germinação de esporos de Phakopsora pachyrhizi e no controle da ferrugem da soja, aplicado preventiva e erradicativamente, em condições controladas. A germinação de esporos foi avaliada tendo-se vertido, em meio de cultura, soluções de esporos com diferentes concentrações do glifosato (0, 100, 1.000, 10.000 e 20.000 ppm e fungicidas. Para avaliar o controle da ferrugem, plantas foram pulverizadas com glifosato, com variação da dose e do momento, tendo-se medido a severidade da doença. Houve efeito do produto sobre os esporos do fungo, o que reduziu sua germinação. As pulverizações em plantas, em casa de vegetação, mostraram um efeito do produto sobre a ferrugem, quando aplicado preventivamente, porém com período de proteção curto e fungitoxicidade inferior à do fungicida tebuconazole. O uso do glifosato, avaliado nesse ensaio, não deve ser visto como medida de manejo de ferrugem, e não interfere nas práticas habituais de controle da ferrugem da soja.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of glyphosate on the germination of Phakopsora pachyrhizi spores, and on soybean rust control; applications were either preventive or eradicative under controlled conditions. The germination of spores was evaluated by pouring spores solutions on culture medium, with different concentrations of glyphosate (0, 100, 1,000, 10,000 and 20,000 ppm and fungicides. For the rust control evaluation, plants were sprayed with glyphosate, varying doses and moments, and estimating the disease severity. The product reduced spores germination. Plants sprayed in greenhouse conditions, showed effect of the product on rust, when applied preventively, but with short protection period and lower fungus toxicity than tebuconazole fungicide. The use of glyphosate, evaluated in this trial, must not be taken as a rust management measure, and should not interfere in usual practices for soybean rust control.

Rafael Moreira Soares

2008-04-01

 
 
 
 
221

Utilização de glifosato para o controle de ferrugem da soja / Glyphosate application on soybean rust control  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de glifosato sobre a germinação de esporos de Phakopsora pachyrhizi e no controle da ferrugem da soja, aplicado preventiva e erradicativamente, em condições controladas. A germinação de esporos foi avaliada tendo-se vertido, em meio de cultura, soluções [...] de esporos com diferentes concentrações do glifosato (0, 100, 1.000, 10.000 e 20.000 ppm) e fungicidas. Para avaliar o controle da ferrugem, plantas foram pulverizadas com glifosato, com variação da dose e do momento, tendo-se medido a severidade da doença. Houve efeito do produto sobre os esporos do fungo, o que reduziu sua germinação. As pulverizações em plantas, em casa de vegetação, mostraram um efeito do produto sobre a ferrugem, quando aplicado preventivamente, porém com período de proteção curto e fungitoxicidade inferior à do fungicida tebuconazole. O uso do glifosato, avaliado nesse ensaio, não deve ser visto como medida de manejo de ferrugem, e não interfere nas práticas habituais de controle da ferrugem da soja. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of glyphosate on the germination of Phakopsora pachyrhizi spores, and on soybean rust control; applications were either preventive or eradicative under controlled conditions. The germination of spores was evaluated by pouring spores solutions on [...] culture medium, with different concentrations of glyphosate (0, 100, 1,000, 10,000 and 20,000 ppm) and fungicides. For the rust control evaluation, plants were sprayed with glyphosate, varying doses and moments, and estimating the disease severity. The product reduced spores germination. Plants sprayed in greenhouse conditions, showed effect of the product on rust, when applied preventively, but with short protection period and lower fungus toxicity than tebuconazole fungicide. The use of glyphosate, evaluated in this trial, must not be taken as a rust management measure, and should not interfere in usual practices for soybean rust control.

Soares, Rafael Moreira; Gazziero, Dionísio Luiz Pisa; Morita, Daniela Alves dos Santos; Ciliato, Mônica Lúcia; Flausino, Allan Misael; Santos, Leandro Cezar Menezes; Janegitz, Tatiani.

222

Response of Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus urograndis Plants at Different Doses of Glyphosate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of eucalyptus plants submitted to the application of glyphosate increasing rates. The doses 0.0, 3.6, 7.2, 18, 36, 72 and 180 g ha-1 of acid equivalent (ae of glyphosate were applied on plants. At 7, 15, 22, 29, 36 and 42 days after application (DAA was determined leaves relative chlorophyll content and quantum efficiency of photosystem II. At 22 and 42 DAA plant height and stem diameter were measured. At 42 DAA were determined the leaves dry mass, stem dry mass and foliar area. The height, diameter, leaves and stem dry masses and foliar area were converted to percentages, whereas the controls as 100%. These variables were fitted to the model described by Gauss equation. The data chlorophyll content and quantum efficiency of photosystem II were submitted to mean comparison, and when they differed, we performed the Tukey test at 5% probability. All the features presented here showed some hormetic effect promoted by reduced rates of glyphosate and the increments observed in these characteristics (when compared to control ranged between 5.92 and 33.18% at 42 DAA. From average curve with height, diameter, leaves dry mass, stem dry mass and foliar area can be concluded that the increase averaged 12% on application of 16 g a.e. of glyphosate ha-1. For leaves chlorophyll content significant differences were observed only at 29 DAA, while for quantum efficiency of photosystem II significant differences were found only at 7 DAA.  

Fernanda Campos Mastrotti Pereira

2012-12-01

223

Genotoxic effects of glyphosate or paraquat on earthworm coelomocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The potential genotoxicity (nuclear anomalies, damage to single-strand DNA) and pinocytic adherence activity of two (glyphosate-based and paraquat-based) commercial herbicides to earthworm coelomocytes (immune cells in the coelomic cavity) were assessed. Coelomocytes were extracted from earthworms (Pheretima peguana) exposed to concentrations glyphosate-based or paraquat-based herbicides on filter paper for 48 h. Three assays were performed: Micronucleus (light microscopy count of micronuclei, binuclei, and trinuclei), Comet (epifluorescent microscope and LUCIA image analyzer measure of tail DNA %, tail length, and tail moment), and Neutral Red (to detect phagocytic or pinocytic activity). The LC50 value for paraquat was 65-fold lower than for glyphosate indicating that paraquat was far more acutely toxic to P. peguana. There were significant (P glyphosate at 25 × 10(-1) (10(-3) LC50) and paraquat at 39 × 10(-5) (10(-4) LC50) ?g cm(-2) filter paper. In earthworms exposed to glyphosate, no differences in tail DNA%, tail length, and tail moment of coelomocytes were detected. In contrast, for paraquat at 10(-1) LC50 concentration, there were significant (P glyphosate or paraquat at 10(-3) LC50 concentration. This study showed that, at concentrations well below field application rates, paraquat induces both clastogenic and aneugenic effects on earthworm coelomocytes whereas glyphosate causes only aneugenic effects and therefore does not pose a risk of gene mutation in this earthworm. PMID:22644885

Muangphra, Ptumporn; Kwankua, Wimon; Gooneratne, Ravi

2014-06-01

224

Efficient fluorescence resonance energy transfer between oppositely charged CdTe quantum dots and gold nanoparticles for turn-on fluorescence detection of glyphosate.  

Science.gov (United States)

We designed a turn-on fluorescence assay for glyphosate based on the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between negatively charged CdTe quantum dots capped with thioglycolic acid (TGA-CdTe-QDs) and positively charged gold nanoparticles stabilized with cysteamine (CS-AuNPs). Oppositely charged TGA-CdTe-QDs and CS-AuNPs can form FRET donor-acceptor assemblies due to electrostatic interactions, which effectively quench the fluorescence intensity of TGA-CdTe-QDs. The presence of glyphosate could induce the aggregation of CS-AuNPs through electrostatic interactions, resulting in the fluorescence recovery of the quenched QDs. This FRET-based method has been successfully utilized to detect glyphosate in apples with satisfactory results. The detection limit for glyphosate was 9.8ng/kg (3?), with the linear range of 0.02-2.0?g/kg. The attractive sensitivity was obtained due to the efficient FRET and the superior fluorescence properties of QDs. The proposed method is a promising approach for rapid screening of glyphosate in real samples. PMID:24840461

Guo, Jiajia; Zhang, Yan; Luo, Yeli; Shen, Fei; Sun, Chunyan

2014-07-01

225

The occurrence of glyphosate, atrazine, and other pesticides in vernal pools and adjacent streams in Washington, DC, Maryland, Iowa, and Wyoming, 2005-2006  

Science.gov (United States)

Vernal pools are sensitive environments that provide critical habitat for many species, including amphibians. These small water bodies are not always protected by pesticide label requirements for no-spray buffer zones, and the occurrence of pesticides in them is poorly documented. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of glyphosate, its primary degradation product aminomethylphosphonic acid, and additional pesticides in vernal pools and adjacent flowing waters. Most sampling sites were chosen to be in areas where glyphosate was being used either in production agriculture or for nonindigenous plant control. The four site locations were in otherwise protected areas (e.g., in a National Park). When possible, water samples were collected both before and after glyphosate application in 2005 and 2006. Twenty-eight pesticides or pesticide degradation products were detected in the study, and as many as 11 were identified in individual samples. Atrazine was detected most frequently and concentrations exceeded the freshwater aquatic life standard of 1.8 micrograms per liter (??g/l) in samples from Rands Ditch and Browns Ditch in DeSoto National Wildlife Refuge. Glyphosate was measured at the highest concentration (328 ??g/l) in a sample from Riley Spring Pond in Rock Creek National Park. This concentration exceeded the freshwater aquatic life standard for glyphosate of 65 ??g/l. Aminomethylphosphonic acid, triclopyr, and nicosulfuron also were detected at concentrations greater than 3.0 ??g/l. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008.

Battaglin, W. A.; Rice, K. C.; Focazio, M. J.; Salmons, S.; Barry, R. X.

2009-01-01

226

Shock Reactivity Study on Standard and Reduced Sensitivity Rdx of Different Particle Size Distributions  

Science.gov (United States)

Embedded gauge experiments have been performed using a three inch high velocity powder gun to assess the effects of RDX particle size and crystal quality on shock induced reactivity in support of the Combat Safe Insensitive Munitions (CSIM) program. Four monomodal experimental compositions containing 73% solids loading by weight and 27% HTPB binder were tested. The compositions were made using either standard or reduced sensitivity grades of RDX in Class 5 or Class 1 150-300 micron sieve cut particle size classes. Results have shown marked changes in the mode of reaction between the two particle size classes. Both RDX grades at the Class 1 sieve cut particle size distribution showed significant reaction at the shock front as well as behind the front. The Class 5 RDX compositions however showed little reaction at the shock front with rapid growth behind the front. Reaction modes were similar but occurring at greater input pressures for the reduced sensitivity grade of RDX compared to the corresponding particle size distribution standard grade RDX counterpart.

McGregor, N. M.; Lindfors, A. J.

2007-12-01

227

Histamine Reduces Flash Sensitivity of ON Ganglion Cells in the Primate Retina  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose. In Old World primates, the retina receives input from histaminergic neurons in the posterior hypothalamus. They are a subset of the neurons that project throughout the central nervous system and fire maximally during the day. The contribution of these neurons to vision, was examined by applying histamine to a dark-adapted, superfused baboon eye cup preparation while making extracellular recordings from peripheral retinal ganglion cells. Methods. The stimuli were 5-ms, 560-nm, weak, full-field flashes in the low scotopic range. Ganglion cells with sustained and transient ON responses and two cell types with OFF responses were distinguished; their responses were recorded with a 16-channel microelectrode array. Results. Low micromolar doses of histamine decreased the rate of maintained firing and the light sensitivity of ON ganglion cells. Both sustained and transient ON cells responded similarly to histamine. There were no statistically significant effects of histamine in a more limited study of OFF ganglion cells. The response latencies of ON cells were approximately 5 ms slower, on average, when histamine was present. Histamine also reduced the signal-to-noise ratio of ON cells, particularly in those cells with a histamine-induced increase in maintained activity. Conclusions. A major action of histamine released from retinopetal axons under dark-adapted conditions, when rod signals dominate the response, is to reduce the sensitivity of ON ganglion cells to light flashes. These findings may relate to reports that humans are less sensitive to light stimuli in the scotopic range during the day, when histamine release in the retina is expected to be at its maximum.

Akimov, Nikolay P.; Marshak, David W.; Frishman, Laura J.; Yusupov, Rafail G.

2010-01-01

228

Glyphosate catabolism by Pseudomonas sp. strain PG2982.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The pathway for the degradation of glyphosate (N-phosphonomethylglycine) by Pseudomonas sp. PG2982 has been determined by using metabolic radiolabeling experiments. Radiorespirometry experiments utilizing [3-14C]glyphosate revealed that approximately 50 to 59% of the C-3 carbon was oxidized to CO2. Fractionation of stationary-phase cells labeled with [3-14C]glyphosate revealed that from 45 to 47% of the assimilated label is distributed to proteins and that the amino acids methionine and serin...

Shinabarger, D. L.; Braymer, H. D.

1986-01-01

229

Resistência de Conyza canadensis e C. bonariensis ao herbicida glyphosate Glyphosate-resistance in Conyza canadensis and C. bonariensis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, por meio de curvas de dose-resposta, a ocorrência de biótipos resistentes ao herbicida glyphosate em populações de Conyza canadensis e C. bonariensis, bem como propor tratamentos alternativos para esses biótipos. Os experimentos foram realizados em casa de vegetação, utilizando-se três populações de cada espécie: duas com suspeita de resistência ao herbicida glyphosate, coletadas em pomares de laranja localizados em duas regiões diferentes do Estado de São Paulo; e uma suscetível, coletada em área sem histórico de aplicação do herbicida. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Para cada espécie, os tratamentos foram resultado da combinação fatorial entre as três populações e os tratamentos herbicidas (oito doses de glyphosate ou cinco tratamentos alternativos. As doses de glyphosate foram (g e.a. ha¹: 90, 180, 360, 720, 1.440, 2.880, 5.760 e testemunha sem aplicação. Como alternativas de controle, foram testados os seguintes tratamentos (g ha-1: glyphosate + 2,4-D (1.440 + 1.005, glyphosate + metsulfuron (1.440 + 2,4, glyphosate + metsulfuron (1.440 + 3,6, glyphosate + metribuzin (1.440 + 480 e testemunha sem aplicação. A partir dos resultados, comprovou-se a existência de populações de ambas as espécies com biótipos resistentes ao herbicida glyphosate, com diferentes níveis de resistência. Todos os tratamentos herbicidas alternativos controlaram de forma eficiente as três populações de cada espécie.The objective of this research was to evaluate, through dose-response curves, the occurrence of glyphosate-resistant biotypes in populations of Conyza canadensis and C. bonariensis; as well as to propose alternative treatments to these biotypes. The experiments were conducted in a greenhouse, using three populations of each species: two with suspicion of resistance to the herbicide glyphosate, and collected in orange orchards located in two different São Paulo state regions; and a susceptible one, collected in an area without herbicide application history. The experimental design adopted was randomized blocks, with four replicates. For each species, the treatments were the result of a factorial combination among the three populations and the herbicide treatments (eight rates of glyphosate or five alternative treatments. The glyphosate rates used were (g e.a. ha-1: 90, 180, 360, 720, 1.440, 2.880, 5.760 and checks without application. As control alternative, the following treatments (g ha-1 were tested: glyphosate + 2,4-D (1.440 + 1.005, glyphosate + metsulfuron (1.440 + 2,4, glyphosate + metsulfuron (1.440 + 3,6, glyphosate + metribuzin (1440 + 480 and checks without application. The results obtained proved the existence of populations of both species with glyphosate-resistant biotypes, with different levels of resistance. All the alternative herbicide treatments controlled efficiently the three populations of each species.

