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Sensibilidade de estirpes de Bradyrhizobium ao glyphosate Sensitivity of Bradyrhizobium strains to glyphosate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A aplicação do glyphosate sobre a soja resistente a este herbicida pode causar prejuízos à simbiose com o rizóbio. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a sensibilidade ao herbicida glyphosate de três estirpes de Bradyrhizobium recomendadas para a produção de inoculantes de sementes de soja no Brasil. Avaliou-se o efeito das concentrações de 0,0; 5,4; 10,8; 21,6 e 43,2 µg L-1 do ingrediente ativo do glyphosate [N-(fosfonometil glicina] no meio YM líquido sobre o crescimento de B. japonicum (estirpe SEMIA 5079 e de B. elkanii (estirpe SEMIA 5019 e estirpe SEMIA 587, por meio de leituras das densidades óticas e geração de curvas de crescimento. As reduções de crescimento na presença da menor concentração do glyphosate foram de 18% para SEMIA 5079, 29% para SEMIA 5019 e de 35% para SEMIA 587, sendo, de modo geral, quanto maior a concentração do herbicida no meio de cultura maior a inibição do crescimen­to. As estirpes apresentaram sensibilidade diferencial somente às concentrações mais baixas do glyphosate; nesse caso, foi possível determinar a seguinte ordem de sensibilidade: SEMIA 587 > SEMIA 5019 > SEMIA 5079. Essa sensibilidade diferencial é dependente da concentração do herbicida, pois na presença de 43,2 µg L-1 todas as estirpes tiveram seu crescimento severamente reduzido, não havendo diferença entre elas.Glyphosate applications to glyphosate-resistant soybean may impair symbiosis with Bradyrhizobium, a symbiotic bacterium. This study evaluated the sensitivity to glyphosate of three Bradyrhizobium strains used commercially in soybean crop in Brazil. The concentrations (0.0; 5.4; 10.8; 21.6 e 43.2 µg L-1 of the active ingredient glyphosate [N­(phosphonomethylglycine] were added to YM liquid medium for the growth of one strain of B. japonicum (SEMIA 5079 and two strains of B. elkanni (SEMIA 5019 and SEMIA 587 inoculated as pure culture. The herbicide effect on the growth of the tested strains was assessed by optical density and growth curves were established for each strain. Reduction in growth of strains in the lowest glyphosate concentration were 18% for SEMIA 5079, 29% for SEMIA 5019 and 35% for SEMIA 587. In general, the higher the concentration of the herbicide in the culture medium, the greater the growth inhibition. The strains showed differential sensitivity only at the lowest concentrations of glyphosate, allowing the determination of the following order of sensitivity: SEMIA 587>SEMIA 5019>SEMIA 5079. This differential sensitivity is dependent on the herbicide concentration, since in the presence of 43.2 µg L-1 all strains severely reduced growth, not showing difference among them.

Rodrigo Josemar Seminoti Jacques

2010-02-01

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Sensibilidade de estirpes de Bradyrhizobium ao glyphosate / Sensitivity of Bradyrhizobium strains to glyphosate  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A aplicação do glyphosate sobre a soja resistente a este herbicida pode causar prejuízos à simbiose com o rizóbio. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a sensibilidade ao herbicida glyphosate de três estirpes de Bradyrhizobium recomendadas para a produção de inoculantes de sementes de soja no Brasi [...] l. Avaliou-se o efeito das concentrações de 0,0; 5,4; 10,8; 21,6 e 43,2 µg L-1 do ingrediente ativo do glyphosate [N-(fosfonometil) glicina] no meio YM líquido sobre o crescimento de B. japonicum (estirpe SEMIA 5079) e de B. elkanii (estirpe SEMIA 5019 e estirpe SEMIA 587), por meio de leituras das densidades óticas e geração de curvas de crescimento. As reduções de crescimento na presença da menor concentração do glyphosate foram de 18% para SEMIA 5079, 29% para SEMIA 5019 e de 35% para SEMIA 587, sendo, de modo geral, quanto maior a concentração do herbicida no meio de cultura maior a inibição do crescimen­to. As estirpes apresentaram sensibilidade diferencial somente às concentrações mais baixas do glyphosate; nesse caso, foi possível determinar a seguinte ordem de sensibilidade: SEMIA 587 > SEMIA 5019 > SEMIA 5079. Essa sensibilidade diferencial é dependente da concentração do herbicida, pois na presença de 43,2 µg L-1 todas as estirpes tiveram seu crescimento severamente reduzido, não havendo diferença entre elas. Abstract in english Glyphosate applications to glyphosate-resistant soybean may impair symbiosis with Bradyrhizobium, a symbiotic bacterium. This study evaluated the sensitivity to glyphosate of three Bradyrhizobium strains used commercially in soybean crop in Brazil. The concentrations (0.0; 5.4; 10.8; 21.6 e 43.2 µg [...] L-1) of the active ingredient glyphosate [N­(phosphonomethyl)glycine] were added to YM liquid medium for the growth of one strain of B. japonicum (SEMIA 5079) and two strains of B. elkanni (SEMIA 5019 and SEMIA 587) inoculated as pure culture. The herbicide effect on the growth of the tested strains was assessed by optical density and growth curves were established for each strain. Reduction in growth of strains in the lowest glyphosate concentration were 18% for SEMIA 5079, 29% for SEMIA 5019 and 35% for SEMIA 587. In general, the higher the concentration of the herbicide in the culture medium, the greater the growth inhibition. The strains showed differential sensitivity only at the lowest concentrations of glyphosate, allowing the determination of the following order of sensitivity: SEMIA 587>SEMIA 5019>SEMIA 5079. This differential sensitivity is dependent on the herbicide concentration, since in the presence of 43.2 µg L-1 all strains severely reduced growth, not showing difference among them.

Rodrigo Josemar Seminoti, Jacques; Sérgio de Oliveira, Procópio; José Barbosa dos, Santos; Maria Catarina Megumi, Kasuya; Antônio Alberto da, Silva.

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Resposta de cultivares de algodoeiro a subdoses de glyphosate / Response of cotton cultivars to reduced rates of glyphosate  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Avaliou-se a resposta de nove cultivares de algodoeiro, de importância econômica no Estado do Mato Grosso, quanto à intoxicação causada por subdoses de glyphosate. Os cultivares de algodoeiro utilizados foram Fabrika, Makina, ITA-90, FM 986, FM 966, Delta Opal, BRS Facual, Antares e Coodetec 407. As [...] plantas foram cultivadas em tubetes preenchidos com substrato de solo e mantidas em casa telada, tendo recebido a aplicação do glyphosate aos 20 dias após a emergência, época em que apresentavam quatro folhas verdadeiras. As subdoses de glyphosate, simulando deriva, foram de 270 e 540 g ha-1. Também foi utilizada testemunha, sem aplicação do herbicida, para efeito de comparação. Foram realizadas avaliações semanais até 42 dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos (DAA), período em que também foi tomada a altura das plantas. Os sintomas visuais de intoxicação iniciaram-se aos 3 DAA, caracterizados pelo amarelecimento das pontas das folhas mais novas, seguido de murchamento do ápice das plantas. Na dose de 270 g ha-1 esses sintomas foram de baixa intensidade, mas a 540 g ha-1 causaram, na maioria dos casos, toxidez "preocupante" a "muito alta". Os cultivares BRS Facual e FM 986 mostraram-se os mais suscetíveis. A altura das plantas foi mais afetada quando se aplicou a menor dose de glyphosate. Houve recuperação de todos os cultivares tratados com 270 g ha-1 de glyphosate até os 42 DAA. Quando tratados com 540 g ha-1 de glyphosate, os cultivares Fabrika, Coodetec 407, BRS-Facual e ITA-90 foram mais sensíveis, apresentando redução de altura entre 84 e 90% aos 42 DAA. Os cultivares menos sensíveis na dose de 270 g ha-1 de glyphosate não foram os mesmos para a dose de 540 g ha-1. Abstract in english The response of nine cotton cultivars economically important in the state of Mato Grosso was evaluated in relation to the toxicity caused by reduced rates of glyphosate. The cotton cultivars used were Fabrika, Makina, ITA-90, FM 986, FM 966, Delta Opal, BRS Facual, Antares and Coodetec 407. The plan [...] ts were cultivated in plastic pots filled with soil substratum and kept under greenhouse conditions. Glyphosate application was performed 20 days post emergence, at which time they presented four true leaves. Reduced rates of glyphosate, simulating drift, ranged from 270 and 540 g. A control was also used, without herbicide application to compare the effects. Weekly evaluations were accomplished up to 42 days after application (DAA). During this period, plant height was also measured. Visual symptoms began 3 DAA, with the appearance of yellow spots at the tips of the youngest leaves, followed by withering at the apex of the plants. At the rate of 270 g ha-1, these symptoms showed low intensity but at the rate of 540 g ha-1 the symptoms caused "worrisome" to "very high'' toxicity, in most of the cases. BRS Facual and FM 986 were the most susceptible. Plant height was the most affected when the lowest glyphosate dose was applied. All cultivars treated with 270 g ha-1 glyphosate rate until 42 DAA were recovered. Fabrika, Coodetec 407, BRS Facual and ITA-90 cultivars, when treated with 540 g ha-1 glyphosate were more sensitive, presenting a height reduction between 84 and 90% 42 DAA. The less sensitive cultivars at the rate of 270 g ha-1 glyphosate were not the same at the 540 g ha-1 rate.

O.M., Yamashita; S.C., Guimarães.

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Resposta de cultivares de algodoeiro a subdoses de glyphosate Response of cotton cultivars to reduced rates of glyphosate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Avaliou-se a resposta de nove cultivares de algodoeiro, de importância econômica no Estado do Mato Grosso, quanto à intoxicação causada por subdoses de glyphosate. Os cultivares de algodoeiro utilizados foram Fabrika, Makina, ITA-90, FM 986, FM 966, Delta Opal, BRS Facual, Antares e Coodetec 407. As plantas foram cultivadas em tubetes preenchidos com substrato de solo e mantidas em casa telada, tendo recebido a aplicação do glyphosate aos 20 dias após a emergência, época em que apresentavam quatro folhas verdadeiras. As subdoses de glyphosate, simulando deriva, foram de 270 e 540 g ha-1. Também foi utilizada testemunha, sem aplicação do herbicida, para efeito de comparação. Foram realizadas avaliações semanais até 42 dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos (DAA, período em que também foi tomada a altura das plantas. Os sintomas visuais de intoxicação iniciaram-se aos 3 DAA, caracterizados pelo amarelecimento das pontas das folhas mais novas, seguido de murchamento do ápice das plantas. Na dose de 270 g ha-1 esses sintomas foram de baixa intensidade, mas a 540 g ha-1 causaram, na maioria dos casos, toxidez "preocupante" a "muito alta". Os cultivares BRS Facual e FM 986 mostraram-se os mais suscetíveis. A altura das plantas foi mais afetada quando se aplicou a menor dose de glyphosate. Houve recuperação de todos os cultivares tratados com 270 g ha-1 de glyphosate até os 42 DAA. Quando tratados com 540 g ha-1 de glyphosate, os cultivares Fabrika, Coodetec 407, BRS-Facual e ITA-90 foram mais sensíveis, apresentando redução de altura entre 84 e 90% aos 42 DAA. Os cultivares menos sensíveis na dose de 270 g ha-1 de glyphosate não foram os mesmos para a dose de 540 g ha-1.The response of nine cotton cultivars economically important in the state of Mato Grosso was evaluated in relation to the toxicity caused by reduced rates of glyphosate. The cotton cultivars used were Fabrika, Makina, ITA-90, FM 986, FM 966, Delta Opal, BRS Facual, Antares and Coodetec 407. The plants were cultivated in plastic pots filled with soil substratum and kept under greenhouse conditions. Glyphosate application was performed 20 days post emergence, at which time they presented four true leaves. Reduced rates of glyphosate, simulating drift, ranged from 270 and 540 g. A control was also used, without herbicide application to compare the effects. Weekly evaluations were accomplished up to 42 days after application (DAA. During this period, plant height was also measured. Visual symptoms began 3 DAA, with the appearance of yellow spots at the tips of the youngest leaves, followed by withering at the apex of the plants. At the rate of 270 g ha-1, these symptoms showed low intensity but at the rate of 540 g ha-1 the symptoms caused "worrisome" to "very high'' toxicity, in most of the cases. BRS Facual and FM 986 were the most susceptible. Plant height was the most affected when the lowest glyphosate dose was applied. All cultivars treated with 270 g ha-1 glyphosate rate until 42 DAA were recovered. Fabrika, Coodetec 407, BRS Facual and ITA-90 cultivars, when treated with 540 g ha-1 glyphosate were more sensitive, presenting a height reduction between 84 and 90% 42 DAA. The less sensitive cultivars at the rate of 270 g ha-1 glyphosate were not the same at the 540 g ha-1 rate.

O.M. Yamashita

2005-12-01

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Shikimate accumulates in both glyphosate-sensitive and glyphosate-resistant horseweed (Conyza canadensis L. Cronq.).  

Science.gov (United States)

Horseweed (Conyza canadensis) is a cosmopolitan weed that commonly grows throughout North America. Horseweed that is not completely controlled by normal applications of glyphosate has been reported in western Tennessee. This research had three objectives: (1) to develop and validate an analytical procedure for the quantitative determination of shikimate, an important indicator of glyphosate activity in plants; (2) to confirm resistance to glyphosate in a horseweed population; and (3) to examine the accumulation of shikimate in both glyphosate-resistant and glyphosate-susceptible horseweed plants. The analytical procedure to determine shikimate used extraction with 1 M HCl for 24 h, followed by liquid chromatography using photodiode array detection, and shikimate recoveries were >or=82%. Glyphosate applications of both 0.84 kg ae/ha (the standard application rate) and 3.8 kg ae/ha to susceptible plants caused complete plant death. The same glyphosate applications to putative resistant populations caused less than 15% growth reduction as determined by visual evaluations, and fresh weights of these resistant plants 17 days after glyphosate treatment (DAT) were reduced an average of 45% in one population and were not affected in a different population. This direct comparison conclusively confirms that horseweed plants collected in western Tennessee in 2002 are resistant to 4 times the normal application dosage of glyphosate. The glyphosate-resistant horseweed biotypes still exhibited some herbicidal effects from the glyphosate, such as yellowing in the most actively growing, apical shoot meristems. The yellowing in the shoot apexes was transitory, and the plants recovered from this damage. Shikimate concentrations in all untreated horseweed plants were less than 100 microg/g, which was significantly less than that in all plants which had been treated with 0.84 kg ae/ha of glyphosate. Unexpectedly, shikimate accumulated (>1000 microg/g) in both resistant populations and the susceptible population. However, there were differences in shikimate accumulation patterns between resistant and susceptible horseweed biotypes. Shikimate concentrations in resistant populations declined about 40% from 2 to 4 DAT, while shikimate concentrations in the susceptible horseweed plants increased about 35% from 2 to 4 DAT. The confirmed resistance of a widespread weed implies that alternative control strategies for glyphosate-resistant horseweed will be needed in those no-tillage production systems where it commonly occurs. PMID:12537441

Mueller, Thomas C; Massey, Joseph H; Hayes, Robert M; Main, Chris L; Stewart, C Neal

2003-01-29

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Glyphosate spray drift in Coffea arabica - Sensitivity of coffee plants and possible use of shikimic acid as a biomarker for glyphosate exposure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glyphosate is widely used in coffee plantations to control weeds. Lacking selectivity, glyphosate spray drift is suspected to cause adverse effects in coffee plants. Symptoms caused by glyphosate can be similar to those produced by other stress factors. However, shikimic acid accumulation should be a useful biomarker for glyphosate exposure as shown for other crops. The aim of this study was to assess the sensitivity of coffee plants towards glyphosate on different biological response variables and to evaluate the use of shikimic acid as biomarker. Dose-response experiments yielded ED50 values (50% effect dose) in the range of 38-550ga.e.ha(-1) depending on the quantitative or qualitative variable monitored. The frequency of plants showing symptoms was the most sensitive variable. The best sampling time for shikimic acid accumulation was 1-2weeks after glyphosate application, depending on experimental conditions. The highest shikimic acid accumulation was observed in young leaves. Shikimic acid is a suitable biomarker for a glyphosate exposure in coffee, using only young leaves for the analysis. Young coffee plants are susceptible to glyphosate damage. If symptoms are absent the risk of severe crop damage or yield loss is low. PMID:25307461

Schrübbers, Lars C; Valverde, Bernal E; Sørensen, Jens C; Cedergreen, Nina

2014-10-01

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Horseweed with reduced susceptibility to glyphosate found in the czech republic.  

Science.gov (United States)

The physiological and molecular basis of apparent resistance to glyphosate in horseweed (Conyza canadensis L. Cronq.) plants that had survived being sprayed with the herbicide at Prague-Bubny railway station in the Czech Republic was investigated. For the sake of comparison, plants expected to be susceptible were collected in areas where no herbicides had been used. Plants of both sets were treated, at the rosette stage (10-25 leaves, diameter of 3-5 cm), with herbicide at the rate recommended for use in the Czech Republic to control horseweed (960 g of glyphosate-IPA/ha; Roundup Klasik, Monsanto, 480 g of glyphosate-IPA ae L(-1)). Phytotoxic symptoms of the treated plants varied substantially, both between and within these sets of plants. Leaves of susceptible (S) plants wilted and turned yellow, and the plants subsequently died; leaves of plants with reduced susceptibility (RS) remained green, or new leaves were created in the center of their rosettes a few weeks after glyphosate application. There were no significant differences in the accumulation of shikimate between S and RS plants 3 days after treatment (DAT). However, the time course of changes in shikimic acid contents differed between the two biotypes; from 3 to 10 DAT, they decreased more than 4-fold in RS plants, while in S plants, they increased (3-fold, on average) from 3 to 7 DAT. A conserved region of the epsps gene, in which mutations are known to confer resistance in several plant species, was amplified from samples of both S and RS plants and sequenced, but no changes in the encoded amino acid sequence were found, indicating that mutations at another epsps site were responsible for the observed resistance, or that the mechanism may be at least partially non-target-based. Our results suggest that the reduced susceptibility to glyphosate may be due to impaired herbicide translocation, as previously found in studies of horseweed in the United States. PMID:19722578

Chodová, Daniela; Salava, Jaroslav; Martincová, Olga; Cvikrová, Milena

2009-08-12

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TREATABILITY STUDIES OF PESTICIDE MANUFACTURING WASTEWATERS: GLYPHOSATE  

Science.gov (United States)

The report gives results of subjecting various combinations of glyphosate production wastestreams to biological treatment following lime-pretreatment to reduce high levels of glyphosate. Bench-scale biological treatment demonstrated that glyphosate did not appear to interfere wit...

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Efeito de doses reduzidas de glyphosate e paraquat simulando deriva na cultura do sorgo / Effect of reduced rates of glyphosate and paraquat simulating drift on sorghum crop  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A aplicação de herbicidas, seja para dessecação de culturas ou para controle de plantas daninhas, vem crescendo, devido à expansão da fronteira agrícola brasileira. Esse fato aumenta os riscos de ocorrência de deriva acidental em culturas vizinhas suscetíveis; no entanto, as perdas em produtividade [...] dessas culturas são desconhecidas em muitas situações de ocorrência de deriva de herbicidas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a fitotoxicidade causada por doses reduzidas dos herbicidas glyphosate e paraquat simulando deriva, bem como seus efeitos, no desenvolvimento das plantas e no rendimento de grãos de sorgo. O estudo foi conduzido durante os anos agrícolas 1996/97 e 1997/98, utilizando-se o híbrido BR 700 no delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com 12 tratamentos e quatro repetições. Foram utilizadas cinco doses reduzidas simulando deriva - 2, 4, 6, 8 e 12% da dose recomendada (dose recomendada: 1.440 g ha-1 de glyphosate e 400 g ha-1 de paraquat) - e duas testemunhas sem aplicação de herbicidas para comparação. Área foliar e peso da matéria seca não foram afetados pelos tratamentos de deriva, ao passo que a altura da planta foi reduzida sobretudo nas maiores doses dos herbicidas. O teor de clorofila foi afetado apenas no ano agrícola 1997/98, ocorrendo maior porcentagem de injúrias à medida que se aumentou a concentração de deriva. No ano agrícola 1996/97, os danos observados na parte aérea foram maiores e o estande final chegou a ser reduzido pela maior dose de glyphosate. Com relação à produtividade, somente no ano agrícola 1996/97 houve redução devido à deriva, em que a maior concentração de glyphosate resultou em menor peso de panículas e de grãos. No ano agrícola 1997/98, não houve efeito de deriva nas características de produção, em razão, provavelmente, da influência de fatores climáticos. O sorgo é uma planta sensível à ação de herbicidas não-seletivos; doses reduzidas, tanto de glyphosate como de paraquat, correspondentes a 12% ou menos da dose recomendada, podem influir no desenvolvimento das plantas, comprometendo a produtividade de grãos, sobretudo quando as condições climáticas são favoráveis à ação desses herbicidas. Abstract in english Herbicide application for crop desiccation or weed control has been growing due to the expansion of the Brazilian agricultural frontier. This fact increases the risks of drift to susceptible crops grown in the vicinity areas; however, several questions are frequently raised about possible losses in [...] grain yield of these crops due to herbicide drift. The objective of this work was to evaluate injuries caused by reduced rates of glyphosate and paraquat simulating drift and its effect on sorghum plant development and grain production. The study was carried out during the crop growing seasons of 1996/97 and 1997/98. The hybrid BR 700 was used in a randomized complete block design, with 12 treatments and four replications. The treatments were performed by the combination of two herbicides with five concentrations of simulated drift: 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12% of the recommended rates (1,440 g ha-1 of glyphosate and 400 g ha-1 of paraquat), and two check treatments without herbicide application for compressions. Leaf area and dry matter weight were not affected by drift, whereas plant height was reduced, especially by the highest herbicide reduced rate. The chlorophyll content was slightly affected in the growing season 1997/98, whereas the visual symptoms, in both growing seasons, resulted in higher percentage of injuries while concentration drift increased. The leaf damages observed were greater at the growing season 1996/97. Also in this growing season, the final stand was reduced by the highest glyphosate rate. As far as grain production is concerned, only the growing season 1996/97 presented yield reduction due to drift, when the highest rate of glyphosate resulted in the lowest grain weight. In the 1997/98 trial, there was no d

P.C., Magalhães; J.B., Silva; F.O.M., Durães; D., Karam; L.S., Ribeiro.

2001-08-01

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Nociceptive sensitization reduces predation risk.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sublethal injury triggers long-lasting sensitization of defensive responses in most species examined, suggesting the involvement of powerful evolutionary selection pressures [1]. In humans, this persistent nociceptive sensitization is often accompanied by heightened sensations of pain and anxiety [2]. While experimental [3] and clinical [4] evidence support the adaptive value of immediate nociception during injury, no direct evidence exists for adaptive benefits of long-lasting sensitization after injury. Recently, we showed that minor injury produces long-term sensitization of behavioral and neuronal responses in squid, Doryteuthis pealei [5, 6]. Here we tested the adaptive value of this sensitization during encounters between squid and a natural fish predator. Locomotion and other spontaneous behaviors of squid that received distal injury to a single arm (with or without transient anesthesia) showed no measurable impairment 6 hr after the injury. However, black sea bass given access to freely swimming squid oriented toward and pursued injured squid at greater distances than uninjured squid, regardless of previous anesthetic treatment. Once targeted, injured squid began defensive behavioral sequences [7, 8] earlier than uninjured squid. This effect was blocked by brief anesthetic treatment that prevented development of nociceptive sensitization [6, 9]. Importantly, the early anesthetic treatment also reduced the subsequent escape and survival of injured, but not uninjured, squid. Thus, while minor injury increases the risk of predatory attack, it also triggers a sensitized state that promotes enhanced responsiveness to threats, increasing the survival (Darwinian fitness) of injured animals during subsequent predatory encounters. PMID:24814149

Crook, Robyn J; Dickson, Katharine; Hanlon, Roger T; Walters, Edgar T

2014-05-19

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Root-zone glyphosate exposure adversely affects two ditch species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glyphosate, one of the most applied herbicides globally, has been extensively studied for its effects on non-target organisms. In the field, following precipitation, glyphosate runs off into agricultural ditches where it infiltrates into the soil and thus may encounter the roots of vegetation. These edge-of-field ditches share many characteristics with wetlands, including the ability to reduce loads of anthropogenic chemicals through uptake, transformation, and retention. Different species within the ditches may have a differential sensitivity to exposure of the root zone to glyphosate, contributing to patterns of abundance of ruderal species. The present laboratory experiment investigated whether two species commonly found in agricultural ditches in southcentral United States were affected by root zone glyphosate in a dose-dependent manner, with the objective of identifying a sublethal concentration threshold. The root zone of individuals of Polygonum hydropiperoides and Panicum hemitomon were exposed to four concentrations of glyphosate. Leaf chlorophyll content was measured, and the ratio of aboveground biomass to belowground biomass and survival were quantified. The findings from this study showed that root zone glyphosate exposure negatively affected both species including dose-dependent reductions in chlorophyll content. P. hydropiperdoides showed the greatest negative response, with decreased belowground biomass allocation and total mortality at the highest concentrations tested. PMID:24833234

Saunders, Lyndsay E; Koontz, Melissa B; Pezeshki, Reza

2013-01-01

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Bases for interactions between saflufenacil and glyphosate in plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Buckwheat (Fagropyrum esculentum Moench.), cabbage (Brassica oleracea L), and conventional and glyphosate-resistant varieties of canola (Brassica napus L.) were used to study the bases of saflufenacil and glyphosate interactions. Compared to the addition of Merge (surfactant), the addition of both Transorb (i.e., commercial product, Transorb formulation with glyphosate) and Merge increased the cuticular absorption of [(14)C] saflufenacil in cabbage plants with thick epicuticular wax layers. However, in all cases, the addition of glyphosate reduced the translocation of [(14)C]saflufenacil in glyphosate-susceptible plants, while translocation was not affected in glyphosate-resistant canola. Moreover, the phytotoxicity of saflufenacil reduced the activity of glyphosate, possibly by reducing its translocation in all plant species studied. Increased absorption of saflufenacil by the addition of Transorb (i.e., Transorb formulation with glyphosate) plus Merge appears to increase its contact activity, thus the interaction of saflufenacil and glyphosate involves two separate processes, absorption and translocation. PMID:20481603

Ashigh, Jamshid; Hall, J Christopher

2010-06-23

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Fluorescence enhancement of CdTe/CdS quantum dots by coupling of glyphosate and its application for sensitive detection of copper ion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Graphical abstract: Glyphosate (Glyp) had been used to modify the surface of CdTe/CdS QDs, resulting in the enhancement of fluorescence intensity. The Glyp-functionalized QDs fluorescent probe offers good sensitivity and selectivity for detecting Cu2+ based on the fluorescence quenching. Highlights: ? Water soluble CdTe/CdS quantum dots capped with glyphosate were firstly synthesized. ? The fluorescence of the Glyp-functionalized QDs was quenched by copper ion. ? A new fluorescent sensor for copper ion was developed based on the prepared QDs. ? The sensor exhibited high sensitivity and good selectivity for copper ion. - Abstract: A novel fluorescent probe for Cu2+ determination based on the fluorescence quenching of glyphosate (Glyp)-functionalized quantum dots (QDs) was firstly reported. Glyp had been used to modify the surface of QDs to form Glyp-functionalized QDs following the capping of thioglycolic acid on the core–shell CdTe/CdS QDs. Under the optimal conditions, the response was linearly proportional to the concentration of Cu2+ between 2.4 × 10?2 ?g mL?1 and 28 ?g mL?1, with a detection limit of 1.3 × 10?3 ?g mL?1 (3?). The Glyp-functionalized QDs fluorescent probe offers good sensitivity and selectivity for detecting Cu2+. The fluorescent probe was successfully used for the determination of Cu2+ in environmental samples. Thetal samples. The mechanism of reaction was also discussed.

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Fluorescence enhancement of CdTe/CdS quantum dots by coupling of glyphosate and its application for sensitive detection of copper ion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Graphical abstract: Glyphosate (Glyp) had been used to modify the surface of CdTe/CdS QDs, resulting in the enhancement of fluorescence intensity. The Glyp-functionalized QDs fluorescent probe offers good sensitivity and selectivity for detecting Cu{sup 2+} based on the fluorescence quenching. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Water soluble CdTe/CdS quantum dots capped with glyphosate were firstly synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fluorescence of the Glyp-functionalized QDs was quenched by copper ion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new fluorescent sensor for copper ion was developed based on the prepared QDs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sensor exhibited high sensitivity and good selectivity for copper ion. - Abstract: A novel fluorescent probe for Cu{sup 2+} determination based on the fluorescence quenching of glyphosate (Glyp)-functionalized quantum dots (QDs) was firstly reported. Glyp had been used to modify the surface of QDs to form Glyp-functionalized QDs following the capping of thioglycolic acid on the core-shell CdTe/CdS QDs. Under the optimal conditions, the response was linearly proportional to the concentration of Cu{sup 2+} between 2.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} {mu}g mL{sup -1} and 28 {mu}g mL{sup -1}, with a detection limit of 1.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} {mu}g mL{sup -1} (3{delta}). The Glyp-functionalized QDs fluorescent probe offers good sensitivity and selectivity for detecting Cu{sup 2+}. The fluorescent probe was successfully used for the determination of Cu{sup 2+} in environmental samples. The mechanism of reaction was also discussed.

Liu Zhengqing; Liu Shaopu; Yin Pengfei [Key Laboratory on Luminescence and Real-Time Analysis, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); He Youqiu, E-mail: heyq@swu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory on Luminescence and Real-Time Analysis, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)

2012-10-01

15

Resistance to glyphosate from altered herbicide translocation patterns.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glyphosate-resistant weeds have evolved as a result of the intensive use of glyphosate for weed control. An alteration in the way glyphosate is translocated within the plant has been identified as a mechanism of glyphosate resistance in populations of Lolium rigidum Gaud., L. multiflorum Lam. and Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronq. In these resistant plants, glyphosate becomes concentrated in the leaves rather than being translocating throughout the plant. This type of resistance is inherited as a single dominant or semi-dominant allele. Resistance due to reduced translocation appears to be a common mechanism of resistance in L. rigidum and C. canadensis, probably because it provides a greater level of resistance than other mechanisms. This type of glyphosate resistance also appears to reduce the fitness of plants that carry it. This may influence how glyphosate resistance can be managed. PMID:18080284

Preston, Christopher; Wakelin, Angela M

2008-04-01

16

Glyphosate effects on the gene expression of the apical bud in soybean (Glycine max).  

Science.gov (United States)

Glyphosate is a broad spectrum, non-selective herbicide which has been widely used for weed control. Much work has focused on elucidating the high accumulation of glyphosate in shoot apical bud (shoot apex). However, to date little is known about the molecular mechanisms of the sensitivity of shoot apical bud to glyphosate. Global gene expression profiling of the soybean apical bud response to glyphosate treatment was performed in this study. The results revealed that the glyphosate inhibited tryptophan biosynthesis of the shikimic acid pathway in the soybean apical bud, which was the target site of glyphosate. Glyphosate inhibited the expression of most of the target herbicide site genes. The promoter sequence analysis of key target genes revealed that light responsive elements were important regulators in glyphosate induction. These results will facilitate further studies of cloning genes and molecular mechanisms of glyphosate on soybean shoot apical bud. PMID:23845904

Jiang, Ling-Xue; Jin, Long-Guo; Guo, Yong; Tao, Bo; Qiu, Li-Juan

2013-08-01

17

Effect of soil metal contamination on glyphosate mineralization: role of zinc in the mineralization rates of two copper-spiked mineral soils.  

Science.gov (United States)

A systematic investigation into lowered degradation rates of glyphosate in metal-contaminated soils was performed by measuring mineralization of [(14)C]glyphosate to (14)CO(2) in two mineral soils that had been spiked with Cu and/or Zn at various loadings. Cumulative (14)CO(2) release was estimated to be approximately 6% or less of the amount of [(14)C]glyphosate originally added in both soils over an 80-d incubation. For all but the highest Cu treatments (400 mg kg(-1)) in the coarse-textured Arkport soil, mineralization began without a lag phase and declined over time. No inhibition of mineralization was observed for Zn up to 400 mg kg(-1) in either soil, suggesting differential sensitivity of glyphosate mineralization to the types of metal and soil. Interestingly, Zn appeared to alleviate high-Cu inhibition of mineralization in the Arkport soil. The protective role of Zn against Cu toxicity was also observed in the pure culture study with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, suggesting that increased mineralization rates in high Cu soil with Zn additions might have been due to alleviation of cellular toxicity by Zn rather than a mineralization specific mechanism. Extensive use of glyphosate combined with its reduced degradation in Cu-contaminated, coarse-textured soils may increase glyphosate persistence in soil and consequently facilitate Cu and glyphosate mobilization in the soil environment. PMID:21298705

Kim, Bojeong; Kim, Young Sik; Kim, Bo Min; Hay, Anthony G; McBride, Murray B

2011-03-01

18

Acute stress selectively reduces reward sensitivity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Stress may promote the onset of psychopathology by disrupting reward processing. However, the extent to which stress impairs reward processing, rather than incentive processing more generally, is unclear. To evaluate the specificity of stress-induced reward processing disruption, 100 psychiatrically healthy females were administered a probabilistic stimulus selection task enabling comparison of sensitivity to reward-driven (Go and punishment-driven (NoGo learning under either ‘no stress’ or ‘stress’ (threat-of-shock conditions. Cortisol samples and self-report measures were collected. Contrary to hypotheses, the groups did not differ significantly in task performance or cortisol reactivity. However, further analyses focusing only on individuals under ‘stress’ who were high responders with regard to both cortisol reactivity and self-reported negative affect revealed reduced reward sensitivity relative to individuals tested in the ‘no stress’ condition; importantly, these deficits were reward-specific. Overall, findings provide preliminary evidence that stress-reactive individuals show diminished sensitivity to reward but not punishment under stress. While such results highlight the possibility that stress-induced anhedonia might be an important mechanism linking stress to affective disorders, future studies are necessary to confirm this conjecture.

LisaHBerghorst

2013-04-01

19

Efecto del glifosato sobre el crecimiento y acumulación de azúcares libres en dos biotipos de lolium perenne de distinta sensibilidad al herbicida / Glyphosate effects on the growth and free sugar accumulation of two lolium perenn e biotypes with different herbicide sensitivity  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El movimiento sistémico del glifosato está determinado por el transporte de fotoasimilados. A su vez, la capacidad de un destino de consumir los asimilados está condicionada por su actividad metabólica. Pese a su importancia, la relación entre el glifosato y la síntesis de azúcares en hojas fuente h [...] a sido poco abordada. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar los efectos del glifosato sobre el crecimiento y la acumulación de azúcares libres en dos biotipos de Lolium perenne de baja y alta sensibilidad al herbicida. Se trabajó con clones de ambos tipos de plantas, en macollaje, tratados con 1.440 g e.a. ha-1 de glifosato y sin tratamiento herbicida como controles. Se evaluó periódicamente el efecto del glifosato sobre el rebrote de hojas hasta las 50 horas post-aplicación y sobre los niveles de azúcares libres totales, reductores y no reductores en hojas a 1, 2, 3 y 5 días post-aplicación. A partir de las 25 horas post-aplicación, el glifosato provocó una disminución del crecimiento del 58% en el biotipo susceptible, con una acumulación de azúcares libres superior al 90% con relación al control, desde el primer día post-aplicación en adelante. La inhibición del crecimiento, inducida por el glifosato en plantas susceptibles, no depende de la limitación del traslado de fotoasimilados desde la parte aérea. Por tanto, la acumulación de azúcares libres en hojas podría explicarse por la caída en la tasa de crecimiento. En el biotipo de baja sensibilidad, en el que no se detectó inhibición del crecimiento, estos efectos fueron limitados. Abstract in english The systemic movement of glyphosate is determined by the transport of photoassimilates. In turn, the capacity of a destination to consume assimilates is conditioned by their metabolic activity. Despite its importance, the relationship between the glyphosate and the sugar synthesis from source leaves [...] has been little studied. The aim of this work was to determine the effect of glyphosate on the growth and free sugar accumulation of two Lolium perenne biotypes of low and high glyphosate sensitivity. It was worked with clones of both types, in tillering, sprayed with 1,440 g a.e. ha-1 of glyphosate as treatments and without herbicide as controls. The glyphosate effects on the regrowth of leaves was studied until 50 hours post-application and on total free sugar, reducing free sugar and nonreducing free sugar from leaves to 1, 2, 3 and 5 days post-application were periodically evaluated. From 25 hours after glyphosate application, it caused on the susceptible biotype a growth decrease of 58% and an accumulation of free sugar above 90% compared to controls. In susceptible biotypes, growth inhibition does not depend on a reduced photoassimilate translocation from the overground part. Therefore, the free sugar accumulation in leaves could be explained by the fall in the rate of growth. These effects are limited in the low sensitivity biotype, where growth inhibition has not been detected.

M., Yanniccari; C., Istilart; D.O., Giménez; H., Acciaresi; A.M, Castro.

2012-03-01

20

40 CFR 180.364 - Glyphosate; tolerances for residues.  

Science.gov (United States)

...of glyphosate, the isopropylamine salt of glyphosate, the ethanolamine salt of glyphosate, the dimethylamine salt of glyphosate...of glyphosate, the isopropylamine salt of glyphosate, the ethanolamine salt of glyphosate, the dimethylamine salt of...

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
21

Hormesis with glyphosate depends on coffee growth stage  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Weed management systems in almost all Brazilian coffee plantations allow herbicide spray to drift on crop plants. In order to evaluate if there is any effect of the most commonly used herbicide in coffee production, glyphosate, on coffee plants, a range of glyphosate doses were applied directly on coffee plants at two distinct plant growth stages. Although growth of both young and old plants was reduced at higher glyphosate doses, low doses caused no effects on growth characteri...

Carvalho, Leonardo B.; Alves, Pedro L. C. A.; Duke, Stephen O.

2013-01-01

22

Distinct non-target site mechanisms endow resistance to glyphosate, ACCase and ALS-inhibiting herbicides in multiple herbicide-resistant Lolium rigidum.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates mechanisms of multiple resistance to glyphosate, acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase) and acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides in two Lolium rigidum populations from Australia. When treated with glyphosate, susceptible (S) plants accumulated 4- to 6-fold more shikimic acid than resistant (R) plants. The resistant plants did not have the known glyphosate resistance endowing mutation of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3 phosphate synthase (EPSPS) at Pro-106, nor was there over-expression of EPSPS in either of the R populations. However, [(14)C]-glyphosate translocation experiments showed that the R plants in both populations have altered glyphosate translocation patterns compared to the S plants. The R plants showed much less glyphosate translocation to untreated young leaves, but more to the treated leaf tip, than did the S plants. Sequencing of the carboxyl transferase domain of the plastidic ACCase gene revealed no resistance endowing amino acid substitutions in the two R populations, and the ALS in vitro inhibition assay demonstrated herbicide-sensitive ALS in the ALS R population (WALR70). By using the cytochrome P450 inhibitor malathion and amitrole with ALS and ACCase herbicides, respectively, we showed that malathion reverses chlorsulfuron resistance and amitrole reverses diclofop resistance in the R population examined. Therefore, we conclude that multiple glyphosate, ACCase and ALS herbicide resistance in the two R populations is due to the presence of distinct non-target site based resistance mechanisms for each herbicide. Glyphosate resistance is due to reduced rates of glyphosate translocation, and resistance to ACCase and ALS herbicides is likely due to enhanced herbicide metabolism involving different cytochrome P450 enzymes. PMID:19603180

Yu, Qin; Abdallah, Ibrahim; Han, Heping; Owen, Mechelle; Powles, Stephen

2009-09-01

23

Hormesis with glyphosate depends on coffee growth stage.  

Science.gov (United States)

Weed management systems in almost all Brazilian coffee plantations allow herbicide spray to drift on crop plants. In order to evaluate if there is any effect of the most commonly used herbicide in coffee production, glyphosate, on coffee plants, a range of glyphosate doses were applied directly on coffee plants at two distinct plant growth stages. Although growth of both young and old plants was reduced at higher glyphosate doses, low doses caused no effects on growth characteristics of young plants and stimulated growth of older plants. Therefore, hormesis with glyphosate is dependent on coffee plant growth stage at the time of herbicide application. PMID:23828346

De Carvalho, Leonardo B; Alves, Pedro L C A; Duke, Stephen O

2013-01-01

24

Glyphosate persistence in seawater.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glyphosate is one of the most widely applied herbicides globally but its persistence in seawater has not been reported. Here we quantify the biodegradation of glyphosate using standard "simulation" flask tests with native bacterial populations and coastal seawater from the Great Barrier Reef. The half-life for glyphosate at 25 °C in low-light was 47 days, extending to 267 days in the dark at 25 °C and 315 days in the dark at 31 °C, which is the longest persistence reported for this herbicide. AMPA, the microbial transformation product of glyphosate, was detected under all conditions, confirming that degradation was mediated by the native microbial community. This study demonstrates glyphosate is moderately persistent in the marine water under low light conditions and is highly persistent in the dark. Little degradation would be expected during flood plumes in the tropics, which could potentially deliver dissolved and sediment-bound glyphosate far from shore. PMID:24467857

Mercurio, Philip; Flores, Florita; Mueller, Jochen F; Carter, Steve; Negri, Andrew P

2014-08-30

25

Inheritance of evolved glyphosate resistance in Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronq.  

Science.gov (United States)

N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine (glyphosate) resistance was previously reported in a horseweed [Conyza (=Erigeron) canadensis (L.) Cronq.] population from Houston, DE (P (0) (R) ). Recurrent selection was performed on P (0) (R) , since the population was composed of susceptible (5%) and resistant (95%) phenotypes. After two cycles of selection at 2.0 kg ae glyphosate ha(-1), similar glyphosate rates that reduced plant growth by 50%, glyphosate rates that inflicted 50% mortality in the population, and accumulations of half of the maximum detectable shikimic acid concentration were observed between the parental P (0) (R) and the first (RS(1)) and second (RS(2)) recurrent generations. In addition, RS(1) and RS(2) did not segregate for resistance to glyphosate. This suggested that the RS(2) population comprised a near-homozygous, glyphosate-resistant line. Whole-plant rate responses estimated a fourfold resistance increase to glyphosate between RS(2) and either a pristine Ames, IA (P (0) (P) ) or a susceptible C. canadensis population from Georgetown, DE (P (0) (S) ). The genetics of glyphosate resistance in C. canadensis was investigated by performing reciprocal crosses between RS(2) and either the P (0) (P) or P (0) (S) populations. Evaluations of the first (F(1)) and second (F(2)) filial generations suggested that glyphosate resistance was governed by an incompletely dominant, single-locus gene (R allele) located in the nuclear genome. The proposed genetic model was confirmed by back-crosses of the F(1) to plants that arose from achenes of the original RS(2), P (0) (P) , or P (0) (S) parents. The autogamous nature of C. canadensis, the simple inheritance model of glyphosate resistance, and the fact that heterozygous genotypes (F(1)) survived glyphosate rates well above those recommended by the manufacturer, predicted a rapid increase in frequency of the R allele under continuous glyphosate selection. The impact of genetics on C. canadensis resistance management is discussed. PMID:15502914

Zelaya, I A; Owen, M D K; Vangessel, M J

2004-12-01

26

Glyphosate in northern ecosystems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glyphosate is the main nonselective, systemic herbicide used against a wide range of weeds. Its worldwide use has expanded because of extensive use of certain agricultural practices such as no-till cropping, and widespread application of glyphosate-resistant genetically modified crops. Glyphosate has a reputation of being nontoxic to animals and rapidly inactivated in soils. However, recent evidence has cast doubts on its safety. Glyphosate may be retained and transported in soils, and there may be cascading effects on nontarget organisms. These processes may be especially detrimental in northern ecosystems because they are characterized by long biologically inactive winters and short growing seasons. In this opinion article, we discuss the potential ecological, environmental and agricultural risks of intensive glyphosate use in boreal regions. PMID:22677798

Helander, Marjo; Saloniemi, Irma; Saikkonen, Kari

2012-10-01

27

Exposure assessment to glyphosate of two species of annelids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adult mortality, biomass, fecundity and viability of cocoons were studied in Eisenia fetida and Octolasion tyrtaeum, in response to glyphosate exposure in soil. Exposure tests were carried out following USEPA procedure, with five concentrations of glyphosate in soil and a control. O. tyrtaeum was more sensitive to the highest concentration of glyphosate (50,000 mg kg(-1)), with 100 % mortality by day 7 of exposure, compared with 71 % for E. fetida. Although biomass of O. tyrtaeum was significantly different between the control and 5,000 mg kg(-1) dose at day 14, E. fetida was not affected at that concentration, and only showed a significant weight loss after 7 days of exposure to 50,000 mg kg(-1). Adverse effects upon adult fecundity and cocoon viability were observed at glyphosate concentrations of 5,000 mg kg(-1) and above. Adverse effects were observed at concentrations that greatly exceeded the recommended field application rates of glyphosate. PMID:24902650

García-Torres, Tristán; Giuffré, Lidia; Romaniuk, Romina; Ríos, Ruth P; Pagano, Eduardo A

2014-08-01

28

Reduced taste sensitivity in congenital blindness  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Sight is undoubtedly not only important for food identification and selection but also for the modulation of gustatory sensitivity. We can, therefore, assume that taste sensitivity and eating habits are affected by visual deprivation from birth. We measured taste detection and identification thresholds of the 5 basic tastants in 13 congenitally blind and 13 sighted control subjects. Participants also answered several eating habits questionnaires, including the Food Neophobia Scale, the Food Variety Seeking Tendency Scale, the Intuitive Eating Scale, and the Body Awareness Questionnaire. Our behavioral results showed that compared with the normal sighted, blind subjects have increased thresholds for taste detection and taste identification. This finding is at odds with the superior performance of congenitally blind subjects in several tactile, auditory and olfactory tasks. Our psychometric data further indicate that blind subjects more strongly rely on internal hunger and satiety cues, instead of external contextual or emotional cues, to decide when and what to eat. We suggest that the lower taste sensitivity observed in congenitally blind individuals is due to various blindness-related obstacles when shopping for food, cooking and eating out, all of which contribute to underexpose the gustatory system to a larger variety of taste stimuli.

Gagnon, Lea; Kupers, Ron

2013-01-01

29

Estádio de desenvolvimento e superfície foliar reduzem a eficiência de chlorimuron-ethyl e glyphosate em Conyza sumatrensis / Developmental stage and leaf surface reduce the efficiency of chlorimuron-ethyl and glyphosate in Conyza sumatrensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Nos Estados do Rio Grande do Sul e do Paraná, há frequentes relatos de falhas de controle de Conyza sumatrensis com chlorimuron-ethyl em lavouras de soja. Assim, os objetivos deste trabalho foram caracterizar morfologicamente as folhas de Conyza sumatrensis e avaliar o controle com herbicidas aplica [...] dos em biótipos dessa planta daninha em três estádios de desenvolvimento. Foram realizados dois estudos, com experimentos em casa de vegetação, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições. No primeiro estudo, os biótipos de buva foram coletados e identificados; já no segundo estudo avaliou-se a resposta de biótipos aos herbicidas, doses e estádios de desenvolvimento. As doses de herbicidas foram: 0,0; 6,25; 12,5; 25; 50; 100; 200; e 400, representadas em porcentagem da dose de registro dos herbicidas chlorimuron-ethyl (20 g ha-1) e glyphosate (720 g e.a. ha-1), aplicadas de modo isolado ou associadas em três estádios de desenvolvimento dos quatro biótipos (2, 5, 17 e 20) de Conyza sumatrensis (altura de 0,5-1 cm e 3-4 folhas; altura 1-2 cm e 6-7 folhas; e altura de 10-12 cm e 12-14 folhas). As variáveis analisadas foram controle, fitomassa seca da parte aérea e as densidades tricomática e estomática da superfície foliar dos biótipos em diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento. Os resultados demonstram que os estádios de desenvolvimento alteram a eficácia dos herbicidas, e aplicações em estádios avançados de desenvolvimento diminuem a eficácia de controle. A exceção foi o biótipo 5 de Conyza sumatrensis, que demonstrou resistência ao glyphosate, independentemente do estádio de desenvolvimento no momento da aplicação do herbicida. Houve variação no número de tricomas entre os biótipos em todos os estádios de desenvolvimento, e o número de estômatos diminuiu com o desenvolvimento dos biótipos. Abstract in english In the states of Rio Grande do Sul and Paraná, there are frequent reports of failure to control Conyza sumatrensis with chlorimuron-ethyl in soybean crops. Thus, the objectives of this study were to characterize Conyza sumatrensis leaves morphologically and evaluate herbicide control in biotypes of [...] this weed at three stages. Two studies were conducted, with experiments in a greenhouse in a completely randomized design with four replications. In the first study, horseweed biotypes were collected and identified, and the second study evaluated the responses of herbicide rates and development stages. The herbicide rates were: 0.0, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, 200 and 400, represented as a percentage of the dose registry of herbicides chlorimuron­ethyl (20 g ha-1) and glyphosate (720 g e.a. ha-1) applied in isolation or associated at three developmental stages of four Conyza sumatrensis (2, 5, 17 and 20) biotypes (height = 0.5-1 cm and 3-4 leaves, height = 1-2 cm and 6-7 leaves, height = 10-12 cm, 12-14 leaves). The variables analyzed were control, shoot dry weight and trichome and stomatal densities biotypes of the leaf surface at different stages of development. The results obtained demonstrate that the developmental stages affect the effectiveness of the herbicides, and applications at advanced stages of development decrease the effectiveness of control. The exception was biotype 5 of Conyza sumatrensis, which shows resistance to glyphosate, regardless of stage of development at the time of herbicide application. There was variation in the number of trichomes among biotypes at all stages of development, and the number of stomata decreased with the development of biotypes.

F.M., Santos; L., Vargas; P.J., Christoffoleti; D., Agostinetto; T.N., Martin; Q., Ruchel; J.A., Fernando.

2014-06-01

30

Effects of additives on glyphosate activity in purple nutsedge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effects of additives on 14 C-glyphosate penetration into purple nutsedge leaves were examined in the laboratory and efficacy of glyphosate for purple nutsedge control was studied in the greenhouse and field. The addition of (NH4)2 SO4 at 1.0% (v/v) + diesel oil at 1,0% (v/v) + Tendal at 1.0% (v/v) increased 14C-glyphosate penetration into nutsedge leaves more than the addition of either one alone. (NH4)2SO4 at 1.0% + diesel oil at 1.0% + Tendal at 0.12 or 0.25% increased the phytotoxicity of glyphosate at 0.5 and 0.75 kg, a.e./ha on nutsedge plants in the greenhouse but not in the field. Additives did not enhance glyphosate activity by reducing the number of nutsedae tubers. (author)

31

Oxidative stress induced by a commercial glyphosate formulation in a tolerant strain of Chlorella kessleri.  

Science.gov (United States)

We studied the toxicity of a glyphosate formulation and provide evidence of metabolic alterations due to oxidative stress caused in a Chlorella kessleri tolerant strain by exposure to the herbicide. After 96 h of exposure to increasing concentrations of the herbicide (0-70 mg L(-1)) with alkylaryl polyglycol ether surfactant, growth was inhibited (EC50-96 h 55.62 mg L(-1)). Glyphosate increased protein and malondialdehyde content which was significantly higher than in the control at 50-70 mg L(-1). Superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and reduced glutathione levels increased in a concentration-dependant manner. Morphological studies showed increases in vacuolisation and in cell and sporangia sizes. The glyphosate formulation studied has a cytotoxic effect on C. kessleri through a mechanism that would involve the induction of oxidative stress. Upon glyphosate exposure, oxidative stress parameters such as SOD and CAT activities and MDA level could be more sensitive biomarkers than usually tested growth parameters in C. kessleri. PMID:21074853

Romero, Delfina M; Ríos de Molina, María C; Juárez, Angela B

2011-05-01

32

Foliar nickel application alleviates detrimental effects of glyphosate drift on yield and seed quality of wheat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glyphosate drift to nontarget crops causes growth aberrations and yield losses. This herbicide can also interact with divalent nutrients and form poorly soluble complexes. The possibility of using nickel (Ni), an essential divalent metal, for alleviating glyphosate drift damage to wheat was investigated in this study. Effects of Ni applications on various growth parameters, seed yield, and quality of durum wheat ( Triticum durum ) treated with sublethal glyphosate at different developmental stages were investigated in greenhouse experiments. Nickel concentrations of various plant parts and glyphosate-induced shikimate accumulation were measured. Foliar but not soil Ni applications significantly reduced glyphosate injuries including yield losses, stunting, and excessive tillering. Both shoot and grain Ni concentrations were enhanced by foliar Ni treatment. Seed germination and seedling vigor were impaired by glyphosate and improved by foliar Ni application to parental plants. Foliar Ni application appears to have a great potential to ameliorate glyphosate drift injury to wheat. PMID:23882996

Kutman, Bahar Yildiz; Kutman, Umit Baris; Cakmak, Ismail

2013-09-01

33

Differential response of Amaranthus tuberculatus (Moq ex DC) JD Sauer to glyphosate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Midwest USA farmers have reported inconsistent control of Amaranthus tuberculatus (= rudis) (Moq ex DC) JD Sauer by glyphosate in glyphosate-resistant crops. The potential of selection for decreased A tuberculatus sensitivity to glyphosate was therefore investigated in a reportedly resistant Everly, IA population (P0-EV). Evaluation of six A tuberculatus populations from the Midwest USA estimated a seedling baseline sensitivity of 2.15 mM glyphosate. Based on these results, three generations of divergent recurrent selection were implemented on P0-EV to isolate resistant and susceptible populations. A seedling assay was developed to screen large amounts of seeds and thus expedite the selection process. Whole-plant and seedling rate responses of P0-EV and a known pristine A tuberculatus population from Paint Creek, OH (P0-WT) identified no significant difference in response to glyphosate; however, greater phenotypic variance was ostensibly evident in P0-EV. The first recurrent generation selected for resistance at 3.2 mM glyphosate (RS1-R) had a 5.9- and 1.7-fold resistance increase at the seedling and whole-plant levels, respectively, compared with the susceptible generation selected at 32 microM glyphosate. After three cycles of recurrent selection, 14.6-fold difference in resistance at the seedling level and 3.1-fold difference at the whole-plant level were observed when comparing the populations selected for resistance (RS3-R) and susceptibility (RS3-S). Overall, recurrent selection increased the frequency of resistant individuals and decreased the variability to glyphosate at the population level. Nevertheless, variability for glyphosate resistance was still evident in RS3-R. Results herein suggested that A tuberculatus is inherently variable to glyphosate and that selection decreased the sensitivity to glyphosate. We purport that evolved glyphosate resistance in A tuberculatus may require multiple cycles of selection under field conditions. Historic estimated use of glyphosate alludes to the evolution of tolerant weed populations. PMID:15912567

Zelaya, Ian A; Owen, Micheal D K

2005-10-01

34

Translocação do glyphosate em biótipos de azevém (Lolium multiflorum Glyphosate translocation in Italian ryegrass biotypes (Lolium multiflorum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foram avaliadas neste trabalho a absorção foliar e a translocação do glyphosate por biótipos de azevém (Lolium multiflorum sensíveis e resistentes a esse herbicida. Para isso, aplicou-se 14C-glyphosate utilizando-se uma microsseringa de precisão, adicionando-se 10 µL da calda sobre a face adaxial da primeira folha com lígula totalmente visível, quando as plantas de azevém se apresentavam com três perfilhos. A quantidade de glyphosate absorvido e translocado foi avaliada em intervalos de tempo (2, 4, 8, 16, 32 e 64 horas ap??s a aplicação, por meio da medição da radiação emitida pelo 14C-glyphosate, em espectrômetro de cintilação líquida. Foram analisadas a parte aérea e as raízes, bem como a folha onde foi feita a aplicação e a solução de lavagem desta folha. A velocidade de absorção do glyphosate foi semelhante em ambos os biótipos de azevém, observando-se mais de 50% de absorção desse herbicida nas primeiras oito horas após a aplicação. Maior reten??o de glyphosate foi observada na folha tratada do biótipo resistente: 81,64% do total de glyphosate absorvido até as 64 horas. No biótipo sensível esse valor foi de 55% no mesmo período. No restante da parte aérea e nas raízes, a maior quantidade do glyphosate absorvido foi encontrada no biótipo sensível, mostrando sua maior capacidade de translocação. Após 64 horas da aplicação do glyphosate, apenas 6%, em média, do glyphosate se encontrava nas plantas, indicando que a maior parte do produto pode ter sido exsudada. Conclui-se que a sensibilidade do azevém ao glyphosate pode ser atribuída à maior capacidade de translocação desse herbicida pelo biótipo sensível.This work evaluated foliar absorption and glyphosate translocation in Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum susceptible and resistant biotypes, 14C-glyphosate was applied by using a precision micro syringe, and adding 10 µL of solution on the adaxial side of the first leaf with ligule totally visible, when Italian ryegrass plants showed 3 tillers. The quantity of glyphosate absorbed and translocated was evaluated through a liquid scintilation spectrometer by measuring radiation emitted by 14C-glyphosate at 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 and 64 hours after application. The roots and aerial part were analyzed as well as the leaf where application was performed and the solution used to wash the leaf. Glyphosate absorption speed was similar in both Italian ryegrass biotypes, with over 50% of herbicide absorption in the first 8 hours after application. Up to 64 hours, higher retention (81.64%of glyphosate was observed in the resistant biotype, while only 55% was retained in the susceptible biotype. In the remaining aerial part and roots, a higher amount of glyphosate was absorbed by the susceptible biotype, indicating higher capacity of its translocation. After 64 hours of application, only 6%, of glyphosate was found in the plants, on average indicating that most of the product could be exuded. It could be concluded that Italian ryegrass sensitivity to glyphosate can be attributed to higher translocation capacity of this herbicide by susceptible biotypes.

E.A. Ferreira

2006-06-01

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Hormesis with glyphosate depends on coffee growth stage  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Os sistemas de manejo de plantas daninhas em quase todos os pomares de café do Brasil permitem que o herbicida pulverizado sofra deriva sobre a cultura. Com objetivo de avaliar se há algum efeito do glyphosate, herbicida mais comumente utilizado em pomares de café, sobre as plantas de café, uma ampl [...] a faixa de doses do herbicida foi aplicada diretamente sobre plantas de café em dois distintos estádios de crescimento da planta. Embora o crescimento de ambas as plantas novas e velhas tenha sido reduzido em doses mais altas de glyphosate, baixas doses não causaram efeitos sobre características de crescimento de plantas novas e estimularam o crescimento das mais velhas. Portanto, o efeito hormético do glyphosate é dependente do estádio de crescimento da planta de café no momento da aplicação do herbicida. Abstract in english Weed management systems in almost all Brazilian coffee plantations allow herbicide spray to drift on crop plants. In order to evaluate if there is any effect of the most commonly used herbicide in coffee production, glyphosate, on coffee plants, a range of glyphosate doses were applied directly on c [...] offee plants at two distinct plant growth stages. Although growth of both young and old plants was reduced at higher glyphosate doses, low doses caused no effects on growth characteristics of young plants and stimulated growth of older plants. Therefore, hormesis with glyphosate is dependent on coffee plant growth stage at the time of herbicide application.

LEONARDO B. DE, CARVALHO; PEDRO L.C.A., ALVES; STEPHEN O., DUKE.

2013-06-01

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Hormesis with glyphosate depends on coffee growth stage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Weed management systems in almost all Brazilian coffee plantations allow herbicide spray to drift on crop plants. In order to evaluate if there is any effect of the most commonly used herbicide in coffee production, glyphosate, on coffee plants, a range of glyphosate doses were applied directly on coffee plants at two distinct plant growth stages. Although growth of both young and old plants was reduced at higher glyphosate doses, low doses caused no effects on growth characteristics of young plants and stimulated growth of older plants. Therefore, hormesis with glyphosate is dependent on coffee plant growth stage at the time of herbicide application.Os sistemas de manejo de plantas daninhas em quase todos os pomares de café do Brasil permitem que o herbicida pulverizado sofra deriva sobre a cultura. Com objetivo de avaliar se há algum efeito do glyphosate, herbicida mais comumente utilizado em pomares de café, sobre as plantas de café, uma ampla faixa de doses do herbicida foi aplicada diretamente sobre plantas de café em dois distintos estádios de crescimento da planta. Embora o crescimento de ambas as plantas novas e velhas tenha sido reduzido em doses mais altas de glyphosate, baixas doses não causaram efeitos sobre características de crescimento de plantas novas e estimularam o crescimento das mais velhas. Portanto, o efeito hormético do glyphosate é dependente do estádio de crescimento da planta de café no momento da aplicação do herbicida.

LEONARDO B. DE CARVALHO

2013-06-01

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Vacuolar glyphosate-sequestration correlates with glyphosate resistance in ryegrass (Lolium spp.) from Australia, South America, and Europe: a 31P NMR investigation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lolium spp., ryegrass, variants from Australia, Brazil, Chile, and Italy showing differing levels of glyphosate resistance were examined by (31)P NMR. Extents of glyphosate (i) resistance (LD(50)), (ii) inhibition of 5-enopyruvyl-shikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) activity (IC(50)), and (iii) translocation were quantified for glyphosate-resistant (GR) and glyphosate-sensitive (GS) Lolium multiflorum Lam. variants from Chile and Brazil. For comparison, LD(50) and IC(50) data for Lolium rigidum Gaudin variants from Italy were also analyzed. All variants showed similar cellular uptake of glyphosate by (31)P NMR. All GR variants showed glyphosate sequestration within the cell vacuole, whereas there was minimal or no vacuole sequestration in the GS variants. The extent of vacuole sequestration correlated qualitatively with the level of resistance. Previous (31)P NMR studies of horseweed ( Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronquist) revealed that glyphosate sequestration imparted glyphosate resistance. Data presented herein suggest that glyphosate vacuolar sequestration is strongly contributing, if not the major contributing, resistance mechanism in ryegrass as well. PMID:22224711

Ge, Xia; d'Avignon, D André; Ackerman, Joseph J H; Collavo, Alberto; Sattin, Maurizio; Ostrander, Elizabeth L; Hall, Erin L; Sammons, R Douglas; Preston, Christopher

2012-02-01

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Functional Characterization of aroA from Rhizobium leguminosarum with Significant Glyphosate Tolerance in Transgenic Arabidopsis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glyphosate is the active component of the top-selling herbicide, the phytotoxicity of which is due to its inhibition of the shikimic acid pathway. 5-Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) is a key enzyme in the shikimic acid pathway. Glyphosate tolerance in plants can be achieved by the expression of a glyphosate-insensitive aroA gene (EPSPS). In this study, we used a PCR-based two-step DNA synthesis method to synthesize a new aroA gene (aroAR. leguminosarum) from Rhizobium leguminosarum. In vitro glyphosate sensitivity assays showed that aroAR. leguminosarum is glyphosate tolerant. The new gene was then expressed in E. coli and key kinetic values of the purified enzyme were determined. Furthermore, we transformed the aroA gene into Arabidopsis thaliana by the floral dip method. Transgenic Arabidopsis with the aroAR. leguminosarum gene was obtained to prove its potential use in developing glyphosate-resistant crops. PMID:24836188

Han, Jing; Tian, Yong-Sheng; Xu, Jing; Wang, Li-Juan; Wang, Bo; Peng, Ri-He; Yao, Quan-Hong

2014-09-28

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Control of glyphosate resistant giant ragweed in soybean with preplant herbicides  

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Full Text Available Giant ragweed was the first glyphosate resistant weed identified in Canada. It is a very competetive weed in row crop production and has been found to drastically reduce yields of soybean; therefore, control of this competitive weed is essential. The objective of this study was to determine effective control options for glyphosate resistant giant ragweed in soybean with herbicides applied preplant. Eighteen herbicide combinations were evaluated in field studies conducted in 2011 and 2012 at five locations with confirmed glyphosate resistant giant ragweed. Glyphosate plus 2,4-D ester or amitrole provided the best control of glyphosate resistant giant ragweed 4 WAA. Glyphosate plus 2,4-D ester provided 98 to 99% control and was equivalent to the weed free check at all locations. Glyphosate plus amitrole provided 90% to 93% control and was equivalent to the weed free check at 4 of 5 locations. Herbicides providing residual activity provided variable control across all locations. Of the herbicides with residual activity evaluated, glyphosate plus linuron provided the best control of glyphosate resistant giant ragweed; however, control was inconsistent across locations and years. Glyphosate plus linuron provided 23% to 99% controland was equal to the weed free check at one location 8 WAA.