M.S. Moreira

2007-03-01

230

Efeito hormese de glyphosate em feijoeiro / Hormesis effect of glyphosate on common bean cultivars  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Embora o efeito hormese seja amplamente conhecido, ainda não tem aplicação prática definida para o desenvolvimento da tecnologia agropecuária. Desta forma, propôs-se um estudo, no município de Selvíria (MS), com o objetivo de verificar o efeito da aplicação de baixas doses do herbicida glyphosate (0 [...] g ha-1, 10 g ha-1, 20 g ha-1, 30 g ha-1 e 40 g ha-1 do ingrediente ativo) no desenvolvimento e produtividade de cultivares de feijão (Carioca precoce - tipo I, Juriti - tipo II e Pérola - tipo III) irrigadas por aspersão, no outono-inverno de 2009 e 2010. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com 15 tratamentos dispostos em esquema fatorial 5x3 e quatro repetições. Concluiu-se que a massa de 100 grãos foi reduzida, quando submetida a subdoses mais elevadas de glyphosate, e que a aplicação de subdoses de glyphosate não alterou a produtividade do feijoeiro, quando avaliadas as três cultivares conjuntamente, entretanto, quando cada cultivar foi analisada individualmente, verificou-se aumento na produtividade do feijoeiro de até 10%, para a cultivar Juriti. Abstract in english Although being well-known, the hormesis effect has not yet a defined practical application on the development of agricultural technology. Thus, this study was carried out in Selvíria, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, in order to evaluate the effect of glyphosate applied at low doses (0 g ha-1, 10 g [...] ha-1, 20 g ha-1, 30 g ha-1 and 40 g ha-1 of active ingredient) on the development and yield of bean cultivars (Carioca precoce - type I, Juriti - type II and Pérola - type III), irrigated by aspersion, in the autumn/winter of 2009 and 2010. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with 15 treatments arranged in a 5x3 factorial scheme and four replications. It was possible to conclude that the 100 grains mass decreased when submitted to higher glyphosate sub doses, and that the application of glyphosate sub doses did not affect the common bean yield, when the three cultivars were evaluated altogether, however, when each cultivar was individually analyzed, an increase of up to 10% in yield was observed for the Juriti cultivar.

Juliano Costa da, Silva; Orivaldo, Arf; Gustavo Antonio Xavier, Gerlach; Clarice Sayumi, Kuryiama; Ricardo Antonio Ferreira, Rodrigues.

231

Reduced baroreflex sensitivity and pulmonary dysfunction in alcoholic cirrhosis: effect of hyperoxia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Patients with cirrhosis exhibit impaired regulation of the arterial blood pressure, reduced baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), and prolonged QT interval. In addition, a considerable number of patients have a pulmonary dysfunction with hypoxemia, impaired lung diffusing capacity (Dl(CO)), and presence of hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS). BRS is reduced at exposure to chronic hypoxia such as during sojourn in high altitudes. In this study, we assessed the relation of BRS to pulmonary dysfunction and cardiovascular characteristics and the effects of hyperoxia. Forty-three patients with cirrhosis and 12 healthy matched controls underwent hemodynamic and pulmonary investigations. BRS was assessed by cross-spectral analysis of variabilities between blood pressure and heart rate time series. A 100% oxygen test was performed with the assessment of arterial oxygen tensions (Pa(O(2))) and alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient. Baseline BRS was significantly reduced in the cirrhotic patients compared with the controls (4.7 +/- 0.8vs. 10.3 +/- 2.0 ms/mmHg; P <0.001). The frequency-corrected QT interval was significantly prolonged in the cirrhotic patients (P <0.05). There was no significant difference in BRS according to presence of HPS, Pa(O(2)), Dl(CO), or Child-Turcotte score, but BRS correlated with metabolic and hemodynamic characteristics. After 100% oxygen inhalation, BRS and the QT interval remained unchanged in the cirrhotic patients. In conclusion, BRS is significantly reduced in patients with cirrhosis compared with controls, but it is unrelated to the degree of pulmonary dysfunction and portal hypertension. Acute hyperoxia does not significantly revert the low BRS or the prolonged QT interval in cirrhosis.

Møller, Søren; Iversen, J.S.

2010-01-01

232

Buffer Layers May Reduce Recombination in Solid State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

The dye-sensitized solar cell is a new and renewable energy device that aims to compete with conventional fuels with its low cost and ease to manufacture. While the efficiencies of dye-sensitized solar cells are improving, they are not yet cost-competitive with current energy sources such as coal. Our project focuses on improving the efficiency of these organic solar cells by adding a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) in between the electron donor, a dye called Z907, and the semiconductor, nanoporous titania (TiO2). This SAM will theoretically reduce an unfavorable process called recombination, in which the light-excited electrons fall from their high-energy state directly back into the dye or hole-transport medium, instead of flowing through the circuit. The SAM molecules that we are using have a phosphonic acid head which should bind readily to the TiO2, and an amine group tail to tether the dye. To deposit the SAMs, the phosphonic acids are first dissolved in an organic solvent with the help of either acid (HCl) or base (KOH). We used Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) to see what differences there were between acidic and basic deposition. FTIR analysis showed greater attachment of SAMs using acidic solutions rather than basic solutions for two out of the three SAMs. In the third, deposition was fairly even. By developing a reliable procedure to deposit SAMs onto titania, we will be able to more accurately test the effects of SAMs on dye-sensitized solar cells. This could improve the efficiencies of these organic devices and possibly offer a greener and cost-competitive alternative to fossil fuels.

Proctor, J.; Brennan, T.; Bakke, J.; Bent, S.

2009-12-01

233

New C$_{6}$D$_{6}$ detectors: reduced neutron sensitivity and improved safety  

CERN Document Server

During the 2011 data measurement campaign at n_TOF, the liquid scintillator detectors developed at FZK-Karlsruhe (hereafter named K6D6, [1]) and used with success along 10 years have shown ageing problems, mainly related to liquid leakage. The mould used to produce the carbon fiber structure, containing the liquid and the detection elements, was not available anymore and the technician involved in its construction was retired. Once decided to proceed to the production of new detectors (L6D6 in the following) two major items have been identified: - The detector setup must be able to work in the new class A experimental area (safety requirements advise to avoid the use of the old K6D6 in this area). - If possible, it is useful to reduce the neutron sensitivity, with the aim to have a liquid scintillator detector with very low neutron sensitivity (improving the already high performing K6D6). [1] R.Plag et al., NIM A496 (2003) 425

Mastinu, Pierfrancesco; Berthoumieux, Eric; Cano-Ott, Daniel; Gramegna, F; Guerrero, Carlos; Massimi, Cristian; Milazzo, Paolo Maria; Mingrone, Federica; Praena, Javier; Prete, G; García, Aczel Regino

2013-01-01

234

Sensitive detection of rutin based on ?-cyclodextrin-chemically reduced graphene/Nafion composite film  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? ?-CD-graphene composite obtained via a simple sonication-induced assembly. ? Accelerating electron transfer on electrode to amplify the electrochemical signal. ? A highly sensitive electrochemical sensor for rutin detection. ? Good selectivity and reproducibility for the detection of rutin in real samples. - Abstract: An electrochemical sensor based on chemically reduced graphene (CRG) was developed for the sensitive detection of rutin. To construct the base of the sensor, a novel composite was initially fabricated and used as the substrate material by combining CRG and ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) via a simple sonication-induced assembly. Due to the high rutin-loading capacity on the electrode surface and the upstanding electric conductivity of graphene, the electrochemical response of the fabricated sensor was greatly enhanced and displayed excellent analytical performance for rutin detection from 6.0 x 10-9 to 1.0 x 10-5 mol L-1 with a low detection limit of 2.0 x 10-9 mol L-1 at 3?. Moreover, the proposed electrochemical sensor also exhibited good selectivity and acceptable reproducibility and could be used for the detection of rutin in real samples. Therefore, the present work offers a new way to broaden the analytical applications of graphene in pharmaceutical analysis.

2011-05-30

235

Labile compounds in plant litter reduce the sensitivity of decomposition to warming and altered precipitation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Together, climate and litter quality strongly regulate decomposition rates. Although these two factors and their interaction have been studied across species in continent-scale experiments, few researchers have studied how labile and recalcitrant compounds interact to influence decomposition, or the climate sensitivity of decomposition, within a litter type. Over a period of 3 yr, we studied the effects of warming and altered precipitation on mass loss and compound-specific decomposition using two litter types that possessed similar heteropolymer chemistry, but different proportions of labile and recalcitrant compounds. Climate treatments immediately affected the mass loss of the more recalcitrant litter, but affected the more labile litter only after 2 yr. After 3 yr, although both litter types had lost similar amounts of mass, warming (c. 4°C) and supplemental precipitation (150% of ambient) together accelerated the degradation of alkyl-carbon and lignin only in the more recalcitrant litter, highlighting the role of initial litter quality in determining whether the chemistry of litter residues converges or diverges under different climates. Our finding that labile compounds in litter reduce the climate sensitivity of mass loss and the decomposition of recalcitrant matrix is novel. Our results highlight the potential for litter quality to regulate the effect of climatic changes on the sequestration of litter-derived carbon. PMID:23822593

Suseela, Vidya; Tharayil, Nishanth; Xing, Baoshan; Dukes, Jeffrey S

2013-10-01

236

Enthalpic partitioning of the reduced temperature sensitivity of O2 binding in bovine hemoglobin  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The oxygenation enthalpy of the heme groups of hemoglobin (Hb) is inherently exothermic, resulting in decreased Hb-O2 affinity with rising temperature. However, oxygenation is coupled with endothermic dissociation of allosteric effectors (e.g. protons, chloride ions and organic phosphates) from the protein moiety, which thus reduces the overall oxygenation enthalpy. The evolution of Hbs with reduced temperature sensitivity ostensibly safeguards O2 unloading in cold extremities of regionally-heterothermic vertebrates permitting energy-saving reductions in heat loss. Ungulate (e.g. bovine) Hbs have long served as a model system in this regard in that they exhibit numerically low oxygenation enthalpies that are thought to correlate with the presence of an additional Cl(-) binding site (compared to human Hb) comprised of three cationic residues at positions 8, 76 and 77 of the β-chains of Hb. However, ungulate Hbs also exhibit distinctive amino acid exchanges at the N-termini of the β-chains that stabilize the low-affinity deoxystructure of the Hb, mimicking the action of organic phosphates. In order to assess the relative contributions from these two effects, we measured the temperature sensitivity of Hb-O2 affinity in bovine and human Hbs in the absence and presence of Cl(-) ions under strictly controlled pH conditions. The data indicate that Cl(-)-binding accounts for a minority (~30%) of the total reduction in the oxygenation enthalpy manifested in bovine compared to human Hb, whereas the majority of this reduction is ascribable to structural differences, including increased β-chain hydrophobicity that would increase the heat of oxygenation-linked conformational change in bovine Hb.

Weber, Roy E; Fago, Angela

2014-01-01

237

Resistência de genótipos de soja ao herbicida glyphosate / Resistance of soybean genotypes to glyphosate  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Avaliou-se a resistência de dez genótipos de soja (Glycine max) ao herbicida glyphosate. Foi adotado o esquema fatorial 10 x 4, no delineamento em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. O fator A foi composto por dez genótipos de soja, e o B, por quatro doses de glyphosate. A aplicação do herbi [...] cida foi realizada no momento em que as plantas de soja apresentavam a segunda folha trifoliolada completamente desenvolvida. Avaliaramse os caracteres: intoxicação das plantas, número de nós da haste principal, altura das plantas e massa seca das plantas. Na avaliação da intoxicação de plantas, tanto aos quatro dias após a aplicação (DAA) do herbicida quanto aos 28 DAA, os genótipos convencionais apresentaram médias superiores estatisticamente em comparação com genótipos resistentes ao glyphosate (RR). Verificou-se que, nas avaliações realizadas ao 0 DAA ou aos 28 DAA sob 0,0 g e.a. ha¹, as respostas dos genótipos foram diferentes em todos os caracteres avaliados, com exceção do número de nós aos 28 DAA. Essas diferenças podem ser atribuídas aos efeitos fisiológicos e ambientais ou a características do próprio material. Nas demais doses, os genótipos RR comportaram-se de maneira desejável em detrimento dos genótipos convencionais. Ao considerar todos os caracteres avaliados, pode-se afirmar que Valiosa RR, BCR945G110, BCR945G114, BCR892G132, BCR892G140, BCR1067G210, BCR1070G244 e M-SOY 8008RR comportaram-se de forma semelhante quanto à resistência ao glyphosate quando submetidos até a dose de 2.160 g e.a. ha-1 . Abstract in english Resistance of ten soybean genotypes (Glycine max) to the herbicide glyphosate was evaluated. The randomized block experimental design was used under factorial scheme 10 x 4 and four replicates. Factor A was composed of 10 soybean genotypes and factor B of four glyphosate doses. The herbicide was app [...] lied when the second trifoliate leaf of the soybean plants was completely developed. The following characters were evaluated: plant intoxication, number of nodes at the main stem, plant height and dry mass. When evaluating plant intoxication either at four days after application (DAA) of the herbicide and at 28 DAA, the conventional genotypes showed statistically higher averages, compared to the glyphosate-resistant genotypes (RR). In evaluations accomplished at 0 DAA or at 28 DAA under 0.0 g e.a. ha-1, the genotype responses were different for all characters under evaluation, except for the number of nodes at 28 DAA. These differences were attributed to the physiological and environmental effects or to the characteristics of the material itself. At other doses, the behavior of the RR genotypes was superior to that of the conventional ones. Taking into account all characters under evaluation, it can be stated that Valiosa RR, BCR945G110, BCR945G114, BCR892G132, BCR892G140, BCR1067G210, BCR1070G244 and M-SOY 8008RR behaved similarly for glyphosate resistance when subjected to doses up to 2.160 g e.a. ha-1 .

E, Matsuo; T, Sediyama; C.D, Cruz; A.A, Silva; R.C.T, Oliveira; A.P.O, Nogueira; F.D, Tancredi.

238

Evolved glyphosate-resistant weeds around the world: lessons to be learnt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glyphosate is the world's most important herbicide, with many uses that deliver effective and sustained control of a wide spectrum of unwanted (weedy) plant species. Until recently there were relatively few reports of weedy plant species evolving resistance to glyphosate. Since 1996, the advent and subsequent high adoption of transgenic glyphosate-resistant crops in the Americas has meant unprecedented and often exclusive use of glyphosate for weed control over very large areas. Consequently, in regions of the USA where transgenic glyphosate-resistant crops dominate, there are now evolved glyphosate-resistant populations of the economically damaging weed species Ambrosia artemissifolia L., Ambrosia trifida L., Amaranthus palmeri S Watson, Amaranthus rudis JD Sauer, Amaranthus tuberculatus (Moq) JD Sauer and various Conyza and Lolium spp. Likewise, in areas of transgenic glyphosate-resistant crops in Argentina and Brazil, there are now evolved glyphosate-resistant populations of Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers and Euphorbia heterophylla L. respectively. As transgenic glyphosate-resistant crops will remain very popular with producers, it is anticipated that glyphosate-resistant biotypes of other prominent weed species will evolve over the next few years. Therefore, evolved glyphosate-resistant weeds are a major risk for the continued success of glyphosate and transgenic glyphosate-resistant crops. However, glyphosate-resistant weeds are not yet a problem in many parts of the world, and lessons can be learnt and actions taken to achieve glyphosate sustainability. A major lesson is that maintenance of diversity in weed management systems is crucial for glyphosate to be sustainable. Glyphosate is essential for present and future world food production, and action to secure its sustainability for future generations is a global imperative. PMID:18273881

Powles, Stephen B

2008-04-01

239

Glyphosate-resistant weeds of South American cropping systems: an overview.  

Science.gov (United States)

Herbicide resistance is an evolutionary event resulting from intense herbicide selection over genetically diverse weed populations. In South America, orchard, cereal and legume cropping systems show a strong dependence on glyphosate to control weeds. The goal of this report is to review the current knowledge on cases of evolved glyphosate-resistant weeds in South American agriculture. The first reports of glyphosate resistance include populations of highly diverse taxa (Lolium multiflorum Lam., Conyza bonariensis L., C. canadensis L.). In all instances, resistance evolution followed intense glyphosate use in fruit fields of Chile and Brazil. In fruit orchards from Colombia, Parthenium hysterophorus L. has shown the ability to withstand high glyphosate rates. The recent appearance of glyphosate-resistant Sorghum halepense L. and Euphorbia heterophylla L. in glyphosate-resistant soybean fields of Argentina and Brazil, respectively, is of major concern. The evolution of glyphosate resistance has clearly taken place in those agroecosystems where glyphosate exerts a strong and continuous selection pressure on weeds. The massive adoption of no-till practices together with the utilization of glyphosate-resistant soybean crops are factors encouraging increase in glyphosate use. This phenomenon has been more evident in Argentina and Brazil. The exclusive reliance on glyphosate as the main tool for weed management results in agroecosystems biologically more prone to glyphosate resistance evolution. PMID:18161884

Vila-Aiub, Martin M; Vidal, Ribas A; Balbi, Maria C; Gundel, Pedro E; Trucco, Frederico; Ghersa, Claudio M

2008-04-01

240

Effect of glyphosate and manganese on nutrition and yield of transgenic glyphosate-resistant soybeanEfeito de glyphosate e manganês na nutrição e produtividade da soja transgênica  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research suggests that the application of glyphosate on transgenic glyphosate-resistant soybean can cause induced deficiency of Mn. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the application of glyphosate and manganese in post-emergence on different phenological growth stages of RR soybean and its effects on leaf nutrient contents and productivity of grains. The experiment was carried out at two farms in Rio Brilhante-MS, both with randomized block experimental design with six replications at Lages de Pedra farm and four replications at São Manoel farm. Treatments were established in 3 x 8 factorial schemes, where the factor A consisted of three treatments with glyphosate (without the application of glyphosate, application of 720 g i.a. in the growth stage V2 + 480 g a. in V4, and application of 1.200 g i.a. in V4 growth stage. The factor B consisted of eight treatments with foliar application of Mn being without application, and seven Mn application was sprayed the leaves with 332 g ha-1, divided into different growth stages. The application of glyphosate on transgenic soybean did not have effect on leaf nutrient contents, including the absorbing of Mn. Yield and mass of 100 grains were not influenced by applying of glyphosate neither by leaf fertilization with Mn, and leaf applying of Mn influenced only the leaf contents of Mn and Fe.Pesquisas sugerem que a aplicação de glyphosate em soja transgênica (soja RR pode causar deficiência induzida de Mn. Assim, objetivou-se com o trabalho avaliar a aplicação de Mn e glyphosate em pós-emergência em diferentes estádios fenológicos da soja RR e, seus efeitos nos teores foliares de nutrientes e produtividade de grãos. O experimento foi realizado em duas propriedades no município de Rio Brilhante – MS, ambos com delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, com seis repetições na Fazenda Lages de Pedra, e quatro na Fazenda São Manoel. Os tratamentos foram dispostos em arranjo fatorial 3 x 8, onde o fator A consistiu de três tratamentos com glyphosate (sem aplicação de glyphosate, aplicação de 720 g i.a. no estádio fenológico V2 + 480 g i.a. em V4, e aplicação de 1.200 g i.a. no estádio V4. O fator B consistiu de oito tratamentos com aplicação foliar de Mn sendo uma testemunha, e sete formas de aplicação de Mn via foliar com 332 g ha-1, divididos em diferentes estádios de fenológicos. A aplicação de glyphosate na soja transgênica não apresentou efeito nos teores foliares de nutrientes, inclusive na absorção de Mn. A produtividade e a massa de 100 grãos não foram influenciadas pela aplicação de glyphosate ou pela adubação foliar com Mn, e a aplicação foliar de Mn influenciou apenas os teores foliares de Mn e Fe.

Rafael Sabino Bonifácio Doreto

2011-08-01

 
 
 
 
241

Is there a reduced sensitivity of dihydroartemisinin against praziquantel-resistant Schistosoma japonicum?  

Science.gov (United States)

Praziquantel is currently the only drug of choice for the treatment of human schistosomiases. However, it has been proved that Schistosoma japonicum subjected to drug pressure may develop resistance to praziquantel. To evaluate the efficacy of dihydroartemisinin against praziquantel-resistant S. japonicum, mice infected with a praziquantel-resistant isolate and a praziquantel-susceptible isolate of S. japonicum were treated with dihydroartemisinin at a single oral dose of 300 mg/kg given once on each of 35-36 post-infection days, while infected but untreated mice served as controls. All mice were sacrificed 50 days post-infection, and the worm burden reductions were estimated. Administration of dihydroartemisinin at a single oral dose of 300 mg/kg on each of 35-36 post-infection days reduced total worm burdens of 69.8% and female worm burdens of 86% in mice infected with the praziquantel-susceptible isolate, and total worm burdens of 66.1% and female worm burdens of 85.1% in mice infected with the praziquantel-resistant isolate (both P values > 0.05). It is concluded that the sensitivity of artemisinin derivative dihydroartemisinin does not reduce in praziquantel-resistant S. japonicum. PMID:24146208

Wang, Wei; Li, Hong-Jun; Qu, Guo-Li; Xing, Yun-Tian; Yang, Zhen-Kun; Dai, Jian-Rong; Liang, You-Sheng

2014-01-01

242

Blackhead disease: reduced sensitivity of Histomonas meleagridis to nitarsone in vitro and in vivo.  

Science.gov (United States)

Histomonas meleagridis, a flagellated protozoan parasite, is the causative agent of blackhead disease or histomoniasis in gallinaceous birds. Currently nitarsone (4-nitrophenylarsonic acid) is the only approved preventative drug available in the United States against blackhead disease. Initially we tested the sensitivity of three different isolates of H. meleagridis collected from outbreaks in North Carolina (strain MNC), Michigan (strain ZM), and Georgia (strain BG) to nitarsone using in vitro culture conditions. Strain ZM and strain BG at 100 and 400 ppm showed reduced growth in comparison to their respective control groups. However, there was no inhibition of growth in strain MNC treated with nitarsone at 100 ppm, while reduced growth was seen at 400 ppm. To test the resistance of strain MNC to nitarsone in vivo, turkey poults fed a nitarsone or a control diet were inoculated cloacally with H. meleagridis. The nitarsone-treated group of birds did not show any significant difference compared to that of infected control group when measuring weight gain and liver and cecal lesions scores. Histomonas meleagridis were reisolated from the nitarsone-fed turkeys and subjected to the in vitro assay. Regenerated H. meleagridis maintain their resistance to nitarsone at 100 ppm. This study demonstrates that strain MNC has acquired partial resistance to nitarsone. PMID:24758114

Abraham, M; McDougald, L R; Beckstead, R B

2014-03-01

243

Pool of resistance mechanisms to glyphosate in Digitaria insularis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Digitaria insularis biotypes resistant to glyphosate have been detected in Brazil. Studies were carried out in controlled conditions to determine the role of absorption, translocation, metabolism, and gene mutation as mechanisms of glyphosate resistance in D. insularis. The susceptible biotype absorbed at least 12% more (14)C-glyphosate up to 48 h after treatment (HAT) than resistant biotypes. High differential (14)C-glyphosate translocation was observed at 12 HAT, so that >70% of the absorbed herbicide remained in the treated leaf in resistant biotypes, whereas 42% remained in the susceptible biotype at 96 HAT. Glyphosate was degraded to aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), glyoxylate, and sarcosine by >90% in resistant biotypes, whereas a small amount of herbicide (up to 11%) was degraded by the susceptible biotype up to 168 HAT. Two amino acid changes were found at positions 182 and 310 in EPSPS, consisting of a proline to threonine and a tyrosine to cysteine substitution, respectively, in resistant biotypes. Therefore, absorption, translocation, metabolism, and gene mutation play an important role in the D. insularis glyphosate resistance. PMID:22175446

de Carvalho, Leonardo Bianco; Alves, Pedro Luis da Costa Aguiar; González-Torralva, Fidel; Cruz-Hipolito, Hugo Enrique; Rojano-Delgado, Antonia María; De Prado, Rafael; Gil-Humanes, Javier; Barro, Francisco; de Castro, María Dolores Luque

2012-01-18

244

PHYTO-MICROBIAL DEGRADATION OF GLYPHOSATE IN RIYADH AREA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Greenhouse studies were conducted to determine the ability of plant Amaranth, Amaranthus caudate and two isolated bacterial strains from rhizosphere region for cleaning up glyphosate residues in soil and plants. The analytical study of the biodegradation of glyphosate was carried out in the laboratory conditions. Amaranth, Amaranthus caudate and two isolated bacterial strains namely Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus megaterium could degrade glyphosate in 5 days. These results suggested that phytoremediation could accelerate the degradation of glyphosate residues in plants and in rhizosphere region as well. Glyphosate had strong effect on bacterial DNA where many DNA bands were affected. This could be explained that the effect of herbicide glyphosate on the protein profile may reflex somehow DNA mutation occurred during the assimilation of those toxic compounds. Therefore, the alteration occurred in both DNA and protein profiles is considered a degree of tolerance that lead to DNA mutation to cope with the assimilation of this compound. Therefore, the phytoremediation way could be a promising tool in program is to protect public health and the environment by ensuring the safety and availability of herbicides and pesticide alternatives.

ABDEL-MEGEED A.

2013-09-01

245

A glyphosate-based pesticide impinges on transcription  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Widely spread chemicals used for human benefits may exert adverse effects on health or the environment, the identification of which are a major challenge. The early development of the sea urchin constitutes an appropriate model for the identification of undesirable cellular and molecular targets of pollutants. The widespread glyphosate-based pesticide affected sea urchin development by impeding the hatching process at millimolar range concentration of glyphosate. Glyphosate, the active herbicide ingredient of Roundup, by itself delayed hatching as judged from the comparable effect of different commercial glyphosate-based pesticides and from the effect of pure glyphosate addition to a threshold concentration of Roundup. The surfactant polyoxyethylene amine (POEA), the major component of commercial Roundup, was found to be highly toxic to the embryos when tested alone and therefore could contribute to the inhibition of hatching. Hatching, a landmark of early development, is a transcription-dependent process. Correlatively, the herbicide inhibited the global transcription, which follows fertilization at the 16-cell stage. Transcription inhibition was dose-dependent in the millimolar glyphosate range concentration. A 1257-bp fragment of the hatching enzyme transcript from Sphaerechinus granularis was cloned and sequenced; its transcription was delayed by 2 h in the pesticide-treated embryos. Because transcription is a fundamental basic biological process, the pesticide may be of health concern by inhalation near herbicide spraying at a concentration 25 times the adverse transcription concentration in the sprayed microdroplets

2005-02-15

246

Intoxicação de espécies de eucalipto submetidas à deriva do glyphosate Intoxication of eucalypt species under glyphosate drift  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O glyphosate é o herbicida mais utilizado em áreas de reflorestamento de eucalipto. Nessas áreas tem sido freqüente a verificação de sintomas de intoxicação devido à deriva. Entretanto, trabalhos de pesquisa e observações de campo indicam comportamento diferencial entre as espécies e os clones de eucalipto quando em contato com o glyphosate. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos da deriva simulada de glyphosate, por meio de doses reduzidas, no crescimento de cinco espécies de eucalipto. Utilizou-se o esquema fatorial 5x5, sendo cinco espécies (Eucalyptus urophylla, E. grandis, E. pellita, E. resinifera e E. saligna e cinco doses (0; 43,2; 86,4; 172,8; e 345,6 g ha-1 de glyphosate, no delineamento em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. A aplicação do herbicida foi feita sobre as plantas, de modo que não atingisse o terço superior, 23 dias após o plantio destas. Os sintomas de intoxicação causados pelo glyphosate foram semelhantes nas diferentes espécies, sendo caracterizados por murcha, clorose e enrolamento foliar, e, no caso de maiores doses, por necroses e senescência foliar. Plantas submetidas a doses acima de 86,4 g ha-1 de glyphosate foram severamente intoxicadas, afetando o seu crescimento, resultando em menor altura, diâmetro do caule e massa seca aos 45 dias após aplicação do herbicida. Entre as espécies estudadas, E. resinifera foi mais tolerante à deriva de glyphosate, apresentando menores valores de intoxicação e maior incremento em altura e diâmetro, mesmo nas plantas submetidas às maiores doses, o que não foi observado nas demais espécies.Glyphosate is the most used herbicide in eucalypt plantations. In these areas intoxication symptoms are often observed due to glyphosate drift. However, research works and field observations indicate different behaviors among eucalypt species and clones with glyphosate contact. This work aimed to evaluate the effects of simulated glyphosate drift, by means of herbicide subdoses, on the growth of five eucalypt species. The factorial model used five species (Eucalyptus urophylla, E. grandis, E. pellita, E. resinifera and E. saligna and five subdoses (0, 43.2, 86.4, 172.8, and 345.6 g ha-1 glyphosate arranged in a randomized block design, with four repetitions. Glyphosate applications were performed on the plants in such a way as to avoid reaching the upper third part of the plants 23 days after seed planting. The intoxication symptoms caused by glyphosate were similar for the different species, as characterized by wilt, chlorosis and leaf curling and in the case of larger doses, by necrosis and leaf senescence. Plants treated with subdoses above 86.4 g ha-1 glyphosate were severely intoxicated and were affected in their growth, with smaller height, diameter and less dry matter after 45 days of herbicide application. Among the species studied, E. resinifera showed to be the most tolerant to glyphosate drift, displaying the lowest intoxication values and greatest height and diameter increases, a fact not observed in the other species.

L.D. Tuffi Santos

2006-06-01

247

Intoxicação de espécies de eucalipto submetidas à deriva do glyphosate / Intoxication of eucalypt species under glyphosate drift  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O glyphosate é o herbicida mais utilizado em áreas de reflorestamento de eucalipto. Nessas áreas tem sido freqüente a verificação de sintomas de intoxicação devido à deriva. Entretanto, trabalhos de pesquisa e observações de campo indicam comportamento diferencial entre as espécies e os clones de eu [...] calipto quando em contato com o glyphosate. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos da deriva simulada de glyphosate, por meio de doses reduzidas, no crescimento de cinco espécies de eucalipto. Utilizou-se o esquema fatorial 5x5, sendo cinco espécies (Eucalyptus urophylla, E. grandis, E. pellita, E. resinifera e E. saligna) e cinco doses (0; 43,2; 86,4; 172,8; e 345,6 g ha-1 de glyphosate), no delineamento em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. A aplicação do herbicida foi feita sobre as plantas, de modo que não atingisse o terço superior, 23 dias após o plantio destas. Os sintomas de intoxicação causados pelo glyphosate foram semelhantes nas diferentes espécies, sendo caracterizados por murcha, clorose e enrolamento foliar, e, no caso de maiores doses, por necroses e senescência foliar. Plantas submetidas a doses acima de 86,4 g ha-1 de glyphosate foram severamente intoxicadas, afetando o seu crescimento, resultando em menor altura, diâmetro do caule e massa seca aos 45 dias após aplicação do herbicida. Entre as espécies estudadas, E. resinifera foi mais tolerante à deriva de glyphosate, apresentando menores valores de intoxicação e maior incremento em altura e diâmetro, mesmo nas plantas submetidas às maiores doses, o que não foi observado nas demais espécies. Abstract in english Glyphosate is the most used herbicide in eucalypt plantations. In these areas intoxication symptoms are often observed due to glyphosate drift. However, research works and field observations indicate different behaviors among eucalypt species and clones with glyphosate contact. This work aimed to ev [...] aluate the effects of simulated glyphosate drift, by means of herbicide subdoses, on the growth of five eucalypt species. The factorial model used five species (Eucalyptus urophylla, E. grandis, E. pellita, E. resinifera and E. saligna) and five subdoses (0, 43.2, 86.4, 172.8, and 345.6 g ha-1 glyphosate) arranged in a randomized block design, with four repetitions. Glyphosate applications were performed on the plants in such a way as to avoid reaching the upper third part of the plants 23 days after seed planting. The intoxication symptoms caused by glyphosate were similar for the different species, as characterized by wilt, chlorosis and leaf curling and in the case of larger doses, by necrosis and leaf senescence. Plants treated with subdoses above 86.4 g ha-1 glyphosate were severely intoxicated and were affected in their growth, with smaller height, diameter and less dry matter after 45 days of herbicide application. Among the species studied, E. resinifera showed to be the most tolerant to glyphosate drift, displaying the lowest intoxication values and greatest height and diameter increases, a fact not observed in the other species.