Joanna Follings

2013-04-01

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Optical Interferometers with Reduced Sensitivity to Thermal Noise  

CERN Document Server

A fundamental limit to the sensitivity of optical interferometry is thermal noise that drives fluctuations in the positions of the surfaces of the interferometer's mirrors, and thereby in the phase of the intracavity field. Schemes for reducing this thermally driven phase noise are presented in which phase shifts from concomitant strains at the surface and in the bulk of the substrate compensate the phase shift due to the displacement of the surface. Although the position of the physical surface fluctuates, the optical phase upon reflection can have reduced sensitivity to this motion.

Kimble, H J; Ye, Jun

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Sustained mild hypergravity reduces spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Head-to-foot gravitational force >1G (+Gz hypergravity) augments venous pooling in the lower body and reduces central blood volume during exposure, compared with 1Gz. Central hypovolemia has been reported to reduce spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity. However, no investigations have examined spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity during exposure to sustained mild +Gz hypergravity. We therefore hypothesized that mild +Gz hypergravity would reduce spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity, compared with 1Gz. To test this hypothesis, we examined spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity in 16 healthy men during exposure to mild +Gz hypergravity using a short-arm centrifuge. Beat-to-beat arterial blood pressure (tonometry) and R-R interval (electrocardiography) were obtained during 1Gz and 1.5Gz exposures. Spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity was assessed by sequence slope and transfer function gain. Stroke volume was calculated from the arterial pressure waveform using a three-element model. All indices of spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity decreased significantly (up slope: 18.6±2.3?12.7±1.6ms/mmHg, P<0.001; down slope: 19.0±2.5?13.2±1.3ms/mmHg, P=0.002; transfer function gain in low frequency: 14.4±2.2?10.1±1.1ms/mmHg, P=0.004; transfer function gain in high frequency: 22.2±7.5?12.4±3.5ms/mmHg, P<0.001). Stroke volume decreased significantly (88±5?80±6ml, P=0.025). Moreover, although systolic arterial pressure variability increased, R-R interval variability did not increase. These results suggest that even mild +Gz hypergravity reduces spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity, increasing the risk of cardiovascular disturbance during the exposure. PMID:25156804

Yanagida, Ryo; Ogawa, Yojiro; Ueda, Kaname; Aoki, Ken; Iwasaki, Ken-Ichi

2014-10-01

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Antagonismo na associação de glyphosate e triazinas Antagonism with glyphosate and triazine combinations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available No sistema de semeadura direta, há a necessidade de realizar o controle da vegetação existente na área antes da semeadura da cultura e também de utilizar herbicidas residuais para evitar a infestação de plantas daninhas no período inicial do desenvolvimento da cultura. É interesse dos agricultores utilizar herbicidas dessecantes e residuais simultaneamente, a fim de economizar tempo e recursos financeiros. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a compatibilidade de glyphosate e triazinas quando associados no tanque do pulverizador. O experimento foi realizado em campo, na safra de crescimento 2001-2002. Utilizou-se como planta reagente o sorgo, híbrido Dekalb 865, semeado em novembro de 2001. Os tratamentos herbicidas foram aplicados 60 dias após a semeadura, quando as plantas estavam com 1,0 m, no início do emborrachamento. Os tratamentos consistiram de glyphosate nas doses de 540, 720 e 900 g ha-1, aplicado isoladamente ou associado a simazine + atrazine (Primatop SC nas doses de 1.750 + 1.750 g ha-1. Também foram testados um tratamento sem herbicidas e outro apenas com o herbicida residual. As avaliações de controle e de teores de clorofila indicaram efeitos antagônicos para as três doses de glyphosate. Os efeitos antagônicos da associação dos herbicidas reduzem de intensidade com o aumento da dose do glyphosate ou com o decorrer do tempo.The no-tillage system requires herbicide spraying before planting to eliminate the existing weeds in the area and residual herbicides to prevent new weed infestation during the crop cycle. Farmers tend to spray both groups of herbicide simultaneously to reduce costs and application time. The objective of this work was to verify the compatibility of glyphosate and triazine as a tank mix. An experiment was conducted under field conditions during the 2001-2002 growing season, using sorghum as a model to evaluate the herbicide mixture compatibility. Sorghum hibrid Dekalb 865 was planted in November 2001 and the treatments were sprayed 60 days after planting, when the plants were 100 cm tall and at the boot stage. Treatments consisted of glyphosate at 540, 720 and 900 g ha-1, sprayed alone or in mixture with simazine + atrazine (Primatop SC at 1750 + 1750 g ha-1. Treatments also included an untreated control and the residual herbicides used alone. The results of plant control and chlorophyll content indicated a severe antagonism in the glyphosate and triazine combination. Herbicide antagonism reduced with increment of glyphosate rate or at late assessment periods.

R.A. Vidal

2003-08-01

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Antagonismo na associação de glyphosate e triazinas / Antagonism with glyphosate and triazine combinations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese No sistema de semeadura direta, há a necessidade de realizar o controle da vegetação existente na área antes da semeadura da cultura e também de utilizar herbicidas residuais para evitar a infestação de plantas daninhas no período inicial do desenvolvimento da cultura. É interesse dos agricultores u [...] tilizar herbicidas dessecantes e residuais simultaneamente, a fim de economizar tempo e recursos financeiros. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a compatibilidade de glyphosate e triazinas quando associados no tanque do pulverizador. O experimento foi realizado em campo, na safra de crescimento 2001-2002. Utilizou-se como planta reagente o sorgo, híbrido Dekalb 865, semeado em novembro de 2001. Os tratamentos herbicidas foram aplicados 60 dias após a semeadura, quando as plantas estavam com 1,0 m, no início do emborrachamento. Os tratamentos consistiram de glyphosate nas doses de 540, 720 e 900 g ha-1, aplicado isoladamente ou associado a simazine + atrazine (Primatop SC) nas doses de 1.750 + 1.750 g ha-1. Também foram testados um tratamento sem herbicidas e outro apenas com o herbicida residual. As avaliações de controle e de teores de clorofila indicaram efeitos antagônicos para as três doses de glyphosate. Os efeitos antagônicos da associação dos herbicidas reduzem de intensidade com o aumento da dose do glyphosate ou com o decorrer do tempo. Abstract in english The no-tillage system requires herbicide spraying before planting to eliminate the existing weeds in the area and residual herbicides to prevent new weed infestation during the crop cycle. Farmers tend to spray both groups of herbicide simultaneously to reduce costs and application time. The objecti [...] ve of this work was to verify the compatibility of glyphosate and triazine as a tank mix. An experiment was conducted under field conditions during the 2001-2002 growing season, using sorghum as a model to evaluate the herbicide mixture compatibility. Sorghum hibrid Dekalb 865 was planted in November 2001 and the treatments were sprayed 60 days after planting, when the plants were 100 cm tall and at the boot stage. Treatments consisted of glyphosate at 540, 720 and 900 g ha-1, sprayed alone or in mixture with simazine + atrazine (Primatop SC) at 1750 + 1750 g ha-1. Treatments also included an untreated control and the residual herbicides used alone. The results of plant control and chlorophyll content indicated a severe antagonism in the glyphosate and triazine combination. Herbicide antagonism reduced with increment of glyphosate rate or at late assessment periods.

R.A., Vidal; M., Machry; G.C., Hernandes; N.G., Fleck.

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Antagonismo na associação de glyphosate e triazinas / Antagonism with glyphosate and triazine combinations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese No sistema de semeadura direta, há a necessidade de realizar o controle da vegetação existente na área antes da semeadura da cultura e também de utilizar herbicidas residuais para evitar a infestação de plantas daninhas no período inicial do desenvolvimento da cultura. É interesse dos agricultores u [...] tilizar herbicidas dessecantes e residuais simultaneamente, a fim de economizar tempo e recursos financeiros. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a compatibilidade de glyphosate e triazinas quando associados no tanque do pulverizador. O experimento foi realizado em campo, na safra de crescimento 2001-2002. Utilizou-se como planta reagente o sorgo, híbrido Dekalb 865, semeado em novembro de 2001. Os tratamentos herbicidas foram aplicados 60 dias após a semeadura, quando as plantas estavam com 1,0 m, no início do emborrachamento. Os tratamentos consistiram de glyphosate nas doses de 540, 720 e 900 g ha-1, aplicado isoladamente ou associado a simazine + atrazine (Primatop SC) nas doses de 1.750 + 1.750 g ha-1. Também foram testados um tratamento sem herbicidas e outro apenas com o herbicida residual. As avaliações de controle e de teores de clorofila indicaram efeitos antagônicos para as três doses de glyphosate. Os efeitos antagônicos da associação dos herbicidas reduzem de intensidade com o aumento da dose do glyphosate ou com o decorrer do tempo. Abstract in english The no-tillage system requires herbicide spraying before planting to eliminate the existing weeds in the area and residual herbicides to prevent new weed infestation during the crop cycle. Farmers tend to spray both groups of herbicide simultaneously to reduce costs and application time. The objecti [...] ve of this work was to verify the compatibility of glyphosate and triazine as a tank mix. An experiment was conducted under field conditions during the 2001-2002 growing season, using sorghum as a model to evaluate the herbicide mixture compatibility. Sorghum hibrid Dekalb 865 was planted in November 2001 and the treatments were sprayed 60 days after planting, when the plants were 100 cm tall and at the boot stage. Treatments consisted of glyphosate at 540, 720 and 900 g ha-1, sprayed alone or in mixture with simazine + atrazine (Primatop SC) at 1750 + 1750 g ha-1. Treatments also included an untreated control and the residual herbicides used alone. The results of plant control and chlorophyll content indicated a severe antagonism in the glyphosate and triazine combination. Herbicide antagonism reduced with increment of glyphosate rate or at late assessment periods.

R.A., Vidal; M., Machry; G.C., Hernandes; N.G., Fleck.

2003-08-01

45

Glyphosate no controle de biótipos de azevém e impacto na microbiota do solo Glyphosate application for italian ryegrass biotype control and impact on soil microbiota  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Avaliou-se neste trabalho a resistência de azevém (L. multiflorum ao glyphosate e o impacto do controle desses biótipos sobre a respiração e biomassa microbiana do solo. Foram conduzidos dois ensaios: no primeiro foram avaliadas a intoxicação e a massa seca das plantas de biótipos de três populações de azevém: população 1 (reconhecidamente resistente, população 2 (resistência intermediária, e população 3 (sensível ao glyphosate, submetidas a diferentes doses de glyphosate (200, 400, 800, 1.600 e 3.200 g ha-1. No segundo ensaio foram avaliados a massa seca da parte aérea, a altura de plantas, o número de folhas de azevém e a respiração e massa microbiana do solo cultivado com os biótipos resistente e sensível, com e sem aplicação de glyphosate (480 g ha-1. Aos 14 DAT, observou-se morte do biótipo sensível quando tratado com doses a partir de 200 g ha-1 de glyphosate. Nos biótipos resistentes e com nível intermediário de resistência, a toxicidade do glyphosate às plantas de azevém foi de 85% na maior dose avaliada. O biótipo resistente apresentou maior produção de massa seca da parte aérea aos 42 DAT e na rebrota, aos 72 DAT, quando comparado ao biótipo intermediário. O biótipo sensível apresentou maior altura de plantas, número de folhas e massa seca da parte aérea, em comparação ao resistente, quando não tratados com o glyphosate. Não foi observada diferença na atividade microbiana do solo entre os tratamentos avaliados.This study aimed to evaluate the resistance Italian ryegrass (L. multiflorum against glyphosate and the impact of the control of these biotypes on soil respiration and microbial biomass. Two essays were conducted: the first evaluated intoxication and dry mass of the plants of biotypes of three Italian ryegrass population (population 1 - resistant; population 2 - intermediary resistance; and population 3 - sensitive to glyphosate submitted to different glyphosate rates. The second assay evaluated dry matter of the aereal part, plant height, number of leaves and respiration and microbial mass of the soil cultivated with the resistant and sensitive biotypes, with and without glyphosate application (480 g ha-1. At 14 DAA, death of the susceptible biotype was observed, when treated with rates starting from 200 g ha-1 of glyphosate. The resistant ad intermediate resistant biotypes showed glyphosate phytotoxicity of 85% at the highest rate evaluated. The resistant biotype presented the highest dry matter production of the aerial part at 42 DAA and during sprouting, at 72 DAA, compared to the intermediary biotype. The sensitive biotype presented higher plant height, number of leaves and dry mass of the aerial part, to the resistant biotype, without glyphosate. No difference was observed in the microbial activity in the soil among the treatments.

E.A. Ferreira

2006-09-01

46

Lens design with reduced sensitivity to thermally induced stress birefringence.  

Science.gov (United States)

In optical systems required to maintain the polarization states of the transiting light, mechanically induced stress birefringence can degrade performance, at least locally altering polarization phase and ultimately reducing polarization contrast. Although thermally induced stress birefringence can cause similar problems in imaging systems bearing high optical flux, appropriate design approaches to resolve this problem have been lacking. This paper first develops criteria to select optical glasses with reduced sensitivity to thermally induced stress birefringence. The design of projection lenses using the resulting thermal stress desensitized reduced glass list is then discussed, as is the application of such lenses in laser projection systems. PMID:23842174

Kurtz, Andrew F; Bietry, Joseph R

2013-06-20

47

State sadness reduces neural sensitivity to nonrewards versus rewards.  

Science.gov (United States)

Both behavioral and neural evidence suggests that depression is associated with reduced sensitivity to rewards. Using the feedback negativity, a neural index of reward processing, an earlier study showed that depressive symptoms experienced over the previous week were associated with less differentiation between nonrewards and rewards in a gambling task. To directly test whether variability in state mood related to similar effects on neural correlates of reward, this study recorded the feedback negativity in individuals assigned to either a neutral or sad mood induction. Following the induction, individuals reporting greater sadness exhibited a reduced feedback negativity. This finding indicates that fluctuation in state negative affect moderates how environmental feedback is processed by reducing neural sensitivity to nonrewards versus rewards. PMID:20010444

Foti, Dan; Hajcak, Greg

2010-01-27

48

Selection and characterization of glyphosate tolerance in birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

If birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) was tolerant to glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine], Canada thistle [Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop.] and other dicot weeds could be selectively controlled in certified seed production fields. Glyphosate tolerance in birdsfoot trefoil was identified in plants from the cultivar Leo, plants regenerated from tolerant callus, and selfed progeny of plants regenerated from callus. Plants from the three sources were evaluated in field studies for tolerance to glyphosate at rates up to 1.6 kg ae/ha. Plants of Leo selected for tolerance exhibited a twofold range in the rate required to reduce shoot weight 50% (I50s from 0.6 to 1.2 kg/ha glyphosate). Plants regenerated from tolerant callus had tolerance up to 66% greater than plants regenerated from unselected callus. Transgressive segregation for glyphosate tolerance was observed in the selfed progeny of two regenerated plants that both had I50s of 0.7 kg/ha glyphosate. The selfed progeny ranged from highly tolerant (I50 of 1.5 kg/ha) to susceptible (I50 of 0.5 kg/ha). Spray retention, 14C-glyphosate absorption and translocation did not account for the differential tolerance of nine plants that were evaluated from the three sources. The specific activity of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate (EPSP) synthase ranged from 1.3 to 3.5 nmol/min sm-bullet mg among the nine plants and was positively correlated with glyphosate tolerance. ely correlated with glyphosate tolerance. Leo birdsfoot trefoil was found to have significant variation in glyphosate tolerance which made it possible to initiate a recurrent selection program to select for glyphosate tolerance in birdsfoot trefoil. Two cycles of selection for glyphosate tolerance were practiced in three birdsfoot trefoil populations, Leo, Norcen, and MU-81

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Sintomas da intoxicação inicial de Eucalyptus proporcionados por subdoses de glyphosate aplicadas no caule ou nas folhas / Initial symptoms of Eucalyptus intoxication by glyphosate rates applied on the stem or leaves  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Com o objetivo de avaliar os sintomas de intoxicação causados pela aplicação de glyphosate, foi montado um estudo composto por quatro ensaios com aplicações de glyphosate (360 g e.a. L-1) em eucalipto. Em todos os ensaios, mudas foram transplantadas em vasos de 5,0 L. Nos ensaios 1 e 2, foram aplica [...] dos volumes crescentes de solução de glyphosate no caule do eucalipto. No ensaio 1, a solução de 3% (v/v) foi aplicada nos volumes de 0, 1, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80 e 160 µL de calda por planta e, no segundo, a solução de glyphosate a 2% (v/v) foi aplicada nos volumes de 0, 1, 5, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120 e 150 µL de calda por planta. Nos ensaios 3 e 4, foram feitas aplicações de glyphosate sobre as plantas de eucalipto. No ensaio 3, as doses foram de 0, 7,2.10-7, 7,2.10-6, 7,2.10-5, 7,2.10-4, 7,2.10-3, 7,2.10-2, 7,2.10-1, 7,2, 72, 360 e 720 g e.a. de glyphosate ha-1 e, no ensaio 4, de 0, 9, 18, 36, 72, 144, 288, 432, 576, 720, 1.080, 1.440 e 2.160 g e.a. de glyphosate ha-1. Nos quatro ensaios foi utilizado o delineamento DIC, com três repetições. Nas plantas, foram avaliadas a altura, a área foliar e a matéria seca de caule e folhas. Os resultados obtidos foram submetidos a análises de regressão. Quando aplicadas no caule, doses de 40,78 e 51,41 µL de calda por planta de glyphosate a 3 e 2% (v/v), respectivamente, nos ensaios 1 e 2, foram suficientes para redução média de 50% das características estudadas. Nas aplicações sobre as folhas, houve maior sensibilidade das plantas mais desenvolvidas. Para redução média de 50% nas variáveis analisadas, foram necessárias doses de 277,4 e 143,3 g e.a. de glyphosate ha-1 nos ensaios 3 e 4, respectivamente. Abstract in english This work was carried out to evaluate intoxication symptoms caused by glyphosate application. It was constituted by four assays with glyphosate applications (360 g a.e. L-1) on eucalyptus. In all assays, seedlings were transplanted into 5.OL plastic pots. In assays 1 and 2, increasing herbicide volu [...] mes were applied on the stem. In the first one, a glyphosate solution of 3% (v/v) was applied at the volumes 0, 1, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80 and 160 µL solution per plant, and in the second, glyphosate solution of 2% (v/v) was applied at volumes 0, 1, 5, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 µL solution per plant. In assays 3 and 4, glyphosate was sprayed on the plants. The rates in the third assay were: 0, 7.2 10-7, 7.2 10-6, 7.2 10-5, 7.2 10-4, 7.2 10-3, 7.2 10-2, 7.2 10-1, 7.2, 72, 360 and 720 g a.e. of glyphosate ha 1, and in the fourth assay, the rates were: 0, 9, 18, 36, 72, 144, 288, 432, 576, 720, 1.080, 1.440 and 2.160 g a.e. of glyphosate ha-1. All assays were arranged in a randomized design, with three replications. Height, leaf area, and dry mass of the leaves and stem were evaluated in the plants and the results were submitted to regression analysis. When applied on the stem, doses of 40.78 and 51.41 µL per plant of glyphosate solution, 3 and 2% (v/v), respectively, were sufficient to reduce eucalyptus development in 50%. When applied on the plants, more developed plants showed greater sensitivity.Rates of 277.4 and 143.3 g a.e. ha-1 reduced eucalyptus growth in 50%, in assays 3 and 4, respectively.

T.P, Salgado; P.L.C.A, Alves; M.A, Kuva; E.N, Takahashi; T.C.S, Dias; L.N, Lemes.

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Isoflavone, glyphosate, and aminomethylphosphonic acid levels in seeds of glyphosate-treated, glyphosate-resistant soybean.  

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The estrogenic isoflavones of soybeans and their glycosides are products of the shikimate pathway, the target pathway of glyphosate. This study tested the hypothesis that nonphytotoxic levels of glyphosate and other herbicides known to affect phenolic compound biosynthesis might influence levels of these nutraceutical compounds in glyphosate-resistant soybeans. The effects of glyphosate and other herbicides were determined on estrogenic isoflavones and shikimate in glyphosate-resistant soybeans from identical experiments conducted on different cultivars in Mississippi and Missouri. Four commonly used herbicide treatments were compared to a hand-weeded control. The herbicide treatments were (1) glyphosate at 1260 g/ha at 3 weeks after planting (WAP), followed by glyphosate at 840 g/ha at 6 WAP; (2) sulfentrazone at 168 g/ha plus chlorimuron at 34 g/ha applied preemergence (PRE), followed by glyphosate at 1260 g/ha at 6 WAP; (3) sulfentrazone at 168 g/ha plus chlorimuron at 34 g/ha applied PRE, followed by glyphosate at 1260 g/ha at full bloom; and (4) sulfentrazone at 168 g/ha plus chlorimuron at 34 g/ha applied PRE, followed by acifluorfen at 280 g/ha plus bentazon at 560 g/ha plus clethodim at 140 g/ha at 6 WAP. Soybeans were harvested at maturity, and seeds were analyzed for daidzein, daidzin, genistein, genistin, glycitin, glycitein, shikimate, glyphosate, and the glyphosate degradation product, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA). There were no remarkable effects of any treatment on the contents of any of the biosynthetic compounds in soybean seed from either test site, indicating that early and later season applications of glyphosate have no effects on phytoestrogen levels in glyphosate-resistant soybeans. Glyphosate and AMPA residues were higher in seeds from treatment 3 than from the other two treatments in which glyphosate was used earlier. Intermediate levels were found in treatments 1 and 2. Low levels of glyphosate and AMPA were found in treatment 4 and a hand-weeded control, apparently due to herbicide drift. PMID:12502430

Duke, Stephen O; Rimando, Agnes M; Pace, Patrick F; Reddy, Krishna N; Smeda, Reid J

2003-01-01

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A Preliminary Study of Soybean Genotype Responses to Glyphosate  

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Full Text Available The effect of four application rates of glyphosate (Roundup, 360 g a.i./l – 180; 360; 720 and 1440 g a.i./ha on the survival, dynamics of growth, and accumulation of fresh biomass in g per plant was studied on eight newly-developed Bulgarian lines, varieties and candidate varieties of soybean bred by different methods under greenhouse conditions. The objective of this study was to determine and compare the sensitivities of different soybean genotypes to glyphosate. The studied soybean genotypes showed different levelsof glyphosate sensitivity due to their genetic differences. Glyphosate rates of 180, 360, 720 and 1440 g a.i./ha, applied at the stage of three trifoliate leaves (V4 of soybean had effect on the survival of the studied genotypes and can be presented conditionally in the following order: H (40.6% < G (40.7% < D (51.3% < C (52.6% < F (58.9% < E (60.5% < B (62.0% < A (65.3%. The depression coefficients (B of the studied characteristics dependedmainly on soybean genotypes and the applied herbicide rates. The tested glyphosate rates showed a high (GI 26.5-51.6% to relatively low degree of toxicity (GI 16.0-18.7% in the studied soybean genotypes.

Plamen Marinov-Serafimov

2009-01-01

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Changes in constructed Brassica communities treated with glyphosate drift.  

Science.gov (United States)

We constructed a mixed-species community designed to simulate roadside and field edge plant communities and exposed it to glyphosate drift in order to test three hypotheses: (1) higher fitness in transgenic Brassica carrying the CP4 EPSPS transgene that confers resistance to glyphosate will result in significant changes in the plant community relative to control communities; (2) given repeated years of glyphosate drift selective pressure, the increased fitness of the transgenic Brassica with CP4 EPSPS will contribute to an increase in the proportion of transgenic progeny produced in plant communities; and (3) the increased fitness of Brassica carrying the CP4 EPSPS transgene will contribute to decreased levels of mycorrhizal infection and biomass in a host species (Trifolium incarnatum). Due to regulatory constraints that prevented the use of outdoor plots for our studies, in 2005 we established multispecies communities in five large cylindrical outdoor sunlit mesocosms (plastic greenhouses) designed for pollen confinement. Three of the community members were sexually compatible Brassica spp.: transgenic glyphosate-resistant canola (B. napus) cultivar (cv.) RaideRR, glyphosate-sensitive non-transgenic B. napus cv. Sponsor, and a weedy B. rapa (GRIN Accession 21735). Additional plant community members were the broadly distributed annual weeds Digitaria sanguinalis, Panicum capillare, and Lapsana communis. Once annually in 2006 and 2007, two mesocosms were sprayed with glyphosate at 10% of the field application rate to simulate glyphosate drift as a selective pressure. After two years, changes were observed in community composition, plant density, and biomass in both control and treatment mesocosms. In control mesocosms, the weed D. sanguinalis (crabgrass) began to dominate. In glyphosate drift-treated mesocosms, Brassica remained the dominant genus and the incidence of the CP4 EPSPS transgene increased in the community. Shoot biomass and mycorrhizal infection in Trifolium incarnatum planted in 2008 were significantly lower in mesocosms that had received glyphosate drift treatments. Our results suggest that, over time, glyphosate drift can contribute to persistence of Brassica that express the CP4 EPSPS transgene and that increased representation of Brassica (a non-mycorrhizal host) within plant communities may indirectly negatively impact beneficial ecosystem services associated with arbuscular mycorrhiza. PMID:21563582

Watrud, Lidia S; King, George; Londo, Jason P; Colasanti, Ricardo; Smith, Bonnie M; Waschmann, Ronald S; Lee, E Henry

2011-03-01

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Uptake of Glyphosate by an Arthrobacter sp  

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The uptake of glyphosate (N-[phosphonomethyl]glycine) by an Arthrobacter sp. which can utilize this herbicide as its sole source of phosphorus was investigated. Orthophosphate suppressed the expression of the uptake system for glyphosate and also competed with glyphosate for uptake. The Km for glyphosate uptake was 125 ?M, and the Ki for orthophosphate was 24 ?M. Organophosphonates as well as organophosphates inhibited glyphosate uptake, but only organophosphates and orthophosphate suppress...

Pipke, Ru?diger; Schulz, Arno; Amrhein, Nikolaus

1987-01-01

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Crop Response to Glyphosate Trimesium Sulphosate  

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Glyphosate may cause injury to non-target plants. The first detectable symptom after glyphosate treatment is the growth inhibition, followed by noticeable yellowing (chlorosis) of the treated tissue. Five to ten days after the treatment, the chlorosis turns into necrosis and the plants begin to die. Greenhouse research was conducted in 2007 to investigate the response of glyphosate resistant (GR) soybeans PAN 520 line and non-glyphosate resistant EGRET line of soybeans to glyphosate trimesium...

Pavlovic, Danijela; Vrbnicanin, Sava; Reinhardt, Carl

2013-01-01

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40 CFR 180.364 - Glyphosate; tolerances for residues.  

Science.gov (United States)

...glyphosate N -(phosphonomethyl)glycine resulting from the application of glyphosate, the isopropylamine...N -(phosphonomethyl)glycine and its metabolite N -acetyl-glyphosate...glyphosate) resulting from the application of...

2010-07-01

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Controle de plantas daninhas na cultura de soja resistente ao glyphosate / Weed control in glyphosate tolerant soybean crop  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo da pesquisa foi avaliar o controle de plantas daninhas em área cultivada com soja resistente ao herbicida glyphosate, sem a utilização de práticas complementares de manejo de plantas daninhas. Foram desenvolvidos experimentos, em condições de campo, nos anos agrícolas 2005/2006 e 2006/200 [...] 7 em Jaboticabal (SP). Foram avaliadas duas cultivares de soja resistentes ao glyphosate (CD 214 RR e M-SOY 8008 RR), oito tratamentos de herbicidas (glyphosate, em aplicação única, nas doses de 0,48; 0,72; 0,96 e 1,20 kg ha-1 de equivalente ácido, associadas ou não a aplicação sequencial na dose de 0,48 kg ha-1), além de duas testemunhas, uma capinada e outra mantida infestada. As cultivares de soja influenciaram na infestação das espécies de plantas daninhas na área. Sem a aplicação de glyphosate, houve o predomínio de X. strumarium na área, desfavorecendo a ocorrência de outras espécies. Quando utilizado glyphosate, independentemente da dose, a infestação contabilizada aos 35 e 40 dias após a primeira aplicação, no primeiro e segundo ano, respectivamente, foi baixa. O controle de plantas daninhas na cultura da soja transgênica é diretamente influenciado pela dose de glyphosate, havendo controle satisfatório com a aplicação única de 0,96 kg ha-1 ou a sequencial de 0,48 + 0,48 kg ha-1 de glyphosate. Em situação de menor infestação (2006/2007), a aplicação única de 0,48 kg ha-1 de glyphosate é suficiente para o controle das plantas daninhas. As cultivares de soja transgênica CD 214 RR e M-SOY 8008 RR influenciam diferencialmente a dinâmica das espécies de plantas daninhas, sendo o controle químico mais efetivo na situação de cultivo de M-SOY 8008 RR, em que houve menor diversidade e desenvolvimento das plantas daninhas. Abstract in english This work evaluated the weed control in glyphosate tolerant soybean crop without additional management practices. Two experiments were carried out under field conditions in the agricultural years 2006/2007 and 2007/2008 in Jaboticabal, São Paulo State, Brazil. It was tested two glyphosate-tolerant v [...] arieties (CD 214 RR and M-SOY 8008 RR), eight herbicide treatments (Roundup Ready, single spraying at rates of 0.48; 0.72; 0.96 and 1.20 kg ha-1 of glyphosate acid equivalent, associates or not to sequential spraying at 0.48 kg ha-1), and two controls (one under mechanical control and one untreated control). Soybean varieties influenced the infestation of weed species. Xanthium strumarium was predominant in control treatments, reducing the occurrence of other weeds species. Independently of the dose, glyphosate sprayings resulted in low infestations 35 and 40 days after the first spraying, in the first and second year, respectively. The weed control in transgenic soybean is directly influenced for the glyphosate rate, having satisfactory control with the single application at 0.96 kg ha-1 or sequential at 0.48 plus 0.48 kg ha-1 of glyphosate. Under lesser infestation conditions (2006/2007), the single application at 0.48 kg ha-1 of glyphosate is enough for weed control. The varieties of transgenic soybean CD 214 RR and M-SOY 8008 RR distinguishing influence the dynamics of the weed species. The chemical control is more effective in the M-SOY 8008 RR, where it had minor diversity and development of the weed.

Núbia Maria, Correia; Julio Cezar, Durigan.

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Controle de plantas daninhas na cultura de soja resistente ao glyphosate Weed control in glyphosate tolerant soybean crop  

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Full Text Available O objetivo da pesquisa foi avaliar o controle de plantas daninhas em área cultivada com soja resistente ao herbicida glyphosate, sem a utilização de práticas complementares de manejo de plantas daninhas. Foram desenvolvidos experimentos, em condições de campo, nos anos agrícolas 2005/2006 e 2006/2007 em Jaboticabal (SP. Foram avaliadas duas cultivares de soja resistentes ao glyphosate (CD 214 RR e M-SOY 8008 RR, oito tratamentos de herbicidas (glyphosate, em aplicação única, nas doses de 0,48; 0,72; 0,96 e 1,20 kg ha-1 de equivalente ácido, associadas ou não a aplicação sequencial na dose de 0,48 kg ha-1, além de duas testemunhas, uma capinada e outra mantida infestada. As cultivares de soja influenciaram na infestação das espécies de plantas daninhas na área. Sem a aplicação de glyphosate, houve o predomínio de X. strumarium na área, desfavorecendo a ocorrência de outras espécies. Quando utilizado glyphosate, independentemente da dose, a infestação contabilizada aos 35 e 40 dias após a primeira aplicação, no primeiro e segundo ano, respectivamente, foi baixa. O controle de plantas daninhas na cultura da soja transgênica é diretamente influenciado pela dose de glyphosate, havendo controle satisfatório com a aplicação única de 0,96 kg ha-1 ou a sequencial de 0,48 + 0,48 kg ha-1 de glyphosate. Em situação de menor infestação (2006/2007, a aplicação única de 0,48 kg ha-1 de glyphosate é suficiente para o controle das plantas daninhas. As cultivares de soja transgênica CD 214 RR e M-SOY 8008 RR influenciam diferencialmente a dinâmica das espécies de plantas daninhas, sendo o controle químico mais efetivo na situação de cultivo de M-SOY 8008 RR, em que houve menor diversidade e desenvolvimento das plantas daninhas.This work evaluated the weed control in glyphosate tolerant soybean crop without additional management practices. Two experiments were carried out under field conditions in the agricultural years 2006/2007 and 2007/2008 in Jaboticabal, São Paulo State, Brazil. It was tested two glyphosate-tolerant varieties (CD 214 RR and M-SOY 8008 RR, eight herbicide treatments (Roundup Ready, single spraying at rates of 0.48; 0.72; 0.96 and 1.20 kg ha-1 of glyphosate acid equivalent, associates or not to sequential spraying at 0.48 kg ha-1, and two controls (one under mechanical control and one untreated control. Soybean varieties influenced the infestation of weed species. Xanthium strumarium was predominant in control treatments, reducing the occurrence of other weeds species. Independently of the dose, glyphosate sprayings resulted in low infestations 35 and 40 days after the first spraying, in the first and second year, respectively. The weed control in transgenic soybean is directly influenced for the glyphosate rate, having satisfactory control with the single application at 0.96 kg ha-1 or sequential at 0.48 plus 0.48 kg ha-1 of glyphosate. Under lesser infestation conditions (2006/2007, the single application at 0.48 kg ha-1 of glyphosate is enough for weed control. The varieties of transgenic soybean CD 214 RR and M-SOY 8008 RR distinguishing influence the dynamics of the weed species. The chemical control is more effective in the M-SOY 8008 RR, where it had minor diversity and development of the weed.

Núbia Maria Correia

2010-01-01

58

Epoxy resin monomers with reduced skin sensitizing potency.  

Science.gov (United States)

Epoxy resin monomers (ERMs), especially diglycidyl ethers of bisphenol A and F (DGEBA and DGEBF), are extensively used as building blocks for thermosetting polymers. However, they are known to commonly cause skin allergy. This research describes a number of alternative ERMs, designed with the aim of reducing the skin sensitizing potency while maintaining the ability to form thermosetting polymers. The compounds were designed, synthesized, and assessed for sensitizing potency using the in vivo murine local lymph node assay (LLNA). All six epoxy resin monomers had decreased sensitizing potencies compared to those of DGEBA and DGEBF. With respect to the LLNA EC3 value, the best of the alternative monomers had a value approximately 2.5 times higher than those of DGEBA and DGEBF. The diepoxides were reacted with triethylenetetramine, and the polymers formed were tested for technical applicability using thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Four out of the six alternative ERMs gave polymers with a thermal stability comparable to that obtained with DGEBA and DGEBF. The use of improved epoxy resin monomers with less skin sensitizing effects is a direct way to tackle the problem of contact allergy to epoxy resin systems, particularly in occupational settings, resulting in a reduction in the incidence of allergic contact dermatitis. PMID:24830866

O'Boyle, Niamh M; Niklasson, Ida B; Tehrani-Bagha, Ali R; Delaine, Tamara; Holmberg, Krister; Luthman, Kristina; Karlberg, Ann-Therese

2014-06-16

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Glyphosate e nitrgênio no controle de Brachiaria decumbens Stapf em capineiras estabelecidas Glyphosate and nitrogen in the control of Brachiaria decumbens Stapf in established elephant grass stocking piles  

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Full Text Available O objetivo do experimento foi avaliar a eficiência de utilização do herbicida glyphosate associado com adubação nitrogenada no controle de Brachiaria decumbens Stapf em capineiras estabelecidas. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com dezessete tratamentos e três repetições. Os tratamentos foram arranjados em esquema fatorial 4 x 4 + 1, sendo quatro doses de glyphosate (0, 720, 1440 e 2160 g/ha/aplicação, quatro doses de nitrogênio (0, 75, 150 e 225 kg/ha/ano e um tratamento adicional (testemunha com capina. As aplicações do nitrogênio e glyphosate, nas respectivas doses, foram realizadas imediatamente após o corte do capim-elefante. A associação entre o herbicida glyphosate (2160 g/ha/aplicação e nitrogênio (225 kg/ha/ano foi eficiente no controle de capim-braquiária em capineiras estabelecidas. A aplicação do herbicida glyphosate (2160 g/ha/aplicação reduziu o tamanho do banco de sementes de capim-braquiária no solo em 64%.The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the efficiency of the use of the herbicide glyphosate associated with nitrogen fertilization in the control of Brachiaria decumbens Stapf in elephant grass stocking piles. The experimental design used was a randomized blocks with 17 treatments and three replications. The treatments were arranged in 4x4+1 factorial scheme, namely four doses of glyphosate (0, 720, 1440 e 2160 g/ha/application, four doses of nitrogen (0, 75, 150 e 225 kg/ha/ano and one additional treatment (control with a hoeing. The application of the nitrogen and glyphosate, in the respective doses were performed immediately after the cutting of elephant grass. The association between glyphosate (2160 g/ha/application and nitrogen (225 kg/ha/ano was efficient in the control brachiaria grass in established elephant grass stocking piles. The application of the glyphosate (2160 g/ha/application reduced the size of the bank of brachiaria grass seeds in the soil in 64%.

Joadil Gonçalves de Abreu

2006-10-01

60

Glyphosate inhibition of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate synthease from suspension-cultured cells of Nicotiana silvestris  

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Treatment of isogenic suspension-cultured cells of Nicotiana silvestris Speg, et Comes with glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) led to elevated levels of intracellular shikimate (364-fold increase by 1.0 millimolar glyphosate). In the presence of glyphosate, it is likely that most molecules of shikimate originate from the action of 3-deoxy-d-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate (DAHP) synthase-Mn since this isozyme, in contrast to the DAHP synthase-Co isozyme, is insensitive to inhibition by glyphosate. 5-Enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate (EPSP) synthase (EC 2.5.1.19) from N. silvestris was sensitive to micromolar concentrations of glyphosate and possessed a single inhibitor binding site. Rigorous kinetic studies of EPSP synthase required resolution from the multiple phosphatase activities present in crude extracts, a result achieved by ion-exchange column chromatography. Although EPSP synthase exhibited a broad pH profile (50% of maximal activity between pH 6.2 and 8.5), sensitivity to glyphosate increased dramatically with increasing pH within this range. In accordance with these data and the pK/sub a/ values of glyphosate, it is likely that the ionic form of glyphosate inhibiting EPSP synthase is COO/sup -/CH/sub 2/NH/sub 2//sup +/CH/sub 2/PO/sub 3//sup 2 -/, and that a completely ionized phosphono group is essential for inhibition. At pH 7.0, inhibition was competitive with respect to phosphoenolpyruvate (K/sub i/ = 1.25 micromolar) and uncompetitive with respect to shikimate-3-P (K/sub i/ = 18.3 micromolar). All data were consistent with a mechanism of inhibition in which glyphosate competes with PEP for binding to an (enzyme:shikimate-3-P) complex and ultimately forms the dead-end complex of (enzyme:shikimate-3-P:glyphosate). 36 references, 8 figures, 1 table.

Rubin, J.L.; Gaines, C.G.; Jensen, R.A.

1984-07-01

 
 
 
 
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Adição simultânea de sulfato de amônio e ureia à calda de pulverização do herbicida glyphosate Simultaneous addition of ammonium sulfate and urea to glyphosate spray solution  

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Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram desenvolvidos em casa de vegetação, com o objetivo de avaliar a eficácia do herbicida glyphosate sobre plantas de Digitaria insularis quando soluções de ureia (U; 5 g L-1, sulfato de amônio (SA; 15 g L-1 ou U+SA (2,5 + 7,5 g L-1 foram utilizadas como veículo de pulverização. Aos 28 dias após aplicação, de acordo com as curvas de dose-resposta (primeiro experimento, foram necessários 409 g ha-1 de glyphosate para atingir 50% de controle da planta daninha (C50 quando água sem adjuvantes foi usada como veículo de pulverização. Para obtenção dos mesmos 50% de controle, as doses de glyphosate foram reduzidas para 373, 208 e 189 g ha-1; quando o herbicida foi pulverizado utilizando solução de U, SA ou U+SA, respectivamente. A redução na dose oriunda da combinação de glyphosate e U+SA também foi observada para controles de 80% (C80. No segundo experimento, a adição de U+SA à calda elevou o controle obtido com a menor dose de glyphosate (360 g ha-1, igualando-o à aplicação da maior dose (720 g ha-1 sem adjuvantes. Esses resultados evidenciam efeito complementar de U e SA em elevar a eficácia do glyphosate para controle de D. insularis.Two trials were carried out under greenhouse conditions to evaluate the efficacy of glyphosate on Digitaria insularis plants when urea (U; 5 g L-1; ammonium sulfate (AMS; 15 g L-1 or U+AMS (2.5 + 7.5 g L-1 were used as spray solutions. At 28 days after application, according to dose-response curves (first trial, 409 g ha-1 of glyphosate application were necessary to obtain 50% of weed control (C50 when water without adjuvants was used as spray solution. To reach the same 50% of weed control, glyphosate rates were reduced to 373, 208 and 189 g ha-1, when the herbicide was sprayed using a solution of U, AMS or U+AMS, respectively. Reduction in the dose of glyphosate combined with U+AMS was also observed for controls of 80% (C80. In the second trial, the addition of U+SA to glyphosate spray solution increased the control obtained at the lowest glyphosate rate (360 g ha-1, leveling it to the highest rate application (720 g ha-1 without adjuvants. These results show the complementary action of U and AMS to increase glyphosate efficacy to control D. insularis.

S.J.P. Carvalho

2010-01-01

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Heterogeneity reduces sensitivity of cell death for TNF-Stimuli  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Apoptosis is a form of programmed cell death essential for the maintenance of homeostasis and the removal of potentially damaged cells in multicellular organisms. By binding its cognate membrane receptor, TNF receptor type 1 (TNF-R1, the proinflammatory cytokine Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF activates pro-apoptotic signaling via caspase activation, but at the same time also stimulates nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B-mediated survival pathways. Differential dose-response relationships of these two major TNF signaling pathways have been described experimentally and using mathematical modeling. However, the quantitative analysis of the complex interplay between pro- and anti-apoptotic signaling pathways is an open question as it is challenging for several reasons: the overall signaling network is complex, various time scales are present, and cells respond quantitatively and qualitatively in a heterogeneous manner. Results This study analyzes the complex interplay of the crosstalk of TNF-R1 induced pro- and anti-apoptotic signaling pathways based on an experimentally validated mathematical model. The mathematical model describes the temporal responses on both the single cell level as well as the level of a heterogeneous cell population, as observed in the respective quantitative experiments using TNF-R1 stimuli of different strengths and durations. Global sensitivity of the heterogeneous population was quantified by measuring the average gradient of time of death versus each population parameter. This global sensitivity analysis uncovers the concentrations of Caspase-8 and Caspase-3, and their respective inhibitors BAR and XIAP, as key elements for deciding the cell's fate. A simulated knockout of the NF-?B-mediated anti-apoptotic signaling reveals the importance of this pathway for delaying the time of death, reducing the death rate in the case of pulse stimulation and significantly increasing cell-to-cell variability. Conclusions Cell ensemble modeling of a heterogeneous cell population including a global sensitivity analysis presented here allowed us to illuminate the role of the different elements and parameters on apoptotic signaling. The receptors serve to transmit the external stimulus; procaspases and their inhibitors control the switching from life to death, while NF-?B enhances the heterogeneity of the cell population. The global sensitivity analysis of the cell population model further revealed an unexpected impact of heterogeneity, i.e. the reduction of parametric sensitivity.

Schliemann Monica

2011-12-01

63

Yield of glyphosate-resistant sugar beets and efficiency of weed management systems with glyphosate and conventional herbicides under German and Polish crop production.  

Science.gov (United States)

In sugar beet production, weed control is one of the most important and most expensive practices to ensure yield. Since glyphosate-resistant sugar beets are not yet approved for cultivation in the EU, little commercial experience exists with these sugar beets in Europe. Experimental field trials were conducted at five environments (Germany, Poland, 2010, 2011) to compare the effects of glyphosate with the effects of conventional weed control programs on the development of weeds, weed control efficiency and yield. The results show that the glyphosate weed control programs compared to the conventional methods decreased not only the number of herbicide applications but equally in magnitude decreased the dosage of active ingredients. The results also showed effective weed control with glyphosate when the weed covering was greater and sugar beets had a later growth stage of four true leaves. Glyphosate-resistant sugar beets applied with the glyphosate herbicide two or three times had an increase in white sugar yield from 4 to 18 % in comparison to the high dosage conventional herbicide systems. In summary, under glyphosate management sugar beets can positively contribute to the increasingly demanding requirements regarding efficient sugar beet cultivation and to the demands by society and politics to reduce the use of chemical plant protection products in the environment. PMID:23271374

Nichterlein, Henrike; Matzk, Anja; Kordas, Leszek; Kraus, Josef; Stibbe, Carsten

2013-08-01

64

Photosynthetic activity of coffee after application of glyphosate subdoses / Atividade fotossintética do cafeeiro após aplicação de subdoses de glyphosate  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Para o controle de plantas daninhas em lavouras cafeeiras, os produtores utilizam herbicidas não-seletivos, como o glyphosate, empregado em aplicações dirigidas. Apesar de todos os cuidados com a aplicação, são constatados casos de intoxicação em plantas, sendo de fundamental importância o conhecime [...] nto dos efeitos sobre os processos fotossintéticos. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar as características associadas à atividade fotossintética entre cultivares de cafeeiro submetidos a doses de glyphosate. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação utilizando-se três cultivares de cafeeiro (Coffea arabica): Acaiá (MG-6851), Catucaí Amarelo (2 SL) e Topázio (MG-1190) e, três subdoses do glyphosate (0,0; 115,2 e 460,8 g ha-1), em esquema fatorial 3 x 3. Em função da aplicação do herbicida observou-se redução de carbono interno, razão carbono interno e do ambiente, consumo de carbono e taxa fotossintética, aos 15 DAA na quarta folha. Na mesma folha aos 45 DAA, constatou-se menor consumo de carbono pelos cultivares. Na última folha apesar de inferiores concentrações de carbono, não obteve-se diferença no consumo e taxa fotossintética. O glyphosate resulta em danos metabólicos com efeitos transitórios sobre a atividade fotossintética, sendo o cultivar Acaiá o mais tolerante. Este efeito transitório pode resultar em danos prolongados e irreversíveis no crescimento da cultura. Abstract in english Farmers use non-selective herbicides, such as glyphosate, in directed applications to control weeds in coffee crops. Despite the precautions used during the application of herbicides, there are usually reports of poisoning in plantation areas. Moreover, it is fundamental to understand the effects of [...] glyphosate on photosynthetic processes. The present study aimed to evaluate the characteristics associated with the photosynthetic activity in coffee cultivars subjected to doses of glyphosate. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse using three varieties of coffee (Coffea arabica), including Acaiá (MG-6851), Catucaí Amarelo (2 SL) and Topázio (MG-1190), and three subdoses of glyphosate (0.0, 115.2 and 460.8 g ha-1) in a 3 x 3 factorial scheme. Herbicide application led to reduced internal carbon, ratio between internal and environmental carbon, carbon consumption and photosynthetic rate at 15 days after application (DAA) in the fourth leaf. In the same leaf at 45 DAA, the carbon consumption of the cultivars was even less. Despite low carbon concentrations, no difference in consumption and photosynthetic rate was observed in the last leaf. Glyphosate caused metabolic damage with transitory effects on the photosynthetic rate; the Acaiá cultivar was the most tolerant. These transitory effects may result in irreversible and prolonged damage to crop growth.

Felipe Paolinelli de, Carvalho; André Cabral, França; Vinícius Teixeira, Lemos; Evander Alves, Ferreira; José Barbosa dos, Santos; Antonio Alberto da, Silva.

65

Photosynthetic activity of coffee after application of glyphosate subdoses / Atividade fotossintética do cafeeiro após aplicação de subdoses de glyphosate  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Para o controle de plantas daninhas em lavouras cafeeiras, os produtores utilizam herbicidas não-seletivos, como o glyphosate, empregado em aplicações dirigidas. Apesar de todos os cuidados com a aplicação, são constatados casos de intoxicação em plantas, sendo de fundamental importância o conhecime [...] nto dos efeitos sobre os processos fotossintéticos. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar as características associadas à atividade fotossintética entre cultivares de cafeeiro submetidos a doses de glyphosate. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação utilizando-se três cultivares de cafeeiro (Coffea arabica): Acaiá (MG-6851), Catucaí Amarelo (2 SL) e Topázio (MG-1190) e, três subdoses do glyphosate (0,0; 115,2 e 460,8 g ha-1), em esquema fatorial 3 x 3. Em função da aplicação do herbicida observou-se redução de carbono interno, razão carbono interno e do ambiente, consumo de carbono e taxa fotossintética, aos 15 DAA na quarta folha. Na mesma folha aos 45 DAA, constatou-se menor consumo de carbono pelos cultivares. Na última folha apesar de inferiores concentrações de carbono, não obteve-se diferença no consumo e taxa fotossintética. O glyphosate resulta em danos metabólicos com efeitos transitórios sobre a atividade fotossintética, sendo o cultivar Acaiá o mais tolerante. Este efeito transitório pode resultar em danos prolongados e irreversíveis no crescimento da cultura. Abstract in english Farmers use non-selective herbicides, such as glyphosate, in directed applications to control weeds in coffee crops. Despite the precautions used during the application of herbicides, there are usually reports of poisoning in plantation areas. Moreover, it is fundamental to understand the effects of [...] glyphosate on photosynthetic processes. The present study aimed to evaluate the characteristics associated with the photosynthetic activity in coffee cultivars subjected to doses of glyphosate. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse using three varieties of coffee (Coffea arabica), including Acaiá (MG-6851), Catucaí Amarelo (2 SL) and Topázio (MG-1190), and three subdoses of glyphosate (0.0, 115.2 and 460.8 g ha-1) in a 3 x 3 factorial scheme. Herbicide application led to reduced internal carbon, ratio between internal and environmental carbon, carbon consumption and photosynthetic rate at 15 days after application (DAA) in the fourth leaf. In the same leaf at 45 DAA, the carbon consumption of the cultivars was even less. Despite low carbon concentrations, no difference in consumption and photosynthetic rate was observed in the last leaf. Glyphosate caused metabolic damage with transitory effects on the photosynthetic rate; the Acaiá cultivar was the most tolerant. These transitory effects may result in irreversible and prolonged damage to crop growth.

Felipe Paolinelli de, Carvalho; André Cabral, França; Vinícius Teixeira, Lemos; Evander Alves, Ferreira; José Barbosa dos, Santos; Antonio Alberto da, Silva.

2013-03-01

66

Crop Response to Glyphosate Trimesium Sulphosate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Glyphosate may cause injury to non-target plants. The first detectable symptom after glyphosate treatment is the growth inhibition, followed by noticeable yellowing (chlorosis of the treated tissue. Five to ten days after the treatment, the chlorosis turns into necrosis and the plants begin to die. Greenhouse research was conducted in 2007 to investigate the response of glyphosate resistant (GR soybeans PAN 520 line and non-glyphosate resistant EGRET line of soybeans to glyphosate trimesium sulphosate and to evaluate soybeans injury to help in weed resistance detection. The methods used to detect changes were dose response test, HPLC measurement based on glyphosate induced accumulation of shikimate, and morpho-anatomical changes (light and electron microscopy. Damaged chloroplasts are a clear indication of a glyphosate injury. If the injury rating is related to increased shikimate levels, there is greater certainty that differences among biotypes are due to glyphosate tolerance.

Danijela PAVLOVIC

2013-12-01

67

75 FR 24969 - Glyphosate From China  

Science.gov (United States)

...COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-1178 (Preliminary)] Glyphosate From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission...gives notice that its antidumping investigation concerning glyphosate from China (investigation No. 731-TA-1178...

2010-05-06

68

75 FR 17768 - Glyphosate From China  

Science.gov (United States)

...COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-1178 (Preliminary)] Glyphosate From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission...is materially retarded, by reason of imports from China of glyphosate, provided for in subheadings 2931.00.90 and...

2010-04-07

69

THE REMOVAL OF GLYPHOSATE FROM DRINKING WATER  

Science.gov (United States)

The effectiveness of granulated activated carbon (GAC), packed activated carbon (PAC), conventional treatment, membranes, and oxidation for removing glyphosate from natural waters is evaluated. Results indicate that GAC and PAC are not effective in removing glyphosate, while oxid...

70

Glyphosate inhibits rust diseases in glyphosate-resistant wheat and soybean  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum herbicide used for the control of weeds in glyphosate-resistant crops. Glyphosate inhibits 5-enolpyruvyl shikimate 3-phosphate synthase, a key enzyme in the synthesis of aromatic amino acids in plants, fungi, and bacteria. Studies with glyphosate-resistant wheat have shown that glyphosate provided both preventive and curative activities against Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici and Puccinia triticina, which cause stripe and leaf rusts, respectively, in wheat. ...

Feng, Paul C. C.; Baley, G. James; Clinton, William P.; Bunkers, Greg J.; Alibhai, Murtaza F.; Paulitz, Timothy C.; Kidwell, Kimberlee K.

2005-01-01

71

Selectivity of glyphosate tank mixtures for RR soybean / Seletividade de glyphosate em misturas em tanque para soja RR  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A mistura de ingredientes ativos de diferentes mecanismos de ação é uma ferramenta essencial para prevenir ou manejar áreas com plantas daninhas resistentes. No entanto é importante que tais associações forneçam adequada seletividade para a cultura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a seletivida [...] de do glyphosate a soja RR, e verificar também, se existe seletividade a misturas com outros ingredientes ativos, aplicados em pós-emergência, visando novas estratégias de controle que poderão ser empregadas no cultivo da soja RR. Os herbicidas e respectivas doses (g ha-1) avaliadas foram: glyphosate isolado (720, 960, 1.200 e 1.440) e as misturas de glyphosate (960) com cloransulam-methyl (30,24), fomesafen (125), lactofen (72), chlorimuron-ethyl (12,5), flumiclorac-pentyl (30), bentazon (480) e imazethapyr (80). Todos os tratamentos foram aplicados em dose única em pós-emergência quando a soja estava no estádio V2 a V3. Tratamentos com glyphosate isolado ou em mistura com herbicidas pós-emergentes aplicados em dose única promoveram efeitos visuais de fitointoxicação quando aplicados na soja resistente ao glyphosate. Efeitos como redução na altura das plantas, no fechamento da cultura, no número de vagens por planta e na massa de cem grãos puderam ser observados. Entretanto, os efeitos relatados ao desenvolvimento das plantas foram na sua maioria transientes, não persistindo durante todo ciclo da cultura. Dentre os tratamentos estudados, somente a mistura entre glyphosate e lactofen não apresentou seletividade à cultura, promovendo efeitos negativos na maioria das características estudadas e consequentemente reduzindo a produtividade de grãos. Abstract in english An active ingredients mixture of different action mechanisms is an essential tool to prevent or manage areas with resistant weeds. However, it is important that such a mixture provides adequate selectivity to the crop. The aim of this work was to evaluate glyphosate selectivity to glyphosate-resista [...] nt (RR) soybean, and also verify if there is selectivity in mixtures with other active ingredients applied postemergence aimed at new control strategies, which might be used in RR soybean cultivation. The herbicides and respective rates (g ha-1) evaluated were: glyphosate (720, 960, 1,200, and 1,440), and the mixtures of glyphosate (960) with cloransulam-methyl (30.24), fomesafen (125), lactofen (72), chlorimuron-ethyl (12.5), flumiclorac-pentyl (30), bentazon (480), or imazethapyr (80). All treatments were applied in postemergence when the soybean crop was at V2 to V3 stage. Treatments with glyphosate or in mixtures with postemergent herbicides showed visual effects of phytotoxicity when applied to the glyphosate-resistant soybean. Effects such as reduction in plant height, crop closure, number of pods per plant, and hundred grain weight could be observed. However, the effects related to plant development were mostly transient and did not persist during the crop cycle. Among the studied treatments, only the mixture of glyphosate and lactofen was not selective to the crop, promoting negative effects on most characteristics analyzed and consequently reducing grain yield.

D.G, Alonso; J, Constantin; R.S, Oliveira Jr; J.G.Z, Arantes; S.D, Cavalieri; G, Santos; F.A, Rios; L.H.M, Franchini.

2011-12-01

72

Selectivity of glyphosate tank mixtures for RR soybean Seletividade de glyphosate em misturas em tanque para soja RR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An active ingredients mixture of different action mechanisms is an essential tool to prevent or manage areas with resistant weeds. However, it is important that such a mixture provides adequate selectivity to the crop. The aim of this work was to evaluate glyphosate selectivity to glyphosate-resistant (RR soybean, and also verify if there is selectivity in mixtures with other active ingredients applied postemergence aimed at new control strategies, which might be used in RR soybean cultivation. The herbicides and respective rates (g ha-1 evaluated were: glyphosate (720, 960, 1,200, and 1,440, and the mixtures of glyphosate (960 with cloransulam-methyl (30.24, fomesafen (125, lactofen (72, chlorimuron-ethyl (12.5, flumiclorac-pentyl (30, bentazon (480, or imazethapyr (80. All treatments were applied in postemergence when the soybean crop was at V2 to V3 stage. Treatments with glyphosate or in mixtures with postemergent herbicides showed visual effects of phytotoxicity when applied to the glyphosate-resistant soybean. Effects such as reduction in plant height, crop closure, number of pods per plant, and hundred grain weight could be observed. However, the effects related to plant development were mostly transient and did not persist during the crop cycle. Among the studied treatments, only the mixture of glyphosate and lactofen was not selective to the crop, promoting negative effects on most characteristics analyzed and consequently reducing grain yield.A mistura de ingredientes ativos de diferentes mecanismos de ação é uma ferramenta essencial para prevenir ou manejar áreas com plantas daninhas resistentes. No entanto é importante que tais associações forneçam adequada seletividade para a cultura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a seletividade do glyphosate a soja RR, e verificar também, se existe seletividade a misturas com outros ingredientes ativos, aplicados em pós-emergência, visando novas estratégias de controle que poderão ser empregadas no cultivo da soja RR. Os herbicidas e respectivas doses (g ha-1 avaliadas foram: glyphosate isolado (720, 960, 1.200 e 1.440 e as misturas de glyphosate (960 com cloransulam-methyl (30,24, fomesafen (125, lactofen (72, chlorimuron-ethyl (12,5, flumiclorac-pentyl (30, bentazon (480 e imazethapyr (80. Todos os tratamentos foram aplicados em dose única em pós-emergência quando a soja estava no estádio V2 a V3. Tratamentos com glyphosate isolado ou em mistura com herbicidas pós-emergentes aplicados em dose única promoveram efeitos visuais de fitointoxicação quando aplicados na soja resistente ao glyphosate. Efeitos como redução na altura das plantas, no fechamento da cultura, no número de vagens por planta e na massa de cem grãos puderam ser observados. Entretanto, os efeitos relatados ao desenvolvimento das plantas foram na sua maioria transientes, não persistindo durante todo ciclo da cultura. Dentre os tratamentos estudados, somente a mistura entre glyphosate e lactofen não apresentou seletividade à cultura, promovendo efeitos negativos na maioria das características estudadas e consequentemente reduzindo a produtividade de grãos.

D.G Alonso

2011-12-01

73

The interaction of glyphosate with soil constituents  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The chemical mechanisms that govern glyphosate interactions with soil constituents are not fully understood. In studies of single soil constituents, iron and aluminum oxides have shown a particularly high affinity for glyphosate compared to other soil constituents. We used goethite and poorly crystalline boehmite (PCB) in this study as model sorbents to show the interactions of glyphosate on soil constituents. We identified glyphosate sorption on goethite and PCB using coupled sorption and Fo...

Johnson, Eric Christopher

2009-01-01

74

Crescimento de cultivares de café arábica submetidos a doses do glyphosate Growth of arabica coffee cultivars submitted to glyphosate doses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Avaliaram-se, neste trabalho, os efeitos do glyphosate sobre o crescimento de três cultivares de café arábica. Utilizou-se o esquema fatorial (3 x 5 em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, sendo os tratamentos compostos por três cultivares de café: Catucaí Amarelo (2 SL, Oeiras (MG-6851 e Topázio (MG-1190 e cinco doses de glyphosate (0; 57,6; 115,2; 230,4; e 460,8 g ha-1. O herbicida foi aplicado quando as plantas de café se apresentavam com 21 pares de folhas e de forma que não atingisse o terço superior delas. Aos 45 e 120 dias após a aplicação do glyphosate (DAA, avaliaram-se os incrementos na altura, na área foliar, no diâmetro do caule, no número de folhas e nos ramos plagiotrópicos, sendo eles mensurados inicialmente no dia da aplicação do herbicida; aos 10, 45 e 120 DAA, avaliou-se a porcentagem de intoxicação das plantas. A massa da matéria seca de folhas, raízes e caule, a densidade e o comprimento radicular foram avaliados aos 120 DAA. Os sintomas de intoxicação das plantas de café causados pelo glyphosate foram semelhantes nos diferentes cultivares, sendo caracterizados por clorose e estreitamento do limbo foliar. Os incrementos no número de folhas e ramos plagiotrópicos e no diâmetro do caule, independentemente do cultivar, não foram alterados pelo glyphosate. O cultivar Topázio foi o mais sensível ao glyphosate quanto a acúmulo de área foliar, de massa de matéria seca e densidade radicular.This study evaluated the effects of glyphosate on the growth of three arabica coffee cultivars. A factorial (3 x 5 was arranged in a randomized block design with four replications, with treatments consisting of three coffee varieties: Catucaí Amarelo (2 SL, Oeiras (MG-6851 and Topázio (MG-1190 and five glyphosate doses (0, 57.6, 115.2, 230.4 and 460.8 g ha-1 . The herbicide was applied when the coffee plants reached 21 pairs of leaves, before reaching their upper third ones. At 45 and 120 days after glyphosate application (DAA, increase in leaf area, stem diameter, number of leaves and plagiotropic branches was evaluated, being initially measured on the day the herbicide was applied, and plant intoxication rate at 10, 45 and 120 DAA. Dry matter of leaves, roots and stem, and root length and density were measured at 120 DAA. Symptoms of coffee plant intoxication caused by glyphosate were similar in different cultivars, being characterized by chlorosis and leaf narrowing. Increase in the number of leaves, plagiotropic branches and stem diameter, regardless of the cultivar, was not affected by glyphosate. Cultivar Topázio was the most sensitive to glyphosate, in terms of accumulation of leaf area, root dry matter and root density.

A.C. França

2010-01-01

75

Qualidade fisiológica de sementes de soja colhidas em duas épocas após dessecação com glyphosate Physiological quality of soybean seeds harvested at two periods after glyphosate desiccation  

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Full Text Available A dessecação de plantas de soja em pré-colheita com glyphosate vem se tornando prática rotineira entre os produtores, apesar de não ser recomendada, pois pode comprometer a qualidade fisiológica das sementes. Objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos da dessecação das plantas em pré-colheita com glyphosate na qualidade fisiológica de sementes de soja colhidas em duas épocas após a aplicação. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas. As parcelas principais consistiram da dessecação ou não das plantas de soja com glyphosate em pré-colheita, no estádio R7, e as subparcelas da colheita das sementes 7 e 14 dias após a aplicação. As sementes foram avaliadas quanto ao teor de água, dano mecânico, viabilidade, massa de 100 sementes e teor de proteína. A qualidade fisiológica foi avaliada por meio dos testes de germinação, envelhecimento acelerado, condutividade elétrica, comprimento de plântulas e massa da matéria seca das plântulas. A dessecação das plantas de soja em pré-colheita com glyphosate ocasiona redução da germinação das sementes e do desenvolvimento inicial das plântulas. O atraso na colheita reduz a germinação das sementes oriundas de plantas de soja dessecadas com glyphosate em pré-colheita, mas minimiza os efeitos fitotóxicos no desenvolvimento das plântulas.Pre-harvest desiccation of soybean plants with glyphosate has been routinely conducted by seed producers, although it is not recommended because it may reduce seed physiological quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the pre-harvest desiccation of plants with glyphosate on the physiological quality of soybean seeds harvested at two different periods after application. The experimental design was completely randomized blocks, with four replications and subdivided plots. Main plots consisted of the presence and absence of a pre-harvest desiccation of soybean plants with glyphosate at the R7 stage, and subplots of seeds harvested 7 and 14 days after application. Moisture content, mechanical damage, viability, weight of 100 seeds, protein content and accumulation of glyphosate residues were determined after harvest. Physiological quality was evaluated by tests for germination, accelerated aging, electrical conductivity, seedling length and seedling dry matter. Pre-harvest desiccation of soybean plants with glyphosate reduces seed germination and seedling development. Delayed harvesting reduces the germination of soybean seeds produced by plants desiccated with glyphosate, but minimizes phytotoxicity in seedling development.