Tuffi Santos, L.D.; Ferreira, F.A.; Ferreira, L.R.; Duarte, W.M.; Tiburcio, R.A.S.; Santos, M.V..

248

Glyphosate-Resistant Giant Ragweed (Ambrosia trifida L. in Ontario: Dose Response and Control with Postemergence Herbicides  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida L. is competitive with agronomic crops and can cause significant yield losses. Rapid adoption of glyphosate-resistant (GR crops and a concomitant increase in the reliance on glyphosate for weed management has led to the evolution of GR giant ragweed in Ontario, Canada. Field studies were conducted to evaluate the level of resistance in giant ragweed biotypes from Ontario, and to evaluate the effectiveness of various postemer-gence (POST herbicides in soybean (Glycine max L.. The effective dose (ED to provide 50%, 80% and 95% giant ragweed control was up to 1658, 9991 and >43200 g?a.e.?ha–1 4 weeks after application (WAA, respectively. For effective control, growers would need to apply glyphosate 18 times greater than the recommended field application dose. Glyphosate applied at the recommended field dose of 900 g?a.e.?ha–1 provided up to 57% control and resulted in soybean yield equivalent to the weedy check. Cloransulam-methyl applied POST provided up to 99% control, reduced giant ragweed density 98%, reduced giant ragweed shoot dry weight 99% and resulted in soybean yield equivalent to the weedfree check. Chlorimuron-ethyl, fomesafen, imazethapyr and imazethapyr plus bentazon applied alone or with glyphosate did not provide adequate control of GR giant ragweed. Based on these results, some GR giant ragweed biotypes from Ontario have evolved a high level of resistance to glyphosate. Cloransulam-methyl applied POST was the only herbicide that provided adequate control and suggests that additional weed management tactics will need to be implemented in order to effectively manage GR giant ragweed.

Mark B. Lawton

2012-05-01

249

Crescimento do eucalipto sob efeito da deriva de glyphosate Eucalyptus growth under the effect of glyphosate drift  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Um dos questionamentos no setor florestal é sobre os possíveis efeitos negativos da deriva de glyphosate sobre plantas de eucalipto ao longo de seu ciclo. Aos 30 dias após a aplicação (DAA) de 1.440 g ha-1 de glyphosate, para controle de plantas daninhas em talhão de Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla (híbrido urograndis) com 120 dias após o transplantio, selecionaram-se 120 plantas ao acaso, que apresentavam graus de intoxicação variáveis. Os tratamentos foram os seguintes interval...

2007-01-01

250

Selectivity of glyphosate tank mixtures for RR soybean Seletividade de glyphosate em misturas em tanque para soja RR  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An active ingredients mixture of different action mechanisms is an essential tool to prevent or manage areas with resistant weeds. However, it is important that such a mixture provides adequate selectivity to the crop. The aim of this work was to evaluate glyphosate selectivity to glyphosate-resistant (RR) soybean, and also verify if there is selectivity in mixtures with other active ingredients applied postemergence aimed at new control strategies, which might be used in RR soybean cultivati...

Alonso, D. G.; Constantin, J.; Oliveira Jr, R. S.; Arantes, J. G. Z.; Cavalieri, S. D.; Santos, G.; Rios, F. A.; Franchini, L. H. M.

2011-01-01

251

Aplicação foliar de manganês em soja transgênica tolerante ao glyphosate Foliar application of manganese in transgenic soybean tolerant to glyphosate  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

O amarelecimento da soja Roundup Ready após aplicação do glyphosate pode estar associado à deficiência momentânea de manganês. Por isso, com a hipótese de que soja tolerante ao glyphosate necessitaria de uma adição suplementar de manganês, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar diferentes manejos na aplicação foliar de manganês sobre alguns parâmetros da soja. Foram desenvolvidos dois experimentos, um no município de Taquaruçú do Sul e outro em Boa Vista das Missões, RS, no ...

2011-01-01

252

Comparative environmental impacts of glyphosate and conventional herbicides when used with glyphosate-tolerant and non-tolerant crops  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The introduction of glyphosate-tolerant (GT) crops is expected to mitigate the environmental contamination by herbicides because glyphosate is less persistent and toxic than the herbicides used on non-GT crops. Here, we compared the environmental balances of herbicide applications for both crop types in three French field trials. The dynamic of herbicides and their metabolites in soil, groundwater and air was simulated with PRZM model and compared to field measurements. The associated impacts were aggregated with toxicity potentials calculated with the fate and exposure model USES for several environmental endpoints. The impacts of GT systems were lower than those of non-GT systems, but the accumulation in soils of one glyphosate metabolite (aminomethylphosphonic acid) questions the sustainability of GT systems. The magnitude of the impacts depends on the rates and frequency of glyphosate application being highest for GT maize monoculture and lowest for combination of GT oilseed rape and non-GT sugarbeet crops. - The impacts of herbicide applications on glyphosate-tolerant crops could be higher than expected due to the accumulation of a metabolite of glyphosate in soils.

2010-10-01

253

Comparative environmental impacts of glyphosate and conventional herbicides when used with glyphosate-tolerant and non-tolerant crops  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The introduction of glyphosate-tolerant (GT) crops is expected to mitigate the environmental contamination by herbicides because glyphosate is less persistent and toxic than the herbicides used on non-GT crops. Here, we compared the environmental balances of herbicide applications for both crop types in three French field trials. The dynamic of herbicides and their metabolites in soil, groundwater and air was simulated with PRZM model and compared to field measurements. The associated impacts were aggregated with toxicity potentials calculated with the fate and exposure model USES for several environmental endpoints. The impacts of GT systems were lower than those of non-GT systems, but the accumulation in soils of one glyphosate metabolite (aminomethylphosphonic acid) questions the sustainability of GT systems. The magnitude of the impacts depends on the rates and frequency of glyphosate application being highest for GT maize monoculture and lowest for combination of GT oilseed rape and non-GT sugarbeet crops. - The impacts of herbicide applications on glyphosate-tolerant crops could be higher than expected due to the accumulation of a metabolite of glyphosate in soils.

Mamy, Laure, E-mail: laure.mamy@versailles.inra.f [INRA-AgroParisTech, UMR 1091 Environnement et Grandes Cultures, 78850 Thiverval-Grignon (France); Gabrielle, Benoit, E-mail: benoit.gabrielle@agroparistech.f [INRA-AgroParisTech, UMR 1091 Environnement et Grandes Cultures, 78850 Thiverval-Grignon (France); Barriuso, Enrique, E-mail: barriuso@grignon.inra.f [INRA-AgroParisTech, UMR 1091 Environnement et Grandes Cultures, 78850 Thiverval-Grignon (France)

2010-10-15

254

Speciation of glyphosate, phosphate and aminomethylphosphonic acid in soil extracts by ion chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with an octopole reaction system.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ion-pairing chromatography coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) used for the speciation of phosphorus is limited as the mobile phase containing organic solvents changes in detection sensitivity and the carbon precipitates on torch and cones. To address this issue, anion-exchange chromatography with ICP-MS has been used for the speciation of glyphosate, phosphate and aminomethylphosphonic acid in soil extracts. The separation of the targets on a new column was achieved within 5 min using an eluent containing 20 mM NH(4)NO(3) at pH 5.1. Furthermore, since the polyatomic ions such as (14)N(16)O(1)H(+) and (15)N(16)O(+) from a nitrogen-based ion-pairing reagent interfered with ICP-MS detection of (31)P, an octopole reaction system was investigated to determine whether the polyatomic interferences could be reduced. The results show that addition of He to the cell can benefit analyses by reducing such interferences, but at the expense of reduced sensitivity. The detection limits in the range of 1.0-1.5 microg L(-1) (expressed as P) was achieved when 50 microL was injected using He as the collusion gas. PMID:19269440

Chen, Zuliang; He, Wenxiang; Beer, Michael; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravendra

2009-05-15

255

The effect of glyphosate on the frequency of micronuclei in bovine lymphocytes in vitro  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Glyphosate is a widely used broad-spectrum herbicide that has expanded its applications on plant varieties that are genetically modified to tolerate glyphosate treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of micronuclei (MNi) in bovine peripheral lymphocytes after exposure to glyphosate in vitro. The cytokinesis block micronucleus assay (CBMN) for estimation of genotoxic activity was used. The obtained results indicate that glyphosate weakly induced micronuclei in bovine pe...

Piešova Elena

2005-01-01

256

Differential Effects of Glyphosate and Roundup on Human Placental Cells and Aromatase  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Roundup is a glyphosate-based herbicide used worldwide, including on most genetically modified plants that have been designed to tolerate it. Its residues may thus enter the food chain, and glyphosate is found as a contaminant in rivers. Some agricultural workers using glyphosate have pregnancy problems, but its mechanism of action in mammals is questioned. Here we show that glyphosate is toxic to human placental JEG3 cells within 18 hr with concentrations lower than those found with agricult...

Richard, Sophie; Moslemi, Safa; Sipahutar, Herbert; Benachour, Nora; Seralini, Gilles-eric

2005-01-01

257

Degradation of the Phosphonate Herbicide Glyphosate by Arthrobacter atrocyaneus ATCC 13752  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Of nine authentic Arthrobacter strains tested, only A. atrocyaneus ATCC 13752 was capable of using the herbicide glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] as its sole source of phosphorus. Contrary to the previously isolated Arthrobacter sp. strain GLP-1, which degrades glyphosate via sarcosine, A. atrocyaneus metabolized glyphosate to aminomethylphosphonic acid. The carbon of aminomethylphosphonic acid was entirely converted to CO2. This is the first report on glyphosate degradation by a bacte...

Pipke, Ru?diger; Amrhein, Nikolaus

1988-01-01

258

Adsorção de glifosato sobre solos e minerais Adsorption of glyphosate on soils and minerals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Glyphosate, an enzyme inhibitor herbicide, has been widely used around the world in agriculture. Dr. John Franz from Monsanto Corporation (USA) discovered glyphosate in 1970. It has been showed that glyphosate is strongly adsorbed by inorganic soil components especially aluminium and iron oxides, and the phosphate group is involved in this interaction. The inactivation of glyphosate in soils can last for days or even months depending on soil characteristics. T...

2006-01-01

259

USE OF GLYPHOSATE AS GROWTH REGULATOR IN UPLAND RICE GLYPHOSATE COMO REGULADOR DE CRESCIMENTO EM ARROZ DE TERRAS ALTAS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

The lodging of some rice cultivars at harvest time can lead to significant losses in yield, and the inappropriate water and nitrogen management, under high-tech conditions, can aggravate the problem. The use of vegetal regulators is an alternative to reduce lodging, however, information on this topic are rare. The study aimed to evaluate the application of glyphosate sub doses (26 g ha-1, 52 g ha-1, 78 g ha-1, 104 g ha-1, 130 g ha-1, 156 g ha-1, and 182 g ha-1 on agronomical traits, development, and yield of upland rice crops irrigated by aspersion, during the floral differentiation period. The experiment was carried out in Selvíria, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, through the agricultural years of 2008/2009 and 2009/2010. The increase of glyphosate sub doses, at the floral differentiation period of the Primavera cultivar, reduced the plants height, panicle size, and, consequently, yield. Sub doses higher than or equal to 78 g ha-1 eliminated the plants lodging process.

O acamamento de algumas cultivares de arroz, no momento da colheita, acarreta perdas significativas na produtividade e, além disto, manejos de água e nitrogênio inadequados, em condições de alta tecnologia, agravam, ainda mais, o problema. O uso de reguladores vegetais é uma das alternativas para se reduzir o acamamento, entretanto, as informações sobre o assunto são escassas. O trabalho objetivou avaliar o uso de subdoses de glyphosate (26 g ha-1, 52 g ha-1, 78 g ha

Daiene Camila Dias Chaves Corsini

2011-10-01

260

Enhanced sensitivity in H photofragment detection by two-color reduced-Doppler ion imaging  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two-color reduced-Doppler (TCRD) and one-color velocity map imaging (VMI) were used for probing H atom photofragments resulting from the ?243.1 nm photodissociation of pyrrole. The velocity components of the H photofragments were probed by employing two counterpropagating beams at close and fixed wavelengths of 243.15 and 243.12 nm in TCRD and a single beam at ?243.1 nm, scanned across the Doppler profile in VMI. The TCRD imaging enabled probing of the entire velocity distribution in a single pulse, resulting in enhanced ionization efficiency, as well as improved sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio. These advantages were utilized for studying the pyrrole photodissociation at ?243.1 and 225 nm, where the latter wavelength provided only a slight increase in the H yield over the self-signal from the probe beams. The TCRD imaging enabled obtaining high quality H{sup +} images, even for the low H photofragment yields formed in the 225 nm photolysis process, and allowed determining the velocity distributions and anisotropy parameters and getting insight into pyrrole photodissociation.

Epshtein, Michael; Portnov, Alexander; Kupfer, Rotem; Rosenwaks, Salman; Bar, Ilana, E-mail: ibar@bgu.ac.il [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

2013-11-14

 
 
 
 
261

Detonation and Shock Reactivity Properties of Explosives Containing RDX and Reduced Sensitivity RDX  

Science.gov (United States)

The detonation and shock reactivity properties of two monomodal research explosives were measured to assess how these properties change when different quality RDX is used. One explosive contained class 1 (coarse) RDX and HTPB binder; the other explosive contained reduced sensitivity (high quality) class 1 RDX (I-RDX) and HTPB binder. Experiments preformed included wave curvature, rate stick and flyer plate experiments. Wave curvature and rate stick experiments indicate that the reaction zone length is shorter for the explosive containing RDX. Our results show that decrement and wave curvature results are bounded by the results of Moulard and coworkers^1,2 for similar explosives containing fine and very coarse RDX particles. We will also present work of ongoing shock reactivity experiments. In these experiments, a flyer impacts an explosive sample containing multiple embedded pressure gauges. Analyses of the pressure gauge records allow us to determine shock reactivity trends for each explosive. ^1Moulard, H., Kury, J.W., Delclos, A., Proceedings of Eighth Symposium (International) on Detonation, Albuquerque, NM, 1985, pg. 902-913. ^2 Moulard, H., Proceedings of the Ninth Symposium (International) on Detonation, Portland, Oregon, 1989, pg. 18-24.

Sutherland, Gerrit

2005-07-01

262

Mutation of NRAS but not KRAS significantly reduces myeloma sensitivity to single-agent bortezomib therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Various translocations and mutations have been identified in myeloma, and certain aberrations, such as t(4;14) and del17, are linked with disease prognosis. To investigate mutational prevalence in myeloma and associations between mutations and patient outcomes, we tested a panel of 41 known oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in tumor samples from 133 relapsed myeloma patients participating in phase 2 or 3 clinical trials of bortezomib. DNA mutations were identified in 14 genes. BRAF as well as RAS genes were mutated in a large proportion of cases (45.9%) and these mutations were mutually exclusive. New recurrent mutations were also identified, including in the PDGFRA and JAK3 genes. NRAS mutations were associated with a significantly lower response rate to single-agent bortezomib (7% vs 53% in patients with mutant vs wild-type NRAS, P = .00116, Bonferroni-corrected P = .016), as well as shorter time to progression in bortezomib-treated patients (P = .0058, Bonferroni-corrected P = .012). However, NRAS mutation did not impact outcome in patients treated with high-dose dexamethasone. KRAS mutation did not reduce sensitivity to bortezomib or dexamethasone. These findings identify a significant clinical impact of NRAS mutation in myeloma and demonstrate a clear example of functional differences between the KRAS and NRAS oncogenes. PMID:24335104

Mulligan, George; Lichter, David I; Di Bacco, Alessandra; Blakemore, Stephen J; Berger, Allison; Koenig, Erik; Bernard, Hugues; Trepicchio, William; Li, Bin; Neuwirth, Rachel; Chattopadhyay, Nibedita; Bolen, Joseph B; Dorner, Andrew J; van de Velde, Helgi; Ricci, Deborah; Jagannath, Sundar; Berenson, James R; Richardson, Paul G; Stadtmauer, Edward A; Orlowski, Robert Z; Lonial, Sagar; Anderson, Kenneth C; Sonneveld, Pieter; San Miguel, Jesús F; Esseltine, Dixie-Lee; Schu, Matthew

2014-01-30

263

Enhanced sensitivity in H photofragment detection by two-color reduced-Doppler ion imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two-color reduced-Doppler (TCRD) and one-color velocity map imaging (VMI) were used for probing H atom photofragments resulting from the ?243.1 nm photodissociation of pyrrole. The velocity components of the H photofragments were probed by employing two counterpropagating beams at close and fixed wavelengths of 243.15 and 243.12 nm in TCRD and a single beam at ?243.1 nm, scanned across the Doppler profile in VMI. The TCRD imaging enabled probing of the entire velocity distribution in a single pulse, resulting in enhanced ionization efficiency, as well as improved sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio. These advantages were utilized for studying the pyrrole photodissociation at ?243.1 and 225 nm, where the latter wavelength provided only a slight increase in the H yield over the self-signal from the probe beams. The TCRD imaging enabled obtaining high quality H+ images, even for the low H photofragment yields formed in the 225 nm photolysis process, and allowed determining the velocity distributions and anisotropy parameters and getting insight into pyrrole photodissociation

2013-11-14

264

Práticas de manejo e a resistência de Euphorbia heterophylla aos inibidores da ALS e tolerância ao glyphosate no Rio Grande do Sul Management practices x Euphorbia heterophylla resistance to ALS-inhibitors and tolerance to glyphosate in Rio Grande do Sul  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A utilização intensiva do glyphosate nas lavouras de soja Roundup Ready® (RR no Rio Grande do Sul (RS, nos últimos anos, pode ter selecionado biótipos de leiteira (Euphorbia heterophylla resistentes ao herbicida. Esse cenário dificultará ainda mais o manejo da espécie, já que permanecem indícios da presença de biótipos resistentes também em herbicidas inibidores da acetolactato sintase (ALS. Assim, os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar a sensibilidade da leiteira a herbicidas inibidores da ALS e ao glyphosate, verificar a distribuição dos biótipos resistentes no RS e determinar os principais fatores agronômicos associados a falhas de controle. Para isso, amostras de sementes de plantas de leiteira foram coletadas em lavouras de soja RR localizadas em 56 municípios do Estado do RS. Por ocasião das coletas, os agricultores responderam a questionário que abordava o manejo das plantas daninhas na área. Usando-se as sementes coletadas, foram conduzidos dois experimentos em casa de vegetação: no primeiro, avaliou-se a resposta de 86 biótipos ao herbicida glyphosate, aplicado na dose de 2.160 g e.a. ha-1; e, no segundo, a resposta de 73 biótipos ao herbicida imazethapyr, aplicado na dose de 200 g i.a. ha-1. Os resultados obtidos evidenciam que todos os biótipos de leiteira avaliados são suscetíveis ao glyphosate, porém existem biótipos resistentes aos inibidores da ALS. As respostas do questionário indicam que práticas de manejo como uso de subdoses e/ou utilização intensiva do glyphosate e a ausência de rotação de culturas favorecem falhas no controle de leiteira pelo herbicida glyphosate em soja.The intensive use of glyphosate in Roundup Ready® (RR soybean fields in Rio Grande do Sul (RS, in recent years may have selected wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla biotypes resistant to the herbicide. This scenario will further complicate the management of this species, since evidence remains of the presence of herbicide resistant biotypes also in acetolactate synthase (ALS-inhibitors. Thus, the objectives of this work were to evaluate wild poinsettia's sensitivity to the ALS-inhibiting herbicides and glyphosate; to investigate the distribution of resistant biotypes in the state of RS;and to determine the main agronomic factors associated with control failures. Seeds of wild poinsettia plants that survived glyphosate applications were collected from RR soybean fields located in 56 municipalities in the state of RS. On the occasion, the farmers were interviewed through a questionnaire aiming to collect information on the management of the area. Using the seeds collected, two experiments were conducted under greenhouse conditions. The first evaluated the response of 86 biotypes to glyphosate, applied at the rate of 2.160 g ha-1 while the second experiment evaluated the response of the herbicide imazethapyr to 73 biotypes, applied at a dose of 200 g a.i. ha?1. The results show that all the wild poinsettia biotypes evaluated are susceptible to glyphosate, but some are resistant to ALS-inhibitors. The survey responses indicate that management practices such as the use of sub doses and/or intensive use of glyphosate, as well as lack of crop rotation favor failures in wild poinsettia control by glyphosate in soybean.

L. Vargas

2013-06-01

265

Práticas de manejo e a resistência de Euphorbia heterophylla aos inibidores da ALS e tolerância ao glyphosate no Rio Grande do Sul / Management practices x Euphorbia heterophylla resistance to ALS-inhibitors and tolerance to glyphosate in Rio Grande do Sul  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A utilização intensiva do glyphosate nas lavouras de soja Roundup Ready® (RR) no Rio Grande do Sul (RS), nos últimos anos, pode ter selecionado biótipos de leiteira (Euphorbia heterophylla) resistentes ao herbicida. Esse cenário dificultará ainda mais o manejo da espécie, já que permanecem indícios [...] da presença de biótipos resistentes também em herbicidas inibidores da acetolactato sintase (ALS). Assim, os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar a sensibilidade da leiteira a herbicidas inibidores da ALS e ao glyphosate, verificar a distribuição dos biótipos resistentes no RS e determinar os principais fatores agronômicos associados a falhas de controle. Para isso, amostras de sementes de plantas de leiteira foram coletadas em lavouras de soja RR localizadas em 56 municípios do Estado do RS. Por ocasião das coletas, os agricultores responderam a questionário que abordava o manejo das plantas daninhas na área. Usando-se as sementes coletadas, foram conduzidos dois experimentos em casa de vegetação: no primeiro, avaliou-se a resposta de 86 biótipos ao herbicida glyphosate, aplicado na dose de 2.160 g e.a. ha-1; e, no segundo, a resposta de 73 biótipos ao herbicida imazethapyr, aplicado na dose de 200 g i.a. ha-1. Os resultados obtidos evidenciam que todos os biótipos de leiteira avaliados são suscetíveis ao glyphosate, porém existem biótipos resistentes aos inibidores da ALS. As respostas do questionário indicam que práticas de manejo como uso de subdoses e/ou utilização intensiva do glyphosate e a ausência de rotação de culturas favorecem falhas no controle de leiteira pelo herbicida glyphosate em soja. Abstract in english The intensive use of glyphosate in Roundup Ready® (RR) soybean fields in Rio Grande do Sul (RS), in recent years may have selected wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla) biotypes resistant to the herbicide. This scenario will further complicate the management of this species, since evidence remain [...] s of the presence of herbicide resistant biotypes also in acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibitors. Thus, the objectives of this work were to evaluate wild poinsettia's sensitivity to the ALS-inhibiting herbicides and glyphosate; to investigate the distribution of resistant biotypes in the state of RS;and to determine the main agronomic factors associated with control failures. Seeds of wild poinsettia plants that survived glyphosate applications were collected from RR soybean fields located in 56 municipalities in the state of RS. On the occasion, the farmers were interviewed through a questionnaire aiming to collect information on the management of the area. Using the seeds collected, two experiments were conducted under greenhouse conditions. The first evaluated the response of 86 biotypes to glyphosate, applied at the rate of 2.160 g ha-1 while the second experiment evaluated the response of the herbicide imazethapyr to 73 biotypes, applied at a dose of 200 g a.i. ha?1. The results show that all the wild poinsettia biotypes evaluated are susceptible to glyphosate, but some are resistant to ALS-inhibitors. The survey responses indicate that management practices such as the use of sub doses and/or intensive use of glyphosate, as well as lack of crop rotation favor failures in wild poinsettia control by glyphosate in soybean.

L., Vargas; M.A., Nohatto; D., Agostinetto; M.A., Bianchi; J.M., Paula; E., Polidoro; R.E., Toledo.

266

Manejo de capim pé-de-galinha em lavouras de soja transgênica resistente ao glifosato / Management of goose grass on transgenic soybean, resistant to glyphosate  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resistência de capim pé-de-galinha (Eleusine indica) ao glifosato, em lavouras de soja transgênica; avaliar o efeito de aplicações de glifosato em diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento; identificar práticas agronômicas associadas à seleção de biótipos resiste [...] ntes; e avaliar a eficiência dos herbicidas cletodim, fluazifope-P-butílico, clomazona, glufosinato de amônio e glifosato nas plantas resistentes. Plantas escapes ao tratamento com glifosato foram coletadas em 24 propriedades, no Rio Grande do Sul. As plantas foram cultivadas em casa de vegetação, tendo-se avaliado a sua resistência ao glifosato. Os acessos resistentes foram selecionados e avaliados quanto ao efeito da aplicação do glifosato em diferentes estádios de crescimento e quanto à sensibilidade aos herbicidas. Foi aplicado um questionário aos produtores para identificação das práticas agronômicas associadas às falhas no controle. O controle de E. indica pelo glifosato é mais efetivo com a aplicação em estádios iniciais de desenvolvimento. Práticas agronômicas, como uso contínuo de baixas doses do herbicida, aplicação em estádios de desenvolvimento avançados das plantas daninhas (mais de um afilho) e a ausência de rotação de culturas foram relacionadas às falhas de controle observadas. Os herbicidas cletodim, fluazifope-P-butílico e glufosinato de amônio são alternativas eficientes para o controle de E. indica. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the resistance of goose grass (Eleusine indica) to glyphosate application in transgenic soybean crops; evaluate the effect of glyphosate applications in different growth stages; identify the main agronomic practices associated with the selection of resistan [...] t biotypes; and evaluate the effect of the herbicides clethodim, fluazifop-p-butyl, clomazone, glufosinate ammonium, and glyphosate on resistant plants. Plants that survived glyphosate application were collected on 24 properties in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Plants were grown in greenhouse and their resistance to glyphosate was evaluated. The resistant accessions were selected and evaluated as to the effect of glyphosate application on different growth stages and to their sensitivity to the herbicides. A questionnaire was given to producers in order to identify agronomic practices associated with control failures. The control of E. indica by glyphosate is more effective at initial growth stages. Agronomic practices, such as continued use of low doses of glyphosate, application on advanced weed growth stages (more than one tiller), and absence of crop rotation were related to the observed control failures. The herbicides clethodim, fluazifop-p-butyl, and glufosinate ammonium are efficient alternatives to control E. indica.

André da Rosa, Ulguim; Leandro, Vargas; Dirceu, Agostinetto; Taísa Dal, Magro; Nixon da Rosa, Westendorff; Marcelo Timm, Holz.

267

Manejo de capim pé-de-galinha em lavouras de soja transgênica resistente ao glifosato Management of goose grass on transgenic soybean, resistant to glyphosate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resistência de capim pé-de-galinha (Eleusine indica ao glifosato, em lavouras de soja transgênica; avaliar o efeito de aplicações de glifosato em diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento; identificar práticas agronômicas associadas à seleção de biótipos resistentes; e avaliar a eficiência dos herbicidas cletodim, fluazifope-P-butílico, clomazona, glufosinato de amônio e glifosato nas plantas resistentes. Plantas escapes ao tratamento com glifosato foram coletadas em 24 propriedades, no Rio Grande do Sul. As plantas foram cultivadas em casa de vegetação, tendo-se avaliado a sua resistência ao glifosato. Os acessos resistentes foram selecionados e avaliados quanto ao efeito da aplicação do glifosato em diferentes estádios de crescimento e quanto à sensibilidade aos herbicidas. Foi aplicado um questionário aos produtores para identificação das práticas agronômicas associadas às falhas no controle. O controle de E. indica pelo glifosato é mais efetivo com a aplicação em estádios iniciais de desenvolvimento. Práticas agronômicas, como uso contínuo de baixas doses do herbicida, aplicação em estádios de desenvolvimento avançados das plantas daninhas (mais de um afilho e a ausência de rotação de culturas foram relacionadas às falhas de controle observadas. Os herbicidas cletodim, fluazifope-P-butílico e glufosinato de amônio são alternativas eficientes para o controle de E. indica.The objective of this work was to evaluate the resistance of goose grass (Eleusine indica to glyphosate application in transgenic soybean crops; evaluate the effect of glyphosate applications in different growth stages; identify the main agronomic practices associated with the selection of resistant biotypes; and evaluate the effect of the herbicides clethodim, fluazifop-p-butyl, clomazone, glufosinate ammonium, and glyphosate on resistant plants. Plants that survived glyphosate application were collected on 24 properties in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Plants were grown in greenhouse and their resistance to glyphosate was evaluated. The resistant accessions were selected and evaluated as to the effect of glyphosate application on different growth stages and to their sensitivity to the herbicides. A questionnaire was given to producers in order to identify agronomic practices associated with control failures. The control of E. indica by glyphosate is more effective at initial growth stages. Agronomic practices, such as continued use of low doses of glyphosate, application on advanced weed growth stages (more than one tiller, and absence of crop rotation were related to the observed control failures. The herbicides clethodim, fluazifop-p-butyl, and glufosinate ammonium are efficient alternatives to control E. indica.

André da Rosa Ulguim

2013-01-01

268

Degradation of glyphosate and other pesticides by ligninolytic enzymes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability of pure manganese peroxidase (MnP), laccase, lignin peroxidase (LiP) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) to degrade the widely used herbicide glyphosate and other pesticides was studied in separate in vitro assays with addition of different mediators. Complete degradation of glyphosate was obtained with MnP, MnSO4 and Tween 80, with or without H2O2. In the presence of MnSO4, with or without H(2)O(2), MnP also transformed the herbicide, but to a lower rate. Laccase degraded glyphosate in the presence of (a) 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), (b) MnSO(4) and Tween 80 and (c) ABTS, MnSO4 and Tween 80. The metabolite AMPA was detected in all cases where degradation of glyphosate occurred and was not degraded. The LiP was tested alone or with MnSO4, Tween 80, veratryl alcohol or H2O2 and in the HRP assay the enzyme was added alone or with H2O2 in the reaction mixture. However, these enzymes did not degrade glyphosate. Further experiments using MnP together with MnSO4 and Tween 80 showed that the enzyme was also able to degrade glyphosate in its commercial formulation Roundup Bio. The same enzyme mixture was tested for degradation of 22 other pesticides and degradation products present in a mixture and all the compounds were transformed, with degradation percentages ranging between 20 and 100%. Our results highlight the potential of ligninolytic enzymes to degrade pesticides. Moreover, they suggest that the formation of AMPA, the main metabolite of glyphosate degradation found in soils, can be a result of the activity of lignin-degrading enzymes. PMID:19396551

Pizzul, Leticia; Castillo, María del Pilar; Stenström, John

2009-11-01

269

Deposição de glyphosate aplicado para controle de plantas daninhas em soja transgênica Glyphosate deposition for weed control in transgenic soybean  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Inúmeros fatores estão envolvidos na tecnologia de aplicação de um herbicida, sendo a deposição correta fundamental para que o produto possa expressar sua eficiência. Com o objetivo de avaliar a deposição de uma solução traçante constituída de glyphosate Roundup Ready (0,96 kg e.a. ha-1 + corante FDC-1 (1.500 ppm, foi conduzido um experimento em área semeada com soja transgênica e infestada com amendoim-bravo (Euphorbia heterophylla, localizada em Londrina-PR. As aplicações foram efetuadas em diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento da cultura, correspondendo a 17, 24, 31, 38 e 45 dias após a emergência da soja. Os alvos, plantas de soja, amendoim-bravo e placas na superfície do solo (linha e entrelinha, foram coletados após pulverização, e a solução traçante foi nestes depositada, posteriormente recuperada através de lavagem com agitação em água destilada. As amostras das soluções recuperadas foram submetidas à análise, utilizando-se procedimentos espectrofotométricos, e os resultados de absorbância convertidos para concentração em µL cm-2 e µL por planta. As freqüências acumuladas dos dados originais de depósito foram adequadamente ajustadas segundo modelo de Gompertz, apresentando elevada precisão (R² > 0,95. Os resultados indicaram que o depósito da calda de pulverização nas plantas de soja e amendoim-bravo reduziu progressivamente com o desenvolvimento da cultura e infestação, sugerindo que a maior garantia de eficiência de controle pode ser conseguida com aplicações precoces.Several factors are involved in herbicide application technology, with correct deposition being essential to ensure product efficacy. To evaluate the deposition of a glyphosate tracer solution (RR with an FDC-1 dye, an experiment was carried out in a transgenic soybean cultivated area, infested with wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla. Applications were carried out at different crop development stages, corresponding to 17; 24; 31; 38 and 45 days after soybean emergence. The targets, soybean plants, wild poinsettias, and Petri dishes on the soil surface, were collected after spraying and the tracer solution was later recovered by washing and stirring in distilled water. Samples of recovered solutions were submitted to spectrophotometer analysis, and the absorption data were converted in µL cm-2 and µL per plant. The accumulated frequencies of the original deposit data were adequately adjusted to the Gompertz model, showing high precision (R² > 0.95. The results showed that the spraying solution deposition on soybean plants and wild poinsettia reduced progressively with crop development and weed infestation, suggesting that control efficiency can be obtained with early applications.