Mariana Zampar Toledo

2012-01-01

76

Acute effects of glyphosate herbicide on metabolic and enzymatic parameters of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen).  

Science.gov (United States)

Silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen; Teleostei) were exposed to commercial formulation Roundup, a glyphosate herbicide: 0 (control), 0.2 or 0.4 mg/L for 96 h. Fish exposed to glyphosate showed an increase in hepatic glycogen, but a reduction in muscle glycogen at both concentrations tested. Glucose decreased in liver and increased in muscle of fish at both herbicide concentrations. Glyphosate exposure increased lactate levels in liver and white muscle at both concentrations. Protein levels increased in liver and decreased in white muscle while levels of ammonia in both tissues increased in fish at both glyphosate concentrations. Specific AChE activity was reduced in brain after treatments, no changes were observed in muscle tissue. Catalase activity in liver did not change during of exposure. Fish exposed to glyphosate demonstrated increased TBARS production in muscle tissue at both concentrations tested. For both glyphosate concentrations tested brain showed a reduction of TBARS after 96 h of exposure. The present results showed that in 96 h, glyphosate changed AChE activity, metabolic parameters and TBARS production. The parameters measured can be used as herbicide toxicity indicators considering environmentally relevant concentration. PMID:17716950

Glusczak, Lissandra; Miron, Denise dos Santos; Moraes, Bibiana Silveira; Simões, Róli Rodrigues; Schetinger, Maria Rosa Chitolina; Morsch, Vera Maria; Loro, Vânia Lucia

2007-11-01

77

Differential susceptibility to glyphosate among the Conyza weed species in Spain.  

Science.gov (United States)

Greenhouse and laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate differences in glyphosate susceptibility among three species of the genus Conyza introduced as weeds in Spain: tall fleabane (Conyza sumatrensis), hairy fleabane (Conyza bonariensis), and horseweed (Conyza canadensis). Plant material was obtained from seeds collected in weed populations growing in olive groves and citrus orchards in southern Spain, with no previous history of glyphosate application. Dose-response curves displayed ED(50) values of 2.9, 15.7, and 34.9 g ai ha(-1), respectively, for C. sumatrensis, C. bonariensis, and C. canadensis plants at the rosette stage (6-8 leaves). Significant differences were found among the three species in the glyphosate retention on leaves as well as the leaf contact angle. The species order according to glyphosate retention was C. sumatrensis > C. bonariensis > C. canadensis, while the mean contact angles of glyphosate droplets were 59.2, 65.5, and 72.9 degrees , respectively. There were no significant differences among species in the absorption of [(14)C]glyphosate (ranged from 37.4% for C. canadensis to 52.4% for C. sumatrensis), but the order among species was the same as glyphosate retention. The amount of radioactivity translocated from treated leaves was lower in C. canadensis as compared to the other two species (C. sumatrensis > C. bonariensis > C. canadensis). Combined, all of the studied parameters identified differential susceptibility to glyphosate among the Conyza species. Each species accumulated shikimate in leaf tissues following application of glyphosate at 200 g ai ha(-1). However, C. canadensis exhibited lower shikimate levels than the other two species at 168 h after herbicide application. For hairy fleabane, a greenhouse study explored its susceptibility to glyphosate at three developmental stages: rosette, bolting (stem height, 10-15 cm), and flowering. The ED(50) was lower at the rosette stage (15.7 g ai ha(-1)) as compared to bolting (86.6 g ai ha(-1)), with the highest ED(50) values occurring at flowering (117.5 g ai ha(-1)); plants at the earlier developmental stage retained more glyphosate. These results agree with field observations that plants at early developmental stages are more sensitive to glyphosate. PMID:20225860

González-Torralva, Fidel; Cruz-Hipolito, Hugo; Bastida, Fernando; Mülleder, Norbert; Smeda, Reid J; De Prado, Rafael

2010-04-14

78

Dessecação de plantas daninhas com glyphosate em mistura com ureia ou sulfato de amônio Weed desiccation with glyphosate mixed with urea or ammonium sulfate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O glyphosate é um herbicida não-seletivo, sistêmico, usado para controle de plantas daninhas anuais e perenes em todo o mundo. A absorção da molécula do glyphosate ocorre pelos tecidos fotossinteticamente ativos das plantas, porém alguns fatores podem reduzir sua eficácia, como a morfologia e diversidade de espécies, chuva após aplicação, qualidade da água e misturas em tanque com outros defensivos, entre outros. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a influência da adição de sulfato de amônio ou ureia em calda na eficácia do herbicida glyphosate para dessecação de plantas daninhas. Dois experimentos foram desenvolvidos em Piracicaba - SP, com aplicações de glyphosate (720 e 1.440 g ha-1 isolado ou combinado com duas doses de sulfato de amônio (7,5 e 15,0 g L-1 ou ureia (2,5 e 5,0 g L-1 sobre as plantas daninhas: apaga-fogo (Alternanthera tenella e capim-massambará (Sorghum halepense. Para a espécie menos suscetível ao herbicida (capim-massambará, a adição de fontes nitrogenadas à menor dose de glyphosate acelerou a morte das plantas, elevando os níveis de controle em até 7,3% na avaliação de 21 dias após aplicação (DAA dos tratamentos. Contudo, os efeitos não foram observados nas avaliações de controle, massa fresca e seca, conduzidas aos 28 DAA. A dose recomendada de glyphosate para cada espécie proporcionou controle satisfatório, sem a necessidade de adição de sulfato de amônio ou ureia.Glyphosate is a non-selective systemic herbicide used to control annual and perennial weeds worldwide. Molecule absorption occurs through the plant's photosynthetically-active tissues; however, some factors might reduce its efficacy, such as morphology and specific diversity, rain after application, water quality and tank mixtures with other chemicals. Thus, this work aimed to evaluate the influence of ammonium sulfate or urea addiction to spray tank on glyphosate efficacy for weed desiccation. Two trials were carried out in Piracicaba - SP, with applications of glyphosate (720 and 1440 g ha-1 alone or combined with two rates of ammonium sulfate (7.5 and 15.0 g L-1 or urea (2.5 and 5.0 g L-1, over the weeds Alternanthera tenella and Sorghum halepense. For the least susceptible species (S. halepense, the addition of nitrogen sources to the lower rate of glyphosate accelerated plant death, increasing the control levels up to 7.3%, at 21 days after application (DAA. However, the effects were not observed when control, fresh and dry mass were evaluated at 28 DAA. Glyphosate recommended rate for each species promoted appropriate control, without the need to add ammonium sulfate or urea.

S.J.P. Carvalho

2009-06-01

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Synchronous sounds enhance visual sensitivity without reducing target uncertainty.  

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We examined the crossmodal effect of the presentation of a simultaneous sound on visual detection and discrimination sensitivity using the equivalent noise paradigm (Dosher and Lu, 1998). In each trial, a tilted Gabor patch was presented in either the first or second of two intervals embedded in dynamic 2D white noise with one of seven possible contrast levels. The results revealed that the sensitivity of participants' visual detection and discrimination performance were both enhanced by the...

Chen, YC; Huang, Pc; Yeh, Sl; Spence, C.

2011-01-01

80

40 CFR 180.364 - Glyphosate; tolerances for residues.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Glyphosate; tolerances for residues. 180... Specific Tolerances § 180.364 Glyphosate; tolerances for residues. (a...Tolerances are established for residues of glyphosate N -(phosphonomethyl)glycine...

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
81

Inhibition effect of glyphosate on the acute and subacute toxicity of cadmium to earthworm Eisenia fetida.  

Science.gov (United States)

The acute and subacute toxicities of cadmium (Cd) to earthworm Eisenia fetida in the presence and absence of glyphosate were studied. Although Cd is highly toxic to E. fetida, the presence of glyphosate markedly reduced the acute toxicity of Cd to earthworm; both the mortality rate of the earthworms and the accumulation of Cd decreased with the increase of the glyphosate/Cd molar ratio. The subcellular distribution of Cd in E. fetida tissues showed that internal Cd was dominant in the intact cells fraction and the heat-stable proteins fraction. The presence of glyphosate reduced the concentration of Cd in all fractions, especially the intact cells. During a longer period of exposure, the weight loss of earthworm and the total Cd absorption was alleviated by glyphosate. Thus, the herbicide glyphosate can reduce the toxicity and bioavailability of Cd in the soil ecosystems at both short- and long-term exposures. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014;33:2351-2357. © 2014 SETAC. PMID:25043609

Zhou, Chui-Fan; Wang, Yu-Jun; Sun, Rui-Juan; Liu, Cun; Fan, Guang-Ping; Qin, Wen-Xiu; Li, Cheng-Cheng; Zhou, Dong-Mei

2014-10-01

82

Physiological and biochemical characterization of glyphosate resistant Ambrosia trifida L.  

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Giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida L.) is an annual plant that persists in crop and non-crop areas. Agronomic producers often use glyphosate, the most widely used herbicide in the world, to control giant ragweed in glyphosate resistant crops. Glyphosate inhibits EPSP synthase, the key enzyme of the shikimate pathway. Repeated use of glyphosate has resulted in the occurrence of glyphosate resistant giant ragweed populations in Indiana. ^ Initial studies confirmed glyphosate resistance in a gian...

Robertson, Renae R.

2010-01-01

83

Glyphosate no controle de biótipos de azevém e impacto na microbiota do solo / Glyphosate application for italian ryegrass biotype control and impact on soil microbiota  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Avaliou-se neste trabalho a resistência de azevém (L. multiflorum) ao glyphosate e o impacto do controle desses biótipos sobre a respiração e biomassa microbiana do solo. Foram conduzidos dois ensaios: no primeiro foram avaliadas a intoxicação e a massa seca das plantas de biótipos de três populaçõe [...] s de azevém: população 1 (reconhecidamente resistente), população 2 (resistência intermediária), e população 3 (sensível ao glyphosate), submetidas a diferentes doses de glyphosate (200, 400, 800, 1.600 e 3.200 g ha-1). No segundo ensaio foram avaliados a massa seca da parte aérea, a altura de plantas, o número de folhas de azevém e a respiração e massa microbiana do solo cultivado com os biótipos resistente e sensível, com e sem aplicação de glyphosate (480 g ha-1). Aos 14 DAT, observou-se morte do biótipo sensível quando tratado com doses a partir de 200 g ha-1 de glyphosate. Nos biótipos resistentes e com nível intermediário de resistência, a toxicidade do glyphosate às plantas de azevém foi de 85% na maior dose avaliada. O biótipo resistente apresentou maior produção de massa seca da parte aérea aos 42 DAT e na rebrota, aos 72 DAT, quando comparado ao biótipo intermediário. O biótipo sensível apresentou maior altura de plantas, número de folhas e massa seca da parte aérea, em comparação ao resistente, quando não tratados com o glyphosate. Não foi observada diferença na atividade microbiana do solo entre os tratamentos avaliados. Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate the resistance Italian ryegrass (L. multiflorum) against glyphosate and the impact of the control of these biotypes on soil respiration and microbial biomass. Two essays were conducted: the first evaluated intoxication and dry mass of the plants of biotypes of three Ital [...] ian ryegrass population (population 1 - resistant; population 2 - intermediary resistance; and population 3 - sensitive to glyphosate) submitted to different glyphosate rates. The second assay evaluated dry matter of the aereal part, plant height, number of leaves and respiration and microbial mass of the soil cultivated with the resistant and sensitive biotypes, with and without glyphosate application (480 g ha-1). At 14 DAA, death of the susceptible biotype was observed, when treated with rates starting from 200 g ha-1 of glyphosate. The resistant ad intermediate resistant biotypes showed glyphosate phytotoxicity of 85% at the highest rate evaluated. The resistant biotype presented the highest dry matter production of the aerial part at 42 DAA and during sprouting, at 72 DAA, compared to the intermediary biotype. The sensitive biotype presented higher plant height, number of leaves and dry mass of the aerial part, to the resistant biotype, without glyphosate. No difference was observed in the microbial activity in the soil among the treatments.

E.A., Ferreira; J.B., Santos; A.A., Silva; L., Vargas; M.R., Reis.

84

The effect of glyphosate on import into a sink leaf of sugar beet  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The basis for glyphosate inducted limitation of carbon import into developing leaves was studied in sugar beet. To separate the effects of the herbicide on export from those on import, glyphosate was supplied to a developing leaf from two exporting source leaves which fed the sink leaf. Carbon import into the sink leaf was determined by supplying 14CO2 to a third source leaf which also supplies carbon to the monitored sink leaf. Import into the sink leaf decreased within 2 to 3 h after glyphosate application, even though photosynthesis and export in the source leaf supplying 14C were unaffected. Reduced import into the sink leaf was accompanied by increased import by the tap root. Elongation of the sink leaf was only slightly decreased following arrival of glyphosate. Photosynthesis by the sink leaf was not inhibited. The results to data support the view that import is slowed by the inhibition of synthesis of structural or storage compounds in the developing leaves

85

Response of selected horseweed (Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronq.) populations to glyphosate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Horseweed (Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronq.) seed was collected in Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Mississippi, Missouri, and Ohio to determine susceptibility of different horseweed biotypes to glyphosate. Horseweed resistant to glyphosate was found in Mississippi, Ohio, and western Tennessee. In a separate experiment examining Tennessee biotypes, a dose response curve demonstrated that four times as much glyphosate was needed to achieve a 50% fresh weight reduction (GR(50)) in resistant biotypes when compared to a susceptible biotype. Resistant biotypes from Tennessee displayed a GR(50) of 1.6 kg/ha as compared to a GR(50) of 0.4 kg/ha in a susceptible horseweed population. Although growth was reduced, the resistant plants did not completely die and could potentially produce seed. Variation in glyphosate resistance was found among the populations tested. PMID:14969545

Main, Christopher L; Mueller, Thomas C; Hayes, Robert M; Wilkerson, John B

2004-02-25

86

Influence of glyphosate in planktonic and biofilm growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This study evaluated the impact of different concentrations of glyphosate (Rondup®) on planktonic and biofilm growth of P. aeruginosa. Aerobic and anaerobic cultures of P. aeruginosa ATCC®15442 inoculated in MHB + glyphosate (0.845 ppm, 1.690 ppm, 8.45 ppm, 16.90 ppm, 84.50 ppm, 169 ppm, 845 ppm, an [...] d 1690 ppm) and cultured in normoxia and anoxia, following their OD560nm every hour for 24 h. Biofilms of adapted cells were formed in the presence of glyphosate (0.845 to 1690 ppm) in normoxia and anoxia for 36 h. Glyphosate at concentrations higher than 84.5 ppm reduces the cell density of planktonic aerobic cultures (p 0.05), and more pronounced over 169 ppm. Anaerobic biofilms have their growth more readily favored (p

Ilana Schneider, Lima; Nicole Carmo, Baumeier; Rosimeire Takaki, Rosa; Patrícia Maria Stuelp, Campelo; Edvaldo Antonio Ribeiro, Rosa.

2014-09-01

87

GLYPHOSATE REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER  

Science.gov (United States)

Activated-carbon, oxidation, conventional-treatment, filtration, and membrane studies are conducted to determine which process is best suited to remove the herbicide glyphosate from potable water. Both bench-scale and pilot-scale studies are completed. Computer models are used ...

88

Glyphosate translocation in herbicide tolerant plants Translocação do glyphosate em plantas tolerantes ao herbicida  

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The objective of this study was to evaluate glyphosate translocation in glyphosate-tolerant weed species (I. nil, T. procumbens and S. latifolia) compared to glyphosate-susceptible species (B. pilosa). The evaluations of 14C-glyphosate absorption and translocation were performed at 6, 12, 36 and 72 hours after treatment (HAT) in I. nil and B. pilosa, and only at 72 HAT in the species T. procumbens and S. latifolia. The plants were collected and fractionated into application leaf, other leaves...

Galon, L.; Ferreira, E. A.; Aspiazu?, I.; Concenc?o, G.; Silva, A. F.; Silva, A. A.; Vargas, L.

2013-01-01

89

Review of potential environmental impacts of transgenic glyphosate-resistant soybean in Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Transgenic glyphosate-resistant soybeans (GRS) have been commercialized and grown extensively in the Western Hemisphere, including Brazil. Worldwide, several studies have shown that previous and potential effects of glyphosate on contamination of soil, water, and air are minimal, compared to those caused by the herbicides that they replace when GRS are adopted. In the USA and Argentina, the advent of glyphosate-resistant soybeans resulted in a significant shift to reduced- and no-tillage practices, thereby significantly reducing environmental degradation by agriculture. Similar shifts in tillage practiced with GRS might be expected in Brazil. Transgenes encoding glyphosate resistance in soybeans are highly unlikely to be a risk to wild plant species in Brazil. Soybean is almost completely self-pollinated and is a non-native species in Brazil, without wild relatives, making introgression of transgenes from GRS virtually impossible. Probably the highest agricultural risk in adopting GRS in Brazil is related to weed resistance. Weed species in GRS fields have shifted in Brazil to those that can more successfully withstand glyphosate or to those that avoid the time of its application. These include Chamaesyce hirta (erva-de-Santa-Luzia), Commelina benghalensis (trapoeraba), Spermacoce latifolia (erva-quente), Richardia brasiliensis (poaia-branca), and Ipomoea spp. (corda-de-viola). Four weed species, Conyza bonariensis, Conyza Canadensis (buva), Lolium multiflorum (azevem), and Euphorbia heterophylla (amendoim bravo), have evolved resistance to glyphosate in GRS in Brazil and have great potential to become problems. PMID:17562462

Cerdeira, Antonio L; Gazziero, Dionsio L P; Duke, Stephen O; Matallo, Marcus B; Spadotto, Claudio A

2007-01-01

90

Early Detection of Crop Injury from Glyphosate on Soybean and Cotton Using Plant Leaf Hyperspectral Data  

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Full Text Available In this paper, we aim to detect crop injury from glyphosate, a herbicide, by both traditionally used spectral indices and newly extracted features with leaf hyperspectral reflectance data for non-Glyphosate-Resistant (non-GR soybean and non-GR cotton. The new features were extracted by canonical analysis technique, which could provide the largest separability to distinguish the injured leaves from the healthy ones. Spectral bands used for constructing these new features were selected based on the sensitivity analysis results of a physically-based leaf radiation transfer model (leaf optical PROperty SPECTra model, PROSPECT, which could help extend the effectiveness of these features to a wide range of leaf structures and growing conditions. This approach has been validated with greenhouse measured data acquired in glyphosate treatment experiments. Results indicated that glyphosate injury could be detected by NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, RVI (Ratio Vegetation Index, SAVI (Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index, and DVI (Difference Vegetation Index in 48 h After the Treatment (HAT for soybean and in 72 HAT for cotton, but the other spectral indices either showed little use for separation, or did not show consistent separation for healthy and injured soybean and cotton. Compared with the traditional spectral indices, the new features were more feasible for the early detection of glyphosate injury, with leaves sprayed with a higher rate of glyphosate solution having larger feature values. This trend became more and more pronounced with time. Leaves sprayed with different glyphosate rates showed some separability 24 HAT using the new features and could be totally distinguished at and beyond 48 HAT for both soybean and cotton. These findings demonstrated the feasibility of applying leaf hyperspectral reflectance measurements for the early detection of glyphosate injury using these newly proposed features.

Feng Zhao

2014-02-01

91

RDX-based nanocomposite microparticles for significantly reduced shock sensitivity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX)-based nanocomposite microparticles were produced by a simple, yet novel spray drying method. The microparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), which shows that they consist of small RDX crystals ({approx}0.1-1 {mu}m) uniformly and discretely dispersed in a binder. The microparticles were subsequently pressed to produce dense energetic materials which exhibited a markedly lower shock sensitivity. The low sensitivity was attributed to small crystal size as well as small void size ({approx}250 nm). The method developed in this work may be suitable for the preparation of a wide range of insensitive explosive compositions.

Qiu Hongwei, E-mail: hqiu@stevens.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ 07030 (United States); Stepanov, Victor; Di Stasio, Anthony R. [U.S. Army - Armament Research, Development, and Engineering Center, Picatinny, NJ 07806 (United States); Chou, Tsengming; Lee, Woo Y. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ 07030 (United States)

2011-01-15

92

Reducing the temperature sensitivity of SOI waveguide-based biosensors  

Science.gov (United States)

Label-free photonic biosensors fabricated on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) can provide compact size, high evanescent field strength at the silicon waveguide surface, and volume fabrication potential. However, due to the large thermo optic coefficient of water-based biosamples, the sensors are temperature-sensitive. Consequently, active temperature control is usually used. However, for low cost applications, active temperature control is often not feasible. Here, we use the opposite polarity of the thermo-optic coefficients of silicon and water to demonstrate a photonic slot waveguide with a distribution of power between sample and silicon that aims to give athermal operation in water. Based on simulations, we made three waveguide designs close to the athermal point, and asymmetric integrated Mach- Zehnder interferometers for their characterization. The devices were fabricated on SOI with a 220 nm device layer and 2 ?m buried oxide, by electron beam lithography of hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) resist, and etching in a Cl2/HBr/O2/He plasma. With Cargile 50350 fused silica matching oil as top cladding, the group index of the three guides varies from 1.9 to 2.8 at 1550 nm. The temperature sensitivity of the devices varied from -70 to -160 pm/K under the same conditions. A temperature sensitivity of -2 pm/K is projected with water as top cladding.

Gylfason, Kristinn B.; Mola Romero, Albert; Sohlström, Hans

2012-06-01

93

Glyphosate e nitrgênio no controle de Brachiaria decumbens Stapf em capineiras estabelecidas / Glyphosate and nitrogen in the control of Brachiaria decumbens Stapf in established elephant grass stocking piles  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do experimento foi avaliar a eficiência de utilização do herbicida glyphosate associado com adubação nitrogenada no controle de Brachiaria decumbens Stapf em capineiras estabelecidas. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com dezessete tratamentos e três repetições. Os t [...] ratamentos foram arranjados em esquema fatorial 4 x 4 + 1, sendo quatro doses de glyphosate (0, 720, 1440 e 2160 g/ha/aplicação), quatro doses de nitrogênio (0, 75, 150 e 225 kg/ha/ano) e um tratamento adicional (testemunha com capina). As aplicações do nitrogênio e glyphosate, nas respectivas doses, foram realizadas imediatamente após o corte do capim-elefante. A associação entre o herbicida glyphosate (2160 g/ha/aplicação) e nitrogênio (225 kg/ha/ano) foi eficiente no controle de capim-braquiária em capineiras estabelecidas. A aplicação do herbicida glyphosate (2160 g/ha/aplicação) reduziu o tamanho do banco de sementes de capim-braquiária no solo em 64%. Abstract in english The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the efficiency of the use of the herbicide glyphosate associated with nitrogen fertilization in the control of Brachiaria decumbens Stapf in elephant grass stocking piles. The experimental design used was a randomized blocks with 17 treatments and thr [...] ee replications. The treatments were arranged in 4x4+1 factorial scheme, namely four doses of glyphosate (0, 720, 1440 e 2160 g/ha/application), four doses of nitrogen (0, 75, 150 e 225 kg/ha/ano) and one additional treatment (control with a hoeing). The application of the nitrogen and glyphosate, in the respective doses were performed immediately after the cutting of elephant grass. The association between glyphosate (2160 g/ha/application) and nitrogen (225 kg/ha/ano) was efficient in the control brachiaria grass in established elephant grass stocking piles. The application of the glyphosate (2160 g/ha/application) reduced the size of the bank of brachiaria grass seeds in the soil in 64%.

Joadil Gonçalves de, Abreu; Antônio Ricardo, Evangelista; Itamar Ferreira de, Souza; Gudesteu Porto, Rocha; Lécio Queiroz, Soares; Leonardo de Castro, Santarosa.

94

Environmental fate of herbicides trifluralin, metazachlor, metamitron and sulcotrione compared with that of glyphosate, a substitute broad spectrum herbicide for different glyphosate-resistant crops.  

Science.gov (United States)

The introduction of crops resistant to the broad spectrum herbicide glyphosate, N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine, may constitute an answer to increased contamination of the environment by herbicides, since it should reduce the total amount of herbicide needed and the number of active ingredients. However, there are few published data comparing the fate of glyphosate in the environment, particularly in soil, with that of substitute herbicides. The objective of this study is to compare the fate of glyphosate in three soils with that of four herbicides frequently used on crops that might be glyphosate resistant: trifluralin, alpha,alpha,alpha-trifluoro-2,6-dinitro-N,N-dipropyl-p-toluidine, and metazachlor, 2-chloro-N-(pyrazol-1-ylmethyl)acet-2',6'-xylidide for oilseed rape, metamitron, 4-amino-4,5-dihydro-3-methyl-6-phenyl-1,2,4-triazin-5-one for sugarbeet and sulcotrione, 2-(2-chloro-4-mesylbenzoyl)cyclohexane-1,3-dione for maize. The distribution of herbicides between the volatilized, mineralized, extractable and non-extractable fractions was studied, along with the formation of their metabolites in laboratory experiments using 14C-labelled herbicides, over a period of 140 days. The main dissipation pathways were mineralization for glyphosate and sulcotrione, volatilization for trifluralin and non-extractable residues formation for metazachlor and metamitron. The five herbicides had low persistence. Glyphosate had the shortest half-life, which varied with soil type, whereas trifluralin had the longest. The half-lives of metazachlor and sulcotrione were comparable, whereas that of metamitron was highly variable. Glyphosate, metazachlor and sulcotrione were degraded into persistent metabolites. Low amounts of trifluralin and metamitron metabolites were observed. At 140 days after herbicide applications, the amounts of glyphosate and its metabolite residues in soils were the lowest in two soils, but not in the third soil, a loamy sand with low pH. The environmental advantage in using glyphosate due to its rapid degradation is counterbalanced by accumulation of aminomethylphosphonic acid specifically in the context of extensive use of glyphosate. PMID:16041722

Mamy, Laure; Barriuso, Enrique; Gabrielle, Benoît

2005-09-01

95

Plasmodium falciparum founder populations in western Cambodia have reduced artemisinin sensitivity in vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reduced Plasmodium falciparum sensitivity to short-course artemisinin (ART) monotherapy manifests as a long parasite clearance half-life. We recently defined three parasite founder populations with long half-lives in Pursat, western Cambodia, where reduced ART sensitivity is prevalent. Using the ring-stage survival assay, we show that these founder populations have reduced ART sensitivity in vitro at the early ring stage of parasite development and that a genetically admixed population contains subsets of parasites with normal or reduced ART sensitivity. PMID:24867977

Amaratunga, Chanaki; Witkowski, Benoit; Dek, Dalin; Try, Vorleak; Khim, Nimol; Miotto, Olivo; Ménard, Didier; Fairhurst, Rick M

2014-08-01

96

Agricultural impacts of glyphosate-resistant soybean cultivation in South America.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the 2009/2010 growing season, Brazil was the second largest world soybean producer, followed by Argentina. Glyphosate-resistant soybeans (GRS) are being cultivated in most of the soybean area in South America. Overall, the GRS system is beneficial to the environment when compared to conventional soybean. GRS resulted in a significant shift toward no-tillage practices in Brazil and Argentina, but weed resistance may reduce this trend. Probably the highest agricultural risk in adopting GRS in Brazil and South America is related to weed resistance due to use of glyphosate. Weed species in GRS fields have shifted in Brazil to those that can more successfully withstand glyphosate or to those that avoid the time of its application. Five weed species, in order of importance, Conyza bonariensis (L.) Cronquist, Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronquist, Lolium multiflorum Lam., Digitaria insularis (L.) Mez ex Ekman, and Euphorbia heterophylla L., have evolved resistance to glyphosate in GRS in Brazil. Conyza spp. are the most difficult to control. A glyphosate-resistant biotype of Sorghum halepense L. has evolved in GRS in Argentina and one of D. insularis in Paraguay. The following actions are proposed to minimize weed resistance problem: (a) rotation of GRS with conventional soybeans in order to rotate herbicide modes of action; (b) avoidance of lower than recommended glyphosate rates; (c) keeping soil covered with a crop or legume at intercrop intervals; (d) keeping machinery free of weed seeds; and (d) use of a preplant nonselective herbicide plus residuals to eliminate early weed interference with the crop and to minimize escapes from later applications of glyphosate due to natural resistance of older weeds and/or incomplete glyphosate coverage. PMID:20839871

Cerdeira, Antonio L; Gazziero, Dionsio L P; Duke, Stephen O; Matallo, Marcus B

2011-06-01

97

Transformation and segregation of GFP fluorescence and glyphosate resistance in horseweed (Conyza canadensis) hybrids.  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of this research was to generate a breeding population of horseweed segregating for glyphosate resistance. In order to generate a marker to select between hybrids of glyphosate resistant (GR) and glyphosate susceptible (GS) horseweed, a GR horseweed accession from western Tennessee was transformed with a green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgene. The GFP marker allowed for the simple and accurate determination of GR hybrid plants by visual observation. GR plants were shown to be transgenic via the green fluorescence under UV light, and resistant to glyphosate when sprayed with the field-use-rate 0.84 kg acid equivalent ha(-1) of glyphosate (i.e. Roundup) herbicide. An in vitro screen for glyphosate resistance in seedlings was developed, and a 5 microM glyphosate concentration was found to reduce dry weight in GS seedlings but not in GR seedlings. The GR plants containing GFP were then hand-crossed with GS plants from eastern Tennessee under greenhouse conditions, with GS plants acting as the pollen acceptor. Resulting seed was collected and germinated for GFP fluorescence screening. Seedlings that exhibited the transgenic GFP phenotype were selected as F(1) hybrids between GR and GS horseweed. Thirty GSxGR hybrids were produced on the basis of a green-fluorescent GFP phenotype of GR plants. GSxGFP/GR F(1) hybrids produced F(2) seeds, and F(2) plants were shown to segregate for GFP fluorescence and glyphosate resistance independently. Both traits segregated at a Mendelian 3:1 ratio, indicating a single gene is responsible for each phenotype. PMID:17024451

Halfhill, Matthew D; Good, Laura L; Basu, Chhandak; Burris, Jason; Main, Christopher L; Mueller, Thomas C; Stewart, C Neal

2007-03-01

98

Behavioral sensitivity to reward is reduced for far objects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many studies have demonstrated that people will adjust their behavioral response to a reward on the basis of the time taken to receive the reward. Yet despite growing evidence that time and space are not mentally independent, there has been no examination of whether spatial distance may also affect the way people respond to rewarding objects. We examined speeded binary decisions about objects associated with high, low, or no reward for correct responses. Using a 3-D display, we varied perceived spatial distance so that objects appeared at distances near to or far from participants. Both the speed and the accuracy of responses were better for high-reward objects compared with low- and no-reward objects, but this difference occurred only when the objects appeared at near distance to participants. These results demonstrate that when people respond to rewarding objects, they show sensitivity to spatial-distance information even if the information is irrelevant to the task. PMID:24264939

O'Connor, David A; Meade, Bernard; Carter, Olivia; Rossiter, Sarah; Hester, Robert

2014-01-01

99

Control of glyphosate resistant hairy fleabane (Conyza bonariensis) with dicamba and 2,4-D / Controle de buva (Conyza bonariensis) resistente ao glyphosate com dicamba e 2,4-D  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Os herbicidas mimetizadores de auxinas como dicamba e 2,4-D são alternativas para o controle de buva resistente ao glyphosate. Com a possível futura liberação comercial de culturas resistentes ao dicamba e 2,4-D, a aplicação destes herbicidas reguladores de crescimento será uma provável alternativa [...] de controle de buva resistente ao glyphosate. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi modelar por meio de curvas de dose-resposta a eficácia do dicamba e 2,4-D isolados e dicamba em associação com glyphosate para controle de uma população de buva resistente. Um estudo de doseresposta em casa de vegetação foi conduzido em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, sendo que as doses utilizadas para a construção das curvas de dose-resposta foram de 0, 120, 240, 480, 720 e 960 g i.a. ha-1de para o dicamba e o 2,4-D isolados e dicamba associado com 540 g e.a. ha-1 de glyphosate. As doses utilizadas para o glyphosate isolado foram de 0, 180, 360, 540, 720 e 960 g e.a. ha-1. Os tratamentos herbicidas foram aplicados quando asplantas estavam no estádio vegetativo de 10 a 12 folhas e altura entre 12 e 15 cm. A buva apresentou baixa sensibilidade ao glyphosate, pois não foi controlada mesmo na dose de 960 g e.a. ha-1 de glyphosate. O dicamba e o 2,4-D foram eficazes no controle da população de buva estudada. A buva responde de forma diferenciada ao 2,4-D e dicamba e será importante determinaras doses apropriadas de cada herbicida para controle de buva resistente ao glyphosate em condições de campo. A associação de glyphosate e dicamba não foi antagônica no controle da buva e o glyphosate pode causar um efeito aditivo no controle, apesar da resistência da população. Abstract in english Auxyn type herbicides such as dicamba and 2,4-D are alternative herbicides that can be used to control glyphosate-resistant hairy fleabane. With the forthcoming possibility of releasing dicamba-resistant and 2,4-D-resistant crops, use of these growth regulator herbicides will likely be an alternativ [...] e that can be applied to the control of glyphosate resistant hairy fleabane (Conyza bonariensis). The objective of this research was to model the efficacy, through dose-response curves, of glyphosate, 2,4-D, isolated dicamba and glyphosatedicamba combinations to control a brazilian hairy fleabane population resistant to glyphosate. The greenhouse dose-response studies were conducted as a completely randomized experimental design, and the rates used for dose response curve construction were 0, 120, 240, 480, 720 and 960 g a.i. ha-1 for 2,4-D, dicamba and the dicamba combination, with glyphosate at 540 g a.e. ha-1. The rates for glyphosate alone were 0, 180, 360, 540, 720 and 960 g a.e. ha-1. Herbicides were applied when the plants were in a vegetative stage with 10 to 12 leaves and height between 12 and 15 cm. Hairy fleabane had low sensitivity to glyphosate, with poor control even at the 960 g a.e. ha-1 rate. Dicamba and 2,4-D were effective in controlling the studied hairy fleabane. Hairy fleabane responds differently to 2,4-D and dicamba. The combination of glyphosate and dicamba was not antagonistic to hairy fleabane control, and glyphosate may cause an additive effect on the control, despite the population resistance.

D.J., Soares; W.S., Oliveira; R.F., López-Ovejero; P.J, Christoffoleti.

2012-06-01

100

Control of glyphosate resistant hairy fleabane (Conyza bonariensis with dicamba and 2,4-D Controle de buva (Conyza bonariensis resistente ao glyphosate com dicamba e 2,4-D  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Auxyn type herbicides such as dicamba and 2,4-D are alternative herbicides that can be used to control glyphosate-resistant hairy fleabane. With the forthcoming possibility of releasing dicamba-resistant and 2,4-D-resistant crops, use of these growth regulator herbicides will likely be an alternative that can be applied to the control of glyphosate resistant hairy fleabane (Conyza bonariensis. The objective of this research was to model the efficacy, through dose-response curves, of glyphosate, 2,4-D, isolated dicamba and glyphosatedicamba combinations to control a brazilian hairy fleabane population resistant to glyphosate. The greenhouse dose-response studies were conducted as a completely randomized experimental design, and the rates used for dose response curve construction were 0, 120, 240, 480, 720 and 960 g a.i. ha-1 for 2,4-D, dicamba and the dicamba combination, with glyphosate at 540 g a.e. ha-1. The rates for glyphosate alone were 0, 180, 360, 540, 720 and 960 g a.e. ha-1. Herbicides were applied when the plants were in a vegetative stage with 10 to 12 leaves and height between 12 and 15 cm. Hairy fleabane had low sensitivity to glyphosate, with poor control even at the 960 g a.e. ha-1 rate. Dicamba and 2,4-D were effective in controlling the studied hairy fleabane. Hairy fleabane responds differently to 2,4-D and dicamba. The combination of glyphosate and dicamba was not antagonistic to hairy fleabane control, and glyphosate may cause an additive effect on the control, despite the population resistance.Os herbicidas mimetizadores de auxinas como dicamba e 2,4-D são alternativas para o controle de buva resistente ao glyphosate. Com a possível futura liberação comercial de culturas resistentes ao dicamba e 2,4-D, a aplicação destes herbicidas reguladores de crescimento será uma provável alternativa de controle de buva resistente ao glyphosate. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi modelar por meio de curvas de dose-resposta a eficácia do dicamba e 2,4-D isolados e dicamba em associação com glyphosate para controle de uma população de buva resistente. Um estudo de doseresposta em casa de vegetação foi conduzido em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, sendo que as doses utilizadas para a construção das curvas de dose-resposta foram de 0, 120, 240, 480, 720 e 960 g i.a. ha-1de para o dicamba e o 2,4-D isolados e dicamba associado com 540 g e.a. ha-1 de glyphosate. As doses utilizadas para o glyphosate isolado foram de 0, 180, 360, 540, 720 e 960 g e.a. ha-1. Os tratamentos herbicidas foram aplicados quando asplantas estavam no estádio vegetativo de 10 a 12 folhas e altura entre 12 e 15 cm. A buva apresentou baixa sensibilidade ao glyphosate, pois não foi controlada mesmo na dose de 960 g e.a. ha-1 de glyphosate. O dicamba e o 2,4-D foram eficazes no controle da população de buva estudada. A buva responde de forma diferenciada ao 2,4-D e dicamba e será importante determinaras doses apropriadas de cada herbicida para controle de buva resistente ao glyphosate em condições de campo. A associação de glyphosate e dicamba não foi antagônica no controle da buva e o glyphosate pode causar um efeito aditivo no controle, apesar da resistência da população.

D.J. Soares

2012-06-01

 
 
 
 
101

Control of glyphosate resistant hairy fleabane (Conyza bonariensis) with dicamba and 2,4-D / Controle de buva (Conyza bonariensis) resistente ao glyphosate com dicamba e 2,4-D  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Os herbicidas mimetizadores de auxinas como dicamba e 2,4-D são alternativas para o controle de buva resistente ao glyphosate. Com a possível futura liberação comercial de culturas resistentes ao dicamba e 2,4-D, a aplicação destes herbicidas reguladores de crescimento será uma provável alternativa [...] de controle de buva resistente ao glyphosate. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi modelar por meio de curvas de dose-resposta a eficácia do dicamba e 2,4-D isolados e dicamba em associação com glyphosate para controle de uma população de buva resistente. Um estudo de doseresposta em casa de vegetação foi conduzido em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, sendo que as doses utilizadas para a construção das curvas de dose-resposta foram de 0, 120, 240, 480, 720 e 960 g i.a. ha-1de para o dicamba e o 2,4-D isolados e dicamba associado com 540 g e.a. ha-1 de glyphosate. As doses utilizadas para o glyphosate isolado foram de 0, 180, 360, 540, 720 e 960 g e.a. ha-1. Os tratamentos herbicidas foram aplicados quando asplantas estavam no estádio vegetativo de 10 a 12 folhas e altura entre 12 e 15 cm. A buva apresentou baixa sensibilidade ao glyphosate, pois não foi controlada mesmo na dose de 960 g e.a. ha-1 de glyphosate. O dicamba e o 2,4-D foram eficazes no controle da população de buva estudada. A buva responde de forma diferenciada ao 2,4-D e dicamba e será importante determinaras doses apropriadas de cada herbicida para controle de buva resistente ao glyphosate em condições de campo. A associação de glyphosate e dicamba não foi antagônica no controle da buva e o glyphosate pode causar um efeito aditivo no controle, apesar da resistência da população. Abstract in english Auxyn type herbicides such as dicamba and 2,4-D are alternative herbicides that can be used to control glyphosate-resistant hairy fleabane. With the forthcoming possibility of releasing dicamba-resistant and 2,4-D-resistant crops, use of these growth regulator herbicides will likely be an alternativ [...] e that can be applied to the control of glyphosate resistant hairy fleabane (Conyza bonariensis). The objective of this research was to model the efficacy, through dose-response curves, of glyphosate, 2,4-D, isolated dicamba and glyphosatedicamba combinations to control a brazilian hairy fleabane population resistant to glyphosate. The greenhouse dose-response studies were conducted as a completely randomized experimental design, and the rates used for dose response curve construction were 0, 120, 240, 480, 720 and 960 g a.i. ha-1 for 2,4-D, dicamba and the dicamba combination, with glyphosate at 540 g a.e. ha-1. The rates for glyphosate alone were 0, 180, 360, 540, 720 and 960 g a.e. ha-1. Herbicides were applied when the plants were in a vegetative stage with 10 to 12 leaves and height between 12 and 15 cm. Hairy fleabane had low sensitivity to glyphosate, with poor control even at the 960 g a.e. ha-1 rate. Dicamba and 2,4-D were effective in controlling the studied hairy fleabane. Hairy fleabane responds differently to 2,4-D and dicamba. The combination of glyphosate and dicamba was not antagonistic to hairy fleabane control, and glyphosate may cause an additive effect on the control, despite the population resistance.

D.J., Soares; W.S., Oliveira; R.F., López-Ovejero; P.J, Christoffoleti.

102

Buva (Conyza bonariensis resistente ao glyphosate na região sul do Brasil Conyza bonariensis biotypes resistant to the glyphosate in southern Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O glyphosate é um herbicida não-seletivo utilizado para controlar plantas daninhas há mais de 20 anos no Rio Grande do Sul. A buva (Conyza bonariensis é uma espécie daninha comum nos Estados da região Sul do Brasil e tradicionalmente controlada com uso de glyphosate. Entretanto, nos últimos anos plantas de buva têm apresentado poucos sintomas de toxicidade em resposta ao tratamento com glyphosate, sugerindo que estas plantas são resistentes ao herbicida. Assim, com o objetivo de avaliar a resposta de uma população de plantas de buva a glyphosate, foram realizados três experimentos: um em campo e dois em casa de vegetação. No experimento em campo, os tratamentos avaliados constaram de doses crescentes de glyphosate (0, 360, 720, 1.440, 2.880 e 5.760 g ha-1, e os herbicidas paraquat (400 g ha-1 e 2,4-D (1.005 g ha-1 foram empregados como produtos testemunhas, com diferentes mecanismos de ação nas plantas. No experimento em casa de vegetação os tratamentos constaram de doses crescentes de glyphosate (0, 360, 720, 1.440, 2.880 e 5.760 g ha-1, mais os herbicidas testemunhas, aplicados sobre plantas de um biótipo considerado resistente e de outro considerado sensível. No segundo experimento realizado em casa de vegetação, foram avaliados os tratamentos contendo glyphosate (720, 1.440 e 2.880 g ha-1, mais os herbicidas chlorimuron-ethyl (40 g ha-1, metsulfuron-methyl (4 g ha-1, 2,4-D (1.005 g ha-1, paraquat (400 g ha-1 e diuron + paraquat (200 + 400 g ha-1, bem como a testemunha sem tratamento herbicida. A toxicidade dos tratamentos herbicidas foi avaliada aos 7, 15 e 30 DAT (dias após tratamento. Os resultados obtidos nos experimentos em condições de campo e em casa de vegetação, de forma geral, evidenciam que o biótipo sensível é controlado pelo glyphosate e pelos demais herbicidas avaliados. Demonstram ainda que o biótipo resistente apresenta-se, igualmente ao biótipo sensível, altamente suscetível aos herbicidas com mecanismo de ação distinto daquele do glyphosate. Entretanto, o biótipo resistente mostra baixa resposta ao herbicida glyphosate, mesmo se este for empregado em doses elevadas, evidenciando ter adquirido resistência a esse produto.Glyphosate is a non-selective herbicide used for over 20 years to control weeds in Rio Grande do Sul. Horseweed (Conyza bonariensis is a common weed in Rio Grande do Sul and traditionally sensitive to glyphosate. However, during the last years, some horseweed plants have not shown significant injury symptoms after treatment with glyphosate, suggesting that they are resistant to this herbicide. Aiming to evaluate the response of a population of horseweed plants to glyphosate, one field and two greenhouse experiments were carried out. The field experiment treatment had increasing rates of glyphosate (0, 360, 720, 1,440, 2,880 and 5,760 g ha-1, and also the herbicides paraquat and 2,4-D as standards. The greenhouse experiments had increasing rates of glyphosate (0, 360, 720, 1,440, 2,880 and 5,760 g ha-1 plus the above listed check herbicides sprayed on biotypes considered resistant and on plants of one susceptible biotype. In the second greenhouse experiment, the treatments were increasing rates of glyphosate (720, 1,440 and 2,880 g ha-1 and herbicides chlorimuron-ethyl, metsulfuron-methyl, 2,4-D, paraquat and diuron + paraquat sprayed on plants of resistant and susceptible biotypes. Horseweed control was accessed at 7, 15 and 30 DAT (days after treatment. Overall results of the field and greenhouse experiments provided evidence that the susceptible biotype is easily controlled by glyphosate and the other tested herbicides. In addition, the results demonstrated that the resistant biotype, as the susceptible biotype, is highly sensitive to herbicides with mode of action that differs from glyphosate. However, the resistant biotype showed low response to glyphosate, even at very high rates, confirming resistance of this horseweed population to glyphosate.

L. Vargas

2007-09-01

103

Identification of regulated genes conferring resistance to high concentrations of glyphosate in a new strain of Enterobacter.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glyphosate is a widely used herbicide that inhibits 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) activity. Most plants and microbes are sensitive to glyphosate. However, transgenic-resistant crops that contain a modified epsps obtained from the resistant microbes have been commercially successful and therefore, new resistance genes and their adaptive regulatory mechanisms are of great interest. In this study, a soil-borne, glyphosate-resistant bacterium was selected and identified as Enterobacter. The EPSPS in this strain was found to have been altered to a resistant one. A total of 42 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the glyphosate were screened using microarray techniques. Under treatment, argF, sdhA, ivbL, rrfA-H were downregulated, whereas the transcripts of speA, osmY, pflB, ahpC, fusA, deoA, uxaC, rpoD and a few ribosomal protein genes were upregulated. Data were verified by quantitative real-time PCR on selected genes. All transcriptional changes appeared to protect the bacteria from glyphosate and associated osmotic, acidic and oxidative stresses. Many DEGs may have the potential to confer resistance to glyphosate alone, and some may be closely related to the shikimate pathway, reflecting the complex gene interaction network for glyphosate resistance. PMID:24237416

Fei, Yun-Yan; Gai, Jun-Yi; Zhao, Tuan-Jie

2013-12-01

104

Residual herbicides in weed management for glyphosate-resistant soybean in Brazil / Herbicidas residuais em manejo de plantas daninhas na soja resistente ao glyphosate no Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Em sistemas de produção agrícola onde a cultura da soja tolerante ao glyphosate (Glycine max) está inserida e onde não há a prática de rotação de culturas com herbicidas alternativos, o uso exclusivo e contínuo do glyphosate tem levado ao surgimento de populações de plantas daninhas resistentes, que [...] podem limitar ou comprometer os benefícios dessa tecnologia. Nesse sentido, a eficiência de programas de manejo que envolvem herbicidas residuais (sulfentrazone, flumioxazin, imazethapyr, diclosulam, chlorimuron e s-metolachlor) aplicados na pré-emergência seguidos de glyphosate na pós-emergência da cultura (PRE-POST) foi comparada à de programas com apenas glyphosate na pós-emergência ? POST. O estudo constituiu-se de nove experimentos realizados durante as safras agrícolas 2009/2010 e 2010/2011. Os programas PRE-POST foram eficientes no controle de Amaranthus viridis, Brachiaria plantaginea, Bidens pilosa, Commelina benghalensis, Eleusine indica, Euphorbia heterophylla e Raphanus raphanistrum, sendo semelhantes aos níveis de controle do programa com duas aplicações de glyphosate POST. Alguns programas PRE-POST não foram eficientes para Cenchrus echinatus, Ipomoea hederifolia e Ipomoea triloba. Sulfentrazone e diclosulam PRE-POST melhoraram o controle de Ipomoea triloba em relação às aplicações sequenciais de glyphosate. Quanto à produtividade, não foram observadas diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos herbicidas. As aplicações de herbicidas residuais em pré-emergência seguidos da aplicação de glyphosate em pós-emergência resultam em controles consistentes de plantas daninhas e evitam a competição inicial. Além disso, estes programas utilizam pelo menos dois modos de ação que contribuem para a diversidade do uso de herbicidas que será necessária para ficar à frente de novos casos de resistência, independentemente de quando as plantas daninhas possam aparecer. Abstract in english In agricultural production systems where the glyphosate-resistant soybean crop (Glycine max) is grown and the practice of crop rotation with alternative herbicides is not adopted, the exclusive and continuous use of glyphosate has led to the occurrence of resistant weed populations that may limit or [...] compromise the benefits of this technology. Thus, the efficacy of weed management programs, including the use of residual herbicides (sulfentrazone, flumioxazin, imazethapyr, diclosulan, chlorimuron and s-metolachlor) applied in preemergence and followed by in-crop postemergence applications of glyphosate (PRE-POST) were compared to glyphosate postemergence only programs - POST. The study was conducted across nine locations during the 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 growing seasons. PRE-POST programs were efficient in the control of Amaranthus viridis, Brachiaria plantaginea, Bidens pilosa, Commelina benghalensis, Eleusine indica, Euphorbia heterophylla and Raphanus raphanistrum, with the level of control being similar when comparing the program with two applications of glyphosate POST. Some PRE-POST programs were not efficient in controlling Cenchrus echinatus, Ipomoea hederifolia and Ipomoea triloba. Sulfentrazone and diclosulam PRE-POST programs improved the control of Ipomoea triloba compared to sequential applications of glyphosate alone. No significant differences in soybean yield were observed between any of the herbicide treatments or study locations. The use of residual herbicides in preemergence followed by glyphosate in-crop postemergence provides consistent weed control and reducing early season weed competition. Furthermore, these programs utilize at least two herbicide modes of action for herbicide use diversity, which will be needed to stay ahead of resistance build-up, regardless of when weeds may appear.

R.F., Lopes Ovejero; D.J., Soares; W.S., Oliveira; L.B., Fonseca; G.U., Berger; J.K., Soteres; P.J., Christoffoleti.

105

Residual herbicides in weed management for glyphosate-resistant soybean in Brazil / Herbicidas residuais em manejo de plantas daninhas na soja resistente ao glyphosate no Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Em sistemas de produção agrícola onde a cultura da soja tolerante ao glyphosate (Glycine max) está inserida e onde não há a prática de rotação de culturas com herbicidas alternativos, o uso exclusivo e contínuo do glyphosate tem levado ao surgimento de populações de plantas daninhas resistentes, que [...] podem limitar ou comprometer os benefícios dessa tecnologia. Nesse sentido, a eficiência de programas de manejo que envolvem herbicidas residuais (sulfentrazone, flumioxazin, imazethapyr, diclosulam, chlorimuron e s-metolachlor) aplicados na pré-emergência seguidos de glyphosate na pós-emergência da cultura (PRE-POST) foi comparada à de programas com apenas glyphosate na pós-emergência ? POST. O estudo constituiu-se de nove experimentos realizados durante as safras agrícolas 2009/2010 e 2010/2011. Os programas PRE-POST foram eficientes no controle de Amaranthus viridis, Brachiaria plantaginea, Bidens pilosa, Commelina benghalensis, Eleusine indica, Euphorbia heterophylla e Raphanus raphanistrum, sendo semelhantes aos níveis de controle do programa com duas aplicações de glyphosate POST. Alguns programas PRE-POST não foram eficientes para Cenchrus echinatus, Ipomoea hederifolia e Ipomoea triloba. Sulfentrazone e diclosulam PRE-POST melhoraram o controle de Ipomoea triloba em relação às aplicações sequenciais de glyphosate. Quanto à produtividade, não foram observadas diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos herbicidas. As aplicações de herbicidas residuais em pré-emergência seguidos da aplicação de glyphosate em pós-emergência resultam em controles consistentes de plantas daninhas e evitam a competição inicial. Além disso, estes programas utilizam pelo menos dois modos de ação que contribuem para a diversidade do uso de herbicidas que será necessária para ficar à frente de novos casos de resistência, independentemente de quando as plantas daninhas possam aparecer. Abstract in english In agricultural production systems where the glyphosate-resistant soybean crop (Glycine max) is grown and the practice of crop rotation with alternative herbicides is not adopted, the exclusive and continuous use of glyphosate has led to the occurrence of resistant weed populations that may limit or [...] compromise the benefits of this technology. Thus, the efficacy of weed management programs, including the use of residual herbicides (sulfentrazone, flumioxazin, imazethapyr, diclosulan, chlorimuron and s-metolachlor) applied in preemergence and followed by in-crop postemergence applications of glyphosate (PRE-POST) were compared to glyphosate postemergence only programs - POST. The study was conducted across nine locations during the 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 growing seasons. PRE-POST programs were efficient in the control of Amaranthus viridis, Brachiaria plantaginea, Bidens pilosa, Commelina benghalensis, Eleusine indica, Euphorbia heterophylla and Raphanus raphanistrum, with the level of control being similar when comparing the program with two applications of glyphosate POST. Some PRE-POST programs were not efficient in controlling Cenchrus echinatus, Ipomoea hederifolia and Ipomoea triloba. Sulfentrazone and diclosulam PRE-POST programs improved the control of Ipomoea triloba compared to sequential applications of glyphosate alone. No significant differences in soybean yield were observed between any of the herbicide treatments or study locations. The use of residual herbicides in preemergence followed by glyphosate in-crop postemergence provides consistent weed control and reducing early season weed competition. Furthermore, these programs utilize at least two herbicide modes of action for herbicide use diversity, which will be needed to stay ahead of resistance build-up, regardless of when weeds may appear.

R.F., Lopes Ovejero; D.J., Soares; W.S., Oliveira; L.B., Fonseca; G.U., Berger; J.K., Soteres; P.J., Christoffoleti.

2013-12-01

106

Glyphosate-Degrading Microorganisms from Industrial Activated Sludge  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A plating medium was developed to isolate N-phosphonomethylglycine (glyphosate)-degrading microorganisms, with glyphosate as the sole phosphorus source. Two industrial biosystems treating glyphosate wastes contained elevated microbial counts on the medium. One purified isolate metabolized glyphosate to aminomethylphosphonic acid, mineralizing this accumulating intermediate during log growth. This microorganism has been identified as a Flavobacterium species.

Balthazor, Terry M.; Hallas, Laurence E.

1986-01-01

107

Efeitos da chuva na eficiência de formulações e doses de glyphosate no controle de Brachiaria decumbens Rainfall effects on glyphosate formulation and rate the efficiency to control of Brachiaria decumbens  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi de avaliar os efeitos de doses das formulações de glyphosate - amônio, isopropilamina e potássico - sobre o controle de plantas de Brachiaria decumbens, em condições controladas, quando submetidas à chuva com intensidade de 20 mm e durante 30 minutos, em intervalos de 1, 2, 4, 6, 12 e 24 horas após aplicação dos tratamentos herbicidas. A ocorrência de chuvas após a aplicação de glyphosate reduziu o controle de B. decumbens, e essa redução foi maior com a diminuição do intervalo sem chuva após a aplicação. As aplicações das formulações de glyphosate potássico e isopropilamina resultaram em maior controle da B. decumbens que a formulação de glyphosate amônico. Esse efeito foi também observado no acúmulo de matéria seca da rebrota da planta daninha, avaliada aos 19 dias após o corte da parte aérea das plantas. Foram necessários intervalos de pelo menos 8, 11 e 12 horas sem chuva após aplicação, respectivamente para glyphosate potássico, isopropilamina e amônio, na dose de 1.440 g ha-1, para obter controle maior que 80%. Na dose de 2.160 g ha-1 necessitou-se de intervalos de pelo menos 5, 7 e 9 horas sem chuva, respectivamente para as formulações de glyphosate potássico, isopropilamina e amônio, para proporcionar o mesmo controle de B. decumbens. Na avaliação da matéria seca acumulada na rebrota, o glyphosate potássico proporcionou controle excelente da espécie (rebrota menor do que 5% a partir de quatro e cinco horas sem chuva após aplicação, respectivamente nas duas maiores doses (2.160 e 1.440 g ha-1. No caso do glyphosate isopropilamina, nas doses de 2.160 e 1.440 g ha-1, o mesmo controle foi obtido a partir de 7 e 12 horas sem chuva, respectivamente. Concluiu-se que as formulações glyphosate potássico e isopropilamina são menos afetadas pela ocorrência de chuva após a aplicação e demandam menor intervalo livre de chuva do que o glyphosate amônio.The objective of this study was to evaluate the dose effects the glyphosate formulations - ammonium, isopropylamine and potassic - on Brachiaria decumbens plant control, under controlled conditions, when submitted to 20 mm of rainfall intensity for 30 minutes, at intervals of 1, 2, 4, 6, 12 and 24 hours after application of the herbicide treatments. Rainfall events after glyphosate application reduced the control of B. decumbens and this reduction was higher as the rainfall event was closer to the herbicide application. Potassic and isopropylamine glyphosate formulations showed a higher control of B. decumbens than ammonium glyphosate formulation. This effect was also observed on the dry biomass accumulation of B. decumbens regrowth, which was evaluated at 19 days after excising the plantshoot. At least 8, 11 and 12 hours after glyphosate application without rainfall were required, respectively, for potassic, isopropylamine and ammonium glyphosate at the dose of 1,440 g ha-1, to obtain a control over 80%; however, for the rate of 2,160 g ha-1, intervals required were 5, 7, and 9 hours, at least, respectively, to obtain the same control of B. decumbens. Dry biomass accumulation oduring weed regrowth was lower than 5%, providing an excellent control of the weed when four to five hours without rainfall occurred after herbicide application at the highest two doses (2,160 and 1,440 g ha-1. For isopropylamine glyphosate at the doses of 2,160 and 1,440 g ha-1, the same control was obtained from 7 and 12 hours without rainfall, respectively. It was concluded that both the potassic and isopropylamine glyphosate formulations are less affected by rainfall events after herbicide application, tolerating rainfall in a shorter interval after herbicide application than ammonium glyphosate.

R.C. Werlang

2003-04-01

108

Análisis de la sensibilidad de biotipos de Lolium multiflorum a herbicidas inhibidores de la enzima ALS, ACCasa y Glifosato / Sensitivity analysis of Lolium multiflorum biotypes to Glyphosate, ACCase and ALS-inhibiting herbicides  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish A pesar de los avances logrados en el control de las malezas con el uso de herbicidas, el manejo de las mismas no se simplificó, sino que, al contrario, surgieron nuevos desafíos, como la aparición de resistencia a herbicidas. En 2007, se reportó en Lolium multiflorum el segundo caso de resistencia [...] a glifosato detectado en Argentina. En el sudeste de la provincia de Buenos Aires se registraron fallas de control a campo en poblaciones de Lolium multiflorum debido a su resistencia a distintos herbicidas de las familias de los inhibidores de ALS y de ACCasa y al herbicida glifosato. El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar el nivel de resistencia a ciertos herbicidas inhibidores de la ALS y de la ACCasa y al glifosato en una población de L. multiflorum de Lobería (Bs As, Argentina) supuestamente resistente (LmR). Se realizaron bioensayos en cajas de Petri y se determinó la GR50 mediante la variación en la longitud de coleoptile. Las curvas de dosis-respuesta se obtuvieron por medio de la ecuación log-logística. El biotipo LmR presentó resistencia múltiple a herbicidas con tres modos de acción diferentes: glifosato, inhibidores de ALS y de ACCasa. Dicho ensayo demostró la aparición de un biotipo de L. multiflorum con resistencia a múltiples principios activos. Abstract in english Despite progress in weed control using herbicides, management has not been simplified, but new challenges such as herbicides resistance have arisen. In 2007, a Lolium multiflorum population resistant to glyphosate was reported, as the second case of glyphosate resistant weeds in Argentina. In the so [...] utheast of Buenos Aires province, control failures in populations of L. multiflorum to different families of herbicide such as ALS and ACCase inhibitors and to glyphosate at field level have been registered. The aim of this study was to characterize the level of resistance to certain herbicides inhibitors of ALS, ACCase and glyphosate in a putatively resistant (LmR) population of L. multiflorum of Loberia (Buenos Aires, Argentina). Bioassays were conducted in Petri dishes and the GR50 was determined by the length of coleoptile. Curves dose-response were obtained using the log-logistic equation. The LmR biotype survived under multiple herbicides of three different modes of action, glyphosate, ALS and ACCase inhibitors. This test showed the appearance of a biotype of L. multiflorum with resistance to multiple active ingredients.

P., Diez De Ulzurrun; M.I., Leaden.

2012-09-01

109

Bioremediation of glyphosate-contaminated soils.  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on the results of laboratory and field experiments, we performed a comprehensive assessment of the bioremediation efficiency of glyphosate-contaminated soddy-podzol soil. The selected bacterial strains Achromobacter sp. Kg 16 (VKM B-2534D) and Ochrobactrum anthropi GPK 3 (VKM B-2554D) were used for the aerobic degradation of glyphosate. They demonstrated high viability in soil with the tenfold higher content of glyphosate than the recommended dose for the single in situ treatment of weeds. The strains provided a two- to threefold higher rate of glyphosate degradation as compared to indigenous soil microbial community. Within 1-2 weeks after the strain introduction, the glyphosate content of the treated soil decreased and integral toxicity and phytotoxicity diminished to values of non-contaminated soil. The decrease in the glyphosate content restored soil biological activity, as is evident from a more than twofold increase in the dehydrogenase activity of indigenous soil microorganisms and their biomass (1.2-fold and 1.6-fold for saprotrophic bacteria and fungi, respectively). The glyphosate-degrading strains used in this study are not pathogenic for mammals and do not exhibit integral toxicity and phytotoxicity. Therefore, these strains are suitable for the efficient, ecologically safe, and rapid bioremediation of glyphosate-contaminated soils. PMID:20676632

Ermakova, Inna T; Kiseleva, Nina I; Shushkova, Tatyana; Zharikov, Mikhail; Zharikov, Gennady A; Leontievsky, Alexey A

2010-09-01

110

Suscetibilidade de duas Gramas-boiadeiras a diferentes formulações de glyphosate / Susceptibility of Cutgrass and Peruvian Watergrass to different glyphosate formulations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A utilização do herbicida glyphosate para o controle químico das espécies de gramas-boiadeiras nas lavouras orizícolas não tem se mostrado eficiente. Nesse contexto, a investigação do controle dessas espécies com o glyphosate torna-se de fundamental importância, uma vez que não estão disponíveis no [...] mercado herbicidas seletivos para o controle dessas em pós-emergência na cultura do arroz irrigado. Em vista do exposto, o objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a suscetibilidade das gramas-boiadeiras a diferentes formulações de glyphosate. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos em casa de vegetação em esquema fatorial. No primeiro experimento, o fator A constituiu-se de duas formulações de glyphosate (sal potássico e isopropilamina) e o fator B de nove doses dos herbicidas (zero; 175; 350; 700; 1400; 2800; 5600; 11200; 22400g e.a. ha-1). No segundo experimento, o fator A constituiu-se de duas espécies de gramas-boiadeiras (Leersia hexandra e Luziola peruviana), o fator B de três formulações do glyphosate (sal amônio, potássico e isopropilamina) e o fator C de nove doses dos herbicidas (zero; 87,5; 175; 350; 700; 1400; 2800; 5600; 11200g e.a. ha-1). Com base nos resultados obtidos, foi possível observar que as espécies apresentaram diferença de suscetibilidade ao herbicida glyphosate. Além disso, Leersia hexandra foi mais sensível em comparação a Luziola peruviana. As formulações de glyphosate influenciaram na suscetibilidade das espécies ao controle, sendo que, Roundup Transorb R® e Roundup Ultra® proporcionam melhor controle das espécies de gramas-boiadeiras. Abstract in english The use of glyphosate to chemical control of Cutgrass and Peruvian Watergrass with the use of non-selective herbicides has not been efficient. In this context, the investigation of chemical control of these species to glyphosate is very important, since there are not available commercially selective [...] herbicides to control these species in post-emergence of irrigated rice. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility of Cutgrass and Peruvian Watergrass to different formulations of glyphosate. Two factorial experiments were conducted in a greenhouse, in the first the A factor were two formulations of glyhposate (potassium and isopropylamine salt) and the B factor were nine doses of the herbicide (zero; 175; 350; 700; 1400; 2800; 5600; 11200; 22400g a.e. ha-1). In the second experiment, the A factor were two species (Leersia hexandra and Luziola peruviana), the B factor were three formulations of glyphosate (amoniun, potassium e isopropylamine salt) and the C factor were nine doses of herbicides (zero; 87,5; 175; 350; 700; 1400; 2800; 5600; 11200g a.e. ha-1). Based on the results obtained, it was observed that these species exhibit differential susceptibility to glyphosate. Moreover, Leersia hexandra was more sensitive when compared to Luziola peruviana. Glyphosate formulation influenced control efficiency, where Transorb Roundup R® and Roundup Ultra® provided the best control of the two species.