D.L.P. Gazziero

2006-01-01

270

Deposição de glyphosate aplicado para controle de plantas daninhas em soja transgênica / Glyphosate deposition for weed control in transgenic soybean  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Inúmeros fatores estão envolvidos na tecnologia de aplicação de um herbicida, sendo a deposição correta fundamental para que o produto possa expressar sua eficiência. Com o objetivo de avaliar a deposição de uma solução traçante constituída de glyphosate Roundup Ready (0,96 kg e.a. ha-1) + corante F [...] DC-1 (1.500 ppm), foi conduzido um experimento em área semeada com soja transgênica e infestada com amendoim-bravo (Euphorbia heterophylla), localizada em Londrina-PR. As aplicações foram efetuadas em diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento da cultura, correspondendo a 17, 24, 31, 38 e 45 dias após a emergência da soja. Os alvos, plantas de soja, amendoim-bravo e placas na superfície do solo (linha e entrelinha), foram coletados após pulverização, e a solução traçante foi nestes depositada, posteriormente recuperada através de lavagem com agitação em água destilada. As amostras das soluções recuperadas foram submetidas à análise, utilizando-se procedimentos espectrofotométricos, e os resultados de absorbância convertidos para concentração em µL cm-2 e µL por planta. As freqüências acumuladas dos dados originais de depósito foram adequadamente ajustadas segundo modelo de Gompertz, apresentando elevada precisão (R² > 0,95). Os resultados indicaram que o depósito da calda de pulverização nas plantas de soja e amendoim-bravo reduziu progressivamente com o desenvolvimento da cultura e infestação, sugerindo que a maior garantia de eficiência de controle pode ser conseguida com aplicações precoces. Abstract in english Several factors are involved in herbicide application technology, with correct deposition being essential to ensure product efficacy. To evaluate the deposition of a glyphosate tracer solution (RR) with an FDC-1 dye, an experiment was carried out in a transgenic soybean cultivated area, infested wit [...] h wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla). Applications were carried out at different crop development stages, corresponding to 17; 24; 31; 38 and 45 days after soybean emergence. The targets, soybean plants, wild poinsettias, and Petri dishes on the soil surface, were collected after spraying and the tracer solution was later recovered by washing and stirring in distilled water. Samples of recovered solutions were submitted to spectrophotometer analysis, and the absorption data were converted in µL cm-2 and µL per plant. The accumulated frequencies of the original deposit data were adequately adjusted to the Gompertz model, showing high precision (R² > 0.95). The results showed that the spraying solution deposition on soybean plants and wild poinsettia reduced progressively with crop development and weed infestation, suggesting that control efficiency can be obtained with early applications.

Gazziero, D.L.P.; Maciel, C.D.G.; Souza, R.T.; Velini, E.D.; Prete, C.E.C.; Oliveira Neto, W..

271

Weed Control, Environmental Impact and Profitability of Weed Management Strategies in Glyphosate-Resistant Corn  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Eleven field trials were conducted over a three-year period (2006-2008 at three locations in southwestern Ontario, Canada to evaluate the effect of various weed management strategies in glyphosate-tolerant corn on weed control, crop injury, corn yield, environmental impact and profit margin. No visible injury resulted from the herbicide treatments evaluated. Overall, the effect of all factors assessed were location specific. By 56 days after treatment, depending on location, glyphosate applied at the 7 - 8 leaf stage (LPOST, preemergence (PRE herbicides followed by (fb glyphosate LPOST and sequential glyphosate applications (EPOST (3 - 4 leaf stage followed by LPOST provided more consistent control of annual broadleaf weeds and annual grasses compared to glyphosate applied alone EPOST. Weed control at 56 days after treatment was lower when glyphosate was applied alone LPOST compared to sequential applications of glyphosate or PRE herbicides fb glyphosate. There were no differences in corn yield among the sequential programs evaluated; however, a yield benefit was found when a sequential program was used compared to glyphosate applied alone LPOST. Among the sequential programs the lowest environmental impact was isoxaflutole/atrazine fb glyphosate. The lowest profit margins were associated with atrazine, S-metolachlor/atrazine/benoxacor, dicamba/atrazine and glyphosate LPOST treatments compared to all other treatments. Overall, profit margins tended to be somewhat higher for treatments that included glyphosate applications. Based on these results, the most efficacious and profitable weed management program in corn was a sequential application of glyphosate; however, isoxaflutole/atrazine fb glyphosate was the treatment with the lowest environmental risk while also adding glyphosate stewardship benefits.

Nader Soltani

2012-11-01

272

Aplicação tardia de glyphosate e estande e desenvolvimento inicial do arroz em sistema de cultivo mínimo / Delayed application of glyphosate and stand and initial growth of rice plants (Oryza sativa) under a minimum tillage system  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O controle de plantas daninhas na cultura do arroz é ainda um problema, mesmo em cultivo mínimo, em razão do revolvimento do solo na linha de semeadura, que proporciona o reaparecimento de infestantes. Assim, objetivou-se estudar o efeito do atraso da aplicação de glyphosate sobre a formação do esta [...] nde e o desenvolvimento inicial das plantas de arroz cv. IAC 102 irrigado por inundação. O experimento foi conduzido sob túnel plástico, em caixas d'água de 500 L, contendo NEOSSOLO FLÚVICO Ta Eutrófico. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram da aplicação de glyphosate: seis horas antes da semeadura do arroz (testemunha); no início da emergência; três dias após a emergência; e seis dias após, sem e com lâmina d'água. A dose do herbicida foi de 1.920 g i.a. ha-1. Para todas as variáveis analisadas houve efeito significativo dos tratamentos; aos 42 dias após a emergência, constatou-se que a testemunha foi estatisticamente superior, na formação do estande, na altura de plantas, no comprimento de raiz e na massa seca das partes aérea e de raiz, aos demais tratamentos em que ocorreram atrasos na aplicação do glyphosate. Abstract in english Weed control is still one of the most important problems of rice production, even under a reduced-tillage system. The purpose of this research was to study the effect of delayed application of glyphosate on paddy rice cv. IAC 102. The experiment was conducted under plastic tunnels with rice plants g [...] rowing in water tanks of 500 liters of capacity, containing Alluvial soil. Treatments consisted of glyphosate application on the soil surface six hours before sowing, (control) at seedling emergence, three days after, and six days after, combined or not with water flooding. The experimental design was a randomized block with four replications and the herbicide dosage was 1,920 g a.i. ha-1. There was a significant effect of the treatments on the variables studied. The results showed that the control treatment (when glyphosate was applided six hours befores sowing) was statistically superior to the other treatments in stand formation, plant height, root length and plant/root dry matter.

Crusciol, C.A.C.; Lima, E.V.; Andreotti, M.; Schiocchet, M.A..

273

Reduced baroreflex sensitivity in alcoholic cirrhosis: relations to hemodynamics and humoral systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In cirrhosis, arterial vasodilatation leads to central hypovolemia and activation of the sympathetic nervous and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone systems. As the liver disease and circulatory dysfunction may affect baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), we assessed BRS in a large group of patients with cirrhosis and in controls who were all supine and some after 60 degrees passive head-up and 30 degrees head-down tilting in relation to central hemodynamics and activity of the sympathetic nervous and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone systems. One-hundred and five patients (Child classes A/B/C: 21/55/29) and 25 (n=11 + 14) controls underwent a full hemodynamic investigation. BRS was assessed by cross-spectral analysis of variabilities between blood pressure and heart rate time series. The median BRS was significantly lower in the supine cirrhotic patients, 3.7 (range 0.3-30.7) ms/mmHg than in matched controls (n=11): 14.3 (6.1-23.6) ms/mmHg, P<0.001. A stepwise multiple-regression analysis revealed that serum sodium (P=0.044),heart rate (P=0.027), and central circulation time (P=0.034) independently correlated with BRS. Head-down tilting had no effects on BRS, but, after head-up tilting, BRS was similar in the patients (n=23) and controls (n=14). In conclusion, BRS is reduced in cirrhosis in the supine position and relates to various aspects of cardiovascular dysfunction, but no further reduction was observed in parallel with the amelioration of the hyperdynamic circulation after head-up tilting. The results indicate that liver dysfunction and compensatory mechanisms to vasodilatation may be involved in the low BRS, which may contribute to poor cardiovascular adaptation in cirrhosis. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Jun

Møller, Søren; Iversen, Jens S

2007-01-01

274

Reduced baroreflex sensitivity in alcoholic cirrhosis: relations to hemodynamics and humoral systems.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In cirrhosis, arterial vasodilatation leads to central hypovolemia and activation of the sympathetic nervous and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone systems. As the liver disease and circulatory dysfunction may affect baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), we assessed BRS in a large group of patients with cirrhosis and in controls who were all supine and some after 60 degrees passive head-up and 30 degrees head-down tilting in relation to central hemodynamics and activity of the sympathetic nervous and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone systems. One-hundred and five patients (Child classes A/B/C: 21/55/29) and 25 (n=11 + 14) controls underwent a full hemodynamic investigation. BRS was assessed by cross-spectral analysis of variabilities between blood pressure and heart rate time series. The median BRS was significantly lower in the supine cirrhotic patients, 3.7 (range 0.3-30.7) ms/mmHg than in matched controls (n=11): 14.3 (6.1-23.6) ms/mmHg, P<0.001. A stepwise multiple-regression analysis revealed that serum sodium (P=0.044), heart rate (P=0.027), and central circulation time (P=0.034) independently correlated with BRS. Head-down tilting had no effects on BRS, but, after head-up tilting, BRS was similar in the patients (n=23) and controls (n=14). In conclusion, BRS is reduced in cirrhosis in the supine position and relates to various aspects of cardiovascular dysfunction, but no further reduction was observed in parallel with the amelioration of the hyperdynamic circulation after head-up tilting. The results indicate that liver dysfunction and compensatory mechanisms to vasodilatation may be involved in the low BRS, which may contribute to poor cardiovascular adaptation in cirrhosis.

Møller, Søren; Iversen, Jens S

2007-01-01

275

Adsorção de glifosato sobre solos e minerais Adsorption of glyphosate on soils and minerals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Glyphosate, an enzyme inhibitor herbicide, has been widely used around the world in agriculture. Dr. John Franz from Monsanto Corporation (USA discovered glyphosate in 1970. It has been showed that glyphosate is strongly adsorbed by inorganic soil components especially aluminium and iron oxides, and the phosphate group is involved in this interaction. The inactivation of glyphosate in soils can last for days or even months depending on soil characteristics. The addition of phosphate from fertilizers can displace glyphosate from the soils and this could be the cause of decreased productivity of some crops.

Luís R. M. Toni

2006-07-01

276

Herbicide-resistant weed management: focus on glyphosate.  

Science.gov (United States)

This review focuses on proactive and reactive management of glyphosate-resistant (GR) weeds. Glyphosate resistance in weeds has evolved under recurrent glyphosate usage, with little or no diversity in weed management practices. The main herbicide strategy for proactively or reactively managing GR weeds is to supplement glyphosate with herbicides of alternative modes of action and with soil-residual activity. These herbicides can be applied in sequences or mixtures. Proactive or reactive GR weed management can be aided by crop cultivars with alternative single or stacked herbicide-resistance traits, which will become increasingly available to growers in the future. Many growers with GR weeds continue to use glyphosate because of its economical broad-spectrum weed control. Government farm policies, pesticide regulatory policies and industry actions should encourage growers to adopt a more proactive approach to GR weed management by providing the best information and training on management practices, information on the benefits of proactive management and voluntary incentives, as appropriate. Results from recent surveys in the United States indicate that such a change in grower attitudes may be occurring because of enhanced awareness of the benefits of proactive management and the relative cost of the reactive management of GR weeds. PMID:21548004

Beckie, Hugh J

2011-09-01

277

Skin decontamination of glyphosate from human skin in vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study compared three model decontaminant solutions (tap water, isotonic saline, and hypertonic saline) for their ability to remove a model herbicide (glyphosate) from an in vitro human skin model. Human cadaver skin was dosed (approximately 375microg) of [14C]-glyphosate on 3cm2 per skin. After each exposure time (1, 3, and 30min post-dosing, respectively), the surface skin was washed three times (4ml per time) with each solution. After washing, the skin was stripped twice with tape discs. Lastly, the wash solutions, strippings, receptor fluid, and remainder of skin were liquid scintillation analyzer counted to determine the amount of glyphosate. There were no statistical differences among these groups at any time points. The total mass balance recovery at three time exposure points was between 94.8% and 102.4%. The wash off rates (glyphosate in wash solutions) at three different exposure times is 79-101.2%. Thus the three tested decontaminants possess similar effectiveness in removing glyphosate from skin. This in vitro model is not only economic and rapid, but also provides quantitative data that may aid screening for optimal decontaminants. PMID:18407393

Zhai, H; Chan, H P; Hui, X; Maibach, H I

2008-06-01

278

Eficácia de glyphosate em plantas de cobertura Efficacy of glyphosate in cover crops  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivou-se comparar a eficácia de três dosagens do herbicida glyphosate para a dessecação de Brachiaria decumbens, B. brizantha cv. Marandu e vegetação espontânea, visando a adoção do sistema plantio direto. Utilizou-se delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, num esquema fatorial 3 x 3, com quatro repetições. Testaram-se três tipos de cobertura vegetal e três dosagens de glyphosate (1,44, 2,16 e 2,88 kg ha-1. Aos 7, 14, 21 e 28 dias após a aplicação (DAA, foram feitas avaliações visuais da porcentagem de controle das coberturas vegetais e, aos 45 DAA, avaliações visuais da porcentagem de reinfestação da área. Conclui-se que, para as espécies que compunham a vegetação espontânea, o uso de 1,44 kg ha-1 proporcionou bom controle, sem no entanto evitar rebrotes de Digitaria insularis. Para as braquiárias, a mesma taxa de controle foi observada a partir de 2,16 kg ha-1. A camada de palha das braquiárias sobre o solo não foi capaz de suprimir a emergência de Cyperus rotundus, Alternanthera tenella, Raphanus raphanistrum, Bidens pilosa e Euphorbia heterophylla.This work aimed to compare rates of glyphosate to desiccate Brachiaria decumbens, B. brizantha cv. Marandu and spontaneous plants (weeds, aiming to adopt the no-tillage system. A randomized block experimental design in a factorial scheme was used (3x3, with four replications. The factors consisted of three species of cover crops and three rates of glyphosate (1.44, 2.16 and 2.88 kg ha-1. At 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after application of the herbicide, visual evaluations of the percentage of cover crop control were carried out and at 45 days of the reinfestation percentage of the area. It was concluded that the spontaneous plants presented a good control at 1.44 kg ha-1, without, however, preventing Digitaria insularis sprouts. The same control rate starting at 2.16 kg ha-1 was observed for the Brachiaria species. The straw layer of these cover crops on the soil was not able to suppress the emergence of Cyperus rotundus, Alternanthera tenella, Raphanus raphanistrum, Bidens pilosa and Euphorbia heterophylla.