Ananda, Scherner; Luis Antonio de, Avila; Fábio, Schreiber; Nelson Diehl, Kruse; Dirceu, Agostinetto; Jesus Juares Oliveira, Pinto; Rodrigo Ribeiro, Pestana.

2014-03-01

111

Buva (Conyza bonariensis) resistente ao glyphosate na região sul do Brasil / Conyza bonariensis biotypes resistant to the glyphosate in southern Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O glyphosate é um herbicida não-seletivo utilizado para controlar plantas daninhas há mais de 20 anos no Rio Grande do Sul. A buva (Conyza bonariensis) é uma espécie daninha comum nos Estados da região Sul do Brasil e tradicionalmente controlada com uso de glyphosate. Entretanto, nos últimos anos pl [...] antas de buva têm apresentado poucos sintomas de toxicidade em resposta ao tratamento com glyphosate, sugerindo que estas plantas são resistentes ao herbicida. Assim, com o objetivo de avaliar a resposta de uma população de plantas de buva a glyphosate, foram realizados três experimentos: um em campo e dois em casa de vegetação. No experimento em campo, os tratamentos avaliados constaram de doses crescentes de glyphosate (0, 360, 720, 1.440, 2.880 e 5.760 g ha-1), e os herbicidas paraquat (400 g ha-1) e 2,4-D (1.005 g ha-1) foram empregados como produtos testemunhas, com diferentes mecanismos de ação nas plantas. No experimento em casa de vegetação os tratamentos constaram de doses crescentes de glyphosate (0, 360, 720, 1.440, 2.880 e 5.760 g ha-1), mais os herbicidas testemunhas, aplicados sobre plantas de um biótipo considerado resistente e de outro considerado sensível. No segundo experimento realizado em casa de vegetação, foram avaliados os tratamentos contendo glyphosate (720, 1.440 e 2.880 g ha-1), mais os herbicidas chlorimuron-ethyl (40 g ha-1), metsulfuron-methyl (4 g ha-1), 2,4-D (1.005 g ha-1), paraquat (400 g ha-1) e diuron + paraquat (200 + 400 g ha-1), bem como a testemunha sem tratamento herbicida. A toxicidade dos tratamentos herbicidas foi avaliada aos 7, 15 e 30 DAT (dias após tratamento). Os resultados obtidos nos experimentos em condições de campo e em casa de vegetação, de forma geral, evidenciam que o biótipo sensível é controlado pelo glyphosate e pelos demais herbicidas avaliados. Demonstram ainda que o biótipo resistente apresenta-se, igualmente ao biótipo sensível, altamente suscetível aos herbicidas com mecanismo de ação distinto daquele do glyphosate. Entretanto, o biótipo resistente mostra baixa resposta ao herbicida glyphosate, mesmo se este for empregado em doses elevadas, evidenciando ter adquirido resistência a esse produto. Abstract in english Glyphosate is a non-selective herbicide used for over 20 years to control weeds in Rio Grande do Sul. Horseweed (Conyza bonariensis) is a common weed in Rio Grande do Sul and traditionally sensitive to glyphosate. However, during the last years, some horseweed plants have not shown significant injur [...] y symptoms after treatment with glyphosate, suggesting that they are resistant to this herbicide. Aiming to evaluate the response of a population of horseweed plants to glyphosate, one field and two greenhouse experiments were carried out. The field experiment treatment had increasing rates of glyphosate (0, 360, 720, 1,440, 2,880 and 5,760 g ha-1), and also the herbicides paraquat and 2,4-D as standards. The greenhouse experiments had increasing rates of glyphosate (0, 360, 720, 1,440, 2,880 and 5,760 g ha-1) plus the above listed check herbicides sprayed on biotypes considered resistant and on plants of one susceptible biotype. In the second greenhouse experiment, the treatments were increasing rates of glyphosate (720, 1,440 and 2,880 g ha-1) and herbicides chlorimuron-ethyl, metsulfuron-methyl, 2,4-D, paraquat and diuron + paraquat sprayed on plants of resistant and susceptible biotypes. Horseweed control was accessed at 7, 15 and 30 DAT (days after treatment). Overall results of the field and greenhouse experiments provided evidence that the susceptible biotype is easily controlled by glyphosate and the other tested herbicides. In addition, the results demonstrated that the resistant biotype, as the susceptible biotype, is highly sensitive to herbicides with mode of action that differs from glyphosate. However, the resistant biotype showed low response to glyphosate, even at very high rates, confirming resistance of this hor

L., Vargas; M.A., Bianchi; M.A., Rizzardi; D., Agostinetto; T., Dal Magro.

2007-09-01

112

Influence of glyphosate and its formulation (Roundup[reg]) on the toxicity and bioavailability of metals to Ceriodaphnia dubia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study examined the toxicological interaction between glyphosate (or its formulation, Roundup[reg]) and several heavy metals to a freshwater cladoceran, Ceriodaphnia dubia. We demonstrated that all binary combinations of Roundup[reg] and metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn) exhibited 'less than additive' mixture toxicity, with 48-h LC50 toxic unit>1. Addition of glyphosate alone could significantly reduce the acute toxicity of Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn (but not Hg and Se). The ratio between glyphosate and metal ions was important in determining the mitigation of metal toxicity by glyphosate. A bioaccumulation study showed that in the presence of glyphosate the uptake of some metals (e.g. Ag) was halted but that of others (e.g. Hg) was increased significantly. Therefore, our study strongly suggests that glyphosate and its commercial formulations can control the toxicity as well as the bioavailability of heavy metals in aquatic ecosystems where both groups of chemicals can co-occur. - Glyphosate can control the toxicity and bioavailability of many heavy metals in the aquatic environment.

Tsui, Martin T.K. [Department of Biology, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong (China); Department of Biology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Wang Wenxiong [Department of Biology, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Chu, L.M. [Department of Biology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: leemanchu@cuhk.edu.hk

2005-11-15

113

Influence of glyphosate and its formulation (Roundup[reg]) on the toxicity and bioavailability of metals to Ceriodaphnia dubia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study examined the toxicological interaction between glyphosate (or its formulation, Roundup[reg]) and several heavy metals to a freshwater cladoceran, Ceriodaphnia dubia. We demonstrated that all binary combinations of Roundup[reg] and metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn) exhibited 'less than additive' mixture toxicity, with 48-h LC50 toxic unit>1. Addition of glyphosate alone could significantly reduce the acute toxicity of Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn (but not Hg and Se). The ratio between glyphosate and metal ions was important in determining the mitigation of metal toxicity by glyphosate. A bioaccumulation study showed that in the presence of glyphosate the uptake of some metals (e.g. Ag) was halted but that of others (e.g. Hg) was increased significantly. Therefore, our study strongly suggests that glyphosate and its commercial formulations can control the toxicity as well as the bioavailability of heavy metals in aquatic ecosystems where both groups of chemicals can co-occur. - Glyphosate can control the toxicity and bioavailability of many heavy metals in the aquatic environment

114

Nodulation and mycorrhization of transgenic soybean after glyphosate application  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The sensitivity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria like Bradyrhizobium spp with in relation to glyphosate can be influenced by the concentration of the herbicide. This study aims to evaluate the effects of two formulations of glyphosate, in two application periods, on nodulation and mycorrhization in a soybean of variety RR P98Y11, using greenhouse, in pots with capacity of 4 L with savanna soils. Six treatments were utilized using Roundup Ultra and Roundup Original with one and two applications, witness without herbicide and witness only with mineral nitrogen, in a completely randomized design. Four evaluations were done, every 15 days, to determine the plant height, shoot and root dry weight, number of nodules, nodule dry weigh and mycorrhizae. It was observed an increase on the number of nodules, with the use of Roundup Ultra until 15 days after the first application. After this period, the witness only with inoculants showed a larger number of nodules. Roundup Ultra had positive influences on the dry weight of nodules, regardless the number of applications. There was no influence of glyphosate formulation considering the mycorrhizal colonization.

Aloisio Freitas Chagas Junior

2013-12-01

115

Associação de glyphosate e imidazolinonas no controle de arroz-vermelho em arroz Clearfield® / Association of glyphosate and imidazolinones on red rice control in Clearfield™ rice  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do presente trabalho foi o de avaliar os efeitos da utilização de glyphosate e herbicidas imidazolinonas, em aplicações isoladas ou associadas, sobre o controle de arroz-vermelho (Oryza sativa) e produtividade de grãos de arroz Clearfield®. O experimento foi conduzido a campo na safra 200 [...] 7/08, em Cachoeirinha, RS, Brasil, com delineamento em blocos ao acaso e tratamentos dispostos em arranjo fatorial (2x6), usando-se quatro repetições. O fator A constou de dois níveis do herbicida glyphosate, aplicados no subperíodo semeadura-emergência da cultura por ocasião do início da emissão do coleóptilo do arroz (ponto de agulha); o fator B constou de seis tratamentos com imazethapyr+imazapic, aplicados em associação ao glyphosate ou quando a cultura atingiu o estádio de três folhas expandidas. As três variáveis explicativas analisadas foram a população de plantas de arroz e arroz-vermelho, a eficácia do controle de arroz-vermelho e a produtividade de grãos da cultura. O uso de glyphosate no ponto de agulha reduziu em 75% a população do arroz-vermelho e aumentou em 40% a produtividade de grãos de arroz, em relação à testemunha. O uso isolado de herbicidas imidazolinonas e sua associação com o dessecante proporcionou controle eficaz do arroz-vermelho e incrementou a produtividade de grãos, em comparação à situação sem controle da infestante, independente da dose e do sistema de aplicação. Abstract in english The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of the utilization of glyphosate and imidazolinones herbicides, in isolated or associated applications, on the effectiveness of red rice (Oryza sativa) control and grain yield of Clearfield-rice. The experiment was conducted under field cond [...] itions in 2007/08, in Cachoeirinha, RS, Brazil, using a randomized block design in a two-factorial design 2x6, with four replicates. The factor A was composed by two levels of glyphosate, applied during the subperiod between sowing and crop emergence at the early coleoptile stage of the rice plants; and the factor B consisted of six treatments with imazethapyr+imazapic, applied in association with glyphosate or when the rice crop plants had three expanded leaves. The crop and weed populations, red rice control and grain yield of crop were evaluated. The results show that the glyphosate application at the early coleoptile stage of the crop reduced 75% the red rice population and increased 40% the grain yield, in relation to the situation without weed control. The use of imidazolinones and their association with glyphosate provided effective control of red rice and increased the grain yield, independent of rates and application system.

Valmir Gaedke, Menezes; Carlos Henrique Paim, Mariot; Augusto, Kalsing; Thais Fernanda Stella de, Freitas; Daniel Santos, Grohs; Felipe de Oliveira, Matzenbacher.

2154-21-01

116

Associação de glyphosate e imidazolinonas no controle de arroz-vermelho em arroz Clearfield® / Association of glyphosate and imidazolinones on red rice control in Clearfield™ rice  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do presente trabalho foi o de avaliar os efeitos da utilização de glyphosate e herbicidas imidazolinonas, em aplicações isoladas ou associadas, sobre o controle de arroz-vermelho (Oryza sativa) e produtividade de grãos de arroz Clearfield®. O experimento foi conduzido a campo na safra 200 [...] 7/08, em Cachoeirinha, RS, Brasil, com delineamento em blocos ao acaso e tratamentos dispostos em arranjo fatorial (2x6), usando-se quatro repetições. O fator A constou de dois níveis do herbicida glyphosate, aplicados no subperíodo semeadura-emergência da cultura por ocasião do início da emissão do coleóptilo do arroz (ponto de agulha); o fator B constou de seis tratamentos com imazethapyr+imazapic, aplicados em associação ao glyphosate ou quando a cultura atingiu o estádio de três folhas expandidas. As três variáveis explicativas analisadas foram a população de plantas de arroz e arroz-vermelho, a eficácia do controle de arroz-vermelho e a produtividade de grãos da cultura. O uso de glyphosate no ponto de agulha reduziu em 75% a população do arroz-vermelho e aumentou em 40% a produtividade de grãos de arroz, em relação à testemunha. O uso isolado de herbicidas imidazolinonas e sua associação com o dessecante proporcionou controle eficaz do arroz-vermelho e incrementou a produtividade de grãos, em comparação à situação sem controle da infestante, independente da dose e do sistema de aplicação. Abstract in english The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of the utilization of glyphosate and imidazolinones herbicides, in isolated or associated applications, on the effectiveness of red rice (Oryza sativa) control and grain yield of Clearfield-rice. The experiment was conducted under field cond [...] itions in 2007/08, in Cachoeirinha, RS, Brazil, using a randomized block design in a two-factorial design 2x6, with four replicates. The factor A was composed by two levels of glyphosate, applied during the subperiod between sowing and crop emergence at the early coleoptile stage of the rice plants; and the factor B consisted of six treatments with imazethapyr+imazapic, applied in association with glyphosate or when the rice crop plants had three expanded leaves. The crop and weed populations, red rice control and grain yield of crop were evaluated. The results show that the glyphosate application at the early coleoptile stage of the crop reduced 75% the red rice population and increased 40% the grain yield, in relation to the situation without weed control. The use of imidazolinones and their association with glyphosate provided effective control of red rice and increased the grain yield, independent of rates and application system.

Valmir Gaedke, Menezes; Carlos Henrique Paim, Mariot; Augusto, Kalsing; Thais Fernanda Stella de, Freitas; Daniel Santos, Grohs; Felipe de Oliveira, Matzenbacher.

117

Glyphosate-induced structural variations in Commelina erecta L. (Commelinaceae).  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to analyze the structural variations of Commelina erecta, a glyphosate-tolerant weed, produced by this herbicide. Regrowth shoots (vegetative cloning axes) and seedlings and two glyphosate concentrations: 900 and 1800 grams of acid equivalent per hectare (ga.e. ha?¹) were used. The following variations were observed: foliar shape and size changes, changes in the length of internodes, variations in the quantity of inflorescences, low seed production, and differences in the number of branches. After treatment, different phenotypic responses were observed as a result of differential sensitivity to glyphosate. Most of the vegetatively-propagated plants treated with 900 g a.e. ha?¹ revealed the same morphological structure as that of controls (i.e. three clearly identifiable zones: a basal or branching zone, a middle zone where branch production is inhibited, and an apical zone where only floral branches are produced). By contrast, the 900 ga.e. ha?¹ treated seedlings and the 1800 g a.e. ha?¹ treated regrowth shoots and seedlings showed two phenotypic responses, exhibiting differences in the quantity and location of branches and in the survival time of axes. The main variation is seen in branch production in the region that is usually inhibited. The different phenotypic responses and morphological changes suggest that C. erecta shows a very high intraspecific variability, which allows it to survive and thrive even in environments with intensive glyphosate application. These results underscore the need to solve the problem of tolerant weeds by means of an integrated approach including alternative management practices grounded on knowledge of the species and their behavior. PMID:22014597

Panigo, Elisa S; Dellaferrera, Ignacio M; Acosta, Juan M; Bender, Adrián G; Garetto, Juan I; Perreta, Mariel G

2012-02-01

118

Glyphosate influence on the physiological parameters of Conyza bonariensis biotypes / Influência de glyphosate em parâmetros fisiológicos de biótipos de Conyza bonariensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se neste trabalho determinar alterações na fotossíntese e na inibição da EPSPs, com base no acúmulo de ácido chiquímico, em biótipos de buva resistente e suscetível ao glyphosate. Foram realizados dois experimentos, conduzidos em esquema bifatorial. No primeiro, avaliaram-se biótipos de bu [...] va (um resistente e outro suscetível ao glyphosate) e doses do herbicida (0 e 1.080ge.a.ha-1) aplicadas sobre a planta daninha. No segundo experimento, os biótipos de buva (resistente e suscetível ao glyphosate) foram avaliados em cinco épocas: 0, 3, 7, 10 e 14 dias após a aplicação do herbicida (DAH). Foram efetuadas determinações da taxa fotossintética, transpiração, eficiência da carboxilação e uso eficiente da água, empregando analisador de gases no infravermelho (IRGA), e a concentração de ácido chiquímico, determinada por HPLC. A aplicação do glyphosate afetou negativamente os parâmetros fotossintéticos do biótipo suscetível, causando total inibição da taxa fotossintética, da taxa transpiratória, da eficiência da carboxilação e da eficiência do uso da água, a partir dos 7DAH. Já para o biótipo resistente, não se observou total inibição dos parâmetros fotossintéticos. Em ambos os biótipos ocorreu acúmulo de ácido chiquímico após aplicação de glyphosate; contudo, o biótipo suscetível apresentou as maiores concentrações, indicando maior sensibilidade da enzima EPSPs. O acúmulo de ácido chiquímico no biótipo resistente indica que o mecanismo de resistência não está relacionado somente com a insensibilidade da EPSPs ao glyphosate e/ou que outros mecanismos de resistência podem estar envolvidos. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to determine changes in gas exchange and inhibition of EPSPs, based on the accumulation of shikimic acid in horseweed biotypes resistant and sensitive to glyphosate. Two experiments were conducted in a factorial model. The first one evaluated horseweed biotypes (one r [...] esistant and one susceptible to glyphosate), and herbicide rates (0 and 1,080 g a.e. ha ¹) applied on the weed. In the second experiment, the horseweed biotypes (susceptible and resistant to glyphosate) were evaluated in five periods as following: 0, 3, 7, 10, and 14 days after herbicide application (DAH). The photosynthetic rate, transpiration, carboxylation efficiency, and water efficiency were determined using an infrared gas analyzer (IRGA), and shikimic acid concentration by HPLC. The application of glyphosate damaged the photosynthetic parameters of the susceptible biotype, causing complete inhibition of the photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, carboxylation efficiency and water use efficiency, starting from the 7 DAH. On the other hand, total inhibition of the photosynthetic parameters was not observed for the resistant biotype. Shikimic acid accumulation occurred in both biotypes after glyphosate application but the susceptible biotype had the highest concentrations, indicating greater sensitivity of the enzyme EPSPs. The accumulation of shikimic acid in the resistant biotype indicates that the mechanism of resistance is not related to the total insensitivity of the enzyme EPSPs to glyphosate and/or that other resistance mechanisms may be involved.

L., Vargas; D.R.O., Silva; D., Agostinetto; M.B., Matallo; F.M., Santos; S.D.B., Almeida; G., Chavarria; D.F.P., Silva.

2014-03-01

119

Glyphosate influence on the physiological parameters of Conyza bonariensis biotypes / Influência de glyphosate em parâmetros fisiológicos de biótipos de Conyza bonariensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se neste trabalho determinar alterações na fotossíntese e na inibição da EPSPs, com base no acúmulo de ácido chiquímico, em biótipos de buva resistente e suscetível ao glyphosate. Foram realizados dois experimentos, conduzidos em esquema bifatorial. No primeiro, avaliaram-se biótipos de bu [...] va (um resistente e outro suscetível ao glyphosate) e doses do herbicida (0 e 1.080ge.a.ha-1) aplicadas sobre a planta daninha. No segundo experimento, os biótipos de buva (resistente e suscetível ao glyphosate) foram avaliados em cinco épocas: 0, 3, 7, 10 e 14 dias após a aplicação do herbicida (DAH). Foram efetuadas determinações da taxa fotossintética, transpiração, eficiência da carboxilação e uso eficiente da água, empregando analisador de gases no infravermelho (IRGA), e a concentração de ácido chiquímico, determinada por HPLC. A aplicação do glyphosate afetou negativamente os parâmetros fotossintéticos do biótipo suscetível, causando total inibição da taxa fotossintética, da taxa transpiratória, da eficiência da carboxilação e da eficiência do uso da água, a partir dos 7DAH. Já para o biótipo resistente, não se observou total inibição dos parâmetros fotossintéticos. Em ambos os biótipos ocorreu acúmulo de ácido chiquímico após aplicação de glyphosate; contudo, o biótipo suscetível apresentou as maiores concentrações, indicando maior sensibilidade da enzima EPSPs. O acúmulo de ácido chiquímico no biótipo resistente indica que o mecanismo de resistência não está relacionado somente com a insensibilidade da EPSPs ao glyphosate e/ou que outros mecanismos de resistência podem estar envolvidos. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to determine changes in gas exchange and inhibition of EPSPs, based on the accumulation of shikimic acid in horseweed biotypes resistant and sensitive to glyphosate. Two experiments were conducted in a factorial model. The first one evaluated horseweed biotypes (one r [...] esistant and one susceptible to glyphosate), and herbicide rates (0 and 1,080 g a.e. ha ¹) applied on the weed. In the second experiment, the horseweed biotypes (susceptible and resistant to glyphosate) were evaluated in five periods as following: 0, 3, 7, 10, and 14 days after herbicide application (DAH). The photosynthetic rate, transpiration, carboxylation efficiency, and water efficiency were determined using an infrared gas analyzer (IRGA), and shikimic acid concentration by HPLC. The application of glyphosate damaged the photosynthetic parameters of the susceptible biotype, causing complete inhibition of the photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, carboxylation efficiency and water use efficiency, starting from the 7 DAH. On the other hand, total inhibition of the photosynthetic parameters was not observed for the resistant biotype. Shikimic acid accumulation occurred in both biotypes after glyphosate application but the susceptible biotype had the highest concentrations, indicating greater sensitivity of the enzyme EPSPs. The accumulation of shikimic acid in the resistant biotype indicates that the mechanism of resistance is not related to the total insensitivity of the enzyme EPSPs to glyphosate and/or that other resistance mechanisms may be involved.

L., Vargas; D.R.O., Silva; D., Agostinetto; M.B., Matallo; F.M., Santos; S.D.B., Almeida; G., Chavarria; D.F.P., Silva.

120

The use of environmental metabolomics to determine glyphosate level of exposure in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) seedlings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Metabolic profiling in plants can be used to differentiate between treatments and to search for biomarkers for exposure. A methodology for processing Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode-Array-Detection data is devised. This methodology includes a scheme for selecting informative wavelengths, baseline removal, retention time alignment, selection of relevant retention times, and principal component analysis (PCA). Plant crude extracts from rapeseed seedling exposed to sublethal concentrations of glyphosate are used as a study case. Through this approach, plants exposed to concentrations down to 5 ?M could be distinguished from the controls. The compounds responsible for this differentiation were partially identified and were different from those specific for high exposure samples, which suggests that two different responses to glyphosate are elicited in rapeseed depending on the level of exposure. The PCA loadings indicate that a combination of other metabolites could be more sensitive than the response of shikimate to detect glyphosate exposure. - Highlights: ? A method for processing UHPLC-DAD data for plant metabolic profiling is devised. ? The metabolic profiling approach is more sensitive to glyphosate exposure than shikimate. ? Plants exposed to concentrations down to 5 ?M can be distinguished from the controls. ? Two different responses to glyphosate may be elicited in rapeseed depending on the level of exposure. - A novel untargeted environmental metabololomic approach is used to detect low-level glyphosate exposure of rapeseed seedlings.

 
 
 
 
121

The use of environmental metabolomics to determine glyphosate level of exposure in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) seedlings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Metabolic profiling in plants can be used to differentiate between treatments and to search for biomarkers for exposure. A methodology for processing Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode-Array-Detection data is devised. This methodology includes a scheme for selecting informative wavelengths, baseline removal, retention time alignment, selection of relevant retention times, and principal component analysis (PCA). Plant crude extracts from rapeseed seedling exposed to sublethal concentrations of glyphosate are used as a study case. Through this approach, plants exposed to concentrations down to 5 {mu}M could be distinguished from the controls. The compounds responsible for this differentiation were partially identified and were different from those specific for high exposure samples, which suggests that two different responses to glyphosate are elicited in rapeseed depending on the level of exposure. The PCA loadings indicate that a combination of other metabolites could be more sensitive than the response of shikimate to detect glyphosate exposure. - Highlights: > A method for processing UHPLC-DAD data for plant metabolic profiling is devised. > The metabolic profiling approach is more sensitive to glyphosate exposure than shikimate. > Plants exposed to concentrations down to 5 {mu}M can be distinguished from the controls. > Two different responses to glyphosate may be elicited in rapeseed depending on the level of exposure. - A novel untargeted environmental metabololomic approach is used to detect low-level glyphosate exposure of rapeseed seedlings.

Petersen, Iben Lykke; Tomasi, Giorgio; Sorensen, Hilmer; Boll, Esther S.; Hansen, Hans Christian Bruun [Department of Basic Sciences and Environment, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, DK-1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark); Christensen, Jan H., E-mail: jch@life.ku.dk [Department of Basic Sciences and Environment, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, DK-1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark)

2011-10-15

122

Interação de glyphosate com carfentrazone-ethyl Glyphosate - carfentrazone-ethyl interaction  

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Full Text Available Foi conduzido um experimento em condições controladas para determinar a interação do carfentrazone-ethyl em mistura no tanque com o herbicida glyphosate, no controle de seis espécies de plantas daninhas. Glyphosate aplicado isoladamente na dose de 720 g ha-1 foi eficaz no controle de Amaranthus hybridus (100%, Desmodium tortuosum (100%, Bidens pilosa (99%, Eleusine indica (96%, Digitaria horizontalis (100% e Commelina benghalensis (93% aos 21 DAA. Carfentrazone-ethyl aplicado isoladamente controlou eficazmente C. benghalensis. As misturas de glyphosate nas doses de 252 e 720 g ha-1 com carfentrazone-ethyl nas doses de 15 e 30 g ha¹ demonstraram efeito aditivo no controle de A. hybridus, D. tortuosum e Bidens pilosa, à exceção das misturas de glyphosate na dose de 252 g ha-1 com as doses de 15 e 30 g ha-1 de carfentrazone-ethyl, que proporcionam efeito sinergístico no controle de D. tortuosum. A adição das duas doses de carfentrazone-ethyl antagonizou o efeito de glyphosate na menor dose (252 g ha-1 no controle de E. indica, apresentando, no entanto, efeito aditivo com o glyphosate na maior dose (720 g ha-1. Já para D. horizontalis, as misturas de carfentrazone-ethyl com glyphosate na menor dose (252 g ha-1 apresentaram efeito sinergístico no controle dessa espécie, demonstrando, ainda, efeito aditivo na mistura com glyphosate na dose de 720 g ha-1. A mistura de carfentrazone-ethyl com glyphosate proporcionou efeito aditivo no controle de C. benghalensis, independentemente das combinações de doses avaliadas. Os resultados deste experimento indicam que carfentrazone-ethyl apresenta comportamento diferenciado quanto à interação com glyphosate, dependendo da espécie de planta daninha e da dose dos herbicidas utilizados na mistura em tanque, sendo complementar na mistura em tanque com glyphosate, pois demonstrou efeito antagônico em poucas das combinações estudadas, prevalecendo seu efeito aditivo na mistura com glyphosate, no controle das espécies avaliadas.Under evironmental controlled conditions experiments were conducted to determine the efficacy of carfentrazone-ethyl in tank mixture with glyphosate to control six weed species. Glyphosate alone at 720 g ha-1 was effective in controlling Amaranthus hybridus (100%, Desmodium tortuosum (100%, Bidens pilosa (99%, Eleusine indica (96%, Digitaria horizontalis (100% and Commelina benghalensis (93% at 21 DAA. Carfentrazone-ethyl alone controlled only C. benghalensis. efficiently. Glyphosate mixtures (252 and 720 g ha-1 with carfentrazone-ethyl at 15 and 30 g ha¹ showed an additive effect in controlling A. hybridus, D. tortuosum and Bidens pilosa, except for glyphosate mixture at 252 g ha-1 with carfentrazone-ethyl at 15 and 30 g ha-1, which showed synergism in controlling D. tortuosum. The addition of the two carfentrazone-ethyl doses antagonized the effect of the smallest dose (252 g ha-1 of glyphosate on E. indica control. However, the largest glyphosate dose (720 g ha-1 provided additive effect when mixed with both carfentrazone-ethyl doses. For D. horizontalis, carfentrazone-ethyl mixtures with glyphosate in the smallest dose (252 g ha-1 had a synergistic effect in the control of this species, also showing and additive effect in the mixture with glyphosate at 720 g ha-1. Carfentrazone-ethyl mixture with glyphosate provided an additive effect in C. benghalensis control, regardless of dose combinations. The results of this experiment indicate that carfentrazone-ethyl presents a differentiated behavior when interacting with glyphosate, depending on the weed species and the herbicide dose used in the tank mixtures, being complementary in tank-mix combinations with glyphosate, since it showed an antagonistic effect in few combinations, with its additive effect prevailing in the mixture with glyphosate for the control of the evaluated species.

R.C. Werlang

2002-04-01

123

Soybean plant responses to glyphosate and manganese in glyphosate-resistant production systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Glyphosate-resistant (GR) soybean is widely accepted in the United States. Recent research in Indiana and elsewhere has observed that post-emergence foliar applications of glyphosate may cause or exacerbate manganese (Mn) deficiency and then limit yield of GR soybeans on low Mn availability soils. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine responses of GR soybeans to glyphosate application when supplemental Mn is and is not applied, (2) determine the effectiveness of starter-banded a...

Xia, Yanbing

2009-01-01

124

A red and far-red light receptor mutation confers resistance to the herbicide glyphosate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glyphosate is a widely applied broad-spectrum systemic herbicide that inhibits competitively the penultimate enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) from the shikimate pathway, thereby causing deleterious effects. A glyphosate-resistant Arabidopsis mutant (gre1) was isolated and genetic analyses indicated that a dysfunctional red (R) and far-red (FR) light receptor, phytochrome B (phyB), caused this phenotype. This finding is consistent with increased glyphosate sensitivity and glyphosate-induced shikimate accumulation in low R:FR light, and the induction of genes encoding enzymes of the shikimate pathway in high R:FR light. Expression of the shikimate pathway genes exhibited diurnal oscillation and this oscillation was altered in the phyB mutant. Furthermore, transcript analysis suggested that this diurnal oscillation was not only dependent on phyB but was also due to circadian regulatory mechanisms. Our data offer an explanation of the well documented observation that glyphosate treatment at various times throughout the day, with their specific composition of light quality and intensity, results in different efficiencies of the herbicide. PMID:24654847

Sharkhuu, Altanbadralt; Narasimhan, Meena L; Merzaban, Jasmeen S; Bressan, Ray A; Weller, Steve; Gehring, Chris

2014-06-01

125

Ion implantation reduces radiation sensitivity of metal oxide silicon /MOS/ devices  

Science.gov (United States)

Implanting nitrogen ions improves hardening of silicon oxides 30 percent to 60 percent against ionizing radiation effects. Process reduces sensitivity, but retains stability normally shown by interfaces between silicon and thermally grown oxides.

1971-01-01

126

Glyphosate adsorption in soils compared to herbicides replaced with the introduction of glyphosate resistant crops.  

Science.gov (United States)

Use of glyphosate resistant crops was helpful in addressing observed increases in environmental contamination by herbicides. Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum herbicide, and its behaviour-as well as that of other herbicides-in soils is an important consideration for the overall environmental evaluation of genetically resistant crop introduction. However, few data have been published comparing glyphosate behaviour in soil to that of the herbicides that would be replaced by introduction of glyphosate resistant crops. This work compares glyphosate adsorption in soil with that of other herbicides frequently used in rape (trifluralin and metazachlor), sugarbeet (metamitron) and corn (sulcotrione). Herbicide adsorption was characterised in surface soils and in the complete soils profiles through kinetics and isotherms using batch equilibration methods. Pedological and molecular structure factors controlling the adsorption of all five herbicides were investigated. Glyphosate was the most strongly adsorbed herbicide, thus having the weakest potential for mobility in soils. Glyphosate adsorption was dependent on its ionisable structure in relation to soil pH, and on soil copper, amorphous iron and phosphate content. Trifluralin adsorption was almost equivalent to glyphosate adsorption, whereas metazachlor, metamitron and sulcotrione adsorption were lower. Trifluralin, metazachlor and metamitron adsorption increased with soil organic carbon content. Sulcotrione was the least adsorbed herbicide in alkaline soils, but its adsorption increased when pH decreased. Ranking the adsorption properties among the five herbicides, glyphosate and trifluralin have the lowest availability and mobility in soils, but the former has the broadest spectrum for weed control. PMID:15951002

Mamy, Laure; Barriuso, Enrique

2005-11-01

127

ADSORPTION OF GLYPHOSATE AND AMPAIN AGRICULTURAL SOILS  

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Full Text Available Immediately after application glyphosate is mostly adsorbed in the upper 2 cm of soils, and is then transported and adsorbed after few days in deeper soil horizons with concomitant increasing content of its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA. This work confirmed previous studies, where Fe-oxides seem to play a major role in the adsorption of glyphosate and AMPA in soils:  the Chernozem featured lower contents of Fed and Feo, with consequently lower adsorption of glyphosate and AMPAas compared with the higher weathered Cambisol and Stagnosol.

Nicola Rampazzo

2013-09-01

128

Identificação de biótipos de azevém (Lolium multiflorum resistentes ao herbicida glyphosate em pomares de maçã Identification of glyphosate-resistant ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum biotypes in apple orchards  

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Full Text Available O glyphosate é um herbicida de amplo espectro utilizado há mais de 15 anos em pomares de maçã na região de Vacaria-RS, para manejo da vegetação nas linhas da cultura. São realizadas, em geral, três a quatro aplicações por ciclo e a dose normalmente utilizada é de 720 a 1.080 g e.a. ha-1 de glyphosate (2 a 3 L ha-1 do produto comercial. O azevém (Lolium multiflorum é uma planta daninha comum em pomares e, tradicionalmente, sensível ao glyphosate. Entretanto, nos últimos anos a ocorrência de plantas de azevém que, após receberem o tratamento com glyphosate, não manifestam sintomas significativos de toxicidade sugere que elas adquiriram resistência ao produto. Assim, com o objetivo de avaliar a resposta de uma população de plantas de azevém ao glyphosate, foram realizados três experimentos: um em campo e dois em casa de vegetação. No experimento em campo os tratamentos avaliados constaram de doses crescentes de glyphosate (0, 360, 720, 1.440, 2.880, 5.760 e 11.520 g e.a. ha-1, e os herbicidas paraquat, glufosinate, haloxyfop e diclofop foram empregados como produtos-padrão, aplicados em dois estádios vegetativos do azevém. No experimento em casa de vegetação, os tratamentos constaram de doses crescentes de glyphosate (0, 360, 720, 1.440, 2.880 e 5.760 g e.a. ha-1 mais os herbicidas testemunhas, aplicados sobre plantas do biótipo considerado resistente e de um sensível. No segundo experimento realizado em casa de vegetação foram avaliados tratamentos contendo glyphosate (720, 1.440, 2.880, 720 + 720 e 720 + 1.440 g e.a. ha-1, em aplicações únicas e seqüenciais, mais os herbicidas paraquat, glufosinate, haloxyfop, clethodim, sethoxydim, diclofop, fenoxaprop, fluazifop, paraquat + diuron, atrazine + simazine, trifluralin e metolachlor. A toxicidade dos tratamentos herbicidas foi avaliada aos 15, 30 e 45 DAT (dias após tratamento. Os resultados obtidos nos experimentos em campo e em casa de vegetação, de forma geral, evidenciam que o biótipo sensível é facilmente controlado com o herbicida glyphosate e pelos demais herbicidas pós-emergentes avaliados, independentemente do estádio vegetativo. Demonstram, ainda, que o biótipo resistente apresenta-se, igualmente ao biótipo sensível, altamente suscetível aos herbicidas com mecanismo de ação distinto daquele do glyphosate. No entanto, o biótipo resistente apresenta baixa resposta ao herbicida glyphosate, mesmo se este for empregado em altas doses, evidenciando ter adquirido resistência a esse produto.Glyphosate is a wide spectrum herbicide used for over 15 years in apple orchards in Vacaria-RS for weed control in rows of trees. Usually, 3 to 4 applications per year are made at a rate of 720 to 1080 g a.e. glyphosate ha-1 (2 to 3 L ha-1 of commercial product. Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum is a common weed in orchards and traditionally sensitive to glyphosate. However, in the last years, some ryegrass plants have not been found to show significant toxicity symptoms after treatment with glyphosate, suggesting that they acquired resistance to this product. To evaluate the response of a ryegrass plant population to glyphosate, one field and two greenhouse experiments were carried out. The field experiment treatments had increasing rates of glyphosate (0; 360; 720; 1,440; 2,880; 5,760 and 11,520 g a.e. ha-1, in addition to the herbicides paraquat, glufosinate-ammonium, haloxyfop and diclofop-methyl as standards, sprayed at two different vegetative growth stages of ryegrass. The greenhouse experiments had increasing rates of glyphosate (0; 360; 720; 1,440; 2,880 and 5,760 g a.e. ha-1 plus the above listed check herbicides sprayed on biotypes considered resistant and on plants of one susceptible biotype. In the second greenhouse experiment, glyphosate rates (720; 1,440; 2,880; 720 + 720 and 720 + 1,440 g a.e. ha-1 were sprayed in single and sequential applications, in addition to the herbicides paraquat, glufosinate-ammonium, haloxyfop, clethodim, sethoxydim, diclofop-methyl, fenoxaprop, fluazifop, paraquat + diuron,

L. Vargas

2004-12-01

129

Sugarcane tolerance to ratoon eradication with glyphosate determined by physiological responses / Tolerância da soqueira da cana-de-açúcar à erradicação com glyphosate determinada por respostas fisiológicas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a tolerância de cultivares de cana-de-açúcar à erradicação de soqueiras com diferentes doses de glyphosate por meio de respostas fisiológicas. Para isso, um ensaio foi desenvolvido no delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso em esquema fatorial 4 x [...] 4 (cultivares x doses), totalizando 16 tratamentos com quatro repetições. Foram utilizados os cultivares IAC91-5155, IACSP93-3046, IAC86-2480 e IAC87-3396 tratados com as doses de glyphosate 0, 1.920, 2.400, e 2.880gha-1. As variáveis analisadas foram porcentagem de perfilhos mortos, eficiência quântica do FSII (Fv/Fm) e índice SPAD. Há diferenças entre cultivares de cana-de-açúcar quanto à eliminação de perfilhos e a respostas fisiológicas a diferentes doses de glyphosate. A dose de 2.880gha-1 foi a mais eficiente em eliminar perfilhos de cana-de-açúcar. Os cultivares IAC86-2480, IAC87-3396 e IACSP93-3046 foram os mais sensíveis, e o IAC91-5155 tolerou por mais tempo os danos promovidos no aparato fotossintético à dessecação das soqueiras pelo glyphosate. Devido às respostas diferenciadas, manejos distintos devem ser considerados para a eliminação das soqueiras de diferentes cultivares. Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate the tolerance of sugarcane cultivars to ratoon eradication under different glyphosate rates by means of physiological responses. Therefore, a trial was carried out in randomized complete blocks with 4 x 4 factorial design (cultivars x rates) totaling 16 treatments with f [...] our replicates. The cultivars IAC91-5155, IACSP93-3046, and IAC86-2480 and IAC87-3396 and the glyphosate rates 0 g ha-1; 1,920 g ha-1; 2,400 g ha-1; 2,880 g ha-1 were tested. The variables analyzed were percentage of tiller mortality, quantum efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) and SPAD index. The results showed that there are differences among sugarcane cultivars for tiller eradication and for physiological responses with glyphosate different rates. The rate of 2,880 g ha-1 was the most efficient in eliminating sugarcane tillers. The cultivars IAC86-2480, IAC87-3396 and IACSP93-3046 were the most sensitive and the IAC91-5155 tolerated, for a longer period of time, the damage to the photosynthetic apparatus of the ratoons caused by glyphosate desiccation. Due to different responses, different managements should be considered for eliminating ratoons of different cultivars.

M.A., Silva; M.T., Arantes; R., Oliver; M.C., Brunelli.

130

Sugarcane tolerance to ratoon eradication with glyphosate determined by physiological responses / Tolerância da soqueira da cana-de-açúcar à erradicação com glyphosate determinada por respostas fisiológicas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a tolerância de cultivares de cana-de-açúcar à erradicação de soqueiras com diferentes doses de glyphosate por meio de respostas fisiológicas. Para isso, um ensaio foi desenvolvido no delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso em esquema fatorial 4 x [...] 4 (cultivares x doses), totalizando 16 tratamentos com quatro repetições. Foram utilizados os cultivares IAC91-5155, IACSP93-3046, IAC86-2480 e IAC87-3396 tratados com as doses de glyphosate 0, 1.920, 2.400, e 2.880gha-1. As variáveis analisadas foram porcentagem de perfilhos mortos, eficiência quântica do FSII (Fv/Fm) e índice SPAD. Há diferenças entre cultivares de cana-de-açúcar quanto à eliminação de perfilhos e a respostas fisiológicas a diferentes doses de glyphosate. A dose de 2.880gha-1 foi a mais eficiente em eliminar perfilhos de cana-de-açúcar. Os cultivares IAC86-2480, IAC87-3396 e IACSP93-3046 foram os mais sensíveis, e o IAC91-5155 tolerou por mais tempo os danos promovidos no aparato fotossintético à dessecação das soqueiras pelo glyphosate. Devido às respostas diferenciadas, manejos distintos devem ser considerados para a eliminação das soqueiras de diferentes cultivares. Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate the tolerance of sugarcane cultivars to ratoon eradication under different glyphosate rates by means of physiological responses. Therefore, a trial was carried out in randomized complete blocks with 4 x 4 factorial design (cultivars x rates) totaling 16 treatments with f [...] our replicates. The cultivars IAC91-5155, IACSP93-3046, and IAC86-2480 and IAC87-3396 and the glyphosate rates 0 g ha-1; 1,920 g ha-1; 2,400 g ha-1; 2,880 g ha-1 were tested. The variables analyzed were percentage of tiller mortality, quantum efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) and SPAD index. The results showed that there are differences among sugarcane cultivars for tiller eradication and for physiological responses with glyphosate different rates. The rate of 2,880 g ha-1 was the most efficient in eliminating sugarcane tillers. The cultivars IAC86-2480, IAC87-3396 and IACSP93-3046 were the most sensitive and the IAC91-5155 tolerated, for a longer period of time, the damage to the photosynthetic apparatus of the ratoons caused by glyphosate desiccation. Due to different responses, different managements should be considered for eliminating ratoons of different cultivars.

M.A., Silva; M.T., Arantes; R., Oliver; M.C., Brunelli.

2014-03-01

131

Effect of the herbicides terbuthylazine and glyphosate on photosystem II photochemistry of young olive (Olea europaea) plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to understand the effect produced by the addition of the herbicides terbuthylazine (N(2)-tert-butyl-6-chloro-N(4)-ethyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine) and glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) on photosystem II photochemistry of young plants of Olea europaea L. under greenhouse conditions. The effect of soil amendment with an organic residue from olive oil production was also assessed. Terbuthylazine reduced the efficiency of photosystem II photochemistry of plants due to chronic photoinhibition, and this effect was counterbalanced by soil amendment with the organic waste, whereas the photosystem II photochemistry of olive plants was not affected by glyphosate or by glyphosate and organic waste addition. In this study, we have shown that the soil application of terbuthylazine is a source of indirect phytotoxicity for olive plants. We have also observed that the olive plants were not affected by higher amounts of glyphosate in the soil. PMID:21517077

Cañero, Ana I; Cox, Lucía; Redondo-Gómez, Susana; Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique; Hermosín, María C; Cornejo, Juan

2011-05-25

132

Monitoring glyphosate and AMPA concentrations in wells and drains using the sorbicell passive sampler  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Glyphosate is one of the world’s most extensively used weed control agents. Glyphosate, and its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), are suspected to be hazardous to human health and the aquatic environment. In Denmark, the extensive use has resulted in an increasing number of occurrences in groundwater wells and tile drains, stressing the need for extensive monitoring of this compound in the environment. Traditionally, monitoring programs are based on grab sampling which is time consuming and expensive due to the need for frequent sampling events. Using a passive sampling device, the SorbiCell, will decrease the workload and number of samples freeing up funds for larger monitoring programs. When installed in a well the SorbiCell will continuously sample the water giving either a flux-weighed or time-weighted average measurement of the glyphosate/AMPA concentration throughout the sampling period. It may therefore be possible to measure lower concentrations as the glyphosate/AMPA sorbed in the SorbiCell is an accumulated measurement. Also, glyphosate/AMPA associated with sudden flush events will be detected by the SorbiCells, while such events may pass between two consecutive grab samples. To document the ability of the SorbiCell to capture glyphosate/AMPA, a series of laboratory flow experiments were carried out. Sorption and release from the flow cells is tested with two influent solutions (0.15 µg/l and 5 µg/l), one of demineralized water and the other with drain water from the Silstrup site (part of the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Program, PLAP), spiked with 14C marked glyphosate. Two different volumes of effluent were then eluted through Sorbicell’s with two different capacities. The concentration of glyphosate/AMPA was continuously measured in both the influent and effluent. The aim of the study is to test and verify if the glyphosate/AMPA sensitive SorbiCell is an efficient and reliable, and cost-effective technology for groundwater and drainwater monitoring of pesticides.

Vendelboe, Anders Lindblad; de Jonge, Hubert

133

Bioassay and Characterization of Several Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri Biotypes with Varying Tolerances to Glyphosate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The wide distribution of Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri in the southern US became a serious weed control problem prior to the extensive use of glyphosate-resistant crops. Currently glyphosate-resistant populations of Palmer amaranth occur in many areas of this geographic region creating an even more serious threat to crop production. Investigations were undertaken using four biotypes (one glyphosate-sensitive, one resistant from Georgia and two of unknown tolerance from Mississippi of Palmer amaranth to assess bioassay techniques for the rapid detection and level of resistance in populations of this weed. These plants were characterized with respect to chlorophyll, betalain, and protein levels and immunological responses to an antibody of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS the target site of glyphosate. Only slight differences were found in four biotypes grown under greenhouse conditions regarding extractable soluble protein and chlorophyll content, but one biotype was found to be devoid of the red pigment, betalain. Measurement of early growth (seedling shoot elongation of seedlings was a useful detection tool to determine glyphosate resistance. A leaf disc bioassay (using visual ratings and/or chlorophyll analysis and an assay for shikimate accumulation were effective methods for determining herbicide resistance levels. The two unknown biotypes were found to be resistant to this herbicide. Some differences were found in the protein profiles of the biotypes, and western blots demonstrated a weak labeling of antibody in the glyphosate-sensitive biotype, whereas strong labeling occurred in the resistant plants. This latter point supports research by others, that increased copy number of the EPSPS gene (and increased EPSPS protein levels is the resistance mechanism in this species. Results indicate the utility of certain bioassays for the determination of resistance and provide useful comparative information on the levels of inherent constituents among closely related plants.

Robert E. Hoagland

2013-05-01

134

Influence of glyphosate on the copper dissolution in phosphate buffer  

Science.gov (United States)

The electrochemical behavior of copper microelectrode in phosphate buffer in the presence of glyphosate was investigated by electrochemical techniques. It was observed that the additions of glyphosate in the phosphate buffer increased the anodic current of copper microelectrode and the electrochemical dissolution was observed. This phenomenon could be associated with the Cu(II) complexation by glyphosate forming a soluble complex. Physical characterization of the surface showed that, in absence of glyphosate, an insoluble layer covered the copper surface; on the other hand, in presence of glyphosate, it was observed a corroded copper surface with the formation of glyphosate complex in solution.

Coutinho, C. F. B.; Silva, M. O.; Machado, S. A. S.; Mazo, L. H.

2007-01-01

135

Associações entre o herbicida glyphosate e inseticidas na cultura da soja Roundup Ready® Associations among glyphosate and insecticides in Roundup Ready® soybean  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da associação do herbicida glyphosate com 10 inseticidas de diferentes grupos químicos sobre a cultura da soja Roundup Ready® (cultivar Monsoy 8585 RR®, o controle de plantas daninhas e o controle da lagarta-da-soja (Anticarsia gemmatalis. O experimento foi realizado em lavoura no município de Nova Xavantina - MT, no período de novembro de 2005 a abril de 2006, em solo classificado como Latossolo Vermelho distrófico. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 11 x 2, sendo os fatores constituídos por 11 tratamentos inseticidas [lambdacyhalothrin (3,75 g ha-1; permethrin (12,50 g ha-1; methamidophos (300,00 g ha-1; chlorpyriphos (240,00 g ha-1; acephate (150,00 g ha-1; endosulfan (175,00 g ha-1; methomyl (107,50 g ha-1; lufenuron (7,50 g ha-1; triflumuron (14,40 g ha-1; spinosad (24,00 g ha-1; e testemunha sem inseticida], com ou sem a adição (mistura em tanque de 960 g e.a. ha-1 de glyphosate, formando 22 tratamentos, conduzidos em quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram aplicados 30 dias depois da emergência da cultura. A mistura do herbicida glyphosate com o inseticida chlorpyriphos causou fitotoxicidade inicial à cultura da soja RR®. O controle das plantas daninhas Chamaesyce hirta, Alternanthera tenella, Euphorbia heterophylla e Cenchrus echinatus não foi afetado pelas misturas de glyphosate com todos os inseticidas avaliados. A adição do glyphosate à calda de aplicação prejudicou a eficiência inicial dos inseticidas methomyl, methamidophos, chlorpyriphos e acephate no controle de Anticarsia gemmatalis, porém incrementou o controle dessa praga quando associado aos inseticidas spinosad, lambdacyhalothrin e lufenuron. A combinação de glyphosate com os inseticidas methamidophos, chlorpyriphos, lufenuron, triflumuron e spinosad proporcionou os maiores níveis de produtividade de grãos da soja RR®.This research aimed to evaluate the effects of the association of the herbicide glyphosate with 10 different insecticides of several chemical groups on Roundup Ready® soybean (Monsoy 8585 RR®, weeds, and on velvetbean caterpillar (Anticarsia gemmatalis. The experiment was carried out under field conditions at Nova Xavantina-MT, from November 2005 to April 2006 in soil classified as Dystrophic Red Latosol. Trial design was a factorial randomized complete block having 11 insecticide treatments: [lambdacyhalothrin (3,75 g ha-1; permethrin (12,50 g ha-1; methamidophos (300,00 g ha-1; chlorpyriphos (240,00 g ha-1; acephate (150,00 g ha-1; endosulfan (175,00 g ha-1; methomyl (107,50 g ha-1; lufenuron (7,50 g ha-1; triflumuron (14,40 g ha-1; spinosad (24,00 g ha-1; and untreated without insecticide] with and without addiction (tank mixture of 960 g a.e. ha-1 of glyphosate, totalling 22 treatments. Each treatment had four replications. Treatments were applied 30 days after soybean emergence. Tank mixture of glyphosate and insecticide caused phytotoxicity to soybean. The control of the weeds Chamaesyce hirta, Alternathera tenella, Euphorbia heterophylla and Cenchrus echinatus was not affected by the glyphosate mixture. Tank mixture of glyphosate with the insecticides methomyl, methamidophos, chlorpyriphos and acephate reduced their control of Anticarsia gemmatalis. However, the control performance of the insecticides spinosad, lambdacyhalothrin and lufenuron was increased. The combination of glyphosate with the insecticides methamidophos, chlorpyriphos, lufenuron, triflumuron and spinosad provided the highest soybean yields.

F.A. Petter

2007-01-01

136

Associações entre o herbicida glyphosate e inseticidas na cultura da soja Roundup Ready® / Associations among glyphosate and insecticides in Roundup Ready® soybean  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da associação do herbicida glyphosate com 10 inseticidas de diferentes grupos químicos sobre a cultura da soja Roundup Ready® (cultivar Monsoy 8585 RR®), o controle de plantas daninhas e o controle da lagarta-da-soja (Anticarsia gemmatalis). O expe [...] rimento foi realizado em lavoura no município de Nova Xavantina - MT, no período de novembro de 2005 a abril de 2006, em solo classificado como Latossolo Vermelho distrófico. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 11 x 2, sendo os fatores constituídos por 11 tratamentos inseticidas [lambdacyhalothrin (3,75 g ha-1); permethrin (12,50 g ha-1); methamidophos (300,00 g ha-1); chlorpyriphos (240,00 g ha-1); acephate (150,00 g ha-1); endosulfan (175,00 g ha-1); methomyl (107,50 g ha-1); lufenuron (7,50 g ha-1); triflumuron (14,40 g ha-1); spinosad (24,00 g ha-1); e testemunha sem inseticida], com ou sem a adição (mistura em tanque) de 960 g e.a. ha-1 de glyphosate, formando 22 tratamentos, conduzidos em quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram aplicados 30 dias depois da emergência da cultura. A mistura do herbicida glyphosate com o inseticida chlorpyriphos causou fitotoxicidade inicial à cultura da soja RR®. O controle das plantas daninhas Chamaesyce hirta, Alternanthera tenella, Euphorbia heterophylla e Cenchrus echinatus não foi afetado pelas misturas de glyphosate com todos os inseticidas avaliados. A adição do glyphosate à calda de aplicação prejudicou a eficiência inicial dos inseticidas methomyl, methamidophos, chlorpyriphos e acephate no controle de Anticarsia gemmatalis, porém incrementou o controle dessa praga quando associado aos inseticidas spinosad, lambdacyhalothrin e lufenuron. A combinação de glyphosate com os inseticidas methamidophos, chlorpyriphos, lufenuron, triflumuron e spinosad proporcionou os maiores níveis de produtividade de grãos da soja RR®. Abstract in english This research aimed to evaluate the effects of the association of the herbicide glyphosate with 10 different insecticides of several chemical groups on Roundup Ready® soybean (Monsoy 8585 RR®), weeds, and on velvetbean caterpillar (Anticarsia gemmatalis). The experiment was carried out under field c [...] onditions at Nova Xavantina-MT, from November 2005 to April 2006 in soil classified as Dystrophic Red Latosol. Trial design was a factorial randomized complete block having 11 insecticide treatments: [lambdacyhalothrin (3,75 g ha-1); permethrin (12,50 g ha-1); methamidophos (300,00 g ha-1); chlorpyriphos (240,00 g ha-1); acephate (150,00 g ha-1); endosulfan (175,00 g ha-1); methomyl (107,50 g ha-1); lufenuron (7,50 g ha-1); triflumuron (14,40 g ha-1); spinosad (24,00 g ha-1); and untreated without insecticide] with and without addiction (tank mixture) of 960 g a.e. ha-1 of glyphosate, totalling 22 treatments. Each treatment had four replications. Treatments were applied 30 days after soybean emergence. Tank mixture of glyphosate and insecticide caused phytotoxicity to soybean. The control of the weeds Chamaesyce hirta, Alternathera tenella, Euphorbia heterophylla and Cenchrus echinatus was not affected by the glyphosate mixture. Tank mixture of glyphosate with the insecticides methomyl, methamidophos, chlorpyriphos and acephate reduced their control of Anticarsia gemmatalis. However, the control performance of the insecticides spinosad, lambdacyhalothrin and lufenuron was increased. The combination of glyphosate with the insecticides methamidophos, chlorpyriphos, lufenuron, triflumuron and spinosad provided the highest soybean yields.

F.A., Petter; S.O., Procópio; A., Cargnelutti Filho; A.L.L., Barroso; L.P., Pacheco; A.F., Bueno.

137

Glyphosate as a tool to produce shikimic acid in plants / Glyphosate como ferramenta para produzir ácido chiquímico em plantas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O fosfato de oseltamivir, ingrediente ativo do antiviral Tamiflu®, é um potente inibidor viral produzido a partir do ácido chiquímico e extraído da semente de Ilicium verum, sua mais importante fonte natural. Tendo como sítio de ação a enzima 5 enolpiruvilchiquimato-3-fosfato sintase (EPSPs), o glyp [...] hosate é o único composto capaz de inibir a sua atividade, com o consequente acúmulo do ácido chiquímico nas plantas. Plantas de milho e soja foram pulverizadas com subdoses de glyphosate (0,0 a 230,4 ge.a.ha-1), determinando-se o teor de ácido chiquímico na massa seca dessas plantas por HPLC aos 3,7 e 10 dias após aplicação. Os resultados mostraram acúmulo de ácido chiquímico na massa seca dessas plantas, com aumento de até 969% no milho e 33.000% na soja, com picos de concentração aos 3 DAT. A praticabilidade industrial do processo de obtenção do ácido chiquímico, aliada às condições edafoclimáticas favoráveis ao plantio de milho e soja em diversos países, favorece o uso de subdoses de glyphosate na biossíntese de ácido chiquímico, com potencial para ser explorado como indutor na produção do fosfato de oseltamivir com baixo impacto ambiental. Abstract in english Oseltamivir phosphate is a potent viral inhibitor produced from shikimic acid extracted from seeds of Ilicium verum, the most important natural source. With the site of action 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSP), glyphosate is the only compound capable of inhibiting its activity with [...] the consequent accumulation of shikimic acid in plants. Corn and soybean plants were sprayed with reduced rates of glyphosate (0.0 to 230.4 g a.i. ha¹) and shikimic acid content in the dry mass was determined by HPLC 3, 7 and 10 days after application. Results showed shikimic acid accumulation in dry mass with increases of up to 969% in corn and 33,000% on soybeans, with peak concentrations 3 days after treatment (DAT). Industrial feasibility for shikimic acid production, combined with favorable climatic conditions for growing corn and soybean in virtually all over Brazil, favor the use of reduced rates of glyphosate in shikimic acid biosynthesis, with potential for use as an inducer in exploration of alternative sources for production of oseltamivir phosphate with low environmental impact.

M.B., Matallo; S.D.B., Almeida; D.A.S., Franco; A.L., Cerdeira; D.L.P., Gazzeiro.

138

Glyphosate as a tool to produce shikimic acid in plants / Glyphosate como ferramenta para produzir ácido chiquímico em plantas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O fosfato de oseltamivir, ingrediente ativo do antiviral Tamiflu®, é um potente inibidor viral produzido a partir do ácido chiquímico e extraído da semente de Ilicium verum, sua mais importante fonte natural. Tendo como sítio de ação a enzima 5 enolpiruvilchiquimato-3-fosfato sintase (EPSPs), o glyp [...] hosate é o único composto capaz de inibir a sua atividade, com o consequente acúmulo do ácido chiquímico nas plantas. Plantas de milho e soja foram pulverizadas com subdoses de glyphosate (0,0 a 230,4 ge.a.ha-1), determinando-se o teor de ácido chiquímico na massa seca dessas plantas por HPLC aos 3,7 e 10 dias após aplicação. Os resultados mostraram acúmulo de ácido chiquímico na massa seca dessas plantas, com aumento de até 969% no milho e 33.000% na soja, com picos de concentração aos 3 DAT. A praticabilidade industrial do processo de obtenção do ácido chiquímico, aliada às condições edafoclimáticas favoráveis ao plantio de milho e soja em diversos países, favorece o uso de subdoses de glyphosate na biossíntese de ácido chiquímico, com potencial para ser explorado como indutor na produção do fosfato de oseltamivir com baixo impacto ambiental. Abstract in english Oseltamivir phosphate is a potent viral inhibitor produced from shikimic acid extracted from seeds of Ilicium verum, the most important natural source. With the site of action 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSP), glyphosate is the only compound capable of inhibiting its activity with [...] the consequent accumulation of shikimic acid in plants. Corn and soybean plants were sprayed with reduced rates of glyphosate (0.0 to 230.4 g a.i. ha¹) and shikimic acid content in the dry mass was determined by HPLC 3, 7 and 10 days after application. Results showed shikimic acid accumulation in dry mass with increases of up to 969% in corn and 33,000% on soybeans, with peak concentrations 3 days after treatment (DAT). Industrial feasibility for shikimic acid production, combined with favorable climatic conditions for growing corn and soybean in virtually all over Brazil, favor the use of reduced rates of glyphosate in shikimic acid biosynthesis, with potential for use as an inducer in exploration of alternative sources for production of oseltamivir phosphate with low environmental impact.

M.B., Matallo; S.D.B., Almeida; D.A.S., Franco; A.L., Cerdeira; D.L.P., Gazzeiro.

2014-09-01

139

Adjoint design sensitivity analysis of reduced atomic systems using generalized Langevin equation for lattice structures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An efficient adjoint design sensitivity analysis method is developed for reduced atomic systems. A reduced atomic system and the adjoint system are constructed in a locally confined region, utilizing generalized Langevin equation (GLE) for periodic lattice structures. Due to the translational symmetry of lattice structures, the size of time history kernel function that accounts for the boundary effects of the reduced atomic systems could be reduced to a single atom’s degrees of freedom. For the problems of highly nonlinear design variables, the finite difference method is impractical for its inefficiency and inaccuracy. However, the adjoint method is very efficient regardless of the number of design variables since one additional time integration is required for the adjoint GLE. Through numerical examples, the derived adjoint sensitivity turns out to be accurate and efficient through the comparison with finite difference sensitivity

140

Adjoint design sensitivity analysis of reduced atomic systems using generalized Langevin equation for lattice structures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An efficient adjoint design sensitivity analysis method is developed for reduced atomic systems. A reduced atomic system and the adjoint system are constructed in a locally confined region, utilizing generalized Langevin equation (GLE) for periodic lattice structures. Due to the translational symmetry of lattice structures, the size of time history kernel function that accounts for the boundary effects of the reduced atomic systems could be reduced to a single atom’s degrees of freedom. For the problems of highly nonlinear design variables, the finite difference method is impractical for its inefficiency and inaccuracy. However, the adjoint method is very efficient regardless of the number of design variables since one additional time integration is required for the adjoint GLE. Through numerical examples, the derived adjoint sensitivity turns out to be accurate and efficient through the comparison with finite difference sensitivity.

Kim, Min-Geun; Jang, Hong-Lae [National Creative Research Initiatives Center for Isogeometric Optimal Design and Department of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seonho, E-mail: secho@snu.ac.kr [National Creative Research Initiatives Center for Isogeometric Optimal Design and Department of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-05-01

 
 
 
 
141

Identificação de biótipos de azevém (Lolium multiflorum) resistentes ao herbicida glyphosate em pomares de maçã / Identification of glyphosate-resistant ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) biotypes in apple orchards  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O glyphosate é um herbicida de amplo espectro utilizado há mais de 15 anos em pomares de maçã na região de Vacaria-RS, para manejo da vegetação nas linhas da cultura. São realizadas, em geral, três a quatro aplicações por ciclo e a dose normalmente utilizada é de 720 a 1.080 g e.a. ha-1 de glyphosat [...] e (2 a 3 L ha-1 do produto comercial). O azevém (Lolium multiflorum) é uma planta daninha comum em pomares e, tradicionalmente, sensível ao glyphosate. Entretanto, nos últimos anos a ocorrência de plantas de azevém que, após receberem o tratamento com glyphosate, não manifestam sintomas significativos de toxicidade sugere que elas adquiriram resistência ao produto. Assim, com o objetivo de avaliar a resposta de uma população de plantas de azevém ao glyphosate, foram realizados três experimentos: um em campo e dois em casa de vegetação. No experimento em campo os tratamentos avaliados constaram de doses crescentes de glyphosate (0, 360, 720, 1.440, 2.880, 5.760 e 11.520 g e.a. ha-1), e os herbicidas paraquat, glufosinate, haloxyfop e diclofop foram empregados como produtos-padrão, aplicados em dois estádios vegetativos do azevém. No experimento em casa de vegetação, os tratamentos constaram de doses crescentes de glyphosate (0, 360, 720, 1.440, 2.880 e 5.760 g e.a. ha-1) mais os herbicidas testemunhas, aplicados sobre plantas do biótipo considerado resistente e de um sensível. No segundo experimento realizado em casa de vegetação foram avaliados tratamentos contendo glyphosate (720, 1.440, 2.880, 720 + 720 e 720 + 1.440 g e.a. ha-1), em aplicações únicas e seqüenciais, mais os herbicidas paraquat, glufosinate, haloxyfop, clethodim, sethoxydim, diclofop, fenoxaprop, fluazifop, paraquat + diuron, atrazine + simazine, trifluralin e metolachlor. A toxicidade dos tratamentos herbicidas foi avaliada aos 15, 30 e 45 DAT (dias após tratamento). Os resultados obtidos nos experimentos em campo e em casa de vegetação, de forma geral, evidenciam que o biótipo sensível é facilmente controlado com o herbicida glyphosate e pelos demais herbicidas pós-emergentes avaliados, independentemente do estádio vegetativo. Demonstram, ainda, que o biótipo resistente apresenta-se, igualmente ao biótipo sensível, altamente suscetível aos herbicidas com mecanismo de ação distinto daquele do glyphosate. No entanto, o biótipo resistente apresenta baixa resposta ao herbicida glyphosate, mesmo se este for empregado em altas doses, evidenciando ter adquirido resistência a esse produto. Abstract in english Glyphosate is a wide spectrum herbicide used for over 15 years in apple orchards in Vacaria-RS for weed control in rows of trees. Usually, 3 to 4 applications per year are made at a rate of 720 to 1080 g a.e. glyphosate ha-1 (2 to 3 L ha-1 of commercial product). Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) is a c [...] ommon weed in orchards and traditionally sensitive to glyphosate. However, in the last years, some ryegrass plants have not been found to show significant toxicity symptoms after treatment with glyphosate, suggesting that they acquired resistance to this product. To evaluate the response of a ryegrass plant population to glyphosate, one field and two greenhouse experiments were carried out. The field experiment treatments had increasing rates of glyphosate (0; 360; 720; 1,440; 2,880; 5,760 and 11,520 g a.e. ha-1), in addition to the herbicides paraquat, glufosinate-ammonium, haloxyfop and diclofop-methyl as standards, sprayed at two different vegetative growth stages of ryegrass. The greenhouse experiments had increasing rates of glyphosate (0; 360; 720; 1,440; 2,880 and 5,760 g a.e. ha-1) plus the above listed check herbicides sprayed on biotypes considered resistant and on plants of one susceptible biotype. In the second greenhouse experiment, glyphosate rates (720; 1,440; 2,880; 720 + 720 and 720 + 1,440 g a.e. ha-1) were sprayed in single and sequential applications, in addition to the herbicides paraquat, glufosin

L., Vargas; E.S., Roman; M.A., Rizzardi; V.C., Silva.

142

Identificação de biótipos de azevém (Lolium multiflorum) resistentes ao herbicida glyphosate em pomares de maçã / Identification of glyphosate-resistant ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) biotypes in apple orchards  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O glyphosate é um herbicida de amplo espectro utilizado há mais de 15 anos em pomares de maçã na região de Vacaria-RS, para manejo da vegetação nas linhas da cultura. São realizadas, em geral, três a quatro aplicações por ciclo e a dose normalmente utilizada é de 720 a 1.080 g e.a. ha-1 de glyphosat [...] e (2 a 3 L ha-1 do produto comercial). O azevém (Lolium multiflorum) é uma planta daninha comum em pomares e, tradicionalmente, sensível ao glyphosate. Entretanto, nos últimos anos a ocorrência de plantas de azevém que, após receberem o tratamento com glyphosate, não manifestam sintomas significativos de toxicidade sugere que elas adquiriram resistência ao produto. Assim, com o objetivo de avaliar a resposta de uma população de plantas de azevém ao glyphosate, foram realizados três experimentos: um em campo e dois em casa de vegetação. No experimento em campo os tratamentos avaliados constaram de doses crescentes de glyphosate (0, 360, 720, 1.440, 2.880, 5.760 e 11.520 g e.a. ha-1), e os herbicidas paraquat, glufosinate, haloxyfop e diclofop foram empregados como produtos-padrão, aplicados em dois estádios vegetativos do azevém. No experimento em casa de vegetação, os tratamentos constaram de doses crescentes de glyphosate (0, 360, 720, 1.440, 2.880 e 5.760 g e.a. ha-1) mais os herbicidas testemunhas, aplicados sobre plantas do biótipo considerado resistente e de um sensível. No segundo experimento realizado em casa de vegetação foram avaliados tratamentos contendo glyphosate (720, 1.440, 2.880, 720 + 720 e 720 + 1.440 g e.a. ha-1), em aplicações únicas e seqüenciais, mais os herbicidas paraquat, glufosinate, haloxyfop, clethodim, sethoxydim, diclofop, fenoxaprop, fluazifop, paraquat + diuron, atrazine + simazine, trifluralin e metolachlor. A toxicidade dos tratamentos herbicidas foi avaliada aos 15, 30 e 45 DAT (dias após tratamento). Os resultados obtidos nos experimentos em campo e em casa de vegetação, de forma geral, evidenciam que o biótipo sensível é facilmente controlado com o herbicida glyphosate e pelos demais herbicidas pós-emergentes avaliados, independentemente do estádio vegetativo. Demonstram, ainda, que o biótipo resistente apresenta-se, igualmente ao biótipo sensível, altamente suscetível aos herbicidas com mecanismo de ação distinto daquele do glyphosate. No entanto, o biótipo resistente apresenta baixa resposta ao herbicida glyphosate, mesmo se este for empregado em altas doses, evidenciando ter adquirido resistência a esse produto. Abstract in english Glyphosate is a wide spectrum herbicide used for over 15 years in apple orchards in Vacaria-RS for weed control in rows of trees. Usually, 3 to 4 applications per year are made at a rate of 720 to 1080 g a.e. glyphosate ha-1 (2 to 3 L ha-1 of commercial product). Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) is a c [...] ommon weed in orchards and traditionally sensitive to glyphosate. However, in the last years, some ryegrass plants have not been found to show significant toxicity symptoms after treatment with glyphosate, suggesting that they acquired resistance to this product. To evaluate the response of a ryegrass plant population to glyphosate, one field and two greenhouse experiments were carried out. The field experiment treatments had increasing rates of glyphosate (0; 360; 720; 1,440; 2,880; 5,760 and 11,520 g a.e. ha-1), in addition to the herbicides paraquat, glufosinate-ammonium, haloxyfop and diclofop-methyl as standards, sprayed at two different vegetative growth stages of ryegrass. The greenhouse experiments had increasing rates of glyphosate (0; 360; 720; 1,440; 2,880 and 5,760 g a.e. ha-1) plus the above listed check herbicides sprayed on biotypes considered resistant and on plants of one susceptible biotype. In the second greenhouse experiment, glyphosate rates (720; 1,440; 2,880; 720 + 720 and 720 + 1,440 g a.e. ha-1) were sprayed in single and sequential applications, in addition to the herbicides paraquat, glufosin

L., Vargas; E.S., Roman; M.A., Rizzardi; V.C., Silva.

2004-12-01

143

Suppression of reduced sensitivity of eddy current testing depending on defect orientation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is generated on material structures in nuclear power plants. An eddy current testing (ECT) is used as a method for inspection techniques of a SCC. However when the eddy current direction is in parallel with defect direction, sensitivity of our ECT drops drown to one-quarter than a perpendicular direction. In order to prevent from this reduced sensitivity, Invert Exciting Method was developed. Adjacent exciter coils, which are located in two lines, are alternately opposite in phase of current. Therefore adjacent eddy currents, which are formed in the surface of metallic specimens, are also alternately opposite in phased of current. Then these eddy currents interfere with each other. Consequently eddy currents are inclined to scan direction. Using inclined eddy currents, the ECT has equal detection sensitivity for both defects parallel and perpendicular to scan direction. On the other hand, sensitivity drops down for defects in the same direction to inclined eddy currents. Then we added the function to inverse the phase for exciter coils in a set of line to the ECT system. Hereby the ECT can form symmetrical inclined eddy currents and prevent from reduced sensitivity. We applied Invert Exciting Method to the ECT system and conducted defect detection tests. As a result, we confirmed that detection sensitivity for both parallel and perpendicular defects are equal and Invert Exciting Method is effective in suppression of reduced sensitivity of the ECT depending on defect orientation. (author)

144

Growth and Yield of Glyphosate-Resistant Corn under Different Timing of Glyphosate Application  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted in 2002 in Langkat, North Sumatra, to determine the effects of glyphosate application timing on the growth and grain yield of glyphosate-resistant corn. Glyphosate at 1,500 g ha-1 was applied at twelve different treatments namely at the V3 stage, the V4 stage, the V5 stage, the V6 stage, the V7 stage, the V8 stage, the V9 stage, the V10 stage, the V12 stage, the V3 stage followed by at the V7 stage, the V3 stage followed by at V12 stage and the V4 stage followed by at V8 stage of glyphosate-resistant corn growth. In addition to the twelve treatments, two other treatments (maintained weed free all season and weed infested all season were provided for comparison. Competition between corn and weed at the beginning of growth prior to glyphosate application affected growth and yield of corn more than that of post application. Compared to yield resulted from weed-free plot all season, no significant grain yield were found when glyphosate was applied at the V3 stage, the V4 stage, the V3 and V7 stage, the V3 and V12 stage and the V4 and V8 stage. Single application of glyphosate at the V3 corn growth was found to be the best timing of glyphosate application for weed control in Langkat, North Sumatra conditions.

N. Desmarwansyah

2008-01-01

145

40 CFR 180.364 - Glyphosate; tolerances for residues.  

Science.gov (United States)

...IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.364 Glyphosate; tolerances for residues. (a) General . (1) Tolerances are established...the isopropylamine salt of glyphosate, the...Acerola 0.2 Alfalfa, seed 0.5...

2010-07-01

146

Histamine Reduces Flash Sensitivity of ON Ganglion Cells in the Primate Retina  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The retinas of primates, including humans, receive input from the brain via histaminergic axons emerging from the optic nerve. Exogenously applied histamine selectively reduces the sensitivity of ON-responding retinal ganglion cells. The significance of these findings is that central brain input to the retina, carried by the retinopetal axons of posterior hypothalamic neurons, serves to lower the sensitivity of the retina during the day, when the release of histamine is expected to be the hig...

Akimov, Nikolay P.; Marshak, David W.; Frishman, Laura J.; Glickman, Randolph D.; Yusupov, Rafail G.

2010-01-01

147

Molecular basis of glyphosate resistance: Different approaches through protein engineering  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Glyphosate (N-phosphonomethyl-glycine) is the most-used herbicide in the world: glyphosate-based formulations exhibit broad-spectrum herbicidal activity with minimal human and environmental toxicity. The extraordinary success of this simple small molecule is mainly due to the high specificity of glyphosate towards the plant enzyme enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase in the shikimate pathway leading to biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids. Starting in 1996, transgenic glyphosate-resistan...

Pollegioni, Loredano; Schonbrunn, Ernst; Siehl, Daniel

2011-01-01

148

Dessecação de plantas daninhas com glyphosate em mistura com ureia ou sulfato de amônio / Weed desiccation with glyphosate mixed with urea or ammonium sulfate  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O glyphosate é um herbicida não-seletivo, sistêmico, usado para controle de plantas daninhas anuais e perenes em todo o mundo. A absorção da molécula do glyphosate ocorre pelos tecidos fotossinteticamente ativos das plantas, porém alguns fatores podem reduzir sua eficácia, como a morfologia e divers [...] idade de espécies, chuva após aplicação, qualidade da água e misturas em tanque com outros defensivos, entre outros. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a influência da adição de sulfato de amônio ou ureia em calda na eficácia do herbicida glyphosate para dessecação de plantas daninhas. Dois experimentos foram desenvolvidos em Piracicaba - SP, com aplicações de glyphosate (720 e 1.440 g ha-1) isolado ou combinado com duas doses de sulfato de amônio (7,5 e 15,0 g L-1) ou ureia (2,5 e 5,0 g L-1) sobre as plantas daninhas: apaga-fogo (Alternanthera tenella) e capim-massambará (Sorghum halepense). Para a espécie menos suscetível ao herbicida (capim-massambará), a adição de fontes nitrogenadas à menor dose de glyphosate acelerou a morte das plantas, elevando os níveis de controle em até 7,3% na avaliação de 21 dias após aplicação (DAA) dos tratamentos. Contudo, os efeitos não foram observados nas avaliações de controle, massa fresca e seca, conduzidas aos 28 DAA. A dose recomendada de glyphosate para cada espécie proporcionou controle satisfatório, sem a necessidade de adição de sulfato de amônio ou ureia. Abstract in english Glyphosate is a non-selective systemic herbicide used to control annual and perennial weeds worldwide. Molecule absorption occurs through the plant's photosynthetically-active tissues; however, some factors might reduce its efficacy, such as morphology and specific diversity, rain after application, [...] water quality and tank mixtures with other chemicals. Thus, this work aimed to evaluate the influence of ammonium sulfate or urea addiction to spray tank on glyphosate efficacy for weed desiccation. Two trials were carried out in Piracicaba - SP, with applications of glyphosate (720 and 1440 g ha-1) alone or combined with two rates of ammonium sulfate (7.5 and 15.0 g L-1) or urea (2.5 and 5.0 g L-1), over the weeds Alternanthera tenella and Sorghum halepense. For the least susceptible species (S. halepense), the addition of nitrogen sources to the lower rate of glyphosate accelerated plant death, increasing the control levels up to 7.3%, at 21 days after application (DAA). However, the effects were not observed when control, fresh and dry mass were evaluated at 28 DAA. Glyphosate recommended rate for each species promoted appropriate control, without the need to add ammonium sulfate or urea.

S.J.P., Carvalho; V., Damin; A.C.R., Dias; M.S.C., Melo; M., Nicolai; P.J., Christoffoleti.

2009-06-01

149

Reduced basis technique for evaluating the sensitivity coefficients of the nonlinear tire response  

Science.gov (United States)

An efficient reduced-basis technique is proposed for calculating the sensitivity of nonlinear tire response to variations in the design variables. The tire is modeled using a 2-D, moderate rotation, laminated anisotropic shell theory, including the effects of variation in material and geometric parameters. The vector of structural response and its first-order and second-order sensitivity coefficients are each expressed as a linear combination of a small number of basis vectors. The effectiveness of the basis vectors used in approximating the sensitivity coefficients is demonstrated by a numerical example involving the Space Shuttle nose-gear tire, which is subjected to uniform inflation pressure.

Noor, Ahmed K.; Tanner, John A.; Peters, Jeanne M.

1992-01-01

150

[Glyphosate and its formulations--toxicity, occupational and environmental exposure].  

Science.gov (United States)

Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) is an active ingredient of the most widely used herbicide formulations in protecting agricultural and horticultural crops. Numerous results (mostly published in the years 2010-2013) concerning the action of glyphosate and its formulations in the recent decade were analyzed. Initial reports about alleged biodegradability of glyphosate in the environment turned out to be wrong. It has been shown that glyphosate remains in the soil and can reach people by spreading along with groundwater. Recent publications have shown that glyphosate is detected at low concentrations in the human blood. Publications cited in this article, which indicate a possible induction of neoplastic changes by glyphosate formulation, have raised great concern and controversy in the scientific world. Presenting adverse effects of glyphosate and its formulations we focused on the role of glyphosate formulations in hormonal disorders by impeding the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and the inhibition of aromatase activity. The impact of glyphosate on oxygen reactive species formation, changes in redox system and the effect on necrosis and apoptosis in various types of cells was shown. We also revealed that glyphosate as a phosphonate herbicide does not inhibit directly the activity of acetylcholinesterase. Based on numerous studies it was noted that commercial formulations of glyphosate exhibit higher toxicity than that of the active substance itself. The discussed problems clearly show the need to evaluate the toxicity of glyphosate and its formulations and related potential threat to humans. PMID:24502134

Kwiatkowska, Marta; Pawe?, Jarosiewicz; Bukowska, Bozena

2013-01-01

151

Glyphosate translocation in herbicide tolerant plants Translocação do glyphosate em plantas tolerantes ao herbicida  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate glyphosate translocation in glyphosate-tolerant weed species (I. nil, T. procumbens and S. latifolia compared to glyphosate-susceptible species (B. pilosa. The evaluations of 14C-glyphosate absorption and translocation were performed at 6, 12, 36 and 72 hours after treatment (HAT in I. nil and B. pilosa, and only at 72 HAT in the species T. procumbens and S. latifolia. The plants were collected and fractionated into application leaf, other leaves, stems, and roots. In S. latifolia, approximately 88% of the glyphosate remained in the application leaf and a small amount was translocated to roots at 72 HAT. However, 75% of the herbicide applied on T. procumbens remained in the leaf that had received the treatment, with greater glyphosate translocation to the floral bud. It was concluded that the smaller amount of glyphosate observed in S. latifolia and T. procumbens may partly account for their higher tolerance to glyphosate. However, I. nil tolerance to glyphosate may be associated with other factors such as metabolization, root exudation or compartmentalization, because a large amount of the herbicide reached the roots of this species.Objetivou-se neste estudo avaliar a translocação de glyphosate em plantas tolerantes (Ipomoea nil, Tridax procumbens e Spermacoce latifolia e suscetível (Bidens pilosa a esse herbicida. As avaliações de absorção e translocação do 14C-glyphosate em I. nil e B. pilosa foram efetuadas às 6, 12, 36 e 72 horas após a aplicação do herbicida (HAT, e em T. procumbens e S. latifolia, às 72 HAT. As plantas foram coletadas e fracionadas em: folha de aplicação, demais folhas, caules e raízes; em T. procumbens e S. latifolia, avaliou-se a presença do produto na inflorescência da planta. Em S. latifolia, aproximadamente 88% do glyphosate permaneceu na folha de aplicação, e pequena quantidade translocou para as raízes. Todavia, em T. procumbens, 75% do herbicida permaneceu na folha que recebeu a aplicação, observando-se maior translocação na inflorescência em relação às raízes. Conclui-se que a menor translocação do glyphosate observada em S. latifolia e T. procumbens pode ser um dos fatores responsáveis pela maior tolerância dessas espécies ao herbicida, ao passo que em I. nil a metabolização, a exsudação radicular ou a compartimentalização podem favorecer a tolerância, já que grande quantidade do produto atingiu as raízes da espécie.

L Galon

2013-03-01

152

Glyphosate translocation in herbicide tolerant plants / Translocação do glyphosate em plantas tolerantes ao herbicida  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se neste estudo avaliar a translocação de glyphosate em plantas tolerantes (Ipomoea nil, Tridax procumbens e Spermacoce latifolia) e suscetível (Bidens pilosa) a esse herbicida. As avaliações de absorção e translocação do 14C-glyphosate em I. nil e B. pilosa foram efetuadas às 6, 12, 36 e [...] 72 horas após a aplicação do herbicida (HAT), e em T. procumbens e S. latifolia, às 72 HAT. As plantas foram coletadas e fracionadas em: folha de aplicação, demais folhas, caules e raízes; em T. procumbens e S. latifolia, avaliou-se a presença do produto na inflorescência da planta. Em S. latifolia, aproximadamente 88% do glyphosate permaneceu na folha de aplicação, e pequena quantidade translocou para as raízes. Todavia, em T. procumbens, 75% do herbicida permaneceu na folha que recebeu a aplicação, observando-se maior translocação na inflorescência em relação às raízes. Conclui-se que a menor translocação do glyphosate observada em S. latifolia e T. procumbens pode ser um dos fatores responsáveis pela maior tolerância dessas espécies ao herbicida, ao passo que em I. nil a metabolização, a exsudação radicular ou a compartimentalização podem favorecer a tolerância, já que grande quantidade do produto atingiu as raízes da espécie. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate glyphosate translocation in glyphosate-tolerant weed species (I. nil, T. procumbens and S. latifolia) compared to glyphosate-susceptible species (B. pilosa). The evaluations of 14C-glyphosate absorption and translocation were performed at 6, 12, 36 and 72 [...] hours after treatment (HAT) in I. nil and B. pilosa, and only at 72 HAT in the species T. procumbens and S. latifolia. The plants were collected and fractionated into application leaf, other leaves, stems, and roots. In S. latifolia, approximately 88% of the glyphosate remained in the application leaf and a small amount was translocated to roots at 72 HAT. However, 75% of the herbicide applied on T. procumbens remained in the leaf that had received the treatment, with greater glyphosate translocation to the floral bud. It was concluded that the smaller amount of glyphosate observed in S. latifolia and T. procumbens may partly account for their higher tolerance to glyphosate. However, I. nil tolerance to glyphosate may be associated with other factors such as metabolization, root exudation or compartmentalization, because a large amount of the herbicide reached the roots of this species.

L, Galon; E.A, Ferreira; I, Aspiazú; G, Concenço; A.F, Silva; A.A, Silva; L, Vargas.

2013-03-01

153

Research Note: Reducing the Threat of Sensitive Questions in Online Surveys?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We explore the effect of offering an open-ended comment field in a Web survey to reduce the threat of sensitive questions. Two experiments were field in a probability-based Web panel in the Netherlands. For a set of 10 items on attitudes to immigrants, a random half were offered the opportunity to explain or clarify their responses, with the hypothesis being that doing so would reduce the need to choose socially desirable answers, resulting in higher levels of prejudice. Across...

Couper, Mick P.

2013-01-01

154

Eficiência fotossintética e uso da água em plantas de eucalipto pulverizadas com glyphosate / Photosynthetic efficiency and water use in eucalyptus plants sprayed with glyphosate  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a eficiência fotossintética e o uso da água por plantas de clones de eucalipto submetidas ao herbicida glyphosate. O experimento foi realizado em esquema fatorial 4 x 5, com quatro clones de eucalipto (57, 386, 1203 e 1213) e quatro doses de glyphosate (43,2; 8 [...] 6,2; 129,6; e 172,8 g ha-1) e uma testemunha sem herbicida, considerada dose zero, com quatro repetições. Aos 7, 14, 21 e 28 dias após aplicação do herbicida (DAA) foi avaliada a intoxicação das plantas, e aos 7 e 21 DAA, o fluxo de gases pelos estômatos (U - mmol s-1), a atividade fotossintética (A - mmol m-2 s-1), a condutância estomática (Gs - mol m-1 s-1), a transpiração (E - mol H2O m-2 s-1) e a eficiência do uso da água (QUE - mol CO2 mol H2O-1). Aos 50 DAA, as plantas de eucalipto foram coletadas e colocadas em estufa de ventilação forçada a 70 ºC até atingirem massa constante. Aos 21 DAA, o clone 1203 comportou-se como mais sensível ao herbicida. Não houve diferença entre clones para as variáveis fisiológicas avaliadas. Aos 21 DAA constatou-se que, com o incremento da dose de glyphosate, houve redução na condutância estomática, na taxa de fluxo de gases pelos estômatos, na taxa fotossintética e na eficiência do uso da água. Plantas dos clones 1213 e 1203 apresentaram maior acúmulo de massa seca. O aumento da dose do glyphosate promoveu menor acúmulo de massa seca das plantas de eucalipto. O glyphosate afetou negativamente o crescimento e a eficiência fotossintética e de uso da água dos clones estudados. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to assess the photosynthetic efficiency and water use by eucalyptus clones submitted to the herbicide glyphosate. The experiment was performed in a 4 x 5 factorial, with four eucalyptus clones (57, 386, 1203 and 1213), four doses of glyphosate (43.2, 86.2, 129.6 and 1 [...] 72.8 g ha-1) and a control without herbicide, considered zero dose, with four replications. At 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after herbicide application (DAA), plant intoxication was evaluated and at 7 and 21 DAA, stomatal gas flow (U - mmol s-1), photosynthetic activity (A -mmol m-2 s-1), stomatal conductance (Gs - mol m-1 s-1), transpiration (E - mol H2O m-2 s-1) and water use efficiency (WUE - mol CO2 mol H2O-1). At 50 DAA, the eucalyptus plants were collected and placed in a forced-ventilation oven at 70 °C until constant weight to determine dry mass. At 21 DAA, clone 1203 was found to be the most sensitive to the herbicide. There was no difference among the clones for the assessed physiological variables. At 21DAA, it was verified that increasing doses of glyphosate led to a reduction in stomatal conductance, stomatal gas flow rate, photosynthetic rate and water use efficiency. Plants of clones 1213 and 1203 showed a higher accumulation of dry mass. Increasing doses of glyphosate promoted less accumulation of dry mass in the eucalyptus plants. Glyphosate negatively affected growth, photosynthetic efficiency and water use of the evaluated clones.

A.F.L., Machado; L.R., Ferreira; L.D.T., Santos; F.A., Ferreira; R.G., Viana; M.S., Machado; F.C.L., Freitas.

155

The effect of reduced oxygen levels on the electrostatic ignition sensitivity of dusts  

Science.gov (United States)

When handling powders with low values of minimum ignition energy (MIE), it is often necessary to employ additional protective measures such as explosion venting, suppression, containment or inerting. Inerting generally involves reducing the oxygen concentration to around 5% v/v; however, it has been shown with gases that more modest reductions in the oxygen content can still have a significant effect on the MIE. Therefore, a test program was carried out to assess the impact of reduced oxygen levels on the MIE of a series of sensitive powders. In addition, this work was also used to investigate whether testing of such sensitive materials in the standard equipment but with reduced oxygen levels could enable the prediction of MIEs <1 mJ at standard atmospheric oxygen levels.

Ackroyd, Graham; Bailey, Mike; Mullins, Robert

2011-06-01

156

Growth and Yield of Glyphosate-Resistant Corn under Different Timing of Glyphosate Application  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A field experiment was conducted in 2002 in Langkat, North Sumatra, to determine the effects of glyphosate application timing on the growth and grain yield of glyphosate-resistant corn. Glyphosate at 1,500 g ha-1 was applied at twelve different treatments namely at the V3 stage, the V4 stage, the V5 stage, the V6 stage, the V7 stage, the V8 stage, the V9 stage, the V10 stage, the V12 stage, the V3 stage followed by at the V7 stage, the V3 stage followed by at V12 stage and t...

Desmarwansyah, N.; Purba, E.

2008-01-01

157

Aplicação foliar de manganês em soja transgênica tolerante ao glyphosate Foliar application of manganese in transgenic soybean tolerant to glyphosate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O amarelecimento da soja Roundup Ready após aplicação do glyphosate pode estar associado à deficiência momentânea de manganês. Por isso, com a hipótese de que soja tolerante ao glyphosate necessitaria de uma adição suplementar de manganês, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar diferentes manejos na aplicação foliar de manganês sobre alguns parâmetros da soja. Foram desenvolvidos dois experimentos, um no município de Taquaruçú do Sul e outro em Boa Vista das Missões, RS, no ano agrícola 2009/2010. Foram testados os seguintes tratamentos: 1 sem aplicação de glyphosate, com controle manual das plantas daninhas e sem aplicação foliar de manganês (testemunha; 2 sem aplicação de glyphosate, com controle manual das plantas daninhas e uma aplicação foliar de manganês sete dias após esse controle manual das plantas daninhas; 3 com aplicação de glyphosate e sem aplicação foliar de manganês; 4 aplicação de glyphosate em mistura com manganês; 5 aplicação de glyphosate mais uma aplicação foliar de manganês sete dias após aplicação do glyphosate; 6 aplicação de glyphosate mais aplicação foliar de manganês parcelada em duas épocas, aos 7 e 14 dias após aplicação do glyphosate; 7 aplicação de glyphosate e uma aplicação foliar de manganês aos 14 dias após aplicação de glyphosate. A aplicação de glyphosate foi realizada no estádio V5 da soja, na dose de 720g L-1 e.a, enquanto a dose de Mn utilizada foi 2,0L ha-1 de uma formulação contendo 14% (m/v de manganês solúvel. Não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos para as variáveis estatura de plantas e altura de inserção da primeira vagem. A aplicação de glyphosate não afetou a absorção e o teor foliar de manganês e nitrogênio na cultura da soja. Mesmo com aumento no teor foliar de manganês com a suplementação de manganês, não houve incremento na produtividade da soja. Isso mostra que em solos com teores de Mn acima do suficiente a aplicação do herbicida glifosato não requer a suplementação foliar de manganês em soja geneticamente modificada tolerante a esse herbicida.The yellowing of Roundup Ready soybean after glyphosate application, can be associated to a momentary manganese deficiency. Because of that, with the hypothesis that glyphosate tolerant soybean would need supplementary addition of manganese, the objective of this research was to evaluate different managements in the foliar application of manganese in some soybean parameters. It was developed two experiments, one at Taquaruçú do Sul and other at Boa Vista das Missões, RS in the year of 2009/2010. It was tested the following treatments: 1 without glyphosate application with manual weed control and without manganese foliar application (untreated check; 2 without glyphosate application with manual weed control and one manganese foliar application at 7 days after this manual weed control; 3 with glyphosate application and without manganese foliar application; 4 glyphosate application in mixture with manganese; 5 glyphosate application added of one manganese foliar application at 7 days after glyphosate application; 6 glyphosate application added of manganese foliar application split in two times, at 7 and 14 days after glyphosate application; 7 glyphosate application and one of manganese foliar application at 14 days after glyphosate application. The glyphosate application was realized in the V5 soybean stage, using 720g L-1 i.e, while the used dose of Mn was 2.0L ha-1 of a formulation with 14% (m/v of Mn. There were no significant difference among the treatments to plant height and height insertion of the first legume. The glyphosate application did not affect the absorption and the foliar amount of manganese and nitrogen in soybean crop. Even with the increase in foliar manganese amount, there was no increasing in soybean productivity. This shows that in soils with Mn levels above of the sufficient, it is not necessary foliar manganese addition in genetically modified soybean tolerant to glyphosate.

Claudir José Basso

2011-10-01

158

Alteração das características biológicas dos biótipos de azevém (Lolium multiflorum) ocasionada pela resistência ao herbicida glyphosate / Change in the biological characteristics of ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) biotypes caused by resistance to the herbicide glyphosate  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A resistência de biótipos de azevém ao herbicida glyphosate está alterando o manejo da vegetação de cobertura do solo em pomares de maçã. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a dose de glyphosate necessária para reduzir 50% do acúmulo de matéria seca (GR50), a resposta do biótipo resistente e se [...] nsível a herbicidas graminicidas e o acúmulo de matéria seca destes biótipos durante o ciclo. Para isso, foram conduzidos três experimentos. No primeiro, os tratamentos constaram de doses crescentes de glyphosate aplicadas sobre plantas dos biótipos resistente e sensível para determinar o GR50. No segundo experimento, os tratamentos constaram de doses dos herbicidas glyphosate, haloxyfop-r, diclofop, fluazifop-p, fenoxaprop-p e paraquat. No terceiro experimento, sementes dos biótipos resistente e sensível foram semeadas em recipientes com capacidade para 10 L e as plantas originadas delas foram colhidas quinzenalmente, para determinação da matéria seca da parte aérea, radicular e total. Como resultados, foi obtido GR50 de 287,5 e de 4.833,5 g e.a. ha-1 de glyphosate para os biótipos sensível e resistente, respectivamente, e verificou-se que existem diferenças significativas na resposta dos biótipos aos herbicidas graminicidas, dependendo da dose utilizada. Além disso, o biótipo sensível evidenciou maior capacidade de acúmulo de matéria seca e produção de sementes. Constatouse, assim, fator de resistência (FR) de 16,8 e que o mecanismo de resistência provoca alterações nas características biológicas do biótipo resistente e afeta a sensibilidade deste aos herbicidas graminicidas. Abstract in english The identification of ryegrass biotypes resistant to glyphosate is causing changes in weed management in apple orchards. Three experiments were carried out to determine the GR50 of the biotypes, to grass herbicides and dry matter accumulation. The first experiment tested different rates of glyphosat [...] e. Their effects on GR50 dry matter accumulation by the biotype were assessed. In the second experiment different rates of glyphosate and grass herbicides were tested: glyphosate, haloxyfop-r, diclofop, fluazifop-p, fenoxaprop-p and paraquat. A third experiments was carried out under glasshouse conditions to determine the curve of dry matter accumulation. The results showed GR50 of 287.5 and 4,833.5 g e. a. ha-1 of glyphosate for the sensitive and resistant biotypes, respectively. The results showed that the resistant factor (RF) was 16.8 and that the resistance mechanism alters the biological characteristics of the resistant biotype affecting its sensitivity to grass herbicides.

L., Vargas; E.S., Roman; M.A., Rizzardi; V.C., Silva.

2005-03-01

159

Water use efficiency by coffee arabica after glyphosate application / Eficiência do uso da água pelo cafeeiro arábica após aplicação de glyphosate  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Muitos cafeicultores utilizam o glyphosate em aplicações dirigidas. Nessas aplicações são constatados intoxicações. Através do efeito negativo direto na fotossíntese, ou indiretamente, reduzindo da taxa metabólica da planta, acredita-se que possam influenciar a eficiência do uso da água. Objetivou-s [...] e no trabalho averiguar as variáveis relacionadas ao uso da água entre cultivares de café submetidos a aplicação de subdoses de glyphosate e os efeitos de cada dose. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação utilizando-se três cultivares de cafeeiro (Coffea arabica): Acaiá (MG-6851), Catucaí Amarelo (2 SL) e Topázio (MG-1190) e, três subdoses do glyphosate (0,0; 115,2 e 460,8 g ha-1 do equivalente ácido), em esquema fatorial 3 x 3. Aos 15 DAA observou-se redução da condutância estomática. Constatou-se menor taxa de transpiração e eficiência do uso da água na quarta folha aos 15 dias após a aplicação. 45 dias após aplicação ocorreu queda da transpiração, sendo que, o Acaiá apresentou redução com aplicação de 115,2 g ha-1. O glyphosate reduziu a eficiência do uso da água, apresentando efeitos transitórios, mas que podem causar atraso no crescimento e produção do cafeeiro. O cultivar Acaiá foi o mais tolerante ao glyphosate, não alterando sua eficiência do uso da água com aplicação do herbicida. Abstract in english Many coffee growers apply glyphosate in directed applications, but some phytotoxicity has been noted. It is believed some herbicides can exert a direct or indirect negative effect on photosynthesis by reducing the metabolic rate in a way that can affect the water use efficiency. The objective of thi [...] s study was to investigate the variables related to water use among coffee cultivars subjected to the application of glyphosate and the effects of each dose. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse using three varieties of coffee (Coffea arabica), Acaiá (MG-6851), Catucaí Amarelo (2SL) and Topázio (MG-1190), and three doses of glyphosate (0.0, 115.2 and 460.8 g acid equivalent ha-1), in a factorial 3 x 3 design. At 15 days after application, a reduction in stomatal conductance was observed, and smaller transpiration rate and water use efficiency were found in the fourth leaf at 15 days after application. There was a decrease in the transpiration rate at 45 DAA, with the Acaiá cultivar showing reductions with 115.2 g ha-1. There was transitory reduction in water use efficiency with glyphosate application, but can affect the growth and production. The Acaiá cultivar showed the highest tolerance to glyphosate because the water use efficiency after herbicide application.

Felipe Paolinelli de, Carvalho; André Cabral, França; Bruna Pereira de, Souza; Cíntia Maria Teixeira, Fialho; José Barbosa dos, Santos; Antonio Alberto da, Silva.

2014-09-01

160

Glyphosate surfactant herbicide poisoning and management  

Science.gov (United States)

Glyphosate is a widely used herbicide in agriculture, forestry, industrial weed control and aquatic environments. Glyphosate potential as herbicide was first reported in 1971. It is a non-selective herbicide. It can cause a wide range of clinical manifestations in human beings like skin and throat irritation to hypotension, oliguria and death. We are reporting a case of a 35-year-old male patient who was admitted to our tertiary care hospital following intentional ingestion of around 200 ml of herbicide containing glyphosate. Initially, gastric lavage done and the patient was managed with intubation and mechanical ventilation, noradrenaline and vasopressin infusion, continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration and intravenous (IV) lipid emulsion (20% intralipid 100 ml), patient was successfully treated and discharged home. This case report emphasizes on timely systemic supportive measure as a sole method of treatment since this poison has no known specific antidote and the use of IV lipid emulsion for a successful outcome. PMID:24914265

Mahendrakar, Kranthi; Venkategowda, Pradeep M.; Rao, S. Manimala; Mutkule, Dnyaneshwar P.

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Novel three-dimensional acquisition order with reduced motion sensitivity for MR imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on acquisition order for three-dimensional (3D) volumetric MR imaging that provides considerably reduced motion sensitivity in the imaging of moving structures. In a standard 3D pulse sequence, all phase-encoding values of ky are acquired sequentially for each value of kz. Because of the long time delay between acquiring successive kz values, this strategy is highly susceptible to image corruption due to motion. For our proposed 3D square spiral acquisition order, phase encodings were acquired beginning at the central ky- kz value and then sequentially outward in a square spiral pattern. Motion sensitivity was assessed by simulation and experimental phantom and in vivo studies

162

Post-treatment with plant extracts used in Brazilian folk medicine caused a partial reversal of the antiproliferative effect of glyphosate in the Allium cepa test  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in english Species of the genus Psychotria are used for multiple purposes in Brazilian folk medicine, either as water infusions, baths or poultices. This study was aimed to evaluate the genotoxic and antiproliferative effects of infusions of Psychotria brachypoda and P. birotula on the Allium cepa test. Exposu [...] re to distilled water was used as a negative control, while exposure to glyphosate was used as a positive control. The interaction of extracts (as a post-treatment) with the effects of glyphosate was also studied. Results showed that glyphosate and the extracts of both P. brachypoda and P. birotula reduced the mitotic index as compared with the negative control (distilled water). Surprisingly, however, both extracts from P. brachypoda and P. birotula caused a partial reversal of the antiproliferative effect of glyphosate when used as a post-treatment. Glyphosate also induced the highest number of cells with chromosomal alterations, which was followed by that of P. birotula extracts. However, the extracts from P. brachypoda did not show any significant genotoxic effect. Post-treatment of glyphosate-treated samples with distilled water allowed a partial recovery of the genotoxic effect of glyphosate, and some of the Psychotria extracts also did so. Notably, post-treatment of glyphosate-treated samples with P. brachypoda extracts induced a statistically significant apoptotic effect. It is concluded that P. brachypoda extracts show antiproliferative effects and are not genotoxic, while extracts of P. birotula show a less potent antiproliferative effect and may induce chromosomal abnormalities. The finding of a partial reversion of the effects of glyphosate by a post-treatment with extracts from both plants should be followed up.

Viviane, Dal-Souto Frescura; Andrielle, Wouters Kuhn; Haywood Dail, Laughinghouse Iv; Juçara, Terezinha Paranhos; Solange, Bosio Tedesco.

2013-08-01

163

Post-treatment with plant extracts used in Brazilian folk medicine caused a partial reversal of the antiproliferative effect of glyphosate in the Allium cepa test  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in english Species of the genus Psychotria are used for multiple purposes in Brazilian folk medicine, either as water infusions, baths or poultices. This study was aimed to evaluate the genotoxic and antiproliferative effects of infusions of Psychotria brachypoda and P. birotula on the Allium cepa test. Exposu [...] re to distilled water was used as a negative control, while exposure to glyphosate was used as a positive control. The interaction of extracts (as a post-treatment) with the effects of glyphosate was also studied. Results showed that glyphosate and the extracts of both P. brachypoda and P. birotula reduced the mitotic index as compared with the negative control (distilled water). Surprisingly, however, both extracts from P. brachypoda and P. birotula caused a partial reversal of the antiproliferative effect of glyphosate when used as a post-treatment. Glyphosate also induced the highest number of cells with chromosomal alterations, which was followed by that of P. birotula extracts. However, the extracts from P. brachypoda did not show any significant genotoxic effect. Post-treatment of glyphosate-treated samples with distilled water allowed a partial recovery of the genotoxic effect of glyphosate, and some of the Psychotria extracts also did so. Notably, post-treatment of glyphosate-treated samples with P. brachypoda extracts induced a statistically significant apoptotic effect. It is concluded that P. brachypoda extracts show antiproliferative effects and are not genotoxic, while extracts of P. birotula show a less potent antiproliferative effect and may induce chromosomal abnormalities. The finding of a partial reversion of the effects of glyphosate by a post-treatment with extracts from both plants should be followed up.

Viviane, Dal-Souto Frescura; Andrielle, Wouters Kuhn; Haywood Dail, Laughinghouse Iv; Juçara, Terezinha Paranhos; Solange, Bosio Tedesco.

164

Glyphosate como regulador de crescimento em arroz de terras altas / Use of glyphosate as growth regulator in upland rice  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O acamamento de algumas cultivares de arroz, no momento da colheita, acarreta perdas significativas na produtividade e, além disto, manejos de água e nitrogênio inadequados, em condições de alta tecnologia, agravam, ainda mais, o problema. O uso de reguladores vegetais é uma das alternativas para se [...] reduzir o acamamento, entretanto, as informações sobre o assunto são escassas. O trabalho objetivou avaliar o uso de subdoses de glyphosate (26 g ha-1, 52 g ha-1, 78 g ha-1, 104 g ha-1, 130 g ha-1, 156 g ha-1 e 182 g ha-1) sobre as características agronômicas, desenvolvimento e produtividade do arroz de terras altas irrigado por aspersão, aplicadas na época da diferenciação floral. O experimento foi desenvolvido no município de Selvíria (MS), durante os anos agrícolas 2008/2009 e 2009/2010. O aumento das subdoses de glyphosate, aplicadas na época da diferenciação floral da cultivar Primavera, reduziu a altura de plantas, o tamanho das panículas e, consequentemente, a produtividade. Subdoses iguais ou superiores a 78 g ha-1 eliminaram o acamamento de plantas. Abstract in english The lodging of some rice cultivars at harvest time can lead to significant losses in yield, and the inappropriate water and nitrogen management, under high-tech conditions, can aggravate the problem. The use of vegetal regulators is an alternative to reduce lodging, however, information on this topi [...] c are rare. The study aimed to evaluate the application of glyphosate sub doses (26 g ha-1, 52 g ha-1, 78 g ha-1, 104 g ha-1, 130 g ha-1, 156 g ha-1, and 182 g ha-1) on agronomical traits, development, and yield of upland rice crops irrigated by aspersion, during the floral differentiation period. The experiment was carried out in Selvíria, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, through the agricultural years of 2008/2009 and 2009/2010. The increase of glyphosate sub doses, at the floral differentiation period of the Primavera cultivar, reduced the plants height, panicle size, and, consequently, yield. Sub doses higher than or equal to 78 g ha-1 eliminated the plants lodging process.

Douglas de Castilho, Gitti; Orivaldo, Arf; Igor Balbi Guirão, Peron; José Roberto, Portugal; Daiene Camila Dias Chaves, Corsini; Ricardo Antônio Ferreira, Rodrigues.

165

Efeito de concentrações de espalhante adesionante e doses de glyphosate no controle de Brachiaria decumbens e Panicum maximum Effects of adhesive spreading and glyphosate on Brachiaria decumbens and Panicum maximum control  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foram avaliadas as interações entre o glyphosate e o espalhante adesionante correspondente ao condensado de alcoolfenóis com óxido de eteno e sulfonados orgânicos quanto à redução de tensão superficial e ao controle de Panicum maximum e Brachiaria decumbens. Os produtos comerciais apresentavam 360 g e.a./l e 466 g i.a./l, respectivamente. O herbicida reduziu o efeito do espalhante sobre a tensão superficial. Na concentração de 0,1% de p.c., o espalhante maximizou o controle das duas espécies pelo glyphosate. P. maximum mostrou-se menos sensível ao glyphosate que B. decumbens, exigindo doses 24,05% superiores.The interactions of glyphosate and one adhesive spreading (concentrate of alcoholphenols with ethene-oxide and organic sulfonates in reducing the surface tension and controlling Brachiaria decumbens and Panicum maximum were evaluated. It were used comercial products with 360 g a.e/l and 466 g i.a./l, respectivelly. To achieve similar control levels, the herbicide rates should be 24,05% higher for the second species. The herbicide reduced the effect of the surfactant on surface tension. The concentration of 0,1 % (c.p. of the surfactant maximized the efficacy of glyphosate in controlling the two grasses.

Edivaldo D. Velini

2000-08-01

166

Aplicação foliar de manganês em soja transgênica tolerante ao glyphosate / Foliar application of manganese in transgenic soybean tolerant to glyphosate  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O amarelecimento da soja Roundup Ready após aplicação do glyphosate pode estar associado à deficiência momentânea de manganês. Por isso, com a hipótese de que soja tolerante ao glyphosate necessitaria de uma adição suplementar de manganês, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar diferentes manejos na [...] aplicação foliar de manganês sobre alguns parâmetros da soja. Foram desenvolvidos dois experimentos, um no município de Taquaruçú do Sul e outro em Boa Vista das Missões, RS, no ano agrícola 2009/2010. Foram testados os seguintes tratamentos: 1) sem aplicação de glyphosate, com controle manual das plantas daninhas e sem aplicação foliar de manganês (testemunha); 2) sem aplicação de glyphosate, com controle manual das plantas daninhas e uma aplicação foliar de manganês sete dias após esse controle manual das plantas daninhas; 3) com aplicação de glyphosate e sem aplicação foliar de manganês; 4) aplicação de glyphosate em mistura com manganês; 5) aplicação de glyphosate mais uma aplicação foliar de manganês sete dias após aplicação do glyphosate; 6) aplicação de glyphosate mais aplicação foliar de manganês parcelada em duas épocas, aos 7 e 14 dias após aplicação do glyphosate; 7) aplicação de glyphosate e uma aplicação foliar de manganês aos 14 dias após aplicação de glyphosate. A aplicação de glyphosate foi realizada no estádio V5 da soja, na dose de 720g L-1 e.a, enquanto a dose de Mn utilizada foi 2,0L ha-1 de uma formulação contendo 14% (m/v) de manganês solúvel. Não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos para as variáveis estatura de plantas e altura de inserção da primeira vagem. A aplicação de glyphosate não afetou a absorção e o teor foliar de manganês e nitrogênio na cultura da soja. Mesmo com aumento no teor foliar de manganês com a suplementação de manganês, não houve incremento na produtividade da soja. Isso mostra que em solos com teores de Mn acima do suficiente a aplicação do herbicida glifosato não requer a suplementação foliar de manganês em soja geneticamente modificada tolerante a esse herbicida. Abstract in english The yellowing of Roundup Ready soybean after glyphosate application, can be associated to a momentary manganese deficiency. Because of that, with the hypothesis that glyphosate tolerant soybean would need supplementary addition of manganese, the objective of this research was to evaluate different m [...] anagements in the foliar application of manganese in some soybean parameters. It was developed two experiments, one at Taquaruçú do Sul and other at Boa Vista das Missões, RS in the year of 2009/2010. It was tested the following treatments: 1) without glyphosate application with manual weed control and without manganese foliar application (untreated check); 2) without glyphosate application with manual weed control and one manganese foliar application at 7 days after this manual weed control; 3) with glyphosate application and without manganese foliar application; 4) glyphosate application in mixture with manganese; 5) glyphosate application added of one manganese foliar application at 7 days after glyphosate application; 6) glyphosate application added of manganese foliar application split in two times, at 7 and 14 days after glyphosate application; 7) glyphosate application and one of manganese foliar application at 14 days after glyphosate application. The glyphosate application was realized in the V5 soybean stage, using 720g L-1 i.e, while the used dose of Mn was 2.0L ha-1 of a formulation with 14% (m/v) of Mn. There were no significant difference among the treatments to plant height and height insertion of the first legume. The glyphosate application did not affect the absorption and the foliar amount of manganese and nitrogen in soybean crop. Even with the increase in foliar manganese amount, there was no increasing in soybean productivity. This shows that in soils with Mn levels above of the suffic

Claudir José, Basso; Antônio Luis, Santi; Fabiane Pinto, Lamego; Eduardo, Girotto.

1726-17-01

167

Influência do Glyphosate sobre a nodulação e o crescimento de cultivares de soja resistente ao Glyphosate / Glyphosate influence on growth and nodulation of Glyphosate resistant soybean cultivars  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A soja resistente ao glyphosate (RR) é uma tecnologia que vem acrescentar mais uma ferramenta ao manejo de plantas daninhas para essa cultura, que possui a maior área plantada em nosso país. Por se tratar de uma técnica recente tanto no Brasil quanto no mundo, é preciso estudos buscando informações [...] para o uso correto desta importante e cada vez mais freqüente prática agrícola: o cultivo de soja transgênica. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar os efeitos causados pelas aplicações de glyphosate sobre 20 cultivares de soja RR. As doses utilizadas foram: testemunha sem herbicida; glyphosate em aplicação seqüencial de 0,54/0,36 kg equivalente ácido (e.a.) ha-1, aos 12/24 dias após a emergência (DAE); glyphosate em aplicação única de 0,72 kg e.a. ha-1, aos 20 DAE; glyphosate em aplicação seqüencial de 0,72/0,54 kg ha-1, aos 12/24 DAE; e glyphosate em aplicação única de 0,90 kg ha-1, aos 24 DAE. Foram avaliadas as variáveis matéria seca do sistema radicular (MSSR), matéria seca da parte aérea (MSPA), matéria seca dos nódulos acumulados (MSNT) e número de nódulos acumulados (NN). Os cultivares que demonstraram maior suscetibilidade às aplicações de glyphosate foram: MSOY 8008 RR, ANTA RR, CD 213 RR, MSOY 8100 RR, VALIOSA RR, CD 219 RR, MSOY 6001 RR, CRISTALINA RR e BRS 247 RR, apresentando reduções de pelo menos três das quatro variáveis estudadas. BRS 242 RR, BRS 243 RR, BRS 244 RR, BRS 246 RR, CD 214 RR, MSOY 8151 RR, MSOY 9000 RR e BRS 245 RR foram as mais tolerantes, pois não sofreram reduções significativas em nenhuma ou em uma das variáveis avaliadas. De modo geral, a MSSR foi mais afetada pela modalidade de aplicação do que pela dose de glyphosate; por outro lado, a MSPA e a nodulação foram mais afetadas em cultivares de ciclo mais longo, em relação às variedades de ciclo precoce. A nodulação também foi menos afetada pelo glyphosate em variedades do grupo BRS, comparada aos demais materiais genéticos. Abstract in english Glyphosate resistant soybean (GR) is a new technological tool in weed management applied in soybean culture, which accounts for the largest area planted in Brazil. Since it has been only recently applied in Brazil and abroad, further studies are needed to search for useful information on the correct [...] use of this important and increasingly applied agricultural practice: the cultivation of GR soybean. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effects caused by glyphosate applications on twenty GR soybean cultivars. The rates applied were: check without herbicide; sequential application of glyphosate at 0.54/0.36 kg acid equivalent (AE) ha ¹, at 12/24 days after emergence (DAE); single application of glyphosate at 0.72 kg a.i. ha-1, at 20 DAE; sequential application of glyphosate at 0.72/0.54 kg a.i. ha-1, at 12/24 DAE; single application of glyphosate at 0.90 kg ha-1, at 24 DAE. The variables root dry weight (RDW), shoot dry weight (SDW), accumulated nodule dry weight (ANDW) and number of accumulated nodules (NAN) were evaluated. The cultivars MSOY 8008 RR, ANTA RR, CD 213 RR, MSOY 8100 RR, VALIOSA RR, CD 219 RR, MSOY 6001 RR, CRISTALINA RR and BRS 247 RR showed the highest susceptibility to the glyphosate applications, with reductions in at least three out of the four variables studied. BRS 242 RR, BRS 243 RR, BRS 244 RR, BRS 246 RR, CD 214 RR, MSOY 8151 RR, MSOY 9000 RR and BRS 245 RR showed the highest tolerance, with no significant reductions or only in one of the four assessed variables. In general, RDW was more affected by the mode of application than the glyphosate rate; however, SDW and nodulation (ANDW and NAN) were more affected in the longer cycle cultivars, compared to the earlier cycle varieties. Nodulation was also less affected by glyphosate in the BRS variety group, compared to other genetic materials.

R.S., Oliveira JR.; E.C., Dvoranen; J., Constantin; S.D., Cavalieri; L.H.M., Franchini; F.A., Rios; E., Blainski.

168

Leaching of glyphosate and AMPA under two soil management practices in Burgundy vineyards (Vosne-Romanee, 21-France)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Some drinking water reservoirs under the vineyards of Burgundy are contaminated with herbicides. Thus the effectiveness of alternative soil management practices, such as grass cover, for reducing the leaching of glyphosate and its metabolite, AMPA, through soils was studied. The leaching of both molecules was studied in structured soil columns under outdoor conditions for 1 year. The soil was managed under two vineyard soil practices: a chemically treated bare calcosol, and a vegetated calcosol. After 680 mm of rainfall, the vegetated calcosol leachates contained lower amounts of glyphosate and AMPA (0.02% and 0.03%, respectively) than the bare calcosol leachates (0.06% and 0.15%, respectively). No glyphosate and only low amounts of AMPA (<0.01%) were extracted from the soil. Glyphosate, and to a greater extent, AMPA, leach through the soils; thus, both molecules may be potential contaminants of groundwater. However, the alternative soil management practice of grass cover could reduce groundwater contamination by the pesticide. - Glyphosate and AMPA leached in greater amounts through a chemically treated bare calcosol than through a vegetated calcosol.

Landry, David [UMR 1229 INRA/Universite de Bourgogne, Microbiologie et Geochimie des sols, Centre des Sciences de la Terre, Universite de Bourgogne, 6 bd Gabriel 21000 Dijon (France)]. E-mail: david.landry@u-bourgogne.fr; Dousset, Sylvie [UMR 1229 INRA/Universite de Bourgogne, Microbiologie et Geochimie des sols, Centre des Sciences de la Terre, Universite de Bourgogne, 6 bd Gabriel 21000 Dijon (France); Fournier, Jean-Claude [UMR 1229 INRA/Universite de Bourgogne, INRA, 17 rue Sully, 21000 Dijon (France); Andreux, Francis [UMR 1229 INRA/Universite de Bourgogne, Microbiologie et Geochimie des sols, Centre des Sciences de la Terre, Universite de Bourgogne, 6 bd Gabriel 21000 Dijon (France)

2005-11-15

169

Leaching of glyphosate and AMPA under two soil management practices in Burgundy vineyards (Vosne-Romanee, 21-France)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some drinking water reservoirs under the vineyards of Burgundy are contaminated with herbicides. Thus the effectiveness of alternative soil management practices, such as grass cover, for reducing the leaching of glyphosate and its metabolite, AMPA, through soils was studied. The leaching of both molecules was studied in structured soil columns under outdoor conditions for 1 year. The soil was managed under two vineyard soil practices: a chemically treated bare calcosol, and a vegetated calcosol. After 680 mm of rainfall, the vegetated calcosol leachates contained lower amounts of glyphosate and AMPA (0.02% and 0.03%, respectively) than the bare calcosol leachates (0.06% and 0.15%, respectively). No glyphosate and only low amounts of AMPA (<0.01%) were extracted from the soil. Glyphosate, and to a greater extent, AMPA, leach through the soils; thus, both molecules may be potential contaminants of groundwater. However, the alternative soil management practice of grass cover could reduce groundwater contamination by the pesticide. - Glyphosate and AMPA leached in greater amounts through a chemically treated bare calcosol than through a vegetated calcosol

170

[Study of the reproducibility and sensitivity of laser microspectral analysis in argon atmosphere at reduced pressure].  

Science.gov (United States)

In argon atmosphere at reduced pressure, the spectral analysis reproducibility and sensitivity are experimentally studied with the laser microprobe emission spectral analysis(LMESA) system for the metal alloy standard samples. For the atomic spectral analysis line, the relative standard deviation(RSD) in argon atmosphere at reduced pressure is better than that in air atmosphere. For the ionic spectral analysis line, the RSD is almost the same in both cases. The RSD is strongly affected by the composition of the sample and the concentration of elements. The measured slope of calibration curves for the determination of Cu, Zn and Mg in an aluminum alloy in argon atmosphere is about 1.5-2 times of that in the air atmosphere, which indicates an obvious improvement of the sensitivity and is helpful to expand the dynamic range of the spectral analysis. PMID:12945318

Guo, Q L; Liang, B L; Wei, Y H; Chen, J Z

2001-10-01

171

Interação de glyphosate com carfentrazone-ethyl Glyphosate - carfentrazone-ethyl interaction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Foi conduzido um experimento em condições controladas para determinar a interação do carfentrazone-ethyl em mistura no tanque com o herbicida glyphosate, no controle de seis espécies de plantas daninhas. Glyphosate aplicado isoladamente na dose de 720 g ha-1 foi eficaz no controle de Amaranthus hybridus (100%), Desmodium tortuosum (100%), Bidens pilosa (99%), Eleusine indica (96%), Digitaria horizontalis (100%) e Commelina benghalensis (93%) aos 21 DAA. Carfentrazone-ethyl aplicado isola...

Werlang, R. C.; Silva, A. A.

2002-01-01

172

The use of BMED for glyphosate recovery from glyphosate neutralization liquor in view of zero discharge.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alkaline glyphosate neutralization liquors containing a high salinity pose a severe environmental pollution problem by the pesticide industry. However, there is a high potential for glyphosate recovery due to the high concentration of glyphosate in the neutralization liquors. In the study, a three-compartment bipolar membrane electrodialysis (BMED) process was applied on pilot scale for the recovery of glyphosate and the production of base/acid with high concentration in view of zero discharge of wastewater. The experimental results demonstrate that BMED can remove 99.0% of NaCl from the feed solution and transform this fraction into HCl and NaOH with high concentration and purity. This is recycled for the hydrolysis reaction of the intermediate product generated by the means of the Mannich reaction of paraformaldehyde, glycine and dimethylphosphite catalyzed by triethylamine in the presence of HCl and reclamation of the triethylamine catalyst during the production process of glyphosate. The recovery of glyphosate in the feed solution was over 96%, which is acceptable for industrial production. The current efficiency for producing NaOH with a concentration of 2.0 mol L(-1) is above 67% and the corresponding energy consumption is 2.97 kWh kg(-1) at a current density of 60 mA cm(-2). The current efficiency increases and energy consumption decreases as the current density decreases, to 87.13% and 2.37 kWh kg(-1), respectively, at a current density of 30 mA cm(-2). Thus, BMED has a high potential for desalination of glyphosate neutralization liquor and glyphosate recovery, aiming at zero discharge and resource recycling in industrial application. PMID:23832058

Shen, Jiangnan; Huang, Jie; Liu, Lifen; Ye, Wenyuan; Lin, Jiuyang; Van der Bruggen, Bart

2013-09-15

173

Effect of Reducing Groundwater on the Retardation of Redox-Sensitive Radionuclides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

by the decreasing redox conditions achieved in this study, as the predominant sorbed Pu species in all conditions was expected to be the low-solubility and strongly sorbing Pu(OH)4. Depending on the aquifer lithology, the occurrence of reducing conditions along a groundwater flowpath could potentially contribute to the retardation of redox-sensitive radionuclides 99Tc and 237Np, which are commonly identified as long-term dose contributors in the risk assessment in various nuclear facilities.

174

Glyphosate induces human breast cancer cells growth via estrogen receptors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glyphosate is an active ingredient of the most widely used herbicide and it is believed to be less toxic than other pesticides. However, several recent studies showed its potential adverse health effects to humans as it may be an endocrine disruptor. This study focuses on the effects of pure glyphosate on estrogen receptors (ERs) mediated transcriptional activity and their expressions. Glyphosate exerted proliferative effects only in human hormone-dependent breast cancer, T47D cells, but not in hormone-independent breast cancer, MDA-MB231 cells, at 10?¹² to 10??M in estrogen withdrawal condition. The proliferative concentrations of glyphosate that induced the activation of estrogen response element (ERE) transcription activity were 5-13 fold of control in T47D-KBluc cells and this activation was inhibited by an estrogen antagonist, ICI 182780, indicating that the estrogenic activity of glyphosate was mediated via ERs. Furthermore, glyphosate also altered both ER? and ? expression. These results indicated that low and environmentally relevant concentrations of glyphosate possessed estrogenic activity. Glyphosate-based herbicides are widely used for soybean cultivation, and our results also found that there was an additive estrogenic effect between glyphosate and genistein, a phytoestrogen in soybeans. However, these additive effects of glyphosate contamination in soybeans need further animal study. PMID:23756170

Thongprakaisang, Siriporn; Thiantanawat, Apinya; Rangkadilok, Nuchanart; Suriyo, Tawit; Satayavivad, Jutamaad

2013-09-01

175

Características fisiológicas de biótipos de Conyza bonariensis Resistentes ao glyphosate cultivados sob competição / Physiological characteristics of Conyza bonariensis biotypes resistant to glyphosate cultivated under competition  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A resistência de plantas daninhas a herbicidas está relacionada a modificações metabólicas, enzimáticas, fisiológicas e/ou anatômicas. Aliado a essas mudanças, a planta pode aumentar ou diminuir as atividades fisiológicas, o que, consequentemente, pode afetar o seu crescimento e desenvolvimento. Ass [...] im, biótipos resistentes podem apresentar melhor adaptação ecológica em ambientes de cultivo e tornar-se predominantes devido à eliminação das plantas sensíveis. Em condições de seleção natural, biótipos com maior adaptação ecológica apresentam maior produção que biótipos menos adaptados. Neste trabalho, avaliou-se o efeito da competição em características fisiológicas de biótipos de Conyza bonariensis suscetíveis e resistentes ao herbicida glyphosate. Os tratamentos constaram de plantas de dois biótipos de C. bonariensis - um comprovadamente resistente e um suscetível ao glyphosate, dispostas em modelo aditivo de estudo de competição. No centro da unidade experimental foram semeadas três sementes do biótipo considerado como o tratamento: resistente (R) ou suscetível (S), sendo essa planta rodeada por 0 (testemunha sem competição), 1, 2, 3, 4, ou 5 plantas do biótipo oposto. O biótipo suscetível apresentou-se mais tolerante à competição com plantas do biótipo oposto no tocante às características fisiológicas avaliadas. O biótipo resistente de buva apresenta desvantagem fisiológica em relação ao suscetível e, consequentemente, menor potencial de adaptabilidade na ausência do fator de seleção - o herbicida glyphosate. Abstract in english The resistance of weeds to herbicides is related to metabolic, enzymatic, physiological and anatomical changes. Coupled with these changes, plants can increase or decrease their physiological activities, which can affect their growth and development. Thus, resistant biotypes may have a higher ecolog [...] ical adaptation in these environments and become predominant due to the elimination of sensitive plants. Under natural selection conditions, biotypes with greater ecological adaptation show higher production than less adapted biotypes. Thus, the aim of this work was to assess the effect of competition on the physiological characteristics of Conyza bonariensis biotypes susceptible and resistant to the herbicide glyphosate. The treatments consisted of plants of two biotypes of C. bonariensis - one proven to be resistant and one susceptible to glyphosate. In the center of the experimental unit, three seeds of the C. bonariensis biotype considered for treatment - resistant (R) or susceptible (S) - were sown , with the plant being surrounded by 0 (no competition), 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 plants of the opposite biotype. The susceptible biotype presented a higher tolerance to competition with plants of the opposite biotype regarding the physiological characteristics evaluated. The resistant biotype of C. bonariensis has a physiological disadvantage compared to the susceptible one and, therefore, less potential for adaptability in the absence of the selection factor - the herbicide glyphosate.

L., Galon; E.A., Ferreira; G., Concenço; A.A., Silva; D.V., Silva; A.F., Silva; I, Aspiazú; L., Vargas.

2013-12-01

176

Influence of late emerging weeds in glyphosate-resistant corn  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fifteen field trials were conducted from 2009 to 2011 in Ontario, Canada and Michigan, USA to determine how long glyphosate-resistant corn needs to be kept weed-free after emergence to prevent yield loss. Data were separated into two environments based on when yield loss first occurred after glyphosate application. In Environment 1 (4/15 sites yield was not reduced when corn was kept weed-free until the 4-leaf stage. However, in Environment 2 (11/15 sites there was no yield loss when corn was kept weed-free up to the 2-leaf stage. The most prominent weeds were velvetleaf, redroot pigweed, common ragweed, common lambsquarters and foxtail species. While later emerging weeds did not necessarily impact corn yield, weeds emerging after the 2- and 4-leaf corn stage likely produced seed that was added to the soil seed bank. Weeds emerging after 6-, 8-, and 10-leaf corn growth stages were small (low biomass/seedlings and most likely did not reach reproductive maturity. Based on this research, corn must be maintained weed-free up to the 4-leaf stage. Any weeds emerging after that did not influence corn yield.