P.C. Timossi

2006-09-01

279

Eficácia de glyphosate em plantas de cobertura / Efficacy of glyphosate in cover crops  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se comparar a eficácia de três dosagens do herbicida glyphosate para a dessecação de Brachiaria decumbens, B. brizantha cv. Marandu e vegetação espontânea, visando a adoção do sistema plantio direto. Utilizou-se delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, num esquema fatorial 3 x 3, com [...] quatro repetições. Testaram-se três tipos de cobertura vegetal e três dosagens de glyphosate (1,44, 2,16 e 2,88 kg ha-1). Aos 7, 14, 21 e 28 dias após a aplicação (DAA), foram feitas avaliações visuais da porcentagem de controle das coberturas vegetais e, aos 45 DAA, avaliações visuais da porcentagem de reinfestação da área. Conclui-se que, para as espécies que compunham a vegetação espontânea, o uso de 1,44 kg ha-1 proporcionou bom controle, sem no entanto evitar rebrotes de Digitaria insularis. Para as braquiárias, a mesma taxa de controle foi observada a partir de 2,16 kg ha-1. A camada de palha das braquiárias sobre o solo não foi capaz de suprimir a emergência de Cyperus rotundus, Alternanthera tenella, Raphanus raphanistrum, Bidens pilosa e Euphorbia heterophylla. Abstract in english This work aimed to compare rates of glyphosate to desiccate Brachiaria decumbens, B. brizantha cv. Marandu and spontaneous plants (weeds), aiming to adopt the no-tillage system. A randomized block experimental design in a factorial scheme was used (3x3), with four replications. The factors consisted [...] of three species of cover crops and three rates of glyphosate (1.44, 2.16 and 2.88 kg ha-1). At 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after application of the herbicide, visual evaluations of the percentage of cover crop control were carried out and at 45 days of the reinfestation percentage of the area. It was concluded that the spontaneous plants presented a good control at 1.44 kg ha-1, without, however, preventing Digitaria insularis sprouts. The same control rate starting at 2.16 kg ha-1 was observed for the Brachiaria species. The straw layer of these cover crops on the soil was not able to suppress the emergence of Cyperus rotundus, Alternanthera tenella, Raphanus raphanistrum, Bidens pilosa and Euphorbia heterophylla.

Timossi, P.C.; Durigon, J.C.; Leite, G.J..

280

Subacute toxicity of copper and glyphosate and their interaction to earthworm (Eisenia fetida)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Glyphosate (GPS) and copper (Cu) are common pollutants in soils, and commonly co-exist. Due to the chemical structure of GPS, it can form complexes of heavy metals and interface their bioavailability in soil environment. In order to explore the interactions between GPS and Cu, subacute toxicity tests of Cu and GPS on soil invertebrate earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were conducted. The relative weight loss and whole-worm metal burdens increased significantly with the increasing exposure concentration of Cu, while the toxicity of GPS was insignificant. The joint toxicity data showed that the relative weight loss and the uptake of Cu, as well as the superoxide dismutase, catalase and malondialdehyde activities, were significantly alleviated in the present of GPS, which indicated that GPS could reduce the toxicity and bioavailability of Cu in the soil because of its strong chelating effects. Highlights: •Cu markedly increased the weight loss ratio of earthworm. •Cu decreased the cocoon production of earthworm. •The toxicity of GPS on earthworm was insignificant. •The presence of GPS could reduce the toxicity of Cu on earthworm. -- The presence of glyphosate could reduce the toxicity and bioavailability of Cu in the soil because of its strong chelating effects

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
281

Momento da chuva após a aplicação e a eficácia dos herbicidas sulfosate e glyphosate aplicados em diferentes formulações / Rainfastness and glyphosate and sulfosate efficacy using different formulations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Com o objetivo de estudar a influência da chuva sobre o desempenho dos herbicidas sulfosate e glyphosate em diferentes formulações, foram conduzidos dois experimentos, um no inverno de 2000 e outro no verão de 2001, na Fazenda Experimental de Ensino e Pesquisa da Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Vet [...] erinárias, Campus de Jaboticabal-SP. Os experimentos foram instalados segundo o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, no arranjo fatorial de 4x5+1, ou seja, quatro tratamentos de herbicidas, cinco períodos sem chuva após a aplicação e uma testemunha, que não recebeu chuva. As formulações de glyphosate foram: SAqC (1,0 L ha-1), GrDA (0,5 kg ha-1), SAqC Transorb (0,75 L ha-1), mais o sulfosate SAqC (1,09 L ha¹). Os períodos sem chuva após a aplicação foram de 1, 2, 4, 6 e > 48 horas. Os herbicidas foram aplicados em pós-emergência das plantas daninhas, utilizando-se de um pulverizador costal, à pressão constante (mantida por ar comprimido) de 30 lbf pol-2. A chuva foi simulada com um sistema de irrigação por aspersão. A lâmina de água variou entre 18 e 19 mm. Em ambas as épocas, a chuva simulada foi prejudicial à ação dos herbicidas, principalmente quando feita nos menores intervalos após a aplicação. Os sintomas de fitointoxicação apareceram mais rapidamente no verão. A formulação Transorb, comercializada como não sendo afetada pela chuva uma hora após a aplicação, não teve o desempenho esperado, tanto no inverno quanto no verão, para períodos de até seis horas sem chuva após a aplicação. O sulfosate apresentou o melhor controle geral das plantas avaliadas, quando se simulou chuva após seis horas, em ambas as épocas. A formulação GrDA foi a mais afetada pela ação da chuva em ambas as épocas. Abstract in english Two field assays were carried out to evaluate the rainfall effects on sulfosate and glyphosate herbicide activity, using different formulations, under two growing seasons (winter and summer). The experiments were conducted at the FCAV/UNESP Experimental Station, Jaboticabel, Brazil, during 2000/01. [...] The formulations were glyphosate SA (1.0 L ha-1), WG (0.5 L ha-1), Transorb (0.75 L ha-1) and sulfosate SA (1.09 L ha-1). In the field, all the trials were arranged in a randomized block experimental design, with four replications. The treatments were arranged in factorial design 5 x 4 + 1 factors, with five periods between the herbicide spraying and the rain incidence (1, 2, 4, 6 and > 48 h), plus one control treatment. The herbicide treatments were applied using a back spraying, with six nozzles DG 11002, spaced by 0.5 m, at 30 p.s.i. constant pression. Artificial rain was provided by a top irrigation system raining 18-19 mm during one hour. The artificial rain reduced glyphosate action, mainly in the shorter periods between herbicide application and the rain incidence. The herbicide symptoms appeared quicker in the summer trials. The Transorb formulation (advertised as not affected by rain one hour after spraying) had the phytointoxication symptoms reduced by the rain up to six hours after spraying, both in the summer and winter. The herbicide sulfosate promoted better control when the rain occurred six hours after spraying, in both seasons.

A.F.F., Pedrinho Júnior; G., Martini; G.V., Felici; F.M., Piva; J.C., Durigan.

282

Photoelectrochemical sensitization and spectroscopic properties of reduced and oxidized forms of a chlorophyll analogue  

Science.gov (United States)

The photoelectrochemical sensitization of a large bandgap semiconductor has been achieved via excitation of a sensitizer, chlorophyllin (CPLN). The redox states that control the net charge transfer are characterized by pulse radiolysis. The spectroscopic and kinetic details of the pulse radiolytically generated CPL rad + and CPL rad - are reported.

Kamat, Prashant V.; Chauvet, Jean-Paul

283

Photoelectrochemical sensitization and spectroscopic properties of reduced and oxidized forms of a chlorophyll analogue  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The photoelectrochemical sensitization of a large bandgap semiconductor has been achieved via excitation of a sensitizer, chlorophyllin (CPLN). The redox states that control the net charge transfer are characterized by pulse radiolysis. The spectroscopic and kinetic details of the pulse radiolytically generated CPLN.+ and CPLN.- are reported. (author)

1991-01-01

284

No fitness cost of glyphosate resistance endowed by massive EPSPS gene amplification in Amaranthus palmeri.  

Science.gov (United States)

Amplification of the EPSPS gene has been previously identified as the glyphosate resistance mechanism in many populations of Amaranthus palmeri, a major weed pest in US agriculture. Here, we evaluate the effects of EPSPS gene amplification on both the level of glyphosate resistance and fitness cost of resistance. A. palmeri individuals resistant to glyphosate by expressing a wide range of EPSPS gene copy numbers were evaluated under competitive conditions in the presence or absence of glyphosate. Survival rates to glyphosate and fitness traits of plants under intra-specific competition were assessed. Plants with higher amplification of the EPSPS gene (53-fold) showed high levels of glyphosate resistance, whereas less amplification of the EPSPS gene (21-fold) endowed a lower level of glyphosate resistance. Without glyphosate but under competitive conditions, plants exhibiting up to 76-fold EPSPS gene amplification exhibited similar height, and biomass allocation to vegetative and reproductive organs, compared to glyphosate susceptible A. palmeri plants with no amplification of the EPSPS gene. Both the additive effects of EPSPS gene amplification on the level of glyphosate resistance and the lack of associated fitness costs are key factors contributing to EPSPS gene amplification as a widespread and important glyphosate resistance mechanism likely to become much more evident in weed plant species. PMID:24385093

Vila-Aiub, Martin M; Goh, Sou S; Gaines, Todd A; Han, Heping; Busi, Roberto; Yu, Qin; Powles, Stephen B

2014-04-01

285

Glyphosate translocation in hairy fleabane (Conyza bonariensis biotypes Translocação do glyphosate em biótipos de buva (Conyza bonariensis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the translocation of glyphosate in C. bonariensis plants resistant and susceptible to that herbicide. The 14C-glyphosate was mixed with commercial gyhphosate (800 g ha-1 and applied on the center of the adaxial face of a third node leaf, using a micro syringe, and adding 10 µL of a solution with specific activity of 1,400 Bq, 45 days after plant emergence. The concentration of the glyphosate translocated in the plant was evaluated at time intervals of 6, 12, 36 and 72 hours after being applied on the application leaf, stem, roots and leaves. Ten hours after treatment application, the distribution of the product in the application leaf, divided into base, center and apex, was also evaluated by measuring the radiation emitted by 14C-glyphosate in a liquid scintillation spectrometer. Greater glyphosate retention was observed in the resistant biotype leaf, approximately 90% of the total absorbed up to 72 hours. In the susceptible biotype, this value was close to 70% in the same period. Susceptible biotype leaves, stem and roots showed greater concentration of glyphosate, indicating greater translocation efficiency in this biotype. In the resistant biotype, the herbicide accumulated in greater quantity at the apex and center of the application leaf, while in the susceptible biotype greater accumulation was observed at the base and center leaf. Thus, it can be stated that the resistance mechanism is related to the differential translocation of this herbicide in the biotypes.Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a translocação do glyphosate em plantas de C. bonariensis resistentes e suscetíveis a esse herbicida. Para isso aplicou-se o 14C-glyphosate em mistura com glyphosate comercial (800 g ha-1 sobre o centro da face adaxial da folha do terceiro nó, utilizando-se uma microsseringa, adicionando-se 10 µL da calda com atividade específica de 1.400 Bq, aos 45 dias após a emergência da buva. A concentração de glyphosate translocado na planta foi avaliada em intervalos de tempo de 6, 12, 36 e 72 horas após a aplicação, na folha de aplicação, no caule, nas raízes e nas folhas. Dez horas após a aplicação dos tratamentos (HAT avaliou-se também a distribuição do produto na folha de aplicação, dividida em base, centro e ápice. As avaliações foram realizadas por meio da medição da radiação emitida pelo 14C-glyphosate, em espectrômetro de cintilação líquida. Maior retenção de glyphosate foi observada na folha tratada do biótipo resistente, aproximadamente 90 % do total absorvido até as 72 horas. No biótipo suscetível esse valor foi de cerca de 70 % no mesmo período. Nas folhas, no caule e nas raízes, a maior concentração do glyphosate absorvido foi encontrada no biótipo suscetível, indicando maior eficiência de translocação neste biótipo. No biótipo resistente o herbicida se acumulou em maior quantidade no ápice e no centro da folha de aplicação e no suscetível observou-se maior acúmulo na base e no centro da mesma folha. Desta forma, pode-se afirmar que o mecanismo de resistência está relacionado à translocação diferencial deste herbicida nos biótipos.

E.A. Ferreira

2008-01-01

286

Glyphosate translocation in hairy fleabane (Conyza bonariensis) biotypes / Translocação do glyphosate em biótipos de buva (Conyza bonariensis)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a translocação do glyphosate em plantas de C. bonariensis resistentes e suscetíveis a esse herbicida. Para isso aplicou-se o 14C-glyphosate em mistura com glyphosate comercial (800 g ha-1) sobre o centro da face adaxial da folha do terceiro nó, utilizando-se um [...] a microsseringa, adicionando-se 10 µL da calda com atividade específica de 1.400 Bq, aos 45 dias após a emergência da buva. A concentração de glyphosate translocado na planta foi avaliada em intervalos de tempo de 6, 12, 36 e 72 horas após a aplicação, na folha de aplicação, no caule, nas raízes e nas folhas. Dez horas após a aplicação dos tratamentos (HAT) avaliou-se também a distribuição do produto na folha de aplicação, dividida em base, centro e ápice. As avaliações foram realizadas por meio da medição da radiação emitida pelo 14C-glyphosate, em espectrômetro de cintilação líquida. Maior retenção de glyphosate foi observada na folha tratada do biótipo resistente, aproximadamente 90 % do total absorvido até as 72 horas. No biótipo suscetível esse valor foi de cerca de 70 % no mesmo período. Nas folhas, no caule e nas raízes, a maior concentração do glyphosate absorvido foi encontrada no biótipo suscetível, indicando maior eficiência de translocação neste biótipo. No biótipo resistente o herbicida se acumulou em maior quantidade no ápice e no centro da folha de aplicação e no suscetível observou-se maior acúmulo na base e no centro da mesma folha. Desta forma, pode-se afirmar que o mecanismo de resistência está relacionado à translocação diferencial deste herbicida nos biótipos. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the translocation of glyphosate in C. bonariensis plants resistant and susceptible to that herbicide. The 14C-glyphosate was mixed with commercial gyhphosate (800 g ha-1) and applied on the center of the adaxial face of a third node leaf, using a micro syri [...] nge, and adding 10 µL of a solution with specific activity of 1,400 Bq, 45 days after plant emergence. The concentration of the glyphosate translocated in the plant was evaluated at time intervals of 6, 12, 36 and 72 hours after being applied on the application leaf, stem, roots and leaves. Ten hours after treatment application, the distribution of the product in the application leaf, divided into base, center and apex, was also evaluated by measuring the radiation emitted by 14C-glyphosate in a liquid scintillation spectrometer. Greater glyphosate retention was observed in the resistant biotype leaf, approximately 90% of the total absorbed up to 72 hours. In the susceptible biotype, this value was close to 70% in the same period. Susceptible biotype leaves, stem and roots showed greater concentration of glyphosate, indicating greater translocation efficiency in this biotype. In the resistant biotype, the herbicide accumulated in greater quantity at the apex and center of the application leaf, while in the susceptible biotype greater accumulation was observed at the base and center leaf. Thus, it can be stated that the resistance mechanism is related to the differential translocation of this herbicide in the biotypes.