Nader Soltani

2013-06-01

177

78 FR 25396 - Glyphosate; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...document. Interregional Research Project Number 4 (IR-4...is no quantitative or qualitative evidence of increased...Based on the soil half-life for glyphosate, intermediate-term...is no quantitative or qualitative evidence of increased...Agriculture Organization/World Health...

2013-05-01

178

Toxicity of formulated glyphosate (glyphos) and cosmo-flux to larval Colombian frogs 1. Laboratory acute toxicity.  

Science.gov (United States)

The spraying of coca (Erythroxylum coca) with glyphosate in Colombia has raised concerns about possible impacts on amphibians. There are few toxicity data for species other than those from temperate regions, and these have not been generated with the combination of formulated glyphosate (Glyphos) and the adjuvant, Cosmo-Flux (coca mix) as used in coca control in Colombia. In order to characterize toxicity of the spray mixture to frogs from Colombia, Gosner stage-25 tadpoles of Scinax ruber, Dendropophus microcephalus, Hypsiboas crepitans, Rhinella granulosa, Rhinella marina, Rhinella typhonius, Centrolene prosoblepon, and Engystomops pustulosus were exposed to the coca mix at concentrations of glyphosate ranging from 1 to 4.2 mg a.e./L diluted in dechlorinated tap water in glass containers. Cosmo-Flux was added to Glyphos in the proportion of 2.3% v/v, as used in aerial application for coca control. Exposures were for 96 h at 23 +/- 1.5 degrees C with 12:12-h light/dark cycle. Test solutions were renewed every 24 h. Concentrations, measured within the first hour and at 24 and 96 h using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (Abraxis, LLC), ranged from 70 to 130% of nominal values. LC50 values ranged from 1200 to 2780 microg glyphosate acid equivalents (a.e.)/L for the 8 species tested. Data suggest that sensitivity to Roundup-type formulations of glyphosate in these species is similar to that observed in other tropical and temperate species. In addition, sensitivity of larval amphibians to Roundup-type formulations spans a relatively narrow range. Finally, toxicity of the mixture as used to spray coca was likely driven by the surfactant in the glyphosate formulation, as the addition of Cosmo-Flux did not enhance toxicity above those reported for Vision = Roundup. PMID:19672764

Bernal, M H; Solomon, K R; Carrasquilla, G

2009-01-01

179

Manejo de Conyza bonariensis resistente ao herbicida glyphosate / Management of Glyphosate-resistant Conyza bonariensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese C. bonariensis (Conyza bonariensis) é uma planta daninha da família Asteraceae, amplamente distribuída no Brasil, com presença marcante nos Estados do Rio Grande do Sul e do Paraná. Biótipos de C. bonariensis resistentes ao glyphosate foram identificados nos Estados do Rio Grande do Sul, Paraná e Sã [...] o Paulo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes manejos de inverno e na pré-semeadura da soja sobre a população de plantas de C. bonariensis resistente ao herbicida glyphosate. Os resultados evidenciaram que a população de C. bonariensis é maior em áreas mantidas sem cultivo (pousio) do que naquelas áreas cultivadas com trigo ou aveia-preta durante o inverno. Observou-se que o trigo e a aveia-preta exercem efeito supressor sobre a população de C. bonariensis, proporcionando maior facilidade de controle com herbicida na pré-semeadura da cultura usada em sucessão. O controle de C. bonariensis resistente ao herbicida glyphosate foi satisfatório quando se utilizaram herbicidas pós-emergentes na cultura do trigo e glyphosate + 2,4-D ou glyphosate + diuron + paraquat na pré-semeadura da soja. Abstract in english Horseweed (Conyza bonariensis), which belongs to the Asteraceae family, is a weed species widely spread in Brazil. Horseweed biotypes resistant to glyphosate, the main herbicide used in Roundup Ready soybean fields, were identified in the states of Rio Grande do Sul and Parana. The aim of this study [...] was to evaluate the effect of different winter and pre-sowing management techniques on soybean plant population of C. bonariensis resistant to glyphosate. The results showed that the population of C. bonariensis is larger in areas maintained fallow than in areas planted with wheat or oats during the winter. Wheat and oats were found to exert a suppressive effect on the population of C. bonariensis, providing greater ease of control with herbicide before seeding in the culture used in succession. The control of glyphosate-resistant C. bonariensis was satisfactory when post-emergence herbicides were used in wheat crop and glyphosate and 2,4-D or glyphosate paraquat diuron in pre-planting soybeans.

J.M., Paula; L., Vargas; D., Agostinetto; M.A., Nohatto.

2011-03-01

180

Manejo de Conyza bonariensis resistente ao herbicida glyphosate Management of Glyphosate-resistant Conyza bonariensis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available C. bonariensis (Conyza bonariensis é uma planta daninha da família Asteraceae, amplamente distribuída no Brasil, com presença marcante nos Estados do Rio Grande do Sul e do Paraná. Biótipos de C. bonariensis resistentes ao glyphosate foram identificados nos Estados do Rio Grande do Sul, Paraná e São Paulo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes manejos de inverno e na pré-semeadura da soja sobre a população de plantas de C. bonariensis resistente ao herbicida glyphosate. Os resultados evidenciaram que a população de C. bonariensis é maior em áreas mantidas sem cultivo (pousio do que naquelas áreas cultivadas com trigo ou aveia-preta durante o inverno. Observou-se que o trigo e a aveia-preta exercem efeito supressor sobre a população de C. bonariensis, proporcionando maior facilidade de controle com herbicida na pré-semeadura da cultura usada em sucessão. O controle de C. bonariensis resistente ao herbicida glyphosate foi satisfatório quando se utilizaram herbicidas pós-emergentes na cultura do trigo e glyphosate + 2,4-D ou glyphosate + diuron + paraquat na pré-semeadura da soja.Horseweed (Conyza bonariensis, which belongs to the Asteraceae family, is a weed species widely spread in Brazil. Horseweed biotypes resistant to glyphosate, the main herbicide used in Roundup Ready soybean fields, were identified in the states of Rio Grande do Sul and Parana. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different winter and pre-sowing management techniques on soybean plant population of C. bonariensis resistant to glyphosate. The results showed that the population of C. bonariensis is larger in areas maintained fallow than in areas planted with wheat or oats during the winter. Wheat and oats were found to exert a suppressive effect on the population of C. bonariensis, providing greater ease of control with herbicide before seeding in the culture used in succession. The control of glyphosate-resistant C. bonariensis was satisfactory when post-emergence herbicides were used in wheat crop and glyphosate and 2,4-D or glyphosate paraquat diuron in pre-planting soybeans.

J.M. Paula

2011-03-01

 
 
 
 
181

Effect of Reducing Groundwater on the Retardation of Redox-Sensitive Radionuclides  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Laboratory batch sorption experiments were used to investigate variations in the retardation behavior of redox-sensitive radionuclides. Water-rock compositions used during these experiments were designed to simulate subsurface conditions at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), where a suite of radionuclides were deposited as a result of underground nuclear testing. Experimental redox conditions were controlled by varying the oxygen content inside an enclosed glove box and by adding reductants into the testing solutions. Under atmospheric (oxidizing) conditions, the radionuclide distribution coefficients varied with the mineralogical composition of the sorbent and the water chemistry. Under reducing conditions, distribution coefficients showed marked increases for {sup 99}Tc and {sup 237}Np in devitrified tuff, but much smaller variations in alluvium, carbonate rock, and zeolitic tuff. This effect was particularly important for {sup 99}Tc, which tends to be mobile under oxidizing conditions. Unlike other redox-sensitive radionuclides, iodine sorption may decrease under reducing conditions when I{sup -} is the predominant species. Overall, sorption of U to alluvium, devitrified tuff, and zeolitic tuff under atmospheric conditions was less than in the glove-box tests. However, the mildly reducing conditions achieved here were not likely to result in substantial U(VI) reduction to U(IV). Sorption of Pu was not affected by the decreasing redox conditions achieved in this study, as the predominant sorbed Pu species in all conditions was expected to be the low-solubility and strongly sorbing Pu(OH){sub 4}. Depending on the aquifer lithology, the occurrence of reducing conditions along a groundwater flowpath could potentially contribute to the retardation of redox-sensitive radionuclides {sup 99}Tc and {sup 237}Np, which are commonly identified as long-term dose contributors in the risk assessment in various nuclear facilities.

Hu, Q; Zavarin, M; Rose, T P

2008-04-21

182

An amperometric method for the detection of amitrole, glyphosate and its aminomethyl-phosphonic acid metabolite in environmental waters using passive samplers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The herbicides amitrole and glyphosate, and its metabolite aminomethyl-phosphonic acid (AMPA), in water samples have been directly analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography using an electrochemical (EC) detector. Limits of detection of 0.3 microg mL(-1) for glyphosate, 0.05 microg mL(-1) for AMPA and 0.03 microg mL(-1) for amitrole were comparable to those obtained by other authors using EC and also by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, but the latter method requires derivatisation and pre-concentration of the sample whereas EC methods show similar sensitivity without the need of any derivatisation. The method was specifically designed to analyse extracts from passive samplers used for monitoring of polar herbicide residues in waters. To this purpose, three types of Empore disks were tested for their ability to adsorb and desorb these ionic, polar analytes. A procedure for their extraction from the membranes and reducing the interferences from other substances present in natural waters (i.e. humic acids) is described. The method is simple, does not require sophisticated equipment and is valid for the analysis and monitoring of herbicides residues using passive samplers. PMID:20800723

Sánchez-Bayo, Francisco; Hyne, Ross V; Desseille, Karine L

2010-08-24

183

Effects of glyphosate on cholinesterase activity of the mussel Perna perna and the fish Danio rerio and Jenynsia multidentata: in vitro studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the herbicide glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] is not classified as an acethylcholinesterase inhibitor, some studies have reported reduction in the acethylcolinesterase activity after in vivo exposure to both its pure form and its commercial formulations. Considering this controversy, the objective of the present study was to investigate, in vitro, the effects of glyphosate exposure on cholinesterase activity of the brown mussel Perna perna and of two fish species: zebrafish Danio rerio and onesided livebearer Jenynsia multidentata. For this purpose, samples of different tissues (brain and muscle for fish; gills and muscle for mussel) were homogenized and pre-incubated with different glyphosate concentrations before cholinesterase activity determination. Results demonstrated that cholinesterase from different fractions of all species tested was inhibited by glyphosate. The concentrations of glyphosate that inhibits 50% of cholinesterase activity (IC50) ranged from 0.62 mM for P. perna muscle to 8.43 mM for J. multidentata brain. According to this, cholinesterase from mussel seems to be more sensitive to glyphosate exposure than those from the fish D. rerio and J. multidentata. PMID:23411353

Sandrini, Juliana Zomer; Rola, Regina Coimbra; Lopes, Fernanda Moreira; Buffon, Hermeson Francisco; Freitas, Milene Marques; Martins, Camila de Martinez Gaspar; da Rosa, Carlos Eduardo

2013-04-15

184

Photomultiplier circuit including means for rapidly reducing the sensitivity thereof. [and protection from radiation damage  

Science.gov (United States)

A simple, reliable and inexpensive control circuit is described for rapidly reducing the bias voltage across one or more of the dynode stages of a photomultiplier, to substantially decrease its sensitivity to incoming light at those times where excess light intensity might damage the tube. The control circuit comprises a switching device, such as a silicon controlled rectifier (SCR), coupled between a pair of the electrodes in the tube, preferably the cathode and first dynode, or the first and second dynodes, the switching device operating in response to a trigger pulse applied to its gate to short circuit the two electrodes. To insure the desired reduction in sensitivity, two switching stages, the devices be employed between two of the electrode stages, the devices being operated simultaneously to short circuit both stages.

Mcclenahan, J. O. (inventor)

1974-01-01

185

Mutants in Drosophila TRPC Channels Reduce Olfactory Sensitivity to Carbon Dioxide  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Members of the canonical Transient Receptor Potential (TRPC) class of cationic channels function downstream of G?q and PLC? in Drosophila photoreceptors for transducing visual stimuli. G?q has recently been implicated in olfactory sensing of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other odorants. Here we investigated the role of PLC? and TRPC channels for sensing CO2 in Drosophila. Methodology/Principal Findings Through behavioral assays it was demonstrated that Drosophila mutants for plc21c, trp and trpl have a reduced sensitivity for CO2. Immuno-histochemical staining for TRP, TRPL and TRP? indicates that all three channels are expressed in Drosophila antennae including the sensory neurons that express CO2 receptors. Electrophysiological recordings obtained from the antennae of protein null alleles of TRP (trp343) and TRPL (trpl302), showed that the sensory response to multiple concentrations of CO2 was reduced. However, trpl302; trp343 double mutants still have a residual response to CO2. Down-regulation of TRPC channels specifically in CO2 sensing olfactory neurons reduced the response to CO2 and this reduction was obtained even upon down-regulation of the TRPCs in adult olfactory sensory neurons. Thus the reduced response to CO2 obtained from the antennae of TRPC RNAi strains is not due to a developmental defect. Conclusion These observations show that reduction in TRPC channel function significantly reduces the sensitivity of the olfactory response to CO2 concentrations of 5% or less in adult Drosophila. It is possible that the CO2 receptors Gr63a and Gr21a activate the TRPC channels through G?q and PLC21C. PMID:23185459

Badsha, Farhath; Kain, Pinky; Prabhakar, Sunil; Sundaram, Susinder; Padinjat, Raghu; Hasan, Gaiti

2012-01-01

186

Low dose responses of different glyphosate formulations on plants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although glyphosate clearly has real and potential commercial uses as a growth regulator at low doses, its main commercial significance has been as an herbicide. An important prerequisite for low dose applications gaining significance is a high efficiency and reliability of effects. This, however, seems to be a major constraint, especially regarding the approach of increasing yield by glyphosate hormesis. Glyphosate is marketed in various formulations, but potential disparities in low dose re...

Belz, Regina G.; Leberle, Claudia

2012-01-01

187

Identification of glyphosate resistance in Lolium rigidum Gaudin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Glyphosate resistance was found in Lolium rigidum Gaudin (Rigid ryegrass, LOLRI) in South Africa. Suspected glyphosate-resistant L. rigidum populations were collected and grown under greenhouse conditions. The plants were sprayed with a range of doses of glyphosate 35 days after planting and shoot dry biomass was determined 17 days after herbicide treatment. Based on the dose-response experiment conducted in the greenhouse, one population of L. rigidum susp...

Danijela Pavlovi?; Charlie Reinhardt; Igor Elezovi?; Sava Vrbni?anin

2011-01-01

188

Metabolism of glyphosate in Pseudomonas sp. strain LBr.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Metabolism of glyphosate (N-phosphonomethylglycine) by Pseudomonas sp. strain LBr, a bacterium isolated from a glyphosate process waste stream, was examined by a combination of solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance experiments and analysis of the phosphonate composition of the growth medium. Pseudomonas sp. strain LBr was capable of eliminating 20 mM glyphosate from the growth medium, an amount approximately 20-fold greater than that reported for any other microorganism to date. The bact...

Jacob, G. S.; Garbow, J. R.; Hallas, L. E.; Kimack, N. M.; Kishore, G. M.; Schaefer, J.

1988-01-01

189

Refractory cardiopulmonary failure after glyphosate surfactant intoxication: a case report  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Glyphosate is an herbicide considered to be of low toxicity to humans because its effects are specific to plants. However, fatal reactions to glyphosate have been reported after the ingestion of large amounts. Pulmonary edema, shock, and arrhythmia were the reported causes of mortality. Case presentation We present the case of a 57-year-old woman who was admitted to the emergency department unconsciousness after ingestion of glyphosate surfac...

Chang Chia-Chu; Chang Chirn-Bin

2009-01-01

190

Effects of field-realistic doses of glyphosate on honeybee appetitive behaviour.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glyphosate (GLY) is a broad-spectrum herbicide used for weed control. The sub-lethal impact of GLY on non-target organisms such as insect pollinators has not yet been evaluated. Apis mellifera is the main pollinator in agricultural environments and is a well-known model for behavioural research. Honeybees are also accurate biosensors of environmental pollutants and their appetitive behavioural response is a suitable tool with which to test sub-lethal effects of agrochemicals. We studied the effects of field-realistic doses of GLY on honeybees exposed chronically or acutely to the herbicide. We focused on sucrose sensitivity, elemental and non-elemental associative olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension response (PER), and foraging-related behaviour. We found a reduced sensitivity to sucrose and learning performance for the groups chronically exposed to GLY concentrations within the range of recommended doses. When olfactory PER conditioning was performed with sucrose reward with the same GLY concentrations (acute exposure), elemental learning and short-term memory retention decreased significantly compared with controls. Non-elemental associative learning was also impaired by an acute exposure to GLY traces. Altogether, these results imply that GLY at concentrations found in agro-ecosystems as a result of standard spraying can reduce sensitivity to nectar reward and impair associative learning in honeybees. However, no effect on foraging-related behaviour was found. Therefore, we speculate that successful forager bees could become a source of constant inflow of nectar with GLY traces that could then be distributed among nestmates, stored in the hive and have long-term negative consequences on colony performance. PMID:25063858

Herbert, Lucila T; Vázquez, Diego E; Arenas, Andrés; Farina, Walter M

2014-10-01

191

Translocação do glyphosate em biótipos de azevém (Lolium multiflorum) Glyphosate translocation in Italian ryegrass biotypes (Lolium multiflorum)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Foram avaliadas neste trabalho a absorção foliar e a translocação do glyphosate por biótipos de azevém (Lolium multiflorum) sensíveis e resistentes a esse herbicida. Para isso, aplicou-se 14C-glyphosate utilizando-se uma microsseringa de precisão, adicionando-se 10 µL da calda sobre a face adaxial da primeira folha com lígula totalmente visível, quando as plantas de azevém se apresentavam com três perfilhos. A quantidade de glyphosate absorvido e translocado foi avaliada em inter...

Ferreira, E. A.; Santos, J. B.; Silva, A. A.; Oliveira, J. A.; Vargas, L.

2006-01-01

192

Glyphosate sobre a resistência à ferrugem (Puccinia psidii) do eucalipto Glyphosate on eucalyptus resistance to rust (Puccinia psidii)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

O glyphosate é o herbicida mais usado no controle de plantas daninhas em eucalipto, atuando diretamente na rota do ácido chiquímico, principal via de formação de compostos ligados aos mecanismos de defesa das plantas, como: lignina, ácido salicítico e fitoalexinas. Assim, o contato do glyphosate com as folhas do eucalipto pode levar a conseqüências importantes sobre a resistência a doenças. Objetivou-se neste estudo avaliar o envolvimento do glyphosate, via deriva, na severidade da...

Tuffi Santos, L. D.; Neves Grac?a, R.; Alfenas, A. C.; Ferreira, F. A.; Ferreira, L. R.; Oda, S.

2007-01-01

193

Controle de plantas daninhas na cultura de soja resistente ao glyphosate Weed control in glyphosate tolerant soybean crop  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

O objetivo da pesquisa foi avaliar o controle de plantas daninhas em área cultivada com soja resistente ao herbicida glyphosate, sem a utilização de práticas complementares de manejo de plantas daninhas. Foram desenvolvidos experimentos, em condições de campo, nos anos agrícolas 2005/2006 e 2006/2007 em Jaboticabal (SP). Foram avaliadas duas cultivares de soja resistentes ao glyphosate (CD 214 RR e M-SOY 8008 RR), oito tratamentos de herbicidas (glyphosate, em aplicação única, nas d...

Núbia Maria Correia; Julio Cezar Durigan

2010-01-01

194

Fuzzy Controller Based Dvr To Mitigate Power Quaity And Reduce The Harmonics Distortion Of Sensitive Load  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available PI controller is very common in the control of DVRs. However, one disadvantage of this conventional controller is its inability to still working well under a wider range of operating conditions. So, as a solution fuzzy controller is proposed. This paper discusses the design and simulation of dynamic voltage restorer for improve power quality and reduce the harmonics distortion of sensitive load. Power quality problem is an occur as a non-standard voltage, current and frequency. Electronics devices are very sensitive load against harmonics. In power system voltage sag, swell, flicker and harmonics are some of the problem to the sensitive load. The compensation capability of a DVR depends primarily on the maximum voltage injection ability and the amount of stored energy available within the restorer. This device is connected in series with the distribution feeder at medium voltage. A fuzzy logic control is proposed. Simulation result carried out by Matlab/Simulink verifies the performance of the proposed method.

SANDESH JAIN

2013-05-01

195

Improved insulin sensitivity associated with reduced mitochondrial complex IV assembly and activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mice lacking Surf1, a complex IV assembly protein, have ?50-70% reduction in cytochrome c oxidase activity in all tissues yet a paradoxical increase in lifespan. Here we report that Surf1(-/-) mice have lower body (15%) and fat (20%) mass, in association with reduced lipid storage, smaller adipocytes, and elevated indicators of fatty acid oxidation in white adipose tissue (WAT) compared with control mice. The respiratory quotient in the Surf1(-/-) mice was significantly lower than in the control animals (0.83-0.93 vs. 0.90-0.98), consistent with enhanced fat utilization in Surf1(-/-) mice. Elevated fat utilization was associated with increased insulin sensitivity measured as insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, as well as an increase in insulin receptor levels (?2-fold) and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4; ?1.3-fold) levels in WAT in the Surf1(-/-) mice. The expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?-coactivator 1-? (PGC-1?) mRNA and protein was up-regulated by 2.5- and 1.9-fold, respectively, in WAT from Surf1(-/-) mice, and the expression of PGC-1? target genes and markers of mitochondrial biogenesis was elevated. Together, these findings point to a novel and unexpected link between reduced mitochondrial complex IV activity, enhanced insulin sensitivity, and increased mitochondrial biogenesis that may contribute to the increased longevity in the Surf1(-/-) mice. PMID:23241310

Deepa, Sathyaseelan S; Pulliam, Daniel; Hill, Shauna; Shi, Yun; Walsh, Michael E; Salmon, Adam; Sloane, Lauren; Zhang, Ning; Zeviani, Massimo; Viscomi, Carlo; Musi, Nicolas; Van Remmen, Holly

2013-04-01

196

Shock Reactivity Study on Standard and Reduced Sensitivity Rdx of Different Particle Size Distributions  

Science.gov (United States)

Embedded gauge experiments have been performed using a three inch high velocity powder gun to assess the effects of RDX particle size and crystal quality on shock induced reactivity in support of the Combat Safe Insensitive Munitions (CSIM) program. Four monomodal experimental compositions containing 73% solids loading by weight and 27% HTPB binder were tested. The compositions were made using either standard or reduced sensitivity grades of RDX in Class 5 or Class 1 150-300 micron sieve cut particle size classes. Results have shown marked changes in the mode of reaction between the two particle size classes. Both RDX grades at the Class 1 sieve cut particle size distribution showed significant reaction at the shock front as well as behind the front. The Class 5 RDX compositions however showed little reaction at the shock front with rapid growth behind the front. Reaction modes were similar but occurring at greater input pressures for the reduced sensitivity grade of RDX compared to the corresponding particle size distribution standard grade RDX counterpart.

McGregor, N. M.; Lindfors, A. J.

2007-12-01

197

Evaluation of reduced allergenicity of irradiated peanut extract using splenocytes from peanut-sensitized mice  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Peanut (PN) allergy is one of the most serious forms of IgE-mediated food hypersensitivity. Gamma irradiation has been widely used for the preservation of food. The results of our previous studies showed that the IgE-binding capacity to several antigens were profoundly reduced after gamma irradiation. In this study, we evaluated the changes of allergenecity and cytokine production profiles after exposure of irradiated PN extract in a PN-allergy mouse model. Mice were sensitized to PN extract by intragastric administration on days 0, 1, 2, and 7, and then challenged on day 21. Four weeks later, we evaluated the cytokine production patterns and proliferation responses of splenocytes that were stimulated with intact PN extract, compared to 10 and 50 kGy irradiated PN extract. When the cells were stimulated with 10 kGy of irradiated PN extract, a higher level of production of IFN-{gamma} and IL-10 cytokines was observed. However, stimulation with 50 kGy of irradiated PN extract resulted in a higher level of production of only IFN-{gamma} cytokines. In addition, the Th1/Th2 ratio increased in response to treatment with gamma-irradiated PNs. The results of this study show that the allergenicity of PN extracts could be reduced by gamma irradiation which caused downregulation of Th2 lymphocyte activity in the PN-sensitized mice.

Oh, Sejo; Jang, Da-In [Department of Pediatrics, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon 442-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Soo-Young [Department of Pediatrics, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon 442-749 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: jsjs87@ajou.ac.kr

2009-07-15

198

Evaluation of reduced allergenicity of irradiated peanut extract using splenocytes from peanut-sensitized mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Peanut (PN) allergy is one of the most serious forms of IgE-mediated food hypersensitivity. Gamma irradiation has been widely used for the preservation of food. The results of our previous studies showed that the IgE-binding capacity to several antigens were profoundly reduced after gamma irradiation. In this study, we evaluated the changes of allergenecity and cytokine production profiles after exposure of irradiated PN extract in a PN-allergy mouse model. Mice were sensitized to PN extract by intragastric administration on days 0, 1, 2, and 7, and then challenged on day 21. Four weeks later, we evaluated the cytokine production patterns and proliferation responses of splenocytes that were stimulated with intact PN extract, compared to 10 and 50 kGy irradiated PN extract. When the cells were stimulated with 10 kGy of irradiated PN extract, a higher level of production of IFN-? and IL-10 cytokines was observed. However, stimulation with 50 kGy of irradiated PN extract resulted in a higher level of production of only IFN-? cytokines. In addition, the Th1/Th2 ratio increased in response to treatment with gamma-irradiated PNs. The results of this study show that the allergenicity of PN extracts could be reduced by gamma irradiation which caused downregulation of Th2 lymphocyte activity in the PN-sensitized mice.

199

Manejo de tiririca e trapoeraba com glyphosate em ambientes sombreados / Commelina benghalensis and Cyperus rotundus treated with glyphosate in shaded environments  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Plantas daninhas mantidas em ambientes com redução da intensidade luminosa apresentam alterações morfofisiológicas marcantes, que podem alterar seu comportamento reprodutivo e a tolerância a herbicidas aplicados em pós-emergência. Objetivou-se neste estudo avaliar a eficiência de doses de glyphosate [...] no manejo da trapoeraba (Commelina benghalensis) e da tiririca (Cyperus rotundus) cultivadas em diferentes níveis de sombreamento. O trabalho foi composto por dois ensaios, referentes a cada uma das espécies, com o mesmo delineamento experimental, sendo constituídos em esquema fatorial 5 x 3, com cinco doses de herbicida (0, 540, 810, 1.080 ou 1.350 g ha-1 de glyphosate), três ambientes de cultivo (0, 30 ou 50% de sombra) e quatro repetições. As parcelas experimentais foram compostas por um vaso com duas plantas de tiririca ou de trapoeraba. As avaliações de controle ocorreram aos 10, 20 e 30 dias após a aplicação (DAA), por meio de observações visuais. Aos 30 DAA, foi determinada a massa seca da parte aérea de cada espécie. A produtividade de tubérculos foi observada pela contagem direta desses propágulos presentes nas raízes das plantas de tiririca. Já a sua viabilidade foi avaliada por teste de germinação em leito de areia e por tetrazólio no caso dos não germinados. O controle das espécies foi mais eficiente em ambientes sombreados, contribuindo para a redução de até 25% da dose recomendada para ambas, obtendo-se controle de 81% para trapoeraba e 100% para tiririca. Já a matéria seca da parte aérea, a produtividade e a viabilidade dos tubérculos foram afetadas pelo aumento do nível de sombra e pela dose de glyphosate. A diminuição da intensidade luminosa - comum no sub-bosque de culturas arbóreas e arbustivas ou quando do adensamento de cultivos - representa prática interessante na supressão da trapoeraba e da tiririca e potencializa a ação de controle do glyphosate. Abstract in english Weeds maintained in reduced light intensity environments present remarkable morpho-physiological changes that may alter their reproductive behavior and tolerance to post-emergence herbicides. Our goal was to evaluate the efficiency of glyphosate doses in the management of Commelina benghalensis and [...] Cyperus rotundus grown at different levels of shading. The work consisted of two trials for each species with the same experimental design, in a 5 x 3 factorial design with five herbicide doses (0, 540, 810, 1.080, and 1.350 gha-1 of glyphosate), three cultivation environments (0, 30, or 50% of shading) and four replicates. Experimental plots consisted of a vase with two plants of either C. benghalensis or C. rotundus. Control evaluations were carried out 10, 20, and 30 days after application (DAA) through visual observations. Tuber productivity was verified by direct counting of these propagules present in the roots of C. rotundus plants, while tuber viability was evaluated by germination test in a sand bed, and by tetrazolium, for the non-germinated tubers. Species control was more efficient in shade environments, contributing to a reduction of up to 25% of the recommended dose for the treated species, and resulting in a control of 81% for C. benghalensis and 100% for C. rotundus. Aerial part dry biomass and productivity and viability of tubers were affected by increase in shade level and glyphosate dose. Reduced light intensity - common in the under-story of tree and shrub cultures or in culture density - is an interesting practice aiming at suppressing C. benghalensis and C. rotundus, acting as a potential control of glyphosate.

A, Santos Júnior; L.D, Tuffi Santos; G.A, Costa; E.A, Barbosa; G.L.D, Leite; V.D, Machado; L.R, Cruz.

2013-03-01

200

Suscetibilidade de genótipos de Lolium multiflorum ao herbicida glyphosate / Susceptibility of Lolium multiflorum genotypes to glyphosate  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o grau de tolerância dos genótipos diploides e tetraploides de L. multiflorum (azevém) ao herbicida glyphosate. Para isso, foram instalados quatro experimentos, sendo um para cada estádio fenológico do azevém (duas folhas, quatro perfilhos, pré-florescimento e [...] formação de grãos). Utilizou-se delineamento em blocos casualizados com arranjo fatorial 2 x 6 (dois genótipos e seis doses do herbicida glyphosate: 240, 480, 960, 1.920, 3.840 e 7.680 g e.a. ha-1) e uma testemunha sem aplicação de glyphosate, com quatro repetições. Os parâmetros analisados foram porcentagem de controle e fitomassa seca da parte aérea das plantas. Os resultados foram submetidos à análise de variância e, em seguida, ajustados para modelo de curva de dose-resposta do tipo logística, sendo desses modelos calculados valores de controle correspondentes a 50, 80, 90 e 99%. Os genótipos de azevém diploide apresentaram suscetibilidade diferencial ao herbicida glyphosate, sendo o genótipo tetraploide mais tolerante ao herbicida que o diploide. O grau diferencial de tolerância, medido pelo fator de tolerância diferencial entre os genótipos, foi de 1,6 vez a dose de glyphosate no genótipo tetraploide em relação ao diploide. Os estádios fenológicos de desenvolvimento das plantas de ambos os genótipos afetaram o grau de tolerância ao glyphosate. A variável fitomassa seca das plantas apresentou a mesma tendência diferencial entre os genótipos diploides e tetraploides que o parâmetro porcentagem visual de controle. Abstract in english This work aimed to evaluate the degree of tolerance of Italian ryegrass genotypes to the herbicide glyphosate. Thus, four experiments were installed, one for each phenological stage (two leaves, four tillers, pre-flowering, and grain formation). The treatments consisted of the combination of the two [...] genotypes and six rates of glyphosate (240; 480; 960; 1,920; 3,840 and 7,680 g a.e. ha-1) and a check without glyphosate application, in a complete randomized block design and four replications. The parameters analyzed were control percentage and shoot dry biomass. Results were submitted to analysis of variance and subsequently adjusted to non-linear log of dose-response curves, and from these models control values were calculated at 50, 80, 90 and 99%. The Italian ryegrass genotypes presented differential susceptibility to the herbicide glyphosate, with the tetraploid genotype being more tolerant to the herbicide than the diploid. The degree of differential tolerance, measured by the differential tolerance factor between the genotypes, is 1.6 times the glyphosate dose in the tetraploid genotype compared to the diploid genotype. The phenological stages of plant development of both the genotypes studied affected the degree of tolerance to glyphosate. The variable shoot dry biomass presented the same differential tendency between the diploid and tetraploid genotypes presented by the parameter visual control percentage.

C.A., Dors; P.J., Christoffoleti; D.M., Sanchotene; A.C.R., Dias; P.A., Manfron; S.H.B., Dornelles.

2010-06-01

 
 
 
 
201

Suscetibilidade de genótipos de Lolium multiflorum ao herbicida glyphosate Susceptibility of Lolium multiflorum genotypes to glyphosate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o grau de tolerância dos genótipos diploides e tetraploides de L. multiflorum (azevém ao herbicida glyphosate. Para isso, foram instalados quatro experimentos, sendo um para cada estádio fenológico do azevém (duas folhas, quatro perfilhos, pré-florescimento e formação de grãos. Utilizou-se delineamento em blocos casualizados com arranjo fatorial 2 x 6 (dois genótipos e seis doses do herbicida glyphosate: 240, 480, 960, 1.920, 3.840 e 7.680 g e.a. ha-1 e uma testemunha sem aplicação de glyphosate, com quatro repetições. Os parâmetros analisados foram porcentagem de controle e fitomassa seca da parte aérea das plantas. Os resultados foram submetidos à análise de variância e, em seguida, ajustados para modelo de curva de dose-resposta do tipo logística, sendo desses modelos calculados valores de controle correspondentes a 50, 80, 90 e 99%. Os genótipos de azevém diploide apresentaram suscetibilidade diferencial ao herbicida glyphosate, sendo o genótipo tetraploide mais tolerante ao herbicida que o diploide. O grau diferencial de tolerância, medido pelo fator de tolerância diferencial entre os genótipos, foi de 1,6 vez a dose de glyphosate no genótipo tetraploide em relação ao diploide. Os estádios fenológicos de desenvolvimento das plantas de ambos os genótipos afetaram o grau de tolerância ao glyphosate. A variável fitomassa seca das plantas apresentou a mesma tendência diferencial entre os genótipos diploides e tetraploides que o parâmetro porcentagem visual de controle.This work aimed to evaluate the degree of tolerance of Italian ryegrass genotypes to the herbicide glyphosate. Thus, four experiments were installed, one for each phenological stage (two leaves, four tillers, pre-flowering, and grain formation. The treatments consisted of the combination of the two genotypes and six rates of glyphosate (240; 480; 960; 1,920; 3,840 and 7,680 g a.e. ha-1 and a check without glyphosate application, in a complete randomized block design and four replications. The parameters analyzed were control percentage and shoot dry biomass. Results were submitted to analysis of variance and subsequently adjusted to non-linear log of dose-response curves, and from these models control values were calculated at 50, 80, 90 and 99%. The Italian ryegrass genotypes presented differential susceptibility to the herbicide glyphosate, with the tetraploid genotype being more tolerant to the herbicide than the diploid. The degree of differential tolerance, measured by the differential tolerance factor between the genotypes, is 1.6 times the glyphosate dose in the tetraploid genotype compared to the diploid genotype. The phenological stages of plant development of both the genotypes studied affected the degree of tolerance to glyphosate. The variable shoot dry biomass presented the same differential tendency between the diploid and tetraploid genotypes presented by the parameter visual control percentage.

C.A. Dors

2010-06-01

202

Synthesis of cyclodextrin-reduced graphene oxide hybrid nanosheets for sensitivity enhanced electrochemical determination of diethylstilbestrol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? ?-CD-RGO hybrid nanosheets were successfully prepared by using L-AA as the reducing agent under a mild condition. ? ?-CD-RGO/GCE greatly enhanced the electrochemical response of diethylstilbestrol (DES). ? DES can be detected with wide linear range and a low detection limit. ? ?-CD-RGO/GCE can be applied in real milk samples analysis with satisfactory results. - Abstract: ?-Cyclodextrin functionalized reduced graphene oxide hybrid nanosheets (?-CD-RGO) were successfully prepared by using L-ascorbic acid (L-AA) as the reducing agent under a mild condition and used as enhanced material for sensitivity determination of diethylstilbestrol (DES). In 0.1 M PBS (pH 7.0), the redox peak currents of DES increased significantly on ?-CD-RGO modified glassy carbon electrode (?-CD-RGO/GCE), suggesting that the composite film not only shows excellent electronic properties of RGO sheets but also exhibits high supramolecular recognition capability of ?-CD. The experimental conditions were optimized and the kinetic parameters were investigated. Under the optimal conditions, the reduction peak current of DES increased linearly with increasing the concentration in the range from 0.01 to 13 ?M with the detection limit of 4 nM (S/N = 3). The developed electrochemical sensor exhibited high selectivity, good stability and reproducibility, and also successfully determined DES in milk samples with satisfactory results.

203

Controle de Brachiaria brizantha com uso do glyphosate após o estabelecimento de Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp. Control of Brachiaria brizantha with glyphosate's after Tifton's 85 (Cynodon spp. establishment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A eficiência do glyphosate no controle de Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu em áreas de cultivo do Tifton 85 foi avaliada utilizando o delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, com oito doses de glyphosate (0, 90, 180, 360, 720, 1.080, 1.440 e 1.800 g ha-1, e quatro repetições. Cada parcela foi constituída de um vaso com duas plantas de B. brizantha cv. Marandu e duas plantas de Tifton-85. A aplicação do herbicida foi feita quando as plantas de B. brizantha apresentavam cerca de 40 cm de altura. O nível de intoxicação nas plantas de Tifton 85 e a eficiência do herbicida no controle de B. brizantha foram avaliados aos 15, 30 e 60 dias após aplicação (DAA. Aos 60 DAA, as plantas foram colhidas ao nível do solo e secas em estufa. A rebrota foi avaliada, do mesmo modo, aos 60 dias após o corte (DAC. Obeservou-se controle superior a 90% de B. brizantha, a partir da dose de 738,28 g ha-1 de glyphosate, enquanto a intoxicação para as plantas de Tifton 85 foi de apenas 12,05. Aos 60 DAA, houve redução na produção de massa seca de braquiária a partir da dose de 90 g ha-1. Doses superiores a 720 g ha-1 diminuíram o crescimento e desenvolvimento do Tifton 85, afetando sua produção, sem, no entanto, ocasionar a morte das plantas. Os resultados evidenciam boa tolerância do Tifton 85 até a dose de 720 g ha-1 de glyphosate.No information is available on selective herbicide to control Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu on established pasture of 'Tifton 85'. This work evaluated the selectivity of glyphosate to Tifton 85 culture, using a randomized block design, with eight glyphosate rates (0; 90; 180; 360; 720; 1.080; 1.440 and 1.800 g ha-1 , and four replications. Each plot consisted of a pot with two Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu plants and two 'Tifton-85' plants. Herbicide was applied when Brachiaria was around 40 cm high. After 15, 30 and 60 days of application (DAA, intoxication level on Tifton plants and herbicide efficiency on Brachiaria control were evaluated. At 60 DAA, the plants were cut and dried in a greenhouse, and the sprouts evaluated 60 days after cut. Under 738.28 g ha-1 of glyphosate, 90% of the Brachiaria brizantha plants were controlled, while Tifton plant intoxication was observed only at 12.05%. At 60 DAA, Brachiaria dry matter production decreased from 90 g ha-1 , with total control of these plants being observed at the rate of 738.28 g ha-1. Rates higher than 720 g ha-1 reduced the growth and development of Tifton 85, affecting its production without, however, leading to death of the plants. The results evidenced good selectivity for glyphosate to Tifton 85 culture up to 720 g ha-1.

M.V. Santos

2006-12-01

204

Draft genome sequence of pseudomonas strain p818, isolated from glyphosate-polluted soil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pseudomonas strain P818 was isolated from glyphosate-polluted soil in China. This bacterium presents a capacity for high glyphosate tolerance. We present the draft genome sequence of the strain Pseudomonas P818. The genes involved in the glyphosate tolerance were identified. This genomic information will facilitate the study of glyphosate tolerance mechanisms. PMID:24356842

Cao, Gaoyi; Liu, Yunjun; Liu, Guiming; Wang, Jianhua; Wang, Guoying

2013-01-01

205

Influência do Glyphosate sobre a nodulação e o crescimento de cultivares de soja resistente ao Glyphosate Glyphosate influence on growth and nodulation of Glyphosate resistant soybean cultivars  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A soja resistente ao glyphosate (RR) é uma tecnologia que vem acrescentar mais uma ferramenta ao manejo de plantas daninhas para essa cultura, que possui a maior área plantada em nosso país. Por se tratar de uma técnica recente tanto no Brasil quanto no mundo, é preciso estudos buscando informações para o uso correto desta importante e cada vez mais freqüente prática agrícola: o cultivo de soja transgênica. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar os efeitos causados pelas aplicaçõ...

Oliveira Jr, R. S.; Dvoranen, E. C.; Constantin, J.; Cavalieri, S. D.; Franchini, L. H. M.; Rios, F. A.; Blainski, E.

2008-01-01

206

Accurate calculation of control-augmented structural eigenvalue sensitivities using reduced-order models  

Science.gov (United States)

A method is presented for generating mode shapes for model order reduction in a way that leads to accurate calculation of eigenvalue derivatives and eigenvalues for a class of control augmented structures. The method is based on treating degrees of freedom where control forces act or masses are changed in a manner analogous to that used for boundary degrees of freedom in component mode synthesis. It is especially suited for structures controlled by a small number of actuators and/or tuned by a small number of concentrated masses whose positions are predetermined. A control augmented multispan beam with closely spaced natural frequencies is used for numerical experimentation. A comparison with reduced-order eigenvalue sensitivity calculations based on the normal modes of the structure shows that the method presented produces significant improvements in accuracy.

Livne, Eli

1989-01-01

207

Effectiveness of topical anesthetics on reducing tactile sensitivity in the paws of newborn rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of three local, topical anesthetics on touch response thresholds of the paws of 1-day-old rats. Touch response thresholds were measured using Semmes Weinstein monofilaments after treatment of the paws with EMLA (2.5% lidocaine and 2.5% prilocaine), alcaine (.5% proparacaine), triocaine (20% benzocaine, 6% lidocaine, and 4% tetracaine), or petroleum jelly (treatment control). Touch thresholds significantly increased after treatment with EMLA 18% of the time, and there was no evidence of a systemic effect. Touch thresholds were not significantly altered after treatment with alcaine, triocaine, or petroleum jelly. Therefore, EMLA appears to be a slightly effective topical anesthetic for reducing tactile sensitivity in newborn rats. PMID:23254968

Strain, Misty M; Vineyard, Mary Ann; Roberto, Megan E; Brumley, Michele R

2014-01-01

208

Reduced baroreflex sensitivity and pulmonary dysfunction in alcoholic cirrhosis: effect of hyperoxia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Patients with cirrhosis exhibit impaired regulation of the arterial blood pressure, reduced baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), and prolonged QT interval. In addition, a considerable number of patients have a pulmonary dysfunction with hypoxemia, impaired lung diffusing capacity (Dl(CO)), and presence of hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS). BRS is reduced at exposure to chronic hypoxia such as during sojourn in high altitudes. In this study, we assessed the relation of BRS to pulmonary dysfunction and cardiovascular characteristics and the effects of hyperoxia. Forty-three patients with cirrhosis and 12 healthy matched controls underwent hemodynamic and pulmonary investigations. BRS was assessed by cross-spectral analysis of variabilities between blood pressure and heart rate time series. A 100% oxygen test was performed with the assessment of arterial oxygen tensions (Pa(O(2))) and alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient. Baseline BRS was significantly reduced in the cirrhotic patients compared with the controls (4.7 +/- 0.8vs. 10.3 +/- 2.0 ms/mmHg; P <0.001). The frequency-corrected QT interval was significantly prolonged in the cirrhotic patients (P <0.05). There was no significant difference in BRS according to presence of HPS, Pa(O(2)), Dl(CO), or Child-Turcotte score, but BRS correlated with metabolic and hemodynamic characteristics. After 100% oxygen inhalation, BRS and the QT interval remained unchanged in the cirrhotic patients. In conclusion, BRS is significantly reduced in patients with cirrhosis compared with controls, but it is unrelated to the degree of pulmonary dysfunction and portal hypertension. Acute hyperoxia does not significantly revert the low BRS or the prolonged QT interval in cirrhosis.

MØller, SØren; Iversen, Jens S

2010-01-01

209

Sensitive detection of rutin based on {beta}-cyclodextrin-chemically reduced graphene/Nafion composite film  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: > {beta}-CD-graphene composite obtained via a simple sonication-induced assembly. > Accelerating electron transfer on electrode to amplify the electrochemical signal. > A highly sensitive electrochemical sensor for rutin detection. > Good selectivity and reproducibility for the detection of rutin in real samples. - Abstract: An electrochemical sensor based on chemically reduced graphene (CRG) was developed for the sensitive detection of rutin. To construct the base of the sensor, a novel composite was initially fabricated and used as the substrate material by combining CRG and {beta}-cyclodextrin ({beta}-CD) via a simple sonication-induced assembly. Due to the high rutin-loading capacity on the electrode surface and the upstanding electric conductivity of graphene, the electrochemical response of the fabricated sensor was greatly enhanced and displayed excellent analytical performance for rutin detection from 6.0 x 10{sup -9} to 1.0 x 10{sup -5} mol L{sup -1} with a low detection limit of 2.0 x 10{sup -9} mol L{sup -1} at 3{sigma}. Moreover, the proposed electrochemical sensor also exhibited good selectivity and acceptable reproducibility and could be used for the detection of rutin in real samples. Therefore, the present work offers a new way to broaden the analytical applications of graphene in pharmaceutical analysis.

Liu Kunping; Wei Jinping [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wang Chunming, E-mail: wangcm@lzu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

2011-05-30

210

Sensitive detection of rutin based on ?-cyclodextrin-chemically reduced graphene/Nafion composite film  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? ?-CD-graphene composite obtained via a simple sonication-induced assembly. ? Accelerating electron transfer on electrode to amplify the electrochemical signal. ? A highly sensitive electrochemical sensor for rutin detection. ? Good selectivity and reproducibility for the detection of rutin in real samples. - Abstract: An electrochemical sensor based on chemically reduced graphene (CRG) was developed for the sensitive detection of rutin. To construct the base of the sensor, a novel composite was initially fabricated and used as the substrate material by combining CRG and ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) via a simple sonication-induced assembly. Due to the high rutin-loading capacity on the electrode surface and the upstanding electric conductivity of graphene, the electrochemical response of the fabricated sensor was greatly enhanced and displayed excellent analytical performance for rutin detection from 6.0 x 10-9 to 1.0 x 10-5 mol L-1 with a low detection limit of 2.0 x 10-9 mol L-1 at 3?. Moreover, the proposed electrochemical sensor also exhibited good selectivity and acceptable reproducibility and could be used for the detection of rutin in real samples. Therefore, the present work offers a new way to broaden the analytical applications of graphene in pharmaceutical analysis.

211

New C$_{6}$D$_{6}$ detectors: reduced neutron sensitivity and improved safety  

CERN Document Server

During the 2011 data measurement campaign at n_TOF, the liquid scintillator detectors developed at FZK-Karlsruhe (hereafter named K6D6, [1]) and used with success along 10 years have shown ageing problems, mainly related to liquid leakage. The mould used to produce the carbon fiber structure, containing the liquid and the detection elements, was not available anymore and the technician involved in its construction was retired. Once decided to proceed to the production of new detectors (L6D6 in the following) two major items have been identified: - The detector setup must be able to work in the new class A experimental area (safety requirements advise to avoid the use of the old K6D6 in this area). - If possible, it is useful to reduce the neutron sensitivity, with the aim to have a liquid scintillator detector with very low neutron sensitivity (improving the already high performing K6D6). [1] R.Plag et al., NIM A496 (2003) 425

Mastinu, Pierfrancesco; Berthoumieux, Eric; Cano-Ott, Daniel; Gramegna, F; Guerrero, Carlos; Massimi, Cristian; Milazzo, Paolo Maria; Mingrone, Federica; Praena, Javier; Prete, G; García, Aczel Regino

2013-01-01

212

Atividade de glutationa S-transferase na degradação do herbicida glyphosate em plantas de milho (Zea mays Glutathione S-transferase activity on the degradation of the herbicide glyphosate in maize (Zea mays plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A glutationa S-transferase (GST, EC 2.5.1.18 desempenha um papel importante na resposta do estresse causado por herbicidas nas plantas; é considerada uma enzima de desintoxicação, por metabolizar grande variedade de compostos xenobióticos, por meio da conjugação destes com glutationa reduzida, formando substâncias de baixa toxicidade. O milho (Zea mays foi escolhido neste trabalho por apresentar problemas de injúrias quando submetido ao controle químico de plantas daninhas, por meio do uso de herbicidas. Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo determinar as alterações na atividade desta enzima em plantas de milho submetidas ao tratamento pelo herbicida glyphosate. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 4x4, com quatro tratamentos herbicidas (glyphosate nas concentrações de 1.000, 2.500 e 5.000 ppm e as plantas-controle tratadas com água e quatro estádios de desenvolvimento (9, 16, 23 e 30 dias após a emergência, com cinco repetições. O herbicida foi aplicado na parte aérea das plântulas de milho. A parte aérea foi coletada às 24, 48 e 72 horas após a aplicação do herbicida e utilizada para a determinação da atividade da GST e do teor de lipoperóxidos. Foi verificado que os teores de lipoperóxidos não foram alterados pelo tratamento com o glyphosate, porém a atividade de GST aumentou na maioria dos tratamentos utilizados, indicando ter ação na degradação do herbicida glyphosate em plantas de milho.Glutathione S-transferase (GST, EC 2.5.1.18 plays an important role in the response to stress caused by herbicides in plants; it is considered to be a detoxifying enzyme since it metabolizes a great variety of xenobiotic compounds, by combining them with reduced glutathione, forming substances of low toxicity. Maize (Zea mays was chosen in this work for showing injury problems when submitted to weed chemical control. This research aimed to determine the alterations in the activity of this enzyme in glyphosate-treated maize plants. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a 4 x 4 factorial arrangement, with four treatments (glyphosate at concentrations of 1,000, 2,500 and 5,000 ppm and control plant treated with water and four developmental stages (9, 16, 23 and 30 days after emergence, with five replicates. The herbicide was applied on the maize plant shoots, which were collected at 24, 48 and 72 hours after herbicide application and utilized for determining the GST activity and lipoperoxide content. It was verified that glyphosate does not change the lipoperoxide content, but increases GST activity for most treatments utilized, indicating its action in the degradation of glyphosate in maize plants.

A.C. Cataneo

2003-08-01

213

DISPERSION OF GLYPHOSATE IN SOILS UNDERGOING EROSION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Different physical, chemical and biological processes influence the behaviour of organic contaminants in soils. A better understanding of the organic pollutant behaviour in soils would improve the environmental protection. One possible way for better attenuation of the risk of pollution in agriculture can be achieved through ta better-specified pesticide management based on the adaptation of the pesticide type and application rates to the specific environmental characteristics of the area of application. Nowadays, one of the actually most applied herbicide world wide is glyphosate. Glyphosate is highly water soluble and traces have been found in surface and groundwater systems. For a better understanding of the natural influence of erosion processes on glyphosate behaviour and dispersion under heavy rain conditions after application in the field, two erosion simulation experiments were conducted on two different locations in Austria with completely different soil types in September 2008. The results of the experiments showed that under normal practical conditions (e.g. no rainfall is expected immediatly after application, the potential adsorption capacity of the Kirchberg soil (Stagnic Cambisol, with about 16.000 ppm Fe-oxides is confirmed compared to the low adsorption Chernosem soil (about 8.000 ppm pedogenic Fe-oxides.  Considering the enormous difference in the run-off amounts between the two sites Pixendorf and Kirchberg soils it can be concluded how important the soil structural conditions and vegetation type and cover are for the risks of erosion and, as a consequence, pollution of neighbouring waters. In the rainfall experiments under comparable simulation conditions, the amount of run-off was about 10 times higher at Kirchberg, owing to its better infiltration rate, than at the Pixendorf site. Moreover, the total loss of glyphosate (NT+CT through run-off at the Kirchberg site was more than double that at Pixendorf, which confirms the importance of the chemical and mineralogical nature of soils in the abatement and absorbency of glyphosate, and the poor results in case of erosive precipitations whwn soil structure and permeability are not favourable.

Gorana Todorovic Rampazzo

2010-08-01

214

Identification of Glyphosate Resistance in Lolium rigidum Gaudin  

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Full Text Available Glyphosate resistance was found in Lolium rigidum Gaudin (Rigid ryegrass, LOLRI inSouth Africa. Suspected glyphosate-resistant L. rigidum populations were collected andgrown under greenhouse conditions. The plants were sprayed with a range of doses of glyphosate35 days after planting and shoot dry biomass was determined 17 days after herbicidetreatment. Based on the dose-response experiment conducted in the greenhouse,one population of L. rigidum suspected to be resistant to glyphosate was approximately 5.3fold more resistant than susceptible population. The other population was 2.8 fold moreresistant than susceptible population. Difference between the two suspected resistant populationswas 1.9 fold. All plants were treated with glyphosate (1000 g a.i. ha-1 and shikimicacid was extracted 2, 4 and 6 days after treatment. The plants of susceptible populationsaccumulated more shikimic acid than other two populations.

Danijela Pavlovi?

2011-01-01

215

Molecular basis of glyphosate resistance: Different approaches through protein engineering  

Science.gov (United States)

Glyphosate (N-phosphonomethyl-glycine) is the most-used herbicide in the world: glyphosate-based formulations exhibit broad-spectrum herbicidal activity with minimal human and environmental toxicity. The extraordinary success of this simple small molecule is mainly due to the high specificity of glyphosate towards the plant enzyme enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase in the shikimate pathway leading to biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids. Starting in 1996, transgenic glyphosate-resistant plants were introduced thus allowing the application of the herbicide to the crop (post-emergence) to remove emerged weeds without crop damage. This review focuses on the evolution of mechanisms of resistance to glyphosate as obtained through natural diversity, the gene shuffling approach to molecular evolution, and a rational, structure-based approach to protein engineering. In addition, we offer rationale for the means by which the modifications made have had their intended effect. PMID:21668647

Pollegioni, Loredano; Schonbrunn, Ernst; Siehl, Daniel

2011-01-01

216

Effect of different doses of glyphosate in soybean  

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Full Text Available Abstract: Brazil ranks second in production of conventional soybeans and third in production of transgenic soybeans. The main advantage of transgenic soybean is resistant to the herbicide glyphosate, but the continued use of exaggeration and even of the same herbicide on soybean can significantly decrease acquired resistance. This work aimed to evaluate the effects of different doses of glyphosate can result in soybean. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse on the Campus of UFMT in Sinop-MT, and evaluated five doses of glyphosate in transgenic soybeans intercropped with two conventional soybeans. The characters were evaluated for phytotoxicity scores and length of the root system. It was found that, regardless of the amount of glyphosate applied occur symptoms of phytotoxicity in conventional and transgenic soybean. Whereas the most damage will be in conventional soybean, and transgenic soybean little affected by the action of the herbicide.Key words: Glycine max, glyphosate, phytotoxicity

S. A. Gomes

2013-07-01

217

Refractory cardiopulmonary failure after glyphosate surfactant intoxication: a case report  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Glyphosate is an herbicide considered to be of low toxicity to humans because its effects are specific to plants. However, fatal reactions to glyphosate have been reported after the ingestion of large amounts. Pulmonary edema, shock, and arrhythmia were the reported causes of mortality. Case presentation We present the case of a 57-year-old woman who was admitted to the emergency department unconsciousness after ingestion of glyphosate surfactant in a suicide attempt. Metabolic acidosis, refractory respiratory failure, and shock developed during hospitalization. Despite aggressive supportive care, the patient died in the hospital. Conclusion The toxicokinetics of glyphosate surfactant is complicated. Respiratory failure, metabolic acidosis, tachycardia, elevated creatinine, and hyperkalemia are poor prognostic factors if presented. Physicians should consider using hemodialysis early to improve the outcome of patients with glyphosate surfactant intoxication.

Chang Chia-Chu

2009-01-01

218

Research on the weed control degree and glyphosate soil biodegradation in apple plantations (Pioneer variety)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study we follow control degree of glyphosate herbicide on weeds in apple plantations (Pioneer variety) of the Research Station Timisoara. It was also followed glyphosate biodegradation capacity in the soil by determining the amount of CO2 released by the action of microorganisms on C14 glyphosate marked isotope. Laboratory analysis of glyphosate residues in soil was made using a Liquid Scintillation TRIATHLER. Glyphosate biodegradation ability in the presence of soil microorganisms is...

Alexa, Ersilia; Micu, Roxana; Negrea, Monica; Sumalan, Renata; Iordanescu, Olimpia

2010-01-01

219

The influence of salts in carrier water and adjuvants on glyphosate activity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Glyphosate, a non-selective herbicide, is antagonized by salts in the spray carrier and responds to surfactant type and concentration. Glyphosate antagonism by dissolved salts such as calcium and magnesium was verified with natural water carriers and with carriers to which salts were added. Salt antagonism of glyphosate occurred from the formation of complexes that were less absorptive than the formulated isopropylamine glyphosate. Absorption of various salts of glyphosate varied as follows: ...

Villiers, Brian Lindsay

2002-01-01

220

The influence of salts in carrier water and adjuvants on glyphosate activity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Glyphosate, a non-selective herbicide, is antagonized by salts in the spray carrier and responds to surfactant type and concentration. Glyphosate antagonism by dissolved salts such as calcium and magnesium was verified with natural water carriers and with carriers to which salts were added. Salt antagonism of glyphosate occurred from the formation of complexes that were less absorptive than the formulated isopropylamine glyphosate. Absorption of various salts of glyphosate varied as follows: ...

Villiers, Brian Lindsay

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

High-sensitive C-reactive protein is associated with reduced lung function in young adults  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Systemic inflammation has been associated with reduced lung function. However, data on the interrelationships between lung function and inflammation are sparse, and it is not clear if low-grade inflammation leads to reduced lung function. Associations between high-sensitive C-reactive protein (CRP) and spirometric lung function were assessed in a population-based cohort of approximately 1,000 Danes aged 20 yrs. In males, the average decline in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)) in the highest CRP quintile was 23 mL.yr(-1) versus 1.6 mL.yr(-1) in the lowest quintile. In females, the average decline was 6.2 mL.yr(-1) in the highest CRP quintile versus an increase of 1.8 mL.yr(-1) in the lowest CRP quintile. In a multiple regression analysis adjusted for sex, body mass index, cardiorespiratory fitness, smoking, asthma, airway hyperresponsiveness and serum eosinophil cationic protein, higher levels of CRP at age 20 yrs were associated with a greater reduction in both FEV(1) and forced vital capacity between ages 20 and 29 yrs. The findings show that higher levels of C-reactive protein in young adults are associated with subsequent decline in lung function, suggesting that low-grade systemic inflammation in young adulthood may lead to impaired lung function independently of the effects of smoking, obesity, cardiorespiratory fitness, asthma and eosinophilic inflammation.

Rasmussen, F; Mikkelsen, D

2009-01-01

222

Blackhead disease: reduced sensitivity of Histomonas meleagridis to nitarsone in vitro and in vivo.  

Science.gov (United States)

Histomonas meleagridis, a flagellated protozoan parasite, is the causative agent of blackhead disease or histomoniasis in gallinaceous birds. Currently nitarsone (4-nitrophenylarsonic acid) is the only approved preventative drug available in the United States against blackhead disease. Initially we tested the sensitivity of three different isolates of H. meleagridis collected from outbreaks in North Carolina (strain MNC), Michigan (strain ZM), and Georgia (strain BG) to nitarsone using in vitro culture conditions. Strain ZM and strain BG at 100 and 400 ppm showed reduced growth in comparison to their respective control groups. However, there was no inhibition of growth in strain MNC treated with nitarsone at 100 ppm, while reduced growth was seen at 400 ppm. To test the resistance of strain MNC to nitarsone in vivo, turkey poults fed a nitarsone or a control diet were inoculated cloacally with H. meleagridis. The nitarsone-treated group of birds did not show any significant difference compared to that of infected control group when measuring weight gain and liver and cecal lesions scores. Histomonas meleagridis were reisolated from the nitarsone-fed turkeys and subjected to the in vitro assay. Regenerated H. meleagridis maintain their resistance to nitarsone at 100 ppm. This study demonstrates that strain MNC has acquired partial resistance to nitarsone. PMID:24758114

Abraham, M; McDougald, L R; Beckstead, R B

2014-03-01

223

Distribuição de glyphosate e acúmulo de nutrientes em biótipos de azevém Glyphosate distribution and nutrient accumulation in ryegrass biotypes  

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Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar o acúmulo de nutrientes e a translocação de glyphosate em biótipos de azevém. Para isso, foram montados dois ensaios: no primeiro aplicou-se 14C-glyphosate, adicionando 10 µL da calda sobre a face adaxial da primeira folha com lígula totalmente visível, quando as plantas de azevém apresentavam três perfilhos. A quantidade de glyphosate absorvido, translocado e exsudado foi avaliada 64 horas após aplicação, por meio da medição da radiação emitida pelo 14C-glyphosate, em espectrômetro de cintilação líquida. O glyphosate foi quantificado em folha de aplicação, perfilhos, raízes e na solução nutritiva onde foram cultivados os biótipos de azevém. No segundo experimento, aplicou-se o glyphosate (480 g ha-1 tanto no biótipo sensível quanto no resistente. Após dez dias da aplicação, a parte área e as raízes das plantas foram coletadas e secas em estufa, sendo determinados os teores de macronutrientes. No primeiro ensaio, verificou-se exsudação radicular em ambos os biótipos, nos quais a quantidade de glyphosate exsudada foi semelhante, não ultrapassando 5% do total que penetrou na planta. No perfilho principal do biótipo sensível, comparado ao resistente, foi observada maior concentração do produto marcado. O biótipo resistente apresentou maior acúmulo de produto marcado na folha de aplicação; no sensível, a maior parte do glyphosate foi encontrada nas raízes. Com relação ao segundo ensaio, na presença de herbicida o biótipo sensível apresentou menor teor de fósforo tanto na parte aérea quanto na planta. Os biótipos resistente e sensível, sem aplicação de herbicida, tenderam a apresentar maiores teores de N total e N inorgânico na parte aérea e na planta como um todo, quando comparados aos tratamentos em que foi realizada a aplicação do produto. Ambos os biótipos mostraram a mesma capacidade de absorção e acúmulo de macronutrientes na ausência do produto.This work aimed to evaluate nutrient accumulation and glyphosate translocation in ryegrass biotypes. Two trials were conducted: in the first, 10 uL of 14C-glyphosate ware applied on the upper side of the first leaf showing completely visible ligule, with ryegrass plants at the three-tiller stage. The amount of glyphosate absorbed, translocated and exudated was evaluated 64 hours after application, by using a liquid scintillation spectrometer. Glyphosate was quantified in the leaf it had been applied, in the tillers, roots and in the nutritive solution the plants were grown. In the second trial, glyphosate was applied on the resistant and the susceptible biotypes at the rate of 480 g L-1. Ten days after application, the shoot and roots were collected and oven-dried and the levels of macronutrients were determined. In the first trial, root exudation was observed in both biotypes, in which the amount of exudated glyphosate was similar and not greater than 5% of the absorbed glyphosate. In the main tiller of the susceptible biotype, a higher concentration of 14C-glyphosate was observed, compared to the resistant one. The resistant biotype showed more glyphosate accumulation in the leaf it had been applied and in the susceptible biotype; most 14-C glyphosate was found in the root system. In the second trial, the susceptible biotype showed less P accumulation than the resistant one. Both the resistant and susceptible biotypes tended to accumulate more total N and inorganic N in the shoot and in the whole plant in the absence of glyphosate, compared to the applied treatments. Both biotypes presented the same absorption capacity and macronutrients accumulation in the absence of the glyphosate.