E.A., Ferreira; L., Galon; I., Aspiazú; A.A., Silva; G., Concenço; A.F., Silva; J.A., Oliveira; L., Vargas.

287

Resposta de biótipos de Euphorbia heterophylla a doses de glyphosate Response of Euphorbia heterophylla biotypes to glyphosate rates  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A leiteira (Euphorbia heterophylla é uma planta daninha de ciclo anual encontrada com frequência em lavouras de soja na região Sul do Brasil, controlada em lavouras de soja geneticamente modificada (Roundup Ready® - RR com uso do herbicida glyphosate. Entretanto, nos últimos anos, o controle dessa espécie não tem sido satisfatório em alguns locais, provocando a suspeita de que foram selecionados biótipos resistentes ao herbicida. Diante disso, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, por meio de curvas de dose-resposta, biótipos de leiteira com suspeita de resistência ao glyphosate. O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação, em delineamento experimental completamente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de doses crescentes de glyphosate (0, 90, 180, 360, 720, 1.080, 1.440 e 2.160 g e.a. ha-1, aplicadas sobre cinco biótipos de leiteira, oriundos de lavouras de soja RR do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. As variáveis avaliadas foram controle e matéria seca da parte aérea. Os resultados evidenciam que os biótipos de leiteira avaliados são suscetíveis ao glyphosate.Wild poinsettia is an annual cycle weed, commonly found in soybean crop in southern Brazil. It is controlled by glyphosate in genetically- modified soybean (Roundup Ready® - RR. The control of this species has not proven to be satisfactory in some places in the last years, leading to the suspicion that biotypes resistant to glyphosate have been selected. The objective this work was to evaluate, by response-dose curve, wild poinsettia biotypes with suspected resistance to glyphosate. The experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions and the experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design, with four replications. The treatments consisted of increased application rates of glyphosate (0, 90, 180, 360, 720, 1,080, 1,440 and 2,160 g a.e. ha-1 on five wild poinsettia biotypes, from crop soybean RR in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Control and dry weight were evaluated. The results indicated that the wild poinsettia biotypes are susceptible to glyphosate.

L Vargas

2011-01-01

288

Resposta de biótipos de Euphorbia heterophylla a doses de glyphosate / Response of Euphorbia heterophylla biotypes to glyphosate rates  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A leiteira (Euphorbia heterophylla) é uma planta daninha de ciclo anual encontrada com frequência em lavouras de soja na região Sul do Brasil, controlada em lavouras de soja geneticamente modificada (Roundup Ready® - RR) com uso do herbicida glyphosate. Entretanto, nos últimos anos, o controle dessa [...] espécie não tem sido satisfatório em alguns locais, provocando a suspeita de que foram selecionados biótipos resistentes ao herbicida. Diante disso, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, por meio de curvas de dose-resposta, biótipos de leiteira com suspeita de resistência ao glyphosate. O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação, em delineamento experimental completamente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de doses crescentes de glyphosate (0, 90, 180, 360, 720, 1.080, 1.440 e 2.160 g e.a. ha-1), aplicadas sobre cinco biótipos de leiteira, oriundos de lavouras de soja RR do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. As variáveis avaliadas foram controle e matéria seca da parte aérea. Os resultados evidenciam que os biótipos de leiteira avaliados são suscetíveis ao glyphosate. Abstract in english Wild poinsettia is an annual cycle weed, commonly found in soybean crop in southern Brazil. It is controlled by glyphosate in genetically- modified soybean (Roundup Ready® - RR). The control of this species has not proven to be satisfactory in some places in the last years, leading to the suspicion [...] that biotypes resistant to glyphosate have been selected. The objective this work was to evaluate, by response-dose curve, wild poinsettia biotypes with suspected resistance to glyphosate. The experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions and the experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design, with four replications. The treatments consisted of increased application rates of glyphosate (0, 90, 180, 360, 720, 1,080, 1,440 and 2,160 g a.e. ha-1) on five wild poinsettia biotypes, from crop soybean RR in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Control and dry weight were evaluated. The results indicated that the wild poinsettia biotypes are susceptible to glyphosate.

Vargas, L; Nohatto, M.A; Agostinetto, D; Bianchi, M.A; Gonçalves, E.M; Toledo, R.E.

289

Glyphosate associated with other herbicides for control of Commelina benghalensis and Spermacoce latifolia
Glyphosate associado a outros herbicidas no controle de Commelina benghalensis and Spermacoce latifolia
 

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The widespread cultivation of Roundup Ready soybeans enabled the use of glyphosate for post-emergence weed control in, turning weed handling into an easier and less costly operation. Despite such improvements, controlling glyphosate tolerant species can still be improved by associations with other herbicides. The aimed at evaluating the effect of the association of different herbicides with glyphosate in relation to Commelina benghalensis and Spermacoce latifolia control, after spraying plant...

2011-01-01

290

Características da epiderme foliar de eucalipto e seu envolvimento com a tolerância ao glyphosate Characteristics of eucalypt leaf epidermis and its role in glyphosate tolerance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Em áreas de reflorestamento, a deriva do glyphosate causa injúrias nas plantas de eucalipto. Trabalhos preliminares de pesquisa e observações de campo apontam para uma tolerância diferencial ao glyphosate entre os genótipos cultivados. Nesse contexto, objetivou-se estudar as estruturas anatômicas da epiderme foliar de cinco espécies de eucalipto, correlacionando com a tolerância ao glyphosate em deriva simulada. Utilizou-se o esquema fatorial, sendo cinco espécies (Eucalyptus urophy...

2006-01-01

291

Micromorfologia foliar na análise da fitotoxidez por glyphosate em Eucalyptus grandis Leaf micromorphology in the analysis of glyphosate toxicity in Eucalyptus grandis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Foram avaliados os efeitos da deriva de formulações comerciais de glyphosate sobre a superfície foliar e o crescimento de clones de eucalipto. Mudas de seis clones foram submetidas a 129,6 g ha-1 de glyphosate das formulações comerciais Scout®, Roundup NA®, Roundup transorb® e Zapp QI®. Entre os clones não foram identificadas diferenças quanto à tolerância ao glyphosate. Plantas expostas à deriva simulada de Roundup transorb® e Zapp QI® apresentaram, respectivamente, a maior e...

2009-01-01

292

Effects of glyphosate and endosulfan on soil microorganisms in soybean crop Efeitos do endosulfan e glyphosate sobre microrganismos do solo na cultura da soja  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Transgenic soybean, resistant to glyphosate, is the most dominant transgenic crop grown commercially in the world. Research works on herbicide and insecticide mixtures and their effects on microorganisms are rarely reported. This work aimed to study the impact of glyphosate, endosulfan and their mixtures on the microbial soil activity in soybean crop. The experiment was carried out in a complete randomized block design with four treatments and five replications. The treatments were glyphosate...

Pereira, J. L.; Picanc?o, M. C.; Silva, A. A.; Santos, E. A.; Tome?, H. V. V.; Olarte, J. B.

2008-01-01

293

Buva (Conyza bonariensis) resistente ao glyphosate na região sul do Brasil Conyza bonariensis biotypes resistant to the glyphosate in southern Brazil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

O glyphosate é um herbicida não-seletivo utilizado para controlar plantas daninhas há mais de 20 anos no Rio Grande do Sul. A buva (Conyza bonariensis) é uma espécie daninha comum nos Estados da região Sul do Brasil e tradicionalmente controlada com uso de glyphosate. Entretanto, nos últimos anos plantas de buva têm apresentado poucos sintomas de toxicidade em resposta ao tratamento com glyphosate, sugerindo que estas plantas são resistentes ao herbicida. Assim, com o objetivo de ava...

2007-01-01

294

Effects of glyphosate and endosulfan on soil microorganisms in soybean crop Efeitos do endosulfan e glyphosate sobre microrganismos do solo na cultura da soja  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Transgenic soybean, resistant to glyphosate, is the most dominant transgenic crop grown commercially in the world. Research works on herbicide and insecticide mixtures and their effects on microorganisms are rarely reported. This work aimed to study the impact of glyphosate, endosulfan and their mixtures on the microbial soil activity in soybean crop. The experiment was carried out in a complete randomized block design with four treatments and five replications. The treatments were glyphosate 480 SL [540 g of active ingredient (a.i. ha-1], endosulfan 350 EC (525 g a.i. ha-1, the glyphosate 480 SL [540 g of active ingredient (a.i. ha-1] mixed with endosulfan 350 EC (525 g a.i. ha-1 and the control. Microbial activity was evaluated five days after treatment application. Glyphosate application was not an impacting factor for soil CO2 production. Endosulfan application (alone or mixed with glyphosate suppressed CO2 production by microorganisms in the soil. Microbial biomass and microbial quotient were lower in the treatments using endosulfan alone and in those using endosulfan mixed with glyphosate than in the treatments using glyphosate alone and control.A soja resistente ao glyphosate é a cultura transgênica mais cultivada em todo o mundo. Pesquisas envolvendo o impacto de mistura de herbicidas e inseticidas e seus efeitos sobre microrganismos do solo são raramente reportadas. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o impacto do herbicida (glyphosate, do inseticida (endosulfan e da mistura de ambos sobre a atividade microbiana do solo na cultura da soja. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com quatro tratamentos e cinco repetições. Os tratamentos foram o herbicida glyphosate 480 SL [540 g de ingrediente ativo (i.a. ha-1], endosulfan 350 EC (525 g i.a. ha-1, a mistura de glyphosate 480 SL (540 g de i.a. ha-1 com endosulfan 350 EC (525 g i.a. ha-1 e a testemunha onde se aplicou água. A atividade microbiana foi avaliada aos cinco dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos. A aplicação de glyphosate não afetou a produção de CO2 pela microbiota do solo. A aplicação de endosulfan (isolado ou em mistura com o glyphosate reduziu a produção de CO2 pelos microrganismos do solo. A biomassa microbiana e o quociente metabólico foram menores nos tratamentos submetidos à aplicação de endosulfan isolado e em mistura com glyphosate, em comparação àqueles submetidos à aplicaçao de glyphosate isolado e à testemunha.

J.L. Pereira

2008-01-01

295

Electrochemically Reduced Graphene Oxide Multilayer Films as Efficient Counter Electrode for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We report on a new counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs), which is prepared using layer-by-layer assembly of negatively charged graphene oxide and positively charged poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) followed by an electrochemical reduction procedure. The DSC devises using the heteroleptic Ru complex C106TBA as sensitizer and this new counter electrode reach power conversion efficiencies of 9.5% and 7.6% in conjunction with low volatility and solvent free ionic liquid ...

Xiaobao Xu; Dekang Huang; Kun Cao; Mingkui Wang; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M.; Michael Grätzel

2013-01-01

296

Weight Loss Reduces Liver Fat and Improves Hepatic and skeletal Muscle Insulin sensitivity in Obese Adolescents  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Obesity in adolescents is associated with metabolic risk factors for type 2 diabetes, particularly insulin resistance and excessive accumulation of intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of moderate weight loss on IHTG content and insulin sensitivity in obese adolescents who had normal oral glucose tolerance. Insulin sensitivity, assessed by using the hyperinsulinemic–euglycemic clamp technique in conjunction with stable isotopically labeled t...

Vitola, Bernadette E.; Deivanayagam, Sheela; Stein, Richard I.; Mohammed, Balsamanirina S.; Magkos, Faidon; Kirk, Erik P.; Klein, Samuel

2009-01-01

297

Improving the NH3 gas sensitivity of ZnO nanowire sensors by reducing the carrier concentration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report a method to improve the sensitivity of a zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowire gas sensor towards ammonia (NH3) without the use of catalyst nanoparticles on the nanowire surface. This improvement is achieved by lowering the nominal carrier concentration in the as-grown ZnO nanowires. The carrier concentration in the as-grown ZnO nanowires can be tuned by treating these nanowires to either an oxidizing gas plasma or a reducing gas plasma, as observed from the measured current-voltage (I-V) characteristics response. We demonstrate that a ZnO nanowire sensor device that has been subjected to oxygen plasma treatment, thereby having a reduced carrier concentration, exhibits a sensitivity towards 0.75% NH3 gas that is improved by approximately four times. The origin of this gas sensitivity improvement is discussed based on x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis results of the plasma-treated ZnO nanowires

2008-05-21

298

Photodegradation of glyphosate in the ferrioxalate system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The photoinduced degradation of glyphosate (GLP) in the ferrioxalate system was investigated under irradiation with a 250 W metal halide lamp ({lambda} {>=} 365 nm). The efficiency of orthophosphates release, representing the photodegradation efficiency of GLP, increased with decreasing the initial concentrations of GLP and Fe(III)/oxalate ratios. At acidic pH value in the range of 3.5-5.0, higher efficiency of orthophosphates release up to 60.6% was achieved, while the efficiency dropped to 42.1% at pH 6.0. The photochemical process mainly involved the predominant species of iron(III), namely Fe(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2}{sup -} and Fe(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}{sup 3-}, which lead to the formation of hydroxyl radicals in the presence of dissolved oxygen under UV-vis irradiation. Also, the complexation of GLP with Fe(III) obviously increased the light absorption of GLP and facilitated its degradation by direct photolysis. The ninhydrin test for primary amines showed that the GLP was attacked by hydroxyl radicals with C-N cleavage to yield aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) and C-P cleavage to yield sarcosine. The photodegradation may be enhanced by the decomposition of reactive radicals produced through ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT) of ferric-GLP complexes.

Chen Yong [School of Resources and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Wu Feng [School of Resources and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079 (China)], E-mail: fengwu@whu.edu.cn; Lin Yixin; Deng Nansheng [School of Resources and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Bazhin, Nikolai; Glebov, Evgeni [Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion, 3 Institutskaya St., Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

2007-09-05

299

Photodegradation of glyphosate in the ferrioxalate system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The photoinduced degradation of glyphosate (GLP) in the ferrioxalate system was investigated under irradiation with a 250 W metal halide lamp (? ? 365 nm). The efficiency of orthophosphates release, representing the photodegradation efficiency of GLP, increased with decreasing the initial concentrations of GLP and Fe(III)/oxalate ratios. At acidic pH value in the range of 3.5-5.0, higher efficiency of orthophosphates release up to 60.6% was achieved, while the efficiency dropped to 42.1% at pH 6.0. The photochemical process mainly involved the predominant species of iron(III), namely Fe(C2O4)2- and Fe(C2O4)33-, which lead to the formation of hydroxyl radicals in the presence of dissolved oxygen under UV-vis irradiation. Also, the complexation of GLP with Fe(III) obviously increased the light absorption of GLP and facilitated its degradation by direct photolysis. The ninhydrin test for primary amines showed that the GLP was attacked by hydroxyl radicals with C-N cleavage to yield aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) and C-P cleavage to yield sarcosine. The photodegradation may be enhanced by the decomposition of reactive radicals produced through ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT) of ferric-GLP complexes

2007-09-05

300

Tracing the origin and mobilization of Glyphosate and AMPA in a vineyard catchment  

Science.gov (United States)

Pesticides residues are often found in storm-water runoff in agricultural areas. There are several pathways along which pesticides may be transported from their application point towards the river. Although the primary target of pesticide application is the agricultural area, wind drift transports pesticide droplets to non-target areas. Furthermore, miss-operation of application machines results in the deposition of pesticides at filter strips or roads from where they can be washed off. Therefore, it may be difficult to identify the origin of pesticides in storm-water runoff. However, management of water quality requires that critical source areas are clearly delineated in order to effectively reduce water pollution. In the Rouffach catchment, a 42.7 ha vineyard catchment in France,