E.A. Ferreira

2008-03-01

224

Uso de aminoácido exógeno na prevenção de injúrias causadas por glyphosate na soja RR / Use of exogenous amino acid to prevent glyphosate injury in glyphosate-resistant soybean  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O aumento da área cultivada de soja resistente ao glyphosate (RR) no Brasil é resultado do benefício dessa tecnologia no manejo de plantas daninhas. No entanto, a expansão da área de soja RR aumentou significativamente o uso de glyphosate e consequentemente, em alguns casos, têm sido observados sint [...] omas de injúrias na soja RR conhecidos como yellow flashing ou amarelecimento das folhas superiores. Nesse sentido, dois experimentos, em diferentes anos, foram conduzidos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. O primeiro teve o objetivo de avaliar a influência do glyphosate na soja RR nas variáveis fotossintéticas, nos parâmetros de nodulação e na biomassa seca da parte aérea e raiz, realizando-se a comparação entre os tratamentos BRS 242 RR sem glyphosate, BRS 242 RR + glyphosate e a isolinha parental não-RR cv. Embrapa 58, submetidas a uma dose de glyphosate de 1.200 g e.a. ha-1; aplicada no estádio V4. O segundo experimento foi conduzido visando reavaliar as variáveis fotossintéticas, de produção de biomassa e nodulação afetadas na soja RR pelo glyphosate no primeiro experimento. Entretanto, no segundo experimento foi avaliada a utilização de diversas modalidades de aplicação de aminoácidos (a.a.), sendo os diferentes tratamentos (sem a.a.; tratamento de semente com a.a; tratamento de semente com a.a. + aplicação foliar de a.a.; sem tratamento de sementes com a.a; e com aplicação foliar de a.a) combinados com diferentes doses de glyphosate (1.200 e 2.400 g e.a. ha-1), objetivando uma provável recuperação das plantas de soja com sua utilização exógena. Em ambos os experimentos, as variáveis fotossintéticas, os parâmetros de nodulação e biomassa seca da parte aérea e raiz foram afetados pela aplicação do glyphosate, porém o segundo experimento evidenciou, de modo geral, que o uso de aminoácidos via tratamento de sementes associado com aplicação foliar pode ser uma estratégia para prevenir os efeitos indesejáveis desse herbicida na cultura da soja RR. Abstract in english Cultivation of glyphosate-resistant (GR) soybeans has increased in Brazil as a result of the application of this technology in weed management systems developed for this crop. However, the expansion of GR soybean production has significantly increased the use of glyphosate and, in some cases, result [...] ed in injury symptoms observed in GR soybean, known as "yellow flashing" or yellowing of the upper leaves. Thus, two experiments were conducted in different years. The first experiment aimed to evaluate the influence of glyphosate on GR soybeans regarding the photosynthetic variables, nodule parameters, and shoot and root dry biomass by comparing cultivar BRS 242 GR without glyphosate and BRS 242 RR + glyphosate at 1.200 g ha-1 at V4 growth stage, to the near isogenic non-GR parental line cv. Embrapa 58. The second experiment aimed to reassess the same parameters in GR soybeans at the V4 stage treated with glyphosate, plus the application of various amino acids, to evaluate the expected recovery of soybean growth under the exogenous use of supplemental amino acids. In general, the photosynthetic variables, nodulation parameters and shoot and root dry biomass were affected by glyphosate; however, the use of amino acids may be a strategy to prevent the undesirable effects of this herbicide on GR soybean

L.H.S., Zobiole; R.S., Oliveira Jr.; J., Constantin; D.F., Biffe; R.J., Kremer.

225

Glyphosate em mistura com herbicidas alternativos para o manejo de plantas daninhas Glyphosate combined with alternative herbicides for vegetation management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O uso intensivo de glyphosate como herbicida não-seletivo tem selecionado espécies de plantas daninhas tolerantes. Dessa forma, é importante que sejam estudadas misturas de tanque com herbicidas de mecanismos de ação alternativos e que apresentem efeitos sinergísticos ou aditivos. Por essa razão, foi instalado um experimento inteiramente casualizado, composto por 13 tratamentos e 4 repetições, em casa de vegetação da Universidade de São Paulo - ESALQ/USP, Piracicaba-SP, com as plantas daninhas Richardia brasiliensis, Commelina benghalensis, Amaranthus hybridus, Galinsoga parviflora e Ipomoea grandifolia em misturas de tanque dos herbicidas chlorimuron-ethyl, sulfentrazone, carfentrazone, bentazon ou flumioxazin com glyphosate. As interações foram aditivas para as plantas daninhas I. grandifolia e C. benghalensis, e os herbicidas flumioxazin, sulfentrazone e carfentrazone aplicados isoladamente e em mistura com glyphosate foram os que proporcionaram os melhores níveis de controle. A interação de glyphosate com sulfentrazone foi antagônica em R. brasiliensis; a mistura de glyphosate com os demais herbicidas estudados foi aditiva, sendo os tratamentos com mistura de glyphosate e chlorimuron-ethyl ou flumioxazin os mais eficazes. Em A. hybridus, os tratamentos que apresentaram melhores níveis de controle foram o glyphosate e carfentrazone, aplicados isoladamente, e a mistura de glyphosate com flumioxazin, sulfentrazone, chlorimuron-ethyl e bentazon, sendo estes interações aditivas. No caso de G. parviflora, os tratamentos com flumioxazin e sulfentrazone apresentaram controle total, o mesmo acontecendo com as misturas de glyphosate com carfentrazone, flumioxazin, sulfentrazone, chlorimuron-ethyl ou bentazon.The intensive use of glyphosate as a non-selective herbicide for weed vegetation management has selected some tolerant weed species. Thus, it is important to study the synergistic or antagonic or additive effects of tank mixtures of glyphosate combined with alternative mechanism of action herbicides. An experiment was developed in a randomized complete design, using 12 treatments and four replications, under greenhouse conditions at University of São Paulo - USP/ESALQ - Piracicaba-SP, Brazil, with the weeds Richardia brasiliensis, Commelina benghalensis, Amaranthus hybridus, Galinsoga parviflora and Ipomoea grandifolia and applying glyphosate combined with the herbicides chlorimuron-ethyl, carfentrazone, bentazon, sulfentrazone and flumioxazin. The interactions were additive for the weeds I. grandifolia and C. benghalensis but the herbicides flumioxazin, sulfentrazone and carfentrazone sprayed alone and in mixture with glyphosate gave better control results. The interaction of glyphosate with sulfentrazone was antagonic in R. brasiliensis, whereas the glyphosate mixed with other herbicides was additive; however, the treatments using glyphosate and chlorimuron-ethyl or flumioxazin were more efficient in weed control. In A. hybridus, the best control results were glyphosate and carfentrazone alone and glyphosate mixed with flumioxazin, sulfentrazone, chlorimuron-ethyl and bentazon, all additives. In the case of G. parviflora, flumioxazin, sulfentrazone, chlorimuron and bentazon with glyphosate and flumioxazin and sulfentrazone gave excellent control.

P.A. Monquero

2001-12-01

226

Glyphosate em mistura com herbicidas alternativos para o manejo de plantas daninhas / Glyphosate combined with alternative herbicides for vegetation management  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O uso intensivo de glyphosate como herbicida não-seletivo tem selecionado espécies de plantas daninhas tolerantes. Dessa forma, é importante que sejam estudadas misturas de tanque com herbicidas de mecanismos de ação alternativos e que apresentem efeitos sinergísticos ou aditivos. Por essa razão, fo [...] i instalado um experimento inteiramente casualizado, composto por 13 tratamentos e 4 repetições, em casa de vegetação da Universidade de São Paulo - ESALQ/USP, Piracicaba-SP, com as plantas daninhas Richardia brasiliensis, Commelina benghalensis, Amaranthus hybridus, Galinsoga parviflora e Ipomoea grandifolia em misturas de tanque dos herbicidas chlorimuron-ethyl, sulfentrazone, carfentrazone, bentazon ou flumioxazin com glyphosate. As interações foram aditivas para as plantas daninhas I. grandifolia e C. benghalensis, e os herbicidas flumioxazin, sulfentrazone e carfentrazone aplicados isoladamente e em mistura com glyphosate foram os que proporcionaram os melhores níveis de controle. A interação de glyphosate com sulfentrazone foi antagônica em R. brasiliensis; a mistura de glyphosate com os demais herbicidas estudados foi aditiva, sendo os tratamentos com mistura de glyphosate e chlorimuron-ethyl ou flumioxazin os mais eficazes. Em A. hybridus, os tratamentos que apresentaram melhores níveis de controle foram o glyphosate e carfentrazone, aplicados isoladamente, e a mistura de glyphosate com flumioxazin, sulfentrazone, chlorimuron-ethyl e bentazon, sendo estes interações aditivas. No caso de G. parviflora, os tratamentos com flumioxazin e sulfentrazone apresentaram controle total, o mesmo acontecendo com as misturas de glyphosate com carfentrazone, flumioxazin, sulfentrazone, chlorimuron-ethyl ou bentazon. Abstract in english The intensive use of glyphosate as a non-selective herbicide for weed vegetation management has selected some tolerant weed species. Thus, it is important to study the synergistic or antagonic or additive effects of tank mixtures of glyphosate combined with alternative mechanism of action herbicides [...] . An experiment was developed in a randomized complete design, using 12 treatments and four replications, under greenhouse conditions at University of São Paulo - USP/ESALQ - Piracicaba-SP, Brazil, with the weeds Richardia brasiliensis, Commelina benghalensis, Amaranthus hybridus, Galinsoga parviflora and Ipomoea grandifolia and applying glyphosate combined with the herbicides chlorimuron-ethyl, carfentrazone, bentazon, sulfentrazone and flumioxazin. The interactions were additive for the weeds I. grandifolia and C. benghalensis but the herbicides flumioxazin, sulfentrazone and carfentrazone sprayed alone and in mixture with glyphosate gave better control results. The interaction of glyphosate with sulfentrazone was antagonic in R. brasiliensis, whereas the glyphosate mixed with other herbicides was additive; however, the treatments using glyphosate and chlorimuron-ethyl or flumioxazin were more efficient in weed control. In A. hybridus, the best control results were glyphosate and carfentrazone alone and glyphosate mixed with flumioxazin, sulfentrazone, chlorimuron-ethyl and bentazon, all additives. In the case of G. parviflora, flumioxazin, sulfentrazone, chlorimuron and bentazon with glyphosate and flumioxazin and sulfentrazone gave excellent control.

P.A., Monquero; P.J., Christoffoleti; C.T.D., Santos.

2001-12-01

227

Glyphosate em mistura com herbicidas alternativos para o manejo de plantas daninhas / Glyphosate combined with alternative herbicides for vegetation management  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O uso intensivo de glyphosate como herbicida não-seletivo tem selecionado espécies de plantas daninhas tolerantes. Dessa forma, é importante que sejam estudadas misturas de tanque com herbicidas de mecanismos de ação alternativos e que apresentem efeitos sinergísticos ou aditivos. Por essa razão, fo [...] i instalado um experimento inteiramente casualizado, composto por 13 tratamentos e 4 repetições, em casa de vegetação da Universidade de São Paulo - ESALQ/USP, Piracicaba-SP, com as plantas daninhas Richardia brasiliensis, Commelina benghalensis, Amaranthus hybridus, Galinsoga parviflora e Ipomoea grandifolia em misturas de tanque dos herbicidas chlorimuron-ethyl, sulfentrazone, carfentrazone, bentazon ou flumioxazin com glyphosate. As interações foram aditivas para as plantas daninhas I. grandifolia e C. benghalensis, e os herbicidas flumioxazin, sulfentrazone e carfentrazone aplicados isoladamente e em mistura com glyphosate foram os que proporcionaram os melhores níveis de controle. A interação de glyphosate com sulfentrazone foi antagônica em R. brasiliensis; a mistura de glyphosate com os demais herbicidas estudados foi aditiva, sendo os tratamentos com mistura de glyphosate e chlorimuron-ethyl ou flumioxazin os mais eficazes. Em A. hybridus, os tratamentos que apresentaram melhores níveis de controle foram o glyphosate e carfentrazone, aplicados isoladamente, e a mistura de glyphosate com flumioxazin, sulfentrazone, chlorimuron-ethyl e bentazon, sendo estes interações aditivas. No caso de G. parviflora, os tratamentos com flumioxazin e sulfentrazone apresentaram controle total, o mesmo acontecendo com as misturas de glyphosate com carfentrazone, flumioxazin, sulfentrazone, chlorimuron-ethyl ou bentazon. Abstract in english The intensive use of glyphosate as a non-selective herbicide for weed vegetation management has selected some tolerant weed species. Thus, it is important to study the synergistic or antagonic or additive effects of tank mixtures of glyphosate combined with alternative mechanism of action herbicides [...] . An experiment was developed in a randomized complete design, using 12 treatments and four replications, under greenhouse conditions at University of São Paulo - USP/ESALQ - Piracicaba-SP, Brazil, with the weeds Richardia brasiliensis, Commelina benghalensis, Amaranthus hybridus, Galinsoga parviflora and Ipomoea grandifolia and applying glyphosate combined with the herbicides chlorimuron-ethyl, carfentrazone, bentazon, sulfentrazone and flumioxazin. The interactions were additive for the weeds I. grandifolia and C. benghalensis but the herbicides flumioxazin, sulfentrazone and carfentrazone sprayed alone and in mixture with glyphosate gave better control results. The interaction of glyphosate with sulfentrazone was antagonic in R. brasiliensis, whereas the glyphosate mixed with other herbicides was additive; however, the treatments using glyphosate and chlorimuron-ethyl or flumioxazin were more efficient in weed control. In A. hybridus, the best control results were glyphosate and carfentrazone alone and glyphosate mixed with flumioxazin, sulfentrazone, chlorimuron-ethyl and bentazon, all additives. In the case of G. parviflora, flumioxazin, sulfentrazone, chlorimuron and bentazon with glyphosate and flumioxazin and sulfentrazone gave excellent control.

P.A., Monquero; P.J., Christoffoleti; C.T.D., Santos.

228

The possible role of reduced-moderation water reactors and its sensitivity to fuel recycling conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, many scenarios were defined for future development of nuclear power generation and fuel cycle systems in Japan. These scenarios were quantitatively analyzed from the viewpoint of plutonium recycling, natural uranium consumption, stock of spent fuel, etc. Following findings were obtained from the analysis. Reduced Moderation Water Reactors (RMWRs) will contribute to control the uranium consumption at certain finite levels if net conversion ratio (CR) is kept higher than 1.0. However, since RMWRs do not have an excellent breeding performance in comparison with sodium-cooled fast breeder reactors, their effect is very sensitive to the conditions on fuel recycling processes. Judging from the results of analysis using a RMWR design with gross CR 1.06, it would be necessary for RMWRs to have net CR 1.04 in order to replace enriched uranium fuelled LWRs by around the year 2200, and thereby to keep ultimate natural uranium consumption at rather low levels. This can be achieved by controlling fuel duration time outside reactors to shorter than 4 years or 6 years, when total loss of plutonium during the processes of recycling is 1.0% or 0.2%, respectively. (author)

229

Enhanced sensitivity in H photofragment detection by two-color reduced-Doppler ion imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two-color reduced-Doppler (TCRD) and one-color velocity map imaging (VMI) were used for probing H atom photofragments resulting from the ?243.1 nm photodissociation of pyrrole. The velocity components of the H photofragments were probed by employing two counterpropagating beams at close and fixed wavelengths of 243.15 and 243.12 nm in TCRD and a single beam at ?243.1 nm, scanned across the Doppler profile in VMI. The TCRD imaging enabled probing of the entire velocity distribution in a single pulse, resulting in enhanced ionization efficiency, as well as improved sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio. These advantages were utilized for studying the pyrrole photodissociation at ?243.1 and 225 nm, where the latter wavelength provided only a slight increase in the H yield over the self-signal from the probe beams. The TCRD imaging enabled obtaining high quality H+ images, even for the low H photofragment yields formed in the 225 nm photolysis process, and allowed determining the velocity distributions and anisotropy parameters and getting insight into pyrrole photodissociation

230

Enhanced sensitivity in H photofragment detection by two-color reduced-Doppler ion imaging  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two-color reduced-Doppler (TCRD) and one-color velocity map imaging (VMI) were used for probing H atom photofragments resulting from the ?243.1 nm photodissociation of pyrrole. The velocity components of the H photofragments were probed by employing two counterpropagating beams at close and fixed wavelengths of 243.15 and 243.12 nm in TCRD and a single beam at ?243.1 nm, scanned across the Doppler profile in VMI. The TCRD imaging enabled probing of the entire velocity distribution in a single pulse, resulting in enhanced ionization efficiency, as well as improved sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio. These advantages were utilized for studying the pyrrole photodissociation at ?243.1 and 225 nm, where the latter wavelength provided only a slight increase in the H yield over the self-signal from the probe beams. The TCRD imaging enabled obtaining high quality H{sup +} images, even for the low H photofragment yields formed in the 225 nm photolysis process, and allowed determining the velocity distributions and anisotropy parameters and getting insight into pyrrole photodissociation.

Epshtein, Michael; Portnov, Alexander; Kupfer, Rotem; Rosenwaks, Salman; Bar, Ilana, E-mail: ibar@bgu.ac.il [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

2013-11-14

231

Central fuel banking to reduce the number of proliferation sensitive enrichment activities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Central fuel banking is a complex international political, economic and technical concept that aims to reduce uncontrolled spreading of uranium enrichment technology in the world in order to prevent proliferation of nuclear weapons. This paper first gives an outline of the notions: 'non-proliferation', the 'front-end' of the fuel cycle, the scope of fuel baking, nuclear fuel and the 60 years of enrichment technology. Enrichment technology is highly concentrated in the nuclear weapon states and other developed countries, but this is not exclusive any more. The technology is spreading. The global demand for enrichment services - parallel to massive nuclear investments in the civil sector and the ageing of older facilities - is constantly growing. Proliferation sensitivity calls for an effective and comprehensive non-proliferation regime. The solution may be multilateralizing the nuclear fuel cycle. After a historical overview, the proposals on multilateral nuclear approaches are presented. The assessment of the proposals is complex in the dimensions of: the non-proliferation aim, the assurance of supply aspect and other variables such as legal issues and non-nuclear inducements. A general evaluation and the recommendations of the Expert Panel of the IAEA are introduced outlining a plan on a middle- and long-term basis. The conclusion of the paper stresses the importance and challenge in finding the 'new balance' between obligations and interests of the members of the global community stating that the answers will have a significant impact on the nuclear indus- try, world wide economics and security policy. (orig.)

232

Chemical control of ambrosia Artemisiifolia on non-crop areas: are there alternatives to glyphosate?  

Science.gov (United States)

We compared glyphosate, glufosinate and metsulfuron-methyl to control Ambrosia artemisiifolia under non-crop conditions. A laboratory study showed that A. artemisiifolia is an easy-to-wet species and that glufosinate and glyphosate are quickly absorbed by its leaves (nearly 100% in 24 h). Metsulfuron-methyl absorption was slower (about 50% in 24 h) but was strongly promoted by terpenic alcohol and esterified rapeseed oil. In the greenhouse, all three herbicides were efficacious against A. artemisiifolia, with ED50s of achene weight was decreased by 60 to 70% and seed viability was only 8 to 13% for the treated plants, as compared to 85% for the control. No significant difference was observed between the two herbicides and between the doses. It is concluded that glufosinate can be an alternative to glyphosate for the chemical control of A. artemisiifolia on non-crop areas. However, with both herbicides, it is difficult to attain the two objectives of reducing seed production and pollen production by means of only one treatment. PMID:16637214

Lombard, A; Gauvrit, C; Chauvel, B

2005-01-01

233

Exsudação radicular de glyphosate por Brachiaria decumbens e seus efeitos em plantas de eucalipto Radicular exudation of glyphosate by Brachiaria decumbens and its effects on eucalypt plant  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Plantas de eucalipto com sintomas de intoxicação por glyphosate são comuns em áreas em que esse herbicida é usado. Uma das possíveis formas de contato com glyphosate é por meio da exsudação radicular do produto, por plantas daninhas tratadas, e subseqüente absorção pelas plantas de eucalipto. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a exsudação de glyphosate por Brachiaria decumbens e seus efeitos sobre plantas de eucalipto, por meio da aplicação de 14C-glyphosate misturado à c...

Tuffi Santos, L. D.; Santos, J. B.; Ferreira, F. A.; Oliveira, J. A.; Bentivenha, S.; Machado, A. F. L.

2008-01-01

234

Response of Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus urograndis Plants at Different Doses of Glyphosate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of eucalyptus plants submitted to the application of glyphosate increasing rates. The doses 0.0, 3.6, 7.2, 18, 36, 72 and 180 g ha-1 of acid equivalent (ae of glyphosate were applied on plants. At 7, 15, 22, 29, 36 and 42 days after application (DAA was determined leaves relative chlorophyll content and quantum efficiency of photosystem II. At 22 and 42 DAA plant height and stem diameter were measured. At 42 DAA were determined the leaves dry mass, stem dry mass and foliar area. The height, diameter, leaves and stem dry masses and foliar area were converted to percentages, whereas the controls as 100%. These variables were fitted to the model described by Gauss equation. The data chlorophyll content and quantum efficiency of photosystem II were submitted to mean comparison, and when they differed, we performed the Tukey test at 5% probability. All the features presented here showed some hormetic effect promoted by reduced rates of glyphosate and the increments observed in these characteristics (when compared to control ranged between 5.92 and 33.18% at 42 DAA. From average curve with height, diameter, leaves dry mass, stem dry mass and foliar area can be concluded that the increase averaged 12% on application of 16 g a.e. of glyphosate ha-1. For leaves chlorophyll content significant differences were observed only at 29 DAA, while for quantum efficiency of photosystem II significant differences were found only at 7 DAA.  

Fernanda Campos Mastrotti Pereira

2012-12-01

235

Utilização de glifosato para o controle de ferrugem da soja Glyphosate application on soybean rust control  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de glifosato sobre a germinação de esporos de Phakopsora pachyrhizi e no controle da ferrugem da soja, aplicado preventiva e erradicativamente, em condições controladas. A germinação de esporos foi avaliada tendo-se vertido, em meio de cultura, soluções de esporos com diferentes concentrações do glifosato (0, 100, 1.000, 10.000 e 20.000 ppm e fungicidas. Para avaliar o controle da ferrugem, plantas foram pulverizadas com glifosato, com variação da dose e do momento, tendo-se medido a severidade da doença. Houve efeito do produto sobre os esporos do fungo, o que reduziu sua germinação. As pulverizações em plantas, em casa de vegetação, mostraram um efeito do produto sobre a ferrugem, quando aplicado preventivamente, porém com período de proteção curto e fungitoxicidade inferior à do fungicida tebuconazole. O uso do glifosato, avaliado nesse ensaio, não deve ser visto como medida de manejo de ferrugem, e não interfere nas práticas habituais de controle da ferrugem da soja.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of glyphosate on the germination of Phakopsora pachyrhizi spores, and on soybean rust control; applications were either preventive or eradicative under controlled conditions. The germination of spores was evaluated by pouring spores solutions on culture medium, with different concentrations of glyphosate (0, 100, 1,000, 10,000 and 20,000 ppm and fungicides. For the rust control evaluation, plants were sprayed with glyphosate, varying doses and moments, and estimating the disease severity. The product reduced spores germination. Plants sprayed in greenhouse conditions, showed effect of the product on rust, when applied preventively, but with short protection period and lower fungus toxicity than tebuconazole fungicide. The use of glyphosate, evaluated in this trial, must not be taken as a rust management measure, and should not interfere in usual practices for soybean rust control.

Rafael Moreira Soares

2008-04-01

236

Utilização de glifosato para o controle de ferrugem da soja / Glyphosate application on soybean rust control  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de glifosato sobre a germinação de esporos de Phakopsora pachyrhizi e no controle da ferrugem da soja, aplicado preventiva e erradicativamente, em condições controladas. A germinação de esporos foi avaliada tendo-se vertido, em meio de cultura, soluções [...] de esporos com diferentes concentrações do glifosato (0, 100, 1.000, 10.000 e 20.000 ppm) e fungicidas. Para avaliar o controle da ferrugem, plantas foram pulverizadas com glifosato, com variação da dose e do momento, tendo-se medido a severidade da doença. Houve efeito do produto sobre os esporos do fungo, o que reduziu sua germinação. As pulverizações em plantas, em casa de vegetação, mostraram um efeito do produto sobre a ferrugem, quando aplicado preventivamente, porém com período de proteção curto e fungitoxicidade inferior à do fungicida tebuconazole. O uso do glifosato, avaliado nesse ensaio, não deve ser visto como medida de manejo de ferrugem, e não interfere nas práticas habituais de controle da ferrugem da soja. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of glyphosate on the germination of Phakopsora pachyrhizi spores, and on soybean rust control; applications were either preventive or eradicative under controlled conditions. The germination of spores was evaluated by pouring spores solutions on [...] culture medium, with different concentrations of glyphosate (0, 100, 1,000, 10,000 and 20,000 ppm) and fungicides. For the rust control evaluation, plants were sprayed with glyphosate, varying doses and moments, and estimating the disease severity. The product reduced spores germination. Plants sprayed in greenhouse conditions, showed effect of the product on rust, when applied preventively, but with short protection period and lower fungus toxicity than tebuconazole fungicide. The use of glyphosate, evaluated in this trial, must not be taken as a rust management measure, and should not interfere in usual practices for soybean rust control.

Rafael Moreira, Soares; Dionísio Luiz Pisa, Gazziero; Daniela Alves dos Santos, Morita; Mônica Lúcia, Ciliato; Allan Misael, Flausino; Leandro Cezar Menezes, Santos; Tatiani, Janegitz.

237

Characterization of glyphosate resistance in Amaranthus tuberculatus populations.  

Science.gov (United States)

The evolution of glyphosate-resistant weeds has recently increased dramatically. Six suspected glyphosate-resistant Amaranthus tuberculatus populations were studied to confirm resistance and determine the resistance mechanism. Resistance was confirmed in greenhouse for all six populations with glyphosate resistance factors (R/S) between 5.2 and 7.5. No difference in glyphosate absorption or translocation was observed between resistant and susceptible individuals. No mutation at amino acid positions G101, T102, or P106 was detected in the EPSPS gene coding sequence, the target enzyme of glyphosate. Analysis of EPSPS gene copy number revealed that all glyphosate-resistant populations possessed increased EPSPS gene copy number, and this correlated with increased expression at both RNA and protein levels. EPSPS Vmax and Kcat values were more than doubled in resistant plants, indicating higher levels of catalytically active expressed EPSPS protein. EPSPS gene amplification is the main mechanism contributing to glyphosate resistance in the A. tuberculatus populations analyzed. PMID:24956036

Lorentz, Lothar; Gaines, Todd A; Nissen, Scott J; Westra, Philip; Strek, Harry J; Dehne, Heinz W; Ruiz-Santaella, Juan Pedro; Beffa, Roland

2014-08-13

238

The occurrence of glyphosate, atrazine, and other pesticides in vernal pools and adjacent streams in Washington, DC, Maryland, Iowa, and Wyoming, 2005-2006  

Science.gov (United States)

Vernal pools are sensitive environments that provide critical habitat for many species, including amphibians. These small water bodies are not always protected by pesticide label requirements for no-spray buffer zones, and the occurrence of pesticides in them is poorly documented. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of glyphosate, its primary degradation product aminomethylphosphonic acid, and additional pesticides in vernal pools and adjacent flowing waters. Most sampling sites were chosen to be in areas where glyphosate was being used either in production agriculture or for nonindigenous plant control. The four site locations were in otherwise protected areas (e.g., in a National Park). When possible, water samples were collected both before and after glyphosate application in 2005 and 2006. Twenty-eight pesticides or pesticide degradation products were detected in the study, and as many as 11 were identified in individual samples. Atrazine was detected most frequently and concentrations exceeded the freshwater aquatic life standard of 1.8 micrograms per liter (??g/l) in samples from Rands Ditch and Browns Ditch in DeSoto National Wildlife Refuge. Glyphosate was measured at the highest concentration (328 ??g/l) in a sample from Riley Spring Pond in Rock Creek National Park. This concentration exceeded the freshwater aquatic life standard for glyphosate of 65 ??g/l. Aminomethylphosphonic acid, triclopyr, and nicosulfuron also were detected at concentrations greater than 3.0 ??g/l. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008.

Battaglin, W.A.; Rice, K.C.; Focazio, M.J.; Salmons, S.; Barry, R.X.

2009-01-01

239

Efficient fluorescence resonance energy transfer between oppositely charged CdTe quantum dots and gold nanoparticles for turn-on fluorescence detection of glyphosate.  

Science.gov (United States)

We designed a turn-on fluorescence assay for glyphosate based on the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between negatively charged CdTe quantum dots capped with thioglycolic acid (TGA-CdTe-QDs) and positively charged gold nanoparticles stabilized with cysteamine (CS-AuNPs). Oppositely charged TGA-CdTe-QDs and CS-AuNPs can form FRET donor-acceptor assemblies due to electrostatic interactions, which effectively quench the fluorescence intensity of TGA-CdTe-QDs. The presence of glyphosate could induce the aggregation of CS-AuNPs through electrostatic interactions, resulting in the fluorescence recovery of the quenched QDs. This FRET-based method has been successfully utilized to detect glyphosate in apples with satisfactory results. The detection limit for glyphosate was 9.8 ng/kg (3?), with the linear range of 0.02-2.0 ?g/kg. The attractive sensitivity was obtained due to the efficient FRET and the superior fluorescence properties of QDs. The proposed method is a promising approach for rapid screening of glyphosate in real samples. PMID:24840461

Guo, Jiajia; Zhang, Yan; Luo, Yeli; Shen, Fei; Sun, Chunyan

2014-07-01

240

Architecturally sensitive retrofitting of PV to a residential block in Greece to reduce its carbon footprint  

Science.gov (United States)

Photovoltaic power is a unique energy source, with wide distribution potential, which can be integrated within the fabric of individual buildings, transforming the power generation in a less large-scale and regionally located issue. As a result, photovoltaic power is a free, clean and silent electrical supply that can be introduced into cities and residential areas. Over the past years, grid-connected, distributed photovoltaic power systems have become an explosively growing sector worldwide. This trend is expected to be continued in the future and solar systems may become a common building element of building construction. In Greece, where the main focus of the project is concentrated, the extended sunshine and the incentives of the new Renewable Energy Sources law of 2006, give a different perspective in photovoltaic investments. In the case study of Vera Water Residence complex in Athens, the viability of an architecturally sensitive retrofitting of PV was examined, from both financial and environmental aspects. The project was concentrated in one of the complex's buildings which was modelled in TAS simulator in order for the annual heating and cooling loads to be estimated. A closer to the reality estimation of electricity demand was made through the annual electricity bills of the building. The proposed building integrated photovoltaic system was designed in terms of following and respecting the aesthetics of the existing architecture of the complex while being as efficient as possible. The annual energy output and C02 emissions reductions were then calculated through RETScreen software analysis according to the location of the project and the characteristics of the PV system. Finally, an economic analysis has been included to the study, considering the installation cost, the annual savings and the embodied energy of the system, in order for the payback period of the investment to be determined. Finally, a small sensitivity analysis concerning the effect of different factors influencing the feasibility of the PV investment was carried out and as it was expected it had significant effect on the initially calculated the payback period value. The expected future increase of fuel prices and the reduction of the investment's initial cost due to government grants, added to the prospect of new future tax incentive and subsidies, have made the prospect of the project more attractive while significantly reducing the payback period.

Panopoulou, Ismini

 
 
 
 
241

Adsorption of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid in soils  

Science.gov (United States)

The results showed that glyphosate is initially adsorbed mostly in the upper 2 cm. It is than transported and adsorbed after few days in deeper soil horizons with concomitant increasing content of its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid. Moreover, Fe-oxides seem to be a key parameter for glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic adsorption in soils. This study confirmed previous studies: the analysis showed lower contents of dithionite-soluble and Fe-oxides for the Chernozem, with consequently lower adsorption of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic as compared with the Cambisol and the Stagnosol.

Rampazzo, N.; Rampazzo Todorovic, G.; Mentler, A.; Blum, W. E. H.

2013-03-01

242

Glyphosate catabolism by Pseudomonas sp. strain PG2982.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The pathway for the degradation of glyphosate (N-phosphonomethylglycine) by Pseudomonas sp. PG2982 has been determined by using metabolic radiolabeling experiments. Radiorespirometry experiments utilizing [3-14C]glyphosate revealed that approximately 50 to 59% of the C-3 carbon was oxidized to CO2. Fractionation of stationary-phase cells labeled with [3-14C]glyphosate revealed that from 45 to 47% of the assimilated label is distributed to proteins and that the amino acids methionine and serin...

Shinabarger, D. L.; Braymer, H. D.

1986-01-01

243

Resistência de Conyza canadensis e C. bonariensis ao herbicida glyphosate / Glyphosate-resistance in Conyza canadensis and C. bonariensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, por meio de curvas de dose-resposta, a ocorrência de biótipos resistentes ao herbicida glyphosate em populações de Conyza canadensis e C. bonariensis, bem como propor tratamentos alternativos para esses biótipos. Os experimentos foram realizados em casa de vege [...] tação, utilizando-se três populações de cada espécie: duas com suspeita de resistência ao herbicida glyphosate, coletadas em pomares de laranja localizados em duas regiões diferentes do Estado de São Paulo; e uma suscetível, coletada em área sem histórico de aplicação do herbicida. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Para cada espécie, os tratamentos foram resultado da combinação fatorial entre as três populações e os tratamentos herbicidas (oito doses de glyphosate ou cinco tratamentos alternativos). As doses de glyphosate foram (g e.a. ha¹): 90, 180, 360, 720, 1.440, 2.880, 5.760 e testemunha sem aplicação. Como alternativas de controle, foram testados os seguintes tratamentos (g ha-1): glyphosate + 2,4-D (1.440 + 1.005), glyphosate + metsulfuron (1.440 + 2,4), glyphosate + metsulfuron (1.440 + 3,6), glyphosate + metribuzin (1.440 + 480) e testemunha sem aplicação. A partir dos resultados, comprovou-se a existência de populações de ambas as espécies com biótipos resistentes ao herbicida glyphosate, com diferentes níveis de resistência. Todos os tratamentos herbicidas alternativos controlaram de forma eficiente as três populações de cada espécie. Abstract in english The objective of this research was to evaluate, through dose-response curves, the occurrence of glyphosate-resistant biotypes in populations of Conyza canadensis and C. bonariensis; as well as to propose alternative treatments to these biotypes. The experiments were conducted in a greenhouse, using [...] three populations of each species: two with suspicion of resistance to the herbicide glyphosate, and collected in orange orchards located in two different São Paulo state regions; and a susceptible one, collected in an area without herbicide application history. The experimental design adopted was randomized blocks, with four replicates. For each species, the treatments were the result of a factorial combination among the three populations and the herbicide treatments (eight rates of glyphosate or five alternative treatments). The glyphosate rates used were (g e.a. ha-1): 90, 180, 360, 720, 1.440, 2.880, 5.760 and checks without application. As control alternative, the following treatments (g ha-1) were tested: glyphosate + 2,4-D (1.440 + 1.005), glyphosate + metsulfuron (1.440 + 2,4), glyphosate + metsulfuron (1.440 + 3,6), glyphosate + metribuzin (1440 + 480) and checks without application. The results obtained proved the existence of populations of both species with glyphosate-resistant biotypes, with different levels of resistance. All the alternative herbicide treatments controlled efficiently the three populations of each species.

M.S., Moreira; M., Nicolai; S.J.P., Carvalho; P.J., Christoffoleti.

2007-03-01

244

Resistência de Conyza canadensis e C. bonariensis ao herbicida glyphosate Glyphosate-resistance in Conyza canadensis and C. bonariensis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, por meio de curvas de dose-resposta, a ocorrência de biótipos resistentes ao herbicida glyphosate em populações de Conyza canadensis e C. bonariensis, bem como propor tratamentos alternativos para esses biótipos. Os experimentos foram realizados em casa de vegetação, utilizando-se três populações de cada espécie: duas com suspeita de resistência ao herbicida glyphosate, coletadas em pomares de laranja localizados em duas regiões diferentes do Estado de São Paulo; e uma suscetível, coletada em área sem histórico de aplicação do herbicida. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Para cada espécie, os tratamentos foram resultado da combinação fatorial entre as três populações e os tratamentos herbicidas (oito doses de glyphosate ou cinco tratamentos alternativos. As doses de glyphosate foram (g e.a. ha¹: 90, 180, 360, 720, 1.440, 2.880, 5.760 e testemunha sem aplicação. Como alternativas de controle, foram testados os seguintes tratamentos (g ha-1: glyphosate + 2,4-D (1.440 + 1.005, glyphosate + metsulfuron (1.440 + 2,4, glyphosate + metsulfuron (1.440 + 3,6, glyphosate + metribuzin (1.440 + 480 e testemunha sem aplicação. A partir dos resultados, comprovou-se a existência de populações de ambas as espécies com biótipos resistentes ao herbicida glyphosate, com diferentes níveis de resistência. Todos os tratamentos herbicidas alternativos controlaram de forma eficiente as três populações de cada espécie.The objective of this research was to evaluate, through dose-response curves, the occurrence of glyphosate-resistant biotypes in populations of Conyza canadensis and C. bonariensis; as well as to propose alternative treatments to these biotypes. The experiments were conducted in a greenhouse, using three populations of each species: two with suspicion of resistance to the herbicide glyphosate, and collected in orange orchards located in two different São Paulo state regions; and a susceptible one, collected in an area without herbicide application history. The experimental design adopted was randomized blocks, with four replicates. For each species, the treatments were the result of a factorial combination among the three populations and the herbicide treatments (eight rates of glyphosate or five alternative treatments. The glyphosate rates used were (g e.a. ha-1: 90, 180, 360, 720, 1.440, 2.880, 5.760 and checks without application. As control alternative, the following treatments (g ha-1 were tested: glyphosate + 2,4-D (1.440 + 1.005, glyphosate + metsulfuron (1.440 + 2,4, glyphosate + metsulfuron (1.440 + 3,6, glyphosate + metribuzin (1440 + 480 and checks without application. The results obtained proved the existence of populations of both species with glyphosate-resistant biotypes, with different levels of resistance. All the alternative herbicide treatments controlled efficiently the three populations of each species.

M.S. Moreira

2007-03-01

245

Intramolecular indicator displacement assay for anions: supramolecular sensor for glyphosate.  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the well-known strategies for anion sensing is an indicator (dye) displacement assay. However, the disadvantage of the dye displacement assays is the low sensitivity due to the excess of the dye used. To overcome this setback, we have developed an "Intramolecular Indicator Displacement Assay (IIDA)". The IIDAs comprise a receptor and a spacer with an attached anionic chromophore in a single-molecule assembly. In the resting state, the environment-sensitive anionic chromophore is bound by the receptor, while the anionic substrate competes for binding into the receptor. The photophysical properties of the dye exhibit change in fluorescence when displaced by anions, which results in cross-reactive response. To illustrate the concept, we have prepared IID sensors 1 and 2. Here, the characterization of sensors and microtiter arrays comprising the IIDA are reported. The microtiter array including IID sensors 1 and 2 is capable of recognizing biological phosphates in water. The utility of the IIDA approach is demonstrated on sensing of a phosphonate herbicide glyphosate and other biologically important anions such as pyrophosphate in the presence of interferent sodium chloride. PMID:25051138

Minami, Tsuyoshi; Liu, Yuanli; Akdeniz, Ali; Koutnik, Petr; Esipenko, Nina A; Nishiyabu, Ryuhei; Kubo, Yuji; Anzenbacher, Pavel

2014-08-13

246

Efeito hormese de glyphosate em feijoeiro / Hormesis effect of glyphosate on common bean cultivars  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Embora o efeito hormese seja amplamente conhecido, ainda não tem aplicação prática definida para o desenvolvimento da tecnologia agropecuária. Desta forma, propôs-se um estudo, no município de Selvíria (MS), com o objetivo de verificar o efeito da aplicação de baixas doses do herbicida glyphosate (0 [...] g ha-1, 10 g ha-1, 20 g ha-1, 30 g ha-1 e 40 g ha-1 do ingrediente ativo) no desenvolvimento e produtividade de cultivares de feijão (Carioca precoce - tipo I, Juriti - tipo II e Pérola - tipo III) irrigadas por aspersão, no outono-inverno de 2009 e 2010. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com 15 tratamentos dispostos em esquema fatorial 5x3 e quatro repetições. Concluiu-se que a massa de 100 grãos foi reduzida, quando submetida a subdoses mais elevadas de glyphosate, e que a aplicação de subdoses de glyphosate não alterou a produtividade do feijoeiro, quando avaliadas as três cultivares conjuntamente, entretanto, quando cada cultivar foi analisada individualmente, verificou-se aumento na produtividade do feijoeiro de até 10%, para a cultivar Juriti. Abstract in english Although being well-known, the hormesis effect has not yet a defined practical application on the development of agricultural technology. Thus, this study was carried out in Selvíria, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, in order to evaluate the effect of glyphosate applied at low doses (0 g ha-1, 10 g [...] ha-1, 20 g ha-1, 30 g ha-1 and 40 g ha-1 of active ingredient) on the development and yield of bean cultivars (Carioca precoce - type I, Juriti - type II and Pérola - type III), irrigated by aspersion, in the autumn/winter of 2009 and 2010. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with 15 treatments arranged in a 5x3 factorial scheme and four replications. It was possible to conclude that the 100 grains mass decreased when submitted to higher glyphosate sub doses, and that the application of glyphosate sub doses did not affect the common bean yield, when the three cultivars were evaluated altogether, however, when each cultivar was individually analyzed, an increase of up to 10% in yield was observed for the Juriti cultivar.

Juliano Costa da, Silva; Orivaldo, Arf; Gustavo Antonio Xavier, Gerlach; Clarice Sayumi, Kuryiama; Ricardo Antonio Ferreira, Rodrigues.

2012-09-01

247

Reduced baroreflex sensitivity in alcoholic cirrhosis: relations to hemodynamics and humoral systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In cirrhosis, arterial vasodilatation leads to central hypovolemia and activation of the sympathetic nervous and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone systems. As the liver disease and circulatory dysfunction may affect baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), we assessed BRS in a large group of patients with cirrhosis and in controls who were all supine and some after 60 degrees passive head-up and 30 degrees head-down tilting in relation to central hemodynamics and activity of the sympathetic nervous and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone systems. One-hundred and five patients (Child classes A/B/C: 21/55/29) and 25 (n=11 + 14) controls underwent a full hemodynamic investigation. BRS was assessed by cross-spectral analysis of variabilities between blood pressure and heart rate time series. The median BRS was significantly lower in the supine cirrhotic patients, 3.7 (range 0.3-30.7) ms/mmHg than in matched controls (n=11): 14.3 (6.1-23.6) ms/mmHg, P<0.001. A stepwise multiple-regression analysis revealed that serum sodium (P=0.044),heart rate (P=0.027), and central circulation time (P=0.034) independently correlated with BRS. Head-down tilting had no effects on BRS, but, after head-up tilting, BRS was similar in the patients (n=23) and controls (n=14). In conclusion, BRS is reduced in cirrhosis in the supine position and relates to various aspects of cardiovascular dysfunction, but no further reduction was observed in parallel with the amelioration of the hyperdynamic circulation after head-up tilting. The results indicate that liver dysfunction and compensatory mechanisms to vasodilatation may be involved in the low BRS, which may contribute to poor cardiovascular adaptation in cirrhosis. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Jun

MØller, SØren; Iversen, Jens S

2007-01-01

248

Glyphosate translocation in hairy fleabane (Conyza bonariensis) biotypes Translocação do glyphosate em biótipos de buva (Conyza bonariensis)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this work was to evaluate the translocation of glyphosate in C. bonariensis plants resistant and susceptible to that herbicide. The 14C-glyphosate was mixed with commercial gyhphosate (800 g ha-1) and applied on the center of the adaxial face of a third node leaf, using a micro syringe, and adding 10 µL of a solution with specific activity of 1,400 Bq, 45 days after plant emergence. The concentration of the glyphosate translocated in the plant was evaluated at time intervals...

Ferreira, E. A.; Galon, L.; Aspiazu?, I.; Silva, A. A.; Concenc?o, G.; Silva, A. F.; Oliveira, J. A.; Vargas, L.

2008-01-01

249

Does a Culturally Sensitive Smoking Prevention Program Reduce Smoking Intentions among Aboriginal Children? A Pilot Study  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the study was to determine if a culturally sensitive smoking prevention program would have short-term impacts on smoking intentions among Aboriginal children. Two schools with high Aboriginal enrollment were selected for the study. A grade 4 classroom in one school was randomly assigned to receive the culturally sensitive smoking…

McKennitt, Daniel W.; Currie, Cheryl L.

2012-01-01

250

40 CFR 180.364 - Glyphosate; tolerances for residues.  

Science.gov (United States)

...General . (1) Tolerances are established...isopropylamine salt of glyphosate...popcorn, rice, sweet corn...seed 20 Rice, grain 0.1 Rice, wild, grain...2 (2) Tolerances are established...isopropylamine salt of...

2010-07-01

251

Modeling biodegradation and kinetics of glyphosate by artificial neural network.  

Science.gov (United States)

An artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed to simulate the biodegradation of herbicide glyphosate [2-(Phosphonomethylamino) acetic acid] in a solution with varying parameters pH, inoculum size and initial glyphosate concentration. The predictive ability of ANN model was also compared with Monod model. The result showed that ANN model was able to accurately predict the experimental results. A low ratio of self-inhibition and half saturation constants of Haldane equations (< 8) exhibited the inhibitory effect of glyphosate on bacteria growth. The value of K(i)/K(s) increased when the mixed inoculum size was increased from 10(4) to 10(6) bacteria/mL. It was found that the percentage of glyphosate degradation reached a maximum value of 99% at an optimum pH 6-7 while for pH values higher than 9 or lower than 4, no degradation was observed. PMID:22424071

Nourouzi, Mohsen M; Chuah, Teong G; Choong, Thomas S Y; Rabiei, F

2012-01-01

252

Manejo de Conyza bonariensis resistente ao herbicida glyphosate Management of Glyphosate-resistant Conyza bonariensis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

C. bonariensis (Conyza bonariensis) é uma planta daninha da família Asteraceae, amplamente distribuída no Brasil, com presença marcante nos Estados do Rio Grande do Sul e do Paraná. Biótipos de C. bonariensis resistentes ao glyphosate foram identificados nos Estados do Rio Grande do Sul, Paraná e São Paulo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes manejos de inverno e na pré-semeadura da soja sobre a população de plantas de C. bonariensis resistente ao herbicida...

Paula, J. M.; Vargas, L.; Agostinetto, D.; Nohatto, M. A.

2011-01-01

253

Evolved glyphosate-resistant weeds around the world: lessons to be learnt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glyphosate is the world's most important herbicide, with many uses that deliver effective and sustained control of a wide spectrum of unwanted (weedy) plant species. Until recently there were relatively few reports of weedy plant species evolving resistance to glyphosate. Since 1996, the advent and subsequent high adoption of transgenic glyphosate-resistant crops in the Americas has meant unprecedented and often exclusive use of glyphosate for weed control over very large areas. Consequently, in regions of the USA where transgenic glyphosate-resistant crops dominate, there are now evolved glyphosate-resistant populations of the economically damaging weed species Ambrosia artemissifolia L., Ambrosia trifida L., Amaranthus palmeri S Watson, Amaranthus rudis JD Sauer, Amaranthus tuberculatus (Moq) JD Sauer and various Conyza and Lolium spp. Likewise, in areas of transgenic glyphosate-resistant crops in Argentina and Brazil, there are now evolved glyphosate-resistant populations of Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers and Euphorbia heterophylla L. respectively. As transgenic glyphosate-resistant crops will remain very popular with producers, it is anticipated that glyphosate-resistant biotypes of other prominent weed species will evolve over the next few years. Therefore, evolved glyphosate-resistant weeds are a major risk for the continued success of glyphosate and transgenic glyphosate-resistant crops. However, glyphosate-resistant weeds are not yet a problem in many parts of the world, and lessons can be learnt and actions taken to achieve glyphosate sustainability. A major lesson is that maintenance of diversity in weed management systems is crucial for glyphosate to be sustainable. Glyphosate is essential for present and future world food production, and action to secure its sustainability for future generations is a global imperative. PMID:18273881

Powles, Stephen B

2008-04-01

254

Glyphosate-resistant weeds of South American cropping systems: an overview.  

Science.gov (United States)

Herbicide resistance is an evolutionary event resulting from intense herbicide selection over genetically diverse weed populations. In South America, orchard, cereal and legume cropping systems show a strong dependence on glyphosate to control weeds. The goal of this report is to review the current knowledge on cases of evolved glyphosate-resistant weeds in South American agriculture. The first reports of glyphosate resistance include populations of highly diverse taxa (Lolium multiflorum Lam., Conyza bonariensis L., C. canadensis L.). In all instances, resistance evolution followed intense glyphosate use in fruit fields of Chile and Brazil. In fruit orchards from Colombia, Parthenium hysterophorus L. has shown the ability to withstand high glyphosate rates. The recent appearance of glyphosate-resistant Sorghum halepense L. and Euphorbia heterophylla L. in glyphosate-resistant soybean fields of Argentina and Brazil, respectively, is of major concern. The evolution of glyphosate resistance has clearly taken place in those agroecosystems where glyphosate exerts a strong and continuous selection pressure on weeds. The massive adoption of no-till practices together with the utilization of glyphosate-resistant soybean crops are factors encouraging increase in glyphosate use. This phenomenon has been more evident in Argentina and Brazil. The exclusive reliance on glyphosate as the main tool for weed management results in agroecosystems biologically more prone to glyphosate resistance evolution. PMID:18161884

Vila-Aiub, Martin M; Vidal, Ribas A; Balbi, Maria C; Gundel, Pedro E; Trucco, Frederico; Ghersa, Claudio M

2008-04-01

255

Effect of glyphosate and manganese on nutrition and yield of transgenic glyphosate-resistant soybeanEfeito de glyphosate e manganês na nutrição e produtividade da soja transgênica  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research suggests that the application of glyphosate on transgenic glyphosate-resistant soybean can cause induced deficiency of Mn. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the application of glyphosate and manganese in post-emergence on different phenological growth stages of RR soybean and its effects on leaf nutrient contents and productivity of grains. The experiment was carried out at two farms in Rio Brilhante-MS, both with randomized block experimental design with six replications at Lages de Pedra farm and four replications at São Manoel farm. Treatments were established in 3 x 8 factorial schemes, where the factor A consisted of three treatments with glyphosate (without the application of glyphosate, application of 720 g i.a. in the growth stage V2 + 480 g a. in V4, and application of 1.200 g i.a. in V4 growth stage. The factor B consisted of eight treatments with foliar application of Mn being without application, and seven Mn application was sprayed the leaves with 332 g ha-1, divided into different growth stages. The application of glyphosate on transgenic soybean did not have effect on leaf nutrient contents, including the absorbing of Mn. Yield and mass of 100 grains were not influenced by applying of glyphosate neither by leaf fertilization with Mn, and leaf applying of Mn influenced only the leaf contents of Mn and Fe.Pesquisas sugerem que a aplicação de glyphosate em soja transgênica (soja RR pode causar deficiência induzida de Mn. Assim, objetivou-se com o trabalho avaliar a aplicação de Mn e glyphosate em pós-emergência em diferentes estádios fenológicos da soja RR e, seus efeitos nos teores foliares de nutrientes e produtividade de grãos. O experimento foi realizado em duas propriedades no município de Rio Brilhante – MS, ambos com delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, com seis repetições na Fazenda Lages de Pedra, e quatro na Fazenda São Manoel. Os tratamentos foram dispostos em arranjo fatorial 3 x 8, onde o fator A consistiu de três tratamentos com glyphosate (sem aplicação de glyphosate, aplicação de 720 g i.a. no estádio fenológico V2 + 480 g i.a. em V4, e aplicação de 1.200 g i.a. no estádio V4. O fator B consistiu de oito tratamentos com aplicação foliar de Mn sendo uma testemunha, e sete formas de aplicação de Mn via foliar com 332 g ha-1, divididos em diferentes estádios de fenológicos. A aplicação de glyphosate na soja transgênica não apresentou efeito nos teores foliares de nutrientes, inclusive na absorção de Mn. A produtividade e a massa de 100 grãos não foram influenciadas pela aplicação de glyphosate ou pela adubação foliar com Mn, e a aplicação foliar de Mn influenciou apenas os teores foliares de Mn e Fe.

Rafael Sabino Bonifácio Doreto

2011-08-01

256

A glyphosate-based pesticide impinges on transcription  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Widely spread chemicals used for human benefits may exert adverse effects on health or the environment, the identification of which are a major challenge. The early development of the sea urchin constitutes an appropriate model for the identification of undesirable cellular and molecular targets of pollutants. The widespread glyphosate-based pesticide affected sea urchin development by impeding the hatching process at millimolar range concentration of glyphosate. Glyphosate, the active herbicide ingredient of Roundup, by itself delayed hatching as judged from the comparable effect of different commercial glyphosate-based pesticides and from the effect of pure glyphosate addition to a threshold concentration of Roundup. The surfactant polyoxyethylene amine (POEA), the major component of commercial Roundup, was found to be highly toxic to the embryos when tested alone and therefore could contribute to the inhibition of hatching. Hatching, a landmark of early development, is a transcription-dependent process. Correlatively, the herbicide inhibited the global transcription, which follows fertilization at the 16-cell stage. Transcription inhibition was dose-dependent in the millimolar glyphosate range concentration. A 1257-bp fragment of the hatching enzyme transcript from Sphaerechinus granularis was cloned and sequenced; its transcription was delayed by 2 h in the pesticide-treated embryos. Because transcription is a fundamental basic biological process, the pesticide mabasic biological process, the pesticide may be of health concern by inhalation near herbicide spraying at a concentration 25 times the adverse transcription concentration in the sprayed microdroplets

257

PHYTO-MICROBIAL DEGRADATION OF GLYPHOSATE IN RIYADH AREA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Greenhouse studies were conducted to determine the ability of plant Amaranth, Amaranthus caudate and two isolated bacterial strains from rhizosphere region for cleaning up glyphosate residues in soil and plants. The analytical study of the biodegradation of glyphosate was carried out in the laboratory conditions. Amaranth, Amaranthus caudate and two isolated bacterial strains namely Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus megaterium could degrade glyphosate in 5 days. These results suggested that phytoremediation could accelerate the degradation of glyphosate residues in plants and in rhizosphere region as well. Glyphosate had strong effect on bacterial DNA where many DNA bands were affected. This could be explained that the effect of herbicide glyphosate on the protein profile may reflex somehow DNA mutation occurred during the assimilation of those toxic compounds. Therefore, the alteration occurred in both DNA and protein profiles is considered a degree of tolerance that lead to DNA mutation to cope with the assimilation of this compound. Therefore, the phytoremediation way could be a promising tool in program is to protect public health and the environment by ensuring the safety and availability of herbicides and pesticide alternatives.

ABDEL-MEGEED A.

2013-09-01

258

Speciation of glyphosate, phosphate and aminomethylphosphonic acid in soil extracts by ion chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with an octopole reaction system.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ion-pairing chromatography coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) used for the speciation of phosphorus is limited as the mobile phase containing organic solvents changes in detection sensitivity and the carbon precipitates on torch and cones. To address this issue, anion-exchange chromatography with ICP-MS has been used for the speciation of glyphosate, phosphate and aminomethylphosphonic acid in soil extracts. The separation of the targets on a new column was achieved within 5 min using an eluent containing 20 mM NH(4)NO(3) at pH 5.1. Furthermore, since the polyatomic ions such as (14)N(16)O(1)H(+) and (15)N(16)O(+) from a nitrogen-based ion-pairing reagent interfered with ICP-MS detection of (31)P, an octopole reaction system was investigated to determine whether the polyatomic interferences could be reduced. The results show that addition of He to the cell can benefit analyses by reducing such interferences, but at the expense of reduced sensitivity. The detection limits in the range of 1.0-1.5 microg L(-1) (expressed as P) was achieved when 50 microL was injected using He as the collusion gas. PMID:19269440

Chen, Zuliang; He, Wenxiang; Beer, Michael; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravendra

2009-05-15

259

Comparative losses of glyphosate and selected residual herbicides in surface runoff from conservation-tilled watersheds planted with corn or soybean.  

Science.gov (United States)

Residual herbicides regularly used in conjunction with conservation tillage to produce corn ( L.) and soybean [ (L.) Merr] are often detected in surface water at concentrations that exceed their U.S. maximum contaminant levels (MCL) and ecological standards. These risks might be reduced by planting glyphosate-tolerant varieties of these crops and totally or partially replacing the residual herbicides alachlor, atrazine, linuron, and metribuzin with glyphosate, a contact herbicide that has a short half-life and is strongly sorbed to soil. Therefore, we applied both herbicide types at typical rates and times to two chisel-plowed and two no-till watersheds in a 2-yr corn/soybean rotation and at half rates to three disked watersheds in a 3-yr corn/soybean/wheat-red clover ( L.- L.) rotation and monitored herbicide losses in surface runoff for three crop years. Average dissolved glyphosate loss for all tillage practices, as a percentage of the amount applied, was significantly less ( ? 0.05) than the losses of atrazine (21.4x), alachlor (3.5x), and linuron (8.7x) in corn-crop years. Annual, flow-weighted, concentration of atrazine was as high as 41.3 ?g L, much greater than its 3 ?g L MCL. Likewise, annual, flow-weighted alachlor concentration (MCL = 2 ?g L) was as high as 11.2 and 4.9 ?g L in corn- and soybean-crop years, respectively. In only one runoff event during the 18 watershed-years it was applied did glyphosate concentration exceed its 700 ?g L MCL and the highest, annual, flow-weighted concentration was 3.9 ?g L. Planting glyphosate-tolerant corn and soybean and using glyphosate in lieu of some residual herbicides should reduce the impact of the production of these crops on surface water quality. PMID:21712598

Shipitalo, Martin J; Owens, Lloyd B

2011-01-01

260

Glyphosate-Resistant Giant Ragweed (Ambrosia trifida L. in Ontario: Dose Response and Control with Postemergence Herbicides  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida L. is competitive with agronomic crops and can cause significant yield losses. Rapid adoption of glyphosate-resistant (GR crops and a concomitant increase in the reliance on glyphosate for weed management has led to the evolution of GR giant ragweed in Ontario, Canada. Field studies were conducted to evaluate the level of resistance in giant ragweed biotypes from Ontario, and to evaluate the effectiveness of various postemer-gence (POST herbicides in soybean (Glycine max L.. The effective dose (ED to provide 50%, 80% and 95% giant ragweed control was up to 1658, 9991 and >43200 g?a.e.?ha–1 4 weeks after application (WAA, respectively. For effective control, growers would need to apply glyphosate 18 times greater than the recommended field application dose. Glyphosate applied at the recommended field dose of 900 g?a.e.?ha–1 provided up to 57% control and resulted in soybean yield equivalent to the weedy check. Cloransulam-methyl applied POST provided up to 99% control, reduced giant ragweed density 98%, reduced giant ragweed shoot dry weight 99% and resulted in soybean yield equivalent to the weedfree check. Chlorimuron-ethyl, fomesafen, imazethapyr and imazethapyr plus bentazon applied alone or with glyphosate did not provide adequate control of GR giant ragweed. Based on these results, some GR giant ragweed biotypes from Ontario have evolved a high level of resistance to glyphosate. Cloransulam-methyl applied POST was the only herbicide that provided adequate control and suggests that additional weed management tactics will need to be implemented in order to effectively manage GR giant ragweed.

Mark B. Lawton

2012-05-01

 
 
 
 
261

Selectivity of glyphosate tank mixtures for RR soybean Seletividade de glyphosate em misturas em tanque para soja RR  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An active ingredients mixture of different action mechanisms is an essential tool to prevent or manage areas with resistant weeds. However, it is important that such a mixture provides adequate selectivity to the crop. The aim of this work was to evaluate glyphosate selectivity to glyphosate-resistant (RR) soybean, and also verify if there is selectivity in mixtures with other active ingredients applied postemergence aimed at new control strategies, which might be used in RR soybean cultivati...

Alonso, D. G.; Constantin, J.; Oliveira Jr, R. S.; Arantes, J. G. Z.; Cavalieri, S. D.; Santos, G.; Rios, F. A.; Franchini, L. H. M.

2011-01-01

262

Resistência de Conyza canadensis e C. bonariensis ao herbicida glyphosate Glyphosate-resistance in Conyza canadensis and C. bonariensis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, por meio de curvas de dose-resposta, a ocorrência de biótipos resistentes ao herbicida glyphosate em populações de Conyza canadensis e C. bonariensis, bem como propor tratamentos alternativos para esses biótipos. Os experimentos foram realizados em casa de vegetação, utilizando-se três populações de cada espécie: duas com suspeita de resistência ao herbicida glyphosate, coletadas em pomares de laranja localizados em duas regiões diferentes d...

Moreira, M. S.; Nicolai, M.; Carvalho, S. J. P.; Christoffoleti, P. J.

2007-01-01

263

Aplicação foliar de manganês em soja transgênica tolerante ao glyphosate Foliar application of manganese in transgenic soybean tolerant to glyphosate  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

O amarelecimento da soja Roundup Ready após aplicação do glyphosate pode estar associado à deficiência momentânea de manganês. Por isso, com a hipótese de que soja tolerante ao glyphosate necessitaria de uma adição suplementar de manganês, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar diferentes manejos na aplicação foliar de manganês sobre alguns parâmetros da soja. Foram desenvolvidos dois experimentos, um no município de Taquaruçú do Sul e outro em Boa Vista das Missões, RS, no ...

Claudir José Basso; Antônio Luis Santi; Fabiane Pinto Lamego; Eduardo Girotto

2011-01-01

264

Pisolithus sp. tolerance to glyphosate and isoxaflutole in vitro / Tolerância de pisolithus sp. a glyphosate e isoxaflutole in vitro  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Os fungos ectomicorrízicos possuem tolerância diferenciada aos herbicidas e podem promover a sobrevivência e crescimento das plantas de eucalipto. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a tolerância de isolados do fungo ectomicorrízico . Pisolithus sp. aos herbicidas glyphosate e isoxaflutole. Os iso [...] lados avaliados foram D3, D16, D17, Pt24 e UFVJM04 e as concentrações de glyphosate no meio líquido, de 0, 32, 63, 127 e 254 mg L-1, enquanto no meio sólido, de 0, 32, 63, 127, 254, 507 e 1.014 mg L-1. Para o isoxaflutole nos dois meios de cultura, as concentrações foram de: 0, 295, 589, 1.178 e 2.355 mg L-1. Os ensaios foram independentes para cada herbicida e tipo de meio de cultura. A tolerância dos isolados foi dependente do herbicida e da sua concentração em cada meio. O Pt24 foi o mais tolerante ao glyphosate e o UFVJM04, ao isoxaflutole. O glyphosate foi mais tóxico aos isolados de Pisolithus sp. do que o isoxaflutole. Abstract in english The ectomycorrhizal fungi have different tolerance to herbicides and may promote the survival and growth of the eucalypts tree. This study aimed to evaluate the tolerance of Pisolithus sp. isolates to glyphosate and isoxaflutole. The isolates evaluated were D3, D16, D17, Pt24 and UFVJM04. Glyphosate [...] concentrations were: 0, 32, 63, 127 and 254 mg L-1 in liquid medium; 0, 32, 63, 127, 254, 507 and 1014 mg L-1 in solid medium. For isoxaflutole, the concentrations were 0, 295, 589, 1178 and 2355 mg L-1 for both media. Assays were independent for each herbicide and culture medium. The tolerance of isolates depended on the herbicide and its concentration in each type of culture medium. Pt24 was the most tolerant to glyphosate and the UFVJM04 to isoxaflutole. Glyphosate was more toxic to isolates of Pisolithus than isoxaflutole.

Mayara Cristina Silva, Fernandes; Lidiomar Soares da, Costa; Paulo Henrique, Grazziotti; Danielle Cristina Fonseca Santos, Grazziotti; José Barbosa dos, Santos; Márcio José, Rossi.

265

Pisolithus sp. tolerance to glyphosate and isoxaflutole in vitro / Tolerância de pisolithus sp. a glyphosate e isoxaflutole in vitro  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Os fungos ectomicorrízicos possuem tolerância diferenciada aos herbicidas e podem promover a sobrevivência e crescimento das plantas de eucalipto. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a tolerância de isolados do fungo ectomicorrízico . Pisolithus sp. aos herbicidas glyphosate e isoxaflutole. Os iso [...] lados avaliados foram D3, D16, D17, Pt24 e UFVJM04 e as concentrações de glyphosate no meio líquido, de 0, 32, 63, 127 e 254 mg L-1, enquanto no meio sólido, de 0, 32, 63, 127, 254, 507 e 1.014 mg L-1. Para o isoxaflutole nos dois meios de cultura, as concentrações foram de: 0, 295, 589, 1.178 e 2.355 mg L-1. Os ensaios foram independentes para cada herbicida e tipo de meio de cultura. A tolerância dos isolados foi dependente do herbicida e da sua concentração em cada meio. O Pt24 foi o mais tolerante ao glyphosate e o UFVJM04, ao isoxaflutole. O glyphosate foi mais tóxico aos isolados de Pisolithus sp. do que o isoxaflutole. Abstract in english The ectomycorrhizal fungi have different tolerance to herbicides and may promote the survival and growth of the eucalypts tree. This study aimed to evaluate the tolerance of Pisolithus sp. isolates to glyphosate and isoxaflutole. The isolates evaluated were D3, D16, D17, Pt24 and UFVJM04. Glyphosate [...] concentrations were: 0, 32, 63, 127 and 254 mg L-1 in liquid medium; 0, 32, 63, 127, 254, 507 and 1014 mg L-1 in solid medium. For isoxaflutole, the concentrations were 0, 295, 589, 1178 and 2355 mg L-1 for both media. Assays were independent for each herbicide and culture medium. The tolerance of isolates depended on the herbicide and its concentration in each type of culture medium. Pt24 was the most tolerant to glyphosate and the UFVJM04 to isoxaflutole. Glyphosate was more toxic to isolates of Pisolithus than isoxaflutole.

Mayara Cristina Silva, Fernandes; Lidiomar Soares da, Costa; Paulo Henrique, Grazziotti; Danielle Cristina Fonseca Santos, Grazziotti; José Barbosa dos, Santos; Márcio José, Rossi.

2014-06-01

266

Alteration of plant physiology by glyphosate and its by-product aminomethylphosphonic acid: an overview.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is generally claimed that glyphosate kills undesired plants by affecting the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) enzyme, disturbing the shikimate pathway. However, the mechanisms leading to plant death may also be related to secondary or indirect effects of glyphosate on plant physiology. Moreover, some plants can metabolize glyphosate to aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) or be exposed to AMPA from different environmental matrices. AMPA is a recognized phytotoxin, and its co-occurrence with glyphosate could modify the effects of glyphosate on plant physiology. The present review provides an overall picture of alterations of plant physiology caused by environmental exposure to glyphosate and its metabolite AMPA, and summarizes their effects on several physiological processes. It particularly focuses on photosynthesis, from photochemical events to C assimilation and translocation, as well as oxidative stress. The effects of glyphosate and AMPA on several plant physiological processes have been linked, with the aim of better understanding their phytotoxicity and glyphosate herbicidal effects. PMID:25039071

Gomes, Marcelo P; Smedbol, Elise; Chalifour, Annie; Hénault-Ethier, Louise; Labrecque, Michel; Lepage, Laurent; Lucotte, Marc; Juneau, Philippe

2014-09-01

267

Effects of glyphosate on growth rate, metabolic rate and energy reserves of early juvenile crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus M.  

Science.gov (United States)

Early juveniles of the crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus were exposed for 60 days to 10 and 40 mg/L of pure glyphosate (acid form) in freshwater. Mortality was 33 % at the highest concentration, while no differences in molting were noted among treatments. After the first month of exposure, weight gain was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in the 40 mg/L group. At the end of the assay, lipid levels in muscle, as well as protein level in both hepatopancreas and muscle were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced. These results suggest long-term utilization of both lipid and protein as main energetic reserves, likely in response to the chronic stress associated with herbicide exposure. Besides, the lower pyruvate kinase activity in muscle suggests a possible metabolic depression in this tissue. The hemolymphatic ASAT:ALAT ratio showed higher levels than the control at the highest glyphosate concentration, indicating possible damage to several tissues. PMID:24584268

Avigliano, L; Fassiano, A V; Medesani, D A; Ríos de Molina, M C; Rodríguez, E M

2014-06-01

268

Comparative environmental impacts of glyphosate and conventional herbicides when used with glyphosate-tolerant and non-tolerant crops  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The introduction of glyphosate-tolerant (GT) crops is expected to mitigate the environmental contamination by herbicides because glyphosate is less persistent and toxic than the herbicides used on non-GT crops. Here, we compared the environmental balances of herbicide applications for both crop types in three French field trials. The dynamic of herbicides and their metabolites in soil, groundwater and air was simulated with PRZM model and compared to field measurements. The associated impacts were aggregated with toxicity potentials calculated with the fate and exposure model USES for several environmental endpoints. The impacts of GT systems were lower than those of non-GT systems, but the accumulation in soils of one glyphosate metabolite (aminomethylphosphonic acid) questions the sustainability of GT systems. The magnitude of the impacts depends on the rates and frequency of glyphosate application being highest for GT maize monoculture and lowest for combination of GT oilseed rape and non-GT sugarbeet crops. - The impacts of herbicide applications on glyphosate-tolerant crops could be higher than expected due to the accumulation of a metabolite of glyphosate in soils.

269

Comparative environmental impacts of glyphosate and conventional herbicides when used with glyphosate-tolerant and non-tolerant crops  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The introduction of glyphosate-tolerant (GT) crops is expected to mitigate the environmental contamination by herbicides because glyphosate is less persistent and toxic than the herbicides used on non-GT crops. Here, we compared the environmental balances of herbicide applications for both crop types in three French field trials. The dynamic of herbicides and their metabolites in soil, groundwater and air was simulated with PRZM model and compared to field measurements. The associated impacts were aggregated with toxicity potentials calculated with the fate and exposure model USES for several environmental endpoints. The impacts of GT systems were lower than those of non-GT systems, but the accumulation in soils of one glyphosate metabolite (aminomethylphosphonic acid) questions the sustainability of GT systems. The magnitude of the impacts depends on the rates and frequency of glyphosate application being highest for GT maize monoculture and lowest for combination of GT oilseed rape and non-GT sugarbeet crops. - The impacts of herbicide applications on glyphosate-tolerant crops could be higher than expected due to the accumulation of a metabolite of glyphosate in soils.

Mamy, Laure, E-mail: laure.mamy@versailles.inra.f [INRA-AgroParisTech, UMR 1091 Environnement et Grandes Cultures, 78850 Thiverval-Grignon (France); Gabrielle, Benoit, E-mail: benoit.gabrielle@agroparistech.f [INRA-AgroParisTech, UMR 1091 Environnement et Grandes Cultures, 78850 Thiverval-Grignon (France); Barriuso, Enrique, E-mail: barriuso@grignon.inra.f [INRA-AgroParisTech, UMR 1091 Environnement et Grandes Cultures, 78850 Thiverval-Grignon (France)

2010-10-15

270

USE OF GLYPHOSATE AS GROWTH REGULATOR IN UPLAND RICE GLYPHOSATE COMO REGULADOR DE CRESCIMENTO EM ARROZ DE TERRAS ALTAS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

The lodging of some rice cultivars at harvest time can lead to significant losses in yield, and the inappropriate water and nitrogen management, under high-tech conditions, can aggravate the problem. The use of vegetal regulators is an alternative to reduce lodging, however, information on this topic are rare. The study aimed to evaluate the application of glyphosate sub doses (26 g ha-1, 52 g ha-1, 78 g ha-1, 104 g ha-1, 130 g ha-1, 156 g ha-1, and 182 g ha-1 on agronomical traits, development, and yield of upland rice crops irrigated by aspersion, during the floral differentiation period. The experiment was carried out in Selvíria, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, through the agricultural years of 2008/2009 and 2009/2010. The increase of glyphosate sub doses, at the floral differentiation period of the Primavera cultivar, reduced the plants height, panicle size, and, consequently, yield. Sub doses higher than or equal to 78 g ha-1 eliminated the plants lodging process.

O acamamento de algumas cultivares de arroz, no momento da colheita, acarreta perdas significativas na produtividade e, além disto, manejos de água e nitrogênio inadequados, em condições de alta tecnologia, agravam, ainda mais, o problema. O uso de reguladores vegetais é uma das alternativas para se reduzir o acamamento, entretanto, as informações sobre o assunto são escassas. O trabalho objetivou avaliar o uso de subdoses de glyphosate (26 g ha-1, 52 g ha-1, 78 g ha

Daiene Camila Dias Chaves Corsini

2011-10-01

271

Adsorção de glifosato sobre solos e minerais Adsorption of glyphosate on soils and minerals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Glyphosate, an enzyme inhibitor herbicide, has been widely used around the world in agriculture. Dr. John Franz from Monsanto Corporation (USA) discovered glyphosate in 1970. It has been showed that glyphosate is strongly adsorbed by inorganic soil components especially aluminium and iron oxides, and the phosphate group is involved in this interaction. The inactivation of glyphosate in soils can last for days or even months depending on soil characteristics. The addit...

Toni, Lui?s R. M.; Henrique de Santana; Zaia, Dimas A. M.

2006-01-01

272

Glyphosate detection with ammonium nitrate and humic acids as potential interfering substances by pulsed voltammetry technique  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pulsed voltammetry has been used to detect and quantify glyphosate on buffered water in presence of ammonium nitrate and humic substances. Glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide active ingredient in the world. It is a non-selective broad spectrum herbicide but some of its health and environmental effects are still being discussed. Nowadays, glyphosate pollution in water is being monitored but quantification techniques are slow and expensive. Glyphosate wastes are often detected in count...

Marti?nez Gil, Pablo; Laguarda Miro?, Nicola?s; Soto Camino, Juan; Masot Peris, Rafael

2013-01-01

273

Differential Effects of Glyphosate and Roundup on Human Placental Cells and Aromatase  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Roundup is a glyphosate-based herbicide used worldwide, including on most genetically modified plants that have been designed to tolerate it. Its residues may thus enter the food chain, and glyphosate is found as a contaminant in rivers. Some agricultural workers using glyphosate have pregnancy problems, but its mechanism of action in mammals is questioned. Here we show that glyphosate is toxic to human placental JEG3 cells within 18 hr with concentrations lower than those found with agricult...

Richard, Sophie; Moslemi, Safa; Sipahutar, Herbert; Benachour, Nora; Seralini, Gilles-eric

2005-01-01

274

The effect of glyphosate on the frequency of micronuclei in bovine lymphocytes in vitro  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Glyphosate is a widely used broad-spectrum herbicide that has expanded its applications on plant varieties that are genetically modified to tolerate glyphosate treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of micronuclei (MNi) in bovine peripheral lymphocytes after exposure to glyphosate in vitro. The cytokinesis block micronucleus assay (CBMN) for estimation of genotoxic activity was used. The obtained results indicate that glyphosate weakly induced micronuclei in bovine pe...

2005-01-01

275

Novel sodium channel gene mutations in Blattella germanica reduce the sensitivity of expressed channels to deltamethrin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pyrethroid insecticides alter the normal gating of voltage-gated sodium channels in the nervous system. Three sodium channel mutations (E434K, C764R, L993F) were recently identified in pyrethroid resistant German cockroach populations. In this report, we show that the L993F mutation decreased sodium channel sensitivity to the pyrethroid, deltamethrin, by five-fold in Xenopus oocytes. In contrast, neither E434K nor C764R alone decreased channel sensitivity to deltamethrin. However, E434K or C7...

Tan, J.; Liu, Z.; Tsai, T. -d; Valles, S. M.; Goldin, A. L.; Dong, K.

2002-01-01

276

Simultaneous LC-MS/MS analysis of glyphosate, glufosinate, and their metabolic products in beer, barley tea, and their ingredients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glyphosate and glufosinate are non-selective herbicides that have been extensively used worldwide. Their ionic and water-soluble characteristics often make it difficult to analyze them, especially in food components. A method was developed in this study for the simultaneous analysis of glyphosate, glufosinate, and three metabolic products in beer, barley tea, and their ingredients (malt and corn). The analytical samples were extracted with H2O, purified with a strong anion-exchange solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridge, and then analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with an anion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) column. This method enabled a rapid and sensitive analysis [limit of quantification (LOQ) = 10 µg/kg] of the herbicides to be achieved. PMID:24200782

Nagatomi, Yasushi; Yoshioka, Toshiaki; Yanagisawa, Mayumi; Uyama, Atsuo; Mochizuki, Naoki

2013-01-01

277

Práticas de manejo e a resistência de Euphorbia heterophylla aos inibidores da ALS e tolerância ao glyphosate no Rio Grande do Sul / Management practices x Euphorbia heterophylla resistance to ALS-inhibitors and tolerance to glyphosate in Rio Grande do Sul  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A utilização intensiva do glyphosate nas lavouras de soja Roundup Ready® (RR) no Rio Grande do Sul (RS), nos últimos anos, pode ter selecionado biótipos de leiteira (Euphorbia heterophylla) resistentes ao herbicida. Esse cenário dificultará ainda mais o manejo da espécie, já que permanecem indícios [...] da presença de biótipos resistentes também em herbicidas inibidores da acetolactato sintase (ALS). Assim, os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar a sensibilidade da leiteira a herbicidas inibidores da ALS e ao glyphosate, verificar a distribuição dos biótipos resistentes no RS e determinar os principais fatores agronômicos associados a falhas de controle. Para isso, amostras de sementes de plantas de leiteira foram coletadas em lavouras de soja RR localizadas em 56 municípios do Estado do RS. Por ocasião das coletas, os agricultores responderam a questionário que abordava o manejo das plantas daninhas na área. Usando-se as sementes coletadas, foram conduzidos dois experimentos em casa de vegetação: no primeiro, avaliou-se a resposta de 86 biótipos ao herbicida glyphosate, aplicado na dose de 2.160 g e.a. ha-1; e, no segundo, a resposta de 73 biótipos ao herbicida imazethapyr, aplicado na dose de 200 g i.a. ha-1. Os resultados obtidos evidenciam que todos os biótipos de leiteira avaliados são suscetíveis ao glyphosate, porém existem biótipos resistentes aos inibidores da ALS. As respostas do questionário indicam que práticas de manejo como uso de subdoses e/ou utilização intensiva do glyphosate e a ausência de rotação de culturas favorecem falhas no controle de leiteira pelo herbicida glyphosate em soja. Abstract in english The intensive use of glyphosate in Roundup Ready® (RR) soybean fields in Rio Grande do Sul (RS), in recent years may have selected wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla) biotypes resistant to the herbicide. This scenario will further complicate the management of this species, since evidence remain [...] s of the presence of herbicide resistant biotypes also in acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibitors. Thus, the objectives of this work were to evaluate wild poinsettia's sensitivity to the ALS-inhibiting herbicides and glyphosate; to investigate the distribution of resistant biotypes in the state of RS;and to determine the main agronomic factors associated with control failures. Seeds of wild poinsettia plants that survived glyphosate applications were collected from RR soybean fields located in 56 municipalities in the state of RS. On the occasion, the farmers were interviewed through a questionnaire aiming to collect information on the management of the area. Using the seeds collected, two experiments were conducted under greenhouse conditions. The first evaluated the response of 86 biotypes to glyphosate, applied at the rate of 2.160 g ha-1 while the second experiment evaluated the response of the herbicide imazethapyr to 73 biotypes, applied at a dose of 200 g a.i. ha?1. The results show that all the wild poinsettia biotypes evaluated are susceptible to glyphosate, but some are resistant to ALS-inhibitors. The survey responses indicate that management practices such as the use of sub doses and/or intensive use of glyphosate, as well as lack of crop rotation favor failures in wild poinsettia control by glyphosate in soybean.

L., Vargas; M.A., Nohatto; D., Agostinetto; M.A., Bianchi; J.M., Paula; E., Polidoro; R.E., Toledo.

2013-06-01

278

Degradation of glyphosate and other pesticides by ligninolytic enzymes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability of pure manganese peroxidase (MnP), laccase, lignin peroxidase (LiP) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) to degrade the widely used herbicide glyphosate and other pesticides was studied in separate in vitro assays with addition of different mediators. Complete degradation of glyphosate was obtained with MnP, MnSO4 and Tween 80, with or without H2O2. In the presence of MnSO4, with or without H(2)O(2), MnP also transformed the herbicide, but to a lower rate. Laccase degraded glyphosate in the presence of (a) 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), (b) MnSO(4) and Tween 80 and (c) ABTS, MnSO4 and Tween 80. The metabolite AMPA was detected in all cases where degradation of glyphosate occurred and was not degraded. The LiP was tested alone or with MnSO4, Tween 80, veratryl alcohol or H2O2 and in the HRP assay the enzyme was added alone or with H2O2 in the reaction mixture. However, these enzymes did not degrade glyphosate. Further experiments using MnP together with MnSO4 and Tween 80 showed that the enzyme was also able to degrade glyphosate in its commercial formulation Roundup Bio. The same enzyme mixture was tested for degradation of 22 other pesticides and degradation products present in a mixture and all the compounds were transformed, with degradation percentages ranging between 20 and 100%. Our results highlight the potential of ligninolytic enzymes to degrade pesticides. Moreover, they suggest that the formation of AMPA, the main metabolite of glyphosate degradation found in soils, can be a result of the activity of lignin-degrading enzymes. PMID:19396551

Pizzul, Leticia; Castillo, María del Pilar; Stenström, John

2009-11-01

279

Manejo de capim pé-de-galinha em lavouras de soja transgênica resistente ao glifosato / Management of goose grass on transgenic soybean, resistant to glyphosate  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resistência de capim pé-de-galinha (Eleusine indica) ao glifosato, em lavouras de soja transgênica; avaliar o efeito de aplicações de glifosato em diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento; identificar práticas agronômicas associadas à seleção de biótipos resiste [...] ntes; e avaliar a eficiência dos herbicidas cletodim, fluazifope-P-butílico, clomazona, glufosinato de amônio e glifosato nas plantas resistentes. Plantas escapes ao tratamento com glifosato foram coletadas em 24 propriedades, no Rio Grande do Sul. As plantas foram cultivadas em casa de vegetação, tendo-se avaliado a sua resistência ao glifosato. Os acessos resistentes foram selecionados e avaliados quanto ao efeito da aplicação do glifosato em diferentes estádios de crescimento e quanto à sensibilidade aos herbicidas. Foi aplicado um questionário aos produtores para identificação das práticas agronômicas associadas às falhas no controle. O controle de E. indica pelo glifosato é mais efetivo com a aplicação em estádios iniciais de desenvolvimento. Práticas agronômicas, como uso contínuo de baixas doses do herbicida, aplicação em estádios de desenvolvimento avançados das plantas daninhas (mais de um afilho) e a ausência de rotação de culturas foram relacionadas às falhas de controle observadas. Os herbicidas cletodim, fluazifope-P-butílico e glufosinato de amônio são alternativas eficientes para o controle de E. indica. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the resistance of goose grass (Eleusine indica) to glyphosate application in transgenic soybean crops; evaluate the effect of glyphosate applications in different growth stages; identify the main agronomic practices associated with the selection of resistan [...] t biotypes; and evaluate the effect of the herbicides clethodim, fluazifop-p-butyl, clomazone, glufosinate ammonium, and glyphosate on resistant plants. Plants that survived glyphosate application were collected on 24 properties in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Plants were grown in greenhouse and their resistance to glyphosate was evaluated. The resistant accessions were selected and evaluated as to the effect of glyphosate application on different growth stages and to their sensitivity to the herbicides. A questionnaire was given to producers in order to identify agronomic practices associated with control failures. The control of E. indica by glyphosate is more effective at initial growth stages. Agronomic practices, such as continued use of low doses of glyphosate, application on advanced weed growth stages (more than one tiller), and absence of crop rotation were related to the observed control failures. The herbicides clethodim, fluazifop-p-butyl, and glufosinate ammonium are efficient alternatives to control E. indica.

André da Rosa, Ulguim; Leandro, Vargas; Dirceu, Agostinetto; Taísa Dal, Magro; Nixon da Rosa, Westendorff; Marcelo Timm, Holz.

2013-01-01

280

Manejo de capim pé-de-galinha em lavouras de soja transgênica resistente ao glifosato Management of goose grass on transgenic soybean, resistant to glyphosate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resistência de capim pé-de-galinha (Eleusine indica ao glifosato, em lavouras de soja transgênica; avaliar o efeito de aplicações de glifosato em diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento; identificar práticas agronômicas associadas à seleção de biótipos resistentes; e avaliar a eficiência dos herbicidas cletodim, fluazifope-P-butílico, clomazona, glufosinato de amônio e glifosato nas plantas resistentes. Plantas escapes ao tratamento com glifosato foram coletadas em 24 propriedades, no Rio Grande do Sul. As plantas foram cultivadas em casa de vegetação, tendo-se avaliado a sua resistência ao glifosato. Os acessos resistentes foram selecionados e avaliados quanto ao efeito da aplicação do glifosato em diferentes estádios de crescimento e quanto à sensibilidade aos herbicidas. Foi aplicado um questionário aos produtores para identificação das práticas agronômicas associadas às falhas no controle. O controle de E. indica pelo glifosato é mais efetivo com a aplicação em estádios iniciais de desenvolvimento. Práticas agronômicas, como uso contínuo de baixas doses do herbicida, aplicação em estádios de desenvolvimento avançados das plantas daninhas (mais de um afilho e a ausência de rotação de culturas foram relacionadas às falhas de controle observadas. Os herbicidas cletodim, fluazifope-P-butílico e glufosinato de amônio são alternativas eficientes para o controle de E. indica.The objective of this work was to evaluate the resistance of goose grass (Eleusine indica to glyphosate application in transgenic soybean crops; evaluate the effect of glyphosate applications in different growth stages; identify the main agronomic practices associated with the selection of resistant biotypes; and evaluate the effect of the herbicides clethodim, fluazifop-p-butyl, clomazone, glufosinate ammonium, and glyphosate on resistant plants. Plants that survived glyphosate application were collected on 24 properties in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Plants were grown in greenhouse and their resistance to glyphosate was evaluated. The resistant accessions were selected and evaluated as to the effect of glyphosate application on different growth stages and to their sensitivity to the herbicides. A questionnaire was given to producers in order to identify agronomic practices associated with control failures. The control of E. indica by glyphosate is more effective at initial growth stages. Agronomic practices, such as continued use of low doses of glyphosate, application on advanced weed growth stages (more than one tiller, and absence of crop rotation were related to the observed control failures. The herbicides clethodim, fluazifop-p-butyl, and glufosinate ammonium are efficient alternatives to control E. indica.

André da Rosa Ulguim

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Optimization of extraction procedure and chromatographic separation of glyphosate, glufosinate and aminomethylphosphonic acid in soil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Analysing herbicides in soil is a complex issue that needs validation and optimization of existing methods. An extraction and analysis method was developed to assess concentrations of glyphosate, glufosinate and aminomethylphophonic acid (AMPA) in field soil samples. After testing extractions by accelerated solvent extraction and ultrasonic extraction, agitation was selected with the best recoveries. Water was preferred as solvent extraction because it resulted in a cleaner chromatogram with fewer impurities than was the case with alkaline solvents. Analysis was performed by FMOC pre-column derivatization followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on a 300 mm C(18) column which permitted enhanced separation and sensitivity than a 250 mm C(18) column and increased resistance than the NH(2) column for soil samples. This extraction and analysis method allowing a minimum of steps before the injection in the HPLC with fluorescence detection is efficient and sensitive for a clay-loamy soil with detection limits of 103 ?g kg(-1) for glyphosate, 15 ?g kg(-1) for glufosinate and 16 ?g kg(-1) for AMPA in soil samples. PMID:21153586

Druart, Coline; Delhomme, Olivier; de Vaufleury, Annette; Ntcho, Evodie; Millet, Maurice

2011-02-01

282

Deposição de glyphosate aplicado para controle de plantas daninhas em soja transgênica Glyphosate deposition for weed control in transgenic soybean  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Inúmeros fatores estão envolvidos na tecnologia de aplicação de um herbicida, sendo a deposição correta fundamental para que o produto possa expressar sua eficiência. Com o objetivo de avaliar a deposição de uma solução traçante constituída de glyphosate Roundup Ready (0,96 kg e.a. ha-1 + corante FDC-1 (1.500 ppm, foi conduzido um experimento em área semeada com soja transgênica e infestada com amendoim-bravo (Euphorbia heterophylla, localizada em Londrina-PR. As aplicações foram efetuadas em diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento da cultura, correspondendo a 17, 24, 31, 38 e 45 dias após a emergência da soja. Os alvos, plantas de soja, amendoim-bravo e placas na superfície do solo (linha e entrelinha, foram coletados após pulverização, e a solução traçante foi nestes depositada, posteriormente recuperada através de lavagem com agitação em água destilada. As amostras das soluções recuperadas foram submetidas à análise, utilizando-se procedimentos espectrofotométricos, e os resultados de absorbância convertidos para concentração em µL cm-2 e µL por planta. As freqüências acumuladas dos dados originais de depósito foram adequadamente ajustadas segundo modelo de Gompertz, apresentando elevada precisão (R² > 0,95. Os resultados indicaram que o depósito da calda de pulverização nas plantas de soja e amendoim-bravo reduziu progressivamente com o desenvolvimento da cultura e infestação, sugerindo que a maior garantia de eficiência de controle pode ser conseguida com aplicações precoces.Several factors are involved in herbicide application technology, with correct deposition being essential to ensure product efficacy. To evaluate the deposition of a glyphosate tracer solution (RR with an FDC-1 dye, an experiment was carried out in a transgenic soybean cultivated area, infested with wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla. Applications were carried out at different crop development stages, corresponding to 17; 24; 31; 38 and 45 days after soybean emergence. The targets, soybean plants, wild poinsettias, and Petri dishes on the soil surface, were collected after spraying and the tracer solution was later recovered by washing and stirring in distilled water. Samples of recovered solutions were submitted to spectrophotometer analysis, and the absorption data were converted in µL cm-2 and µL per plant. The accumulated frequencies of the original deposit data were adequately adjusted to the Gompertz model, showing high precision (R² > 0.95. The results showed that the spraying solution deposition on soybean plants and wild poinsettia reduced progressively with crop development and weed infestation, suggesting that control efficiency can be obtained with early applications.

D.L.P. Gazziero

2006-01-01

283

Controlled synthesis of CuInS2/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells  

Science.gov (United States)

A nanocomposite comprised CuInS2 and reduced graphene oxide have been successfully synthesized via a facile two-step hydrothermal route using graphene oxide, thiourea, Indium chloride tetrahydrate and cuprous chloride as the raw materials, and L-Ascorbic acid as the reductant. Compared with pristine CuInS2, CuInS2 and reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites exploited as counter electrodes have exhibited outstanding electrocatalytic activity for the reduction of triiodide and excellent chemical stability due to the introduction of reduced graphene oxide. The characterization measurements indicate that the power conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cell fabricated with CuInS2 and reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites counter electrode achieves 6.96%, which is higher than that of device using pristine CuInS2 counter electrode (5.49%), and comparable to the conventional platinum counter electrode (6.92%) under the same test conditions.

Zhou, Lei; Yang, Xiao; Yang, Bo; Zuo, Xueqin; Li, Guang; Feng, Ali; Tang, Huaibao; Zhang, Haijun; Wu, Mingzai; Ma, Yongqing; Jin, Shaowei; Sun, Zhaoqi; Chen, Xiaoshuang

2014-12-01

284

Weed Control, Environmental Impact and Profitability of Weed Management Strategies in Glyphosate-Resistant Corn  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Eleven field trials were conducted over a three-year period (2006-2008 at three locations in southwestern Ontario, Canada to evaluate the effect of various weed management strategies in glyphosate-tolerant corn on weed control, crop injury, corn yield, environmental impact and profit margin. No visible injury resulted from the herbicide treatments evaluated. Overall, the effect of all factors assessed were location specific. By 56 days after treatment, depending on location, glyphosate applied at the 7 - 8 leaf stage (LPOST, preemergence (PRE herbicides followed by (fb glyphosate LPOST and sequential glyphosate applications (EPOST (3 - 4 leaf stage followed by LPOST provided more consistent control of annual broadleaf weeds and annual grasses compared to glyphosate applied alone EPOST. Weed control at 56 days after treatment was lower when glyphosate was applied alone LPOST compared to sequential applications of glyphosate or PRE herbicides fb glyphosate. There were no differences in corn yield among the sequential programs evaluated; however, a yield benefit was found when a sequential program was used compared to glyphosate applied alone LPOST. Among the sequential programs the lowest environmental impact was isoxaflutole/atrazine fb glyphosate. The lowest profit margins were associated with atrazine, S-metolachlor/atrazine/benoxacor, dicamba/atrazine and glyphosate LPOST treatments compared to all other treatments. Overall, profit margins tended to be somewhat higher for treatments that included glyphosate applications. Based on these results, the most efficacious and profitable weed management program in corn was a sequential application of glyphosate; however, isoxaflutole/atrazine fb glyphosate was the treatment with the lowest environmental risk while also adding glyphosate stewardship benefits.

Nader Soltani

2012-11-01

285

Aplicação tardia de glyphosate e estande e desenvolvimento inicial do arroz em sistema de cultivo mínimo Delayed application of glyphosate and stand and initial growth of rice plants (Oryza sativa under a minimum tillage system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O controle de plantas daninhas na cultura do arroz é ainda um problema, mesmo em cultivo mínimo, em razão do revolvimento do solo na linha de semeadura, que proporciona o reaparecimento de infestantes. Assim, objetivou-se estudar o efeito do atraso da aplicação de glyphosate sobre a formação do estande e o desenvolvimento inicial das plantas de arroz cv. IAC 102 irrigado por inundação. O experimento foi conduzido sob túnel plástico, em caixas d'água de 500 L, contendo NEOSSOLO FLÚVICO Ta Eutrófico. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram da aplicação de glyphosate: seis horas antes da semeadura do arroz (testemunha; no início da emergência; três dias após a emergência; e seis dias após, sem e com lâmina d'água. A dose do herbicida foi de 1.920 g i.a. ha-1. Para todas as variáveis analisadas houve efeito significativo dos tratamentos; aos 42 dias após a emergência, constatou-se que a testemunha foi estatisticamente superior, na formação do estande, na altura de plantas, no comprimento de raiz e na massa seca das partes aérea e de raiz, aos demais tratamentos em que ocorreram atrasos na aplicação do glyphosate.Weed control is still one of the most important problems of rice production, even under a reduced-tillage system. The purpose of this research was to study the effect of delayed application of glyphosate on paddy rice cv. IAC 102. The experiment was conducted under plastic tunnels with rice plants growing in water tanks of 500 liters of capacity, containing Alluvial soil. Treatments consisted of glyphosate application on the soil surface six hours before sowing, (control at seedling emergence, three days after, and six days after, combined or not with water flooding. The experimental design was a randomized block with four replications and the herbicide dosage was 1,920 g a.i. ha-1. There was a significant effect of the treatments on the variables studied. The results showed that the control treatment (when glyphosate was applided six hours befores sowing was statistically superior to the other treatments in stand formation, plant height, root length and plant/root dry matter.

C.A.C. Crusciol

2002-04-01

286

Aplicação tardia de glyphosate e estande e desenvolvimento inicial do arroz em sistema de cultivo mínimo / Delayed application of glyphosate and stand and initial growth of rice plants (Oryza sativa) under a minimum tillage system  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O controle de plantas daninhas na cultura do arroz é ainda um problema, mesmo em cultivo mínimo, em razão do revolvimento do solo na linha de semeadura, que proporciona o reaparecimento de infestantes. Assim, objetivou-se estudar o efeito do atraso da aplicação de glyphosate sobre a formação do esta [...] nde e o desenvolvimento inicial das plantas de arroz cv. IAC 102 irrigado por inundação. O experimento foi conduzido sob túnel plástico, em caixas d'água de 500 L, contendo NEOSSOLO FLÚVICO Ta Eutrófico. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram da aplicação de glyphosate: seis horas antes da semeadura do arroz (testemunha); no início da emergência; três dias após a emergência; e seis dias após, sem e com lâmina d'água. A dose do herbicida foi de 1.920 g i.a. ha-1. Para todas as variáveis analisadas houve efeito significativo dos tratamentos; aos 42 dias após a emergência, constatou-se que a testemunha foi estatisticamente superior, na formação do estande, na altura de plantas, no comprimento de raiz e na massa seca das partes aérea e de raiz, aos demais tratamentos em que ocorreram atrasos na aplicação do glyphosate. Abstract in english Weed control is still one of the most important problems of rice production, even under a reduced-tillage system. The purpose of this research was to study the effect of delayed application of glyphosate on paddy rice cv. IAC 102. The experiment was conducted under plastic tunnels with rice plants g [...] rowing in water tanks of 500 liters of capacity, containing Alluvial soil. Treatments consisted of glyphosate application on the soil surface six hours before sowing, (control) at seedling emergence, three days after, and six days after, combined or not with water flooding. The experimental design was a randomized block with four replications and the herbicide dosage was 1,920 g a.i. ha-1. There was a significant effect of the treatments on the variables studied. The results showed that the control treatment (when glyphosate was applided six hours befores sowing) was statistically superior to the other treatments in stand formation, plant height, root length and plant/root dry matter.

C.A.C., Crusciol; E.V., Lima; M., Andreotti; M.A., Schiocchet.

2002-04-01

287

Placental restriction of fetal growth reduces cutaneous responses to antigen after sensitization in sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prenatal and early childhood exposures are implicated as causes of allergy, but the effects of intrauterine growth restriction on immune function and allergy are poorly defined. We therefore evaluated effects of experimental restriction of fetal growth on immune function and allergic sensitization in adolescent sheep. Immune function (circulating total red and white blood cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils, and the antibody response to Clostridial vaccination) and responses to house dust mite (HDM) allergen and ovalbumin (OVA) antigen sensitization (specific total Ig, IgG1, and IgE antibodies, and cutaneous hypersensitivity) were investigated in adolescent sheep from placentally restricted (PR, n = 23) and control (n = 40) pregnancies. Increases in circulating HDM-specific IgE (P = 0.007) and OVA-specific IgE (P = 0.038) were greater in PR than control progeny. PR did not alter total Ig, IgG1, or IgM responses to either antigen. PR increased OVA-specific but not HDM-specific IgA responses in females only (P = 0.023). Multiple birth increased Ig responses to OVA in a sex-specific manner. PR decreased the proportion of positive cutaneous hypersensitivity responders to OVA at 24 h (P = 0.030) but had no effect on cutaneous responses to HDM. Acute wheal responses to intradermal histamine correlated positively with birth weight in singletons (P = 0.023). Intrauterine growth restriction may suppress inflammatory responses in skin downstream of IgE induction, without impairment in antibody responses to a nonpolysaccharide vaccine. Discord between cutaneous and IgE responses following sensitization suggests new mechanisms for prenatal allergy programming. PMID:24500430

Wooldridge, Amy L; Bischof, Robert J; Meeusen, Els N; Liu, Hong; Heinemann, Gary K; Hunter, Damien S; Giles, Lynne C; Kind, Karen L; Owens, Julie A; Clifton, Vicki L; Gatford, Kathryn L

2014-04-01

288

Subacute toxicity of copper and glyphosate and their interaction to earthworm (Eisenia fetida)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Glyphosate (GPS) and copper (Cu) are common pollutants in soils, and commonly co-exist. Due to the chemical structure of GPS, it can form complexes of heavy metals and interface their bioavailability in soil environment. In order to explore the interactions between GPS and Cu, subacute toxicity tests of Cu and GPS on soil invertebrate earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were conducted. The relative weight loss and whole-worm metal burdens increased significantly with the increasing exposure concentration of Cu, while the toxicity of GPS was insignificant. The joint toxicity data showed that the relative weight loss and the uptake of Cu, as well as the superoxide dismutase, catalase and malondialdehyde activities, were significantly alleviated in the present of GPS, which indicated that GPS could reduce the toxicity and bioavailability of Cu in the soil because of its strong chelating effects. Highlights: •Cu markedly increased the weight loss ratio of earthworm. •Cu decreased the cocoon production of earthworm. •The toxicity of GPS on earthworm was insignificant. •The presence of GPS could reduce the toxicity of Cu on earthworm. -- The presence of glyphosate could reduce the toxicity and bioavailability of Cu in the soil because of its strong chelating effects

289

Eficácia de glyphosate em plantas de cobertura Efficacy of glyphosate in cover crops  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivou-se comparar a eficácia de três dosagens do herbicida glyphosate para a dessecação de Brachiaria decumbens, B. brizantha cv. Marandu e vegetação espontânea, visando a adoção do sistema plantio direto. Utilizou-se delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, num esquema fatorial 3 x 3, com quatro repetições. Testaram-se três tipos de cobertura vegetal e três dosagens de glyphosate (1,44, 2,16 e 2,88 kg ha-1. Aos 7, 14, 21 e 28 dias após a aplicação (DAA, foram feitas avaliações visuais da porcentagem de controle das coberturas vegetais e, aos 45 DAA, avaliações visuais da porcentagem de reinfestação da área. Conclui-se que, para as espécies que compunham a vegetação espontânea, o uso de 1,44 kg ha-1 proporcionou bom controle, sem no entanto evitar rebrotes de Digitaria insularis. Para as braquiárias, a mesma taxa de controle foi observada a partir de 2,16 kg ha-1. A camada de palha das braquiárias sobre o solo não foi capaz de suprimir a emergência de Cyperus rotundus, Alternanthera tenella, Raphanus raphanistrum, Bidens pilosa e Euphorbia heterophylla.This work aimed to compare rates of glyphosate to desiccate Brachiaria decumbens, B. brizantha cv. Marandu and spontaneous plants (weeds, aiming to adopt the no-tillage system. A randomized block experimental design in a factorial scheme was used (3x3, with four replications. The factors consisted of three species of cover crops and three rates of glyphosate (1.44, 2.16 and 2.88 kg ha-1. At 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after application of the herbicide, visual evaluations of the percentage of cover crop control were carried out and at 45 days of the reinfestation percentage of the area. It was concluded that the spontaneous plants presented a good control at 1.44 kg ha-1, without, however, preventing Digitaria insularis sprouts. The same control rate starting at 2.16 kg ha-1 was observed for the Brachiaria species. The straw layer of these cover crops on the soil was not able to suppress the emergence of Cyperus rotundus, Alternanthera tenella, Raphanus raphanistrum, Bidens pilosa and Euphorbia heterophylla.

P.C. Timossi

2006-09-01

290

Eficácia de glyphosate em plantas de cobertura / Efficacy of glyphosate in cover crops  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se comparar a eficácia de três dosagens do herbicida glyphosate para a dessecação de Brachiaria decumbens, B. brizantha cv. Marandu e vegetação espontânea, visando a adoção do sistema plantio direto. Utilizou-se delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, num esquema fatorial 3 x 3, com [...] quatro repetições. Testaram-se três tipos de cobertura vegetal e três dosagens de glyphosate (1,44, 2,16 e 2,88 kg ha-1). Aos 7, 14, 21 e 28 dias após a aplicação (DAA), foram feitas avaliações visuais da porcentagem de controle das coberturas vegetais e, aos 45 DAA, avaliações visuais da porcentagem de reinfestação da área. Conclui-se que, para as espécies que compunham a vegetação espontânea, o uso de 1,44 kg ha-1 proporcionou bom controle, sem no entanto evitar rebrotes de Digitaria insularis. Para as braquiárias, a mesma taxa de controle foi observada a partir de 2,16 kg ha-1. A camada de palha das braquiárias sobre o solo não foi capaz de suprimir a emergência de Cyperus rotundus, Alternanthera tenella, Raphanus raphanistrum, Bidens pilosa e Euphorbia heterophylla. Abstract in english This work aimed to compare rates of glyphosate to desiccate Brachiaria decumbens, B. brizantha cv. Marandu and spontaneous plants (weeds), aiming to adopt the no-tillage system. A randomized block experimental design in a factorial scheme was used (3x3), with four replications. The factors consisted [...] of three species of cover crops and three rates of glyphosate (1.44, 2.16 and 2.88 kg ha-1). At 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after application of the herbicide, visual evaluations of the percentage of cover crop control were carried out and at 45 days of the reinfestation percentage of the area. It was concluded that the spontaneous plants presented a good control at 1.44 kg ha-1, without, however, preventing Digitaria insularis sprouts. The same control rate starting at 2.16 kg ha-1 was observed for the Brachiaria species. The straw layer of these cover crops on the soil was not able to suppress the emergence of Cyperus rotundus, Alternanthera tenella, Raphanus raphanistrum, Bidens pilosa and Euphorbia heterophylla.

P.C., Timossi; J.C., Durigon; G.J., Leite.

291

Eficácia de glyphosate em plantas de cobertura / Efficacy of glyphosate in cover crops  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se comparar a eficácia de três dosagens do herbicida glyphosate para a dessecação de Brachiaria decumbens, B. brizantha cv. Marandu e vegetação espontânea, visando a adoção do sistema plantio direto. Utilizou-se delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, num esquema fatorial 3 x 3, com [...] quatro repetições. Testaram-se três tipos de cobertura vegetal e três dosagens de glyphosate (1,44, 2,16 e 2,88 kg ha-1). Aos 7, 14, 21 e 28 dias após a aplicação (DAA), foram feitas avaliações visuais da porcentagem de controle das coberturas vegetais e, aos 45 DAA, avaliações visuais da porcentagem de reinfestação da área. Conclui-se que, para as espécies que compunham a vegetação espontânea, o uso de 1,44 kg ha-1 proporcionou bom controle, sem no entanto evitar rebrotes de Digitaria insularis. Para as braquiárias, a mesma taxa de controle foi observada a partir de 2,16 kg ha-1. A camada de palha das braquiárias sobre o solo não foi capaz de suprimir a emergência de Cyperus rotundus, Alternanthera tenella, Raphanus raphanistrum, Bidens pilosa e Euphorbia heterophylla. Abstract in english This work aimed to compare rates of glyphosate to desiccate Brachiaria decumbens, B. brizantha cv. Marandu and spontaneous plants (weeds), aiming to adopt the no-tillage system. A randomized block experimental design in a factorial scheme was used (3x3), with four replications. The factors consisted [...] of three species of cover crops and three rates of glyphosate (1.44, 2.16 and 2.88 kg ha-1). At 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after application of the herbicide, visual evaluations of the percentage of cover crop control were carried out and at 45 days of the reinfestation percentage of the area. It was concluded that the spontaneous plants presented a good control at 1.44 kg ha-1, without, however, preventing Digitaria insularis sprouts. The same control rate starting at 2.16 kg ha-1 was observed for the Brachiaria species. The straw layer of these cover crops on the soil was not able to suppress the emergence of Cyperus rotundus, Alternanthera tenella, Raphanus raphanistrum, Bidens pilosa and Euphorbia heterophylla.

P.C., Timossi; J.C., Durigon; G.J., Leite.

2006-09-01

292

Herbicide-resistant weed management: focus on glyphosate.  

Science.gov (United States)

This review focuses on proactive and reactive management of glyphosate-resistant (GR) weeds. Glyphosate resistance in weeds has evolved under recurrent glyphosate usage, with little or no diversity in weed management practices. The main herbicide strategy for proactively or reactively managing GR weeds is to supplement glyphosate with herbicides of alternative modes of action and with soil-residual activity. These herbicides can be applied in sequences or mixtures. Proactive or reactive GR weed management can be aided by crop cultivars with alternative single or stacked herbicide-resistance traits, which will become increasingly available to growers in the future. Many growers with GR weeds continue to use glyphosate because of its economical broad-spectrum weed control. Government farm policies, pesticide regulatory policies and industry actions should encourage growers to adopt a more proactive approach to GR weed management by providing the best information and training on management practices, information on the benefits of proactive management and voluntary incentives, as appropriate. Results from recent surveys in the United States indicate that such a change in grower attitudes may be occurring because of enhanced awareness of the benefits of proactive management and the relative cost of the reactive management of GR weeds. PMID:21548004

Beckie, Hugh J

2011-09-01

293

Adsorção de glifosato sobre solos e minerais Adsorption of glyphosate on soils and minerals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Glyphosate, an enzyme inhibitor herbicide, has been widely used around the world in agriculture. Dr. John Franz from Monsanto Corporation (USA discovered glyphosate in 1970. It has been showed that glyphosate is strongly adsorbed by inorganic soil components especially aluminium and iron oxides, and the phosphate group is involved in this interaction. The inactivation of glyphosate in soils can last for days or even months depending on soil characteristics. The addition of phosphate from fertilizers can displace glyphosate from the soils and this could be the cause of decreased productivity of some crops.

Luís R. M. Toni

2006-07-01

294

Adsorção de glifosato sobre solos e minerais / Adsorption of glyphosate on soils and minerals  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english Glyphosate, an enzyme inhibitor herbicide, has been widely used around the world in agriculture. Dr. John Franz from Monsanto Corporation (USA) discovered glyphosate in 1970. It has been showed that glyphosate is strongly adsorbed by inorganic soil components especially aluminium and iron oxides, an [...] d the phosphate group is involved in this interaction. The inactivation of glyphosate in soils can last for days or even months depending on soil characteristics. The addition of phosphate from fertilizers can displace glyphosate from the soils and this could be the cause of decreased productivity of some crops.

Luís R. M., Toni; Henrique de, Santana; Dimas A. M., Zaia.

295

The role of soil microorganisms in the resistance of giant ragweed, horseweed, and common lambsquarters to glyphosate  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Continuous glyphosate use has contributed to an increasing number of problematic glyphosate-resistant (GR) weeds. The mechanism of resistance in many GR weeds is poorly understood, in part, due to a poor understanding of how exactly glyphosate kills a plant. In previous research, the efficacy of glyphosate was demonstrated to be strongly influenced by root invading soil-borne microorganisms. However, this interaction among plants, glyphosate, and soil microorganisms has only been studied in a...

Schafer-bugg, Jessica Renee

2013-01-01

296

Sensitive and reliable ascorbic acid sensing by lanthanum oxide/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite.  

Science.gov (United States)

A simple strategy for the detection and estimation of ascorbic acid (AA), using lanthanum oxide-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite (LO/RGO) on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate, is reported. LO/RGO displays high catalytic activity toward the oxidation of AA, and the synergism between lanthanum oxide and reduced graphene oxide was attributed to the successful and efficient detection. Detection mechanism and sensing efficacy of LO/RGO nanocomposite are investigated by electrochemical techniques. Chronoamperometric results under optimal conditions show a linear response range from 14 to 100 ?M for AA detection. Commercially available vitamin C tablets were also analyzed using the proposed LO/RGO sensor, and the remarkable recovery percentage (97.64-99.7) shows the potential application in AA detection. PMID:24879601

Mogha, Navin Kumar; Sahu, Vikrant; Sharma, Meenakshi; Sharma, Raj Kishore; Masram, Dhanraj T

2014-10-01

297

Labile Compounds in Plant Litter Reduce the Sensitivity of Decomposition to Warming and Altered Precipitation  

Science.gov (United States)

Together, climate and litter quality strongly regulate decomposition rates. While these two factors and their interaction have been studied across species in continent-scale experiments, few researchers have studied how labile and recalcitrant compounds interact to influence decomposition, or the climate sensitivity of decomposition, within a litter type. Over a period of three years, we studied the effects climate change on mass loss and compound-specific decomposition using two litter types that differed in the relative proportions of labile and recalcitrant compounds, but that had heteropolymers with similar molecular structure. We examined how warming and altered precipitation affected the decomposition of two types of Polygonum cuspidatum (Japanese knotweed) litter (stem litter that was either newly senesced or one year old), at the Boston-Area Climate Experiment (BACE), in Massachusetts, USA. We placed litter bags in an old-field ecosystem exposed to four levels of warming (up to 4oC) and three levels of precipitation (ambient, drought (-50%) and wet (+50%) treatments. The compound-specific degradation of litter was assessed using Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy and 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Climate treatments immediately affected mass loss of the more recalcitrant litter, but affected the more labile litter only after two years. After three years, although both litter types had lost similar amounts of mass, warming (~4oC) and supplemental precipitation (150% of ambient) together accelerated degradation of alkyl-carbon and lignin only in the more recalcitrant litter, highlighting the role of initial litter quality in determining whether the chemistry of litter residues converges or diverges under different climates. The results from this study indicate that the effect of climate on litter decomposition depends on the quality of litter; litter with a greater initial proportion of labile compounds was less sensitive to warming and altered precipitation. The significant effects of precipitation on mass loss and chemical composition, even in the late stages of litter decomposition, reveal the potential of climate to alter the amount and quality of carbon in plant litter available for sequestration. These results emphasize that litter chemical composition has an overriding effect on the climate sensitivity of decomposition; thus, litter quality may regulate litter-derived carbon sequestration under future climates.

Suseela, V.; Tharayil, N.; Xing, B.; Dukes, J. S.

2013-12-01

298

Aluminum sulfate significantly reduces the skin test response to common allergens in sensitized patients  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Avoidance of allergens is still recommended as the first and best way to prevent allergic illnesses and their comorbid diseases. Despite a variety of attempts there has been very limited success in the area of environmental control of allergic disease. Our objective was to identify a non-invasive, non-pharmacological method to reduce indoor allergen loads in atopic persons' homes and public environments. We employed a novel in vivo approach to examine the possibility of using aluminum sulfate to control environmental allergens. Methods Fifty skin test reactive patients were simultaneously skin tested with conventional test materials and the actions of the protein/glycoprotein modifier, aluminum sulfate. Common allergens, dog, cat, dust mite, Alternaria, and cockroach were used in the study. Results Skin test reactivity was significantly reduced by the modifier aluminum sulfate. Our studies demonstrate that the effects of histamine were not affected by the presence of aluminum sulfate. In fact, skin test reactivity was reduced independent of whether aluminum sulfate was present in the allergen test material or removed prior to testing, indicating that the allergens had in some way been inactivated. Conclusion Aluminum sulfate was found to reduce the in vivo allergic reaction cascade induced by skin testing with common allergens. The exact mechanism is not clear but appears to involve the alteration of IgE-binding epitopes on the allergen. Our results indicate that it may be possible to diminish the allergenicity of an environment by application of the active agent aluminum sulfate, thus producing environmental control without complete removal of the allergen.

Grier Thomas J

2006-02-01

299

A highly sensitive assay for spectrofluorimetric determination of reduced glutathione using organic nano-probes  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the new nanometer-sized fluorescent particles (1-pyrenemethylamine nanoparticles) have been prepared by reprecipitation method under ultrasonic radiation. These nanoparticles have the potential to overcome problems encountered by organic small molecules by combining the advantages of high photobleaching threshold, high quantum yield, long fluorescence lifetime, good chemical stability, and wide excitation spectral properties. These nanoparticles will be able to be directly used as fluorescent nanoparticles probe without modification. A new fluorimetric method for the determination of reduced glutathione (GSH) has been developed with these nanoparticles. Under optimal conditions, the organic nanoparticles reacted with GSH and o-phthalaldehyde (OPA) to give a highly fluorescent derivative in Na 2CO 3-HCl buffer (pH = 9.0). The fluorescence excitation and emission wavelengths of fluorescent derivative were located at 345 and 400 nm, respectively. The relative fluorescence intensity (RF) was linear in the range of the GSH concentration from 8.0 × 10 -7 to 1.1 × 10 -4 mol l -1. Limit of detection of 7.1 × 10 -8 mol l -1 was achieved for the reduced glutathione. The method was validated and applied to the analysis of three synthetic samples containing reduced glutathione.

Wang, Leyu; Wang, Lun; Xia, Tingting; Bian, Guirong; Dong, Ling; Tang, Zhenxiang; Wang, Fei

2005-09-01

300

Glyphosate translocation in hairy fleabane (Conyza bonariensis) biotypes / Translocação do glyphosate em biótipos de buva (Conyza bonariensis)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a translocação do glyphosate em plantas de C. bonariensis resistentes e suscetíveis a esse herbicida. Para isso aplicou-se o 14C-glyphosate em mistura com glyphosate comercial (800 g ha-1) sobre o centro da face adaxial da folha do terceiro nó, utilizando-se um [...] a microsseringa, adicionando-se 10 µL da calda com atividade específica de 1.400 Bq, aos 45 dias após a emergência da buva. A concentração de glyphosate translocado na planta foi avaliada em intervalos de tempo de 6, 12, 36 e 72 horas após a aplicação, na folha de aplicação, no caule, nas raízes e nas folhas. Dez horas após a aplicação dos tratamentos (HAT) avaliou-se também a distribuição do produto na folha de aplicação, dividida em base, centro e ápice. As avaliações foram realizadas por meio da medição da radiação emitida pelo 14C-glyphosate, em espectrômetro de cintilação líquida. Maior retenção de glyphosate foi observada na folha tratada do biótipo resistente, aproximadamente 90 % do total absorvido até as 72 horas. No biótipo suscetível esse valor foi de cerca de 70 % no mesmo período. Nas folhas, no caule e nas raízes, a maior concentração do glyphosate absorvido foi encontrada no biótipo suscetível, indicando maior eficiência de translocação neste biótipo. No biótipo resistente o herbicida se acumulou em maior quantidade no ápice e no centro da folha de aplicação e no suscetível observou-se maior acúmulo na base e no centro da mesma folha. Desta forma, pode-se afirmar que o mecanismo de resistência está relacionado à translocação diferencial deste herbicida nos biótipos. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the translocation of glyphosate in C. bonariensis plants resistant and susceptible to that herbicide. The 14C-glyphosate was mixed with commercial gyhphosate (800 g ha-1) and applied on the center of the adaxial face of a third node leaf, using a micro syri [...] nge, and adding 10 µL of a solution with specific activity of 1,400 Bq, 45 days after plant emergence. The concentration of the glyphosate translocated in the plant was evaluated at time intervals of 6, 12, 36 and 72 hours after being applied on the application leaf, stem, roots and leaves. Ten hours after treatment application, the distribution of the product in the application leaf, divided into base, center and apex, was also evaluated by measuring the radiation emitted by 14C-glyphosate in a liquid scintillation spectrometer. Greater glyphosate retention was observed in the resistant biotype leaf, approximately 90% of the total absorbed up to 72 hours. In the susceptible biotype, this value was close to 70% in the same period. Susceptible biotype leaves, stem and roots showed greater concentration of glyphosate, indicating greater translocation efficiency in this biotype. In the resistant biotype, the herbicide accumulated in greater quantity at the apex and center of the application leaf, while in the susceptible biotype greater accumulation was observed at the base and center leaf. Thus, it can be stated that the resistance mechanism is related to the differential translocation of this herbicide in the biotypes.

E.A., Ferreira; L., Galon; I., Aspiazú; A.A., Silva; G., Concenço; A.F., Silva; J.A., Oliveira; L., Vargas.

 
 
 
 
301

Glyphosate translocation in hairy fleabane (Conyza bonariensis biotypes Translocação do glyphosate em biótipos de buva (Conyza bonariensis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the translocation of glyphosate in C. bonariensis plants resistant and susceptible to that herbicide. The 14C-glyphosate was mixed with commercial gyhphosate (800 g ha-1 and applied on the center of the adaxial face of a third node leaf, using a micro syringe, and adding 10 µL of a solution with specific activity of 1,400 Bq, 45 days after plant emergence. The concentration of the glyphosate translocated in the plant was evaluated at time intervals of 6, 12, 36 and 72 hours after being applied on the application leaf, stem, roots and leaves. Ten hours after treatment application, the distribution of the product in the application leaf, divided into base, center and apex, was also evaluated by measuring the radiation emitted by 14C-glyphosate in a liquid scintillation spectrometer. Greater glyphosate retention was observed in the resistant biotype leaf, approximately 90% of the total absorbed up to 72 hours. In the susceptible biotype, this value was close to 70% in the same period. Susceptible biotype leaves, stem and roots showed greater concentration of glyphosate, indicating greater translocation efficiency in this biotype. In the resistant biotype, the herbicide accumulated in greater quantity at the apex and center of the application leaf, while in the susceptible biotype greater accumulation was observed at the base and center leaf. Thus, it can be stated that the resistance mechanism is related to the differential translocation of this herbicide in the biotypes.Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a translocação do glyphosate em plantas de C. bonariensis resistentes e suscetíveis a esse herbicida. Para isso aplicou-se o 14C-glyphosate em mistura com glyphosate comercial (800 g ha-1 sobre o centro da face adaxial da folha do terceiro nó, utilizando-se uma microsseringa, adicionando-se 10 µL da calda com atividade específica de 1.400 Bq, aos 45 dias após a emergência da buva. A concentração de glyphosate translocado na planta foi avaliada em intervalos de tempo de 6, 12, 36 e 72 horas após a aplicação, na folha de aplicação, no caule, nas raízes e nas folhas. Dez horas após a aplicação dos tratamentos (HAT avaliou-se também a distribuição do produto na folha de aplicação, dividida em base, centro e ápice. As avaliações foram realizadas por meio da medição da radiação emitida pelo 14C-glyphosate, em espectrômetro de cintilação líquida. Maior retenção de glyphosate foi observada na folha tratada do biótipo resistente, aproximadamente 90 % do total absorvido até as 72 horas. No biótipo suscetível esse valor foi de cerca de 70 % no mesmo período. Nas folhas, no caule e nas raízes, a maior concentração do glyphosate absorvido foi encontrada no biótipo suscetível, indicando maior eficiência de translocação neste biótipo. No biótipo resistente o herbicida se acumulou em maior quantidade no ápice e no centro da folha de aplicação e no suscetível observou-se maior acúmulo na base e no centro da mesma folha. Desta forma, pode-se afirmar que o mecanismo de resistência está relacionado à translocação diferencial deste herbicida nos biótipos.

E.A. Ferreira

2008-01-01

302

Resposta de biótipos de Euphorbia heterophylla a doses de glyphosate / Response of Euphorbia heterophylla biotypes to glyphosate rates  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A leiteira (Euphorbia heterophylla) é uma planta daninha de ciclo anual encontrada com frequência em lavouras de soja na região Sul do Brasil, controlada em lavouras de soja geneticamente modificada (Roundup Ready® - RR) com uso do herbicida glyphosate. Entretanto, nos últimos anos, o controle dessa [...] espécie não tem sido satisfatório em alguns locais, provocando a suspeita de que foram selecionados biótipos resistentes ao herbicida. Diante disso, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, por meio de curvas de dose-resposta, biótipos de leiteira com suspeita de resistência ao glyphosate. O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação, em delineamento experimental completamente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de doses crescentes de glyphosate (0, 90, 180, 360, 720, 1.080, 1.440 e 2.160 g e.a. ha-1), aplicadas sobre cinco biótipos de leiteira, oriundos de lavouras de soja RR do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. As variáveis avaliadas foram controle e matéria seca da parte aérea. Os resultados evidenciam que os biótipos de leiteira avaliados são suscetíveis ao glyphosate. Abstract in english Wild poinsettia is an annual cycle weed, commonly found in soybean crop in southern Brazil. It is controlled by glyphosate in genetically- modified soybean (Roundup Ready® - RR). The control of this species has not proven to be satisfactory in some places in the last years, leading to the suspicion [...] that biotypes resistant to glyphosate have been selected. The objective this work was to evaluate, by response-dose curve, wild poinsettia biotypes with suspected resistance to glyphosate. The experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions and the experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design, with four replications. The treatments consisted of increased application rates of glyphosate (0, 90, 180, 360, 720, 1,080, 1,440 and 2,160 g a.e. ha-1) on five wild poinsettia biotypes, from crop soybean RR in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Control and dry weight were evaluated. The results indicated that the wild poinsettia biotypes are susceptible to glyphosate.

L, Vargas; M.A, Nohatto; D, Agostinetto; M.A, Bianchi; E.M, Gonçalves; R.E, Toledo.

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Tolerância do Tifton 85 ao glyphosate em diferentes épocas de aplicação Tifton 85 tolerance to glyphosate at different application times  

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Full Text Available O Tifton 85 é uma forrageira de alto valor nutritivo, recomendada para pastejo, fenação e silagem, podendo ser considerada uma espécie daninha, principalmente em áreas de cultivos agrícolas e produção de sementes de outras forrageiras, devido a sua fácil propagação e seu rápido desenvolvimento. Este experimento foi proposto com o objetivo de avaliar a tolerância de plantas de Tifton 85 a doses crescentes de glyphosate em duas épocas diferentes. O experimento foi conduzido em vasos de polietileno com capacidade de 10 L, em delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, no esquema fatorial 2 x 8, sendo duas épocas de aplicação (inverno e verão e oito doses de glyphosate (0, 270, 540, 1.080, 2.160, 3.240, 4.320 e 5.400 g ha-1, com quatro repetições. Para cada época de aplicação, o controle das plantas de Tifton 85 foi feito aos 15, 30 e 60 DAA (dias após aplicação. Obteve-se controle superior a 90% de Tifton 85 a partir de 2.636,72 g ha-1 de glyphosate em aplicação realizada no inverno e de 3.607,03 g ha-1 em aplicação no verão. Os resultados evidenciaram a alta tolerância do Tifton 85 ao glyphosate e o maior controle das plantas expostas a esse herbicida em épocas mais frias do ano (inverno, quando em comparação com as plantas expostas ao herbicida no verão.Tifton 85 is a type of forage of high nutritive value, recommended for grazing or hay and silage production. It can be considered a weed, mainly in agricultural and forage seed production areas, probably due to its easy propagation and fast development. Thus, this experiment aimed to evaluate Tifton 85 tolerance to increasing levels of glyphosate during two different seasons. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized block design with four replications in a 2 x 8 factorial arrangement, and pulverization in two seasons (winter and summer and eight glyphosate levels (0; 270; 540; 1,080; 2,160; 3,240; 4,320; and 5,400 g ha-1. The experiment was carried out in polyethylene pots with 10L capacity. For each season, control of the Tifton 85 plants was performed at 15, 30 and 60 DAA (days after application. Around 90% of Tifton 85 plant control was observed with 2,636.72 g ha-1 of glyphosate in the winter and 3,607.03 g ha-1 of glyphosate in the summer. The results obtained showed that Tifton 85 is highly tolerant to glyphosate and control is more efficient in the winter than in the summer.

M.V. Santos

2010-01-01

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Tolerância do Tifton 85 ao glyphosate em diferentes épocas de aplicação / Tifton 85 tolerance to glyphosate at different application times  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O Tifton 85 é uma forrageira de alto valor nutritivo, recomendada para pastejo, fenação e silagem, podendo ser considerada uma espécie daninha, principalmente em áreas de cultivos agrícolas e produção de sementes de outras forrageiras, devido a sua fácil propagação e seu rápido desenvolvimento. Este [...] experimento foi proposto com o objetivo de avaliar a tolerância de plantas de Tifton 85 a doses crescentes de glyphosate em duas épocas diferentes. O experimento foi conduzido em vasos de polietileno com capacidade de 10 L, em delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, no esquema fatorial 2 x 8, sendo duas épocas de aplicação (inverno e verão) e oito doses de glyphosate (0, 270, 540, 1.080, 2.160, 3.240, 4.320 e 5.400 g ha-1), com quatro repetições. Para cada época de aplicação, o controle das plantas de Tifton 85 foi feito aos 15, 30 e 60 DAA (dias após aplicação). Obteve-se controle superior a 90% de Tifton 85 a partir de 2.636,72 g ha-1 de glyphosate em aplicação realizada no inverno e de 3.607,03 g ha-1 em aplicação no verão. Os resultados evidenciaram a alta tolerância do Tifton 85 ao glyphosate e o maior controle das plantas expostas a esse herbicida em épocas mais frias do ano (inverno), quando em comparação com as plantas expostas ao herbicida no verão. Abstract in english Tifton 85 is a type of forage of high nutritive value, recommended for grazing or hay and silage production. It can be considered a weed, mainly in agricultural and forage seed production areas, probably due to its easy propagation and fast development. Thus, this experiment aimed to evaluate Tifton [...] 85 tolerance to increasing levels of glyphosate during two different seasons. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized block design with four replications in a 2 x 8 factorial arrangement, and pulverization in two seasons (winter and summer) and eight glyphosate levels (0; 270; 540; 1,080; 2,160; 3,240; 4,320; and 5,400 g ha-1). The experiment was carried out in polyethylene pots with 10L capacity. For each season, control of the Tifton 85 plants was performed at 15, 30 and 60 DAA (days after application). Around 90% of Tifton 85 plant control was observed with 2,636.72 g ha-1 of glyphosate in the winter and 3,607.03 g ha-1 of glyphosate in the summer. The results obtained showed that Tifton 85 is highly tolerant to glyphosate and control is more efficient in the winter than in the summer.

M.V., Santos; F.C.L., Freitas; F.A., Ferreira; A.J., Carvalho; T.G.S., Braz; J., Cavali; O.L., Rodrigues.